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Sample records for antisocial personality disorder

  1. Antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as child abuse, are believed to contribute to the development of ...

  2. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration. PMID:26939485

  3. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  4. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  5. Psychopathy/antisocial personality disorder conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogloff, James R P

    2006-01-01

    Psychopathy has traditionally been characterised as a disorder primarily of personality (particularly affective deficits) and, to a lesser extent, behaviour. Although often used interchangeably, the diagnostic constructs of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are distinct. In this article, the relevant historical and contemporary literature concerning psychopathy is briefly reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are compared. Consideration is given to the assessment, prevalence, and implications of psychopathy for violence risk and treatment efficacy. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for antisocial personality disorder, in particular, are largely behaviourally based. The ICD criteria for dissocial personality disorder, while paying more attention to affective deficits, also do not represent the broad personality and behavioural components of psychopathy. Since 1980, a great deal of research on these disorders has been conducted, using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R). The PCL-R assesses both personality (interpersonal and affective) and behavioural (lifestyle and antisocial) deficits. As such, the research and clinical implications of psychopathy, as operationalised by the PCL-R, cannot be readily extrapolated to the diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder and dissocial personality disorder. As currently construed, the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder grossly over-identifies people, particularly those with offence histories, as meeting the criteria for the diagnosis. For example, research shows that between 50% and 80% of prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, yet only approximately 15% of prisoners would be expected to be psychopathic, as assessed by the PCL-R. As such, the characteristics and research findings drawn from the psychopathy research may not be relevant for those

  6. Construct Validity of Adolescent Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…

  7. Antisocial personality disorder with and without antecedent childhood conduct disorder: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Knight, Raymond A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether prior conduct disorder increased deviance in persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. One hundred and three male inmates satisfying adult antisocial and conduct disorder criteria for antisocial personality disorder achieved significantly higher scores on self-report measures of criminal thinking and antisocial attitudes than 137 male inmates satisfying only the adult criteria for antisocial personality disorder and 87 male nonantisocial inmates. Inmates satisfying adult antisocial and conduct disorder criteria for antisocial personality disorder were also more likely to receive disciplinary infractions for misconduct than inmates in the other two conditions. The theoretical, diagnostic, and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:20420479

  8. Patients with antisocial personality disorder. Are they bad or mad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, J R; Malaney, K R

    1992-03-01

    Antisocial personality disorder is the psychiatric diagnosis most closely linked to explosive and criminal behavior. This diagnosis is easily documented but challenges a clinician's diagnostic skill because of the patient's propensity for masquerade and pathologic lying. The essential feature of antisocial personality disorder is a pattern of irresponsible and antisocial behavior beginning in childhood or early adolescence and continuing into adulthood. The differential diagnosis should include substance abuse, adult antisocial behavior, psychotic and organic illness, and other personality disorders. Suggested medical and psychiatric treatment includes rapidly establishing firm behavior limits and performing a mental status examination to evaluate thought processes and suicidal and homicidal intent.

  9. The Association Between ADHD and Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Simonsen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD have an increased risk of later developing personality disorders and criminal behavior. The object of the present review is to analyze the associations between ADHD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Method: A review of literature was done using EMBASE, Psyc......INFO, and Medline databases. Results: Eighteen prospective studies (n = 5,501) showed that ADHD with and without comorbid conduct disorder (CD) is a strong predictor for the risk of later development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Some of the 13 cross-sectional/retrospective studies (n = 2...... with or without comorbid CD to develop later onset of antisocial personality disorder. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX)....

  10. Psycho-education for substance use and antisocial personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Schrøder, Sidsel; Hesse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Severity Index Composite Scores), percent days abstinent (PDA) within last month, and aggression as measured with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form and the Self-Report of Aggression and Social Behavior Measure. Results: Overall engagement in psychological interventions was modest: 71 (76......Background: Antisocial personality disorder often co-exists with drug and alcohol use disorders. Methods: This trial examined the effectiveness of offering psycho-education for antisocial personality disorder in community substance use disorder treatment centers in Denmark. A total of 176 patients...... in substance use were associated with randomization to Impulsive Lifestyle Counselling. The findings support the usefulness of providing psycho-education to outpatients with antisocial personality disorder. Trial registration: ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN67266318, 17/7/2012...

  11. Cognitive control deficits associated with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Joshua D; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Hiatt Racer, Kristina D; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-07-01

    Antisociality has been linked to a variety of executive functioning deficits, including poor cognitive control. Surprisingly, cognitive control deficits are rarely found in psychopathic individuals, despite their notoriously severe and persistent antisocial behavior. In fact, primary (low-anxious) psychopathic individuals display superior performance on cognitive control-type tasks under certain circumstances. To clarify these seemingly contradictory findings, we administered a response competition (i.e., flanker) task to incarcerated offenders, who were assessed for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) symptoms and psychopathy. As hypothesized, APD related to poorer accuracy, especially on incongruent trials. Contrary to expectation, however, the same pattern of results was found in psychopathy. Additional analyses indicated that these effects of APD and psychopathy were associated with overlapping variance. The findings suggest that psychopathy and APD symptoms are both associated with deficits in cognitive control, and that this deficit relates to general antisociality as opposed to a specific antisocial syndrome.

  12. The Emotional Lexicon of Individuals Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without…

  13. Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Presniak, Michelle D; Olson, Trevor R

    2013-01-01

    Numerous authors have theorized that defense mechanisms play a role in personality disorders. We reviewed theoretical writings and empirical studies about defenses in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders, developing hypotheses about these differential relationships. We then examined these hypotheses using dynamic interview data rated for defenses in a study of participants (n = 107) diagnosed with these four personality disorder types. Overall, the prevalence of immature defenses was substantial, and all four disorders fit within the broad borderline personality organization construct. Defenses predicted the most variance in borderline and the least variance in schizotypal personality disorder, suggesting that dynamic factors played the largest role in borderline and the least in schizotypal personality. Central to borderline personality were strong associations with major image-distorting defenses, primarily splitting of self and other's images, and the hysterical level defenses, dissociation and repression. Narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders shared minor image-distorting defenses, such as omnipotence or devaluation, while narcissistic also used splitting of self-images and antisocial used disavowal defenses like denial. Overall, differential relationships between specific defenses and personality disorder types were largely consistent with the literature, and consistent with the importance that the treatment literature ascribes to working with defenses.

  14. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior.

  15. Neurological soft signs in homicidal men with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Appelberg, Björn; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Virkkunen, Matti

    2004-11-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are characterized by abnormalities in motor, sensory, and integrative functions. NSS have been regarded as a result of neurodevelopmental dysfunction, and as evidence of a central nervous system defect, resulting in considerable sociopsychological dysfunction. During the last decade there has been growing evidence of brain dysfunction in severe aggressive behavior. As a symptom, aggression overlaps a number of psychiatric disorders, but it is commonly associated with antisocial personality disorder. The aim of the present study was to examine NSS in an adult criminal population using the scale by Rossi et al. [29]. Subjects comprised 14 homicidal men with antisocial personality disorder recruited from a forensic psychiatric examination. Ten age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers as well as eight patients with schizophrenia, but no history of physical aggression, served as controls. The NSS scores of antisocial offenders were significantly increased compared with those of the healthy controls, whereas no significant differences were observed between the scores of offenders and those of patients with schizophrenia. It can be speculated that NSS indicate a nonspecific vulnerability factor in several psychiatric syndromes, which are further influenced by a variety of genetic and environmental components. One of these syndromes may be antisocial personality disorder with severe aggression. PMID:15504651

  16. ACE inhibitors could be therapeutic for antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2013-11-01

    Antisocial personality traits are an important topic for research. The societal cost of these behaviors encourages efforts at a better understanding of central nervous system causes. Catecholamine genes are being studied to facilitate this understanding, and some tentative findings are being reached about several of these genes. It seems that many genes play a role to produce antisocial behaviors so complexity of elucidating each gene is obvious. One conclusion that could be drawn from the current research findings is that DA2 like receptors (DRD2, DRD3, DRD4) with alleles that decrease neurotransmission are facilitatory of antisocial behaviors. DA2 like receptors cause neuronal firing to inhibit many peripheral functions through adenylyl cyclase inhibition. When these receptors are less active by genetically decreased density, lower affinity, or by low dopamine levels as final common pathways then inhibition is released and a state of disinhibition can be said to describe this state. Peripheral metabolism is increased and behavioral activation is noted. Renin is disinhibited in this setting thus allowing sympathetic nervous system activation. The fight or flight behaviors thus produced, in the extreme, would be the setting of antisocial behavior. Research validates this hypothesis. Understanding this final common pathway toward antisocial behavior should lead to better treatment for individuals with this pattern of behavior before they have caused harm to themselves and others. ACE inhibitors are well tolerated drugs used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure and would also treat antisocial behavior disorders.

  17. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Tang; Jun Long; Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Jian Liao; Hua Xie; Guihu Zhao; Hao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlation...

  18. Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders, and psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers neurocognitive models of aggression and relates them to explanations of the antisocial personality disorders. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is argued that different forms of neurocognitive model are necessary to explain the emergence of these different forms of aggression. Impairments in executive emotional systems (the somatic marke...

  19. Quantitative electroencephalographic measures in homicidal men with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Virkkunen, Matti; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Appelberg, Björn; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Salmi, Tapani

    2005-07-15

    Many symptoms of antisocial personality disorder have been proposed to be related to decreased daytime vigilance. To explore this hypothesis, quantitative analyses were conducted of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of drug-free and detoxified homicidal male offenders with antisocial personality disorder as the primary diagnosis. Subjects comprised 16 men recruited from a forensic psychiatric examination in a special ward of a university psychiatric hospital. Fifteen healthy age- and gender-matched controls with no criminal record or history of physical violence consisted of hospital staff and students. An overall reduction of alpha power was observed in the waking EEG of offenders. A bilateral increase in occipital delta and theta power was also found in these individuals. This study provides further support to the growing evidence of brain dysfunction in severe aggressive behavior. Homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder seem to have difficulties in maintaining normal daytime arousal. Decreased vigilance, together with social and psychological variables, may explain their aberrant behavior in everyday life. New studies are, however, needed to specify the vigilance problems of this patient group. PMID:16026854

  20. Antisocial personality disorder in DSM-5: missteps and missed opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R; Vachon, David D

    2012-10-01

    This paper evaluates the proposal for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5). Some aspects of the proposal are appealing: personality disorders will be assessed using trait criteria, and these criteria are similar to trait descriptions of DSM-IV ASPD. Other aspects of the proposal are less appealing. First, the DSM-5 will depend on a newly constructed personality trait system rather than relying on a well validated, widely studied one. Second, the trait profile of ASPD is incomplete; although this profile reflects the traits included in DSM-IV, it maps poorly onto the full personality profile of ASPD. Third, the DSM Workgroup missed an opportunity to finally unify ASPD and psychopathy; history and research suggest that these disorders have diverged mistakenly. Fourth, the newly proposed criteria of impairments in self- and interpersonal functioning are of questionable derivation and utility. PMID:23106185

  1. Antisocial personality disorder in DSM-5: missteps and missed opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R; Vachon, David D

    2012-10-01

    This paper evaluates the proposal for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5). Some aspects of the proposal are appealing: personality disorders will be assessed using trait criteria, and these criteria are similar to trait descriptions of DSM-IV ASPD. Other aspects of the proposal are less appealing. First, the DSM-5 will depend on a newly constructed personality trait system rather than relying on a well validated, widely studied one. Second, the trait profile of ASPD is incomplete; although this profile reflects the traits included in DSM-IV, it maps poorly onto the full personality profile of ASPD. Third, the DSM Workgroup missed an opportunity to finally unify ASPD and psychopathy; history and research suggest that these disorders have diverged mistakenly. Fourth, the newly proposed criteria of impairments in self- and interpersonal functioning are of questionable derivation and utility.

  2. The emotional lexicon of individuals diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without antisocial tendencies who described situations involving love, hate and anxiety depicted by photographs. The lexical choices made in the narratives were analyzed, and a comparison of the three groups revealed differences between the emotional narratives of inmates with ASPD, inmates without ASPD, and the control group. Although the narratives of the individuals with ASPD included more words describing emotions and higher levels of emotional intensity, the valence of these words was inappropriate. The linguistic characteristics of these narratives were associated with high levels of psychopathy and low emotional reactivity.

  3. A rare case of trichotillomania with antisocial personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichotillomania (TTM is characterised by recurrent and irresistible urge to pull out one’s own body hair. It is often associated with trichorrhizophagia in which there is a habit to eat the roots of pulled out hairs. It can also present with many comorbid psychiatric problems including personality disorders. High rates of comorbid mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders have been detected in patients of TTM. The lifetime prevalence of comorbid personality disorders has been much less extensively studied. We present a rare case of 28-year-old male having TTM with antisocial personality disorder and discuss difficult management issues with this comorbidity. Our patient improved with a combination of fluoxetine and sodium valproate.

  4. Antisocial personality disorder--stable and unstable subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy

    2010-04-01

    There have been criticisms that the criteria for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are over-dependent on criminal behavior. This study aimed to identify unrelated criteria of social and behavioral problems and instability, and to investigate their associations in a representative household sample of adults in the UK. Approximately one third of adults with ASPD did not fulfill any of the criteria for instability. They were less aggressive and involved in illegal activities but expressed less remorse for their behaviors. Instability in ASPD was mediated primarily through comorbid anxiety disorders and borderline personality disorder. The concept of Secondary Psychopathy, which has not generally been applied to ASPD, demonstrated many similarities to the unstable subtype.

  5. Antisocial personality disorder: diagnostic, ethical and treatment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, L

    1999-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a complex disorder that creates a diagnostic, ethical, and treatment dilemma for mental health professionals. Psychosocial, biological, and cultural influences play a role in the development of ASPD. People with ASPD often had harsh early childhoods that impaired their ability to trust in adulthood. Research supports intriguing biological links, but it remains unclear if biological differences are the cause or the effect of ASPD. Individualism, patriarchy, and widespread media violence create the cultural context for the development of ASPD. ASPD is difficult to clinically diagnose and treat, and there is controversy concerning whether ASPD is a psychiatric or a legal-ethical problem. However, the management of ASPD often falls to mental health services. This article addresses treatment and primary prevention of ASPD in a way that is relevant to mental health practice. PMID:10633643

  6. Neurobiologia do transtorno de personalidade anti-social Neurobiology of anti-social personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marta Del-Ben

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, tem havido um interesse crescente a respeito de uma melhor compreensão sobre o comportamento anti-social. O aumento da criminalidade e violência urbanas pode ter contribuído para esse maior interesse. Além de fatores psicossociais, outros biológicos têm sido implicados na fisiopatogenia do transtorno de personalidade anti-social (TPAS. Estudos de neuroimagem apontam o envolvimento de estruturas cerebrais frontais, especialmente o córtex orbitofrontal, e a amígdala. Também tem sido sugerido que prejuízos na função serotonérgica estariam associados à ocorrência de comportamento anti-social, já que pacientes com diagnóstico de TPAS apresentam respostas hormonais atenuadas a desafios farmacológicos com drogas que aumentam a função serotonérgica cerebral e redução da concentração de receptores serotonérgicos. Uma abordagem ampla dos diferentes fatores possivelmente envolvidos na fisiopatogenia do TPAS poderia contribuir para o desenvolvimento de novas técnicas de prevenção e intervenção.Violence and crime have been increasing considerably in urban societies. As a consequence, some efforts have been made aiming at a better understanding of antisocial bevaviour. Apart from psychosocial factors, some evidences suggest the occurrence of biological factors in the pathogenesis of antisocial personality disorders (ASPD. Neuroimaging studies have shown the involvement of prefrontal areas, especially orbitofrontal cortex, and amygdala. Also, impaired serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission has been implicated, since patients with ASPD present alterations in measures of 5-Ht system, such as blunted hormonal response to 5-HT pharmacological challenges and reduced 5-HT receptors numbers. A comprehensive approach of antisocial behavior, including biological and psychosocial aspects could lead to the development of new techniques for prevention and intervention in ASPD.

  7. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia

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    Safa Maghsoodloo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient′s condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R score. Results: Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%, history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%, and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility in patients (40% were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.001. Conclusions: More prevalence of antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25 in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  8. Regional cortical thinning in subjects with violent antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Veena M; Narr, Katherine L; Kumari, Veena; Woods, Roger P; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2007-09-01

    Violent behavior is associated with antisocial personality disorder and to a lesser extent with schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that several biological systems are disturbed in schizophrenia, and structural changes in frontal and temporal lobe regions are reported in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. The neural substrates that underlie violent behavior specifically and their structural analogs, however, remain poorly understood. Nor is it known whether a common biological basis exists for aggressive, impulsive, and violent behavior across these clinical populations. To explore the correlates of violence with brain structure in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the authors used magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate for the first time, to the authors' knowledge, regional differences in cortical thickness in violent and nonviolent individuals with schizophrenia and/or antisocial personality disorder and in healthy comparison subjects. Subject groups included right-handed men closely matched for demographic variables (total number of subjects=56). Violence was associated with cortical thinning in the medial inferior frontal and lateral sensory motor cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, and surrounding association areas (Brodmann's areas 10, 11, 12, and 32). Only violent subjects with antisocial personality disorder exhibited cortical thinning in inferior mesial frontal cortices. The biological underpinnings of violent behavior may therefore vary between these two violent subject groups in which the medial frontal cortex is compromised in antisocial personality disorder exclusively, but laminar abnormalities in sensorimotor cortices may relate to violent behavior in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia.

  9. Regional Cortical Thinning in Subjects With Violent Antisocial Personality Disorder or Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Veena M.; Narr, Katherine L.; Kumari, Veena; Woods, Roger P.; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2011-01-01

    Violent behavior is associated with antisocial personality disorder and to a lesser extent with schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that several biological systems are disturbed in schizophrenia, and structural changes in frontal and temporal lobe regions are reported in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. The neural substrates that underlie violent behavior specifically and their structural analogs, however, remain poorly understood. Nor is it known whether a common biological basis exists for aggressive, impulsive, and violent behavior across these clinical populations. To explore the correlates of violence with brain structure in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the authors used magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate for the first time, to the authors’ knowledge, regional differences in cortical thickness in violent and nonviolent individuals with schizophrenia and/or antisocial personality disorder and in healthy comparison subjects. Subject groups included right-handed men closely matched for demographic variables (total number of subjects=56). Violence was associated with cortical thinning in the medial inferior frontal and lateral sensory motor cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, and surrounding association areas (Brodmann’s areas 10, 11, 12, and 32). Only violent subjects with antisocial personality disorder exhibited cortical thinning in inferior mesial frontal cortices. The biological underpinnings of violent behavior may therefore vary between these two violent subject groups in which the medial frontal cortex is compromised in antisocial personality disorder exclusively, but laminar abnormalities in sensorimotor cortices may relate to violent behavior in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:17728428

  10. Genome-wide association study of antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, M-R; Paunio, T; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Ollila, H M; Sulkava, S; Jolanki, O; Palotie, A; Tiihonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) remains unclear. Although the most consistent biological finding is reduced grey matter volume in the frontal cortex, about 50% of the total liability to developing ASPD has been attributed to genetic factors. The contributing genes remain largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to study the genetic background of ASPD. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a replication analysis of Finnish criminal offenders fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for ASPD (N=370, N=5850 for controls, GWAS; N=173, N=3766 for controls and replication sample). The GWAS resulted in suggestive associations of two clusters of single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 6p21.2 and at 6p21.32 at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. Imputation of HLA alleles revealed an independent association with DRB1*01:01 (odds ratio (OR)=2.19 (1.53–3.14), P=1.9 × 10-5). Two polymorphisms at 6p21.2 LINC00951–LRFN2 gene region were replicated in a separate data set, and rs4714329 reached genome-wide significance (OR=1.59 (1.37–1.85), P=1.6 × 10−9) in the meta-analysis. The risk allele also associated with antisocial features in the general population conditioned for severe problems in childhood family (β=0.68, P=0.012). Functional analysis in brain tissue in open access GTEx and Braineac databases revealed eQTL associations of rs4714329 with LINC00951 and LRFN2 in cerebellum. In humans, LINC00951 and LRFN2 are both expressed in the brain, especially in the frontal cortex, which is intriguing considering the role of the frontal cortex in behavior and the neuroanatomical findings of reduced gray matter volume in ASPD. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing genome-wide significant and replicable findings on genetic variants associated with any personality disorder. PMID:27598967

  11. Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Detained Youth: The Predictive Value of Mental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.

    2007-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youth involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. This study used a stratified random sample of 1112 detained youth to examine the development of APD at a three-year follow-up interview. Nearly one fifth of male juvenile detainees later developed APD; approximately one quarter o...

  12. Regional Cortical Thinning in Subjects With Violent Antisocial Personality Disorder or Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Veena M.; Narr, Katherine L.; Kumari, Veena; Woods, Roger P.; Paul M Thompson; Toga, Arthur W.; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2007-01-01

    Violent behavior is associated with antisocial personality disorder and to a lesser extent with schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that several biological systems are disturbed in schizophrenia, and structural changes in frontal and temporal lobe regions are reported in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. The neural substrates that underlie violent behavior specifically and their structural analogs, however, remain poorly understood. Nor is it known whether...

  13. Informe forense: imputabilidad y trastorno antisocial de la personalidad Forensic report: imputability and antisocial personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Pallaro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La psicología forense constituye una especialización clásica en países anglosajones y que en España está tomando cada día mayor relevancia, siendo habitual que los peritos asesoren a nuestros tribunales y jueces en materias de carácter psicológico. En el presente artículo se aborda de manera conjunta por un médico forense y un psicólogo forense un supuesto habitual en la práctica pericial, como es la valoración de la imputabilidad de un sujeto que presenta un trastorno antisocial de la personalidad. Asimismo, se realiza una introducción al concepto legal de imputabilidad y se facilita un modelo de informe emitido al respecto, complementando los resultados obtenidos con diverso apoyo bibliográfico.The forensic psychology constitutes a classic specialization in Anglo-Saxon countries and that in Spain is taking every major day relevancy, being habitual that the experts advise our courts and judges in matters of psychological character. In the present article a habitual supposition is approached in a joint way by a forensic doctor and a forensic psychologist in the expert practice, since it is the valuation of the imputability of a subject that presents an antisocial disorder of the personality. Likewise, an introduction is realized to the legal concept of imputability and a model of report is facilitated expressed in the matter, complementing the results obtained with diverse bibliographical support.

  14. Exploring the construct validity of a scale for identifying antisocial personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo-Arias

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antisocial personality features have important clinical and epidemiological implications. However, the construct validity of internal of the self-reported scale for antisocial personality disorder of the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis II Disoders of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorder (DSM-IV of the American Psychiatric Asociation(SCID-II. Objective: To explore the construct validity of of the self-rated questionnaire of the SCID-II for antisocial personality disorder in female and male adults from the general population of Bucaramanga, Colombia. Method: A validation study, without a gold standard, was designed to explore the construct validity of the scale for antisocial personality disorder of the SCID-II. A probabilistic sample of 2,496 18- to 65-year adults resident in the urban area of Bucaramanga, Colombia, completed the questionnaire for antisocial personality disorder of the SCID-II. The mean age of participants was 38.0 years (SD = 13.5; 69.7% were women; the mean formal scholarship was 9.2 years (SD = 4.1; 49.1% were workers; 58.1% had a stable marital relationship; and 67.8% were living in middle-class neighbourhoods. The scale for for antisocial personality disorder of the SCID-II has 15 questions with dichotomycal answers. To explore the construct validity of the component principal factor analysis was computed. Results: In the total población four factors were extrated that accounted for 47.7% of the variance; among females, five salient factors were identified that explained 52.2% of the variance; and among males, four factor were extracted responsible for 50.2 of the variance. Conclusions: The scale for antisocial personality disorder of the SCID-II exhibits a differential factor solution for men and for women.

  15. Antisocial personality and bipolar disorder: interactions in impulsivity and course of illness

    OpenAIRE

    Swann, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and bipolar disorder are both characterized by impulsive behavior, increased incarceration or arrest, addictive disorders and suicidal behavior. These characteristics appear more severe in the combined disorders. Individuals with ASPD who also have bipolar disorder have higher rates of addictive disorders and suicidal behavior and are more impulsive, as measured by questionnaires or behavioral laboratory tests. Those with bipolar disorder who have ASPD h...

  16. Reaching out to patients with antisocial personality disorder in substance use disorder treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Thylstrup, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents the Impulsive Lifestyle Counselling [ILC] program a time-limited approach to increasing patient awareness of antisocial personality disorder [ASPD] and its consequences. Methodology: Using data from a recent trial with 175 patients from 13 uptake areas, with 95 being...... randomized to the intervention and 80 to treatment as usual, this article describes the ILC program, summarizes the key findings from the study, gives examples of issues and patient-counsellor interactions in the ILC sessions, and discusses the role of the ILC program in the treatment of ASPD compared...... with substance use disorder and comorbid ASPD can receive better care with brief counselling that focuses on antisocial behavior and thinking. More diverse evidence-based treatments are needed for this disorder....

  17. Personality disorders, violence, and antisocial behavior: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongqin; Geddes, John R; Fazel, Seena

    2012-10-01

    The risk of antisocial outcomes in individuals with personality disorder (PD) remains uncertain. The authors synthesize the current evidence on the risks of antisocial behavior, violence, and repeat offending in PD, and they explore sources of heterogeneity in risk estimates through a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of observational studies comparing antisocial outcomes in personality disordered individuals with controls groups. Fourteen studies examined risk of antisocial and violent behavior in 10,007 individuals with PD, compared with over 12 million general population controls. There was a substantially increased risk of violent outcomes in studies with all PDs (random-effects pooled odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.6 to 3.5). Meta-regression revealed that antisocial PD and gender were associated with higher risks (p = .01 and .07, respectively). The odds of all antisocial outcomes were also elevated. Twenty-five studies reported the risk of repeat offending in PD compared with other offenders. The risk of a repeat offense was also increased (fixed-effects pooled OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.2 to 2.7) in offenders with PD. The authors conclude that although PD is associated with antisocial outcomes and repeat offending, the risk appears to differ by PD category, gender, and whether individuals are offenders or not.

  18. Antisocial personality disorder as a predictor of criminal behaviour in drug abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridell, Mats; Hesse, Morten; Jæger, Mads Meier;

    2008-01-01

    Mixed findings have been made with regard to the long-term predictive validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on criminal behaviour in samples of substance abusers. A longitudinal record-linkage study of a cohort of 1052 drug abusers admitted 1977–1995 was undertaken. Subjects were...... recruited from a detoxification and short-term rehabilitation unit in Lund, Sweden, and followed through criminal justice registers from their first treatment episode to death or to the year 2004. In a ML multinomial random effects regression, subjects diagnosed with antisocial personality disorders were 2...

  19. Gender differences in the clinical characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Siever, Larry J; Goodman, Marianne; McNamara, Margaret; Hazlett, Erin A; Koenigsberg, Harold W; New, Antonia S

    2015-10-30

    Gender is an important variable in the study of mental health because of the actual and perceived differences between men and women. Relatively little is known how males and females differ in their manifestations of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Demographic and clinical features of 323 participants with ASPD were assessed and recorded. Women had fewer episodes of antisocial behavior involving or not involving police, higher scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and on Emotional Abuse and Sexual Abuse subscales of the CTQ compared to men. CTQ scores positively correlated with the number of episodes of antisocial behavior involving police in men but not in women. The percentage of patients with comorbid borderline and histrionic personality disorders was higher and the percentage of participants with cocaine use disorder was lower among women compared to men. Comorbid alcohol use disorder was frequent in both groups, while a higher percentage of women had comorbid mood disorders compared to men. Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that CTQ scores, histrionic personality disorder, and antisocial behavior involving the police drive the difference between the groups. Our findings indicate that treatment of individuals with ASPD should focus on the management of comorbid psychiatric disorders.

  20. Gender differences in the clinical characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Siever, Larry J; Goodman, Marianne; McNamara, Margaret; Hazlett, Erin A; Koenigsberg, Harold W; New, Antonia S

    2015-10-30

    Gender is an important variable in the study of mental health because of the actual and perceived differences between men and women. Relatively little is known how males and females differ in their manifestations of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Demographic and clinical features of 323 participants with ASPD were assessed and recorded. Women had fewer episodes of antisocial behavior involving or not involving police, higher scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and on Emotional Abuse and Sexual Abuse subscales of the CTQ compared to men. CTQ scores positively correlated with the number of episodes of antisocial behavior involving police in men but not in women. The percentage of patients with comorbid borderline and histrionic personality disorders was higher and the percentage of participants with cocaine use disorder was lower among women compared to men. Comorbid alcohol use disorder was frequent in both groups, while a higher percentage of women had comorbid mood disorders compared to men. Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that CTQ scores, histrionic personality disorder, and antisocial behavior involving the police drive the difference between the groups. Our findings indicate that treatment of individuals with ASPD should focus on the management of comorbid psychiatric disorders. PMID:26296756

  1. Informe forense: imputabilidad y trastorno antisocial de la personalidad Forensic report: imputability and antisocial personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    H.A. Pallaro; D. González-Trijueque

    2009-01-01

    La psicología forense constituye una especialización clásica en países anglosajones y que en España está tomando cada día mayor relevancia, siendo habitual que los peritos asesoren a nuestros tribunales y jueces en materias de carácter psicológico. En el presente artículo se aborda de manera conjunta por un médico forense y un psicólogo forense un supuesto habitual en la práctica pericial, como es la valoración de la imputabilidad de un sujeto que presenta un trastorno antisocial de la person...

  2. Heavy Episodic Drinking in College Students: Associations with Features of Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvers, Patrick; Landfield, Kristin E.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study extends the college heavy episodic drinking literature by examining the associations between features of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), on the one hand, and heavy episodic drinking and associated problem behaviors, on the other. Participants: Participants were 159 (85 male, 74 female) undergraduates…

  3. What should be done with antisocial personality disorder in the new edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-V)?

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse Morten

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, dissocial personality disorder and sociopathy are constructs that have generally been used to predict recidivism and dangerousness, alongside being used to exclude patients from treatment services. However, 'antisocial personality disorder' has recently begun to emerge as a treatment diagnosis, a development reflected within cognitive behaviour therapy and mentalisation-based psychotherapy. Many of the behaviour characteristics of antisoc...

  4. Case report: acquired antisocial personality disorder associated with unilateral left orbital frontal lobe damage.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, C A; Berman, S A; Scheibel, R S; Hayman, A

    1992-01-01

    We report on our analysis of a patient who developed personality changes which strongly resembled an antisocial personality disorder after surgical resection of a pituitary tumor. Despite behavioral changes that were obvious to friends, family and health care professionals, formal neuropsychological and personality testing revealed no specific cognitive deficits or psychopathology. We hypothesize that damage to a circumscribed region of the left orbitofrontal cortex, illustrated by magnetic r...

  5. Conscious knowledge influences decision making differently in substance use disorder adults with or without co-morbid antisocial personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina; Skot, Lotte; Teasdale, Thomas William;

    2013-01-01

    Decision-making impairment, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), is a consistent finding among individuals with substance use disorder (SUD). We studied how this impairment is influenced by co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and conscious knowledge of the task. Three groups...

  6. Attachment and social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeney, Joseph E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Ellison, William D; Nolf, Kimberly A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety.

  7. Object relations, defensive operations, and affective states in narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R; Berg, J L

    1992-08-01

    Rorschach data were used to psychometrically "map" the internal psychological operations of three Cluster B personality disorders, listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1987), all of which may be organized at a borderline level. Psychopathic antisocial subjects (P-APDs) and narcissistic subjects (NPDs) were highly narcissistic. NPD subjects, however, produced more indices of anxiety and attachment capacity and fewer scores related to borderline object relations and damaged identity. P-APDs and borderline subjects (BPDs) produced similar mean numbers of borderline object relations; however, the BPDs were more anxious, produced more unsublimated aggressive and libidinal drive material, and evidenced greater potential for attachment. BPDs were also less narcissistic than both P-APDs and NPDs. Nonpsychopathic antisocial subjects (NP-APDs) were less borderline than P-APDs and BPDs, less narcissistic in terms of a stable grandiose self-structure than NPD and P-APDs, produced less evidence of attachment capacity than NPDs and BPDs but more than P-APDs, and were similar to BPDs in their proneness to anxiety. The outpatient NPDs and BPDs produced more idealization responses than the incarcerated antisocial personality disorder (APD) groups. We conclude that the behavioral descriptions offered for these three Cluster B personality disorders, when used in conjunction with information such as level of personality organization (Kernberg, 1984), level of psychopathy (Hare, 1980, 1985), and outpatient versus inpatient research settings, may have greater intrapsychic specificity than previously thought.

  8. Personality Trait Differences in Boys and Girls with Clinical or Sub-Clinical Diagnoses of Conduct Disorder versus Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested differences in personality traits measured by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) in a community sample of adolescents with definite or probable conduct disorder (CD) diagnoses that did not progress to a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) by early adulthood (n=43), those with definite or probable…

  9. Neuro-cognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders and psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, R. J. R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers neurocognitive models of aggression and relates them to explanations of the antisocial personality disorders. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is argued that different forms of neurocognitive model are necessary to explain the emergence of these different forms of aggression. Impairments in executive emotional systems (the somatic marker system or the so...

  10. Examining the DSM-5 alternative personality disorder model operationalization of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a male correctional sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Sleep, Chelsea E; Wall, Tina D; Applegate, Kathryn C; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    For decades, it has been known that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a nonadequate operationalization of psychopathy (Crego & Widiger, 2015). The DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders provides an opportunity to rectify some of these long held concerns. The current study compared the Section III alternative model's trait-based conception of ASPD with the categorical model from the main diagnostic codes section of DSM-5 in terms of associations with differing models of psychopathy. We also evaluated the validity of the trait-based conception more broadly in relation to measures of antisocial tendencies as well as psychopathy. Participants were 200 male inmates who were administered a battery of self-report and interview-based researcher rating measures of relevant constructs. Analyses showed that Section III ASPD outperformed Section II ASPD in predicting scores on Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; r = .88 vs. .59). Additionally, aggregate scores for Section III ASPD performed well in capturing variance in differing ASPD and psychopathy measures. Finally, we found that the Section III ASPD impairment criteria added incrementally to the Section III ASPD traits in predicting PCL-R psychopathy and SCID-II ASPD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Physiological correlates of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, habitual aggression, and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the existing literature on physiological correlates of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and persistent violence/aggression. Coverage is provided of findings from studies utilizing peripheral, electrocortical, and neuroimaging measures. The review begins with a discussion of how psychopathy and antisocial personality are defined, and how these conditions relate to one another and to violent behavior. A case is made that the relationships psychopathy and ASPD show with violent and aggressive behavior, and similarities and differences in associations of each with physiological measures of various types can be understood in terms of symptomatic features these conditions have in common versus features that distinguish them. Following this, an overview is provided of major lines of evidence emerging from psychophysiological and neuroimaging studies conducted to date on these conditions. The final section of the chapter summarizes what has been learned from these existing studies and discusses implications and directions for future research.

  12. A Rorschach investigation of attachment and anxiety in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R

    1991-09-01

    We investigated the constructs of anxiety and attachment in a group of 42 offenders who met the DSM-III-R criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Each antisocial subject's level of psychopathy was assessed with the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL). Three Rorschach variables related to attachment, anxiety, and coping were compared between subjects scoring greater than or equal to 30 (N = 21) on the PCL and subjects scoring less than 30 (N = 21). Comparison Rorschach variables are also presented from a sample of 60 antisocial personality-disordered offenders. Moderate psychopaths (PCL score, less than 30) produced texture and diffuse shading responses at a significantly greater frequency than severe, or primary, psychopaths (PCL score, greater than or equal to 30). There was no significant difference in the two groups' propensity for producing vista responses. Although there were no significant differences between the coping index scores, the trend suggests less conflictual functioning in the severe psychopaths. A virtual absence of texture responses in the severe psychopaths, and a significantly greater frequency of diffuse shading responses in the moderate psychopaths, add construct validity to the lack of attachment in psychopaths and the role of anxiety in differentiating secondary from primary psychopathy. We view the presence of vista responses in this population as a measure of a failed grandiose self-structure, and note that it often occurs in the records of moderate psychopaths who also present achromatic color responses.

  13. Do people with borderline personality disorder complicated by antisocial personality disorder benefit from the STEPPS treatment program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Simsek-Duran, Fatma; Blum, Nancee; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group treatment for persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We describe results from two data sets on outcome in persons who participated in STEPPS with BPD alone or BPD plus antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In Study 1, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 65 persons with BPD who participated in a randomized controlled trial at an academic medical centre. In Study 2, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 64 offenders with BPD who participated in STEPPS in correctional settings. All subjects were assessed for the presence of BPD and ASPD. In Study 1, subjects with ASPD experienced greater improvement in BPD symptoms, impulsiveness and global symptoms. In Study 2, offenders with ASPD experienced greater improvement in positive and negative behaviours and positive affectivity. We conclude that persons with BPD plus ASPD benefit from STEPPS in community and correctional settings. The findings suggest that persons with BPD plus ASPD show greater improvement in some domains than persons with BPD only. People with ASPD should not be automatically excluded from participation in the program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Gender differences in contributions of emotion to psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogstad, Jill E; Rogers, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of psychopathy highlight the importance of affective features as they relate to social deviance; however, little empirical research has actually investigated specific roles of emotion and emotion processing with respect to antisocial conduct. Antisocial personality disorder (APD), prevalent in forensic populations, is commonly associated with psychopathy despite the notable omission of such core affective features in its diagnosis. In this paper, we review the empirical literature on the contribution of emotion to psychopathy and APD, highlighting in particular research on emotion processing and various facets of emotional expression, including empathy and alexithymia. Research findings are discussed on gender differences in emotional functioning and their likely effects on the assessment of psychopathy and APD. Given the known gender differences in the expressions of emotion, the article concludes with recommendations to bridge research for different offender groups, including psychopathy and APD.

  15. Comparing the constructs of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Janet I; South, Susan C

    2006-01-01

    Our study examines the relationship between Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) and psychopathy among a sample of 137 female offenders. Drawing from a historical review of the evolution of these two concepts, we explore their differential relationship to patterns of criminal behavior, psychological adjustment, co-morbidity with other personality disorders, victimization, and institutional adjustment. Findings suggest that the two disorders share a common foundation of social norm violations and deception; however, APD is associated with impulsive, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior, higher rates of childhood abuse, and greater co-morbidity with Cluster A PDs, while psychopathy is better characterized by higher rates of property crimes, previous incarceration, and the manifestation of remorselessness. Results contribute to a further understanding of the etiology and phenomenology of these two disorders and suggest different types of treatment and intervention.

  16. Possible role of a dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Wedekind, Dirk

    2015-11-01

    Around half the inmates in prison institutions have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). A recent theory has proposed that a dysfunction of the endogenous opioid system (EOS) underlies the neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present theoretical paper, based on a comprehensive database and hand search of the relevant literature, this hypothesis is extended to ASPD, which may be the predominant expression of EOS dysfunction in men, while the same pathology underlies BPD in women. According to evidence from human and animal studies, the problematic behaviours of persons with antisocial, callous, or psychopathic traits may be seen as desperate, unconscious attempts to stimulate their deficient EOS, which plays a key role in brain reward circuits. If the needs of this system are not being met, the affected persons experience dysphoric mood, discomfort, or irritability, and strive to increase binding of endogenous opioids to receptors by using the rewarding effects of aggression by exertion of physical or manipulative power on others, by abusing alcohol or substances that have the reward system as target, by creating an "endorphin rush" by self-harm, by increasing the frequency of their sexual contacts, or by impulsive actions and sensation seeking. Symptoms associated with ASPD can be treated with opioid antagonists like naltrexone, naloxone, or nalmefene. PMID:26250442

  17. Inhibitory control and negative emotional processing in psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Sprague, Jenessa; Sadeh, Naomi

    2012-05-01

    The field of personality disorders has had a long-standing interest in understanding interactions between emotion and inhibitory control, as well as neurophysiological indices of these processes. More work in particular is needed to clarify differential deficits in offenders with antisocial personality disorder (APD) who differ on psychopathic traits, as APD and psychopathy are considered separate, albeit related, syndromes. Evidence of distinct neurobiological processing in these disorders would have implications for etiology-based personality disorder taxonomies in future psychiatric classification systems. To inform this area of research, we recorded event-related brain potentials during an emotional-linguistic Go/No-Go task to examine modulation of negative emotional processing by inhibitory control in three groups: psychopathy (n = 14), APD (n = 16), and control (n = 15). In control offenders, inhibitory control demands (No-Go vs. Go) modulated frontal-P3 amplitude to negative emotional words, indicating appropriate prioritization of inhibition over emotional processing. In contrast, the psychopathic group showed blunted processing of negative emotional words regardless of inhibitory control demands, consistent with research on emotional deficits in psychopathy. Finally, the APD group demonstrated enhanced processing of negative emotion words in both Go and No-Go trials, suggesting a failure to modulate negative emotional processing when inhibitory control is required. Implications for emotion-cognition interactions and putative etiological processes in these personality disorders are discussed.

  18. Neurocognitive Deficits Associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder in Non-treatment-seeking Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katie L; Leppink, Eric W; Grant, Jon E

    2016-06-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a relatively common problem, but the neuropsychological profile of affected individuals has seldom been studied outside of criminal justice recruitment settings. Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29 years) were recruited from the general community by media advertisements. Participants with ASPD (n = 17), free from substance use disorders, were compared with matched controls (n = 229) using objective computerized neuropsychological tasks tapping a range of cognitive domains. Compared with controls, individuals with ASPD showed significantly elevated pathological gambling symptoms, previous illegal acts, unemployment, greater nicotine consumption, and relative impairments in response inhibition (Stop-Signal Task) and decision-making (less risk adjustment, Cambridge Gamble Task). General response speed, set-shifting, working memory, and executive planning were intact. ASPD was also associated with higher impulsivity and venturesomeness on the Eysenck Questionnaire. These findings implicate impaired inhibitory control and decision-making in the pathophysiology of ASPD, even in milder manifestations of the disorder. Future work should explore the neural correlates of these impairments and use longitudinal designs to examine the temporal relationship between these deficits, antisocial behavior, and functional impairment. PMID:27236178

  19. The investigation of construct validity of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-5 personality traits on iranian sample with antisocial and borderline personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to examine the construct validity of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-5 (DSM-5 conceptual model of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PDs. More specifically, the aim was to determine whether the DSM-5 five-factor structure of pathological personality trait domains replicated in an independently collected sample that differs culturally from the derivation sample. Methods: This study was on a sample of 346 individuals with antisocial (n = 122 and borderline PD (n = 130, and nonclinical subjects (n = 94. Participants randomly selected from prisoners, out-patient, and in-patient clients . Participants were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry clinics of Razi and Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II, DSM-5 Personality Trait Rating Form (Clinician′s PTRF were used to diagnosis of PD and to assessment of pathological traits. The data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Results: Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution for DSM-5 personality traits. Results showed that DSM-5 has adequate construct validity in Iranian sample with antisocial and borderline PDs. Factors similar in number with the other studies, but different in the content. Conclusions: Exploratory factor analysis revealed five homogeneous components of antisocial and borderline PDs. That may represent personality, behavioral, and affective features central to the disorder. Furthermore, the present study helps understand the adequacy of DSM-5 dimensional approach to evaluation of personality pathology, specifically on Iranian sample.

  20. The Investigation of Construct Validity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-5 Personality Traits on Iranian sample with Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Amini; Abbas Pourshahbaz; Parvaneh Mohammadkhani; Mohammad-Reza Khodaie Ardakani; Mozhgan Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to examine the construct validity of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-5 (DSM-5) conceptual model of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PDs). More specifically, the aim was to determine whether the DSM-5 five-factor structure of pathological personality trait domains replicated in an independently collected sample that differs culturally from the derivation sample. Methods: This study was on a sample of 346 indivi...

  1. What should be done with antisocial personality disorder in the new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Morten

    2010-10-27

    Antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, dissocial personality disorder and sociopathy are constructs that have generally been used to predict recidivism and dangerousness, alongside being used to exclude patients from treatment services. However, 'antisocial personality disorder' has recently begun to emerge as a treatment diagnosis, a development reflected within cognitive behaviour therapy and mentalisation-based psychotherapy. Many of the behaviour characteristics of antisocial personality disorder are, at the same time, being targeted by interventions at criminal justice settings. A significantly higher proportion of published articles focusing on antisocial personality concern treatment when compared to articles on psychopathy. Currently, the proposal for antisocial personality disorder for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, suggests a major change in the criteria for this disorder. While the present definition focuses mainly on observable behaviours, the proposed revision stresses interpersonal and emotional aspects of the disorder drawing on the concept of psychopathy. The present commentary suggests that developments leading to improvement in the diagnosis of this type of disorder should, rather than focusing exclusively on elements such as dangerousness and risk assessment, point us to ways in which patients can be treated for their problems.

  2. What should be done with antisocial personality disorder in the new edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-V?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, dissocial personality disorder and sociopathy are constructs that have generally been used to predict recidivism and dangerousness, alongside being used to exclude patients from treatment services. However, 'antisocial personality disorder' has recently begun to emerge as a treatment diagnosis, a development reflected within cognitive behaviour therapy and mentalisation-based psychotherapy. Many of the behaviour characteristics of antisocial personality disorder are, at the same time, being targeted by interventions at criminal justice settings. A significantly higher proportion of published articles focusing on antisocial personality concern treatment when compared to articles on psychopathy. Currently, the proposal for antisocial personality disorder for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, suggests a major change in the criteria for this disorder. While the present definition focuses mainly on observable behaviours, the proposed revision stresses interpersonal and emotional aspects of the disorder drawing on the concept of psychopathy. The present commentary suggests that developments leading to improvement in the diagnosis of this type of disorder should, rather than focusing exclusively on elements such as dangerousness and risk assessment, point us to ways in which patients can be treated for their problems.

  3. Development of the Observation Scale for Aggressive Behavior (OSAB) for Dutch forensic psychiatric inpatients with an antisocial personality disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Hollin, C.R.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Observation Scale for Aggressive Behavior (OSAB) has been developed to evaluate inpatient treatment programs designed to reduce aggressive behavior in Dutch forensic psychiatric patients with an antisocial personality disorder, who are "placed at the disposal of the government". The scale should

  4. Schema modes and childhood abuse in borderline and antisocial personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Sieswerda, Simkje

    2005-09-01

    Complex personality disorders (PDs) have been hypothesized to be characterized by alternating states of thinking, feeling and behavior, the so-called schema modes (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar (2003). Schema therapy: A practioner's guide. New York: Guilford). The present study tested the applicability of this model to borderline personality disorders (BPD) and antisocial personality disorders (APD), and related it to a presumed common etiological factor, childhood trauma. Sixteen patients with BPD, 16 patients with APD and 16 nonpatient controls (all 50% of both sexes) completed a Schema Mode Questionnaire assessing cognitions, feelings and behaviors characteristic of six schema modes. Participants were interviewed to retrace abusive sexual, physical and emotional events before the age of 18. BPD as well as APD participants were characterized by four maladaptive modes (Detached Protector, Punitive Parent, Abandoned/Abused Child and Angry Child). APD displayed most characteristics of the Bully/Attack mode, though not significantly different from BPD. The Healthy Adult mode was of low presence in BPD and of high presence in APD and the nonpatients. Frequency and severity of the three kinds of abuse were equally high in both PD groups, and significantly higher than in nonpatients.

  5. Emotional, cognitive and physiological correlates of abuse-related stress in borderline and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2010-02-01

    Childhood abuse is an important precursor of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The current study compared the emotional reactivity to abuse-related stress of these patients on a direct and an indirect level. Changes in self-reported affect and schema modes, psychophysiology and reaction time based cognitive associations were assessed following confrontation with an abuse-related film fragment in patients with BPD (n=45), ASPD (n=21), Cluster C personality disorder (n=46) and non-patient controls (n=36). Results indicated a hyperresponsivity of BPD-patients on self-reported negative affect and schema modes, on some psychophysiological indices and on implicit cognitive associations. The ASPD-group was comparable to the BPD group on implicit cognitions but did not show self-reported and physiological hyper-reactivity. These findings suggest that BPD and ASPD-patients are alike in their implicit cognitive abuse-related stress reactivity, but can be differentiated in their self-reported and physiological response patterns. PMID:19854433

  6. Facial emotion perception impairments in schizophrenia patients with comorbid antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dorothy Y Y; Liu, Amy C Y; Lui, Simon S Y; Lam, Bess Y H; Siu, Bonnie W M; Lee, Tatia M C; Cheung, Eric F C

    2016-02-28

    Impairment in facial emotion perception is believed to be associated with aggression. Schizophrenia patients with antisocial features are more impaired in facial emotion perception than their counterparts without these features. However, previous studies did not define the comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) using stringent criteria. We recruited 30 participants with dual diagnoses of ASPD and schizophrenia, 30 participants with schizophrenia and 30 controls. We employed the Facial Emotional Recognition paradigm to measure facial emotion perception, and administered a battery of neurocognitive tests. The Life History of Aggression scale was used. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs were conducted to examine group differences in facial emotion perception, and control for the effect of other neurocognitive dysfunctions on facial emotion perception. Correlational analyses were conducted to examine the association between facial emotion perception and aggression. Patients with dual diagnoses performed worst in facial emotion perception among the three groups. The group differences in facial emotion perception remained significant, even after other neurocognitive impairments were controlled for. Severity of aggression was correlated with impairment in perceiving negative-valenced facial emotions in patients with dual diagnoses. Our findings support the presence of facial emotion perception impairment and its association with aggression in schizophrenia patients with comorbid ASPD.

  7. HANNIBAL REVISITED: ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER VERSUS PSYCHOPATHY--MEDICO-LEGAL PERSPECTIVES FROM SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Psychopathy and its relation to criminal behaviour has been the focus of clinical research for many years. Within the context of South African criminal law, the impact of psychopathy on criminal liability has been addressed in numerous decisions with varying outcomes all indicative of the reality that psychopathy will at most serve as a factor in mitigation of sentence, but will not exonerate an accused of criminal responsibility. In this contribution, the author reflects on the diagnostic entities of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder against the backdrop of South African criminal law cases in terms of which either of these entities were raised in support of mitigation of sentence and/or as extenuating circumstances.

  8. Frontal brain dysfunction in alcoholism with and without antisocial personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Oscar-Berman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Marlene Oscar-Berman1,2, Mary M Valmas1,2, Kayle s Sawyer1,2, Shalene M Kirkley1, David A Gansler3, Diane Merritt1,2, Ashley Couture11Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Boston Campus, Boston, MA, USA; 2Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Suffolk University, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD often are comorbid conditions. Alcoholics, as well as nonalcoholic individuals with ASPD, exhibit behaviors associated with prefrontal brain dysfunction such as increased impulsivity and emotional dysregulation. These behaviors can influence drinking motives and patterns of consumption. Because few studies have investigated the combined association between ASPD and alcoholism on neuropsychological functioning, this study examined the influence of ASPD symptoms and alcoholism on tests sensitive to frontal brain deficits. The participants were 345 men and women. Of them, 144 were abstinent alcoholics (66 with ASPD symptoms, and 201 were nonalcoholic control participants (24 with ASPD symptoms. Performances among the groups were examined with Trails A and B tests, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, the Ruff Figural Fluency Test, and Performance subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Measures of affect also were obtained. Multiple regression analyses showed that alcoholism, specific drinking variables (amount and duration of heavy drinking, and ASPD were significant predictors of frontal system and affective abnormalities. These effects were different for men and women. The findings suggested that the combination of alcoholism and ASPD leads to greater deficits than the sum of each.  Keywords: alcoholism, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD, frontal brain system, neuropsychological deficits, reward system

  9. Correspondence between self-report and interview-based assessments of antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Laura S; Poythress, Norman G; Douglas, Kevin S; Skeem, Jennifer L; Edens, John F

    2008-03-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with suicide, violence, and risk-taking behavior and can slow response to first-line treatment for Axis I disorders. ASPD may be assessed infrequently because few efficient diagnostic tools are available. This study evaluated 2 promising self-report measures for assessing ASPD--the ASPD scale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4; S. E. Hyler, 1994) and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; L. Morey, 1991, 2007)--as well as the ASPD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II (SCID-II; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, M. Gibbon, J. B. W. Williams, & L. S. Benjamin, 1997). The measures were administered to 1,345 offenders in court-mandated residential substance abuse treatment programs and prisons. PDQ-4 and PAI scores related strongly to SCID-II symptom counts (rs = .67 and .51, respectively), indicating these measures convey useful clinical information about the severity of offenders' ASPD pathology. The dimensional association between the measures was relatively invariant across gender, race, and site, although differences in mean scores were observed. Levels of agreement of the SCID-II with the PDQ-4 (kappa = .31) and PAI (kappa = .32) in classifying participants as ASPD was limited. Alternative thresholds for both self-report measures were identified and cross-validated.

  10. Identifying subtypes among offenders with antisocial personality disorder: a cluster-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poythress, Norman G; Edens, John F; Skeem, Jennifer L; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Douglas, Kevin S; Frick, Paul J; Patrick, Christopher J; Epstein, Monica; Wang, Tao

    2010-05-01

    The question of whether antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are largely similar or fundamentally different constructs remains unresolved. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), many of the personality features of psychopathy are cast as associated features of ASPD, although the DSM-IV offers no guidance as to how, or the extent to which, these features relate to ASPD. In a sample of 691 offenders who met DSM-IV criteria for ASPD, we used model-based clustering to identify subgroups of individuals with relatively homogeneous profiles on measures of associated features (psychopathic personality traits) and other constructs with potential etiological significance for subtypes of ASPD. Two emergent groups displayed profiles that conformed broadly to theoretical descriptions of primary psychopathy and Karpman's (1941) variant of secondary psychopathy. As expected, a third group (nonpsychopathic ASPD) lacked substantial associated features. A fourth group exhibited elevated psychopathic features as well as a highly fearful temperament, a profile not clearly predicted by extant models. Planned comparisons revealed theoretically informative differences between primary and secondary groups in multiple domains, including self-report measures, passive avoidance learning, clinical ratings, and official records. Our results inform ongoing debates about the overlap between psychopathy and ASPD and raise questions about the wisdom of placing most individuals who habitually violate social norms and laws into a single diagnostic category. PMID:20455611

  11. Identifying subtypes among offenders with antisocial personality disorder: a cluster-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poythress, Norman G; Edens, John F; Skeem, Jennifer L; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Douglas, Kevin S; Frick, Paul J; Patrick, Christopher J; Epstein, Monica; Wang, Tao

    2010-05-01

    The question of whether antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are largely similar or fundamentally different constructs remains unresolved. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), many of the personality features of psychopathy are cast as associated features of ASPD, although the DSM-IV offers no guidance as to how, or the extent to which, these features relate to ASPD. In a sample of 691 offenders who met DSM-IV criteria for ASPD, we used model-based clustering to identify subgroups of individuals with relatively homogeneous profiles on measures of associated features (psychopathic personality traits) and other constructs with potential etiological significance for subtypes of ASPD. Two emergent groups displayed profiles that conformed broadly to theoretical descriptions of primary psychopathy and Karpman's (1941) variant of secondary psychopathy. As expected, a third group (nonpsychopathic ASPD) lacked substantial associated features. A fourth group exhibited elevated psychopathic features as well as a highly fearful temperament, a profile not clearly predicted by extant models. Planned comparisons revealed theoretically informative differences between primary and secondary groups in multiple domains, including self-report measures, passive avoidance learning, clinical ratings, and official records. Our results inform ongoing debates about the overlap between psychopathy and ASPD and raise questions about the wisdom of placing most individuals who habitually violate social norms and laws into a single diagnostic category.

  12. Energy substrate metabolism among habitually violent alcoholic offenders having antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkunen, Matti; Rissanen, Aila; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Franssila-Kallunki, Anja; Linnoila, Markku; Tiihonen, Jari

    2007-04-15

    A large proportion of violent offences in Western countries are attributable to antisocial personality disorder (APD). Several studies have shown abnormal lipid, carbohydrate and low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite levels in habitually violent alcoholic offenders with APD, but it is not clear how these biochemical abnormalities are related to each other in this disorder. We aimed to study energy substrate metabolism among habitually violent offenders with APD. Insulin sensitivity (euglycemic insulin clamp), basal energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), and CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) measurements were performed on 96 habitually violent antisocial male alcoholic offenders and on 40 normal male controls. Habitually violent, incarcerated offenders with APD had significantly lower non-oxidative glucose metabolism, basal glucagon, and free fatty acids when compared with normal controls, but glucose oxidation and CSF 5-HIAA did not differ markedly between these groups. The effect sizes for lower non-oxidative glucose metabolism among incarcerated and non-incarcerated APD subjects were 0.73 and 0.51, respectively, when compared with controls, indicating that this finding was not explained by incarceration. Habitually violent offenders with APD have markedly lower glucagon and non-oxidative glucose metabolism when compared with healthy controls, and these findings were more strongly associated with habitual violent offending than low CSF 5-HIAA levels, a well-established marker for impulsive violent behavior. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm if abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism can be used to predict violent offending over the course of the APD offender's life span. PMID:17316826

  13. Increased anxiety and other similarities in temperament of alcoholics with and without antisocial personality disorder across three diverse populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Funt, Samuel; Virkkunen, Matti; Albaugh, Bernard; Goldman, David

    2007-01-01

    According to Cloninger’s model, Type I alcoholics are thought to be innately vulnerable to anxiety and depression. In contrast, Type-II alcoholics are thought to have increased likelihood of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and reduced anxiety. However, allostatic activations of stress, anxiety and dysphoria may be a common thread in alcohol use disorders (AUD). Our aim was to find commonalities and differences in temperament of alcoholics with and without ASPD in three diverse populati...

  14. Antisocial Personality Disorder in People with Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders: Clinical, Functional, and Family Relationship Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    MUESER, KIM T; Gottlieb, Jennifer D.; Cather, Corrine; Glynn, Shirley M.; Zarate, Roberto; Smith, Lindy F.; Clark, Robin E.; Wolfe, Rosemarie

    2012-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is an important correlate of substance abuse severity in the addiction population and in people with co-occurring serious mental illness and addiction. Because family members often provide vital supports to relatives with co-occurring disorders, this study explored the correlates of ASPD in 103 people with co-occurring disorders (79% schizophrenia-schizoaffective, 21% bipolar disorder) in high contact with relatives participating in a family intervention...

  15. Sleep architecture in homicidal women with antisocial personality disorder--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Sailas, Eila; Putkonen, Hanna; Takala, Pirjo; Urrila, Anna-Sofia; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2006-11-29

    The aim of the present study was to characterize sleep in severely violent women with antisocial personality disorder (ASP) as the primary diagnosis. Participants for this preliminary study were three drug-free female offenders ordered to undergo a forensic mental examination in a maximum security state mental hospital after committing homicide or attempted homicide. Ten healthy age- and gender-matched controls consisted of hospital staff with no history of physical violence. The most striking finding was the increased amount of slow wave sleep, particularly the deepest sleep stage, S4, in women with ASP. This finding is in agreement with previously reported results in habitually violent male criminals with ASP. Severe female aggression seems to be associated with profound changes in sleep architecture. Whether this reflects specific brain pathology, or a delay in the normal development of sleep patterns in the course of aging, needs to be clarified. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive violence seem to be similar in both sexes. PMID:17070601

  16. Identifying individuals with antisocial personality disorder using resting-state FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Tang

    Full Text Available Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD is closely connected to criminal behavior. A better understanding of functional connectivity in the brains of ASPD patients will help to explain abnormal behavioral syndromes and to perform objective diagnoses of ASPD. In this study we designed an exploratory data-driven classifier based on machine learning to investigate changes in functional connectivity in the brains of patients with ASPD using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data in 32 subjects with ASPD and 35 controls. The results showed that the classifier achieved satisfactory performance (86.57% accuracy, 77.14% sensitivity and 96.88% specificity and could extract stabile information regarding functional connectivity that could be used to discriminate ASPD individuals from normal controls. More importantly, we found that the greatest change in the ASPD subjects was uncoupling between the default mode network and the attention network. Moreover, the precuneus, superior parietal gyrus and cerebellum exhibited high discriminative power in classification. A voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed and showed that the gray matter volumes in the parietal lobule and white matter volumes in the precuneus were abnormal in ASPD compared to controls. To our knowledge, this study was the first to use resting-state fMRI to identify abnormal functional connectivity in ASPD patients. These results not only demonstrated good performance of the proposed classifier, which can be used to improve the diagnosis of ASPD, but also elucidate the pathological mechanism of ASPD from a resting-state functional integration viewpoint.

  17. Psychometric Characteristics and Clinical Correlates of NEO-PI-R Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Edward A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (baseline N = 733). These 3 issues were examined: (a)…

  18. Multifinality in the development of personality disorders: a Biology x Sex x Environment interaction model of antisocial and borderline traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Klein, Daniel N; Crowell, Sheila E; Derbidge, Christina; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Although antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is more common among males and borderline PD (BPD) is more common among females, some authors have suggested that the two disorders reflect multifinal outcomes of a single etiology. This assertion is based on several overlapping symptoms and features, including trait impulsivity, emotional lability, high rates of depression and suicide, and a high likelihood of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Furthermore, rates of ASPD are elevated in the first degree relatives of those with BPD, and concurrent comorbidity rates for the two disorders are high. In this article, we present a common model of antisocial and borderline personality development. We begin by reviewing issues and problems with diagnosing and studying PDs in children and adolescents. Next, we discuss dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms of trait impulsivity as predisposing vulnerabilities to ASPD and BPD. Finally, we extend shared risk models for ASPD and BPD by specifying genetic loci that may confer differential vulnerability to impulsive aggression and mood dysregulation among males and impulsive self-injury and mood dysregulation among females. Although the precise mechanisms of these sex-moderated genetic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood, they appear to interact with environmental risk factors including adverse rearing environments to potentiate the development of ASPD and BPD.

  19. Modulatory effects of psychopathy on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Guardiola, Vanessa; Batalla, Iolanda; Bosque, Javier; Kosson, David; Pifarré, Josep; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Goldberg, Ximena; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Menchón, José M; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Cardoner, Narcís

    2016-01-30

    Neuropsychological deficits in executive functions (EF) have been linked to antisocial behavior and considered to be cardinal to the onset and persistence of severe antisocial and aggressive behavior. However, when psychopathy is present, prior evidence suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is unaffected leading to intact EF. Ninety-one male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and 24 controls completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). ASPD individuals were grouped in three categories according to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores (low, medium and high). We hypothesized that ASPD offenders with high PCL-R scores will not differ from healthy controls in EF and will show better EF performance in comparison with subjects with low PCL-R scores. Results showed that ASPD offenders with low PCL-R scores committed more perseverative errors and responses than controls and offenders with high PCL-R scores, which did not differ from healthy controls. Moreover, scores on Factor 1 and the interpersonal facet of the PCL-R were predictors of better WCST performance. Our results suggest a modulatory role of psychopathy in the cognitive performance of ASPD offenders, and provide further evidence supporting that offenders with ASPD and psychopathy are characterized by a cognitive profile different from those with ASPD without psychopathy. PMID:26708441

  20. Modulatory effects of psychopathy on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Guardiola, Vanessa; Batalla, Iolanda; Bosque, Javier; Kosson, David; Pifarré, Josep; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Goldberg, Ximena; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Menchón, José M; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Cardoner, Narcís

    2016-01-30

    Neuropsychological deficits in executive functions (EF) have been linked to antisocial behavior and considered to be cardinal to the onset and persistence of severe antisocial and aggressive behavior. However, when psychopathy is present, prior evidence suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is unaffected leading to intact EF. Ninety-one male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and 24 controls completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). ASPD individuals were grouped in three categories according to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores (low, medium and high). We hypothesized that ASPD offenders with high PCL-R scores will not differ from healthy controls in EF and will show better EF performance in comparison with subjects with low PCL-R scores. Results showed that ASPD offenders with low PCL-R scores committed more perseverative errors and responses than controls and offenders with high PCL-R scores, which did not differ from healthy controls. Moreover, scores on Factor 1 and the interpersonal facet of the PCL-R were predictors of better WCST performance. Our results suggest a modulatory role of psychopathy in the cognitive performance of ASPD offenders, and provide further evidence supporting that offenders with ASPD and psychopathy are characterized by a cognitive profile different from those with ASPD without psychopathy.

  1. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-02-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions.

  2. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-02-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions. PMID:26456397

  3. Childhood Maltreatment and Prospectively Observed Quality of Early Care as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenyu; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Easterbrooks, M Ann; Zhao, Xudong; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the separate contributions of maltreatment and ongoing quality of parent-child interaction to the etiology of antisocial personality features using a prospective longitudinal design. 120 low-income young adults (aged 18-23) were assessed for extent of ASPD features on the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis-Axis II, for presence of maltreatment on the Conflict Tactics Scale, Traumatic Experiences Scale, and Adult Attachment Interview, and for referral in infancy to parent-infant clinical services. Fifty-six of these families had been studied longitudinally since the first year of life. In infancy, attachment disorganization and disrupted mother-infant interaction were assessed; in middle childhood, disorganized-controlling attachment behaviors were reliably rated. In kindergarten and second grade, behavior problems were assessed by teacher report. In cross-sectional analyses, maltreatment was significantly associated with ASPD features but did not account for the independent effect of early referral to parent-infant services on ASPD features. In longitudinal analyses, maternal withdrawal in infancy predicted the extent of ASPD features twenty years later, independently of childhood abuse. In middle childhood, disorganized attachment behavior and maladaptive behavior at school added to prediction of later ASPD features. Antisocial features in young adulthood have precursors in the minute-to-minute process of parent-child interaction beginning in infancy.

  4. Examining the associations between DSM-5 section III antisocial personality disorder traits and psychopathy in community and university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Wygant, Dustin B; Salekin, Randall T; Krueger, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    The current investigation examined the associations between personality traits representing DSM-5 Section III Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), its psychopathy specifier, and contemporary models of psychopathic personality disorder. We used two samples consisting of university students (n = 463) and community-dwelling participants (n = 148) recruited for subclinical psychopathic proclivities. Both samples were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger et al., 2012), Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Patrick, 2010), and versions of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). University students also completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders-Personality Questionnaire (First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997). Across both samples, the Section III ASPD traits were moderately strongly correlated with psychopathy measures, except the fearless-dominance/boldness domain. However, as would be expected, traits representing the Section III psychopathy specifier accounted for a substantial amount of variance within this domain. Furthermore, additional DSM-5 Section III personality traits augmented the characterization of psychopathy from the PPI and Triarchic perspectives.

  5. Attachment and Social Cognition in borderline personality disorder: specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Beeney, Joseph E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Scott, Lori N.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Ellison, William D.; Nolf, Kimberly A.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, due, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms a...

  6. Criminal behavior and cognitive processing in male offenders with antisocial personality disorder with and without comorbid psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riser, Rebecca E; Kosson, David S

    2013-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are 2 important syndromes with substantial utility in predicting antisocial behavior. Although prior studies have identified correlations between various factors and the presence of psychopathy or ASPD, most studies have focused on 1 syndrome or the other. Consequently, it is unclear whether the 2 syndromes reflect similar pathophysiologies, whether they are in fact 2 distinct syndromes, or whether the correlates of ASPD reflect its high comorbidity with psychopathy. The present study addressed this issue by examining the impact of ASPD with and without comorbid psychopathy (as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised) on criminal offending and cognitive processing in 674 adult male inmates at a county jail in Illinois. Participants exhibited either ASPD and comorbid psychopathy, ASPD but not psychopathy, or neither ASPD nor psychopathy. Participants with and without comorbid psychopathy were characterized by more criminal behavior than controls, and inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited more severe criminal behavior than those with ASPD only. In addition, inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited a different pattern of cognitive task performance impairment than those with ASPD alone. Results replicate the findings of Kosson, Lorenz, and Newman (2006) and provide new evidence suggesting that men with ASPD and comorbid psychopathy are characterized by cognitive processing anomalies different from those seen in ASPD without comorbid psychopathy.

  7. Cool and hot executive function impairments in violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder with and without psychopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane A De Brito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impairments in executive function characterize offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and offenders with psychopathy. However, the extent to which those impairments are associated with ASPD, psychopathy, or both is unknown. METHODS: The present study examined 17 violent offenders with ASPD and psychopathy (ASPD+P, 28 violent offenders with ASPD without psychopathy (ASPD-P, and 21 healthy non-offenders on tasks assessing cool (verbal working memory and alteration of motor responses to spatial locations and hot (reversal learning, decision-making under risk, and stimulus-reinforcement-based decision-making executive function. RESULTS: In comparison to healthy non-offenders, violent offenders with ASPD+P and those with ASPD-P showed similar impairments in verbal working memory and adaptive decision-making. They failed to learn from punishment cues, to change their behaviour in the face of changing contingencies, and made poorer quality decisions despite longer periods of deliberation. Intriguingly, the two groups of offenders did not differ significantly from the non-offenders in terms of their alteration of motor responses to spatial locations and their levels of risk-taking, indicated by betting, and impulsivity, measured as delay aversion. The performance of the two groups of offenders on the measures of cool and hot executive function did not differ, indicating shared deficits. CONCLUSIONS: These documented impairments may help to explain the persistence of antisocial behaviours despite the known risks of the negative consequences of such behaviours.

  8. Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in women: a literature review on the reliability and validity of assessment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Völlm, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Crime rates are low in women compared to men. The two disorders most commonly associated with offending behaviour, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy, are also less prevalent in female samples. However, developments in forensic psychiatry have often ignored gender, and the utility of constructs such as psychopathy and their assessment instruments in female samples remains unclear. This article presents a review of studies looking at rates of ASPD and psychopathy and on the reliability and validity of assessment instruments of these disorders in women. Gender differences in symptom patterns will be considered. The literature seems to suggest that DSM-IV criteria for ASPD may lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of the disorder in women due to the requirement of childhood conduct disorder symptoms. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to identify psychopathy in women but there are gender differences in the factor structure and item loadings on this measure. Research to date seems to suggest a three-factor model may be most strongly supported in females. Preliminary evidence suggests the PCL-R may have some value in predicting future offending while the PCL:SV may be useful in predicting institutional violence. Clinical implications are discussed.

  9. A abordagem evolucionista do transtorno de personalidade anti-social El enfoque evolucionista del Trastorno de Personalidad Anti-Social (TPAS The evolutionary approach to the Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio José Lemos Vasconcellos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo do presente artigo é discutir a abordagem evolucionista do Transtorno de Personalidade Anti-Social (TPAS. São abordados os principais argumentos desenvolvidos no âmbito da Psicologia Evolucionista que tentam evidenciar o caráter adaptativo deste transtorno num ambiente primitivo de interação social. Ao longo do artigo, são enfocados os principais pressupostos vinculados ao paradigma evolucionista e suas implicações na compreensão filogenética de um dos transtornos que mais amplamente demanda análises e investigação na esfera da Psiquiatria. São também discutidas algumas adequações e inadequações do citado modelo e seu valor explanatório para a compreensão da atual prevalência do TPAS.El objetivo principal de este articulo es discutir el enfoque evolucionista del Trastorno de Personalidad Anti-Social (TPAS. Se analizan los principales argumentos desarrollados por la Sicología Evolucionista que tratan de dejar en evidencia el carácter adaptativo de este trastorno bajo un ambiente primitivo de interacción social. A lo largo del artículo se enfocan las principales suposiciones relacionadas con el paradigma evolucionista y sus vínculos con la comprensión filogenética de uno de los trastornos que más demanda análisis en el ámbito de la Psiquiatria. También se discuten algunas adecuaciones e inadecuaciones del modelo evolucionista y su valor explanatorio para entender la actual prevalencia de TPAS.The main purpose of this article is to discuss the evolutionary approach to the Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD. The main arguments developed in Evolutionary Psychology are discussed, which tend to show the adaptive character of this disorder in a primitive environment of social interaction. Throughout the article, the main assumptions connected to the evolutionary paradigm are focused on, and their implications in the philogenetic understanding of one of the disorders that has required the broadest

  10. High Prognostic Specificity of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Patients with Drug Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridell, Mats; Hesse, Morten; Johnson, Eva

    2006-01-01

    personality disorder (ASPD) at intake was associated with incarceration, continuous drug use, dependence on welfare support, and fulfilling criteria of adult ASPD at follow-up. Regardless of ASPD status, a decline was seen in drug-related convictions, but subjects with ASPD were found to continue to commit...

  11. White matter abnormalities in young males with antisocial personality disorder Evidence from voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Ying Zhao; Jian Liao; Huifang Yin; Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis was used to investigate the structural characteristics of white matter in young males with antisocial personality disorder (APD) and healthy controls without APD. The results revealed that APD subjects, relative to healthy subjects, exhibited increased white matter volume in the bilateral prefrontal lobe, right insula, precentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right middle occipital lobe, right parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral cingulate, and decreased volume in the middle temporal cortex and right cerebellum. The white matter volume in the medial frontal gyrus was significantly correlated with antisocial type scores on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire in APD subjects. These experimental findings indicate that white matter abnormalities in several brain areas may contribute to antisocial behaviors in APD subjects.

  12. The relationship between five-factor model and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-fifth edition personality traits on patients with antisocial personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Amini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that new criteria of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD in diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5 were resulted from five-factor model (FFM, there is a small amount of studies that investigate the relations between proposed personality traits and FFM. Also, cross-cultural study in this field continuously would be needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relation between the FFM and DSM-5 ASPD pathological traits. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study design. The participants consisted of 122 individuals with ASPD that selected from prisoners (73.0%, outpatients (18.0%, and inpatients (9.0%. They were recruited from Tehran Prisoners, and Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Clinics of Razi and Taleghani Hospitals, Tehran, Iran, since 2013-2014. The Sample was selected based on judgmental sampling. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis II disorders-Personality Questionnaire, NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised, and DSM-5 personality trait rating form were used to diagnosis and assessment of personality disorder. Pearson correlation has been used for data analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 16 software. Results: The results indicate that neuroticism (N has positive significant relationship with hostility (r = 0.33, P < 0.01, manipulativeness (r = 0.25, P < 0.01, deceitfulness (r =.23, P < 0.01, impulsivity (r = 0.20, P < 0.05, and negative relation with risk taking (r = −0.23, P < 0.01. Also, there was significant relationship between extraversion (E with manipulativeness (r = 0.28, P < 0.01 and deceitfulness (r = 0.32, P < 0.01. Agreeableness and conscientiousness have negative significant relation with DSM-5 traits. In addition, results showed that there is positive significant relationship between FFM and DSM-5 personality traits with DSM-fourth edition-text revision (DSM-IV-TR ASPD symptoms (P < 0

  13. Syntax of Emotional Narratives of Persons Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show some specificity of syntax of narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality. The author attempted to verify and supplement information that persons with antisocial personality have an incapacity for emotional language. Scores of 60 prisoners with high antisocial tendencies, 40 prisoners with…

  14. Changes in low-frequency fluctuations in patients with antisocial personality disorder revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasheng Liu

    Full Text Available Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD is a personality disorder that is most commonly associated with the legal and criminal justice systems. The study of the brain in APD has important implications in legal contexts and in helping ensure social stability. However, the neural contribution to the high prevalence of APD is still unclear. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of APD. Thirty-two healthy individuals and thirty-five patients with APD were recruited. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF was analyzed for the whole brain of all subjects. Our results showed that APD patients had a significant reduction in the ALFF in the right orbitofrontal cortex, the left temporal pole, the right inferior temporal gyrus, and the left cerebellum posterior lobe compared to normal controls. We observed that the right orbitofrontal cortex had a negative correlation between ALFF values and MMPI psychopathic deviate scores. Alterations in ALFF in these specific brain regions suggest that APD patients may be associated with abnormal activities in the fronto-temporal network. We propose that our results may contribute in a clinical and forensic context to a better understanding of APD.

  15. Comparing the utility of DSM-5 Section II and III antisocial personality disorder diagnostic approaches for capturing psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Maples, Jessica L; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The current study compares the 2 diagnostic approaches (Section II vs. Section III) included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in terms of their relations with psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors (EBs). The Section III approach to ASPD, which is more explicitly trait-based than the Section II approach, also includes a psychopathy specifier (PS) that was created with the goal of making the diagnosis of ASPD more congruent with psychopathy. In a community sample of individuals currently receiving mental health treatment (N = 106), ratings of the 2 DSM-5 diagnostic approaches were compared in relation to measures of psychopathy, as well as indices of EBs. Both DSM-5 ASPD approaches were significantly related to the psychopathy scores, although the Section III approach accounted for almost twice the amount of variance when compared with the Section II approach. Relatively little of this predictive advantage, however, was due to the PS, as these traits manifested little evidence of incremental validity in relation to existing psychopathy measures and EBs, with the exception of a measure of fearless dominance. Overall, the DSM-5 Section III diagnostic approach for ASPD is more convergent with the construct of psychopathy, from which ASPD was originally derived. These improvements, however, are due primarily to the new trait-based focus in the Section III ASPD diagnosis rather than the assessment of personality dysfunction or the inclusion of additional "psychopathy-specific" traits.

  16. Association between violent behaviour and impaired prepulse inhibition of the startle response in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Veena; Das, Mrigen; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Zachariah, Elizabeth; Barkataki, Ian; Howlett, Michael; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2005-03-01

    Violent behaviour has a strong association with antisocial personality disorder (APD) and schizophrenia. Although developments in the understanding of socio-environmental factors associated with violence should not be ignored, advances in prevention and treatment of violent behaviour would benefit by improved understanding of its neurobiological and cognitive basis. The authors, therefore, investigated prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response in APD and schizophrenia in relation to a history of serious violence. The neural substrates of PPI, especially the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and basal ganglia, are implicated in violence as well as in APD and schizophrenia. The study included four groups: (i) patients with APD and a history of violence, (ii) patients with schizophrenia and a history of violence, (iii) patients with schizophrenia without a history of violence, and (iv) healthy subjects with no history of violence or a mental disorder. All subjects were assessed identically on acoustic PPI. Compared to healthy subjects, significantly reduced PPI occurred in APD, violent schizophrenia and non-violent schizophrenia patients. Although PPI did not significantly differentiate the three clinical groups, high ratings of violence were modestly associated with reduced PPI across the entire study sample. Violent patients with impulsive and premeditated violence showed comparable PPI. The association between violent behaviour and impaired PPI suggests that neural structures and functions underlying PPI are implicated in (inhibition of) violence.

  17. Estudos sobre transtornos de personalidade Antissocial e Borderline Estudios sobre trastornos de personalidad Anti-social y Borderline Studies of personality disorders Antisocial and Borderline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Hirata Soares

    2010-01-01

    de ese sujeto para relacionarse adecuadamente con otras personas; así, es de fundamental importancia que los miembros del equipo de salud analicen sus sentimientos, actitudes e reacciones en relación al comportamiento del cliente, una vez que la relación con esta clientela es considerada una de las más complejas en salud mental.OBJECTIVE: This study had the objective of reviewing, in the literature, the diagnostic criteria and the intervention in personality disorders, Antisocial and Borderline types. METHODS: A manual research was performed in the author's private collection of books, selecting 12 references; other research has been systematically developed in the period 1990-2008, in January 2009, in the Virtual Health Library, selecting 23 papers. RESULTS: Our findings indicated two approaches - one that classifies as an illness, but that needs to review the diagnostic criteria and evaluation, and the second, that classifies them as moral problems. CONCLUSION: Regardless the type of approach, is necessary that nurses enhance their knowledge and understand the difficulty of this subject to relate properly with others; thus, it is crucial that members of the healthcare team examine their feelings, attitudes and reactions related to the client's behavior, since the relationship with this type of customer is considered one of the most complex in the mental health field.

  18. Effects of comorbid psychopathy on criminal offending and emotion processing in male offenders with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Lorenz, Amanda R; Newman, Joseph P

    2006-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are two syndromes with substantial construct validity. To clarify relations between these syndromes, the authors evaluated 3 possibilities: (a) that ASPD with psychopathy and ASPD without psychopathy reflect a common underlying pathophysiology; (b) that ASPD with psychopathy and ASPD without psychopathy identify 2 distinct syndromes, similar in some respects; and (c) that most correlates of ASPD reflect its comorbidity with psychopathy. Participants were 472 incarcerated European American men who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for ASPD and Psychopathy Checklist criteria for psychopathy, who met the criteria for ASPD but not for psychopathy, or who did not meet diagnostic criteria for either ASPD or psychopathy (controls). Both individuals with ASPD only and those with ASPD and psychopathy were characterized by more criminal activity than were controls. In addition, ASPD with psychopathy was associated with more severe criminal behavior and weaker emotion facilitation than ASPD alone. Group differences in the association between emotion dysfunction and criminal behavior suggest tentatively that ASPD with and ASPD without prominent psychopathic features may be distinct syndromes.

  19. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marja E; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Vitale, Jennifer E; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-12-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity.

  20. Effects of emotional stimuli on working memory processes in male criminal offenders with borderline and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Kristin; Schulze, Lars; Rossmann, Sabine; Berger, Christoph; Vohs, Knut; Fleischer, Monika; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Keiper, Peter; Domes, Gregor; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2013-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of concurrently presented emotional stimuli on cognitive task processing in violent criminal offenders primarily characterized by affective instability. METHODS. Fifteen male criminal offenders with antisocial and borderline personality disorder (ASPD and BPD) and 17 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a working memory task with low and high working memory load. In a second experimental run, to investigate the interaction of emotion and cognition, we presented emotionally neutral, low, or high salient social scenes in the background of the task. RESULTS. During the memory task without pictures, both groups did not differ in general task performance and neural representation of working memory processes. During the memory task with emotional background pictures, however, ASPD-BPD subjects compared to healthy controls showed delayed responses and enhanced activation of the left amygdala in the presence of emotionally high salient pictures independent of working memory load. CONCLUSIONS. These results illustrate an interaction of emotion and cognition in affective instable individuals with enhanced reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli which might be an important factor regarding the understanding of aggressive and violent behaviour in these individuals. PMID:22381099

  1. Increased anxiety and other similarities in temperament of alcoholics with and without antisocial personality disorder across three diverse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Funt, Samuel; Virkkunen, Matti; Albaugh, Bernard; Goldman, David

    2007-02-01

    According to Cloninger's model, type I alcoholics are thought to be innately vulnerable to anxiety and depression. In contrast, type II alcoholics are thought to have increased likelihood of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and reduced anxiety. However, allostatic activations of stress, anxiety, and dysphoria may be a common thread in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Our aim was to find commonalities and differences in temperament of alcoholics with and without ASPD in three diverse populations. By sib-sib comparisons, we also evaluated the extent to which the temperament traits were moderated by familial factors including inheritance. We compared harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), and reward dependence (RD) in alcoholics with ASPD, alcoholics without ASPD, and controls. Correlations for each temperament dimension were evaluated in pairs of siblings concordant and discordant for AUD. Participants were derived from three independent populations: Finnish Caucasians (N=453, men=100%, including a sample of alcoholic criminals), a Plains American Indian community sample (N=378; men=42%), and a subset of the familial and predominantly Caucasian Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample (N=967, men=47%). In all the three populations, both alcoholics with and without ASPD were higher in HA than controls. The increase of HA among alcoholics as compared to controls ranged from 54% to 12%. In two populations (COGA and Finns), NS was highest in alcoholics with ASPD, intermediate in alcoholics without ASPD, and lowest in controls. HA levels were correlated in sib-pairs concordant (either affected or unaffected) for AUD but not in discordant pairs. In conclusions, despite cultural diversity and different modes of ascertainment we found a consistent pattern of elevated HA in all groups of alcoholics, including alcoholics with ASPD. Even in alcoholics with long-term exposure to the anxiogenic effects of repeated cycles of alcohol withdrawal

  2. Increased anxiety and other similarities in temperament of alcoholics with and without antisocial personality disorder across three diverse populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Funt, Samuel; Virkkunen, Matti; Albaugh, Bernard; Goldman, David

    2007-01-01

    According to Cloninger’s model, Type I alcoholics are thought to be innately vulnerable to anxiety and depression. In contrast, Type-II alcoholics are thought to have increased likelihood of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and reduced anxiety. However, allostatic activations of stress, anxiety and dysphoria may be a common thread in alcohol use disorders (AUD). Our aim was to find commonalities and differences in temperament of alcoholics with and without ASPD in three diverse populations. By sib-sib comparisons, we also evaluated the extent to which the temperament traits were moderated by familial factors including inheritance. We compared harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), and reward dependence (RD) in alcoholics with ASPD, alcoholics without ASPD and controls. Correlations for each temperament dimension were evaluated in pairs of siblings concordant and discordant for AUD. Participants were derived from three independent populations: Finnish Caucasians (N=453, men = 100%, including a sample of alcoholic criminals), a Plains American Indian community sample (N=378; men = 42%) and a subset of the familial and predominantly Caucasian COGA sample (N=967, men = 47%). In all three populations both alcoholics with and without ASPD were higher in HA than controls. The increase of HA among alcoholics as compared to controls ranged from 54% to 12%. In two populations (COGA and Finns), NS was highest in alcoholics with ASPD, intermediate in alcoholics without ASPD, and lowest in controls. HA levels were correlated in sib-pairs concordant (either affected or unaffected) for AUD but not in discordant pairs. In conclusions, despite cultural diversity and different modes of ascertainment we found a consistent pattern of elevated HA in all groups of alcoholics, including alcoholics with ASPD. Even in alcoholics with long-term exposure to the anxiogenic effects of repeated cycles of alcohol withdrawal, genetic and other familial influences seem to play a role

  3. The relationship between adult reactive and proactive aggression, hostile interpretation bias, and antisocial personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Cima, M.; Arntz, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive aggression (RA) refers to angry responses to provocation or frustration, while proactive aggression (PA) denotes nonemotional, instrumental, and unprovoked aggression. The current study examined personality-related and cognitive correlates of both aggressive types. Respectively, the predict

  4. 'Schizoid' personality and antisocial conduct: a retrospective case not study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, S; Cull, A

    1986-08-01

    A retrospective case not analysis for 30 boys diagnosed as having a 'schizoid' personality disorder (Asperger's syndrome) in childhood, and for 30 matched clinic attenders (with systematic follow-up data for 19 matched pairs), showed the incidence of antisocial conduct to be the same in the two groups. However, the 'schizoid' boys stole less often and had fewer alcohol problems. In this group antisocial conduct was less related to family disruption and social disadvantage, and more to an unusual fantasy life. Clinical descriptions of a series of 'schizoid' boys and girls with conspicuous antisocial conduct follow. They suggest that characteristic patterns of antisocial conduct in such children are persistent expressions of hostility and, especially in girls, pathological lying, for which environmental circumstances provide no explanation.

  5. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder. PMID:27392230

  6. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder.

  7. 反社会人格障碍的心理学评述——暨一名被勒令退学的学生%The Psychology Study of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 王恩国

    2011-01-01

    文章通过案例阐述了反社会人格障碍的三种诊断标准,比较了他们的异同,进而总结了反社会人格障碍的认知、情感、意志、行为等心理特征,并简单陈述了反社会人格障碍的成因以及治疗方法,最后尝试性地提出了以后反社会人格障碍的研究方向。%This paper described the three anti-social personality disorder diagnostic criteria by cases, comparing their similarities and differences, and then summed up the anti-social personality disorder, cognitive, emotional, will, behavior and other psychol- ogical characteristics, and a simple statement of the causes of antisocial personality disorder and treatment, and finally made disorder research after a trial of anti-social personality.

  8. Psychological nursing care of 2 cases with antisocial personality disorder%2例反社会型人格障碍病人的心理护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐枝楼; 黄桂香

    2006-01-01

    @@ 反社会型人格障碍(antisocial personality disorder,APD)是人格障碍中较常见的一种类型.反社会型人格障碍病人的特点:对人冷酷无情、漠不关心,行为具有攻击性,冲动、易激惹,行为不符合社会规范,侵犯他人的权益却毫无罪恶感、内疚感,不能维持长久的人际关系.因其对社会有着巨大的危害而受到关注.现将2004年在我院精神二科住院的2例反社会型人格障碍病人的临床特点及心理护理总结如下.

  9. Interaction between ALDH2*1*1 and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI A1A1 genes may be associated with antisocial personality disorder not co-morbid with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ru-Band; Lee, Jia-Fu; Huang, San-Yuan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Lin, Wei-Wen; Wu, Pei-Lin; Ko, Huei-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies on acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) focused on drinking behavior or alcoholism because the ALDH2*2 allele protects against the risk of developing alcoholism. The mechanism provides that the ALDH2 gene's protective effect is also involved in dopamine metabolism. The interaction of the ALDH2 gene with neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, is suggested to be related to alcoholism. Because alcoholism is often co-morbid with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), previous association studies on antisocial alcoholism cannot differentiate whether those genes relate to ASPD with alcoholism or ASPD only. This study examined the influence of the interaction effect of the ALDH2*1*1, *1*2 or *2*2 polymorphisms with the dopamine 2 receptor (DRD2) Taq I polymorphism on ASPD. Our 541 Han Chinese male participants were classified into three groups: antisocial alcoholism (ASPD co-morbid with alcohol dependence, antisocial ALC; n = 133), ASPD without alcoholism (ASPD not co-morbid with alcohol dependence, antisocial non-ALC; n = 164) and community controls (healthy volunteers from the community; n = 244). Compared with healthy controls, individuals with the DRD2 A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1/*1 genotypes were at a 5.39 times greater risk for antisocial non-ALC than were those with other genotypes. Our results suggest that the DRD2/ANKK1 and ALDH2 genes interacted in the antisocial non-ALC group; a connection neglected in previous studies caused by not separating antisocial ALC from ASPD. Our study made this distinction and showed that these two genes may be associated ASPD without co-morbid alcoholism.

  10. Borderline and antisocial personality scores as mediators between attachment and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Anne Marie; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Lopez, Frederick G

    2007-01-01

    Court-mandated male batterers (n = 192) attending an intervention program completed measures examining adult attachment orientations (anxious and avoidant), personality disorders (borderline and antisocial), type of violence (psychological and physical), and social desirability. Structural equation modeling was used to determine whether there were significant relationships between anxious attachment and physical and psychological violence that are mediated by either borderline or antisocial personality disorders. Social desirability was included in both models as a covariate. Results indicated that personality disorders fully mediated the relationship between avoidant attachment and physical as well as psychological violence. Personality disorders only partially mediated the relationship between anxious attachment and psychological violence. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  11. Personality traits and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, I J; Peter, A; Austin, E; Gibson, G

    1998-11-01

    The structure of personality disorder traits was examined in a sample of 400 undergraduates who completed the personality disorder questionnaire from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II). The relations between personality disorder and normal personality traits indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) were examined. The three-cluster model of personality traits--as described in the DSM scheme--found equivocal support. Exploratory principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis found four broad factors of personality disorder that overlapped with normal personality traits: an asthenic factor related to neuroticism; an antisocial factor associated with psychoticism; an asocial factor linked to introversion-extraversion; and an anankastic (obsessive-compulsive) factor. There is growing agreement about the number and type of broad personality disorder dimensions; similar dimensions may be found in clinical and non-clinical samples, suggesting that those people with personality disorders differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively from others; and there is substantial overlap between normal and abnormal personality dimensions.

  12. The mental health of preschoolers in a Norwegian population-based study when their parents have symptoms of borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders: at the mercy of unpredictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg-Nielsen Turid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical studies have shown that children of parents with mental health problems are most likely to develop psychiatric problems themselves when their parents have a Personality Disorder characterized by hostility. The Personality Disorders that appear most associated with hostility, with the potential to affect children, are Borderline Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. The question addressed in this study is whether the risk to children’s mental health extends to the normal population of parents who have subclinical symptomlevels of these disorders. Methods This inquiry used data from a Trondheim, Norway community sample of 922 preschoolers and one parent for each child. The mean age of the children was 53 months (SD 2.1. Parents reported symptoms of Borderline, Antisocial and Narcissistic Personality Disorders on the DSM-IV ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire, and the children’s symptoms of DSM-IV behavioral and emotional diagnoses were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, a comprehensive interview. Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the effect of parents’ symptoms on their preschoolers’ behavioral and emotional problems. Results The analyses yielded strongly significant values for the effect of parents’ Personality Disorder symptoms on child problems, explaining 13.2% of the variance of the children’s behavioral symptoms and 2.9% of the variance of internalizing symptoms. Biological parents’ cohabitation status, i.e., whether they were living together, emerged as a strong moderator on the associations between parental variables and child emotional symptoms; when parents were not cohabiting, the variance of the children’s emotional problems explained by the parents’ Personality Disorder symptoms increased from 2.9% to 19.1%. Conclusions For the first time, it is documented that parents’ self

  13. Relation of antisocial personality disorders to childhood traumatic experiences and shame in prisoners%服刑人员的反社会人格障碍及与羞耻感、童年期创伤经历的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶; 徐凯文; 王雨吟; 钱铭怡; 曹广健; 刘忠兆; 李世杰; 钟杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the proportion of antisocial personality disorders in prisoners,and to test the relationship among childhood traumatic experiences,shame and antisocial personality disorders,and to establish a structural model of them. Methods; Totally 2690 prisoners,including 2410 males and 280 females,were selected and assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4 + ), Shame Experience Scale (SES) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results; The proportion of antisocial personality disorders in prisoners was 45.8%. There was a positive correlation among the scores of antisocial personality disorders,CTQ and SES( r =0.08 -0.33 ,P <0.01). Structural equation model showed that shame had a part-mediating effect between childhood traumatic experiences and antisocial personality disorders (GFI =0.94,AGR =0.88.NFI =0.93.RMSEA = 0.1). Conclusion; There is a high proportion of antisocial personality disorders in prisoners. The development of antisocial personality disorders in persons may be related to their child abuse and neglect, and also related to the shame induced by child abuse and neglect.%目的:考察服刑人员反社会人格障碍的比例,并探讨反社会人格障碍与羞耻感、童年期创伤经历之间的关系,建立三者之间关系的结构方程模型.方法:采用方便取样,选取2800名服刑人员,获有效问卷2690份,其中男性2410人,女性280人.用人格障碍诊断问卷第四版(PDQ-4+)、童年期创伤性经历问卷(CTQ)和羞耻量表(SES)进行测查.结果:服刑人员中反社会人格障碍所占的比例为45.8%.反社会人格障碍、羞耻感各分量表和童年期创伤经历问卷各分量表得分之间呈正相关(r =0.08 -0.33;P<0.01).结构方程模型分析显示,羞耻感在反社会人格障碍和童年期创伤经历之间起部分中介作用(GFI =0.94,AGFI=0.88,NFI=0.93,RMSEA =0.1).结论:服刑人员中,反社会人格障碍者的比例较高.反社会人格障碍的形

  14. 多变量模式分析在反社会人格障碍中的应用%Application of Multivariate Pattern Analysis in Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟雄; 刘华生; 廖坚; 廖云杰; 唐艳; 王维

    2014-01-01

    Due to a very close link between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and criminal behavior, understanding the pathophysiology of ASPD is an international imperative. The objective of the present study is to develop a method of multivariate pattern analysis and investigate the altered functional connectivity patterns of ASPD by using rest-state functional magnetic resonance (MRI). Our results show that multivariate pattern analysis can provides accurate classification between ASPD and control subjects, and the ASPD is motivated from the uncoupling among the default mode network, the attention network, the visual recognition network, and the cerebellar network. Moreover, the method can succeed to extract altered information of ASPD and provide the first evidence for the altered brain’s functional connections in ASPD.%从静息态功能连接角度使用多变量模式,研究了反社会人格障碍(ASPD)脑网络的异常连接模式。结果表明了多变量模式分析方法成功地对ASPD患者和对照体进行了分类,并且ASPD患者最大的变化是静息态网络、注意网络、视觉认知网络和小脑这些网络之间的失连。该研究使用多模式分析方法成功地提取了反社会人格的异常信息,为反社会人格障碍这种高危人群的综合评估与识别提供了线索和方向。

  15. Neurofeedback, Affect Regulation and Attachment: A Case Study and Analysis of Anti-Social Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sebern F.

    2007-01-01

    This case study examines the effects of neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) training on affect regulation in a fifty-five year-old man with a history marked by fear, rage, alcoholism, chronic unemployment and multiple failed treatments. He had been diagnosed with ADHD and attachment disorder and met criteria for anti-social personality disorder. The…

  16. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  17. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Building a Healthy Self-Image and Improving Self-Esteem 8 Things You Should Know About Body Dysmorphic ... personality disorder. Personality disorders are usually recognizable by adolescence or earlier, continue throughout adulthood, and become less ...

  18. The role of fearless dominance in differentiating psychopathy from antisocial personality disorder: comment on Marcus, Fulton, and Edens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Venables, Noah C; Drislane, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Comments on the original article by Marcus et al. (see record 2011-23134-001). Based on their meta-analytic review of the correlates of the two factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Fearless Dominance (FD) and Self-Centered Impulsivity (SCI), Marcus, Fulton, and Edens (this issue, pp. 70-79) raise important questions about the role of FD in diagnostic conceptualizations of psychopathy. In considering their findings, general limitations of metaanalyses (e.g., Ioannidis & Lau, 1999) should be borne in mind, along with specific limitations of their analysis. These limitations are discussed here.

  19. Morphological changes of cerebral gray matter in patients with antisocial personality disorder%反社会人格障碍患者的脑灰质结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖坚; 罗贤明; 王维; 吴大兴; 柯铭; 吕云霄; 周建松

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究反社会人格障碍(APD)患者与正常人大脑灰质结构的异同.方法 对17例APD患者(APD组)和19名与APD组的年龄、性别、智商及文化程度匹配的正常对照者(正常对照组)进行脑部T1加权像及3维结构像扫描,并使用基于体素的形态学分析法进行数据分析.结果 APD组左额上回(BA8)、右楔前叶、左眶额回、双侧额中同、右额内侧同、右侧顶下小叶、左梭状回、双侧颞上回及双侧小脑的灰质密度低于正常对照组,而左额上回(BA38)及左海马旁回的密度高于正常对照组(P<0.005).结论 APD患者存在脑结构的异常,主要包括前额叶、眶额回、楔前叶、颞叶及双侧小脑.%Objective To investigate the morphological changes of cerebral gray matter in people with antisocial personality disorder in comparison to normal control.Methods Voxel based morphometry in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping was applied to the structural magnetic resonance images of 17 persons with antisocial personality disorder and 19 normal.controls.Results Compared with the controh,the cerebral gray matter concentrations were significantly decreased in the left superior frontal cortex,bilateral middle frontal cortex,left orbitofrontal codex,bilateral cerebellum,fight inferior parietal lobule and bilateral superior temporal cortex of people with antisocial personality.Conclusion The results suggest the gray matter of the prefrontal cortex,orbitofrontal cortex,precuneus and cerebellum is lost in some degree in people with antisocial personality disorder patients.

  20. Considering new insights into antisociality and psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazil, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sarah Gregory and colleagues1 report a functional MRI study of violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder. 12 men with antisocial personality disorder with psychopathy, 20 men with antisocial personality disorder but not psychopathy, and 18 healthy non-offenders were assessed with an eve

  1. Borderline personality organization in violent offenders: correlations of identity diffusion and primitive defense mechanisms with antisocial features, neuroticism, and interpersonal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Kunst, Heike; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Although theoretical assumptions and empirical evidence suggest an association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial behavior or even antisocial personality disorder (APD), there is no study relating the psychodynamic aspects of BPD to antisocial behavior. In this study, the authors tested the correlation between the structural criteria of borderline personality organization (BPO)--that is, identity diffusion, primitive defense mechanisms, and reality testing--and antisocial features, neuroticism, and interpersonal problems. A sample of imprisoned violent offenders (N = 91) was studied using the Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Neo-Five-Factor-Inventory (Neo-FFI), and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). Significant correlations were predicted and found between the BPI scales of identity diffusion, primitive defense mechanisms, impaired reality testing, and fear of closeness and antisocial features, neuroticism, agreeableness, and interpersonal problems. The results are consistent with both object relations theory and attachment theory.

  2. The Rorschach and the DSM-III-R antisocial personality: a tribute to Robert Lindner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R

    1992-05-01

    This study utilized the Rorschach as a psychometric measure for understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1987). Comprehensive System (Exner, 1986) Rorschach data for a sample of 60 ADP subjects and Rorschach object relations and defensive operations for 22 psychopathic APD (P-APD) and 21 nonpsychopathic APD (NP-APD) subjects are presented and discussed. The data support the absence of anxiety and attachment and the presence of pathological narcissism and borderline personality organization in P-APDs. The Rorschach's ability to differentiate antisocial groups based on level of psychopathy (Hare, 1980, 1985) strongly supports the need to use psychopathy as an independent measure when one is studying APD.

  3. Personality types, aggression and antisocial behavior in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Consuelo Morán; José A. Carmona; José Fínez

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Junior Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-J), the types of personality and its relationship with aggressiveness and the antisocial behavior is analyzed in a student’s sample (N = 1416) with ages between 11 y 15 years old (average age = 13,32; SD= 1,22). Cluster analysis using the reduced version (Bryant y Smith (2001) of the Aggression Questionnaire(AQ)(Buss y Perry, 1992) revealed three personality types that were related to Eysenck’s hypothesis of antisocial behavior and ...

  4. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Skodol; D.S. Bender; L.C. Morey; L.A. Clark; J.M. Oldham; R.D. Alarcon; R.F. Krueger; R. Verheul; C.C. Bell; L.J. Siever

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in personali

  5. The Relationship among Childhood Abuse, Parenting Styles, and Antisocial Personality Disorder Tendency%父母教养方式、儿童期虐待、依恋与反社会人格障碍倾向的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈哲; 付丽; 彭咏梅; 蔡蓉; 周世杰

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨青少年反社会人格倾向与父母教养方式、儿童期虐待、依恋之间的关系.方法:使用人格诊断问卷(PDQ+4)、父母教养方式问卷(PBI)、童年期创伤经历问卷(CTQ)、成人依恋问卷(AAQ)对350名青少年学生施测.结果:①与阴性组相比,反社会人格障碍阳性组在母亲关爱、父亲鼓励自主因子上得分较低,在父亲控制、母亲控制因子上得分较高;阳性组在CTQ和AAQ各因子上(除外母亲拒绝)得分均显著高于阴性组.②儿童期虐待各因子分与反社会人格症状呈显著正相关;依恋各因子与反社会人格症状显著正相关(0.108-0.373).③躯体虐待、对父亲愤怒、母亲角色倒置、情感虐待、母亲拒绝、母爱缺失、母亲控制对反社会人格障碍倾向有预测作用.结论:童年期不良的父母教养方式、儿童期虐待以及不安全依恋与青少年期的反社会人格障碍的形成有密切关联.%Objective: To explore the relationship among childhood abuse, parenting styles, and antisocial personality disorder. Methods: Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ+4) was administered to a sample of 350 adolescents to screen personality disorder subjects. Parental Bonding Instrument(PBI), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire(CTQ) and Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ) were also administered to the same sample. Results: ①Compared with normal adolescents, those with ASPD had experienced less care form their parents, and did not encourage their behavioral freedom, most time controlled during their childhood. ②Childhood abuse and neglect showed a positive correlation with adolescent' ASPD scores. The AAQ factor scores were correlated with antisocial personality disorder symptoms significantly. ③Physical abuse, angry to father, motherhood inverse, emotion abuse, mother refuse, lack of mother's love, and mother's control were predictors of antisocial personality disorder. Conclusion: Childhood abuse, parenting

  6. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike;

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  7. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.C. van den Bosch; R. Verheul

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is s

  8. Personality types, aggression and antisocial behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Morán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Junior Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-J, the types of personality and its relationship with aggressiveness and the antisocial behavior is analyzed in a student’s sample (N = 1416 with ages between 11 y 15 years old (average age = 13,32; SD= 1,22. Cluster analysis using the reduced version (Bryant y Smith (2001 of the Aggression Questionnaire(AQ(Buss y Perry, 1992 revealed three personality types that were related to Eysenck’s hypothesis of antisocial behavior and the level of aggressiveness. The under controlled profile confirmed the Eysenck’s hypothesis of antisocial behavior in early adolescence, and was also found to be the most aggressive prototype. The under controlled and over controlled types were implicated in bullying, but in different ways. Furthermore, the resilient people were found to have an adaptive profile combined with the best academic achievement. Gender differences were also found in personality dimensions and aggression. The importance of aggression among young adolescents and the necessity of further research on this topic are emphasized.

  9. The Hen or the Egg? Which Comes First--Antisocial Emotional Disorders or Reading Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Paquita

    1979-01-01

    The sequential relationship of antisocial emotional disorders and reading difficulties was examined in a longitudinal study of 198 boys in their first two years in school. Antisocial deviance was shown to precede reading difficulties, calling into question the suggestion that reading backwardness leads to antisocial emotional disorders. (Author/KC)

  10. [Cognition-Emotion Interactions and Psychopathic Personality: Distinct Pathways to Antisocial and Violent Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have long acknowledged heterogeneity among persons who exhibit antisocial and violent behaviours. The study of psychopathic personality or psychopathy can help elucidate this heterogeneity through examination of the different facets that constitute this disorder. In particular, the distinct correlates of the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy suggest at least two possible pathways to antisocial behaviours. Building on basic studies in cognitive and affective neuroscience, we provide a focused, non-comprehensive review of work identifying the biopsychological mechanisms involved in these two pathways, with special attention to studies using event-related potential (ERP) methods. In specific, a series of studies are discussed which examined affective and cognitive processes that may distinguish offenders high on psychopathic traits from other offenders, with emphasis on alterations in emotion-cognition interactions related to each factor of psychopathy. The set of findings reviewed highlight a central conclusion: Factor 1 represents a pathway involving reduced emotional responding, exacerbated by attentional abnormalities, that make for a more deliberate and emotionally insensitive offender profile. In contrast, Factor 2 characterizes a pathway marked by emotional and behavioural dysregulation and cognitive control dysfunctions, particularly in emotional contexts. Implications for identifying etiological processes and the further understanding of antisocial and violent behaviours are discussed. PMID:27570952

  11. Prospectively longitudinal study of the relationship between infancy abuse and antisocial personality disorder%婴儿期虐待与反社会人格障碍关系的美国长程纵向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石振宇; 李志英; 赵旭东; LYONS-RUTH Karlen; BUREAU Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨婴儿期虐待与反社会人格障碍的关系.方法 采用长程纵向研究方法,从婴儿期入组76例样本,到成年早期有效样本56例.婴儿期虐待信息通过官方儿童保护机构的客观记录获得,家访1h再确认.成年早期用DSM-Ⅳ半定式临床诊断访谈工具评估反社会人格障碍、物质滥用、和抑郁障碍.多重填补和分层回归分析纵向数据.结果 33.9%的样本有1条以上反社会人格障碍症状,38.0%符合物质滥用诊断,32.4%有抑郁障碍.分析显示,男性反社会人格障碍发生率高于女性(F相似值=1.40,P=0.001).婴儿期虐待对反社会人格障碍的预测有统计学意义(β=0.28,P=0.03).剔除物质滥用和抑郁障碍的作用后,婴儿期虐待与反社会人格障碍的关联仍有统计学意义(β=0.19,P=0.04).结论 婴儿期虐待对人格产生长期影响,增加日后反社会人格障碍的发生,值得探索其中的生物学机制;对我国建立从婴儿期开始的虐待监控干预体系也有借鉴意义.%Objective To investigate the relationship of antisocial personality disorder(ASPD) and infancy abuse.Methods With prospectively longitudinal research design,76 samples at infancy were initially recruited.Infancy abuse was measured by Child Protective Service records and reconfirmed by one hour family interview.56 remained samples at young adulthood were measured for antisocial personality disorder,depression,and substance abuse by utilizing Structured Clinical Interview-Ⅰ/Ⅱ (SCID-Ⅰ/Ⅱ) of DSM-Ⅳ.Longitudinal data was analyzed by multiple imputation and hierarchal regression.Results 33.9% samples met at least one item of ASPD,38.0% were diagnosed with substance abuse and 32.4% with depression.Gender was correlated with ASPD symptoms (F=1.40,P =0.001 ).Infancy abuse significantly predicted ASPD (β =0.28,P=0.03 ).Further analysis demonstrated that infancy abuse was associated with ASPD with controlling substance abuse and

  12. Paranoid personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - paranoid ... Causes of paranoid personality disorder are unknown. The disorder appears to be more common in families with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional ...

  13. Clarifying the role of defensive reactivity deficits in psychopathy and antisocial personality using startle reflex methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Uma; Hall, Jason R; Patrick, Christopher J; Bernat, Edward M

    2011-02-01

    Prior research has demonstrated deficits in defensive reactivity (indexed by potentiation of the startle blink reflex) in psychopathic individuals. However, the basis of this association remains unclear, as diagnostic criteria for psychopathy encompass two distinct phenotypic components that may reflect differing neurobiological mechanisms-an affective-interpersonal component and an antisocial deviance component. Likewise, the role of defensive response deficits in antisocial personality disorder (APD), a related but distinct syndrome, remains to be clarified. In the current study, the authors examined affective priming deficits in relation to factors of psychopathy and symptoms of APD using startle reflex methods in 108 adult male prisoners. Deficits in blink reflex potentiation during aversive picture viewing were found in relation to the affective-interpersonal (Factor 1) component of psychopathy, and to a lesser extent in relation to the antisocial deviance (Factor 2) component of psychopathy and symptoms of APD-but only as a function of their overlap with affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy. These findings provide clear evidence that deficits in defensive reactivity are linked specifically to the affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy and not to the antisocial deviance features represented most strongly in APD.

  14. The deficit of decision-making in male subjects with antisocial personality disorder%男性反社会人格障碍患者的决策功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜安; 马慧娟; 尹良爽; 章旭东; 汪凯

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨男性反社会人格障碍(Antisocial personality disorder,ASPD)患者决策倾向.方法 将76例反社会人格障碍患者(ASPD)组与其人口学资料相匹配的无人格障碍健康对照(Healthy control,HC)组作为研究对象,通过爱荷华博弈任务(Iowa Gambling Task,IGT)进行决策功能的测试,采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)、简明精神状态量表(MMSE)、明尼苏达多项人格测验精神病态分量表(MMPI-Pd)和Barratt冲动量表(BIS-11)对两组被试进行背景测试.结果 ASPD组在IGT中净有利选牌数明显低于HC组[分别为(-4.13±18.27)次,(6.03±19.43)次],差异有统计学意义[t(134)=-3.132,P=0.002].对ASPD组与HC组采用2(组)×5(阶段)方差分析,比较两组不同阶段的净有利选择,发现两组间的主效应显著[F1.134)=9.811,P=0.002];不同阶段的主效应同样显著[F(4,536)=15.456,P<0.01].随着爱荷华博弈任务选择次数的增多,ASPD组和HC组净有利选择次数均逐渐增加,但在第三、第四、第五阶段,HC组相较ASPD组净有利选择数目显著增多[第三阶段F(1.134)=5.947,P=0.016;第四阶段F(1.134)=5.023,P=0.027;第五阶段F(1,134)=8.553,P=0.004].ASPD组净有利选择数与MMPI-Pd分数呈负相关(r=-0.232,P=0.006),而与年龄、教育程度、SAS、SDS、BIS-11评分均无相关.结论 男性反社会人格障碍患者存在决策功能障碍,其决策缺陷可能与眶额叶、背外侧前额叶以及前扣带回的结构和功能异常有关.%Objective To investigate the capabilities of decision-making in male subjects with Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD).Methods A total of 76 male ASPD subjects were compared with matched 60 healthy controls on the Iowa Gambling Task.At the same time,All of them were evaluated with Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS),Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS),Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE),the MMPI Personality Disorder Scales (MMPI-Pd) and The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11

  15. Personality disorders: review and clinical application in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Kurt B; Rasmussen, Norman H

    2011-12-01

    Personality disorders have been documented in approximately 9 percent of the general U.S. population. Psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and brief interventions designed for use by family physicians can improve the health of patients with these disorders. Personality disorders are classified into clusters A, B, and C. Cluster A includes schizoid, schizotypal, and paranoid personality disorders. Cluster B includes borderline, histrionic, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders. Cluster C disorders are more prevalent and include avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Many patients with personality disorders can be treated by family physicians. Patients with borderline personality disorder may benefit from the use of omega-3 fatty acids, second-generation antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers. Patients with antisocial personality disorder may benefit from the use of mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Other therapeutic interventions include motivational interviewing and solution-based problem solving.

  16. The relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and temperament in adolescent borderline and antisocial personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovev, Martina; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian Guy; Allen, Nicholas B; Chanen, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Investigating etiological processes early in the life span represents an important step toward a better understanding of the development of personality pathology. The current study evaluated the interaction between an individual difference risk factor (i.e., temperament) and a biological risk factor for aggressive behavior (i.e., atypical [larger] rightward hippocampal asymmetry) in predicting the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder symptoms during early adolescence. The sample consisted of 153 healthy adolescents (M = 12.6 years, SD = 0.4, range = 11.4-13.7) who were selected from a larger sample to maximize variation in temperament. Interactions between four temperament factors (effortful control, negative affectivity, surgency, and affiliativeness), based on the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, and volumetric measures of hippocampal asymmetry were examined as cross-sectional predictors of BPD and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. Boys were more likely to have elevated BPD symptoms if they were high on affiliation and had larger rightward hippocampal asymmetry. In boys, low affiliation was a significant predictor of BPD symptoms in the presence of low rightward hippocampal asymmetry. For girls, low effortful control was associated with elevated BPD symptoms in the presence of atypical rightward hippocampal asymmetry. This study builds on previous work reporting significant associations between atypical hippocampal asymmetry and poor behavioral regulation.

  17. Brain structure analysis for patients with antisocial personality disorder by MRI%反社会人格障碍患者的脑结构磁共振分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟雄; 廖坚; 刘华生; 黄任之; 李勇帆; 王维

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究无酗酒、吸毒和其他并发症的反社会人格障碍(antisocial personality disorder,ASPD)患者的脑结构异常征象.方法:选择36名ASPD患者和26名健康对照者行T1结构磁共振成像和扩散张量成像(diffusion tensor imaging,DTI),计算得到每个对象基于体素的形态学图和各向异性分数(fractional anisotropy,FA)图.结果:与健康对照者相比,ASPD患者顶下小叶有明显的灰质体积增大(P≤0.001),楔前叶白质体积增多(P≤0.001),左扣带回、双侧的楔前叶、右额上回和右颞中回FA值增大(P≤0.01).结论:ASPD存在脑结构上的异常,ASPD外在的行为特征可能与这些脑区的异常有关.

  18. A Longitudinal Twin Study of the Direction of Effects between Psychopathic Personality and Antisocial Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Mats; Lichtenstein, Paul; Andershed, Henrik; Larsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antisocial behaviour may partly develop as a consequence of psychopathic personality. However, neither the direction of effects nor the aetiology of the association has previously been clarified. The aim in this study was to investigate the direction of effects between psychopathic personality and antisocial behaviour, and to…

  19. Validating female psychopathy subtypes: differences in personality, antisocial and violent behavior, substance abuse, trauma, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behavior, greater substance use and abuse, more violent behavior and institutional misconduct, and more mental health problems, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide attempts. Primary psychopaths (n = 31) exhibited few distinguishing personality features but were prolific criminals especially in regards to nonviolent crime, and exhibited relatively few mental health problems despite substantial exposure to traumatic events. The results support alternative etiological pathways to antisocial and criminal behavior that are evident in personality structure as well as gender similarities and differences in the manifestation of psychopathic personalities.

  20. Borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment ...

  1. Evolução do DSM quanto ao critério categorial de diagnóstico para o distúrbio da personalidade antissocial DSM evolution as categorical diagnostic criterion for the antisocial personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Silva Alvarenga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar um breve percurso sobre o desenvolvimento conceitual de um dos construtos psicológicos de maior evidência nos dias atuais, a saber: o transtorno de personalidade antissocial (TPAS. Especificamente, esse percurso se realiza no sistema categórico proposto pela Associação Americana de Psiquiatria (APA, o Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Distúrbios Mentais (DSM. MÉTODO: Utilizou-se a revisão literária sobre a evolução e a avaliação do construto associada a pesquisas empíricas consultadas nos principais livros e periódicos de reconhecimento internacional na área, tais como: Personality and Individual Differences, Psychological Medicine, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Psychological Bulletin, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Journal of Personality Assessment, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, Aggression and Violent Behavior, Handbook of Psychopathy, entre outros. RESULTADO: Observa-se que o diagnóstico do TPAS é baseado nos critérios categóricos e não dimensionais. Isso significa que o sistema não consegue predizer a priori a variabilidade (intensidade dos traços desse transtorno por ser o DSM desenvolvido no reconhecimento de sintomas e síndromes. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de o TPAS ter passado por diversas revisões e de apresentar insuficiência taxonômica, ele ainda é amplamente utilizado no diagnóstico e no prognóstico clínico de condições relacionadas ao comportamento social desviante.OBJECTIVE: This present work does a brief developmental route about one of the most evidence contemporary construct: the antisocial personality disorder (APD. Specifically, this guide is realized in accordance to categorical system raised by American Psychiatry Association (APA, the Diagnosis Statistical of Mental Disorders (DSM. METHOD: This article uses a literature revision about the evolution and assessment of the construct associate to empirical studies counseled in main

  2. Narcissistic personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - borderline; Narcissism ... A person with narcissistic personality disorder may: React to criticism with rage, shame, or humiliation Take advantage of other people to achieve his or her own ...

  3. Prevalence of personality disorders among female prisoners of Zahedan prison

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Mazaheri; Nasrin Khalighi; Mahvash Raghibi; Hassan Sarabandi

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders among female prisoners of Zahedan prison. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive survey and the statistical sample constituted of 80 female prisoners in Zahedan prison. All participants were assessed by Millon’s multi-axis clinical questionnaire. Results: Our results indicated that prevalence of personality disorders in the study sample in question was 95%. Anti-social personality disorder ...

  4. Functional MRI analysis of deception among people with antisocial personality disorders%反社会人格障碍患者说谎的功能磁共振分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟雄; 廖坚; 刘华生; 唐艳; 王维

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of deception in antisocial personality disorders (ASPD).Methods: A total of 32 criminals meeting the criteria for ASPD underwent fMRI at 1.5T while responding truthfully questions or lying. We compared the brain activities between truth-telling and lie-telling, and then computed the correlation coefficient between the contrast brain activities and the inclination to deception.Results: The left anterior cingulate gyrus, the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left inferior parietal lobule were associated with the executive aspects of deception among people with ASPD. But with the greater inclination to deception, the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activities in those regions decreased Conclusion: Evaluations of truthful and untruthful communications pertaining to ASPD subjects may be differentiated in terms of brain BOLD activities, though those activities may decrease in habitual liars, which remains a challenge to the diagnostic accuracy in lie detection.%目的:研究反社会人格的罪犯说谎时的功能磁共振情况.方法:对32个满足反社会人格标准的男性罪犯进行功能磁共振,分析他们在说真话和说假话时的脑区激活差异以及习惯性说谎程度与激活脑区强弱之间的关系.结果:反社会人格障碍患者左扣带回前部,双侧的背外侧前额叶,左顶下小叶与其欺骗行为的执行相关.并且随着善于说谎程度的加强,这些区域的激活强度呈下降趋势.结论:利用大脑的血氧水平依赖激活可对反社会人格障碍患者说谎和说真话行为进行识别,但是血氧水平依赖激活差异会随着善于说谎程度的增加而降低,这对测谎精确度提出了挑战.

  5. Personality disorder diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Widiger, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Every person has a characteristic manner of thinking, feeling, and relating to others. Some of these personality traits can be so dysfunctional as to warrant a diagnosis of personality disorder. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD- 10) includes ten personality disorder diagnoses. Three issues of particular importance for the diagnosis of personality disorders are their differentiation from other mental disorders, from general persona...

  6. Decision-making under risk in patients with antisocial personality disorder%男性反社会人格障碍患者风险决策功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜安; 陈新贵; 尹良爽; 张龙; 章旭东; 汪凯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate decision making under risk in patients with antisocial personality disorder(ASPD).Methods The game of dice task (GDT) was a commonly used measure of decision making under risk.31 ASPD patients and 33 healthy controls (HC) were investigated by GDT with explicit probability.Results ASPD patients performed poorly in the entire task.ASPD selected more risky options (ASPD:10.06 ±5.26,HC:5.42 ± 3.29,t =4.201,P < 0.01) compared with healthy controls.The most frequent choice made by ASPD patients was two numbers.Accordingly,the most frequent choice made by HC group was three numbers(one number:the median of ASPD patients was 1 (1-8),the median of HC was 1 (0-2.5),Z =-2.295,P =0.022) ;three numbers:ASPD:4.77 ±4.23;HC:6.79 ±3.43; t=-2.100,P=0.04;four numbers:ASPD:3.06 ±3.53;HC:5.82 ± 3.41 ; t =3.176,P=0.002).The frequency of choosing the risky options had correlation with the rate of using negative feedback(r =-0.613,P < 0.01),impulsiveness (r =0.481,P =0.006) and the results of Stroop test (r =0.566,P < 0.01).Conclusion Main results reveal that patients with ASPD make risky decisions significantly more often than the HC.Moreover,they show lack of capacity to advantageously utilize feedback,and correlation with executive function,impulsiveness,and negative feedback.%目的 评估男性反社会人格障碍(antisocial personality disorder,ASPD)患者的风险决策功能,模拟真实情景探讨其在风险条件明确情形下的决策行为和学习反馈过程.方法 采用风险概率明确的骰子博弈测试(game of dice task,GDT)对31例ASPD患者(ASPD)组、33例健康对照(healthy controls,HC)组进行风险决策功能测试.结果 ASPD组较HC组更倾向于选择风险选项[ASPD组(10.06±5.26)分,HC组(5.42土3.29)分,t=4.201,P<0.01].ASPD组负反馈利用率明显低于HC组,差异有统计学意义[ASPD组(0.28±0.26)分,HC组(0.68±0.32)分,t=-5.311,P<0.01].4个选项中ASPD组选择最多的是2个数字的

  7. Schizoid personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Personality disorder - schizoid References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  8. Avoidant personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Personality disorder - avoidant References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  9. Histrionic personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of histrionic personality disorder. References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  10. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Clinical Trials News Multimedia About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy Taking ...

  11. Long-term outcome in personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M H

    1993-03-01

    Personality disorders meeting DSM or ICD criteria represent the severe end of the broad spectrum of personality configurations involving maladaptive traits. The literature regarding long-term outcome of personality disorders is sparse. Most attention is devoted to formerly institutionalised patients with borderline, antisocial, or schizotypal disorders. Borderline patients at 10-25-year follow-up have a wide range of outcomes, from clinical recovery (50-60%) to suicide (3-9%). Certain factors (e.g. artistic talent) conduce to higher recovery rates, others (e.g. parental cruelty) to lower rates. Schizoid and schizotypal patients tend to remain isolated, and to lead marginal lives. The long-term outcome in antisocial persons is bleak if psychopathic traits are prominent. Personality traits and their corresponding disorders are egosyntonic, harden into habit, and are both slow to change and hard to modify. There is no one treatment of choice. Psychoanalysis and related methods work best within the anxious/inhibited group; cognitive/behavioural techniques are well suited to the disorders requiring limit setting and the amelioration of maladaptive habits. PMID:8453424

  12. The relationship between attachment, personality and antisocial tendencies in a prison sample: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anita Lill; Waage, Leif; Eid, Jarle; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Hart, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the role of adult attachment and personality in relation to antisocial tendencies (i.e. convictions for violence and interpersonal problems in romantic relationships) in Norwegian prison inmates (N=92). Attachment styles and personality were measured using self-report questionnaires (RSQ; Griffin & Bartholomew, 1994; and NEO-FFI, Costa & McCrae, 1992a). The prison inmates scored higher on avoidant than on anxious attachment style. While age and agreeableness (negatively associated) emerged as significant predictors of violence, anxious attachment explained most of the variances in aggression in intimate relationships. The study suggests that different types of antisocial tendencies could have different attachment and general personality correlates.

  13. Chronic anger as a precursor to adult antisocial personality features: The moderating influence of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Samuel W; Perlman, Susan B; Byrd, Amy L; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2016-01-01

    Anger is among the earliest occurring symptoms of mental health, yet we know little about its developmental course. Further, no studies have examined whether youth with persistent anger are at an increased risk of exhibiting antisocial personality features in adulthood, or how cognitive control abilities may protect these individuals from developing such maladaptive outcomes. Trajectories of anger were delineated among 503 boys using annual assessments from childhood to middle adolescence (ages ∼7-14). Associations between these trajectories and features of antisocial personality in young adulthood (age ∼28) were examined, including whether cognitive control moderates this association. Five trajectories of anger were identified (i.e., childhood-onset, childhood-limited, adolescent-onset, moderate, and low). Boys in the childhood-onset group exhibited the highest adulthood antisocial personality features (e.g., psychopathy, aggression, criminal charges). However, boys in this group were buffered from these problems if they had higher levels of cognitive control during adolescence. Findings were consistent across measures from multiple informants, replicated across distinct time periods, and remained when controlling for general intelligence and prior antisocial behavior. This is the first study to document the considerable heterogeneity in the developmental course of anger from childhood to adolescence. As hypothesized, good cognitive control abilities protected youth with persistent anger problems from developing antisocial personality features in adulthood. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:26618654

  14. Antisocial Behaviour in Children and Eysenck's Theory of Personality: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, David B.; Kemp, Dawn E.

    2002-01-01

    Antisocial behavior in children was examined in relation to the personality theory of Hans Eysenck. The theory argues the interaction of Psychoticism, Extroversion, and Neuroticism with socialization experiences produce personality. Eysenck's instruments also contain a Lie scale. A literature review (n=11) supports the role of Psychoticism and Lie…

  15. FAMILY HISTORY STUDY OF THE FAMILIAL COAGGREGATION OF BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER WITH AXIS I AND NON-BORDERLINE DRAMATIC CLUSTER AXIS II DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Barison, Leah K.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Reich, D. Bradford; Hudson, James I

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with a full array of axis I disorders and four axis II disorders (antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and sadistic personality disorder) in the first-degree relatives of borderline probands and axis II comparison subjects. Four hundred and forty-five inpatients were interviewed about familial psychopathology using the Revi...

  16. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg Nina; Holi Matti; Tikkanen Roope; Virkkunen Matti

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84 of...

  17. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Johnson

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model.Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21 with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23 with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20 with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples.The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired.Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  18. Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Novelty Seeking and Antisocial Personality: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Hyeon; Park, Hyun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders. PMID:27574485

  19. [Personality disorders in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, J F

    1990-04-01

    Psychiatric patients with personality disorders are among the most difficult because of the counter-transferential strain they put on clinicians and the paucity of specific treatment. The author develops the point that personality disorders are not diseases as implied in Axis I disorders, but social illness syndromes which depict systemic problems in which clinicians can be engulfed and entrapped. The difficult patient does not exist in isolation, a victim of his own drives and psyche, but rather is a specific socio-cultural actor living and emerging from a particular environmental context. Personality disorders are considered to be interpersonal patterns in which a person's debilitating behaviour elicits complementary behaviour that reinforces the original behaviour. Within a systems perspective, there is not a disordered personality so much as a disordering system of relationships. As with families and society, healers too become involved in the vicious cycle of personality disorders if they fail to see the manipulative interpersonal devices used by these patients. If clinicians accept too naively the lay person's simplistic belief that personality disorders are diseases to be treated by psychiatrists, they run the risk of fostering inappropriate passivity in patients in the face of life demands. Overindulgence and angry rejection are the two major pitfalls often seen in clinical practice. The approach proposed here may seem conterintuitive in laying stress on the need to actively resist the temptation to take over responsibility for a patient's life. There is a difference between a behaviour that a patient's illness (Axis I disorder) prevents him from controlling and an impulsive deliberate behaviour stemming from character pathology. It is a logical error to deal with personality disorders in the same manner and with the same conceptual terminology as for depressive and psychotic disorders. Principles of management are detailed and can be summarized as a kind

  20. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  1. Comorbidity of substance dependency in patients with cluster B personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Tatari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality disorders are considered as a risk factor for the development and intensification of substance dependency. This study was aimed to determine the comorbidity of substance dependency in patients with cluster B personality disorders. Method: This cross-sectional study was performed on 96 patients (71 males and 25 females referring to Farabi Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran .The data were gathered using a questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by SPSS software. Results: Data analysis revealed that borderline personality disorder with one year substance abuse, combination of histrionic, borderline, narcissistic and anti-social disorders with two years of substance abuse, borderline personality disorder or a combination of borderline, histrionic, narcissistic and anti-social disorders with three years of substance abuse and combination of narcissistic, borderline, histrionic and anti-social disorders in patients with more than three years of substance dependency had the highest prevalence. Narcissistic personality disorder in patients with no attempts to quit and combination of histrionic, borderline, narcissistic and anti-social disorders in patients with two or three attempts to quit had the highest prevalence. Conclusion: The results showed a relationship between substance dependency and cluster B personality disorders. Considering the prevalence of personality disorders among drug abusers, psychological and psychiatric interventions along with medication are necessary in substance abuse treatment centers.

  2. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees.

  3. Association study of serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A genes polymorphisms with antisocial personality disorder in Han Chinese male%5-羟色胺转运体基因和单胺氧化酶A基因多态性与汉族男性反社会人格障碍患者的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茆正洪; 谭钊安; 柯晓燕; 郑大同; 曾彦英; 张建平; 李树明

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨5-羟色胺转运体基因(5-HTT)第2内含子的一个可变数串联重复序列(Stin2.VNTR)和单胺氧化酶A(MAOA)基因14外显子上的一种限制性片段长度多态性(EcoRV-RFLP)与汉族男性反社会人格障碍(APD),尤其是具有高度冲动性APD的遗传易感性的关系.方法 (1)APD组:对南京地区某监狱男性服刑人员进行人格诊断问卷(PDQ-4+)调查,在PDQ得分为阳性的可疑人群中由临床医师以美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)关于APD诊断标准进一步确诊,入组118例;全部进行Barratt冲动量表(BIS-11)评分,以冲动总分中位值为界,划分为高冲动APD组和低冲动APD组.(2)监狱对照组:经PDQ排除人格障碍的250名服刑人员作为监狱内对照.(3)正常对照组:同时期医院健康体检者300名设为正常对照.取所有人员血液标本提取DNA,应用聚合酶链反应(PCR)和限制性片段长度多态性方法,对等位基因频率和基因型频率进行对比分析.结果 (1)APD组与正常对照组比较,5-HTT-VNTR基因型多态、MAOA-EcoRV-RFLP多态差异无统计学意义(x2=2.819,P=0.244;x2=2.347,P=0.126).(2)高冲动APD组与正常对照组比较,5-HTT-VNTR基因型多态差异有统计学意义(x2=7.422,P=0.024),MAOA-EcoRV-RFLP的等位基因频率有统计学意义(x2=5.478,P=0.019).(3)2个位点的联合分析中,APD组和高冲动APD组分别与对照组比较,12/12/-多倍体型的差异均有统计学意义(x2=7.164,P=0.007;x2=9.590,P=0.002);12/10/+仅在高冲动APD组与正常对照组间差异有统计学意义(x2=5.378,P=0.020).结论 5-HTT基因第2内含子VNTR多态、MAOA基因EcoRV-RFLP多态与具有高冲动的APD关联,12/12/-多倍体型与中国汉族男性APD发病风险可能有关.%Objective To investigate whether the 5-HTT-VNTR, the EcoRV polymorphism of MAOA gene was associated with antisocial personality disorder (APD) in Han Chinese male criminal offenders. Method In a prison in Jiangsu, the male

  4. Dependent personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and ...

  5. Schizotypal personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and ...

  6. The Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO: Construction and preleminary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development of the self-report Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO, which was constructed on the basis of DSM-IV classification for personality disorders(American Psychiatric Association, 1994, Beck's theory of dysfunctional cognitive schemas (Beck in Freeman, 1990 and psychoanalytic theories of basic personality structures. We focused on the basic experiencing of self and others, which is characteristic of specific personality type. In regard to these theories we believe that personality disorder is a broader term; the disorders within it are not limited to existing DSM-IV axis II categories. The personality disorders are complex phenomenon, which are better described on dimensional then categorical scales as well. The questionnaire consists of 213 items, which correspond to 12 clinical scales (for histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive, avoidant, dependent, depressive, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders and a lie scale. According to the personality organization theory (Kernberg, 1986 and other psychoanalytic theories it is divided into four parts: for neurotic (histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive and avoidant disorders, depressive (dependent and depressive disorders, borderline (narcissistic, borderline and antisocial disorders and psychotic disorders (paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal disorders. The questionnaire was administered to 415 adult psychiatric patients and 215 health persons of both sexes. They were compared according to the responses of the questionnaire. The internal reliability of scales is sufficient, but correlation between scales is quite strong. The validity was tested with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4, Hyler, 1994 and through comparing of the results of healthy individuals and psychiatric patients with different diagnosis. The results are generally in accordance with the

  7. Personality and psychotic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Boyette, L.L.N.J.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the current thesis is the contribution of normal personality traits as conceptualized by the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM) to the manifestation of illness in patients with psychotic disorders. These studies were part of the Dutch national Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study. The main objective of this thesis was to examine whether normal personality traits as conceptualized by the FFM contribute to the vast heterogeneity found in expression of psychotic...

  8. Personality disorders in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lenkiewicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult personality disorders are well recognized and described in the literature. The discussion about the possibility of the presence of personality disorders in adolescents started about 20 years ago. Some authors claim the before the age of 18 it is only possible to identify precursors of future personality disorders and such a standpoint is reflected in diagnostic criteria. This is based on the assumption that personality in adolescence is still not well established. Consequently, the criterion on the persistence of symptoms for the period of time cannot be met (the persistence of symptoms of personality disorders for the period of at least two years. Other approach postulates that problems presented in adolescence should not be exclusively limited to Axis I according to DSM. The proponents of this approach claim that current diagnostic tools are not adjusted to adolescents, thus it is very difficult to measure stability and persistence of symptoms in this age group. This paper presents literature review on personality disorders in adolescence.

  9. Decision-making deficits in alcohol-dependent patients with and without comorbid personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Dom; B. de Wilde; W. Hulstijn; W. van den Brink; B. Sabbe

    2006-01-01

    Background: Impairments in decision making are a consistent finding in substance use disorder (SUD) populations. However, decision-making deficits are not specific for SUDs and are also reported in the context of other psychiatric disorders such as antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PD

  10. Prevalence of personality disorders among female prisoners of Zahedan prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mazaheri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders among female prisoners of Zahedan prison. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive survey and the statistical sample constituted of 80 female prisoners in Zahedan prison. All participants were assessed by Millon’s multi-axis clinical questionnaire. Results: Our results indicated that prevalence of personality disorders in the study sample in question was 95%. Anti-social personality disorder with about 86.2% prevalence was the most common disorder. Drug-dependence and sadistic-aggressive personality with 60% and 56.2% prevalence, respectively, were in next places.Conclusion: The findings show that the statistical society in question represents high prevalence of personality disorders. This illustrates the need for broader investigations, preventive measures, and mental health-related cares

  11. Paranoid personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebwasser, Joseph; Chemerinski, Eran; Roussos, Panos; Siever, Larry J

    2013-12-01

    Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is currently included in DSM-IV's "odd cluster" or "cluster A." In the present article, the authors review available information pertaining to the psychometric properties of PPD, as derived from the relevant literature and from databases of personality disorder study groups. There is comparatively little published evidence for the reliability and validity of PPD, and researchers by and large have tended not to study the disorder, either because of investigators' difficulty recruiting individuals with PPD into research studies, or (as seems more likely) because the trait-paranoia from which many psychiatric patients suffer has seemed better explained by other DSM-IV disorders on Axis I and/or Axis II than by PPD. Given the scant empirical evidence on PPD, it seems reasonable to remove it as an independent diagnosis from the next edition of DSM, and instead to encourage clinicians to code trait-paranoia using a dimensional approach.

  12. Psychotherapy of Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    GABBARD, GLEN O.

    2000-01-01

    Although personality disorders are often regarded as “untreatable” by third-party payers, there is actually a growing empirical literature suggesting that Axis II conditions may be eminently treatable by psychotherapy. This literature is critically reviewed, the implications for length of treatment are discussed, and cost-effectiveness issues are examined.

  13. Studies of Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Simonsen, Erik; Oldham, John M;

    2014-01-01

    The past 25 years have shown major advances in the studies of personality disorders. This collaborative article by the presidents, past and present, of ISSPD reflects on the progress within several significant areas of studies, i.e., assessment, neuroscience, treatment, prevention, advocacy...

  14. One of early maladaptive schemas’ causal relationship through metacognitive beliefs with borderline and antisocial personality patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirakbash, Amin; Naderi, Farah; Enayati, Mir Salahedin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed at determining the causal relationship of metacognitive beliefs as a mediator between one of early maladaptive schemas including (emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust/abuse, social isolation/alienation and defectiveness/shame) and borderline and antisocial personality patterns. Materials and Methods: The study type has been relational and seeking causal modeling of path analysis has been used. The population used in this study included outpatients in counseling, psychological and psychiatric centers in 2012–2013. We randomly distributed 350 questionnaires in five centers out of three parts in Isfahan, and finally 230 valid questionnaires were evaluated and analyzed. Data collection tool has been Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III's (MCMI-III's) personality questionnaire, Yang's schema questionnaire (75 items), Metacognition Questionnaire-30 (30 items). Reliability of the Yang's Schema Questionnaire in this study was calculated by Cronbach's alpha (α =96%), and that of metacognition was calculated the same way (α =87%). Data analysis has been done using MCMI-III's software for Millon's personality questionnaire, and SPSS-16 and AMOS-18 software. We used path analysis method for testing each model in statistical data analysis. Result: The results of this study suggest a possible causal relationship between the number of one of the early maladaptive schemas and the patterns of anti-social and borderline personalities through some metacognitive beliefs. Conclusion: This study showed that cognitive beliefs can be activators of the early schema and continuation's coping behaviors in personality patterns. PMID:26430689

  15. Paraphilia-related disorders and personality disorders in sexual homicide perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Kafka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between paraphilias (PA, paraphilia-related disorders (PRD, and personality disorders retrospectively in a sample of 161 sexual murderers. Four groups were compared: (1 sexual murderers without a PA or a PRD diagnosis (n=47, (2 sexual murderers with at least one PRD but no PA (n=29, (3 murderers with at least one PA but no PRDs (n=29, and finally, (4 those with a combination of both (PA + PRD, n=56. The PA + PRD group showed a significantly higher prevalence for antisocial (42.9% and sadistic (32.1% personality disorders compared to the three other groups. Schizoid personality disorder was more often diagnosed in the two paraphilic diagnosed subgroups (PA = 24.1%; PA + PRD = 24.9%. Our data suggests that PRDs and personality disorders should be systematically assessed in sexual offenders, and that the combination of PAs and PRDs in sexual offenders may characterize a group who are more impulsive, consistent with personality disorders such as antisocial personality disorder.

  16. Any Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  17. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  18. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P

    2008-03-01

    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  19. Why are programmes for offenders with personality disorder not informed by the relevant scientific findings?

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Conor

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the evidence to justify intervening in those with personality disorder, specifically antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association 1994). The evidence from randomized controlled trials in the mental health literature is reviewed and found to be deficient with only five trials satisfying Cochrane criteria, all of which had a reduction in substance misuse as their prima...

  20. Disentangling the relative contribution of parental antisociality and family discord to child disruptive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A; Blazei, Ryan; Malone, Stephen H; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2013-07-01

    A number of familial risk factors for childhood disruptive disorders have been identified. However, many of these risk factors often co-occur with parental antisociality, which by itself may account for both the familial risk factors and the increased likelihood of offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). The current study aimed to examine the association of parenting behaviors, marital conflict, and divorce with child DBDs while accounting for (a) coparent parenting behaviors, and (b) parental adult antisocial behavior (AAB). A series of regressions tested the association between family-level variables (namely, parent-child relationship quality, parental willingness to use physical punishment, marital adjustment, and history of divorce) and DBDs (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder) alone and after statistically adjusting for coparent variables and parental AAB. Results indicated that parents with AAB were more likely to engage in various forms of maladaptive parenting, to divorce, and to have conflictual marriages. Maladaptive parenting, marital conflict, and divorce were associated with heightened rates of child DBDs, and these associations persisted after adjusting for coparent parenting and parental AAB. Finally, the mother's parenting behaviors had a higher impact on child DBDs than the father's parenting behaviors. Thus, familial variables continue to have an effect on childhood DBDs even after accounting for confounding influences. These variables should be a focus of research on etiology and intervention.

  1. Stability of antisocial behavior on the infancy-adolescence transition: a developmental perspective / Estabilidade do comportamento anti-social na transição da infância para a adolescência: uma perspectiva desenvolvimentista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pacheco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The term antisocial is widely used in the literature to describe non-specific behavior problems such as delinquent behavior, aggressiveness, and oppositionist behavior. The aim of the present study was to describe and to discuss the concept of antisocial behavior as an indicator of specific mental disorders such as Attention-deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Also, we discuss the factors that contribute to the stability of such behaviors in the transition from childhood to adolescence and the losses incurred throughout development. A recommendation is made to broaden conceptual discussions about mental disorders using wider categories such as antisocial behavior.

  2. [Borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machizawa, S

    1994-05-01

    Although Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) overlaps considerably with Major Depression, recent studies of biology, genetics and childhood trauma have demonstrated that there are substantial differences between the two disorders. It is suggested that their apparent relationship is rather nonspecific. In this paper, the author emphasizes that the core symptom of BPD is impulsiveness, which causes depressive symptoms and/or is induced by depressive episodes, forming a vicious cycle. Furthermore, in BPD patients, depressive symptoms are modified by impulsiveness, masochism, vanity, despair, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. The author concludes that BPD is not a homogeneous but heterogeneous syndrome, classified into subtypes: depressive type, impulsive type, and identity diffusion type. Treatment needs to be considered according to these types.

  3. Linking antisocial behavior, substance use, and personality: an integrative quantitative model of the adult externalizing spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Patrick, Christopher J; Benning, Stephen D; Kramer, Mark D

    2007-11-01

    Antisocial behavior, substance use, and impulsive and aggressive personality traits often co-occur, forming a coherent spectrum of personality and psychopathology. In the current research, the authors developed a novel quantitative model of this spectrum. Over 3 waves of iterative data collection, 1,787 adult participants selected to represent a range across the externalizing spectrum provided extensive data about specific externalizing behaviors. Statistical methods such as item response theory and semiparametric factor analysis were used to model these data. The model and assessment instrument that emerged from the research shows how externalizing phenomena are organized hierarchically and cover a wide range of individual differences. The authors discuss the utility of this model for framing research on the correlates and the etiology of externalizing phenomena.

  4. The Stigma of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Lindsay; Nieweglowski, Katherine; Corrigan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the recent literature on the stigma of personality disorders, including an overview of general mental illness stigma and an examination of the personality-specific stigma. Overall, public knowledge of personality disorders is low, and people with personality disorders may be perceived as purposefully misbehaving rather than experiencing an illness. Health provider stigma seems particularly pernicious for those with borderline personality disorder. Most stigma research on personality disorders has been completed outside the USA, and few stigma-change interventions specific to personality disorder have been scientifically tested. Limited evidence suggests that health provider training can improve stigmatizing attitudes and that interventions combining positive messages of recovery potential with biological etiology will be most impactful to reduce stigma. Anti-stigma interventions designed specifically for health providers, family members, criminal justice personnel, and law enforcement seem particularly beneficial, given these sources of stigma.

  5. The importance of early anti-social behaviour among men with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in a specialist forensic psychiatry hospital unit in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    People with a major mental disorder are at increased risk of committing crimes, especially violent crimes, compared with the general population. Sub-groups have been identified based on age of onset of anti-social or violent behaviour. Mentally disordered offenders with early onset anti-social be...

  6. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  7. Refining personality disorder subtypes and classification using finite mixture modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Rebecca J; Stern, Barry L; Lenzenweger, Mark F; Tiersky, Lana A

    2013-04-01

    The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic system for Axis II disorders continues to be characterized by considerable heterogeneity and poor discriminant validity. Such problems impede accurate personality disorder (PD) diagnosis. As a result, alternative assessment tools are often used in conjunction with the DSM. One popular framework is the object relational model developed by Kernberg and his colleagues (J. F. Clarkin, M. F. Lenzenweger, F. Yeomans, K. N. Levy, & O. F. Kernberg, 2007, An object relations model of borderline pathology, Journal of Personality Disorders, Vol. 21, pp. 474-499; O. F. Kernberg, 1984, Severe Personality Disorders, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; O. F. Kernberg & E. Caligor, 2005, A psychoanalytic theory of personality disorders, in M. F. Lenzenweger & J. F. Clarkin, Eds., Major Theories of Personality Disorder, New York, NY: Guilford Press). Drawing on this model and empirical studies thereof, the current study attempted to clarify Kernberg's (1984) PD taxonomy and identify subtypes within a sample with varying levels of personality pathology using finite mixture modeling. Subjects (N = 141) were recruited to represent a wide range of pathology. The finite mixture modeling results indicated that 3 components were harbored within the variables analyzed. Group 1 was characterized by low levels of antisocial, paranoid, and aggressive features, and Group 2 was characterized by elevated paranoid features. Group 3 revealed the highest levels across the 3 variables. The validity of the obtained solution was then evaluated by reference to a variety of external measures that supported the validity of the identified grouping structure. Findings generally appear congruent with previous research, which argued that a PD taxonomy based on paranoid, aggressive, and antisocial features is a viable supplement to current diagnostic systems. Our study suggests that Kernberg's object relational model offers a

  8. Amygdala reactivity and negative emotionality: divergent correlates of antisocial personality and psychopathy traits in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W; Byrd, Amy L; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Hariri, Ahmad R; Manuck, Stephen B

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy overlap highly but differ critically in several features, notably negative emotionality (NEM) and possibly amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat and distress. Here we examined whether dimensions of psychopathy and APD correlate differentially with NEM and amygdala reactivity to emotional faces. Testing these relationships among healthy individuals, dimensions of psychopathy and APD were generated by the profile matching technique of Lynam and Widiger (2001), using facet scales of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and amygdala reactivity was measured using a well-established emotional faces task, in a community sample of 103 men and women. Higher psychopathy scores were associated with lower NEM and lower amygdala reactivity, whereas higher APD scores were related to greater NEM and greater amygdala reactivity, but only after overlapping variance in APD and psychopathy was adjusted for in the statistical model. Amygdala reactivity did not mediate the relationship of APD and psychopathy scores to NEM. Supplemental analyses also compared other measures of factors within psychopathy in predicting NEM and amygdala reactivity and found that Factor 2 psychopathy was positively related to NEM and amygdala reactivity across measures of psychopathy. The overall findings replicate seminal observations on NEM in psychopathy by Hicks and Patrick (2006) and extend this work to neuroimaging in a normative population. They also suggest that one critical way in which APD and psychopathy dimensions may differ in their etiology is through their opposing levels of NEM and amygdala reactivity to threat.

  9. Individual differences in bitter taste preferences are associated with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Christina; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, everyday sadism, trait aggression, and the Big Five factors of personality. The results of both studies confirmed the hypothesis that bitter taste preferences are positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy. Regression analyses confirmed that this association holds when controlling for sweet, sour, and salty taste preferences and that bitter taste preferences are the overall strongest predictor compared to the other taste preferences. The data thereby provide novel insights into the relationship between personality and the ubiquitous behaviors of eating and drinking by consistently demonstrating a robust relation between increased enjoyment of bitter foods and heightened sadistic proclivities. PMID:26431683

  10. Personality disorders and treatment drop out in the homeless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salavera C

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Salavera,1 José M Tricás,2 Orosia Lucha21Faculty of Education, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 2Physiotherapy Research Unit, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: The homeless drop out of treatment relatively frequently. Also, prevalence rates of personality disorders are much higher in the homeless group than in the general population. We hypothesize that when both variables coexist – homelessness and personality disorders – the possibility of treatment drop out grows. The aim of this study was to analyze the hypotheses, that is, to study how the existence of personality disorders affects the evolution of and permanence in treatment. One sample of homeless people in a therapeutic community (N = 89 was studied. The structured clinical interview for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR was administered and participants were asked to complete the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II. Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic avoided permanence in the treatment process while cluster C disorders, as dependent, favored adhesion to the treatment and improved the prognosis. Knowledge of these personality characteristics should be used to advocate for better services to support homeless people and prevent their dropping out before completing treatment.Keywords: MCMI-II, abandonment, personality disorder, homeless

  11. Antisocial process screening device: validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väfors Fritz, Marie; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Koposov, Roman; Af Klinteberg, Britt

    2008-01-01

    in a subgroup with higher (versus lower) number of childhood symptoms of conduct disorder and oppositional disorder. The juvenile delinquents with higher levels as compared to lower levels of callous unemotional traits also perceived their parents as using more negative rearing strategies. The findings are discussed in terms of interactional processes between personality of the juvenile delinquents and parental rearing in the development of antisocial behavior. PMID:18790536

  12. Antisocial process screening device: validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väfors Fritz, Marie; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Koposov, Roman; Af Klinteberg, Britt

    2008-01-01

    in a subgroup with higher (versus lower) number of childhood symptoms of conduct disorder and oppositional disorder. The juvenile delinquents with higher levels as compared to lower levels of callous unemotional traits also perceived their parents as using more negative rearing strategies. The findings are discussed in terms of interactional processes between personality of the juvenile delinquents and parental rearing in the development of antisocial behavior.

  13. Validating Female Psychopathy Subtypes: Differences in Personality, Antisocial and Violent Behavior, Substance Abuse, Trauma, and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, Brian M.; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behav...

  14. Imagery Rescripting for Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-01-01

    Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…

  15. What's New in Treating Inpatients With Personality Disorders?: Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Old-Fashioned, Good Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah; Platt, Lois M

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric unit inpatients often have serious mental illnesses with comorbid personality disorders. Mental illnesses usually respond favorably to medication and psychotherapy, but personality disorders do not. Two personality disorders are commonly seen on inpatient units: borderline and antisocial. These personality disorders may destabilize the milieu with disruptive behaviors and present a challenge to nurses. Difficult patient behaviors and therapeutic responses by nurses are examined. Dialectical behavior therapy techniques and good communication skills may be used by nurses to (a) interact therapeutically with patients with personality disorders and (b) protect other patients and the milieu.

  16. [Effect of developmental disorders on personality and personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Developmental disorders (DD) are now so common that it is even more necessary to investigate the relationship between DD and personality disorders (PD). Despite the lack of studies, DD and PD have much in common. For research on personality and its disorders, direct, real-time observation by researchers themselves on the "black box" of temperament and its interaction with the environment is needed. For research on DD, especially in those with mild DD symptoms, how developmental characteristics and their interaction with the environment affect the personality in adulthood should be investigated.

  17. Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: which personality disorders increase clinical severity?

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ozkan; Abdurrahman Altindag

    2003-01-01

    Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male), who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia). Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders...

  18. Preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation: specific aspects of borderline personality disorder or general dimensions of personality pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A; Hallquist, Michael N; Wright, Aidan G C; Stepp, Stephanie D; Morse, Jennifer Q; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2013-08-01

    Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitraitmultimethod models, the authors examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD.

  19. The neurobiology of personality disorders: implications for psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siever, Larry J; Weinstein, Lissa N

    2009-04-01

    As advances in neuroscience have furthered our understanding of the role of brain circuitry, genetics, stress, and neuromodulators in the regulation of normal behavior and in the pathogenesis of psychopathology, an increasing appreciation of the role of neurobiology in individual differences in personality and their pathology in personality disorders has emerged. Individual differences in the regulation and organization of cognitive processes, affective reactivity, impulse/action patterns, and anxiety may in the extreme provide susceptibilities to personality disorders such as borderline and schizotypal personality disorder. A low threshold for impulsive aggression, as observed in borderline and antisocial personality disorders, may be related to excessive amygdala reactivity, reduced prefrontal inhibition, and diminished serotonergic facilitation of prefrontal controls. Affective instability may be mediated by excessive limbic reactivity in gabaminergic/glutamatergic/cholinergic circuits, resulting in an increased sensitivity or reactivity to environmental emotional stimuli as in borderline personality disorder and other cluster B personality disorders. Disturbances in cognitive organization and information processing may contribute to the detachment, desynchrony with the environment, and cognitive/perceptional distortions of cluster A or schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders. A low threshold for anxiety may contribute to the avoidant, dependent, and compulsive behaviors observed in cluster C personality disorders. These alterations in critical regulatory domains will influence how representations of self and others are internalized. Aspects of neurobiological functioning themselves become cognized through the medium of figurative language into an ongoing narrative of the self, one that can be transformed through the analytic process, allowing for the modulation of genetic/biological thresholds. PMID:19516057

  20. Personality Disorders in Persons with Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Duišin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. Methods. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II. Results. Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Conclusions. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS outcome.

  1. Neuropsychological underpinnings of different forms of antisocial behaviour in schizotypy

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Yin-hung; 林嫣紅

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and other psychotic disorders are often affiliated with pathological concepts such as being violent and socially incompetent. For instance, prior studies have established the associations of schizophrenia with social dysfunction such as antisocial behaviour. However, it is unclear what specific neuropsychological factors underlie these relationships. Besides, whether such linkage can transcend to the su...

  2. The therapeutic alliance in the treatment of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Donna S

    2005-03-01

    Because personality disorders are associated with significant impairment in interpersonal relationships, special issues and problems arise in the formation of a therapeutic alliance in the treatment of patients with these disorders. In particular, patients with narcissistic, borderline, and paranoid personality traits are likely to have troubled interpersonal attitudes and behaviors that will complicate the patient's engagement with the therapist. While a strong positive therapeutic alliance is predictive of more successful treatment outcomes, strains and ruptures in the alliance may lead to premature termination of treatment. Therefore, clinicians need to consider the patient's characteristic way of relating in order to select appropriate interventions to effectively retain and involve the patient in treatment. Research has shown not only the importance of building an alliance but also that this alliance is vital in the earliest phase of treatment. The author first reviews several definitions of the therapeutic alliance with reference to how they apply to the treatment of patients with personality disorders. Issues relevant to forming a therapeutic alliance with patients with personality disorders are then discussed in terms of the three DSM-IV-TR personality disorder clusters. However, the author notes that these categories do not adequately capture the complexity of character pathology and that clinicians also need to consider which aspects of a patient's personality pathology are dominant at the moment in considering salient elements of the therapeutic alliance. In dealing with Cluster A personality disorders (schizotypal, schizoid, and paranoid personality disorders), what is most relevant for alliance building is the profound impairment in interpersonal relationships. The Cluster B "dramatic" personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic) are all associated with pushing the limits. Consequently, clinicians need to exercise great

  3. Personal Relationships and Digestive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Product Probiotics and Traveller's Diarrhea Relaxation to Treat Digestive Disorders Medications SAFER Medicine Managing Medications Avoiding Drug Adverse Effects Medications that can Affect Colonic Function Gut Microbiota Tips & Daily Living Personal Relationships Holiday Tips Exercise & ...

  4. Exploring the effects of antisocial personality traits on brain potentials during face processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M Pfabigan

    Full Text Available Antisocial individuals are characterized to display self-determined and inconsiderate behavior during social interaction. Furthermore, recognition deficits regarding fearful facial expressions have been observed in antisocial populations. These observations give rise to the question whether or not antisocial behavioral tendencies are associated with deficits in basic processing of social cues. The present study investigated early visual stimulus processing of social stimuli in a group of healthy female individuals with antisocial behavioral tendencies compared to individuals without these tendencies while measuring event-related potentials (P1, N170. To this end, happy and angry faces served as feedback stimuli which were embedded in a gambling task. Results showed processing differences as early as 88-120 ms after feedback onset. Participants low on antisocial traits displayed larger P1 amplitudes than participants high on antisocial traits. No group differences emerged for N170 amplitudes. Attention allocation processes, individual arousal levels as well as face processing are discussed as possible causes of the observed group differences in P1 amplitudes. In summary, the current data suggest that sensory processing of facial stimuli is functionally intact but less ready to respond in healthy individuals with antisocial tendencies.

  5. Care plan for the patient with a dependent personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Ruiz Galán

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Personality is unique for each individual and can be defined as the dynamic collection of characteristics relative to emotions, thought and behaviour.Personality trout’s only mean a Personality Disorder (PD when they are inflexible and maladjusted and cause notable functional deterioration or uneasiness.According to Bermudez personality is “the enduring organization of structural and functional features, innate and acquired under the special conditions of each one’s development that shape the particular and specific collection of behaviour to face different situations”.According to the Diagnostic a Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, a Personality Disorder is “an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the person’s culture is pervasive and an inflexible, is stable over time and leads to distress or impairment. The onset of these patterns of behaviour is the beginning of the adulthood and, in rare instances, early adolescence”.There are several types of Personality Disorders (paranoid, schizoid, borderline, antisocial, dependent…. Dependent Personality Disorder is one of the most frequent in the Mental Health Services.People who suffer from this disorder are unable to take a decision by themselves because they don’t have confidence in themselves. They need a lot of social support and affection until the point of deny their individuality by subordinating their desires to other person’s desires and permitting these persons to manage their lives. Maybe they feel desolated by separation and loss and can support any situation, even maltreatment to keep a relationship.As we a deduce this diagnosis is sensible to cultural influences. This work aims to elaborate an standarized plan of cares for the patient with Dependent Personality Disorder by using nursing Diagnosis of NANDA II, Outcomes Criteria (NOC and Interventions Criteria (NIC.

  6. Trauma, genes, and the neurobiology of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Marianne; New, Antonia; Siever, Larry

    2004-12-01

    A model for personality dysfunction posits an interaction between inherited susceptibility and environmental factors such as childhood trauma. Core biological vulnerabilities in personality include dimensions of affective instability, impulsive aggression, and cognition/perceptual domains. For the dimension of impulsive aggression, often seen in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the underlying neurobiology involves deficits in central serotonin function and alterations in specific brain regions in the cingulate and the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex. The role of trauma in the development of personality disorder and especially for BPD remains unclear. Although recent studies suggest that BPD is not a trauma-spectrum disorder and that it is biologically distinct from posttraumatic stress disorder, high rates of childhood abuse and neglect do exist for individuals with personality dysfunction. Personality symptom clusters seem to be unrelated to specific abuses, but they may relate to more enduring aspects of interpersonal and family environments in childhood. Whereas twin and family studies indicate a partially heritable basis for impulsive aggression, studies of serotonin-related genes to date suggest only modest contributions to behavior. Gene-environment interactions involving childhood maltreatment are demonstrated in recent studies on antisocial behaviors and aggressive rhesus monkeys and highlight the need for further research in this important area.

  7. Transtornos de personalidade, psicopatia e serial killers Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda C P Morana

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar as características básicas dos diversos transtornos específicos de personalidade, mas centrando-se no transtorno de personalidade anti-social, fazendo sua diferenciação com psicopatia. O estudo ainda se propõe a abordar a figura do serial killer, apontando a presença de aspectos psicopáticos no homicídio seriado. MÉTODO: Uma revisão bibliográfica foi feita no sentido de se abordar convergências e divergências entre diversos autores sobre um assunto tão polêmico, sobretudo quanto à viabilidade de tratamento dessa clientela forense. RESULTADOS: Enquanto o transtorno de personalidade anti-social é um diagnóstico médico, pode-se entender o termo "psicopatia", pertencente à esfera psiquiátrico-forense, como um "diagnóstico legal". Não se pode falar ainda de tratamento eficaz para os chamados "serial killers". CONCLUSÃO: Os transtornos de personalidade, especialmente o tipo anti-social, representam ainda hoje um verdadeiro desafio para a psiquiatria forense. O local mais adequado e justo para seus portadores, bem como recomendação homogênea e padronizada de tratamento são questões ainda não respondidas.OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the basic characteristics of several specific personality disorders, focusing mainly in antisocial personality disorder. The differences between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are highlighted. Serial killers and its psychopathic aspects are also discussed. METHOD: A bibliographic review was completed in order to outline convergences and divergences among different authors about this controversial issue, especially those concerning the possibility of treatment. RESULTS: While anti-social personality disorder is a medical diagnosis, the term "psychopathy" (which belongs to the sphere of forensic psychiatry may be understood as a "legal diagnosis". It is not still possible to identify an effective treatment for serial killers. CONCLUSION: Personality disorders

  8. The roles of antisocial history and emerging adulthood developmental adaption in predicting adult antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence have been identified by several researchers. However, more needs to be known about the development of antisocial behavior in adulthood and about factors that account for continuity and change. In this study, we investigated the developmental course into adulthood of different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Second, we examined the role of developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood in accounting for the continuity and change of antisocial behavior. The participants (N = 162) were drawn from an ongoing 28-year longitudinal study. Trajectory groups (EOP: Early Onset/Persistent, n = 30; AO: Adolescent Onset, n = 32; Other, n = 100) were based on measures of externalizing behavior assessed at six time points in childhood and adolescence. Through interviews and questionnaires in adulthood, the quality of romantic relationships and the participants' work ethic (age 23), duration of unemployment (between ages 23 and 26 years), the level of externalizing problems (ages 23 and 26), and the number of antisocial personality disorder symptoms (age 28) were assessed. Results indicated that individuals in the EOP group showed the highest levels of antisocial behavior throughout emerging and early adulthood. Negative experiences in the work and romantic relationship domains was related to the continuity of antisocial behavior in the EOP group. For the AO group, a shorter duration of unemployment was related to lower levels of antisocial behavior. This study shows that early history plays an important role in the development of antisocial behavior and in the way developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood accounts for continuity and change of antisocial behavior.

  9. Schemas and Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms in incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Matt W; Chapman, Alex; Cellucci, Tony

    2009-06-01

    There is increasing interest regarding the role of maladaptive cognition in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current study examined the relationship between early maladaptive schema (EMS) domains and BPD symptoms as well as whether schema domains account for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and BPD severity. Incarcerated women (N=105) were assessed for BPD symptoms via semi-structured diagnostic interview. Disconnection/Rejection and Impaired Limits were associated with BPD pathology although these domains shared variance with depression and antisocial personality disorder pathology, respectively. In addition, the relationship between childhood abuse and BPD severity was non-significant after controlling for schema domains. Related findings and the implications for cognitive treatment of BPD are discussed.

  10. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arise and they are feeling unstable. A Treatable Disorder Diagnosis is often a relief ... with emotionally intense mental images of themselves and others. The therapist helps ...

  11. Inter-rater agreement of comorbid DSM-IV personality disorders in substance abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thylstrup Birgitte

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the inter-rater agreement of personality disorders in clinical settings. Methods Clinicians rated 75 patients with substance use disorders on the DSM-IV criteria of personality disorders in random order, and on rating scales representing the severity of each. Results Convergent validity agreement was moderate (range for r = 0.55, 0.67 for cluster B disorders rated with DSM-IV criteria, and discriminant validity was moderate for eight of the ten personality disorders. Convergent validity of the rating scales was only moderate for antisocial and narcissistic personality disorder. Discussion Dimensional ratings may be used in research studies and clinical practice with some caution, and may be collected as one of several sources of information to describe the personality of a patient.

  12. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The therapist helps the patient unconsciously reassign extreme positive or negative images associated with one person to ... and others. Patients are encouraged to express and think about their emotions and experiences with other people ...

  13. Prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence:a meta-analysis%中国接受治疗的海洛因依赖患者中反社会人格障碍患病率的荟萃分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宝亮; 项玉涛; 操小兰; 李艳; 朱军红; 赵凤琴

    2014-01-01

      结论:虽然现有的有关中国接受治疗的海洛因依赖患者共患ASPD的文献存在较大的方法学问题,但据我们的分析,估计这些患者中大约有三分之一的人是符合ASPD诊断标准的。进一步需要开展的工作是提高临床医生对这一问题的认识,比较伴ASPD患者与不伴ASPD患者的发病机制、治疗效果和复吸情况,制定出适合这个治疗相对困难的海洛因依赖患者亚群的针对性的干预措施并加以验证。%Background:Studies from Western countries consistently report very high rates of comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) among individuals with heroin addiction, but the reported proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin addiciton who have co-morbid ASPD varies widely, possibly because Chinese clinicians do not consider personality issues when treaitng substance abuse problems. Aim:Conduct a meta-analysis of studies that assessed the proporiton of Chinese individuals with heroin dependence who have comorbid ASPD. Methods:We searched for relevant studies in both Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services) and western databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycInfo). Two authors independently retrieved the literature, identified studies that met pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data used in the analysis. Staitsitcal analysis was performed using StatsDirect 3.0 and R sotfware. Results:The search yielded 15 eligible studies with a total of 3692 individuals with heroin dependence. Only 2 of the studies were rated as high-quality studies. All studies were conducted in rehabilitaiton centers or hospitals. The pooled lifeitme prevalence of ASPD in these subjects was 30%(95%CI:23%-38%), but the heterogeneity of results across studies was great (I2=95%, p Conclusions There are substantial methodological

  14. Temperament and the structure of personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R T; Joyce, P R

    1997-01-01

    This paper attempts to construct a simplified system for the classification of personality disorders, and relates this system to normally distributed human personality characteristics. One hundred and forty-eight subjects with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the SCID-II structured clinical interview for personality disorders. A four-factor solution of personality disorder symptoms was obtained and we labelled these factors 'the four As': antisocial, asocial, asthenic and anankastic. The factors related to the four temperament dimensions of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), but less closely to Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) dimensions. The four factors were similar to those identified in a number of studies using a variety of assessment methods and this lends some credibility to our findings. It suggests that a more parsimonious set of trait descriptors could be used to provide simpler, less overlapping categories that retain links with current clinical practice. In addition, these factors can be seen as extremes of normally distributed behaviours obtained using the TPQ questionnaire.

  15. The link between conduct disorder and adult antisocial behaviour is partially mediated by early onset alcohol abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, Najat Rasool

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to clarify the nature of the relationship between conduct disorder (CD), early-onset alcohol abuse (EOAA), some other externalizing-related constructs and adult violent antisociality (VA). It addressed two key questions: (i) whether EOAA mediated the link between CD and VA; and (ii) whether the effects of EOAA on VA were, in turn, mediated by impulsiveness, ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vm-PFC) dysfunction and social deviance as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revis...

  16. Personality disorders and modern culture

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Martín Murcia

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the relation between the modern social context and personality —as an essential psychological entity— and its disorders were analyzed from a dialectic perspective. Therefore, I have specified the bidirectional influences of social paradigmaticchanges in modernity —and in the case of postmodernity— on the construction of personal identity. A historiography of the Self throughout the diverse eras and of the more relevant social changes was carried out, emphasizing the consequences...

  17. Psychotherapy for histrionic personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, MJ

    1997-01-01

    The author uses a configurational analysis method for case formulation and to establish links between individualized formulation and treatment techniques. A prototype of formulation for the histrionic personality disorder is presented, using theories for formulation about states of mind, defensive control processes, and person schemas. A phase-oriented prototype of a treatment plan is linked to these levels of formulation. The result can provide a guideline for clinicians an...

  18. Association of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene and family environment with antisocial personality disorder%色氨酸羟化酶2基因和家庭环境因素与反社会人格障碍的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岩峰; 潘风华; 谭钊安; 柯晓燕; 李云涛; 郑大同; 张建平; 茆正洪; 张建秋

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨色氨酸羟化酶2(TPH2)基因、家庭环境因素及其交互作用与反社会人格障碍(ASPD)的关系.方法 选取TPH2基因rs4290270和rs7305115 2个多态性位点,采用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性基因分型技术,测定117例反社会人格障碍患者(ASPD组)和142名健康人(对照组)的TPH2基因多态性分布,并运用家庭环境量表-中文版(Family Environment ScaleChinese Version,FES-CV)评估家庭环境.结果 ASPD组TPH2基因rs4290270、rs7305115 2个多态性位点的基因型和等位基因频率分布与对照组比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).ASPD组TA单体型频率显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(x2=6.177,P<0.05),相对危险度的估计值(OR)为1.865,95%可信区间(CI)为1.135~3.065;其他单体型在2组间的差异无统计学意义.家庭环境中的情感表达和道德宗教观2个因子与TA单体型存在交互作用(P<0.05),OR值分别为1.122和1.080,95%CI分别为1.043~1.206和1.010~1.155.结论 TPH2单体型TA可能与ASPD的发生有关,负性的家庭环境可能进一步加重携带危险单体型对个体的不利影响,个体发生反社会人格障碍的易感性更高.%objective To study the association of tryptophan hydroxylase 2(TPH2)gene polymorphism and family environment with antisocial personality disorder(ASPD)in Chinese Han population.Methods The single nucleotide polymorphism(SNPs)of TPH2,rs4290270 and rs7305115 were analyzed by PCR-RFLP genotyping assay in 117 ASPD patients and 142 healthy controls.The family Environment Scale-Chinese Version(FES-CV)was used to evaluate the family environment of all subjects.Results There were no significant differences between ASPD and controls in genotype and allele frequencies of rs4290270 and rs7305115.The distributions of TA haplotype was significantly more frequent in patients than in controls[odds ratio(OR)1.865,95%confidence interval(CI)1.135-3.065,P<0.05].Interactions between genetic and

  19. Association analysis of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene polymorphism with antisocial personality disorder and impulsivity%色氨酸羟化酶2基因多态性与反社会人格障碍及其冲动行为的关联研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岩峰; 郑大同; 谭钊安; 柯晓燕; 张建平; 茆正洪; 曾彦英

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the association of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) gene polymorphism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and its impulsivity in Chinese Han population. Methods The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) of TPH2 in transcriptional control region,-703G/T,was analyzed by PCR-RFLP genotyping assay in 117 ASPD patients and 142 healthy controls. Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) was used to evaluate the impulsivity of subjects. Results There were significant differences between ASPD and controis on genotype and allele frequencies of TPH2-703G/T (x2 = 7.73, P < 0.05; x2 = 5.12, P < 0.05). The GG genotype and G allele were positively associated with ASPD(OR = 1.458,95% CI = 1.080 ~ 1.968 ;OR = 1.479,95% CI = 1.045 ~ 2.094). The scores of BIS-11 and its factors in GG genotype group((71.28 ± 7.50), (19.60 ±3.41), (25.73 ± 4.92), (25.95 ± 4.77) ) were higher than GT genotype group (( 66.23 ± 8.06), (17.79 ±3.02) ,(23.06 ±3.84) ,(25.38 ±4.97)) and TT genotype group((66.55 ±8.49),(18.50 ±3.35),(23.45 ±4.08), (24.97 ± 4.90)), but only the difference of BIS-11 total scores, the attention and motor factor scores among three groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). The scores of BIS-11 and its factors in G allele group ((69.38 ±8.04), (18.92 ± 3.36), (24.73 ±4. 69), (25.73 ±4.82)) were higher than T genotype group ((66.41 ±8.22),(17.98 ±3.26),(23.27 ±3.94), (25.15 ±4.89)),however,only the difference of BIS-11 total scores, the attention and motor factor scores between two groups were statistically significant.Conclusion TPH2-703G/T polymorphism may be association with ASPD in Chinese Han population. The GG genotype and G allele may be the risk factors of ASPD and impulsivity.%目的 探讨色氨酸羟化酶2(Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2,TPH2)基因多态性与反社会人格障碍(Antisocial Personality Disorder,ASPD)及其冲动行为的关系.方法 选取TPH2基因启动子上游多态-703G/T(rs4570625),采

  20. Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Nordem Sjåstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. METHODS: In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773, we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043 had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636. Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. RESULTS: More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than

  1. The Relationship of Personality to Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Besharat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights a variety of personality disorders in individuals with eating disorder and also emphasizes the importance of identifying clinically meaningful eating disorders subtypes based on concurrent personality disorder. The relationship between personality disorders and eating disorders is an important issue as this association has implications for assessment and treatment. Different hypotheses concerning the relationship between personality disorders and eating disorders will be reviewed. The prevalence rates of concomitant personality disorder diagnoses in eating disorder patients is highlighted to illustrate some of the pertinent conceptual issues concerning the meaning of the co-occurrence of separately defined diagnostic entities. The literature review reveals a robust finding that patients with ersonality pathology have a poorer response to treatment of Axis I disorders than those without such pathology. It is also argued that therapeutic relationship deserves more attention in the assessment and treatment of eating disorder patients with a co morbid personality disorder.

  2. Implications of antisocial parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  3. Pharmacotherapeutical treatment of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, J M

    1995-09-01

    Since some years it has become evident that objective disturbances can be found in patients suffering from personality disorders. Research findings from earlier date already demonstrated low levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid, especially in patients with personality disorders, under exclusion of depressive features. Furthermore, data have been collected on the correlation between a hyposerotonergic state and disturbances in aggression and impulse control in a variety of syndromes such as automutilation, bulimia nervosa, suicide attempts and various states of drug abuse. However, psychopharmacological research in personality disorders is rare and to date mainly patients with borderline and schizotypical personality disorders have been studied. It is quite remarkable for this area to find more review articles than original contributions based on the results of clinical trials. A great variety of recommendations for pharmacotherapy in these patients exists in literature, among which treatment with carbamazepine, lithium, low-dose neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants and serotonin uptake inhibitors. In this article we will analyze the research methodology and the results of clinical trials forming the base for pharmacotherapeutic treatment recommendations. Only the results of well-controlled studies will be reviewed.

  4. Personality disorders and modern culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martín Murcia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the relation between the modern social context and personality —as an essential psychological entity— and its disorders were analyzed from a dialectic perspective. Therefore, I have specified the bidirectional influences of social paradigmaticchanges in modernity —and in the case of postmodernity— on the construction of personal identity. A historiography of the Self throughout the diverse eras and of the more relevant social changes was carried out, emphasizing the consequences in the development ofcharacter. The analysis includes a reflection on one of the pathologies of increasing incidence in modern societies: image disorders. In the discussion, the difficulties to organize the self in an extremely subjective world, which forces a person to self-realization asexistential task, is criticized.

  5. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  6. Theodore Millon's Contributions to Conceptualizing Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Krueger, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    We review Theodore Millon's contributions to conceptualizing personality disorders in contemporary clinical science and practice. Millon worked tirelessly across professional domains and theoretical orientations, developing a rich integrative theory of personality and its pathology, directly and indirectly impacting the evolving iterations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III through DSM-5), and advocating for the personality disorders through his contributions to cofounding the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders and the Journal of Personality Disorders. We conclude with a closer look at Millon's final major contributions to conceptualizing personality disorders as well as the strengths and limitations of his approach.

  7. In-depth study of personality disorders in first-admission patients with substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langås Anne-Marit

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of comorbid personality disorders (PDs in patients with substance use disorders (SUDs is challenging due to symptom overlap, additional mental and physical disorders, and limitations of the assessment methods. Our in-depth study applied methods to overcome these difficulties. Method A complete catchment area sample of 61 consecutively admitted patients with SUDs, with no previous history of specialized treatment (addiction clinics, psychiatry were studied, addressing PDs and associated clinical and demographic variables. The thorough assessments included the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders. Results Forty-six percent of the SUD patients had at least one PD (16% antisocial [males only]; 13% borderline; and 8% paranoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive, respectively. Cluster C disorders were as prevalent as Cluster B disorders. SUD patients with PDs were younger at the onset of their first SUD and at admission; used more illicit drugs; had more anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia; had more severe depressive symptoms; were more distressed; and less often attended work or school. Conclusion The psychiatric comorbidity and symptom load of SUD patients with PDs differed from those of SUD patients without PDs, suggesting different treatment needs, and stressing the value of the assessment of PDs in SUD patients.

  8. Personality disorders and dimensions in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2012-06-01

    Comorbid DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders appear to be common in pathological gambling (PG) and may contribute to the chronic problems often associated with the disorder. This study sought to examine the relationship between PG, personality disorders, and impulsivity in a sample of pathological gamblers. Personality assessments included the SCID-II, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. A total of 77 individuals with DSM-IV PG were included in this study, of which 35 (45.5%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. Specific aspects of impulsivity were associated with certain personality disorders in PG when grouped by cluster, yet the presence of a personality disorder was not positively correlated with gambling severity. It remains unclear how the presence of a personality disorder and aspects of impulsivity may affect treatment outcome. Further exploration of these disorders and dimensions of personality may encourage a more inclusively global treatment approach.

  9. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Nina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R. Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis.

  10. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Virkkunen, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis. PMID:17662159

  11. Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling.......This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling....

  12. The Role of Social Status of Parental Family in Forming the Background of Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior of a Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Georgiy Vyacheslavovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the man complex research are presented in this article. Genetic, biophysical, biochemical, physiological, psychological and sociological methods of scientific information obtaining were used. This research reveals the ratio of genetic and psychosocial personality components. These components determine the forming of antisocial and prosocial human behavior. An individual set of phenotypic and genetic characteristics is defined in interrelation with sustainable symptoms of complex behaviors and predisposition to it. Methodic recommendations on revealing predisposition to deviant behavior, including aggressive one, written in the obtained results basis. It described the relationship of standard indicators of parental social status of the family in terms of students exhibiting signs of antisocial and prosocial behavior. To identify human predisposition to a certain type of social behavior, depending on the socio-economic status of the parents and family of origin as a whole was analyzed relations numerical values of a number of empirical indicators of social behavior and social status parameters parent families. Revealed that the level of education and activity of parents, as well as the birthplace of the person have a statistically significant effect on his social behavior.

  13. Neurological soft signs in antisocial men and relation with psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Omer Faruk; Demirel, Aysegul; Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Emül, Murat; Duran, Alaattin

    2016-06-30

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) were studied in some axis-I disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, alcohol and substance abuse disorder. Aim of this study is detection of neurological soft signs in antisocial personality disorder and relation of these signs with psychopathy. The study was included 41 antisocial men and 41 healthy control subjects. Sociodemographic form, neurological evaluation scale and Hare psychopathy checklist was applied to the antisocial subjects, whereas sociodemographic form and neurological evaluation scale were applied to the controls. Antisocial men exhibited significiantly more NSS in total score and subgroups scales (ppsychopathy scores and NSS sequencing complex motor tasks (r=0.309; p=0.049) and NSS other tests subgroup scores (r=0.328; p=0.037). Similar relation was also observed in comparison between psychopathy subgroups. NSS accepted as being endophenotypes in schizophrenia, were also detected in antisocial group significantly more than controls in our study. Significant relationship between psychopathy and NSS may also hint the role of genetic mechanisms in personality development, though new extended studies with larger sample size are needed for clarification of this relationship.

  14. The heritability of Cluster B personality disorders assessed both by personal interview and questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2012-12-01

    Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40-.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders.

  15. Personality disorder & serious further offending

    OpenAIRE

    West, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Offender characteristics are considered important in the prediction of future risk of re-offending and response to treatment. The psychiatric classification of offenders can therefore be an important variable influencing decision making. Although the relationship between personality disorder and offending is established in the literature, the relationship is complex. Recidivism of any type, particularly serious further offending that is violent or sexual in nature, has far reaching impl...

  16. Relationship between personality and metal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Emil Benedik

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a relationship between personality, personality disorders and other mental disorders. We are also interested in possibility to include psychological methods and theory of personality in modern classifications of mental disorders, which represents classical medical model. This categorical model has lots of limitations, especially in field of personality disorders, which are psychological phenomenon in the first place. We are interested in alternative ways and model of de...

  17. Relationship between personality disorder dimensions and verbal memory functioning in a community population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Lee, Hochang B; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Chung, Hye Yoon; Eaton, William W; Costa, Paul T; Nestadt, Gerald

    2012-03-30

    Based on the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) follow-up survey, we examined relationships between dimensions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) personality disorders and both subjective and objective memory functioning in a community population. Our study subjects consisted of 736 individuals from the ECA follow-up study of the original Baltimore ECA cohort, conducted between 1993 and 1996 and available for assessment in the Hopkins Epidemiology Study of Personality Disorders from 1997 to 1999. Subjects were assessed for DSM-IV personality disorders using a semi-structured instrument, the International Personality Disorder Examination, and were asked about a subjective appraisal of memory. Verbal memory function, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and recognition, were also evaluated. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine associations between personality dimensions of DSM-IV Axis II traits and subjective and objective memory functioning. Scores on schizoid and schizotypal personality dimensions were associated with subjective and objective memory dysfunction, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. Borderline, antisocial, avoidant, and dependent personality disorder scores were associated with subjective memory impairment only, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. This study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment and/or objective memory dysfunction are associated with specific personality disorder dimensions.

  18. Relationship between personality disorder functioning styles and the emotional states in bipolar I and II disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashu Yao

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder types I (BD I and II (BD II behave differently in clinical manifestations, normal personality traits, responses to pharmacotherapies, biochemical backgrounds and neuroimaging activations. How the varied emotional states of BD I and II are related to the comorbid personality disorders remains to be settled.We therefore administered the Plutchick - van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ, the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-32, and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM in 37 patients with BD I, 34 BD II, and in 76 healthy volunteers.Compared to the healthy volunteers, patients with BD I and II scored higher on some PERM styles, PVP, MDQ and HCL-32 scales. In BD I, the PERM Borderline style predicted the PVP scale; and Antisocial predicted HCL-32. In BD II, Borderline, Dependent, Paranoid (- and Schizoid (- predicted PVP; Borderline predicted MDQ; Passive-Aggressive and Schizoid (- predicted HCL-32. In controls, Borderline and Narcissistic (- predicted PVP; Borderline and Dependent (- predicted MDQ.Besides confirming the different predictability of the 11 functioning styles of personality disorder to BD I and II, we found that the prediction was more common in BD II, which might underlie its higher risk of suicide and poorer treatment outcome.

  19. [Personality disorders in the DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó

    2012-01-01

    Significant changes are proposed in the personality disorders section of the 5th. edition of the DSM. The article summarizes the historical background of the personality disorder classification, including personality-types theory, trait-theory, and clinical concepts based upon psychiatric and psychoanalytical traditions. After briefly summarizing concerns on current approach to diagnosing personality disorders in DSM-IV, we summarise the most important features of the newly developed personality disorders classification, including concepts have been modified during long years of investigation. The new system will have modified less than was originally intended, and will be a hybrid model of dimensional categorical approach to diagnosing personality disorders. The ten personality disorder types are reduced to six, and they will have new criteria based on maladaptive trait dimensions. The trait structure model was derived from existing personality and personality disorder trait models, and includes five broad higher-order trait domains, which are negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. A new set of general criteria are developed for defining personality disorder. Self and interpersonal functioning represent the core impairment in personality functioning central to personality disorder, and the presence of maladaptive personality traits is also required. Severity continuum of personality pathology can be rated on the Levels of Personality Functioning Scale.

  20. The Prevalence of Comorbid Personality Disorders in Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki A; Cowlishaw, S; Jackson, A C; Merkouris, S S; Francis, K L; Christensen, D R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the prevalence of comorbid personality disorders among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Almost one half (47.9%) of problem gamblers displayed comorbid personality disorders. They were most likely to display Cluster B disorders (17.6%), with smaller proportions reporting Cluster C disorders (12.6%) and Cluster A disorders (6.1%). The most prevalent personality disorders were narcissistic (16.6%), antisocial (14.0%), avoidant (13.4%), obsessive-compulsive (13.4%), and borderline (13.1%) personality disorders. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these prevalence estimates were robust to the inclusion of clinical trials and self-selected samples. Although there was significant variability in reported rates, subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences in estimates of antisocial personality disorder according to problem gambling severity, measure of comorbidity employed, and study jurisdiction. The findings highlight the need for gambling treatment services to conduct routine screening and assessment of co-occurring personality disorders and to provide treatment approaches that adequately address these comorbid conditions.

  1. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  2. Impulsive phenomena, the impulsive character (der Triebhafte Charakter) and DSM personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Körner, Annett C

    2011-10-01

    Impulsive phenomena have frequently been associated with personality disorders, beginning with Reich's description of the impulsive-character (Reich, 1925/1975). However, questions remain regarding the cooccurrence of a wide variety of impulsive phenomena and whether an underlying structure influences the differential association of impulses to individual personality disorders. Adults entering residential treatment for treatment-refractory disorders were interviewed about their lifetime histories of 33 impulse items, following independent diagnostic interviews. Factor analysis suggested 12 underlying dimensions of impulsive phenomena, explaining 68% of the variance. Borderline and antisocial PDs had the highest impulse scores, followed by self-defeating, narcissistic, depressive, and passive-aggressive PDs. Schizoid, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent types were negatively associated with impulsive phenomena. Individuals with the highest impulse scores showed higher levels of borderline, antisocial and either self-defeating or passive-aggressive personality pathology, and were characterized by high Neuroticism and Openness and low Agreeableness on the NEO-FFI. Personality disorders and the NEO-FFI personality traits both predicted unique variance in impulsive phenomena, with the former predominating. Our findings bear striking similarities to Reich's (1925/1975) descriptions of the impulsive character.

  3. Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: which personality disorders increase clinical severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozkan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male, who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia. Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II and the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS, Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Patients who had a history of sexual abuse were assessed with Sexual Abuse Severity Scale. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, agoraphobia, different panic attack symptoms, sexual abuse, and early onset of disorders. The rates of comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders were 80.3% and 33.9%, consecutively, in patients with panic disorder. Panic disorder patients with comorbid personality disorders had more severe anxiety, depression and agoraphobia symptoms, and had earlier ages of onset, and lower levels of functioning. The rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 34.8% and 9.8%, consecutively, in subjects with panic disorder. The rate of patients with panic disorder had a history of childhood sexual abuse was 12.5%. The predictor of sexual abuse was more than one comorbid Axis II diagnosis. The predictors of suicide attempt were comorbid paranoid and borderline personality disorders, and the predictor of suicidal ideation was major depressive disorder in subjects with panic disorder. In conclusion, this study documents that comorbid personality disorders increase the clinical severity of panic disorder. Patients with more than one

  4. Moral Emotion Attributions and Personality Traits as Long-Term Predictors of Antisocial Conduct in Early Adulthood: Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Asendorpf, Jens B.; Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated long-term relations between moral emotion attributions in childhood and adolescence and antisocial conduct in early adulthood while taking into account potentially confounding personality factors. Specifically, onset of prediction, unique and indirect effects of moral emotion attributions were examined. In a longitudinal…

  5. What Is a Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, Theodore

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this article is to describe, characterize, and differentiate personality disorders by connecting their conceptual features to their foundations in the natural sciences. What is proposed is akin to Freud's abandoned Project for a Scientific Psychology and Wilson's (1975) highly controversial Sociobiology. Both were worthy endeavors to advance our understanding of the styles and traits of human nature; this was to be done by exploring interconnections among the diverse disciplines of nature that evolved ostensibly unrelated bodies of research and manifestly dissimilar languages. PMID:27243919

  6. [Emotion activation in personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, Peter; Roder, Volker; Kramer, Ueli; Pomini, Valentino

    2007-01-01

    There are at least six psychotherapeutic treatments of personality disorders having received empirical and clinical validation in terms of their efficacy. These treatments are based on different theoretical models, namely the cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic and interpersonal models. This article briefly presents these treatments, focusing on the process of therapeutic change. It is assumed that the process of emotional activation is one of the most interesting theoretical psychotherapy ingredient in treatments of these patients. The treatments are discussed regarding this hypothesis and its clinical implications. PMID:18253667

  7. Seeking clarity for future revisions of the personality disorders in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, John G

    2013-10-01

    This article reviews the process by which the DSM-5 Personality Disorder (PD) proposal for change was developed, challenged, and then ultimately rejected. The DSM-5 workgroup's mandate to introduce radical changes were inherently fraught by the limited time allowed, but their efforts were undermined by dissension within the committee, the lack of a clearly identified scientific rationale, and by the inconsistent dialogue with the existing community of PD experts. Nonetheless, valuable steps were taken to establish a better definition for PD's, introduce dimensions, and identify the steps needed for future revisions. The author only in retrospect has concluded that borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder be treated differently than other PD's because of their clinical significance and empirical support. Specifically, these "major" PD's should remain on Axis I, while other PD's are secondary disorders that are more comfortably dimensionalized and belong on Axis II.

  8. [Psychotherapy of personality disorders in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baader, Aline; Schmeck, Klaus; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    By the current state of knowledge adolescent personality disorders should be taken seriously due to their high prevalence and severe symptomatology. Personality disorders are characterized by a stable pattern of deviation concerning cognition, affectivity, impulse control, and interpersonal relationships and have negative repercussions in psychosocial functioning and subsequent development. There is emerging evidence that personality disorder diagnosis is reliable and valid during adolescence. It is essential to detect youth with personality pathology in order to refer them to specific psychotherapeutic interventions and consequently avoid further chronification and life-long functional impairment. This selective review will give an overview over personality disorders in adolescents as well as according psychotherapeutic interventions.

  9. Personality Disorders in Substance Abusers: A Comparison of Patients Treated in a Prison Unit and Patients Treated in Inpatient Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Stefánsson, Ragnar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract  A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substance abusers. We compared a sample of substance abusers treated in a prison setting with substance abusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory......-III. Baserate scores indicated a prevalence of 95% of personality disorders. A logistic regression analysis correctly identified 95% of the sample, and showed that antisocial personality disorder traits were characteristic of the prison sample, and masochistic personality disorder traits were characteristic...

  10. Treatment of comorbid anxiety disorders and personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arntz

    2014-01-01

    For a long time the diagnosis of personality disorder was associated with therapeutic pessimism: People with these problems were viewed as untreatable, due to fundamental character complications. Failures of anxiety disorder treatment tended to be labeled as "personality disorder". There is little e

  11. DSM-5 personality traits and DSM-IV personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Thomas, Katherine M; Markon, Kristian E; Wright, Aidan G C; Krueger, Robert F

    2012-05-01

    Two issues pertinent to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model, which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the 6 proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits, and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders.

  12. Personality disorders in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2008-01-01

    . Thirty-three of these of the patients were assessed at two-year follow-up for comorbid personality disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and by the self-report instrument Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Half of the patients met the criteria of two......The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in the early course of first-episode psychosis and their likely presence in the premorbid period. Fifty-five patients were enrolled at baseline and premorbid function was evaluated by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale...... or more personality disorders, while one-third of the patients did not fulfil the criteria for any personality disorder. The schizoid and the avoidant were the most frequent personality disorders and both were associated with social withdrawal during childhood and adolescence. The limitation of the study...

  13. Gender Patterns in Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in patients with borderline personality disorder are potentially relevant because they may guide clinicians in assessment and treatment. To date, a number of clinical features in borderline personality disorder have been examined for gender differences. As for prevalence, earlier research concluded that a higher proportion of women than men suffer from borderline personality disorder, although more recent research has determined no differences in prevalence by gender. In ad...

  14. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Nicoletti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency of personality disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD patients and in a group of healthy controls. METHODS: Patients affected by PD diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's disease Society Brain Bank diagnostic criteria and a group of healthy controls were enrolled in the study. PD patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from the study. Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders-II (SCID-II has been performed to evaluate the presence of personality disorders. Presence of personality disorders, diagnosed according to the DSM-IV, was confirmed by a psychiatric interview. Clinical and pharmacological data were also recorded using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: 100 PD patients (57 men; mean age 59.0 ± 10.2 years and 100 healthy subjects (52 men; mean age 58.1 ± 11.4 years were enrolled in the study. The most common personality disorder was the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder diagnosed in 40 PD patients and in 10 controls subjects (p-value<0.0001 followed by the depressive personality disorder recorded in 14 PD patients and 4 control subjects (p-value 0.02. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was also found in 8 out of 16 de novo PD patients with a short disease duration. CONCLUSION: PD patients presented a high frequency of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder that does not seem to be related with both disease duration and dopaminergic therapy.

  15. Autobiographical memory in borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Morten; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a severe psychiatric illness. A key feature of the disorder is a disorganized sense of self often referred to as identity diffusion. Autobiographical memory is memory for personal life events. One of the main functions of these memories is to enable us...... to understand who we are by connecting past, present and future experiences. It seems that autobiographical memory is in some way disrupted in individuals with borderline personality disorder. A systematic review is conducted looking at studies that focus on the potential connections. We find that although......, autobiographical memory and borderline personality disorder....

  16. Personality disorders in offspring of mothers with mood disorders: results from a longitudinal family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathryn R; Eberly, Lynn E; Heller, Monika D; Schlesinger, Amanda; Gold, Phillip W; Martinez, Pedro E; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2014-08-30

    Offspring of mothers with mood disorders are known to be at risk for a range of adverse outcomes, but the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) in this group is unknown. The goal of this study was to assess risk of PD diagnoses and symptoms in offspring of mothers with and without mood disorders, and to explore contributing factors to this risk. This longitudinal study assessed PDs and symptoms of PDs in offspring of mothers with bipolar disorder (O-BD), major depression (O-MDD), and no psychiatric diagnosis (O-WELL) in mid-adolescence and in early adulthood. O-BD were more likely to develop a Cluster B PD than O-MDD or O-WELL in adolescence, and more likely to develop a Cluster B PD then O-WELL in early adulthood. Dimensional analyses revealed that O-BD had elevated symptoms in PDs across all PD clusters at mid-adolescence and young adulthood. O-MDD showed elevated symptoms of antisocial PD at both time points, and of obsessive-compulsive PD at young adulthood. Offspring of mothers with mood disorders, especially O-BD, are at increased risk for PD diagnoses and symptoms in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. Contributing factors to risk of PD symptoms in at-risk offspring are discussed.

  17. Personality traits, personality disorders, and migraine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Smitherman, Todd A; Baskin, Steven M

    2013-05-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism has been associated with migraine, although research is needed to clarify potential moderators of this relationship and the extent to which neuroticism reflects a stable disposition or instead is a function of general somatic distress or situational influences. With the possible exception of harm avoidance, research has not consistently identified any other personality trait unique among migraineurs. Personality disorders have been researched less extensively, but existing data suggests that borderline personality disorder, in particular, is associated with increased negative impact of migraine, risk for medication overuse, and poor response to treatment that is likely of greater clinical importance than any personality trait per se.

  18. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Obsessive-compulsive disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  19. Personality disorders and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Xu, Haiyong; French, Michael T; Ettner, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of Axis II personality disorders (PDs) on body weight. PDs are psychiatric conditions that develop early in life from a mixture of genetics and environment, are persistent, and lead to substantial dysfunction for the affected individual. The defining characteristics of PDs conceptually link them with body weight, but the direction of the relationship likely varies across PD type. To investigate these links, we analyze data from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. We measure body weight with the body mass index (BMI) and a dichotomous indicator for obesity (BMI≥30). We find that women with PDs have significantly higher BMI and are more likely to be obese than otherwise similar women. We find few statistically significant or economically meaningful effects for men. Paranoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs demonstrate the strongest adverse impacts on women's body weight while dependent PD may be protective against elevated body weight among men. Findings from unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate a positive gradient between PDs and BMI in that the effects are greater for higher BMI respondents.

  20. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-01-01

    The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presen...

  1. Basic traits predict the prevalence of personality disorder across the life span: the example of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span.

  2. Relationships between individual differences in motivation and borderline personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C

    2013-08-01

    Two studies investigate relationships between individual differences in motivation and borderline personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment. Participants completed the Brief Assessment of Individual Motives 1--Revised, a measure of 15 putative evolved motives (i.e., "traits of action"). In Study 1, N = 147 adult participants also completed the Borderline Personality Questionnaire and Self-Report Psychopathy III Questionnaire (SRP III). In Study 2, N = 135 college age participants also completed the SRP III and the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62. Regression analyses suggested that individual differences in motivational traits account for moderate amounts of variance in measures of antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment. They also suggested that lower motivation to engage in cooperative behaviors (e.g., sharing resources and forming coalitions) is related to impaired interpersonal relationships and maladjustment.

  3. Basic traits predict the prevalence of personality disorder across the life span: the example of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span. PMID:23528790

  4. Personality disorders in euthymic bipolar patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Bezerra-Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To identify, by means of a systematic review, the frequency with which comorbid personality disorders (PDs have been assessed in studies of euthymic bipolar patients.Methods:PubMed, ciELO and PsychINFO databases were searched for eligible articles published between 1997 and 2013. After screening 1,249 empirical papers, two independent reviewers identified three articles evaluating the frequency of PDs in patients with bipolar disorders assessed in a state of euthymia.Results:The total sample comprised 376 euthymic bipolar patients, of whom 155 (41.2% had at least one comorbid PD. Among them, we found 87 (23.1% in cluster B, 55 (14.6% in cluster C, and 25 (6.6% in cluster A. The frequencies of PD subtypes were: borderline, 38 (10.1%; histrionic, 29 (7.7%; obsessive-compulsive, 28 (7.4%; dependent, 19 (5%; narcissistic, 17 (4.5%; schizoid, schizotypal, and avoidant, 11 patients each (2.95%; paranoid, five (1.3%; and antisocial, three (0.79%.Conclusion:The frequency of comorbid PD was high across the spectrum of euthymic bipolar patients. In this population, the most common PDs were those in cluster B, and the most frequent PD subtype was borderline, followed by histrionic and obsessive-compulsive.

  5. Borderline personality disorder: study in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A; Berelowitz, M; Vereker, M

    1996-04-01

    The study of the presentation, symptomatology and family characteristics of an exclusively adolescent sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was undertaken. Twenty-four cases of borderline personality disorder, 20 females, 4 males, identified using chart review and meeting the criteria of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB) and DSM III-R, were matched with psychiatric controls. Adolescents with borderline personality disorder were found to have high rates of affective symptomatology with Axis I diagnosis of major depressive disorder MDD (DSM-III-R), and high rates of interpersonal psychopathology, i.e., manipulation, devaluation, and a pervasive sense of boredom. The latter seem to be characteristic as for adults with borderline personality disorder. The families were particularly angry and volatile. PMID:9117533

  6. [Concepts of the borderline personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2011-08-01

    For many years, the borderline personality disorders have mainly been researched in terms of psychoanalytical theories, such as theories on relations with the object. Nowadays, there are three kinds of concepts that are distinguishable. The first ones are those which are group models, serving attempts to made characteristic sets of qualities, represented by individuals suffering from the borderline personality disorders, more precise. The remaining concepts are models of conflict and deficit, which explain complicated mechanisms of interactions of social, psychological and biological factors, and therefore, contribute to better understanding of the genesis of the symptoms of this disorder. Upon the basis of the attempts made so far in the field of describing the borderline personality disorders, one may indicate certain criteria, representative for the entire group of individuals with this diagnosis, regardless of the assumptions applicable to the genesis of the disorder and its symptoms, even though the population of the infirm suffering from the borderline personality disorders is not internally homogenous. The interest of psychologists, attempting to describe the borderline personality disorders, is focused upon certain sets of qualities, presented as the examples of descriptive models. Among the researchers, working on the issues of the borderline personality disorders in this manner, there are: Gunderson, Kernberg, Kohut, Winnicot, Guntrip, Fairbaim, Adler and Buie.

  7. [Concepts of the borderline personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2011-08-01

    For many years, the borderline personality disorders have mainly been researched in terms of psychoanalytical theories, such as theories on relations with the object. Nowadays, there are three kinds of concepts that are distinguishable. The first ones are those which are group models, serving attempts to made characteristic sets of qualities, represented by individuals suffering from the borderline personality disorders, more precise. The remaining concepts are models of conflict and deficit, which explain complicated mechanisms of interactions of social, psychological and biological factors, and therefore, contribute to better understanding of the genesis of the symptoms of this disorder. Upon the basis of the attempts made so far in the field of describing the borderline personality disorders, one may indicate certain criteria, representative for the entire group of individuals with this diagnosis, regardless of the assumptions applicable to the genesis of the disorder and its symptoms, even though the population of the infirm suffering from the borderline personality disorders is not internally homogenous. The interest of psychologists, attempting to describe the borderline personality disorders, is focused upon certain sets of qualities, presented as the examples of descriptive models. Among the researchers, working on the issues of the borderline personality disorders in this manner, there are: Gunderson, Kernberg, Kohut, Winnicot, Guntrip, Fairbaim, Adler and Buie. PMID:21936354

  8. Gender differences in borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Banzhaf, Anke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate gender differences and similarities in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with respect to axis I comorbidity, axis II comorbidity, general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90-Revised), and dimensional personality traits (NEO-Personality-Inventory Revised, NEO-PI-R, and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Profile Basic questionnaire, DAPP-BQ). Fifty-seven men and 114 women with BPD were included in the study. Regarding axis I and...

  9. Dreams and Nightmares in Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between dreaming and psychopathology has been studied quite extensively, research on dreaming in patients with personality disorders has been very scarce. In patients with borderline personality disorder, negatively toned dreams and heightened nightmare frequency have been found-characteristics not determined by co-morbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. The review includes suggestions for future studies as the existing results clearly indicate that this line of research is most interesting. Lastly, clinical recommendations especially regarding the treatment of the often found co-morbid nightmare disorder will be given.

  10. Dreams and Nightmares in Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between dreaming and psychopathology has been studied quite extensively, research on dreaming in patients with personality disorders has been very scarce. In patients with borderline personality disorder, negatively toned dreams and heightened nightmare frequency have been found-characteristics not determined by co-morbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. The review includes suggestions for future studies as the existing results clearly indicate that this line of research is most interesting. Lastly, clinical recommendations especially regarding the treatment of the often found co-morbid nightmare disorder will be given. PMID:26781553

  11. A Personality Disorders: Schizotypal, Schizoid and Paranoid Personality Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Goulding, Sandra M; Walker, Elaine F

    2010-12-01

    Cluster A personality disorders (PD), including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), paranoid personality disorder (PPD), and schizoid PD, are marked by odd and eccentric behaviors, and are grouped together because of common patterns in symptomatology as well as shared genetic and environmental risk factors. The DSM-IV-TR describes personality disorders as representing stable and enduring patterns of maladaptive traits, and much of what is understood about Cluster A personality disorders in particular stems from research with adult populations. Less in known about these disorders in children and adolescents, and controversy remains regarding diagnosis of personality disorders in general in youth. The current paper reviews the available research on Cluster A personality disorders in childhood and adolescence; specifically, we discuss differentiating between the three disorders and distinguishing them from other syndromes, measuring Cluster A disorders in youth, and the nature and course of these disorders throughout childhood and adolescence. We also present recent longitudinal data from a sample of adolescents diagnosed with Cluster A personality disorders from our research laboratory, and suggest directions for future research in this important but understudied area.

  12. Panic disorder: Psychobiological aspects of personality dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draganić-Gajić Saveta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to understand the underlying mechanisms of association between psychological factors and panic disorder have been mostly based on psychodynamic description. Evidence of the importance of serotonergic (5-HT system in panic disorder (PD, however, has substanti ally increased in recent years. OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to determine whether there was a specific personality profile of panic disorder patients and how it was related to possible neurobiological mechanisms underlying personality dimensions. PATIENTS AND METHODS Sample consisted of 14 inpatients with ICD-X diagnosis of panic disorder and 34 healthy control subjects. Personality dimensions were assessed by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ. To assess central 5-HT function, platelet monoamine-oxidase (MAO activity was measured. RESULTS In panic disorder group, higher scores of histrionic, depressive and hypochondriac subscales and significant increase of harm avoidance (HA scale as well as low MAO activity were found. Negative correlation was established between MAO activity and psychopathic deviance MMPI scale. CONCLUSION The obtained results might indicate a specific personality profile of patients with panic disorder, which is characterized by high neuroticism, fearfulness, inhibition, shyness and apprehensive worry. Low MAO activity and high HA scores possibly indicate underlying hyperserotonergic state. The observed correlation between personality traits and MAO activity provide additional support for the hypothesized functional relationship between underlying central monoaminergic activity and temperament traits associated with anxiety, depression and impulsivity.

  13. Assessment of DSM-5 Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an approach to defining, identifying, and assessing personality disorders, including the links between these definitions and personality assessment, with a particular reference to the proposed revisions to the personality disorders section of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). The article discusses measures of maladaptive variants of the Five-factor model (FFM) that are coordinated with both the traditional personality disorder syndromes as well as the DSM-5 dimensional trait model. Discussed as well is the assessment of the more psychodynamically oriented deficits in sense of self and interpersonal relatedness that are also included within the hybrid model proposed for DSM-5.

  14. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder.

  15. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. PMID:26315665

  16. Personality disorder: a new global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike;

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry acreoss the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...... incerasing evidence that some teratments, manilyl psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  17. Historical Roots of Histrionic Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa eNovais

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Histrionic Personality Disorder is one of the most ambiguous diagnostic categories in psychiatry. Hysteria is a classical term that includes a wide variety of psychopathological states.Ancient Egyptians and Greeks blamed a displaced womb, for many women’s afflictions. Several researchers from the 18th and 19th centuries studied this theme, namely, Charcot who defined hysteria as a neurosis with an organic basis and Sigmund Freud who redefined neurosis as a re-experience of past psychological trauma. Histerical personality disorder (HPD made its first official appearance in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders II (DSM-II and since the DSM-III, histrionic personality disorder is the only disorder that kept the term derived from the old concept of hysteria.The subject of hysteria has reflected positions about health, religion and relationships between the sexes in the last 4000 years, and the discussion is likely to continue.

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder: Are Proliferative Symptoms Characteristic?

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    Borderline personality is an Axis II disorder that has historically encompassed a number of different psychiatric symptoms. In empirical studies, these multiple psychiatric symptoms appear to manifest as numerous comorbid Axis I and II diagnoses. In echoing these findings in primary care settings, individuals with borderline personality exhibit prolific somatic symptoms. Rather than the type of symptom, are the number of symptoms suggestive of this disorder, such that proliferative psychiatri...

  19. Targeting brain serotonin synthesis: insights into neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term outcomes related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggres...

  20. Factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory: Criterion-Related Validity and Relationship to the BIS/BAS and Five-Factor Models of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Scott R.; Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Thompson, Angela; Thurston, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder that includes interpersonal-affective and antisocial deviance features. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) contains two underlying factors (fearless dominance and impulsive antisociality) that may differentially tap these two sets of features. In a mixed-gender sample of undergraduates and prisoners,…

  1. Symptoms: Personal Snapshots of Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of these conditions: Panic Disorder: "For me, a panic attack is almost a violent experience. I feel disconnected from reality. I feel like I'm losing control in a very extreme way. My heart ... / Studying Anxiety Disorders / Symptoms: Personal snapshots of anxiety ...

  2. The Mismeasure of Morals: Antisocial Personality Traits Predict Utilitarian Responses to Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M.; Pizarro, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments…

  3. The Concept of Personality Disorder in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, S.

    1984-01-01

    Advises child psychiatrists to use personality disorder diagnoses sparingly; to be aware of the constraints on adaptability of normal variations of temperament; and to positively diagnose those rare pathological impairments of personality brought about by minimal cerebral dysfunction, schizoid traits, and traits of excessive shyness. (RH)

  4. Adolescent attachment and trajectories of hostile-impulsive behavior: implications for the development of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Smith, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' trajectories of impulsive and hostile behaviors provide a dynamic index of risk for the emergence of Cluster B (antisocial and borderline) personality disorders in early adulthood. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that preoccupied states of mind in the Adult Attachment Interview would increase both the level and rate of growth in adolescents' trajectories of aggressive and sexual risk-taking behaviors measured at ages 13, 15, and 17. Overall, preoccupied states of mind predicted higher levels of sexual risk taking and aggressive behaviors across all three assessments as well as higher rates of growth in sexual-risk taking and caregiver-reported aggression over time. In addition, preoccupied females showed slower rates of decline in self-reported hostile emotions than did preoccupied males. The effects of gender as a moderator of the relations between preoccupied status and risk trajectories for personality disorders are discussed.

  5. Criminal Attitudes of Ex-Prisoners: the Role of Personality, Anti-Social Friends and Recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Boduszek, Daniel; McLaughlin, Chris; Hyland, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests that those who enter prison with a low level of criminal attitudes, tend to acquire more deviant attitudes during their sentence due to persistent contact with criminal others, and moreover, presence of criminal personality may be sufficient to develop criminal attitudes. Aim: To determine which of the independent variables: age, education level, marital status, number of children, location, recidivism, association with criminal friends, and personali...

  6. Precursors of Personality Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Cikili Uytun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorders are common psychiatric disorders in community that cause substantial disruption of functionality. Current diagnostic systems do not include classification of personality disorders in children. However, in recent years there has been an increasing interest in investigation of personality traits and disorders at childhood and adolescence as a precursor of adult personality disorders. The aim of this article was to review the precursors of personality disorders at childhood and adolescence

  7. Early maladaptive schemas of personality disorder subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, J V; Glaser, B A; Calhoun, G B; Campbell, L F

    2001-12-01

    This investigation attempted to examine the cognitive schemas of five distinct clusters that emerged from a cluster analysis of the personality disorder scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (Millon, 1987). Specifically, the degree to which early maladaptive schemas, as measured by the Cognitive Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (Young, 1994), could correctly identify empirically derived patterns of personality disorders was examined. Between-cluster differences centered on five personality components and five schemas. Discriminant analyses revealed two significant functions composed of cognitive schemas, which correctly identified 61.2% of the entire sample in terms of cluster group membership. The total proportion of variance in the two significant functions associated with cluster group differences was 76.8%. Findings are discussed in relation to the domain theory of personality disorders posited by Millon and Davis (1996). PMID:11778396

  8. Early maladaptive schemas of personality disorder subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, J V; Glaser, B A; Calhoun, G B; Campbell, L F

    2001-12-01

    This investigation attempted to examine the cognitive schemas of five distinct clusters that emerged from a cluster analysis of the personality disorder scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (Millon, 1987). Specifically, the degree to which early maladaptive schemas, as measured by the Cognitive Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (Young, 1994), could correctly identify empirically derived patterns of personality disorders was examined. Between-cluster differences centered on five personality components and five schemas. Discriminant analyses revealed two significant functions composed of cognitive schemas, which correctly identified 61.2% of the entire sample in terms of cluster group membership. The total proportion of variance in the two significant functions associated with cluster group differences was 76.8%. Findings are discussed in relation to the domain theory of personality disorders posited by Millon and Davis (1996).

  9. [Personality disorders: old and new problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulevich, A B; Shostakovich, B V

    2001-01-01

    Correlations were found between the structure of personality disorders (PD) (neurotic--borderline personality organization) and the regularities of PD dynamics. Taking into consideration the regularities of interaction of psychopathologic manifestations with positive symptomatology, three types of PD dynamics were psychopathologically identified, which show information on polar (compensation--decompensation) processes: 1) that in form of personality development; 2) that in form of PD-associated quasipsychoses; associated with DP; 3) that in form of transformation of characterological disorders into psychopathologic ones. The first two types of dynamics, which appear as as actualization of pathocharacterological formations in the pattern of mental disorders, reflect decompensation processes. In neurotic personality (emotionally labile, anxious, dependent, sensitive schizoids, etc) there is a deep (in terms of personality development) reorganization of characterological abnormalies. In borderline personality (paranoid, expansive schizoids, anancasts, borderline, etc.), aggravation and chronic pattern of mental disorders occurs with dynamics of PD-associated quasipsychoses. The third type of dynamics is not accompanied by aggravation of pathocharacterological manifestations and reflects compensation process. Separation of the isolated symptom complexes, PD derivatives (steady-state catathymically charged pathocharacterological formations are symptom-forming) is possible in any type of personality organization, but more frequently is observed at complex forms with a high proportion of facultative complexes and accentuations.

  10. Childhood maltreatment and personality disorders in patients with a major depressive disorder: A comparative study between France and Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounou, Kossi B; Dogbe Foli, Ayoko A; Djassoa, G; Amétépé, Léonard K; Rieu, J; Mathur, A; Biyong, I; Schmitt, L

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined the association between childhood maltreatment (CM) and personality disorders (PDs) in adulthood in two different cultural contexts, including sub-Saharan Africa. The aims of this study were to compare the frequency of CM between patients in treatment in France and Togo for a major depressive disorder (MDD), to explore the link between CM and PDs, and to examine the mediating effect of personality dimensions in the pathway from CM to PDs in 150 participants (75 in each country). The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the International Personality Item Pool, and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4+) were used to assess CM, personality dimensions, and PDs respectively. Togolese participants reported sexual and physical abuse (PA) and emotional and physical neglect significantly more frequently than French participants. In Togo, severe PA was associated with schizoid, antisocial, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, depressive, and negativist PDs whereas in France, PA was only linked to paranoid PD. In Togo, emotional instability partly mediated the relationship between CM and PDs while in France, no personality dimension appeared to mediate this link. Our results support the hypothesis that CM is more common in low-income countries and suggest that the links between CM and PDs are influenced by social environment.

  11. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  12. Gender Differences in Borderline Personality Disorder: Results From a Multinational, Clinical Trial Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberschmidt, Amy; Lee, Susanne; Zanarini, Mary; Schulz, S Charles

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to extend previous research by considering gender differences in borderline personality (BPD) using both dimensional self-reported and clinical measures of symptomatology. Drawing from a cross-cultural, clinical trial sample, the authors compared female and male BPD subjects (N = 770; 211 male) between the ages of 18 and 65 using diagnostic and self-report data. The authors found that women with BPD have greater hostility and relationship disruption than men. Gender differences in eating disorders, particularly bulimia, are more divergent than in the general population. Generally, gender differences in BPD in this sample are consistent with known general population differences. Women show greater overall symptomatology, including depressive, anxious, and somatic symptoms. Men have higher rates of antisocial personality disorder and a trend toward higher rates of narcissistic personality disorder. However, several gender differences consistently found in the general population are not present in this BPD sample. There are no differences in aggression, suicidality, substance abuse, panic disorder, or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Gender differences in major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder are attenuated. These findings support the conclusion that BPD may diminish normal gender differences. PMID:25562535

  13. Defining the mechanisms of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkin, John F; Posner, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the biological connections to mental processes was one of the original goals of psychoanalysis, and the development of cognitive and affective neuroscience and its methods might contribute to actualizing this goal. Personality disorders provide an opportunity to examine the complex mental structures of individuals experiencing extreme difficulties in interacting with their social environment. We provide initial information on a collaboration exploring an approach to one of the most serious personality disorders, borderline personality disorder, based upon the study of normal attention, individual differences in temperament, self definition and attachment organization, with the potential to illuminate the psychology and psychobiology of the disorder and to contribute to psychotherapeutic intervention. This developing model of borderline personality disorder can relate the symptoms to more enduring temperamental aspects of the patients. The goal is to understand the development of neural networks that underlie the abnormalities of adults, and eventually work out the interaction between temperament, genes, and experience that produce the disorder, and potentially inform intervention. PMID:15802943

  14. Some suggestions for the DSM-5 schizotypal personality disorder construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2012-05-01

    This study relates to the schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) proposal of the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by investigating the construct validity of SPD as defined by DSM-IV in a large sample of patients from the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs (N = 2619), assessed by structured diagnostic interviews and the Longitudinal, Expert All Data standard. We investigated factor structure and psychometric properties of the SPD criteria, as well as co-occurrence patterns between SPD and other PDs. Thirty-six patients were diagnosed with SPD and 513 patients (21%) endorsed at least 2 schizotypal criteria. We found that 2 factors were specific for SPD, a cognitive-perceptual factor (ideas of reference, magical thinking, and unusual perceptual experiences) and an oddness factor (odd thinking and speech, constricted affect, and odd appearance or behavior). The criteria belonging to these factors had appropriate psychometric properties. The criteria of the cognitive-perceptual factor were more strongly associated with borderline personality disorder (PD) than with the other PDs. We did not find support for a consistent factor that reflected interpersonal problems. The criteria that used to be part of this factor (suspiciousness, lack of friends or confidants, and excessive social anxiety) performed poorly as specific SPD criteria. SPD was more strongly associated with antisocial PD and paranoid PD than with the other PDs. We suggest that ideas of reference should be included explicitly under the schizotypal facet of cognitive dysregulation in DSM-5, with less emphasis on the social phobic aspects of this feature. Furthermore, there should be more emphasis on the cognitive aspects of suspiciousness in SPD, and it should be considered to split up the affectivity criterion into constricted affect and inappropriate affect, with the latter type of affect being the expression of problems with

  15. Antisocial Notworking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    Antisocial Notworking refers to a repository of projects that explore the pseudo-agency of online social platforms. It takes a number of recent software projects as its inspiration to reflect upon the fashion for 'participation' within the arts sector and culture in general. The concern is how th...

  16. Alternative dimensional models of personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The recognition of the many limitations of the categorical model of personality disorder classification has led to the development of quite a number of alternative proposals for a dimensional classification. The purpose of this article is to suggest that future research work toward the integration...... of these alternative proposals within a common hierarchical structure. An illustration of a potential integration is provided using the constructs assessed within existing dimensional models. Suggestions for future research that will help lead toward a common, integrative dimensional model of personality disorder...

  17. [Personality in patients with panic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Carrillo, C; García-Campayo, J J; Sánchez Blanque, A

    1993-01-01

    Fourty-five patients diagnosed ad Panic Disorder and forty-five control patients are studied. Personality traits are assessed by Cattel's 16 PF. Test and several subscales derived from MMPI (dependence, repression, hypersensibility, etc.). Anxiety is measured by Zung's Anxiety Scale. Panic disorder patients show higher "dependence", "inferiority", "hypersensibility", low "ego strength", "parmia", "shrewdness", "self-sentiment integration" and high "ergic tension". In addition, male patients show significative differences in "affectothymia", "self-sufficiency", "self-sentiment integration" and "invia". PMID:8172011

  18. Long-Term Course of Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Information concerning the longitudinal course of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) derives mainly from (a) long-term (10 to 25 year) retrospective follow-up studies, primarily those conducted during the 1980s/1990s, (b) brief (1 to 3 year) follow-up studies of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of several different treatment approaches, and (c) prospective follow-up studies. The patients contacted in the retrospective studies had been treated mostly by psychoanalytically informed approaches or supportive. Though there was a significant suicide rate of 3 to 9%, about two-thirds of the BPD patients eventually achieved a global assessment score in the 60s or beyond. BPD represents a heterogeneous group of patients, whose outcome is a function of many variables, including personality traits (paranoid and narcissistic conducing to less favorable outcomes), cultural differences, socio-economic level, intelligence level, gender, and age of onset. The RCT studies focused on amelioration of the symptom components of BPD, especially tendencies to self-injury and suicide. The currently favored treatment methods showed in a large percentage of patients, a lessening of these self-destructive behaviors after a year or two of treatment. The time spans were too brief to allow assessment of improvement in key life areas (attainment of self-sufficiency in work, widening of the circle of friends, and success in forming satisfactory intimate partnerships). The prospective studies are based on reassessments at regular intervals of BPD patients and a control group with other personality disorders. Over the past 16 years the BPD patients, compared with controls, were slower to achieve remission, and more apt to show cognitive peculiarities initially-though they showed appreciable improvement over time. The "recovered" BPD patients, compared with the non-recovered patients, showed twice the likelihood of achieving a successful intimate relationship. At 16 years the Mc

  19. Long-Term Course of Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Information concerning the longitudinal course of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) derives mainly from (a) long-term (10 to 25 year) retrospective follow-up studies, primarily those conducted during the 1980s/1990s, (b) brief (1 to 3 year) follow-up studies of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of several different treatment approaches, and (c) prospective follow-up studies. The patients contacted in the retrospective studies had been treated mostly by psychoanalytically informed approaches or supportive. Though there was a significant suicide rate of 3 to 9%, about two-thirds of the BPD patients eventually achieved a global assessment score in the 60s or beyond. BPD represents a heterogeneous group of patients, whose outcome is a function of many variables, including personality traits (paranoid and narcissistic conducing to less favorable outcomes), cultural differences, socio-economic level, intelligence level, gender, and age of onset. The RCT studies focused on amelioration of the symptom components of BPD, especially tendencies to self-injury and suicide. The currently favored treatment methods showed in a large percentage of patients, a lessening of these self-destructive behaviors after a year or two of treatment. The time spans were too brief to allow assessment of improvement in key life areas (attainment of self-sufficiency in work, widening of the circle of friends, and success in forming satisfactory intimate partnerships). The prospective studies are based on reassessments at regular intervals of BPD patients and a control group with other personality disorders. Over the past 16 years the BPD patients, compared with controls, were slower to achieve remission, and more apt to show cognitive peculiarities initially-though they showed appreciable improvement over time. The "recovered" BPD patients, compared with the non-recovered patients, showed twice the likelihood of achieving a successful intimate relationship. At 16 years the Mc

  20. Estabilidade do comportamento anti-social na transição da infância para a adolescência: uma perspectiva desenvolvimentista Stability of antisocial behavior on the infancy-adolescence transition: a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pacheco

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O termo anti-social tem sido amplamente utilizado na literatura científica para descrição de problemas de comportamento não específicos, como comportamentos delinqüentes, agressividade e oposicionismo. O objetivo desse estudo é descrever e discutir o conceito de comportamento anti-social, como um indicador de transtornos mentais específicos e de algumas categorias de problemas comportamentais. Para isso, examinamos a relação entre o comportamento anti-social e o Transtorno Desafiador Opositivo, o Transtorno da Conduta, o Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade e o Transtorno de Personalidade Anti-social. Além disso, discute-se também os fatores que contribuem para a estabilidade desse comportamento na transição da infância para a adolescência e os prejuízos decorrentes ao longo do desenvolvimento. Propõe-se a ampliação das discussões conceituais acerca dos transtornos mentais, utilizando-se categorias mais amplas, como a de comportamento anti-social.The term antisocial is widely used in the literature to describe non-specific behavior problems such as delinquent behavior, aggressiveness, and oppositionist behavior. The aim of the present study was to describe and to discuss the concept of antisocial behavior as an indicator of specific mental disorders such as Attention-deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Also, we discuss the factors that contribute to the stability of such behaviors in the transition from childhood to adolescence and the losses incurred throughout development. A recommendation is made to broaden conceptual discussions about mental disorders using wider categories such as antisocial behavior.

  1. Effects of serotonin-2A receptor binding and gender on personality traits and suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, Paul H; Chiappetta, Laurel; Mason, Neale Scott; Becker, Carl; Price, Julie C

    2014-06-30

    Impulsivity and aggressiveness are personality traits associated with a vulnerability to suicidal behavior. Behavioral expression of these traits differs by gender and has been related to central serotonergic function. We assessed the relationships between serotonin-2A receptor function, gender, and personality traits in borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder characterized by impulsive-aggression and recurrent suicidal behavior. Participants, who included 33 BPD patients and 27 healthy controls (HC), were assessed for Axis I and II disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the International Personality Disorders Examination, and with the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-Revised for BPD. Depressed mood, impulsivity, aggression, and temperament were assessed with standardized measures. Positron emission tomography with [(18)F]altanserin as ligand and arterial blood sampling was used to determine the binding potentials (BPND) of serotonin-2A receptors in 11 regions of interest. Data were analyzed using Logan graphical analysis, controlling for age and non-specific binding. Among BPD subjects, aggression, Cluster B co-morbidity, antisocial PD, and childhood abuse were each related to altanserin binding. BPND values predicted impulsivity and aggression in BPD females (but not BPD males), and in HC males (but not HC females.) Altanserin binding was greater in BPD females than males in every contrast, but it did not discriminate suicide attempters from non-attempters. Region-specific differences in serotonin-2A receptor binding related to diagnosis and gender predicted clinical expression of aggression and impulsivity. Vulnerability to suicidal behavior in BPD may be related to serotonin-2A binding through expression of personality risk factors.

  2. Comorbid personality disorders among patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nahathai Wongpakaran, Tinakon Wongpakaran, Vudhichai Boonyanaruthee, Manee Pinyopornpanish, Suthi Intaprasert Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: To investigate the personality disorders (PDs diagnosed in patients with depressive disorders.Material and methods: This study included a cross-sectional analysis, and was an extension of the Thai Study of Affective Disorder (THAISAD project. Eighty-five outpatients with depressive disorders were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess for depression, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision and using the Thai version of the Structured Clinical Interview for PDs to assess for PD.Results: Seventy-seven percent of the patients had at least one PD, 40% had one PD and 60% had two or more PDs (mixed cluster. The most common PDs found were borderline PD (20% and obsessive–compulsive PD (10.6%, while the occurrence of avoidant PD was low when compared to the findings of previous, related studies. Among the mixed cluster, cluster A combined with cluster C was the common mix. Both dysthymic disorder and double depression were found to have a higher proportion of PDs than major depressive disorder (85.7% versus 76.1%. Dependent PD was found to be less common in this study than in previous studies, including those carried out in Asia.Conclusion: The prevalence of PDs among those with depressive disorder varied, and only borderline PD seems to be consistently high within and across cultures. Mixed cluster plays a prominent role in depression, so more attention should be paid to patients in this category. Keywords: personality disorders, depressive disorder, prevalence, Asian, mixed cluster, SCID-II

  3. An Integrative Dimensional Classification of Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A.; Livesley, W. John; Clark, Lee Anna

    2009-01-01

    Psychological assessment research concerns how to describe psychological dysfunction in ways that are both valid and useful. Recent advances in assessment research hold the promise of facilitating significant improvements in description and diagnosis. One such contribution is in the classification of personality disorder symptomatology. The…

  4. Increased serum prolactin in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Korkmaz, Sevda; Ustundag, Bilal; Ozkan, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Although there is an important interaction between serotonergic system, prolactin and suicidal behavior, and impulsivity, no investigation examined the prolactin values in borderline personality disorder in which suicidal behavior and impulsivity are core symptom dimensions. In this context, in the present investigation, we planned to measure serum prolactin levels in the patients with borderline personality disorder. The study comprised 15 patients with borderline personality disorder and 15 healthy controls. Prolactin values were measured in both patients and control subjects. The patients had abnormally higher mean value of prolactin compared to those of healthy controls (48.66 ± 36.48 mg/dl for patients vs. 15.20 ± 7.81 mg/dl for healthy controls). There was no correlation between prolactin values and any demographic variables for both the patients and control subjects. In conclusion, our present results suggest that prolactin values increased in the patients with borderline personality disorder and are required to be replicated by more comprehensive and detailed further studies to decipher the exact roles of prolactin increase.

  5. Reversible antisocial behavior in ventromedial prefrontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon, Agnès; Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Laguitton, Virginie; Chauvel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Frontal lobe dysfunction is known to be associated with impairment in social behavior. We investigated the link between severe pharmacoresistant frontal lobe epilepsy and antisocial trait. We studied four patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving the prefrontal cortex, presenting abnormal interictal social behavior. Noninvasive investigations (video-EEG, PET, MRI) and intracerebral recording (stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)) were performed as part of a presurgical assessment. Comprehensive psychiatric and cognitive evaluation was performed pre- and postoperatively for frontal lobe epilepsy, with at least 7years of follow-up. All patients shared a characteristic epilepsy pattern: (1) chronic severe prefrontal epilepsy with daily seizures and (2) an epileptogenic zone as defined by intracerebral recording involving the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial PFC, and the posterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex, with early propagation to contralateral prefrontal and ipsilateral medial temporal structures. All patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV) of antisocial personality disorder, which proved to be reversible following seizure control. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving a prefrontal network is associated with antisocial personality. We hypothesize that the occurrence of frequent seizures in this region over a prolonged period produces functional damage leading to impaired prefrontal control of social behavior. This functional damage is reversible since successful epilepsy surgery markedly improved antisocial behavior in these patients. The results are in line with previous reports of impairment of social and moral behavior following ventromedial frontal lobe injury.

  6. A synopsis of the WPA Educational Program on Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Erik; Ronningstam, Elsa; MILLON, THEODORE

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the headlines of the Educational Program on Personality Disorders produced by the WPA Section on Personality Disorders and the International Society on the Study of Personality Disorders. Lifelong personality traits serve as a substrate and a context for understanding more florid and distinct forms of psychopathology. Personality disorders affect at least 10% of the population, and the direct and indirect social costs associated with crime, substance abuse, increased ne...

  7. Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Somatoform Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijke, A.; Ford, J.D.; Van der Hart, O.; Van Son, M.J.M.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Buerhing, M.

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS), also known as Complex posttraumatic stress disorder, was assessed in a sample (N = 472) of adult psychiatric patients with confirmed diagnoses of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Somatoform Disorders (SoD), comorbid BPD + SoD, or Af

  8. ADHD in adolescents with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortese Samuele

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of a comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD diagnosis in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, and its impact on the clinical presentation of BPD in adolescents, and to determine which type of impulsivity specifically characterizes adolescents with BPD-ADHD. Methods ADHD diagnoses were sought in a sample of 85 DSM-IV BPD adolescents drawn from the EURNET BPD. Axis-I and -II disorders were determined with the K-SADS-PL and the SIDP-IV, respectively. Impulsivity was assessed with the BIS-11. Results 11% (N = 9 of BPD participants had a current ADHD diagnosis. BPD-ADHD adolescents showed higher prevalence of Disruptive disorders (Chi2 = 9.09, p = 0.01 and a non-significant trend for a higher prevalence of other cluster B personality disorders (Chi2 = 2.70, p = 0.08. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between Attentional/Cognitive impulsivity scores and ADHD (Wald Z = 6.69; p = 0.01; Exp(B = 2.02, CI 95% 1.19-3.45. Conclusions Comorbid ADHD influences the clinical presentation of adolescents with BPD and is associated with higher rates of disruptive disorders, with a trend towards a greater likelihood of cluster B personality disorders and with higher levels of impulsivity, especially of the attentional/cognitive type. A subgroup of BPD patients may exhibit developmentally driven impairments of the inhibitory system persisting since childhood. Specific interventions should be recommended for this subsample of BPD adolescents.

  9. Suppresion of aggression in regard of some personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article people with depressive, dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and people without personality disorder are compared in regard of the suppression of aggression that shows itself in physical symptoms (i.e. nail biting or in the interpersonal behaviour (lack of assertiveness. The data from the sample (138 people from psychiatric ambulatory care unit were got with a self-evaluation questionnaire for personality disorders. The results show significant differences between obsessive-compulsive disorded and persons without any personality disorder in regard of the presence of symptoms and significant differences between depressive and dependent disorded persons in comparation with people without any personality disorder in regard of the presence of symptoms and behaviour patterns. The data also suggest, that people with dependent personality disorder show a higher degree of supression of aggression in behaviour patterns than people with depressive personality disorder and that the people with depressive personality disorder show a higher degree of supression of aggression in behaviour patterns as people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. There were no significant differences between different personality disorded persons regarding symptoms of aggressive suppression. The aim of this article is in better differential diagnostics between personality disorders mentioned.

  10. Substance Use Disorders and Borderline Personality: Common Bedfellows

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the empirical literature, substance use disorders are commonly comorbid with a number of psychiatric disorders, including the personality disorders and especially borderline personality disorder. With regard to borderline personality disorder, eight studies of varying sample types (e.g., inpatient, outpatient, community) indicate prevalence rates of substance use disorders from 14 percent (current rate) to 72 percent (lifetime rate). As expected, lifetime prevalence rates of subs...

  11. Personality disorders from a phenomenological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr Zengers, O

    2008-01-01

    Different studies have questioned the capacity of the categorical diagnostics to establish a clear distinction between the existence or not of a determined personality disorder. The dimensional perspective would approach more to reality, in the measure that it tries to measure the different intensity degrees in which these disorders are present in the patients. But its application is very laborious and besides, presupposes that those categories whose nuances it pretends to measure really exist. The foresaid leads us to appeal to phenomenological perspective, which seems to be more adequate for the study of complex realities, as it is the case of the personality and its disorders. The essential features of the phenomenological method in the sense of Husserl are described, as well as his contribution to the study of personality disorders. This can be summarized in three fundamental points: the ideal types, introduced in psychiatry by Karl Jaspers, the existential types, by Ludwig Binswanger, and the dialectic typologies and polarities, by Wolfgang Blankenburg and the undersigned. This author defines and develops each one of these concepts, aiming to show their advantages with respect to the categorical and dimensional systems.

  12. DSM-5 and personality disorders: where did axis II go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trestman, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has seen a period of extensive research into the etiology, pathophysiology, assessment, and treatment of personality disorders. Concomitantly, a group of experts in the field were brought together to form the Personality and Personality Disorder Work Group for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), charged with the responsibility of updating the diagnostic approach to personality disorders. This article is a review of some of the history of the American Psychiatry Association's approach to the recognition and diagnosis of personality disorders over the past half century, the process of developing the recommendations for a DSM-5 personality disorder diagnosis and the elimination of the multiaxial system, and how DSM-5 has left us with essentially no changes of relevance to the practice of forensic psychiatry in the process for diagnosing personality disorders or in the specific diagnoses of personality disorder.

  13. Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Scott H; Young, Jeffrey E

    2006-04-01

    This article presents the Schema Therapy (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003) approach to the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Schema therapy draws on the cognitive-behavioral, attachment, psychodynamic, and emotion-focused traditions and conceptualizes patients who have borderline personality disorder as being under the sway of five modes or aspects of the self. The goal of the therapy is to reorganize this inner structure. To this end, there are four core mechanisms of change that are used in this therapy: (1) limited reparenting, (2) experiential imagery and dialogue work, (3) cognitive restructuring and education, and (4) behavioral pattern breaking. These interventions are used during the three phases of treatment: (1) bonding and emotional regulation, (2) schema mode change, and (3) development of autonomy.

  14. [Construction of educational software about personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Nadja Cristiane Lappann; Carneiro, Ana Luíza Marques; Almeida, Camila Souza; Pereira, Cíntia Braga Silva

    2011-01-01

    The study describes the experience of building educational software in the area of mental health. The software was developed to enable the nursing student identify personality disorders. In this process, we applied the pedagogical framework of Vygotsky and the theoretical framework of the diagnostic criteria defined by DSM-IV. From these references were identified personality disorders characters in stories and / or children's movies. The software development bank was built with multimedia graphics data, sound and explanatory. The software developed like educational game like questions with increasing levels of difficulty. The software was developed with Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007. It is believed in the validity of this strategy for teaching-learning to the area of mental health nursing. PMID:22664618

  15. Borderline personality disorder and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Mathell; Schuurmans, Hanneke; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Smeets, Guus; Verkoeijen, Peter; Arntz, Arnoud

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigated emotional intelligence (EI) in borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that patients with BPD (n = 61) compared with patients with other personality disorders (PDs; n = 69) and nonpatients (n = 248) would show higher scores on the ability to perceive emotions and impairments in the ability to regulate emotions. EI was assessed with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso [New York: MHS, 2002]). As compared with the PD group and the nonpatient group, the patients with BPD displayed the anticipated deficits in their ability to understand, whereas no differences emerged with respect to their ability to perceive, use, and regulate emotions. In addition, a negative relationship was found between the severity of BPD and total EI score. However, this relationship disappeared when intelligence quotient was partialled out. These results suggest that BPD is associated with emotion understanding deficits, whereas temporary severity of BPD is associated with emotion regulation deficits.

  16. Developmental antecedents of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeland, Margareth I; Torgersen, Svenn

    2004-01-01

    Developmental antecedents of borderline personality disorders (BPDs) were examined in 25 DSM-IV-diagnosed subjects with BPD and 107 non-borderline control subjects on the basis of medical records and 28 years follow-up. Abuse, neglect, environmental instability, paternal psychopathology, and lower score on protective factors differentiated significantly between the groups. Environmental instability and lower score on protective factors such as artistic talents, superior school performance, above average intellectual skills, and talents in other areas were found to be independent predictors of BPD diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that both abuse and neglect, unpredictable and unstable early environment, as well as deficit in protective factors may substantially contribute to the development of BPD in persons constitutionally predisposed for the disorder. The results of the study also suggest that future research should address the impact of social and cultural context, as well as the absence of protective factors, on the development of the BPD.

  17. Psicopatía, otros trastornos de personalidad, abuso de sustancias y violencia/Psychopathy, personality disorders, substance abuse and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Garrido Genovés (España

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad está bien establecido que ciertos trastornos mentales incrementan el riesgo de realizar comportamientos violentos. En particular esto es cierto para el abuso de sustancias y el grupo B de los trastornos de personalidad del DSM-IV (Garrido, 2003. También tendríamos que incluir en esta relación —aunque en menor medida— los trastornos incluidos en el espectro de la esquizofrenia, en particular los síntomas paranoides de amenaza y de control, y en general el estilo cognitivo de personalidad paranoide (Nestor, 2002. No obstante, yo me referiré tan sólo a la relación existente entre el mencionado grupo B y el abuso de sustancias y su vinculación con el delito y la violencia. Más en concreto, atenderé especialmente, dentro de ese grupo B, al trastorno antisocial de la personalidad y a la psicopatía (aunque no son términos todo intercambiables, como luego veremos y su capacidad para predecir tales comportamientos desviados de violencia y conducta antisocial. Currently it is well established that certain mental disorders increase the risk for violent behaviour. This is in particular true for the Group B of the DSM-IV (2003 Garrido personality disorders and substance abuse. Would also have to include disorders included in the spectrum of schizophrenia, paranoid and control symptoms in particular, and in general the cognitive style of personality in this relationship -although in smaller measure- paranoid (Nestor, 2002. I refer only to the relationship between the Group (b and substance abuse and its link with crime and violence. More specifically, within that group B, the antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy (although they are not all interchangeable terms, as we shall see and its ability to predict such behavior diverted from violence and antisocial behaviour.

  18. Personality Disorder in Perpetrators of Homicide

    OpenAIRE

    Swinson, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Background The National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness has been collecting detailed clinical data since 1996 on a national sample of people who commit homicide, including psychiatric reports prepared for court. From 1996-2006, the Inquiry was notified of 5808 homicides in England and Wales. A diagnosis of personality disorder was made in 16% (406) of cases in psychiatric reports prepared for court. Given prevalence figures of 50-90% for...

  19. Historical roots of histrionic personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Novais, Filipa; Araújo, Andreia; Godinho, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Histrionic Personality Disorder is one of the most ambiguous diagnostic categories in psychiatry. Hysteria is a classical term that includes a wide variety of psychopathological states. Ancient Egyptians and Greeks blamed a displaced womb, for many women’s afflictions. Several researchers from the 18th and 19th centuries studied this theme, namely, Charcot who defined hysteria as a “neurosis” with an organic basis and Sigmund Freud who redefined “neurosis” as a re-experience of past psycholog...

  20. Historical Roots of Histrionic Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Filipa eNovais; Andreia Monteiro Araújo; Paula eGodinho

    2015-01-01

    Histrionic Personality Disorder is one of the most ambiguous diagnostic categories in psychiatry. Hysteria is a classical term that includes a wide variety of psychopathological states.Ancient Egyptians and Greeks blamed a displaced womb, for many women’s afflictions. Several researchers from the 18th and 19th centuries studied this theme, namely, Charcot who defined hysteria as a neurosis with an organic basis and Sigmund Freud who redefined neurosis as a re-experience of past psychological t...

  1. Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A Current Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rosell, Daniel R.; Futterman, Shira E.; McMaster, Antonia; Siever, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functi...

  2. Antisocial Peer Affiliation and Externalizing Disorders in the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Selection versus Socialization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Goodman, Rebecca J.; Erath, Stephen A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated both socialization and selection effects for the relationship between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing problems in adolescence. Less research has evaluated such effects postadolescence. In this study, a cross-lagged panel analysis was used to evaluate the extent of "socialization" (i.e., the…

  3. Co-occurrence of dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A; Ferrell, Lynn; Schroeder, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The literature indicates that, among individuals with borderline personality disorder, pathological dissociation correlates with a wide range of impairments and difficulties in psychological function. It also predicts a poorer response to dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. We hypothesized that (a) dissociative identity disorder commonly co-occurs with borderline personality disorder and vice versa, and (b) individuals who meet criteria for both disorders have more comorbidity and trauma than individuals who meet criteria for only 1 disorder. We interviewed a sample of inpatients in a hospital trauma program using 3 measures of dissociation. The most symptomatic group was those participants who met criteria for both borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder on the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, followed by those who met criteria for dissociative identity disorder only, then those with borderline personality disorder only, and finally those with neither disorder. Greater attention should be paid to the relationship between borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder.

  4. DSM-5-classificatie van persoonlijkheidsstoornissen bij ouderen [DSM-5 classification of personality disorders in older persons

    OpenAIRE

    Alphen, S.P. van; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is generally agreed that personality disorders are an important topic in old-age psychiatry, DSM-5 has paid relatively little attention to older persons affected with this severe mental disorder. AIM: To look closely and carefully at several aspects of the way in which DSM-5 defines personality disorders relating to older persons. METHOD: We make a critical evaluation of the description of personality disorders given in DSM-5. RESULTS: First of all, we question whether...

  5. Emotional Intelligence and Personality in Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie P. Lizeretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders (AD are by far the most frequent psychiatric disorders, and according to epidemiologic data their chronicity, comorbidities, and negative prognostic constitute a public health problem. This is why it is necessary to continue exploring the factors which contribute to the incidence, appearance, and maintenance of this set of disorders. The goal of this study has been to analyze the possible relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI and personality disorders (PersD in outpatients suffering from AD. The sample was made up of 146 patients with AD from the Mental Health Center at the Health Consortium of Maresme, who were evaluated with the STAI, MSCEIT, and MCMI-II questionnaires. The main findings indicate that 89,4% of the patients in the sample met the criteria for the diagnosis of some PersD. The findings also confirm that patients with AD present a low EI, especially because of difficulties in the skills of emotional comprehension and regulation, and the lack of these skills is related to a higher level of anxiety and the presence of PersD. These findings suggest the need to consider emotional skills of EI and personality as central elements for the diagnosis and treatment of AD.

  6. Treatment of borderline personality disorder and co-occurring anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Harned, Melanie S.; Valenstein, Helen R.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent among individuals with borderline personality disorder, with comorbidity rates of up to 90%. Anxiety disorders have been found to reduce the likelihood of achieving remission from borderline personality disorder over time and to increase the risk of suicide and self-injury in this population. Evidence-based treatments for borderline personality disorder have not sufficiently focused on targeting anxiety disorders, and their effects on these disorders are...

  7. The relationship between personality disorder traits and reactive versus proactive motivation for aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cima, Maaike; Lemmens, Anke

    2015-09-30

    There is a strong link between personality disorders (PDs) and aggression. This is reflected in high prevalence rates of PD diagnoses in forensic samples, and in several diagnostic criteria of PDs directly referring to elevated levels of aggression. Aggression can stem from two distinct types of motivation; reactive or impulsive aggression that serves as a defensive reaction to provocation, and proactive or premeditated aggression used to gain extrinsic benefits. Although some clinical conditions like antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic PDs or PD traits, have been empirically linked to reactive and/or proactive aggression, the current study pioneers assessing the relationship between reactive and proactive aggression and traits of all 10 PDs. A mixed sample of patient and non-patient (N=238) participants were administered with the SCID II to assess the level of PD traits; they also completed the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire to determine levels of reactive and proactive aggression. Results showed that paranoid PD traits were positively related to reactive aggression, whereas proactive aggression was uniquely related to antisocial PD traits. This highlights the importance of differentiating between distinct motivations for aggression in PD samples. PMID:26213380

  8. The relationship between personality disorder traits and reactive versus proactive motivation for aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cima, Maaike; Lemmens, Anke

    2015-09-30

    There is a strong link between personality disorders (PDs) and aggression. This is reflected in high prevalence rates of PD diagnoses in forensic samples, and in several diagnostic criteria of PDs directly referring to elevated levels of aggression. Aggression can stem from two distinct types of motivation; reactive or impulsive aggression that serves as a defensive reaction to provocation, and proactive or premeditated aggression used to gain extrinsic benefits. Although some clinical conditions like antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic PDs or PD traits, have been empirically linked to reactive and/or proactive aggression, the current study pioneers assessing the relationship between reactive and proactive aggression and traits of all 10 PDs. A mixed sample of patient and non-patient (N=238) participants were administered with the SCID II to assess the level of PD traits; they also completed the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire to determine levels of reactive and proactive aggression. Results showed that paranoid PD traits were positively related to reactive aggression, whereas proactive aggression was uniquely related to antisocial PD traits. This highlights the importance of differentiating between distinct motivations for aggression in PD samples.

  9. Personality and mood correlates of avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Björn

    2002-04-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (APD) has been recognized as prevalent and clinically important; however, it is not clear how APD maps onto established personality and mood dimensions. In this cross-sectional survey study, 365 college students completed questionnaires assessing APD features and theoretically relevant personality and mood dimensions. Based on these self-report data, 6.6% may meet DSM-IV criteria for APD. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that APD features were associated with introversion, neuroticism, low self-esteem, and pessimistic expectancies. Additionally, APD features were linked with self-reports of elevated emotional responsiveness to threats and reduced emotional responsiveness to incentives (the behavioral inhibition system and behavioral activation system scales). After controlling for the effects of other personality, temperament, and cognitive measures, affective distress (i.e., anger, anxiety, and depression) was no longer related to APD. Results are consistent with APD models that emphasize the joint influences of emotional vulnerability and social-cognitive triggering and sustaining factors. PMID:12004493

  10. An exploration of links between early parenting experiences and personality disorder type and disordered personality functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Roy, K; Wilhelm, K; Mitchell, P; Austin, M P; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D

    1999-01-01

    Reports of early parenting were assessed using two measures, the Parental Bonding Index (PBI) and the Measure of Parenting Style (MOPS), in a sample of 265 patients with DSM-defined major depressive disorder. Psychiatrists then rated the extent to which sample members evidenced the personality "styles" underpinning 15 separate personality disorders, returning personality vignette scores. The extent of disordered functioning was also assessed across "parameters" and "domains" by psychiatrists, referrers, and family members, using a range of measures. Those with higher scores on vignettes measuring borderline, anxious, depressive, and self-defeating personality style rated parents as uncaring, overcontrolling, and abusive. When vignettes were consolidated into scores akin to the DSM clusters, the most consistent links between perceived dysfunctional parenting were with the Cluster C (anxious), and Cluster B (dramatic) styles and were nonsignificant for Cluster A (eccentric) style. Meeting criteria for an increasing number of personality disorder clusters was associated with increasing levels of adverse parenting. Multiple regression analyses indicated that disordered functioning (as assessed by the three independent rater groups) was most distinctly associated with paternal indifference and maternal overcontrol. PMID:10633316

  11. [Borderline personality disorders: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allilaire, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Borderline personality disorders are complex clinical states with highly polymorphic symptoms and signs, leading to delays in their diagnosis and treatment. All international classifications emphasize certain clinical criteria such as unstable identity and interpersonal relationships, feelings of emptiness or boredom, and pathological impulsiveness. The prevalence is about 2%, with a female-male sex ratio of 2 or 3 to 1. Both adolescents and adults may be affected There is a high risk of suicide, addictive behaviors, eating disorders, and criminality. These individuals frequently have a history of trauma in early childhood, such as separation, loss, physical or sexual abuse, or affective privation. Subjective signs and symptoms are particularly important in the diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation, and this requires an empathic and subtle approach. Standardized and semi-structured interviews may help to identify comorbidities such as thymic disorders, anxiety, addiction, eating disorders, and, in some cases, psychotic symptoms. The psychiatric bio-psycho-social model takes into account multiple pathogenic factors, such as trauma during early development, temperamental instability and other emotional disorders, as well as psychosocial, neurobiological (5HT etc.) and genetic vulnerabilities. Treatment requires optimal integration of psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic approaches. Emergency intervention must be available in case of delirious or suicidal behavior The clinical course is often lengthy and complex, but outcome may be favorable, provided the principal risk--suicide--is correctly managed, PMID:23815019

  12. The Coraline Effect: The Misdiagnosis of Personality Disorders in College Students Who Grew up with a Personality Disordered Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatone, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    College students may be misdiagnosed as personality disordered when in fact their problems are better explained by their upbringing. Growing up with a personality disordered parent may cause them to initially present with what appear to be personality disordered traits due to issues such as not learning adequate coping skills. Accurate diagnosis…

  13. Childhood trauma and personality disorder: toward a biological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Royce

    2006-02-01

    Cross-sectional and prospective associations of personality disorder with childhood trauma provide an important clue regarding the biological mechanism of personality disorder. In this review, empirical literature from several domains is summarized. These include relevant findings from behavioral genetics, preclinical models of early life parental care, and clinical translational studies of personality disorder. Identification of the biological mechanism by which childhood trauma exerts an effect on personality disorder may require modification of the conceptualization of personality disorder, either as a set of categories or dimensions.

  14. Where is the Personality in Personality Disorder Assessment? A Comparison Across Four Sets of Personality Disorder Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobst, Krista K.; Ayearst, Lindsay E.; Salekin, Randall T.

    2004-01-01

    The present research examined the amount and kind of personality measured within four sets of personality disorder (PD) scales. Three samples of undergraduate students (Ns = 326, 537, and 617) completed at least one PD measure and a combined interpersonal circumplex model (ICM) and five-factor model (FFM) measure. The FFM dimensions were found to…

  15. [Diagnosis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy for personality disordered persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakawa, Kuninao

    2011-01-01

    The author uses PubMed searches on clinical studies on personality disorders and finds that the borderline personality disorder is most extensively researched. Mary Zanarini summeries there are four kinds of psychotherapies that are proved to be effective in the treatment of BPD patients, including mentalization based treatment, transference focused therapy, dialectic behavior therapy and schema focused therapy. They are all effective to improve the severity of impulsivity and self-destructiveness. The author then reviews McGlashan's series of extensive follow-up studies on BPD and other mental disorders at Chestnut Lodge back in 1980's. The data tells us that both symptomatic stability and level of social adaptation in the long term outcome of BPDs varied to be very poor to recovered. The outcome seem to be heavily relied on the intimate relationship BPDs could enjoy or not. This finding was also noted in a five year Tokyo BPDs follow-up studies by Moriya, Ikuta and Minakawa in 1990's. Both impulsivity and self-destructiveness get always worse along with loss or threatened loss of love object. Therefore all psychotherapies for BPDs should be directed to improve their pathological object relations although it would be extremely difficult to attain. The author finally points it out that the primary prevention of BPDs should be designed and begin a program on a trial basis in a community soon because there are many empirical studies to show the mothers with BPD tend to be frightened by her baby and/or frighten her baby and this pattern of communication is the first epigenetic expression of BPDs.

  16. Schizotypal personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Futterman, Shira E; McMaster, Antonia; Siever, Larry J

    2014-07-01

    The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functional impairment, heritability and genetics, working memory and cognitive impairments, social-affective disturbances, and neurobiology. Additionally, we examine the challenges associated with treating patients with SPD, as well as clinical recommendations. Finally, we address future directions and areas in need of further exploration.

  17. Psychopathic personality in adolescence : Genetic and environmental influences

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathy, or psychopathic personality, is a personality disorder characterized by a constellation of deviant interpersonal, affective, and behavioral dimensions. It has consistently been shown that the psychopathic personality can be used to understand the development of antisocial behavior in adolescents. Less research has been devoted to exploring the underlying etiology of psychopathic personality. There has also been a lack of genetically sensitive longitudinal studie...

  18. The relationship between attachment styles and Cluster B personality disorders in prisoners and forensic inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Irma G H; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between attachment styles and Cluster B personality disorders were examined among prisoners, forensic inpatients and controls from the general population. Forensic inpatients and prisoners reported significantly less frequently the secure attachment style (Relationship Questionnaire) and significantly more the fearful attachment style compared to the normal controls. Both forensic groups could not be distinguished from each other. Further, prisoners, forensic inpatients and controls could not be differentiated on the basis of the dismissing nor the preoccupied attachment style. With respect to personality pathology, almost all relationships between Cluster C pathology, on the one hand, and attachment styles, on the other, were significant. Cluster A pathology was clearly related to the secure and fearful attachment style. With respect to cluster B pathology, the results were more specific but also less clear. The results were strongly dependent on the way the personality pathology variables were treated, as either categorical or dimensional. None of the cluster B personality pathology variables were associated with the fearful attachment style and histrionic personality pathology was negatively associated with the dismissing attachment style. Antisocial personality features were associated with a dismissing attachment style. Borderline personality pathology, when treated as a categorical variable, was significantly related to the preoccupied attachment style. These results show that (1) cluster A and cluster C pathology are more strongly associated with attachment than cluster B, (2) treating personality data as either dimensional or categorical is of major importance to the conclusions that can be drawn, (3) it is important to control for the influence of co-morbid personality pathology when examining the relationship between (Cluster B) personality pathology and attachment.

  19. Mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lenkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Until the end of the nineties last century personality disorders could not be diagnosed before the age of eighteen. Nevertheless, the results of studies published in the last decade have revealed that personality disorders can be observed in children and adolescents and that personality disorders diagnosed in adult patients had been present as early as in childhood. The knowledge of possible mechanisms shaping personality disorders in childhood is unsatisfactory and needs to be expanded. Developmental psychology explains the development of abnormal personality through inappropriate attachment patterns and abnormal transitions between developmental phases. Genetic and temperamental factors are also important in the aetiology of personality disorders as well as early maladaptive schemas resulting from personal experiences and interactions with others. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge on the mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in childhood and adolescence.

  20. Mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkiewicz, Kamila; Srebnicki, Tomasz; Bryńska, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Until the end of the nineties last century personality disorders could not be diagnosed before the age of eighteen. Nevertheless, the results of studies published in the last decade have revealed that personality disorders can be observed in children and adolescents and that personality disorders diagnosed in adult patients had been present as early as in childhood. The knowledge of possible mechanisms shaping personality disorders in childhood is unsatisfactory and needs to be expanded. Developmental psychology explains the development of abnormal personality through inappropriate attachment patterns and abnormal transitions between developmental phases. Genetic and temperamental factors are also important in the aetiology of personality disorders as well as early maladaptive schemas resulting from personal experiences and interactions with others. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge on the mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in childhood and adolescence. PMID:27556119

  1. Avoidant Personality Disorder is a Separable Schizophrenia Spectrum Personality Disorder even when Controlling for the Presence of Paranoid and Schizotypal Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelson, D. L.; Nuechterlein, K. H.; Asarnow, R. A.; Payne, D. L.; Subotnik, K. L.; Jacobson, K.C.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    It is unresolved whether avoidant personality disorder (APD) is an independent schizophrenia (Sz)-spectrum personality disorder (PD). Some studies find APD and social anxiety symptoms (Sxs) to be a separable dimension of psychopathology in relatives (Rels) of schizophrenics while other studies find avoidant Sxs to be correlated with schizotypal and paranoid Sxs.

  2. Personality disorders and social functioning in depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, S; Dekker, J; Duijsens, [No Value; de Jonghe, F; de Jong, P; Schouws, S

    2000-01-01

    There is a high level of comorbidity of personality disorders with major depression. Patients who suffer from both depression and an axis II disorder are, in general, more severely ill and ill for longer periods. The presence of personality disorders also has a negative influence on the social funct

  3. Comorbid personality disorders and substance use disorders of mentally ill homicide offenders: a structured clinical study on dual and triple diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkonen, Anu; Kotilainen, Irma; Joyal, Christian C; Tiihonen, Jari

    2004-01-01

    Comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs) increase the risk of homicide by persons with major mental disorders (MMDs). However, there are no published data from clinical interviews or lifetime objective documents on the prevalence of lifetime personality disorder (PD) or SUD among a comprehensive sample of mentally ill homicide offenders. Therefore, a nationally representative sample of men with MMD (n = 90) who had committed or attempted homicide was assessed using the research version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II Disorders. Lifetime documents, records, and questionnaires from persons who knew the subjects since childhood were used. Seventy-eight percent of the mentally ill homicide offenders were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 17 percent with schizoaffective disorder, and 5 percent with other psychosis. A lifetime SUD was detected in 74 percent and alcohol use disorder in 72 percent. PD accounted for 51 percent, in 47 percent as antisocial personality disorder (APD). All subjects diagnosed with PD had SUD. Only 25 percent of the subjects had neither SUD nor PD. Among persons with dual diagnoses (MMD and SUD), about two-thirds had PD or APD. These results indicated that there were two-thirds major diagnostic categories of psychotic homicide offenders: about one-half had triple diagnosis (APD + SUD + MMD), one-quarter had "pure" dual diagnosis (SUD + MMD), and one-quarter had "pure" MMD. The fourth possible category, "APD + MMD but no SUD," was not found. The prevention of severe violence by persons with MMD necessitates effective treatments for those with dual diagnosis who also have a history of APD. PMID:15176762

  4. The Relationship between Concurrent Substance Use Disorders and Eating Disorders with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Courbasson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current pilot study investigated whether patients with concurrent substance use disorders and eating disorders (SUD and ED who experienced a reduction in SUD and ED symptoms following treatment for SUD and ED also experienced a reduction in personality disorder (PD symptoms. Method: Twenty patients with SUD and ED and PD were assessed pre and post treatment using clinical interviews, self-report questionnaires, and a therapist questionnaire on DSM-IV-TR symptoms for PD. Results: Symptoms for the personality disorders were reduced following treatment. This reduction was correlated with a decrease in the number of symptoms of ED at post treatment. Discussion: Chronic concurrent SUD and ED may make it difficult to separate PD symptoms from co-occurring disorders. Many features attributed to PDs may be reduced when problematic substance use and disordered eating are addressed, a fact that may increase clinician and patients’optimism about therapeutic change.

  5. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder and substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Walsh, Emily; Rosenstein, Lia; Zimmerman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are disabling and life-threatening conditions. Both disorders share relevant comorbidities, particularly the risk of having a lifetime substance use disorder (SUD). We tested the hypothesis that patients with both BD type I (BDI) or II (BDII) and BPD would have a higher rate of SUD than would patients with either disorder alone. A total of 3651 psychiatric patients were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, axis I and II disorders. A total of 63 patients were diagnosed with both BD and BPD, and these patients were significantly more likely to have a SUD compared with BDII patients without BPD (76% vs. 50%, χ = 9.69, p disorders increased the risk of having a SUD especially when compared with BDII alone. PMID:25494335

  6. Personality Pathology of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder without Accompanying Intellectual Impairment in Comparison to Adults with Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Sandra; Westphal, Linda; Ritter, Kathrin; Heuser, Isabella; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) without accompanying intellectual impairment from personality disorders is often challenging. Identifying personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD might facilitate diagnostic procedure. We recruited a sample of 59 adults with ASD without accompanying intellectual impairment, 62…

  7. Rating of personality disorder features in popular movie characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schliewe Sanna

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tools for training professionals in rating personality disorders are few. We present one such tool: rating of fictional persons. However, before ratings of fictional persons can be useful, we need to know whether raters get the same results, when rating fictional characters. Method Psychology students at the University of Copenhagen (N = 8 rated four different movie characters from four movies based on three systems: Global rating scales representing each of the 10 personality disorders in the DSM-IV, a criterion list of all criteria for all DSM-IV personality disorders in random order, and the Ten Item Personality Inventory for rating the five-factor model. Agreement was estimated based on intraclass-correlation. Results Agreement for rating scales for personality disorders ranged from 0.04 to 0.54. For personality disorder features based on DSM-IV criteria, agreement ranged from 0.24 to 0.89, and agreement for the five-factor model ranged from 0.05 to 0.88. The largest multivariate effect was observed for criteria count followed by the TIPI, followed by rating scales. Raters experienced personality disorder criteria as the easiest, and global personality disorder scales as the most difficult, but with significant variation between movies. Conclusion Psychology students with limited or no clinical experience can agree well on the personality traits of movie characters based on watching the movie. Rating movie characters may be a way to practice assessment of personality.

  8. [Neurobiological aspects of reactive and proactive violence in antisocial personality disorder and "psychopathy"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gerhard; Strüber, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Impulsive-reactive violent offenders show increased autonomic activity in response to negative emotional and threatening stimuli. A volume reduction and/or activity decrease of frontal brain structures associated with impulse control and the regulation of fear and anger are likewise found in combination with a fear-related hyperactivity of the amygdala. In addition, impulsive aggression is facilitated by variants of gene polymorphisms influencing the serotonergic system. Conversely, proactive-instrumental violent offender with psychopathy, who are characterized by a lack of empathy and remorse, demonstrate an autonomic hypo-responsivity as well as dysfunctions of the amygdala and of cortical regions related to empathic and social behavior. Developmentally, aggressive children exhibit temperamental differences from early childhood on that are characteristic of a developmental pathway towards either reactive or proactive violence later in life. Exposure to negative environmental factors like ineffective parenting or childhood maltreatment has been related to a heightened risk for developing reactive violence. A developmental trajectory of proactive violence, however, has been related to a mostly genetically determined callous unemotional temperament of the child that disrupts the parental socialization efforts during childhood.

  9. Suppresion of aggression in regard of some personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš Židanik

    2002-01-01

    In this article people with depressive, dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and people without personality disorder are compared in regard of the suppression of aggression that shows itself in physical symptoms (i.e. nail biting) or in the interpersonal behaviour (lack of assertiveness). The data from the sample (138 people from psychiatric ambulatory care unit) were got with a self-evaluation questionnaire for personality disorders. The results show significant difference...

  10. Recognizing borderline personality disorder in the family practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, J R; Saathoff, G B; Bernardo, M J; Barnett, B L

    1995-09-01

    The first step in the management of borderline personality disorder is making the correct diagnosis. A clinical example illustrates symptoms of a patient with borderline personality disorder in a family practice setting. Major characteristics of borderline personality disorder include severe mood instability, fear of abandonment, chronic boredom, self-injury, unstable interpersonal relationships, "splitting," identity instability and borderline rage. Early diagnosis may help prevent potential management problems and possible doctor-patient conflicts. PMID:7653428

  11. Alliance building and narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2012-08-01

    Building a therapeutic alliance with a patient with pathological narcissism or narcissistic personality disorder is a challenging process. A combined alliance building and diagnostic strategy is outlined that promotes patients' motivation and active engagement in identifying their own problems. The main focus is on identifying grandiosity, self-regulatory patterns, and behavioral fluctuations in their social and interpersonal contexts while engaging the patient in meaningful clarifications and collaborative inquiry. A definition of grandiosity as a diagnostic characterological trait is suggested, one that captures self-criticism, inferiority, and fragility in addition to superiority, assertiveness, perfectionism, high ideals, and self-enhancing and self-serving interpersonal behavior. These reformulations serve to expand the spectrum of grandiosity-promoting strivings and activities, capture their fluctuations, and help clinicians attend to narcissistic individuals' internal experiences and motivation as well as to their external presentation and interpersonal self-enhancing, self-serving, controlling, and aggressive behavior. A case example illustrates this process. PMID:22729478

  12. Hypersensitivity in borderline personality disorder during mindreading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Frick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the core symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD is the instability in interpersonal relationships. This might be related to existent differences in mindreading between BPD patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: We examined the behavioural and neurophysiological (fMRI responses of BPD patients and healthy controls (HC during performance of the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test (RMET. RESULTS: Mental state discrimination was significantly better and faster for affective eye gazes in BPD patients than in HC. At the neurophysiological level, this was manifested in a stronger activation of the amygdala and greater activity of the medial frontal gyrus, the left temporal pole and the middle temporal gyrus during affective eye gazes. In contrast, HC subjects showed a greater activation in the insula and the superior temporal gyri. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that BPD patients are highly vigilant to social stimuli, maybe because they resonate intuitively with mental states of others.

  13. Personal identities and disordered eating behaviors in Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen; Ronis, David L

    2010-08-01

    Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz's (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many negative personal identities predict higher eating disorder scores and effects are mediated through the fat self-definition. Characteristics of personal identities may influence internalization of cultural values related to weight. Interventions focused on overall identity may prevent eating disorders in Latinas.

  14. Admissions for personality disorders in Italy from 1988 to 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbui Corrado

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality disorders affect a substantial proportion of the population. It is unclear, however, whether the burden of personality disorders on modern mental health services has been increasing. To fill this gap, we analyzed trends in admissions for personality disorders in Italy from 1988 to 1998. Methods We used the yearly data from the Italian Central Institute of Statistics to analyse trends in the total number of admissions for personality disorders and in the total number of first admissions for personality disorders. Results The absolute number of admissions for personality disorders almost trebled from 1988 to 1998, as well as the proportion of all psychiatric admissions that were for personality disorders. Whilst there has been a marked increase in the absolute number of first admissions, the proportion of all first psychiatric admissions that were for personality disorders showed a steady but modest increase, from 5.7% to 7.6%. Conclusion In Italy, the burden of personality disorders on modern mental health services has been increasing. In terms of public health, these findings highlight the urgent need of developing policies to tackle the increasing demand of care of this difficult-to-treat patient population.

  15. The Personality of Undergraduates with Personality Disorders%人格偏常大学生的人格特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙倩; 陈图农; 徐静; 徐成

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨大学生人格偏常的特点。方法:采用自编一般资料调查表,人格障碍诊断问卷第4版( PDQ+4),大五人格问卷(NEO)简版,对2227名大学本科和高职院校学生施测,分析大学生偏常人格的检出率,比较不同分组大学生的人格差异。结果:①大学生人格偏常检测的阳性率最高为回避型人格障碍(27.0%),最低是反社会人格障碍(6.1%),同时具有3种以上人格偏常比例最大(26.9%);②多种人格偏常在性别、家庭结构、家庭收入,父母亲文化中均有显著性差异;③人格偏常阳性组与非阳性组在NEO的神经质(t=-15.22,P<0.01),随和性(t=2.54,P<0.05)和尽责性(t=-2.44,P<0.05)3个维度上有显著性差异。结论:人格偏常大学生在大五特质中的神经质,随和性和尽责性维度上与人格正常大学生差异明显。%Objective:To explore the characteristics of undergraduates with personality disorders. Methods:Participants were 2227 undergraduates from universities and higher vocational colleges.These students completed a series of inventories including the self-made general information questionnaire,Per-sonality Diagnostic Questionnaire(PDQ+4)and Chinese Big Five Inventory(NEO).The data were ana-lyzed to get the detection rate of deviant personality,and compared differences between personalities in groups.Results:①In PDQ-4,the highest detection rate of personality disorder subtypes was avoidant personality disorder(27.0%)and the lowest was antisocial personality disorder(6.1%).Individuals with more than three personality disorders accounted for 26.9%,the biggest proportion.②The positive group of many types of personality disorders had significant differences with the negative group in gender,family structure,family income and parents'education level.③ The positive group had significant differences with the negative group

  16. Self-esteem and styles of coping with stress versus strategies of planning in people with psychopathic personality disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; KaŸmierczak, Maria; Błażek, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Psychopathy is a notion that has been difficult to define. The operational definition of psychopathy by Hare is one of the most commonly used in psychology and it is usually identified with the scale used to measure this type of personality, which is the Psychopathy Checklist - Revision (PCL-R). PCL-R is composed of two factors: Factor 1 describes a constellation of psychopathic traits considered by many clinicians to be basic for this type of personality, and Factor 2 describes types of behaviour indicating impulsiveness, lack of stability and antisocial lifestyle. The aim of the research was to verify a hypothesis that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress. Material/Methods The group of participants included 30 people at the age of 22–36 convicted with a legally binding sentence. Methods were: 1. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revision (PCL-R); 2. Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ); 3. Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS); 4. Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). Results The participants were diagnosed as psychopaths (PCL-R), and more specifically – as primary psychopaths (APQ). They revealed a grandiose sense of self-worth, increased self-control, impulsive style of functioning, perceived high self-efficacy (which might be considered as a defence mechanism). Psychopaths prefer a coping style focused on emotions and avoidance. Conclusions The hypothesis was confirmed, that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress. PMID:22293875

  17. The Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO): Construction and preleminary research

    OpenAIRE

    Emil Benedik

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the development of the self-report Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO), which was constructed on the basis of DSM-IV classification for personality disorders(American Psychiatric Association, 1994), Beck's theory of dysfunctional cognitive schemas (Beck in Freeman, 1990) and psychoanalytic theories of basic personality structures. We focused on the basic experiencing of self and others, which is characteristic of specific personality type. In regard to these...

  18. Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess personality disorder (PD, emotional intelligence (EI, and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD patients and its comparison with normal controls. Materials and Methods: Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameters, that is, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Mangal EI Inventory, and Locus of Control scale. Obtained responses were scored by using standard scoring procedures and subsequently statistically analyzed by using Chi-square test. Results: AD patients have more comorbid pathological personality traits and disorders in comparison to their normal counterparts. Depressive, narcissistic, and paranoid PDs were prominent among AD group; followed by schizotypal, antisocial, negativistic, dependent, schizoid, sadistic, masochistic, and borderline PD. In comparison to normal participants, AD patients were significantly deficient in almost all the areas of EI and their locus of control was externally oriented. Conclusion: Patients with AD have significantly higher PDs, low EI, and an external orientation on the locus of control. Identification and management of these comorbid conditions are likely to improve the management and outcome of AD.

  19. Reliability and cultural applicability of the Greek version of the International Personality Disorders Examination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprinis G

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Personality Disorders Examination (IPDE constitutes the proposal of the WHO for the reliable diagnosis of personality disorders (PD. The IPDE assesses pathological personality and is compatible both with DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis. However it is important to test the reliability and cultural applicability of different IPDE translations. Methods Thirty-one patients (12 male and 19 female aged 35.25 ± 11.08 years, took part in the study. Three examiners applied the interview (23 interviews of two and 8 interviews of 3 examiners, that is 47 pairs of interviews and 70 single interviews. The phi coefficient was used to test categorical diagnosis agreement and the Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient to test agreement concerning the number of criteria met. Results Translation and back-translation did not reveal specific problems. Results suggested that reliability of the Greek translation is good. However, socio-cultural factors (family coherence, work environment etc could affect the application of some of the IPDE items in Greece. The diagnosis of any PD was highly reliable with phi >0.92. However, diagnosis of non-specfic PD was not reliable at all (phi close to 0 suggesting that this is a true residual category. Dianosis of specific PDs were highly reliable with the exception of schizoid PD. Diagnosis of antisocial and Borderline PDs were perfectly reliable with phi equal to 1.00. Conclusions The Greek translation of the IPDE is a reliable instrument for the assessment of personality disorder but cultural variation may limit its applicability in international comparisons.

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder: Why 'fast and furious'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüne, Martin

    2016-02-28

    The term 'Borderline Personality Disorder' (BPD) refers to a psychiatric syndrome that is characterized by emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, risk-taking behavior, irritability, feelings of emptiness, self-injury and fear of abandonment, as well as unstable interpersonal relationships. BPD is not only common in psychiatric populations but also more prevalent in the general community than previously thought, and thus represents an important public health issue. In contrast to most psychiatric disorders, some symptoms associated with BPD may improve over time, even without therapy, though impaired social functioning and interpersonal disturbances in close relationships often persist. Another counterintuitive and insufficiently resolved question is why depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors can occur simultaneously in the same individual. Moreover, there is an ongoing debate about the nosological position of BPD, which impacts on research regarding sex differences in clinical presentation and patterns of comorbidity.In this review, it is argued that many features of BPD may be conceptualized within an evolutionary framework, namely behavioral ecology. According to Life History Theory, BPD reflects a pathological extreme or distortion of a behavioral 'strategy' which unconsciously aims at immediate exploitation of resources, both interpersonal and material, based on predictions shaped by early developmental experiences. Such a view is consistent with standard medical conceptualizations of BPD, but goes beyond classic 'deficit'-oriented models, which may have profound implications for therapeutic approaches.

  1. Personality disorders as maladaptive, extreme variants of normal personality: borderline personality disorder and neuroticism in a substance using sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Carroll, Kathleen M; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Ball, Samuel A

    2013-10-01

    Although the current diagnostic manual conceptualizes personality disorders (PDs) as categorical entities, an alternative perspective is that PDs represent maladaptive extreme versions of the same traits that describe normal personality. Existing evidence indicates that normal personality traits, such as those assessed by the five-factor model (FFM), share a common structure and obtain reasonably predictable correlations with the PDs. However, very little research has investigated whether PDs are more extreme than normal personality traits. Utilizing item-response theory analyses, the authors of the current study extend previous research to demonstrate that the diagnostic criterion for borderline personality disorder and FFM neuroticism could be fit along a single latent dimension. Furthermore, the authors' findings indicate that the borderline criteria assessed the shared latent trait at a level that was more extreme (d = 1.11) than FFM neuroticism. This finding provides further evidence for dimensional understanding of personality pathology and suggests that a trait model in DSM-5 should span normal and abnormal personality functioning, but focus on the extremes of these common traits.

  2. Clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Modica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Personality disorders represent psychopathological conditions hard to be diagnosed. The Author highlights the clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis according to the criteria of the DSM-5. In this study, some of the numerous definitions of personality are mentioned; afterwards, some of the theories on the development of personality shall be. Later on, concepts of temperament, character and personality get analysed. Then, the current approach to personality disorders according to the two models of DSM-5 is reported. The first model is included in the Section II of DSM-5; while in the Section III there exists a proposal for a so-called alternate model. The first one suggests a qualitative or categorical kind of approach to personality disorders, whereas the alternate model proposes a dimensional or quantitative kind of approach and aims to formulate, as well as a diagnosis for general alterations of the personological functioning, even a trait-based personality disorder diagnosis, which can be formulated when a personality disorder is there but doesn't fit criteria for a specific disorder. Ultimately, it can be so claimed: 1 diagnostic criteria of the first model are similar to those of DSM-IV with its respective strenghts and weaknesses, and namely high probability in diagnosis, where  there, of personality disorder, yet insufficient sensitivity in the specification of the disorder; 2 the alternate model, despite criticism, thanks to the possibility of delivering a trait-based personality disorder diagnosis, seems to be more equipped both in the identification of the personality disorder and further specifications.

  3. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research. PMID:26401297

  4. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research.

  5. Personality disorder symptomatology is associated with anomalies in striatal and prefrontal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Doris E; Park, Min Tae M; Kish, Stephen J; Kolla, Nathan J; Lerch, Jason P; Boileau, Isabelle; Chakravarty, M M

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorder symptomatology (PD-Sx) can result in personal distress and impaired interpersonal functioning, even in the absence of a clinical diagnosis, and is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders such as substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders; however, they often remain untreated, and are not taken into account in clinical studies. To investigate brain morphological correlates of PD-Sx, we measured subcortical volume and shape, and cortical thickness/surface area, based on structural magnetic resonance images. We investigated 37 subjects who reported PD-Sx exceeding DSM-IV Axis-II screening thresholds, and 35 age, sex, and smoking status-matched control subjects. Subjects reporting PD-Sx were then grouped into symptom-based clusters: N = 20 into Cluster B (reporting Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, or Narcissistic PD-Sx) and N = 28 into Cluster C (reporting Obsessive-Compulsive, Avoidant, or Dependent PD-Sx); N = 11 subjects reported PD-Sx from both clusters, and none reported Cluster A (Paranoid, Schizoid, or Schizotypal) PD-Sx. Compared to control, Cluster C PD-Sx was associated with greater striatal surface area localized to the caudate tail, smaller ventral striatum volumes, and greater cortical thickness in right prefrontal cortex. Both Cluster B and C PD-Sx groups also showed trends toward greater posterior caudate volumes and orbitofrontal surface area anomalies, but these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. The results point to morphological abnormalities that could contribute to Cluster C PD-Sx. In addition, the observations parallel those in substance use disorders, pointing to the importance of considering PD-Sx when interpreting findings in often-comorbid psychiatric disorders.

  6. Personality disorder symptomatology is associated with anomalies in striatal and prefrontal morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris E Payer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorder symptomatology (PD-Sx can result in personal distress and impaired interpersonal functioning, even in the absence of a clinical diagnosis, and is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders such as substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders; however, they often remain untreated, and are not taken into account in clinical studies. To investigate brain morphological correlates of PD-Sx, we measured subcortical volume and shape, and cortical thickness / surface area, based on structural magnetic resonance images. We investigated 37 subjects who reported PD-Sx exceeding DSM-IV Axis-II screening thresholds, and 35 age, sex, and smoking status-matched control subjects. Subjects reporting PD-Sx were then grouped into symptom-based clusters: N=20 into Cluster B (reporting Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, or Narcissistic PD-Sx and N=28 into Cluster C (reporting Obsessive-Compulsive, Avoidant, or Dependent PD-Sx; N=11 subjects reported PD-Sx from both clusters, and none reported Cluster A (Paranoid, Schizoid, or Schizotypal PD-Sx. Compared to control, Cluster C PD-Sx was associated with greater striatal surface area localized to the caudate tail, smaller ventral striatum volumes, and greater cortical thickness in right prefrontal cortex. Both Cluster B and C PD-Sx groups also showed trends toward greater posterior caudate volumes and orbitofrontal surface area anomalies, but these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. The results point to morphological abnormalities that could contribute to Cluster C PD-Sx. In addition, the observations parallel those in substance use disorders, pointing to the importance of considering PD-Sx when interpreting findings in often-comorbid psychiatric disorders.

  7. A synopsis of the WPA Educational Program on Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Ronningstam, Elsa; Millon, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the headlines of the Educational Program on Personality Disorders produced by the WPA Section on Personality Disorders and the International Society on the Study of Personality Disorders. Lifelong personality traits serve as a substrate and a context for understanding more...... florid and distinct forms of psychopathology. Personality disorders affect at least 10% of the population, and the direct and indirect social costs associated with crime, substance abuse, increased need for medical care, family disruption, delayed recovery from clinical syndromes and medical diseases...... is substantial. Numerous theories, models and methods have been proposed to describe and to understand personality and its disorders: descriptive, statistical, psychoanalytic, evolutionary, neurobiologic. Classification has either taken a prototypical or a polythetic approach, but in recent years dimensional...

  8. 强迫障碍患者的共病人格障碍%Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder with personality disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文胜; 于宏华; 焦志安

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with Axis Ⅱ personality disorders (PD).Methods: Forty-four patients who met the DSM-Ⅳ ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) criteria for OCD were screened with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire ( PDQ +4 ).And the PD positive subjects were assessed and diagnosed with the Personality Disorder Interview (PDI-Ⅳ).Results: Thirty-six of the 44 patients showed positive results in the PDQ +4 screening, with the positive rate of 82%.Thirty-two of 44 (73%) OCD patients also met DSM-Ⅳ criteria for Axis Ⅱ personality disorders.Twenty-five of 44 (57%) OCD patients were diagnosed with two or more kinds of Axis Ⅱ disorders.The most common three personality disorders were obsessive &compulsive (64%), avoidant (57%), and paranoid (21%).No subjects were diagnosed with antisocial and schizoid.Conclusion: Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder with personality disorders occurs pervasively.Patients with OCD are often diagnosed with Axis Ⅱ personality disorders with the exception of antisocial and schizoid, especially with obsessive & compulsive and avoidant of cluster-C.%目的:探讨强迫障碍(obsessive-compulsive disorder,OCD)患者共病轴Ⅱ人格障碍的情况.方法:对44例符合美国精神障碍诊断统计手册4版(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,Fourth Edition,DSM-IV)中OCD临床诊断标准的门诊和住院部患者,应用人格障碍诊断问卷4版(Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire,PDQ)进行筛查.对筛查阳性者再用个性障碍晤谈手册(Personality Disorder Interview,PDI-Ⅳ)做半定式查询确定其中的人格障碍患者.结果:36名患者PDQ"筛查阳性,阳性率为82%.36名阳性患者中有32名OCD患者同时符合人格障碍的诊断标准,共病率为73%(32/44),其中57%(25/44)的被试符合两种或两种以上人格障碍的诊断标准.共病率最高的3种人

  9. Empathy Impairments in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators With Antisocial and Borderline Traits: A Key Factor in the Risk of Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic personality traits have been described as characteristics of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Furthermore, deficits in cognitive empathy and impairments in emotional decoding processes may at least partially explain conduct disorders and social dysfunction in general. However, previous research has not explored potential associations between empathy deficits and the aforementioned traits or whether they are reflected in recidivism in IPV perpetrators. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to explore associations between empathy deficits, antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic traits and the risk of recidivism in this population. The sample consisted of 144 IPV perpetrators (mean age = 41 years). High antisocial and borderline personality traits in this sample were associated with a high risk of recidivism, these relationships being moderated by poor empathy skills. Moreover, in IPV perpetrators with both antisocial and borderline personality traits, the risk of recidivism was higher than in those with only one of these traits. In contrast, narcissistic traits were unrelated to the risk of recidivism and impairments in empathy. The results of our study highlight the importance of empathy deficits and may help professionals to develop specific intervention programs focusing on improving empathy skills in antisocial and borderline IPV perpetrators.

  10. Psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and personality among young men by sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Dey, M; Soldati, L; Weiss, M G; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2014-10-01

    Personality and its potential role in mediating risk of psychiatric disorders and suicidality are assessed by sexual orientation, using data collected among young Swiss men (n=5875) recruited while presenting for mandatory military conscription. Mental health outcomes were analyzed by sexual attraction using logistic regression, controlling for five-factor model personality traits and socio-demographics. Homo/bisexual men demonstrated the highest scores for neuroticism-anxiety but the lowest for sociability and sensation seeking, with no differences for aggression-hostility. Among homo/bisexual men, 10.2% fulfilled diagnostic criteria for major depression in the past 2weeks, 10.8% for ADHD in the past 12months, 13.8% for lifetime anti-social personality disorder (ASPD), and 6.0% attempted suicide in the past 12months. Upon adjusting (AOR) for personality traits, their odds ratios (OR) for major depression (OR=4.78, 95% CI 2.81-8.14; AOR=1.46, 95% CI 0.80-2.65) and ADHD (OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.31-3.58; AOR=1.00, 95% CI 0.58-1.75) lost statistical significance, and the odds ratio for suicide attempt was halved (OR=5.10, 95% CI 2.57-10.1; AOR=2.42, 95% CI 1.16-5.02). There are noteworthy differences in personality traits by sexual orientation, and much of the increased mental morbidity appears to be accounted for by such underlying differences, with important implications for etiology and treatment. PMID:24972914

  11. [Etiological and therapeutic aspects of schizoid and schizotypal personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, H; Jünemann, K

    2001-09-01

    Following the introduction to the history of the concepts of abnormal personality, with regard to the schizoid and schizotypal forms, we present their systematic assessment in the modern classification systems.Both, the schizoid and schizotypal forms, are usually considered as schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Biological and clinical data indicate relations to other axis-I disorders as well. However there are few systematic and strictly controlled studies on the psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment of schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders. Basic theoretic assumptions concerning both treatment concepts - for personality disorders in general, and especially in schizoid and schizotypal personality disorder - are given. Finally the role of neuroleptics and antidepressants for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is discussed. New possibilities may emerge from the use of the recently developed atypical drugs, but further research in randomised studies is needed. Current prospective studies on early detected schizophrenia-spectrum disorders will broaden our knowledge about prevention and therapy.

  12. Problems of studying antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offord, D R; Reitsma-Street, M

    1983-01-01

    The importance of antisocial behaviour is underlined by the magnitude of the problem (largest category of emotional disturbance in youth) and by the poor psychosocial prognosis for the chronically affected child. The medical/psychological approach has pointed to the role of marital discord and parental psychopathology as significant features in the individual's environment predicting antisocial development. Conversely, sociology and criminology, which have begun with social theories, appear to have had less statistical success in accounting for aetiology. Definition of conduct disorder in terms of type, duration, frequency, and severity of anti-social behaviour is indispensible for the characterization of subgroups of affected children, and hence variables which protect against or accentuate risk factors. Prognosis depends among other things on age of onset (worse younger) and setting (home or community), implying that treatment programmes cannot be evaluated adequately without the differential characterisation of subgroups, their natural histories, and responsiveness to intervention. Although such data come from the study of individuals, case-by-case treatment runs the risk in certain groups of escalating anti-social behaviour. Thus community/youth oriented interventions, focusing on the remedial treatment of learning handicaps, improvement of non-school skills, may provide more promising points of attack. Incomplete knowledge of aetiology should not prevent action, provided the methodological issues raised serve as the basis for vigorous evaluation. PMID:6371799

  13. Personality disorder symptoms are differentially related to divorce frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Krystle L; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-12-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55-64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains.

  14. Assessment and Treatment of Personality Disorders: A Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Lootens, Christopher M.; Mitchell, John T.; Robertson, Christopher D.; Hundt, Natalie E.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Personality disorders are complex and highly challenging to treatment providers; yet, for clients with these problems, there exist very few treatment options that have been supported by research. Given the lack of empirically-supported therapies for personality disorders, it can be difficult to make treatment decisions for this population. The…

  15. School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

  16. Attachment Styles and Personality Disorders of A and B clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Khanjani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorder is one of the most important social and medical problems. Cause cognitive of personality disorders gradually oriented from almost exclusively focus on intrapersonal traits to greater emphasis on the influence of interpersonal variables [1]. Bowlby suggested that psychopathology appears due to

  17. Predictors of comorbid personality disorders in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latas, M; Starcevic, V; Trajkovic, G; Bogojevic, G

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain predictors of comorbid personality disorders in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDAG). Sixty consecutive outpatients with PDAG were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) for the purpose of diagnosing personality disorders. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of any comorbid personality disorder, any DSM-IV cluster A, cluster B, and cluster C personality disorder. Independent variables in these regressions were gender, age, duration of panic disorder (PD), severity of PDAG, and scores on self-report instruments that assess the patient's perception of their parents, childhood separation anxiety, and traumatic experiences. High levels of parental protection on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), indicating a perception of the parents as overprotective and controlling, emerged as the only statistically significant predictor of any comorbid personality disorder. This finding was attributed to the association between parental overprotection and cluster B personality disorders, particularly borderline personality disorder. The duration of PD was a significant predictor of any cluster B and any cluster C personality disorder, suggesting that some of the cluster B and cluster C personality disorders may be a consequence of the long-lasting PDAG. Any cluster B personality disorder was also associated with younger age. In conclusion, despite a generally nonspecific nature of the relationship between parental overprotection in childhood and adult psychopathology, the findings of this study suggest some specificity for the association between parental overprotection in childhood and personality disturbance in PDAG patients, particularly cluster B personality disorders. PMID:10646616

  18. Borderline personality disorder, stigma, and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Ron B; Brodsky, Beth S; Stanley, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often viewed in negative terms by mental health practitioners and the public. The disorder may have a stigma associated with it that goes beyond those associated with other mental illnesses. The stigma associated with BPD may affect how practitioners tolerate the actions, thoughts, and emotional reactions of these individuals. It may also lead to minimizing symptoms and overlooking strengths. In society, people tend to distance themselves from stigmatized populations, and there is evidence that some clinicians may emotionally distance themselves from individuals with BPD. This distancing may be especially problematic in treating patients with BPD; in addition to being unusually sensitive to rejection and abandonment, they may react negatively (e.g., by harming themselves or withdrawing from treatment) if they perceive such distancing and rejection. Clinicians' reactivity may be self-protective in response to actual behavior associated with the pathology. As a consequence, however, the very behaviors that make it difficult to work with these individuals contribute to the stigma of BPD. In a dialectical relationship, that stigma can influence the clinician's reactivity, thereby exacerbating those same negative behaviors. The result is a self-fulfilling prophecy and a cycle of stigmatization to which both patient and therapist contribute. The extent to which therapist distancing is influenced by stigma is an important question that highlights the possibility that the stigma associated with BPD can have an independent contribution to poor outcome with this population. A final issue concerns the available means for identifying and limiting the impact of stigmatization on the treatment of individuals with BPD. PMID:16990170

  19. Understanding obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in adolescence: a dimensional personality perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the Axis II Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) category and its position within the Cluster C personality disorder (PDs) section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, APA, 2000) continues to be a source of much debate. The present study examines the associations between general and maladaptive personality traits and OCPD symptoms, prior to and after controlling for co-occurring PD variance, in a general population sample of 274 Fle...

  20. Personality Disorders Detected by PDQ+4 in Substance Abusers%被强制戒毒人员人格诊断问卷调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 邱国松; 司亚东; 贺宁

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the personality characteristics and the personality disorders of substance abusers at compulsory rehabilitation center. Method: For screening personality disorder, personality diagnostic questionnaire+4 ( PDQ+4 ) was administrated to a sample of 262 substance abusers at compulsory rehabilitation center. Result: The mean of total PDQ+4 scores was ( 46. 52±12. 79 ); the subscales for different type personality disorders of PDQ+4 were higher than normal sample in China( P<0100 ); The preva- lence of personality disorder in axis II was 94. 0% . Borderline personality disorder ( 61. 4% ), Antisocial personality disorder ( 73. 5% ) were the most common. 84. 2% of substance abusers' positive subscales were more then one, the average score of positive subscales was ( 4. 80±2. 84 ). Conclusion:There were different types of personality disorder in substance abusers, and antisocial personality disorder, Borderline personality disorder are especially common.%目的:了解被强制戒毒人员的人格障碍状况.方法:用人格诊断问卷(PDQ+4)按照整群抽样的原则调查被强制戒毒人员262人.结果:被强制戒毒人员PDQ+4总分为(46.52±12.79);十二项人格障碍分量表分都高于国内普通人群,样本比较差异有显著性(P<0.01);被强制戒毒人员人格障碍的阳性率高达94.0%.十二项分量表中阳性率最高的是反社会型(73.5%),其次是边缘型(61.4%).84.2%被强制戒毒者有2项以上人格障碍量表得分为阳性,每人平均阳性项目为(4.80±2.84).结论:被强制戒毒人员存在各种类型的人格障碍,尤以反社会型和边缘型人格障碍多见.

  1. Coprophagia in a patient with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human coprophagia is a rare phenomenon with severe medical and social consequences. So far, coprophagia has mainly been associated with severe mental retardation, schizophrenia, dementia, and depression. We report a case of coprophagia in a 30-year-old woman with Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV. This case report illustrates the severity of symptoms and maladaptive social consequences of severe personality disorders, comparable to those of patients with schizophrenia. Pharmacological interventions and, particularly intensive psychotherapy might be effective for patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder displaying severe behavior disorders. The treatment of choice for coprophagia is aversive behavioral intervention.

  2. Childhood trauma and personality disorder criterion counts: a co-twin control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenz, Erin C; Amstadter, Ananda B; Aggen, Steven H; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Gardner, Charles O; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2013-11-01

    Correlational studies consistently report relationships between childhood trauma (CT) and most personality disorder (PD) criteria and diagnoses. However, it is not clear whether CT is directly related to PDs or whether common familial factors (i.e., shared environment and/or genetic factors) better account for that relationship. The current study used a cotwin control design to examine support for a direct effect of CT on PD criterion counts. Participants were from the Norwegian Twin Registry (N = 2,780), including a subset (n = 898) of twin pairs (449 pairs, 45% monozygotic [MZ]) discordant for CT meeting DSM-IV Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Criterion A. All participants completed the Norwegian version of the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Significant associations between CT and all PD criterion counts were detected in the general sample; however, the magnitude of observed effects was small, with CT accounting for no more than approximately 1% of variance in PD criterion counts. A significant, yet modest, interactive effect was detected for sex and CT on Schizoid and Schizotypal PD criterion counts, with CT being related to these disorders among women but not men. After common familial factors were accounted for in the discordant twin sample, CT was significantly related to Borderline and Antisocial PD criterion counts, but no other disorders; however, the magnitude of observed effects was quite modest (r2 = .006 for both outcomes), indicating that the small effect observed in the full sample is likely better accounted for by common genetic and/or environmental factors. CT does not appear to be a key factor in PD etiology.

  3. Emotional Hyper-Reactivity in Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    According to clinical experience, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and authorities in the field, patients with borderline personality disorder tend to be hyper-reactive to environmental stimuli. In addition to the preceding clinical impressions and experiences, the majority of empirical studies in this area have concluded that patients with borderline personality disorder are indeed hyper-responsive to experimental environmental stimuli, whether the stimuli are negat...

  4. Social cognition in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke, Stefan; Vater, Aline; Preißler, Sandra; Heekeren, Hauke R; Dziobek, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Many typical symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) occur within interpersonal contexts, suggesting that BPD is characterized by aberrant social cognition. While research consistently shows that BPD patients have biases in mental state attribution (e.g., evaluate others as malevolent), the research focusing on accuracy in inferring mental states (i.e., cognitive empathy) is less consistent. For complex and ecologically valid tasks in particular, emerging evidence suggests that individuals with BPD have impairments in the attribution of emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others (e.g., Preißler et al., 2010). A history of childhood trauma and co-morbid PTSD seem to be strong additional predictors for cognitive empathy deficits. Together with reduced emotional empathy and aberrant sending of social signals (e.g., expression of mixed and hard-to-read emotions), the deficits in mental state attribution might contribute to behavioral problems in BPD. Given the importance of social cognition on the part of both the sender and the recipient in maintaining interpersonal relationships and therapeutic alliance, these impairments deserve more attention. PMID:23335877

  5. Social cognition in borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eRoepke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many typical symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD occur within interpersonal contexts, suggesting that BPD is characterized by aberrant social cognition. While research consistently shows that BPD patients have biases in mental state attribution (e.g., evaluate others as malevolent, the research focusing on accuracy in inferring mental states (i.e., cognitive empathy is less consistent. For complex and ecologically valid tasks in particular, emerging evidence suggests that individuals with BPD have impairments in the attribution of emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others (e.g., Preißler et al., 2010. A history of childhood trauma and co-morbid PTSD seem to be strong additional predictors for cognitive empathy deficits. Together with reduced emotional empathy and aberrant sending of social signals (e.g., expression of mixed and hard-to-read emotions, the deficits in attribution might contribute to behavioral problems in BPD. Given the importance of social cognition on the part of both the sender and the recipient in maintaining interpersonal relationships and therapeutic alliance, these impairments deserve more attention.

  6. Social judgement in borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Nicol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a common and serious mental illness, associated with a high risk of suicide and self harm. Those with a diagnosis of BPD often display difficulties with social interaction and struggle to form and maintain interpersonal relationships. Here we investigated the ability of participants with BPD to make social inferences from faces. METHOD: 20 participants with BPD and 21 healthy controls were shown a series of faces and asked to judge these according to one of six characteristics (age, distinctiveness, attractiveness, intelligence, approachability, trustworthiness. The number and direction of errors made (compared to population norms were recorded for analysis. RESULTS: Participants with a diagnosis of BPD displayed significant impairments in making judgements from faces. In particular, the BPD Group judged faces as less approachable and less trustworthy than controls. Furthermore, within the BPD Group there was a correlation between scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ and bias towards judging faces as unapproachable. CONCLUSION: Individuals with a diagnosis of BPD have difficulty making appropriate social judgements about others from their faces. Judging more faces as unapproachable and untrustworthy indicates that this group may have a heightened sensitivity to perceiving potential threat, and this should be considered in clinical management and treatment.

  7. Early maladaptive schemas in personality disordered individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovev, Martina; Jackson, Henry J

    2004-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine the specificity of schema domains in three personality disorder (PD) groups, namely borderline (BPD), obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), and avoidant PD (AvPD), and to correctly identify the three PD groups on the basis of these schemas. The sample consisted of 48 clinical participants diagnosed with PDs and assigned to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of their Axis II diagnoses (BPD: n = 13; OCPD: n = 13; AvPD: n = 22). High scores on Dependence/Incompetence, Defectiveness/ Shame and Abandonment were found for the BPD group. Such pattern appears to be most consistent with Young's theory of BPD. Consistent with the theory and empirical findings of Beck et al. (1990, 2001), OCPD was associated with elevations on the Unrelenting Standards schema domain, but not on Emotional Inhibition, which was found to be elevated for AvPD. In conclusion, the present study suggests that there are different patterns of schema domains across different PDs and that the Schema Questionnaire (SQ) is potentially useful in differentiating between these PDs. PMID:15519957

  8. Dysphoria and aloneness in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzagli, A; Monti, M R

    2000-01-01

    A close examination of dysphoria, anger and aloneness (three main characteristics of the borderline syndrome) provides a theoretical model of reference for the therapist. Dysphoria results from the cyclical emotional oscillation between hope for stability and disappointment in its inattainability; a dependent-anaclitic depression arises from the mixture of anger, aloneness and inner emptiness which is so characteristic of the borderline syndrome. The tendency to be immersed in the here-and-now, an intra-festum mentality, exacerbates the sense of isolation, causing more irritation, mute frustration and, consequently, anger. The effects and ramifications of anger, and the resultant precarious cohesion of the self, are explored in the borderline syndrome; they are especially illuminated by the application of Kernberg's pain-anger-hate-vengefulness cycle concept. Meanings of solitude, in its forms of aloneness and loneliness, are explored in their pertinence. Aloneness - the constant needy search for, but condemnation to never finding, objects to fill an inner sense of emptiness - is especially germane. Suggestions for assisting subjects with borderline personality disorder to overcome aloneness and the lack of historical progression are made. PMID:10867581

  9. Early maladaptive schemas in personality disordered individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovev, Martina; Jackson, Henry J

    2004-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine the specificity of schema domains in three personality disorder (PD) groups, namely borderline (BPD), obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), and avoidant PD (AvPD), and to correctly identify the three PD groups on the basis of these schemas. The sample consisted of 48 clinical participants diagnosed with PDs and assigned to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of their Axis II diagnoses (BPD: n = 13; OCPD: n = 13; AvPD: n = 22). High scores on Dependence/Incompetence, Defectiveness/ Shame and Abandonment were found for the BPD group. Such pattern appears to be most consistent with Young's theory of BPD. Consistent with the theory and empirical findings of Beck et al. (1990, 2001), OCPD was associated with elevations on the Unrelenting Standards schema domain, but not on Emotional Inhibition, which was found to be elevated for AvPD. In conclusion, the present study suggests that there are different patterns of schema domains across different PDs and that the Schema Questionnaire (SQ) is potentially useful in differentiating between these PDs.

  10. Personal Identities and Disordered Eating Behaviors in Mexican American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen; Ronis, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz’s (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many negative personal identities predict...

  11. Personality Pathology and Its Influence on Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Personality disorders appear to be present in a significant minority of individuals with eating disorders. For example, in contrast to reported rates in the general population of eight percent, obsessive compulsive personality is present in approximately 22 percent of individuals with anorexia, restricting type. Likewise, in contrast to rates in the general population of six percent, borderline personality is present in approximately 25 percent of individuals with anorexia nervosa, binge-eati...

  12. A Further Validation of the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Elizabeth; Cummings, Jenna, R.; Bornovalova, Marina A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Racine, Sarah E.; Keel, Pamela K.; Sisk, Cheryl; Neale, Michael,; Boker, Steven; Burt, Alexandra S.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is well conceptualized as a dimensional construct that can be represented using normal personality traits. A previous study successfully developed and validated a BPD measure embedded within a normal trait measure, the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale (MBPD). The current study performed a further validation of the MBPD by examining its convergent validity, external correlates, and heritability in a sample of...

  13. Substance abusers' personality disorders and staff members' emotional reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that aggressive behaviour and DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders (PD may be associated with professionals' emotional reactions to clients, and that cluster C PD may be associated with positive emotional reactions. Methods Staff members recruited from workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Questionnaire. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis was used to assess the associations between personality disorders and emotional reations. Results Cluster B disorder features were associated with feeling distance to patients, and cluster C disorder features were associated with feeling helpful towards patients. Cluster A disorders had no significant impact on emotional reactions. Conclusion The findings confirm clinical experiences that personality disorder features in patients with substance abuse have an impact on staff members reactions to them. These reactions should be considered in supervision of staff, and in treatment models for patients with co-morbid personality disorders and substance abuse.

  14. Assessment of Personality Problems among Patients with Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Ingebjørg Aspeland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM – Several studies have shown that personality disorders (PDs are frequently occurring among patients with substance use disorders (SUDs. A development from research of co-occurrence estimates in this patient group investigates personality problems as dimensional constructs, which seek to capture the core of personality pathology. The aim of our study was to explore whether personality problems might be assessed among SUD patients in early stages of treatment. We also sought to investigate personality problem severity among Norwegian adult SUD patients.

  15. Personality disorder and substance related disorders: a six-month follow-up study with a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora M. Krieger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives A few Brazilian researches correlate personality disorders (PD and substance related disorders (SRD. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between them, to evaluate the PD frequency among chemical dependents inpatients, this comorbidity association with social and demographic characteristics, used drug of choice, its impact on clinical evolution until the moment of their committal, the frequency of relapse, self-help group – and psychotherapic adherence among SRD patients six months following committal. Methods A 101 inpatients sample of chemical dependents was enrolled in 2 hospitals. The following instruments were applied: a questionnaire for social and demographic characteristics identification and drug use pattern, some questions from the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6, the SCID-II questionnaire and specific questions concerning psychotherapic and self-help groups participation, and medication use. Results From these 101 patients, 55.4% were diagnosed with PD, being avoidant (14.9%, borderline (11.9% and antisocial (8.9% the more frequent ones found. PD patients had an earlier crack use in life (p = 0.038 and had also more previous treatments than the ones without PD (p = 0.005. Borderline PD patients were less worried to substance use problem (p = 0.003. After 6-months follow-up, no statistical significance was found between patients with and without PD regarding drug use or treatment adherence. Conclusion A high PD diagnosis was found in drug use inpatients. Patients diagnosed with SRD and PD need the identification of this comorbidity and of their personality characteristics in order to plan a more comprehensive and effective treatment.

  16. Personality disorders among Spanish prisoners starting hepatitis C treatment: Prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Andrés; Antón, José J; Saiz de la Hoya, Pablo; de Juan, José; Faraco, Inmaculada; Caylà, Joan A; Trujols, Joan

    2015-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) and their associated factors in prisoners who initiate chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment in 25 Spanish prisons. The Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 was used to diagnose PDs according to DSM-IV criteria. Factors potentially associated with a PD diagnosis were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Two hundred and fifty-five patients were initially assessed and 62 (24.3%) were excluded due to an incomplete or invalid self-report screening questionnaire. PD prevalence was 70.5%, with antisocial PD being the most prevalent (46.1%). In terms of PD clusters, the most prevalent was cluster-B (55.4%). PD diagnosis was associated with HCV genotypes 1, 2, or 3 (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-4.49). Patients with a cluster-B PD were more likely to be infected with HCV genotypes 1, 2, or 3 (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.08-5.23) and be HIV-infected (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.10-4.39), to report past-year injection drug use (OR 7.17, 95% CI 1.49-34.58), and to have stage 3 or 4 fibrosis (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.06-4.49). The prevalence of PDs in Spanish prisoners who initiate CHC treatment is very high. PD management issues should be considered in treating CHC patients in prisons.

  17. CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS AMONG PERSONS WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Vis; K. van Engelen; B.J. Bouma; C.M. Bilardo; N.A. Blom; B.J.M. Mulder

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality among liveborn infants and is the most frequent chromosomal cause of intellectual disability (Frid, Drott, Lundell, Rasmussen, & Anneren, 1999). It is a multisystem disorder, characterized by various congenital defects, organic disorders, dysm

  18. The modern assessment of personality disorders. Part 1: definition and typology of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombour, W; Bronisch, T

    1998-01-01

    The general definition of personality disorders (PD) has found agreement in many classification systems and has remained relatively stable over many decades. However, a closer look at the history of the classification of various PD reveals that there are changes from generation to generation: a continuous variation in our cultural norms means that some types are 'renormalised' from time to time and that others are added. On the other hand, a comparison of the descriptions and classifications of PD by Schneider, the DSM and ICD systems shows substantial agreement on many types of PD.

  19. Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Study versus Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pena-Garijo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Results. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed.

  20. Associations between psychosocial problems and personality disorders among Egyptian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbheiry, Abd-Elraqeep; Emam, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between psychosocial problems and personality disorders among a sample of 817 Egyptian adolescents (408 males and 409 females). Using 15 subscales from the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale (APS-long form) we assessed prevalence rates of a number of internalizing and externalizing psychosocial disorders. Additionally, we investigated whether there are gender differences in psychopathology among Egyptian adolescents and to what extent can psychosocial problems predict specific personality disorders. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that the participants experienced higher levels of PD, AV, and BD. Gender differences were found in certain personality disorders as well as in externalizing and internalizing psychosocial problems. A number of externalizing and internalizing psychosocial problems were highly predictive of specific personality disorders.

  1. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of university students with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, Michael Wm; Lamborn, Paige

    2014-01-01

    Background Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify e...

  2. Can DSM–IV Borderline Personality Disorder Be Diagnosed via Dimensional Personality Traits? Implications for the DSM-5 Personality Disorder Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua D. Miller; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Nolf, Kimberly; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The proposal for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, in preparation) involves, in part, the use of elevated scores on dimensional personality traits. For instance, the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in the DSM-5 will require evidence of self- and interpersonal impairment as well as elevated scores on traits of emotional lability, anxiousness, separat...

  3. Poly-substance use and antisocial personality traits at admission predict cumulative retention in a buprenorphine programme with mandatory work and high compliance profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhlin, Leif; Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats;

    2011-01-01

    -IV-TR, and the Symptoms Checklist 90 (SCL-90), the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), all self-report measures. Some measures were repeated every third month in addition to interviews. Results Of 123 patients...

  4. Validez del Cuestionario International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE en una muestra de población penitenciaria Validity of the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE questionnaire in a sample of prison inmates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Álvaro-Brun

    2008-10-01

    instruments, a questionnaire for demographic, prison and toxicological data and a complete interview and IPDE assessment questionnaire (version DSM-IV were utilised as well as a conditional probability study of the IPDE questionnaire with different cut off points based on the use of the IPDE interview as the "gold standard". Results: The cut off point of 3 or more non-coincident answers showed low specificity (2.5% for the presence of one or more personality disorders, and low sensitivity to antisocial (56.7% and borderline (58.8% personality disorders. Discusion: The IPDE questionnaire of little use amongst the studied prison population when the habitual reference standards were applied due to the very high number of false positives that were produced. The best validity indices for identifying one or more personality disorders are obtained with a probable cut off point being equal to 4 or more answers that do not coincide with those expected. The IPDE questionnaire was of no great benefit for the inmates in this study because, even when using the habitual cut off point of 3 or more non-coincident questions, sensibility to antisocial and borderline personality disorders, which are the most common PDs amongst the sample group, was found to be low.

  5. The influence of comorbid personality disorders on recovery from depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai Wongpakaran, Vudhichai Boonyanaruthee, Manee Pinyopornpanish, Suthi Intaprasert Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: The impact of personality disorders on the treatment of and recovery from depression is still a controversial topic. The aim of this paper is to provide more information on what has led to this disagreement.Materials and methods: Clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD scores were assessed among 82 depressed outpatients who were receiving a routine treatment combination of antidepressant medication and psychosocial intervention. The participants were followed up over five visits at 3-month intervals: at the baseline, at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Personality disorders were assessed after the last visit in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. These repeated measures were used to explore the impact of personality disorders on HAMD scores by using a linear mixed model.Results: Among the four personality clusters that were used (A, B, C, and mixed, only those in cluster B and in the mixed cluster were found to take significantly longer than those without personality disorders, for reduction in HAMD scores over the course of treatment.Conclusion: In this study, the impact of personality disorders on treatment outcomes varied with the way that the personality disorder variables were described and used as independent predictors. This is because the outcomes were influenced by the impact weight of each personality disorder, even within the same cluster. Keywords: depressive disorder, mixed linear model, impact, multilevel analysis

  6. On the relationship of the five-factor personality model to personality disorders: four reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolidge, F L; Becker, L A; DiRito, D C; Durham, R L; Kinlaw, M M; Philbrick, P B

    1994-08-01

    McCrae and Costa since 1986 have proferred a five-factor personality model as a lingua franca among different psychometric test users, and they suggest that their operationalization of the five-factor model, the NEO Personality Inventory, may also be useful in the clinical assessment of the abnormal personality. The present study examined the inventory and its relationship to the 11 personality disorders of Axis II of DSM-III-R in a sample of 180 adults. Correlational multivariate analyses appear to indicate a limited usefulness of the five-factor model in the understanding of personality disorders, and four major objections are offered. Further research with clinical samples, other models of personality, and other measures of personality disorders are encouraged. PMID:7984716

  7. Milestones in the history of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2013-06-01

    This paper analyzes the major historical milestones in the study of normal and abnormal personality, from antiquity up until the 20th century. Special attention is paid to the interaction between dimensional and typological approaches, which was a major issue during the preparation of DSM-5. Theories of personality started with the humoral theory of Greek medicine. Pinel, and later Esquirol and Prichard, are credited with the first descriptions of abnormal personalities in textbooks of psychiatry. Between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, elaborate systems of normal and abnormal personality, associating to some degree types and dimensions, were devised by a succession of European psychologists, such as Ribot, Heymans, and Lazursky. Emil Kraepelin and Kurt Schneider proposed classifications of abnormal personality types. In parallel, psychoanalysts stressed the role of early life experiences. Towards the mid-20th century, statistical methods were applied to the scientific validation of personality dimensions with pioneers such as Cattell, anticipating the five-factor model.

  8. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...

  9. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder and Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Nicoletti; Antonina Luca; Loredana Raciti; Donatella Contrafatto; Elisa Bruno; Valeria Dibilio; Giorgia Sciacca; Giovanni Mostile; Antonio Petralia; Mario Zappia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency of personality disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in a group of healthy controls. METHODS: Patients affected by PD diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's disease Society Brain Bank diagnostic criteria and a group of healthy controls were enrolled in the study. PD patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from the study. Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders-II (SCID-II) has been performed to evaluate...

  10. Potential Biomarkers in personality disorders: current state and future research

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Valencia; Jorge Mauricio Cuartas Arias

    2016-01-01

    This review article presents the most appropriate strategies for examining the phenotype for personality disorders. At present there are many neurobiological and molecular studies that suggest a genetic predisposition to different traits representative of expressed personality disorders. Nonetheless, it has not been possible to accurately and successfully replicate such results due to some difficulties regarding the sensitivity, specificity and validity of the clinical evaluation methods, and...

  11. Positive Affective and Cognitive States in Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to compliment previous studies identifying negative states present in borderline personality disorder by investigating the presence of positive affective and cognitive states. Ninety-six patients with criteria-defined borderline personality disorder and 24 axis II comparison participants completed the Positive Affect Scale, a 50-item self-report measure designed to assess positive states thought to be characteristic of borderline patients (and axis II comparis...

  12. Disturbed social interaction and cognition in borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Röpke, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The included five studies assessed disturbance in interpersonal functioning and cognition as hallmarks of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the first three studies interpersonal functioning in BPD was empirically explored. The first study's objective was to empirically assess cognitive and emotional empathy in patients with BPD and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). The study's method was that 27 patients with BPD, forty-seven patients with NPD, and 53 healthy controls were ...

  13. Personality Disorder Symptoms and Marital Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Susan C.; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Pathological personality is strongly linked with interpersonal impairment, yet no study to date has examined the relationship between concurrent personality pathology and dysfunction in marriage--a relationship that most people find central to their lives. In a cross-sectional study of a community sample of married couples (N = 82), the authors…

  14. The plight of personality disorders in the DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limandri, Barbara J

    2012-09-01

    This article provides a brief history of the development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association, and how it relates to the proposed fifth edition to be published in 2013. Of particular emphasis is Axis II and how this axis is likely to be restructured. The reconceptualization of the nosology for personality disorders has been controversial since the publication of the DSM-III-R (Wilson, 1993). In both the clinical and academic communities, ongoing debate about diagnostic classification of personality disorders has been common. One recurrent theme among the deliberations on diagnosis and personality disorder focuses on the question of whether distinct (categorical) diagnoses exist or whether diagnoses are dimensionally related to each other in some empirically determined way. The proposed changes for Axis II in the DSM-5 are likely to bridge the gap between these two arguments by revamping the overall criteria and discarding the three currently used diagnostic clusters. The resulting nosology proposes six personality disorders with common factors in Criteria A and Criteria B. However, a major concern and a continuing problem not likely to be resolved in this edition is the symptom resemblance of borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder. This article suggests some ways the revised DSM might affect mental health nursing practice. PMID:22957953

  15. Five-factor model personality disorder prototypes in a community sample: self- and informant-reports predicting interview-based DSM diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Erin M; Shields, Andrew J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2011-10-01

    The need for an empirically validated, dimensional system of personality disorders is becoming increasingly apparent. While a number of systems have been investigated in this regard, the five-factor model of personality has demonstrated the ability to adequately capture personality pathology. In particular, the personality disorder prototypes developed by Lynam and Widiger (2001) have been tested in a number of samples. The goal of the present study is to extend this literature by validating the prototypes in a large, representative community sample of later middle-aged adults using both self and informant reports. We found that the prototypes largely work well in this age group. Schizoid, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic, and Avoidant personality disorders demonstrate good convergent validity, with a particularly strong pattern of discriminant validity for the latter four. Informant-reported prototypes show similar patterns to self reports for all analyses. This demonstrates that informants are not succumbing to halo representations of the participants, but are rather describing participants in nuanced ways. It is important that informant reports add significant predictive validity for Schizoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic personality disorders. Implications of our results and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. 反社会人格高危人群反应抑制的ERP研究%An ERP study on response inhibition in high-risk antisocial personality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关慕桢; 廖扬; 任慧娟; 刘旭峰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the time course of response inhibition function in juvenile delin-quents with antisocial personality characteristics.Methods The healthy control group ( n=21),juvenile delinquents with antisocial personality characteristics ( CD +AP ) ( n=18) and juvenile delinquents ( CD) ( n=18) were selected in current study by recording the event-related potentials in a Go/Nogo task.N2 and P3 components of event-related potentials were analyzed.Results Behavioral results showed that Nogo cor-rection rate of control group ((93.13±2.71)%) were significantly higher than CD group ((87.51±2.82)%, P<0.01) and CD +AP group((85.63±2.45)%, P<0.01).In CD+AP group,the amplitude of the N2nogo ( (-1.82±1.64)μV) was significantly lower than control group ( (-6.36±2.93)μV, P<0.01) ,and the am-plitude of the P3nogo ((5.52±2.79)μV) was significantly decreased than healthy control ((11.26±4.92)μV, P<0.01).In CD group,the amplitude of P3nogo ((5.20±3.17)μV) was significantly reduced than healthy control ((11.26±4.92)μV, P<0.01).Conclusion N2nogo and N2d are associated with the early phases of response inhibition and reflected response conflict.P3nogo and P3d are associated with the late phases of response inhibition and monitored inhibitory control.These data suggest that CD+AP participants exhibited im-paired response conflict and inhibitory control.This may be associated with persistent antisocial behavior.%目的:探讨反社会人格高危人群反应抑制的ERP特点。方法本研究采用Go/Nogo范式,评估健康对照组( n=21)、反社会人格高危组(CD +AP)( n=18)和品行障碍组(CD)( n=18)反应抑制加工时间进程的ERP特点,主要分析三个组N2和P3成分的波幅和潜伏期的特点。结果行为学数据显示健康对照组Nogo正确率[(93.13±2.71)%]显著高于CD组[(87.51±2.82)%, P<0.01]和CD +AP组[(85.63±2.45)%, P<0.01];ERP

  17. Autonomic Impairment in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Laboratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Anna; Klonsky, E. David; Hajcak, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that emotional dysfunction in psychiatric disorders can be reflected in autonomic abnormalities. The present study examines sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system activity in individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) before, during, and following a social stressor task. Data were obtained…

  18. Personality Disorder among Male Prisoner in Erbil/ Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Saman SH.; Ali, Sirwan K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Personality disorders are enduring, persistent and pervasive disorders of inner experience and behavior that cause distress or significant impairment in social functioning. They have strong relationship to offending and violence; our aim in the study was to determine the prevalence rate of each specific types of…

  19. Self- and other-reports of traits from the five-factor model: relations to personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Pilkonis, Paul A; Clifton, Allan

    2005-08-01

    The current study used a psychiatric sample (N = 69) to examine: (1) the correspondence between self- and other-reports of general personality, as measured by the Five-Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1990), and personality disorder (PD) traits, as measured by a structured interview, (2) the relations between these two sets of ratings (FFM and PD traits) and consensus ratings of PD and impairment, and (3) the incremental validity of other-rated personality scores. Agreement between raters for the five domains of the FFM ranged from .23 (agreeableness) to .71 (openness); for the PD traits agreement ranged from .37 (avoidant) to .69 (antisocial). At both the domain and facet level, the personality profiles reflected in the correlations between the FFM scores and PD criteria were consistent across raters with the exception of narcissistic PD. Substantial evidence was found for the incremental validity of other-rated personality scores, with these ratings accounting for an additional 8 to 20% of the overall variance in PD features. The other-rated FFM scores also accounted for more variance in consensus ratings of impairment in the domains of romance, work, and social relations. PMID:16178682

  20. Using the mood disorder questionnaire and bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale to detect bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder among eating disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Toshihiko; Yamada, Hisashi; Teo, Alan R.; Yoshimura, Chiho; Kodama, Yuya; van Vliet, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening scales for bipolar disorder including the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) have been plagued by high false positive rates confounded by presence of borderline personality disorder. This study examined the accuracy of these scales for detecting bipolar disorder among patients referred for eating disorders and explored the possibility of simultaneous assessment of co-morbid borderline personality disorder. Methods Participants w...

  1. The alternative DSM-5 personality disorder traits criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Bo, Sune;

    2016-01-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a) offers an alternative model for Personality Disorders (PDs) in Section III, which consists in part of a pathological personality traits criterion measured...... with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). The PID-5 selfreport instrument currently exists in the original 220-item form, a short 100-item form, and a brief 25-item form. For clinicians and researchers, the choice of a particular PID- 5 form depends on feasibility, but also reliability and validity. The goal...

  2. ANANKASTIK PERSONALITY DISORDER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PARANOID PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarnegara ..

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anankastik personality disorder is a health problem that can disturb the activities of person and can accompany a variety of other mental health problems. The patient in thiscase is a patient with an anankastik or obsessive compulsive personality disorder withthe axis I diagnoses is Paranoid Schizophrenia and was given haloperidol 2x5mg, buthave not done psychotherapy because the patient has not been cooperative. Theprognosis is dependent on patient compliance in taking medication and controls for thesetting of the dose, and the support of her family. 

  3. Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder traits in perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Carmen; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent among perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Schema Therapy proposes a number of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that are involved in the development of PDs. This study examined the prevalence of PD traits in a sample of men who committed violence against their partners and the relationship between EMSs domains and PD traits. With this aim, a sample of 119 convicted men completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF; Young & Brown, 1994) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III; Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1994). The results showed that the most prevalent PD traits were narcissistic (24.6%), obsessive-compulsive (21.9%), and paranoid (17.5%). These PD traits were linked to several EMSs in ways consistent with the Schema Therapy model. Namely, narcissistic PD traits were positively associated with schemas of the impaired limits domain and were negatively associated with the other-directedness domain. The paranoid PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired autonomy and performance domain. Finally, both borderline and antisocial PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired limits domain. These findings suggest that the assessment and modification of EMSs should be a factor to consider for inclusion in the treatment programs for perpetrators of IPV in order to provide comprehensive intervention of this population.

  4. Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder traits in perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Carmen; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent among perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Schema Therapy proposes a number of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that are involved in the development of PDs. This study examined the prevalence of PD traits in a sample of men who committed violence against their partners and the relationship between EMSs domains and PD traits. With this aim, a sample of 119 convicted men completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF; Young & Brown, 1994) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III; Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1994). The results showed that the most prevalent PD traits were narcissistic (24.6%), obsessive-compulsive (21.9%), and paranoid (17.5%). These PD traits were linked to several EMSs in ways consistent with the Schema Therapy model. Namely, narcissistic PD traits were positively associated with schemas of the impaired limits domain and were negatively associated with the other-directedness domain. The paranoid PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired autonomy and performance domain. Finally, both borderline and antisocial PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired limits domain. These findings suggest that the assessment and modification of EMSs should be a factor to consider for inclusion in the treatment programs for perpetrators of IPV in order to provide comprehensive intervention of this population. PMID:24553172

  5. Emotional hyper-reactivity in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    According to clinical experience, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and authorities in the field, patients with borderline personality disorder tend to be hyper-reactive to environmental stimuli. In addition to the preceding clinical impressions and experiences, the majority of empirical studies in this area have concluded that patients with borderline personality disorder are indeed hyper-responsive to experimental environmental stimuli, whether the stimuli are negative, positive, or even neutral or ambiguous. While two empirical studies did not find hyper-responsiveness, both were undertaken in inpatients with borderline personality disorder, and the potential for emotional blunting from psychotropic medications may have been a potential confound. These findings have several clinical implications in both mental health and primary care settings. PMID:20941347

  6. Dependent Personality Disorder: Comparing an Expert Generated and Empirically Derived Five-Factor Model Personality Disorder Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Lynam, Donald R.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th Ed.; "DSM-IV") personality disorders (PDs) using five-factor model (FFM) prototypes and counts has shown substantial promise, with a few exceptions. Miller, Reynolds, and Pilkonis suggested that the expert-generated FFM dependent prototype might be misspecified in…

  7. A further validation of the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Elizabeth C; Cummings, Jenna R; Bornovalova, Marina A; Hopwood, Christopher J; Racine, Sarah E; Keel, Pamela K; Sisk, Cheryl L; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L

    2014-04-01

    Previous research indicates that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is well conceptualized as a dimensional construct that can be represented using normal personality traits. A previous study successfully developed and validated a BPD measure embedded within a normal trait measure, the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale (MBPD). The current study performed a further validation of the MBPD by examining its convergent validity, external correlates, and heritability in a sample of 429 female twins. The MBPD correlated strongly with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) screener for BPD and moderately with external correlates. Moreover, the MBPD and SCID-II screener exhibited very similar patterns of external correlations. Additionally, results indicated that the genetic and environmental influences on MBPD overlap with the genetic and environmental influences on the SCID-II screener, which suggests that these scales are measuring the same construct. These data provide further evidence for the construct validity of the MBPD. PMID:24364505

  8. Preliminary field trial of a putative research algorithm for diagnosing ICD-11 personality disorders in psychiatric patients: 2. Proposed trait domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Tyrer, Peter; Lee, Hong-Seock; Kim, Sung-Gon; Hwang, Soon-Taek; Lee, Gi Young; Mulder, Roger

    2015-11-01

    This field trial examines the discriminant validity of five trait domains of the originally proposed research algorithm for diagnosing International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 personality disorders. This trial was carried out in South Korea where a total of 124 patients with personality disorder participated in the study. Participants were assessed using originally proposed monothetic trait domains of asocial-schizoid, antisocial-dissocial, anxious-dependent, emotionally unstable and anankastic-obsessional groups of the research algorithm in ICD-11. Their assessments were compared to those from the Personality Assessment Schedule interview, and the five-factor model (FFM). A total of 48.4% of patients were found to have pathology in two or more domains. In the discriminant analysis, 64.2% of the grouped cases of the originally proposed ICD-11 domains were correctly classified by the five domain categories using the Personality Assessment Schedule, with the highest accuracy in the anankastic-obsessional domain and the lowest accuracy in the emotionally unstable domain. In comparison, the asocial-schizoid, anxious-dependent and the emotionally unstable domains were moderately correlated with the FFM, whereas the anankastic-obsessional or antisocial-dissocial domains were not significantly correlated with the FFM. In this field trial, we demonstrated the limited discriminant and the convergent validities of the originally proposed trait domains of the research algorithm for diagnosing ICD-11 personality disorder. The results suggest that the anankastic, asocial and dissocial domains show good discrimination, whereas the anxious-dependent and emotionally unstable ones overlap too much and have been subsequently revised.

  9. Comorbilidad de la adicción a la cocaína con los trastornos de la personalidad Comorbidity between cocaine addiction and personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fernández-Montalvo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se lleva a cabo una revisión de los estudios realizados hasta la fecha en relación con la comorbilidad de los trastornos de personalidad con la adicción a la cocaína. Los resultados obtenidos en las diferentes investigaciones no son concluyentes. La tasa de prevalencia de los trastornos de personalidad en los pacientes cocainómanos es muy heterogénea, con una media en torno al 66% de los casos, aunque con una amplia variabilidad de unos estudios a otros. Sin embargo, se observa una cierta tendencia a presentar una mayor prevalencia en los trastornos de personalidad del grupo B (antisocial y límite, principalmente. Por último se comentan las implicaciones de este estudio para la investigación y para la práctica clínica.The aim of this paper was to review the current knowledge about the comorbidity between cocaine dependence and personality disorders. Results concerning a specific profile of cocaine patients are not conclusive. The prevalence rate of personality disorders in cocaine dependents is very heterogeneous (with a mean of 66% of cases, and a great variability is observed between all the studies carried out. There is a tendency for a higher proportion of cocaine dependents to be found within the cluster B category (mainly antisocial and borderline. Lastly, implications of this kind of study for future research and clinical practice are commented upon.

  10. [Instability of personality characteristics and personality disorders during the lifespan: effects for assessment in older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummers, J H A; Derksen, J L L; van Alphen, S P J

    2010-04-01

    The instability of personality characteristics and personality disorders during the lifespan is the topic of this literature search. It concerns the effects of this instability for personality assessment in older adults. Five longitudinal studies, based on the Big Five model of Costa & McCrae, support the hypothesis that personality characteristics change during the lifespan. Neuroticism, extraversion and openness decrease with age. In contrast, altruism and conscientiousness increase with age. One longitudinal and three cross-sectional studies of personality pathology indicate age-specific changes in the expression of (mal) adaptive personality characteristics. Besides that, nearly one third of the DSM criteria for Axis II personality disorders are insufficiently applicable to older people, based on a large cross sectional study. Therefore the temporal instability of personality characteristics and the limited validity of the Axis II criteria complicate personality assessment in older adults. Improvements could be found in major standardization studies of personality questionnaires in elderly patients in mental health care and nursing home care. Significant changes in the DSM, such as the development of an age specific and multidimensional approach to personality disorders is also recommended. PMID:20443285

  11. Cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders show dysfunctional brain activation and connectivity in the emotional regulation networks during negative emotion maintenance and reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Asensio, Samuel; Martínez-González, José Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Cocaine dependence often co-occurs with Cluster B personality disorders. Since both disorders are characterized by emotion regulation deficits, we predicted that cocaine comorbid patients would exhibit dysfunctional patterns of brain activation and connectivity during reappraisal of negative emotions. We recruited 18 cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders, 17 cocaine users without comorbidities and 21 controls to be scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance on a reappraisal task in which they had to maintain or suppress the emotions induced by negative affective stimuli. We followed region of interest (ROI) and whole-brain approaches to investigate brain activations and connectivity associated with negative emotion experience and reappraisal. Results showed that cocaine users with comorbid personality disorders had reduced activation of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex during negative emotion maintenance and increased activation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala during reappraisal. Amygdala activation correlated with impulsivity and antisocial beliefs in the comorbid group. Connectivity analyses showed that in the cocaine comorbid group the subgenual cingulate was less efficiently connected with the amygdala and the fusiform gyri and more efficiently connected with the anterior insula during maintenance, whereas during reappraisal the left orbitofrontal cortex was more efficiently connected with the amygdala and the right orbitofrontal cortex was less efficiently connected with the dorsal striatum. We conclude that cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders have distinctive patterns of brain activation and connectivity during maintenance and reappraisal of negative emotions, which correlate with impulsivity and dysfunctional beliefs.

  12. Personality traits in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, M; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Mortensen, E L;

    2007-01-01

    .03). In multivariate analyses, a high genetic liability to affective disorder was not significantly associated with neuroticism but correlated to sex, minor psychopathology and recent life events. CONCLUSION: A high genetic liability to affective disorder showed an association with neuroticism, but the association......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a high genetic liability to develop affective disorder is associated with specific personality traits. METHOD: A cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study. Through nation-wide registers, healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (high-risk twins...... interacts with other predictors of affective disorder such as female gender, minor psychopathology and recent adversity...

  13. Some Personality Variables in Functional Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Robertson

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with spasmodic torticollis, writer's cramp and the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS were given rating scales to assess personality dimensions, especially hostility and obsessionality. The data have been compared with age and sex matched controls. Significant differences arose, especially for hostility for the GTS and writer's cramp patients, whereas those with spasmodic torticollis do not differ from controls.

  14. Psychopathy: traditional and clinical antisocial concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutker, P B

    1994-01-01

    Advances in our knowledge about the concept of psychopathy and the repeated occurrence of antisocial behaviors in the face of adversity and punishment have been limited by a complex interplay of conceptual and methodological issues that have not yet been addressed adequately by psychosocial scientists. Foremost among the problems facing clinicians and researchers interested in this topic is the lack of agreement on the meaning and labelling of the construct. Scholars have not reached consensus in describing a category within a diagnostic system that distinguishes a relatively homogeneous group of individuals sharing a set of characteristics, or a class of persons that can be identified reliably from those who exhibit other perhaps closely related behavioral abnormalities and so-called normal individuals. Disagreements about the construct in question have been sufficiently problematic that some researchers and clinicians have decided that the notion of psychopathy or APD, taken to represent a mental disorder, is simply a myth or a judgment label concocted to justify societal management of offensive and repugnant behaviors (cf., Blackburn, 1988; Lewis & Balla, 1975; Pilgrim, 1987). Scholars such as Holmes (1991) and Wulach (1983) have called for elimination of the category as a mental disorder diagnosis, because it offers an opportunity for making value assessments rather than clinically appropriate decisions. Few disorders described in our psychopathology nomenclature are associated with such markedly negative attributions as is psychopathy, whether defined in the American or British traditions. The logical underpinning of much work in the field equates psychopathy or APD with heinous forms of criminality, lifestyle criminality, and special cases of antisocial behavior. In keeping with tendencies for society to conceptualize psychopathy as extreme misbehavior and to decry its consequences is a paper by Wells (1988), which exemplifies the emotion-focused thought and

  15. Nucleotide sequence variation within the human tyrosine kinase B neurotrophin receptor gene (NTRK2): association with antisocial alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, K; Anderson, T. R.; Neyer, K. M.; Lamparella, N.; Jenkins, G.; Zhou, Z; Yuan, Q.; Virkkunen, M; Lipsky, R H

    2007-01-01

    To identify sequence variants in genes that may have roles in neuronal responses to alcohol, we resequenced the 5′ region of NTRK2 and determined linkage disequilibrium (LD) values, haplotype structure, and performed association analyses using 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the entire NTRK2 region in a Finnish Caucasian sample of 229 alcohol dependent subjects with antisocial personality disorder and 287 healthy controls. Individually, three SNPs were associated with alcoh...

  16. An approach to the psychobiology of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I; Rothbart, Mary K; Vizueta, Nathalie; Thomas, Kathleen M; Levy, Kenneth N; Fossella, John; Silbersweig, David; Stern, Emily; Clarkin, John; Kernberg, Otto

    2003-01-01

    Human variability in temperament allows a unique natural experiment where reactivity, self-regulation, and experience combine in complex ways to produce an individual personality. Personality disorders may result from changes in the way past memories filter new information in situations of emotional involvement with others. According to this view, disorders are specific to their initiating circumstances rather than a general difficulty that might extend to classes of information processing remote from triggers for the disorder. A different view suggests a more general deficit in attentional control mechanisms that might extend to a wide range of situations far from those related to the core abnormality. This paper outlines methods for examining these views and presents data from the study of borderline personality disorder, arguing in favor of high negative emotionality being combined with a deficit in an executive attentional control network. Because this attentional network has already been well described in terms of anatomy, the cognitive operations involved, development, chemical modulators, and effects of lesions and candidate genes, these findings may have implications for understanding the disorder and its treatment. We consider these implications in terms of a general approach to the study of personality development and its disorders.

  17. Contribution of Occupational Therapy to funcional approach in personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellido Mainar, J R

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorders ( personality disorder F03.675 are defined by a rigid pattern of unadapting behaviours that, on the short and medium term generate a significant socio environmental deterioration. The level of psychosocial function or dysfunction is a first class indicator when assessing the extent and assessment of the personality disorder.Psychotherapy ( psychotherapy F04.754 intervenes in the psychosocial compounds of this disorder by designing specific programs for the training in psychosocial skills (conductual-dialectic therapy. Occupational Therapy ( occupational therapy E02.831.489 is a health science with a long history in socioenvironmental therapy of mental diseases F04.754.864 . The focal point is the assessment of the disease, disorder or social unadaptation impact in the individual's occupation functionality. This science puts forward a wide, integrating concept of functionality, which is divided into three occupation areas: productive occupational area, self maintenance area and leisure time area.In the first part of this paper, the extent and features of the occupational disfunction in the personality disorder are analysed employing the occupational therapy method.Based on our six-year experience, a method for socioenvironmental treatment based on two models of occupational therapy (human occupation model and Canadian model is suggested in the second part of the paper

  18. An approach to the psychobiology of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I; Rothbart, Mary K; Vizueta, Nathalie; Thomas, Kathleen M; Levy, Kenneth N; Fossella, John; Silbersweig, David; Stern, Emily; Clarkin, John; Kernberg, Otto

    2003-01-01

    Human variability in temperament allows a unique natural experiment where reactivity, self-regulation, and experience combine in complex ways to produce an individual personality. Personality disorders may result from changes in the way past memories filter new information in situations of emotional involvement with others. According to this view, disorders are specific to their initiating circumstances rather than a general difficulty that might extend to classes of information processing remote from triggers for the disorder. A different view suggests a more general deficit in attentional control mechanisms that might extend to a wide range of situations far from those related to the core abnormality. This paper outlines methods for examining these views and presents data from the study of borderline personality disorder, arguing in favor of high negative emotionality being combined with a deficit in an executive attentional control network. Because this attentional network has already been well described in terms of anatomy, the cognitive operations involved, development, chemical modulators, and effects of lesions and candidate genes, these findings may have implications for understanding the disorder and its treatment. We consider these implications in terms of a general approach to the study of personality development and its disorders. PMID:14984139

  19. Problematic boundaries in the diagnosis of bipolar disorder: the interface with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A

    2013-12-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. The most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder is their diagnostic concordance. Across studies approximately 10 % of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10 % had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20 % of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10 % of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is, nonetheless, diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80-90 %). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. Studies comparing patients with BPD and bipolar disorder find significant differences on a range of variables. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum. While a substantial literature has documented problems with the under-recognition and under-diagnosis of bipolar disorder, more recent studies have found evidence of bipolar disorder over-diagnosis and that BPD is a significant contributor to over-diagnosis. Re-conceptualizing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder as a type of test, rather than the final word on diagnosis, shifts the diagnostician from thinking solely whether a patient does or does not have a disorder to considering the risks of false-positive and false-negative diagnoses, and the ease by which each type of diagnostic error can be corrected by longitudinal observation

  20. Antisocial features and "faking bad": A critical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesten, Isabella J M; Nentjes, Lieke; Merckelbach, Harald; Bernstein, David P

    2015-01-01

    We critically review the literature on antisocial personality features and symptom fabrication (i.e., faking bad; e.g., malingering). A widespread assumption is that these constructs are intimately related. Some studies have, indeed, found that antisocial individuals score higher on instruments detecting faking bad, but others have been unable to replicate this pattern. In addition, studies exploring whether antisocial individuals are especially talented in faking bad have generally come up with null results. The notion of an intrinsic link between antisocial features and faking bad is difficult to test and research in this domain is sensitive to selection bias. We argue that research on faking bad would profit from further theoretical articulation. One topic that deserves scrutiny is how antisocial features affect the cognitive dissonance typically induced by faking bad. We illustrate our points with preliminary data and discuss their implications.

  1. Some comments on nomology, diagnostic process, and narcissistic personality disorder in the DSM-5 proposal for personality and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L

    2011-01-01

    I comment on the DSM-5 proposal for personality disorders (PDs), including discussion of the proposal's nomological revisions and their implications, the development and prioritization of a set of general criteria for PD, the shift to prototype matching of narrative descriptions for assessment of personality impairments and prominent PD types, and the recommendation to delete five PD diagnoses. Although the general criteria for PD are promising, implementation of prototype ratings for both functional impairments and PD types remains psychometrically questionable. In addition, revising the format and content of the diagnostic criteria while simultaneously deleting five diagnoses confounds evaluation of the revisions for the purposes indicated in the proposal. Finally, the performance of prior DSM criteria sets should not be the primary basis for considering the ontological status of prominent types because of construct definition problems with the criteria sets and criterion problems with DSM-based PD research. These concerns were highlighted in the case of Narcissistic PD-a diagnosis slated for deletion despite significant evidence for its clinical utility and validity when data beyond DSM criteria is considered. Changes of this magnitude are needed, but rigorous scientific evaluation is necessary before evolving from a proposal to the officially published DSM-5.

  2. Toward a genetically-informed model of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, John

    2008-02-01

    This article describes a conceptual framework for describing borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on empirical studies of the phenotypic structure and genetic architecture of personality. The proposed phenotype has 2 components: (1) a description of core self and interpersonal pathology-the defining features of personality disorder-as these features are expressed in the disorder; and (2) a set of traits based on the anxious-dependent or emotional dysregulation factor of the four-factor model of PD. Four kinds of traits are described: emotional (anxiousness, emotional reactivity, emotional intensity, and pessimistic-anhedonia), interpersonal (submissiveness, insecure attachment, social apprehensiveness, and need for approval), cognitive (cognitive dysregulation), and self-harm (behaviors and ideas). Formulation of the phenotype was guided by the conceptualization of personality as a system of interrelated sub-systems. The psychopathology associated with BPD involves most components of the system. The trait structure of the disorder is assumed to reflect the genetic architecture of personality and individual traits are assumed to be based on adaptive mechanisms. It is suggested that borderline traits are organized around the trait of anxiousness and that an important feature of BPD is dysregulation of the threat management system leading to pervasive fearfulness and unstable emotions. The interpersonal traits are assumed to be heritable characteristics that evolved to deal with interpersonal threats that arose as a result of social living. The potential for unstable and conflicted interpersonal relationships that is inherent to the disorder is assumed to result from the interplay between the adaptive structure of personality and psychosocial adversity. The etiology of the disorder is discussed in terms of biological and environmental factors associated with each component of the phenotype. PMID:18312122

  3. Toward a genetically-informed model of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, John

    2008-02-01

    This article describes a conceptual framework for describing borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on empirical studies of the phenotypic structure and genetic architecture of personality. The proposed phenotype has 2 components: (1) a description of core self and interpersonal pathology-the defining features of personality disorder-as these features are expressed in the disorder; and (2) a set of traits based on the anxious-dependent or emotional dysregulation factor of the four-factor model of PD. Four kinds of traits are described: emotional (anxiousness, emotional reactivity, emotional intensity, and pessimistic-anhedonia), interpersonal (submissiveness, insecure attachment, social apprehensiveness, and need for approval), cognitive (cognitive dysregulation), and self-harm (behaviors and ideas). Formulation of the phenotype was guided by the conceptualization of personality as a system of interrelated sub-systems. The psychopathology associated with BPD involves most components of the system. The trait structure of the disorder is assumed to reflect the genetic architecture of personality and individual traits are assumed to be based on adaptive mechanisms. It is suggested that borderline traits are organized around the trait of anxiousness and that an important feature of BPD is dysregulation of the threat management system leading to pervasive fearfulness and unstable emotions. The interpersonal traits are assumed to be heritable characteristics that evolved to deal with interpersonal threats that arose as a result of social living. The potential for unstable and conflicted interpersonal relationships that is inherent to the disorder is assumed to result from the interplay between the adaptive structure of personality and psychosocial adversity. The etiology of the disorder is discussed in terms of biological and environmental factors associated with each component of the phenotype.

  4. Parental qualities as perceived by borderline personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, R L; Mann, L S; Wise, T N; Segall, E A

    1985-01-01

    This study explores the contribution of parental qualities to the borderline personality disorder. The Parental Bonding Inventory is used to compare four parental qualities (caring mother, caring father, overprotective father, and overprotective mother) across three groups (borderline personality disorders, assorted psychiatric controls and normal controls). The major finding was that the borderline patients perceived their parents to be significantly less caring and more overprotective than both the psychiatric control or nonclinical control groups. This study was verified previous reports that patients diagnosed with an affective illness (in either the borderline group or psychiatric control group) reported no significant differences on the inventory. Pinpointing parental characteristics which antecede mental disorders may be an important first step in devising primary preventive interventions for adult disorders. PMID:4077030

  5. Preliminary study of relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and personality disorder functioning styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26 and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23 were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25 but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23. Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions.

  6. Dracula. Disorders of the self and borderline personality organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, J M; Raines, L C; Singer, M

    1994-12-01

    It has been proposed that Bram Stoker's novel Dracula can best be understood as a dramatic, hyperbolic, and fantastic expression of themes consistent with contemporary psychoanalytic conceptions of borderline personality disorder organization. Such an understanding may, in turn, shed further light on the nature of the intrapsychic world and experiences of borderline patients. Excerpts from the novel can be used to support the conceptualization of recent contributions to object relations theory and the understanding of borderline personality organization. It is uncanny how consistent Dracula's characteristics are to the generally seen complaints of patients suffering from this disorder.

  7. Personality disorders: Can we capture different levels of pathology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian; Heinskou, Torben; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht;

    Background: Since 2010, the Danish Mental Health Services in the Capital Region of Denmark has organized treatment of patients with personality disorder (PD) into two main levels: Level 1, a time-restricted care package (TRP) and Level 2, a specialized treatment program (SP) for the most severely...... of Functioning (GAF). 61 Results: In this presentation the baseline characteristics of 388 patients allocated to treatment for PD between 2010 and October 2014 are presented. Results are discussed in regards to the need for offering personality disordered patients differentiated psychotherapy services according...

  8. Schizoid personality disorder linked to unbearable and inescapable loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem H.J. Martens

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: More insight is needed into the link between loneliness and schizoid personality disorder in order to construct more adequate diagnostic tools and therapeutic programs. Methods: A computer-based search of literature (Medline and PsycInfo between 1970 and 2009. Results: A combination of intrapsychic, psychosocial, cultural, ethnic, religious, and/or neurobiological factors determine loneliness and associated schizoid etiology. Furthermore, a complex interaction between these influences is prevalent in schizoid etiology. Conclusion: Loneliness appears to be a crucial factor in the etiology of schizoid personality disorder.

  9. Personality disorders and violence: what is the link?

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Despite a well-documented association between personality disorders (PDs) and violence, the relationship between them is complicated by the high comorbidity of mental disorders, the heterogeneity of violence (particularly in regard to its motivation), and differing views regarding the way PDs are conceptualised and measured. In particular, it remains unclear whether there is a causal relationship between PDs and violence, and what the psychological mechanisms might be that mediate such a rela...

  10. Implicit Self-Esteem in Borderline Personality and Depersonalization Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    HeatherBerlin; AlexisHedrick

    2012-01-01

    Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and depersonalization disorder (DPD), fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measure...

  11. Impulsivity and Personality Variables in Adolescents with Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Boisseau, Christina L.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Eddy, Kamryn T; Satir, Dana A.

    2009-01-01

    Impulsivity among individuals with eating disorders (EDs) is associated with severe co-morbidities and poor treatment outcome. However, research investigating the construct of impulsivity in EDs is limited. The objectives of the present study were to characterize multiple dimensions of impulsivity in adolescents with eating disorders (EDs); determine if differences in impulsivity were associated with ED diagnosis and/or broader personality traits; and explore the relationship between impulsiv...

  12. Comorbidity of psychiatric and personality disorders in first suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Nagaraja Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempted suicide is a common clinical problem in a general hospital setting. It has a serious clinical and socio-economical impact too. Aims: To study the psychosocial, psychiatric, and personality profile of the first suicide attempters in a general hospital. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, hospital-based, descriptive study. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive cases of first suicide attempt ( n=100 treated in a general hospital were studied to know the clinical profile. Variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, family background, suicide characteristics, psychiatric morbidity, and comorbidity were analyzed. Risk-Rescue rating was applied to know the medical seriousness of the suicide attempt. Presumptive stressful life event scale was utilized to calculate life events score. Structured clinical interview (MINI Plus and semi-structured clinical interview (IPDE were used for axis-I and axis-II (personality diagnoses. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical measures. Results: Family history of psychiatric illnesses (31% and suicide (11% were noted. Insecticides and pesticides were the most common agents (71% employed to attempt suicide. Interpersonal difficulties (46% were the most frequent stressor. Overall medical seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality. 93% of the suicide attempters had at least one axis-I and/or axis-II psychiatric disorder. Most common diagnostic categories were mood disorders, adjustment disorders, and substance-related disorders, with axis-I disorders (89%, personality disorders (52%, and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders (51.6%. Conclusion: Individuals who made first suicide attempt were young adults, had lower educational achievement; overall seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality, high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, personality disorders, and comorbidity, and had sought medical help from general practitioners.

  13. Personality disorders and violence: what is the link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Despite a well-documented association between personality disorders (PDs) and violence, the relationship between them is complicated by the high comorbidity of mental disorders, the heterogeneity of violence (particularly in regard to its motivation), and differing views regarding the way PDs are conceptualised and measured. In particular, it remains unclear whether there is a causal relationship between PDs and violence, and what the psychological mechanisms might be that mediate such a relationship. Here, a perspective on PD and violence is offered that views the relationship between them through the lenses of the Five Factor Model of personality and a quadripartite typology of violence. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that emotion dysregulation/impulsiveness, psychopathy, and delusional ideation conjointly contribute to the increased risk of violence shown by people with PD, and do so by contributing to a broad severity dimension of personality dysfunction. This view is consistent with the abandonment of personality disorder categories in the forthcoming eleventh edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), where severity of personality disorder is defined in terms of the degree of harm to self and others. PMID:26401314

  14. Personality disorder in DSM-5: an oral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachar, P; Krueger, R F; Kendler, K S

    2016-01-01

    As the revision process leading to DSM-5 began, the domain of personality disorder embodied the highest aspirations for major change. After an initial prototype-based proposal failed to gain acceptance, the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group (P&PDWG) developed a hybrid model containing categorical and dimensional components. A clash of perspectives both within the P&PDWG and between the P&PDWG and DSM-5 oversight committees led to the rejection of this proposal from the main body of DSM-5. Major issues included conflicting ways of conceptualizing validation, differences of opinion from personality disorder experts outside the P&PDWG, divergent concepts of the magnitude of evidence needed to support substantial changes, and the disagreements about clinical utility of the hybrid model. Despite these setbacks, the 'Alternative DSM-5 Model of Personality Disorder' is presented in Section III of the DSM-5. Further research should clarify its performance relative to the DSM-IV criteria reprinted in the main DSM-5 text. PMID:26482368

  15. Posttraumatic stress disorder with and without alcohol use disorders: Diagnostic and clinical correlates in a psychiatric sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Lara A.; Capone, Christy; Sheets, Erin; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This study compared outpatients (n = 196) with PTSD versus PTSD + alcohol use disorders (AUD) on clinical measures. PTSD + AUD patients were more likely to meet criteria for Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorders. Emotion dysregulation may help account for the relationship between PTSD and AUD.

  16. Contributions from personality- and psychodynamically oriented assessment to the development of the DSM-5 personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K

    2011-07-01

    Advances in personality assessment over the past 20 years have notably influenced the proposed assessment and classification of personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]). However, a considerable body of personality assessment and psychodynamically oriented assessment research has significant relevance to the way in which personality disorders are evaluated that appears to have gone unrecognized in the current proposals for DSM-5. In this article, I discuss the ways in which some of these 2 bodies of literature can and should inform the DSM-5 so that the diagnostic nomenclature can be more scientifically and comprehensively informed and consequently improve the clinical utility of a diagnostic system in need of considerable revision.

  17. Personality disorders among Spanish prisoners starting hepatitis C treatment: Prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Andrés; Antón, José J; Saiz de la Hoya, Pablo; de Juan, José; Faraco, Inmaculada; Caylà, Joan A; Trujols, Joan

    2015-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) and their associated factors in prisoners who initiate chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment in 25 Spanish prisons. The Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 was used to diagnose PDs according to DSM-IV criteria. Factors potentially associated with a PD diagnosis were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Two hundred and fifty-five patients were initially assessed and 62 (24.3%) were excluded due to an incomplete or invalid self-report screening questionnaire. PD prevalence was 70.5%, with antisocial PD being the most prevalent (46.1%). In terms of PD clusters, the most prevalent was cluster-B (55.4%). PD diagnosis was associated with HCV genotypes 1, 2, or 3 (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-4.49). Patients with a cluster-B PD were more likely to be infected with HCV genotypes 1, 2, or 3 (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.08-5.23) and be HIV-infected (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.10-4.39), to report past-year injection drug use (OR 7.17, 95% CI 1.49-34.58), and to have stage 3 or 4 fibrosis (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.06-4.49). The prevalence of PDs in Spanish prisoners who initiate CHC treatment is very high. PD management issues should be considered in treating CHC patients in prisons. PMID:26602229

  18. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  19. Personality traits and personality disorders in older women: an explorative study between normal development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Keong, Ana Marta; Sacoto, Carlota; Junqueira, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between Axis II personality disorders (DSM-IV) and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) were explored in older women. The sample consists of 90 participants (M = 72.29 years, SD = 7.10) who were administered the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire. The highest prevalence of A and C clusters and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was observed. Also, elevated neuroticism and decreased agreeableness and openness appear as valuable traits in the description of psychopathology. The study of maladaptive personality functioning within an aging population can be described with the same traits that underlie normal personality functioning, extending the range of psychopathology to a dimensional approach.

  20. Paranoid personality disorder in the United States: the role of race, illicit drug use, and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Gina T; DeMarce, Josephine M; Lash, Steven J; Parker, Jefferson D

    2014-01-01

    Differential rates of schizophrenia and paranoia symptoms have been found for Black and White individuals. Paranoid personality disorder shares symptoms with schizophrenia, yet has received minimal attention with regard to potential racial differences. In a sample consisting of 180 substance use disorder treatment-seeking individuals, the association between the diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder and the variables of race, cannabis use disorder, and income were examined. Results extended previous findings to paranoid personality disorder, supporting the hypothesis that Black individuals would be diagnosed with higher rates of paranoid personality disorder. Cannabis use disorder status and income did not predict paranoid personality disorder diagnoses.

  1. 流浪精神病人共病人格障碍调查%Personality Disorder of Homelessness Psychiatric Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡燕玉; 钟远惠; 付美华; 张玉珊

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To survey on the comorbidity of personality disorder(PD)with psychiatric disorder on home‐lessness .Methods:A total of 864 patients with homelessness psychiatric disorder were consecutively examined in the Third People's Hospital of Meizhou City and Mental hospital of Guangzhou Civil Administration .All subjects inclu‐ding troublemaking group(n=380)and non-troublemaking group(n=484)were investigated with self -made ques‐tionnaire ,SCID- Ⅱ .Results:The comorbidity rate of personality disorder with homelessness psychiatric disorder was 69 3.% .Compared with the non -troublemaking group ,the troublemaking group had significant difference in the avoidant(χ2 =154 7. ,P<0 0.1) ,depressive(χ2 =28 5.9 ,P<0 0.1) ,passive-aggressive(χ2 =65 4.0 ,P<0 0.1) ,obsess‐ive-compulsive(χ2 =75 3.1 ,P<0 .01) ,paranoid(χ2 =79 .24 ,P<0 0.1) ,schizoid(χ2 =8 .43 ,P<0 0.1) ,schizotypal (χ2 =11 1.1 ,P<0 0.1) ,borderline(χ2 =27 9.7 ,P<0 0.1) ,antisocial personality disorder(χ2 =16 9.9 ,P<0 0.5) .There were significant differences in the avoidant(χ2 =30 8.5 ,P<0 0.1) ,dependent personality disorder(χ2 =9 .279 ,P<0 0.1)in the schizophrenia and non -schizophrenia group .Conclusion:The personality disorder rate of homelessness psychiatric disorder is very high ,and we should consider the influence of personality disorder in the treatment of homeless psychiatric disorder .%目的:探讨流浪精神病人人格障碍的共病情况。方法:将来自梅州市第三人民医院和广州市民政局精神病院流浪精神病人864例连续入组,分为肇事肇祸组( n=380例)和非肇事肇祸组( n=484例),采用自制调查表、人格障碍访谈问卷第2版(SCID-II)对其进行横断面评估。结果:流浪精神病人精神疾病与人格障碍共病率为693.%,在回避型(χ2=1547.,P<00.1)、强迫型(χ2=753.1,P<00.1)、被动攻击型(χ2=654.0,P<00.1)、抑郁型(χ2=285.9

  2. The effects of comorbid personality disorders on cognitive behavioral treatment for panic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Telch; J.H. Kamphuis; N.B. Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality pathology assessed both dimensionally and categorically on acute clinical response to group cognitive-behavioral treatment in a large sample of panic disorder patients (N = 173) meeting DSMIII-R criteria for panic disorder with or without a

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder in the Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn

    1994-01-01

    Examination of 115 women with eating disorders revealed a secondary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. A model involving background features, precipitants, and immediate and long-term psychological consequences is suggested to explain the link to childhood abuse, and implications for…

  4. Discourse Cohesion in the Verbal Interactions of Individuals Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder or Schizotypal Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared high functioning adolescents and young adults with autism (n=8) or schizotypal personality disorder (n=9) in use of social language referencing. Both groups had similar rates, types, and patterns of cohesive reference errors, though subjects with schizotypal disorder used cohesive ties of reference more often and more correctly…

  5. Aspects of personality in patients with anxiety disorders undergoing capsulotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindus, P; Nyman, H; Rosenquist, A; Rydin, E; Meyerson, B A

    1988-01-01

    Capsulotomy is an established psychosurgical intervention for anxiety disorders. While the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing target symptoms is undisputed, the issue of negative personality changes following capsulotomy is of great concern. We studied prospectively personality traits in nine consecutive patients undergoing capsulotomy for anxiety disorder, using the Rorschach test and a personality inventory, the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), administered before and one year after operation. The protocols were evaluated under blind conditions by an independent assessor who had access to no data other than the age and sex of the patients. The Rorschach findings were used in two main comparison procedures: between the patients pre- and postoperative scores, and between that group and three reference groups. The KSP data were compared both with an age-stratified non-patient control group and with data obtained from groups of neurotic patients. In summary, the capsulotomy patients' personalities, as expressed in their Rorschach interpretations, remained intact, and significant reductions were noted in scales reflecting anxiety and hospitality. Statistically significant changes were also noted after operation in 10 of the 17 scales included in the KSP. While pathological scores were observed preoperatively in many scales, all the postoperative scores but one (Socialization) were within the normal range. Scores on the Socialization scale remained low, which is often the case in chronic patients. It is concluded that the patients displayed more normal personality features after operation than before and that adverse personality changes are not likely to occur after capsulotomy. PMID:3223360

  6. Personality Disorders in Recidivists%重新违法犯罪人员的人格特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡赤怡; 杨彤; 吴哨兵

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨重新违法犯罪人员的人格特征。方法:采用人格诊断问卷(PDQ+4)对122名重新违法犯罪人员及932名初次违法犯罪人员进行测试,并对两者的结果予以比较。结果:与初次违法犯罪人员相比,重新违法犯罪人员以吸贩毒品者相对居多,文化程度偏低,PDQ+4的总分、偏执、反社会和边缘三因子得分较高。结论:偏执、反社会和边缘型人格障碍可能是导致重新违法犯罪现象的重要人格特征。%Objective: To investigate personality disorders of recidivists. Method: PDQ (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire) was administered to 122 recidivist and 932 first offenders. Result: Compared with first offenders, the recidivists had higher possibility to be a drug abuser or to have traffic in narcotics, they had lower education level and got higher scores in total score, paranoid, antisocial, borderline subscales of PDQ. Conclusion: The recidivists have more personality defects.

  7. Personal Space Regulation in Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessaroli, Erica; Santelli, Erica; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Frassinetti, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    People appropriately adjust the distance between themselves and others during social interaction, and they may feel discomfort and move away when another person intrudes on their personal space. In the present study, we investigated personal space in children with persistent difficulties in the domain of social behavior, such as children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and in children with typical development (TD). The stop-distance paradigm was used to derive estimates of interpersonal distance, before and after a brief interaction with an unfamiliar adult confederate. The results showed that ASD children felt comfortable at a greater distance compared to TD children. Moreover, personal space shrunk after interaction with the confederate in TD children, but it failed to do so in ASD children. These findings reveal that autism deeply affects the regulation of personal space, influencing both its size and flexibility. PMID:24086410

  8. Borderline personality disorder, mentalization, and the neurobiology of attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Fonagy, P.; Luyten, P.; Strathearn, L.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the neural and neurobiological underpinnings of the core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD), including emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, disturbed interpersonal functioning, identity diffusion, and feelings of inner pain. We review neurobiological research that supports a developmental, biobehavioral switch-model of the relationship between mentalization, stress, and attachment. Although it is likely that there are different developmental pathways to BPD, involving...

  9. Service Delivery to Persons with Communication Disorders in Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jean L.; Martinez, Velma A.

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes factors which make delivery of human services extremely difficult in Micronesia, noting problems of geographic distance and isolation and cultural and linguistic diversity. Presents a plan for providing services to persons with communication disorders using a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist with doctorates to supervise…

  10. Transactional processes in the development of adult personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Elizabeth A; Ruiz, Sarah K

    2016-08-01

    The development of adult personality disorder symptoms, including transactional processes of relationship representational and behavioral experience from infancy to early adolescence, was examined using longitudinal data from a risk sample (N = 162). Significant preliminary correlations were found between early caregiving experience and adult personality disorder symptoms and between representational and behavioral indices across time and adult symptomatology. Significant correlations were also found among diverse representational assessments (e.g., interview, drawing, and projective narrative) and between concurrent representational and observational measures of relationship functioning. Path models were analyzed to investigate the combined relations of caregiving experience in infancy; relationship representation and experience in early childhood, middle childhood, and early adolescence; and personality disorder symptoms in adulthood. The hypothesized model representing interactive contributions of representational and behavioral experience represented the data significantly better than competing models representing noninteractive contributions. Representational and behavioral indicators mediated the link between early caregiving quality and personality disorder symptoms. The findings extend previous studies of normative development and support an organizational developmental view that early relationship experiences contribute to socioemotional maladaptation as well as adaptation through the progressive transaction of mutually informing expectations and experience. PMID:27427797

  11. Personality profiles in young adults with disordered eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Melioli, Tiffany; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-08-01

    Personality traits are closely related to eating disorders (ED) and might be involved in their development and maintenance. Nevertheless little is known regarding the association between personality traits and disordered eating in subclinical populations. College students answered questionnaires assessing disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and the following personality disorder (PD) traits: schizotypal, autistic, obsessional, borderline and cyclothymic. Participants with DEB (n=101, 87% women) displayed significantly higher scores for several variables including schizotypy, cyclothymic, borderline and obsessional traits compared to other participants (n=378). Cluster analysis in the DEB subsample led to the identification of three groups: 1) a cluster with a high level of traits (HT); 2) a cluster scoring high on schizotypal, borderline and cyclothymic traits (SBC); 3) a cluster with a low level of traits (LT). Symptoms of depression, suicidal ideations, trait anger and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were higher in the HT and the SBC clusters compared to the LT cluster. Given that two thirds of participants suffering from DEB appeared to display a morbid personality profile, it appears of prime importance to take into account PD traits of individuals with DEB.

  12. Development and Validation of the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Hicks, Brian M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Although large epidemiological data sets can inform research on the etiology and development of borderline personality disorder (BPD), they rarely include BPD measures. In some cases, however, proxy measures can be constructed using instruments already in these data sets. In this study, the authors developed and validated a self-report measure of…

  13. Motivation for treatment in patients with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Beek; R. Verheul

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study is to investigate the association between DSM-IV personality disorders and motivation for treatment in a large sample of patients admitting for a variety of psychotherapeutic programs (n = 1083). Second, we examine whether and to what extent this associatio

  14. Personality Disorders and Clinical Syndromes in ADHD Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Wells, June; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this article is to investigate the type of personality disorders and clinical syndromes (CSs) that were best related to ADHD symptoms among prisoners. Method: The authors screened for childhood and adult ADHD symptoms and administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) to 196 serving prisoners.…

  15. Further Comments toward a Dimensional Classification of Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A.; Trull, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Responds to the comments by H. N. Garb (2007) and A. M. Ruscio (2007) on the current authors' original article "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model" (2007). Unable to respond to all of Garb's and Ruscio's concerns given space limitations, the current authors attempt to respond to key…

  16. Borderline Personality Disorder: A Dysregulation of the Endogenous Opioid System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Schmahl, Christian; Falkai, Peter; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains unclear. Dysfunctions of several neurobiological systems, including serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems, have been discussed. Here we present a theory that alterations in the sensitivity of opioid receptors or the availability of endogenous opioids…

  17. Personality disorders among Danish alcoholics attending outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Nielsen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was firstly to describe the characteristics of alcoholic outpatients (A) suffering from co-morbid personality disorder (PD) of either the cluster B (A+PDB) or cluster C (A+PDC) type. Secondly, to investigate the effect of various kinds of treatment to be able to single...

  18. Sex bias in classifying borderline and narcissistic personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Braamhorst; J. Lobbestael; W.H.M. Emons; A. Arntz; C.L.M. Witteman; M.H.J. Bekker

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sex bias in the classification of borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. A sample of psychologists in training for a post-master degree (N = 180) read brief case histories (male or female version) and made DSM classification. To differentiate sex bias due to sex s

  19. Personality in panic disorder with agoraphobia: a Rorschach study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. de Ruiter; L. Cohen

    1992-01-01

    In this study, we tested several hypotheses derived from self psychology (Diamond, 1987) regarding personality features of patients suffering from panic disorder and agoraphobia (PDA). PDA patients are thought to suffer from a deficit in negative affect-regulating capacity, surrounded by defenses su

  20. Outdoor Adventure & Eating Disorders: A Personal Perspective to Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kaye

    1999-01-01

    A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)

  1. Personality disorder research agenda for the DSM-V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Simonsen, Erik; Krueger, Robert;

    2005-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association is sponsoring a series of international conferences to set a research agenda for the development of the next edition of the diagnostic manual. The first conference in this series, "Dimensional Models of Personality Disorder: Etiology, Pathology, Phenomenology,...

  2. Borderline Personality Traits and Disorder: Predicting Prospective Patient Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Decisions about the composition of personality assessment in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.; DSM-V) will be heavily influenced by the clinical utility of candidate constructs. In this study, we addressed 1 aspect of clinical utility by testing the incremental validity of 5-factor model (FFM)…

  3. Is Anakin Skywalker suffering from borderline personality disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Chabrol, Henri; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent

    2011-01-30

    Anakin Skywalker, one of the main characters in the "Star Wars" films, meets the criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). This finding is interesting for it may partly explain the commercial success of these movies among adolescents and be useful in educating the general public and medical students about BPD symptoms.

  4. Schema therapy for aggressive offenders with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Keulen-de Vos; D.P. Bernstein; A. Arntz

    2014-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) is increasingly used in personality-disordered (PD) patients. ST is an integrative psychotherapy that blends elements of cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and experiential approaches. The key concepts in ST are early maladaptive schemas, (dysfunctional) coping styles and schema

  5. Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Wijk-Herbrink; H. Andrea; R. Verheul

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire-60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV interview) in a lar

  6. Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Wijk-Herbrink (Marjolein); H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire- 60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV interv

  7. Dream Content Analysis in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Felix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M. J.; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Dream questionnaires were completed by 28 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants. Seventy-nine typically developed individual served as the control group. In a subset of 17 persons with ASD and 11 controls matched for verbal IQ, dream narratives were obtained following REM sleep awakenings in a sleep laboratory.…

  8. A Chart Review of Schizotypal Personality Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Joan; Szatmari, Peter

    1986-01-01

    The literature on the diagnostic validity of schizotypal personality disorders (SPD) in childhood is reviewed, and the results of a chart review of 20 SPD children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III criteria are presented suggesting that SPD in childhood exists and warrants study. (Author/CB)

  9. Vocational functioning in schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Susan R; Mueser, Kim T; Mischel, Rebecca; Adams, Rebecca; Harvey, Philip D; McClure, Margaret M; Look, Amy E; Leung, Winnie W; Siever, Larry J

    2013-12-15

    Impaired vocational functioning is a hallmark of schizophrenia, but limited research has evaluated the relationships between work and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders, including schizotypal (SPD) and paranoid personality disorder (PPD). This study compared employment history and job characteristics of 174 individuals drawn from the community or clinic, based on four personality disorder groups: SPD Only, PPD Only, SPD+PPD, and No SPD or PPD. Symptoms and cognitive functioning were also assessed. Both PPD and/or SPD were associated with lower rates of current employment, and a history of having worked at less cognitively complex jobs than people without these disorders. Participants with PPD were less likely to have a history of competitive work for one year, whereas those with SPD tended to have worked at jobs involving lower levels of social contact, compared with those without these disorders. When the effects of symptoms and cognitive functioning were statistically controlled, PPD remained a significant predictor of work history, and SPD remained a significant predictor of social contact on the job. The findings suggest that impaired vocational functioning is an important characteristic of SPD and PPD.

  10. Are alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder synonymous diagnoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Estey, Alisa J; Segal, Daniel L; Marle, Peter D

    2013-02-01

    Relationships among alexithymia, personality disorders, and higher-order psychopathological and interpersonal dimensions were examined in 199 college students and a close relative of each. Alexithymia, the difficulty to express and identify emotions, was measured by the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS; [Haviland, M. G., Warren, W. L., & Riggs, M. L. (2000). An observer scale to measure alexithymia. Psychosomatics, 41, 385-392]), which was completed by each student's relative. Each student completed three self-report measures: the Coolidge Axis II Inventory (CATI; [Coolidge, F. L. (2000). Coolidge Axis II Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author.), the Five Dimensional Personality Test (5DPT; [van Kampen, D. (2009). Personality and psychopathology: A theory-based revision of Eysenck's PEN model. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 5, 9-21]), and the Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory (HCTI; [Coolidge, F. L. (1998). Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author]). Results indicated that higher levels of alexithymia are associated with personality disorders and their traits, such as schizoid, avoidant, and paranoid. With regard to the issue of the similarity and difference between alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder, there was sufficient evidence across all of the measures to suggest that they are not synonymous entities. Finally, alexithymic traits were associated with concurrent depressive traits even in a non-clinical sample.

  11. Altered state and trait disgust in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienle, Anne; Haas-Krammer, Alexandra; Schöggl, Helmut; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Ille, Rottraut

    2013-02-01

    Clinical experience suggests that the emotion disgust plays an important role in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We investigated 30 female patients with BPD and 30 healthy women who answered different measures of trait disgust, specifically disgust proneness, disgust sensitivity, and self-disgust. Moreover, all participants rated affective facial expressions as well as affective scenes according to perceived or elicited basic emotions. The patients with BPD reported elevated trait disgust, especially for the area of self-disgust. They also rated facial expressions of disgust as more intense than did the healthy women but only when the person who displayed this emotion was male. This sex-specific disgust bias was independent of depression and experienced sexual/physical abuse in the clinical group. Altogether, the patients with BPD showed a broad spectrum of altered disgust processes, which was positively correlated with disorder severity. Consequently, the assessment of disgust reactivity should be introduced as a diagnostic tool for this disorder. PMID:23364118

  12. Alcohol Use and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Characteristics of a Sample Attending a GED Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Meredith Reesman; Bergman, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This study examined peer deviance, disinhibition, and ADHD symptoms as differential predictors of alcohol use, alcohol use disorder symptoms, and antisocial behavior. It was hypothesized that peer deviance would most strongly predict alcohol use while disinhibition and ADHD would predict alcohol use disorder symptoms and antisocial behavior.…

  13. The ironic fate of the personality disorders in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E; Morey, Leslie C; Bender, Donna S; Oldham, John M

    2013-10-01

    An alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs), based on assessments of impairments in personality functioning and of pathological personality traits, was intended for the official classification in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5), but was instead placed in Section III, "Emerging Measures and Models." This article attempts to describe forces in play during the development of DSM-5 that may have contributed to this outcome, from the perspectives of the Chair of the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group (PPDWG) and three of its members. These include a failed imperative to shift away from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) categories toward a dimensional perspective on psychopathology, dynamics within the American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Task Force and PPDWG and the roles and impact of individuals and groups in the PD community. From these considerations, we present some suggestions for how the field might move forward in the future. A new opportunity exists to use the proposed alternative model as a foundation for research. In the immediate future, with the existence of two different models of PDs in DSM-5, studies can be done comparing the models to each other and to other models with respect to reliability and antecedent, concurrent, and predictive validity. If the Section III model continues to perform as early studies suggest, it may migrate into Section II of a planned DSM-5.1. This valuable research, already underway, will shape future editions of the DSM, by providing data to articulate a clearer vision, with broader representation of reliable and valid models. Going forward, personal investments must be put aside for the benefit of the greater good.

  14. [Differential diagnosis between Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Buket; Öner, Özgür; Yurtbaşı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by social and interpersonal deficits marked by discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. Inappropriate or constricted affect, reduced capacity for relationships, lack of close friends and reduced capacity for social life are the symptoms that overlap both schizotypal personality disorder and autism spectrum disorders. The making of differential diagnosis may be difficult since several symptoms are similar between these disorders. In this study, we discussed the differential diagnosis issues on the basis of an adolescent case. Odd appearance, magical thoughts, reference thoughts suggests Schizotypal Personality Disorder whereas lack of eye contact at 2 years old, a preference to be isolated and play alone and referral to a child psychiatrist at 4 years old suggest Autism Spectrum Disorders. Based on the results of psychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profile is compatible with autistic children's profiles. Based on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the patient's anxiety, lack of close friends, constricted affect symptoms which take place in the category of interpersonal schizotypy seems to overlap with lack of communication of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This case report indicates that, separation of autism and schizophrenia, a very important historical breakthrough in autism research, may be blurred in cases with less typical clinical pictures representing autistic and schizophrenic "spectrum" diagnosis.

  15. [Comparative assessment of cognitive styles forming personal behavior in health and borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, N P

    2006-01-01

    The author suggests a cognitive-analytical concept of personality focusing on cognitively mediated processes of cyclic interaction of different levels of consciousness and subconsciousness represented in the form of emotional-behavioral potential and functional-dynamic system. A cognitive type (cognitype)--a type of personality-centered cognitive operations that determines the pattern of behavioral cycle and distinctive features of social adaptation--is singled out as an integrative basic individual and psychological component of personality. Presented is classification of personality cognitypes, their adaptive and maladaptive variants, correlations between cognitypes and anomalies of personality. The principles of psychotherapy of maladaptive behavior, borderline and addictive disorders (positive reintegration of personality) are substantiated.

  16. Low body weight in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, J; Henninghausen, K; Nau, S; Himmelmann, G W; Schulz, E; Schäfer, H; Remschmidt, H

    1997-07-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that body weight is reduced in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder. The body weights of 33 consecutively admitted male subjects with one of these disorders were retrospectively assessed with percentiles for the body mass index (BMI). The mean percentile (+/- SD) for the BMI was 31.6 +/- 27.6 and differed significantly from the expected value of 50 (Pschizoid personality disorder and Asperger's disorder and (b) reduced to a greater extent in patients with abnormal eating behaviour. During childhood and adolescence both diagnoses are associated with an increased risk of being underweight. Population-based BMI percentiles are useful for detecting associations between specific psychopathological syndromes and body weight.

  17. Which DSM-IV personality disorders are most strongly associated with indices of psychosocial morbidity in psychiatric outpatients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Dalrymple, Kristy; Martinez, Jennifer; Morgan, Theresa A

    2012-10-01

    The DSM-5 Work Group for Personality and Personality Disorders (PDs) recommended retaining 6 specific PD "types" (antisocial, avoidant, borderline, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal) and eliminating the other 4 PDs currently included in DSM-IV (paranoid, schizoid, histrionic, and dependent). One important clinical aspect of PDs is their association with indices of psychosocial morbidity. Because the literature on the relationship between PDs and psychosocial morbidity in psychiatric patients is limited, we undertook the current analysis of the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project database to examine which PDs were most strongly associated with a variety of measures of psychosocial morbidity. We tested the hypothesis that the disorders recommended for retention in DSM-5 would be associated with more severe morbidity than the disorders recommended for deletion. A total of 2150 psychiatric outpatients were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axes I and II disorders and 7 measures of psychosocial morbidity. We examined the correlation between each PD dimensional score and each measure of morbidity and then conducted multiple regression analyses to determine which PDs were independently associated with the indices of morbidity. For the 6 PDs proposed for retention in DSM-5, 36 (85.7%) of the 42 correlations were significant, whereas for the 4 PDs proposed for deletion, 26 (92.9%) of the 28 correlations were significant. In the regression analyses for the 6 PDs proposed for retention in DSM-5, 19 (45.2%) of the 42 β coefficients were significant, whereas for the 4 PDs proposed for deletion, 7 (25.0%) of the 28 β coefficients were significant. The results of the present study, along with the results of other studies, do not provide clear evidence for the preferential retention of some PDs over others based on their association with indices of psychosocial morbidity.

  18. ADULT ATTACHMENT, PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER FEATURES IN YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Lori N.; Levy, Kenneth N.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that insecure attachment patterns and a trait disposition toward negative affect and impulsivity are both associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. According to attachment theory, insecure attachment patterns impart greater risk for the maladaptive personality traits underlying BPD. Hence, insecure attachment might be indirectly related to BPD through its association with these traits. The current cross-sectional study used structural e...

  19. Poly-substance use and antisocial personality traits at admission predict cumulative retention in a buprenorphine programme with mandatory work and high compliance profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridell Mats

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous abstinence and retention in treatment for alcohol and drug use disorders are central challenges for the treatment providers. The literature has failed to show consistent, strong predictors of retention. Predictors and treatment structure may differ across treatment modalities. In this study the structure was reinforced by the addition of supervised urine samples three times a week and mandatory daily work/structured education activities as a prerequisite of inclusion in the program. Methods Of 128 patients consecutively admitted to buprenorphine maintenance treatment five patients dropped out within the first week. Of the remaining 123 demographic data and psychiatric assessment were used to predict involuntary discharge from treatment and corresponding cumulative abstinence probability. All subjects were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC, all self-report measures. Some measures were repeated every third month in addition to interviews. Results Of 123 patients admitted, 86 (70% remained in treatment after six months and 61 (50% remained in treatment after 12 months. Of those discharged involuntarily, 34/62 individuals were readmitted after a suspension period of three months. Younger age at intake, poly-substance abuse at intake (number of drugs in urine, and number of conduct disorder criteria on the SCID Screen were independently associated with an increased risk of involuntary discharge. There were no significant differences between dropouts and completers on SCL-90, SSP, SOC or AUDIT. Conclusion Of the patients admitted to the programme 50% stayed for the first 12 months with continuous abstinence and daily work. Poly-substance use before intake into treatment, high levels of conduct disorder on SCID

  20. Brief report: self-reported psychopathic-like features among Finnish community youth: investigation of the factor structure of the Antisocial Personality Screening Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laajasalo, Taina; Saukkonen, Suvi; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Lipsanen, Jari; Aronen, Eeva T

    2014-10-01

    The Antisocial Process Screening Device- Self-Report (APSD-SR) is a self-report measure for assessment of psychopathic traits in adolescents. The present study aimed to investigate the factor structure and internal consistency of the APSD-SR in a sample of 4855 Finnish community adolescents. A three-factor structure with factors representing impulsivity (IMP), narcissism (NAR) and callous-unemotional (CU) features was found. Internal consistency indices ranged from moderate to good. The findings provide promising data on applicability of the APSD-SR instrument to Scandinavian youth. Results have implications for researchers and clinicians interested in measuring adolescent psychopathy.