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Sample records for antiseptics

  1. [Tissue toxicity of antiseptics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalteis, T; Lüring, C; Schaumburger, J; Perlick, L; Bäthis, H; Grifka, J

    2003-01-01

    Local antiseptics are used for desinfection of skin and for lavage of wounds. The aim of this study was to determine the tissue toxicity of different antiseptics and to measure the irritation score (IS) and the irritation threshold (IT) for each substance. The tissue compatibilities of Dibromol, Kodan, Jodobac, Octenisept, Lavasept 0.2 %, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidindigluconate 0.5 % and 2-propanol 60 % were evaluated in the in vivo hens eggs chorion-allantoic membrane test (HET-CAM). We found the most severe tissue toxicity for chlorhexidin digluconate 0.5 % (IS 20) and Kodan (IS 18). Irritating values were found for Dibromol (IS 14), Octenisept (IS 14) and 2-propanol 60 % (IS 13). Moderate vascular injuries were caused by Jodobac (IS 2). In the HET-CAM test Lavasept 0.2 % (IS 0) and hydrogen peroxide (IS 0) showed no tissue toxicity. Our results show that some of the tested antiseptics might cause severe vascular injuries as a sign of tissue toxicity. The tissue compatibility of Lavasept 0.2 % and hydrogen peroxide is much better than the compatibility of the other tested substances. With focus on the literature and our results, Lavasept 0.2 % can be recommended as the local antiseptic of choice.

  2. Antiseptics for burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gill; Christie, Janice; Liu, Zhenmi; Westby, Maggie J; Jefferies, Jayne M; Hudson, Thomas; Edwards, Jacky; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Hassan, Ibrahim A; Dumville, Jo C

    2017-07-12

    Burn wounds cause high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People with burns are particularly vulnerable to infections; over 75% of all burn deaths (after initial resuscitation) result from infection. Antiseptics are topical agents that act to prevent growth of micro-organisms. A wide range are used with the intention of preventing infection and promoting healing of burn wounds. To assess the effects and safety of antiseptics for the treatment of burns in any care setting. In September 2016 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid Embase, and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched three clinical trials registries and references of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. There were no restrictions based on language, date of publication or study setting. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people with any burn wound and assessed the use of a topical treatment with antiseptic properties. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We included 56 RCTs with 5807 randomised participants. Almost all trials had poorly reported methodology, meaning that it is unclear whether they were at high risk of bias. In many cases the primary review outcomes, wound healing and infection, were not reported, or were reported incompletely.Most trials enrolled people with recent burns, described as second-degree and less than 40% of total body surface area; most participants were adults. Antiseptic agents assessed were: silver-based, honey, Aloe Vera, iodine-based, chlorhexidine or polyhexanide (biguanides), sodium hypochlorite, merbromin, ethacridine lactate, cerium nitrate and Arnebia euchroma. Most studies compared antiseptic with a topical antibiotic, primarily silver sulfadiazine (SSD); others compared antiseptic with a non

  3. Antiseptic technology: access, affordability, and acceptance.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Factors other than antimicrobial activity of soaps and antiseptic agents used for hand hygiene by health personnel play a role in compliance with recommendations. Hand hygiene products differ considerably in acceptance by hospital personnel. If switching from a nonmedicated soap to an antiseptic agent or increased use of an existing antiseptic agent for hand hygiene prevented a few more infections per year, additional expenditures for antiseptic agents would be offset by cost savings.

  4. Preoperative antiseptic skin preparations and reducing SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    Surgical site infection (SSI) can affect the quality of care and increase the morbidity and mortality rate in after-surgical procedure. The use of an antiseptic skin preparation agent before the procedure can reduce the pathogens in the skin surface around the incision. Indicating the type of skin antiseptic preparation could prevent the infection and contamination of the wound. The most commonly used types of skin preparations are chlorhexidine and povidone iodine. However, the antiseptic solutions of both agents are strengthened with alcohol to prevent postoperative wound infection. The aim of this paper is to identify the best antiseptic agent in terms of skin preparation by evaluating the evidence in the literature. The factors associated with choosing the antiseptic skin agent, such as patients' allergies, skin condition and environmental risk, are also taken into account. This review suggests that cholorhexdine with alcohol may be the most effective in terms of reducing SSI.

  5. ANTISEPTIC SPRAY BASED ON STABILIZED SILVER PARTICLES: AN ANALYSIS OF ANTISEPTIC PROPERTIES AND COMPREHENSIVE COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuilov, A.M.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It's known that some antiseptic sprays based on alcohols can provoke the formation of multi-resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, alcoholic antiseptics has a number of restrictions to use, for example, they can't to be used in even the presence of micro-trauma on the skin, their ingression into the body and mucous membranes is unacceptable. Alternative can be natural antiseptics based on colloidal silver or silver nanoparticles, as well as silver in ionic form. However, such antiseptics has low efficacy against the most dangerous strains. Company Modern Biochem Technologies Ltd. announced the development of a portable device that generates a natural and safe antiseptic Dew, based on stabilized silver particles. Antiseptic Dew surpasses the vast majority of antiseptics based on silver, and is not inferior in effectiveness to antiseptics based on alcohols. This work is devoted to testing the declared characteristics of Dew and its comparison with antiseptics based on colloidal silver, silver nanoparticles and isopropyl alcohol. Materials and methods. To test the antiseptic effect of these agents, we used four test strains from the American Type Culture Collection: E. Coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus Aureus ATCC 25923, Candida Albicans ATCC 885-653 and Proteus Vulgaris ATCC 4636 with billion concentration of colony forming units in 1 ml (108 – 109 CFU/mL, ln CFU/mL = 19.57 ... 20.72. Sowing and screening of cultures were performed on sterile Petri dishes according to the standard procedure. Antiseptic Dew was prepared by prototype provided by Modern Biochem Technologies. The antiseptics of comparison were purchased in Kharkiv, Ukraine. The treatment of contaminated surfaces was performed using mechanical pump sprayers. In accordance with the internal protocol, 1 ml of antiseptic was sprayed from the distance of 10 cm onto the infected surface. To determine the silver content in the Dew, we were used atomic

  6. Antimicrobial and antiseptic strategies in wound management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeschlein, Georg

    2013-12-01

    Wounds, especially chronic wounds, represent a global problem costing millions of dollars per year in developed countries and are characterised by microbial complications including local or overt infection, delayed healing and spread of multiresistant germs. Therefore, antimicrobial wound management is a major challenge that continues to require new solutions against microbes and their biofilms. As systemic antibiotics can barely penetrate into wound biofilms and topically applied ones can easily lead to sensitisation, antisepsis is the method of choice to treat germs in wounds. This brief review discusses the role of antiseptics in reducing bioburden in chronic wounds. Balancing antimicrobial potency and tolerability of antiseptic procedures is critical in wound therapy. However, antiseptics alone may not be able to achieve wound healing without addressing other factors regarding the patient's general health or the wound's physical environment. Although the precise role of bioburden in chronic wounds remains to be evaluated, planktonic as well as biofilm-bound microbes are indications for antiseptic intervention. Octenidine dihydrochloride and polyhexanide are the most effective, as well as best tolerated, antiseptics in wound management today, and new strategies to reduce bacterial wound burden and support the body's immune response are being developed. © 2013 The Author. International Wound Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  7. [Use of antiseptic dekasan in complex treatment of peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazirov, F N; Aripova, N U; Makhkamova, M N; Dzhamalov, S I; Pulatov, M M; Magzumov, I Kh; Isroilov, B N

    2014-01-01

    Experience in treatment of 91 patients with peritonitis on various genesis using antiseptic Dekasan are presented. A marked clinical efficacy compared with that of other antiseptics in the complex treatment of peritonitis was noted.

  8. Novel water-based antiseptic lotion demonstrates rapid, broad-spectrum kill compared with alcohol antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Steven E; Cozean, Jesse; Cozean, Colette

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcohol-based antiseptic and a novel water-based antiseptic lotion, both with a synergistic combination of antimicrobial ingredients containing 0.2% benzethonium chloride, were evaluated using the standard time-kill method against 25 FDA-specified challenge microorganisms. The purpose of the testing was to determine whether a non-alcohol product could have equivalent rapid and broad-spectrum kill to a traditional alcohol sanitizer. Both the alcohol- and water-based products showed rapid and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The average 15-s kill was 99.999% of the challenge organism for the alcohol-based antiseptic and 99.971% for the water-based antiseptic. The alcohol-based product demonstrated 100% of peak efficacy (60s) within the first 15s, whereas the water-based product showed 99.97%. The novel alcohol-based antiseptic reduced concentrations of 100% of organisms by 99.999%, whereas the water-based antiseptic lotion showed the same reduction for 96% of organisms. A novel water-based antiseptic product demonstrated equivalent rapid, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity to an alcohol-based sanitizer and provided additional benefits of reduced irritation, persistent effect, and greater efficacy against common viruses. The combination of rapid, broad-spectrum immediate kill and persistent efficacy against pathogens may have significant clinical benefit in limiting the spread of disease. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Suprathel-antiseptic matrix: in vitro model for local antiseptic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, Henning; Andreas Radu, Christian; Germann, Guenter; Kloeters, Oliver; Riedel, Katrin; Otte, Maximilian; Kremer, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Acetic acid is a traditional antiseptic agent that has been used for more than 6000 years. The main goal of this study was to demonstrate the suitability of Suprathel (PolyMedics Innovations GmbH, Denkendorf, Germany) in combination with various antiseptic agents to create an "antiseptic-matrix" especially designed for problematic microorganisms such as Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter baumannii, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are frequently associated with burns. The study was designed to test the in vitro antimicrobial effect of a "Suprathel-antiseptic matrix" (Suprathel combined with acetic acid 3%, povidone-iodine 11% [Betaisodona], polyhexanide 0.04% [Lavasept], phenoxyethanol 2%/octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1% [Octenisept], mafenide acetate 5%, and chlorhexidine gluconate 1.5%/cetrimid 15% [Hibicet]). As a means to assess the typical bacterial spectrum of a burn unit, the following Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria strains were tested: Escherichia coli, P vulgaris, P aeruginosa, A baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S aureus, and β-hemolytic streptococcus groups A and B. The tests showed a positive bactericidal effect of the Suprathel-antiseptic matrix, particularly with problematic Gram-negative bacteria such as P vulgaris, P aeruginosa, and A baumannii, except for the combination of Suprathel and mafenide acetate. It can be concluded that Suprathel-antiseptic matrix appears to be suitable as a local antiseptic agent, but clinical studies need to be performed to confirm these in vitro observations. The authors' previous studies have shown that acetic acid demonstrates a wide antiseptic spectrum for microorganisms typically found in burn patients. The combination of Suprathel and acetic acid worked well in this study and appears to be promising for future clinical application.

  10. Polyhexanide - safety and efficacy as an antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeld, Hilde; Lingaas, Egil

    2016-05-01

    BACKGROUND Polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride/polyhexanide/polyaminopropyl biguanide (PHMB) is used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. This article discusses the use of the substance as an antiseptic. We summarise published data on its antimicrobial effect in vitro and its clinical effect and safety when used on skin, wounds and mucosa.MATERIAL AND METHOD A literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published in the last five years. Articles available as of June 2014 were considered.RESULTS Of 332 articles identified, 27 were included. In vitro studies have demonstrated an antimicrobial effect on Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and Candida albicans. The clinical studies are small, not well controlled and frequently sponsored by industry. Few adverse effects from the substance were reported.INTERPRETATION Better designed, larger-scale clinical studies of effect and safety are needed in order to give recommendations on the use of polyhexanide on skin, wounds and mucosa.

  11. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    OpenAIRE

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients.

  12. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients. PMID:15701748

  13. The role of antiseptic agents in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa; Van Bever, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    The skin of individuals with atopic dermatitis has a susceptibility to be colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. This has been associated with increased frequency and severity of exacerbations of atopic dermatitis. Therefore, there is a growing interest in the use of antiseptic agents to target primary bacterial colonization and infection. Antiseptic agents have been found to be better tolerated and less likely to induce bacterial resistance as compared to antibiotics. There is also a wide variety of antiseptic agents available. The efficacy of antiseptic agents has yet to be established as the studies reviewed previously have been small and of suboptimal quality. This review discusses the rationale behind targeting S. aureus with antiseptic agents and presents findings from a review of studies assessing the efficacy of antiseptics in atopic dermatitis in the last five years. Four studies were found, including a bleach bath study which has already been reviewed elsewhere. The remaining 3 studies assessed the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite containing cleansing body wash, sodium hypochlorite baths and 1% triclosan in leave on emollient. These studies suggested some benefit for the inclusion of antiseptic use with the mainstay management of atopic dermatitis, including a potential steroid sparring effect. However, there are many limitations to these studies which therefore warrant further investigation on the impact of antiseptic use in atopic dermatitis.

  14. [CLINICAL EVALUATION OF THE NEW ANTISEPTIC MESHES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoladze, M; Kiladze, M; Chkhikvadze, T; Jiqia, D

    2016-12-01

    Improving the results of hernia treatment and prevention of complications became a goal of our research which included two parts - experimental and clinical. Histomorphological and bacteriological researches showed that the best result out of the 3 control groups was received in case of covering implant "Coladerm"+ with chlorhexidine. Based on the experiment results working process continued in clinics in order to test and introduce new "coladerm"+ chlorhexidine covered poliprophilene meshes into practice. For clinical illustration there were 60 patients introduced to the research who had hernioplasty procedures by different nets: I group - standard meshes+"coladerm"+chlorhexidine, 35 patients; II group - standard meshes +"coladerm", 15 patients; III group - standard meshes, 10 patients. Assessment of the wound and echo-control was done post-surgery on the 8th, 30th and 90th days. This clinical research based on the experimental results once again showed the best anti-microbe features of new antiseptic polymeric biocomposite meshes (standard meshes+"coladerm"+chlorhexidine); timely termination of regeneration and reparation processes without any post-surgery suppurative complications. We hope that new antiseptic polymeric biocomposite meshes presented by us will be successfully used in surgical practice of hernia treatment based on and supported by expermental-clinical research.

  15. In-vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Carex Powerful Antiseptic Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Paterson Zochonis Industries in Lagos, Nigeria recently produced Carex Powerful Antiseptic Liquid, which was investigated for antimicrobial activities against common human skin pathogenic bacteria, yeasts and a dermatophyte including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Malassezia furfur, Candida ...

  16. [Local impact of antiseptic medical textile on tissues of organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarchuk, O A; Vernyhorods'kyĭ, S V; Paliĭ, V H; Nazarchuk, H H; Paliĭ, D V; Honchar, O O; Zadereĭ, N V

    2013-07-01

    Morphological investigation for studying of a local impact on the tissues, localized in the antiseptic textile implantation zone, was conducted. The textile was impregnated by composition of decametoxine with modified polysaccharides. Basing on the investigation result there was established the absence of a toxic impact of antiseptic medical textile on the macroorganism tissues, the regenerative processes course, the wounds epithelization, antioedematous and anti-inflammatory effects.

  17. Antiseptic mouthwashes: in vitro antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Evandro; Nascimento, Andresa P; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane M; Razaboni, Ana M; de Andrade, Denise; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Mouthwashes are used as an adjunct to tooth brushing for improving breath and preventing oral diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro Maximum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) of 3 mouthwashes with different active ingredients against mutans streptococci (MS). The products analyzed were Periogard®, Cepacol® and Plax® Fresh Mint. Their antibacterial activity was assessed in duplicate in 96-well microtiter plates against 36 clinical isolates of MS. Each mouthwash was submitted to a serial two-fold dilution (1/2.5 to 1/5120) using double concentration of Tryptose Soy Broth with 1.0% yeast extract. The final volume in each well was 100 mL plus 5 mL of a bacterial suspension, equivalent to 107 CFU/mL. They were incubated microaerobically at 37 °C for 48 hours and the MIDs determined. MID was 1/320 for Periogard® and Cepacol®, and 1/20 for PlaxR® Statistical analysis revealed that the MID of Periogard® MID did not differ from that of Cepacol® (p>0.05), and was higher than that of Plax® (pantiseptic mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine (Periogard®) and cetylpyridinium chloride (Cepacol®) had higher in vitroantibacterial activity (MID) against MS than the antiseptic mouthwash containing triclosan (Plax®), according to microbiological method employed.

  18. The Role of Antiseptic in Infection Control. | Gibson | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the introduction of antibiotics, antiseptics were the only method of infection control. The emergence of organisms that are resistant to antibiotics has called for the increased use of relevant antiseptics in some cases. Antiseptics, like antibiotics, need to be tested in order to determine their antimicrobial activity against a ...

  19. 77 FR 69863 - Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products; Public Hearing; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...] Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products; Public Hearing; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food... Spring, MD 20903, 301-796-3441, FAX: 301- 847-8753, email: Antiseptic[email protected] preoperative skin preparations are over-the-counter (OTC) topical antiseptic drug products used to reduce the...

  20. 77 FR 71804 - Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products; Public Hearing; Request for Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ...] Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products; Public Hearing; Request for Comments; Correction... ``Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products.'' The document was published with an incorrect... New Hampshire Ave. Silver Spring, MD 20903, 301-796-3441, Fax: 301-847-8753, email: CDER- Antiseptic...

  1. 78 FR 76443 - Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 310 and 333 Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics... Docket No. 1975N-0183H) RIN 0910-AF69 Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics; Topical... monograph or proposed rule (the 1994 TFM) for over-the-counter (OTC) antiseptic drug products. In this...

  2. Chlorhexidine Keratitis: Safety of Chlorhexidine as a Facial Antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsapir, Kenneth D; Woodward, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    Effective antiseptic to reduce surgical site infections is a cornerstone of modern surgery. Chlorhexidine gluconate-based antiseptics are among the most effective of these products. Unfortunately, chlorhexidine solutions are toxic to the cornea and middle ear, and they pose a splash risk to both the patient and health care personnel. To examine the clinical evidence that led to the disavowal of chlorhexidine antiseptic solution for use on the face and head. Reference searches were performed using PubMed, Embase, and LexisNexis databases without restriction to the date of publication, language, or study setting. The literature revealed 11 sentinel cases of severe chlorhexidine-related keratitis in the late 1980s. These cases are reviewed together with data on ototoxicity and alternative products to understand why chlorhexidine solution should not be used on the face and scalp. Chlorhexidine antiseptic solutions are highly effective. However, they pose a risk to the middle ear and have the potential to irreversibly damage the cornea with a minimal splash exposure. Povidone-iodine is a safe and effective alternative.

  3. Effects of some antiseptics and disinfectants on Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 6 antiseptics and disinfectants at varying concentrations (20% - 100%) and contact time (10-60 minutes) were tested for the efficacy in the reduction of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the hands of volunteers. Disinfectant 1 was the most effective disinfectant being bactericidal to S. aureus at 100% ...

  4. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Enhances Effectiveness of Skin Antiseptics and Reduces Contamination Rates of Blood Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Paul R.; Han, Xiang-Yang; Rolston, Kenneth V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2012-01-01

    Effective skin antisepsis is of central importance in the prevention of wound infections, colonization of medical devices, and nosocomial transmission of microorganisms. Current antiseptics have a suboptimal efficacy resulting in substantial infectious morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. Here, we introduce an in vitro method for antiseptic testing and a novel alcohol-based antiseptic containing 4 to 5% of the polar aprotic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The DMSO-containing antiseptic resulted in a 1- to 2-log enhanced killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and other microbes in vitro compared to the same antiseptic without DMSO. In a prospective clinical validation, blood culture contamination rates were reduced from 3.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine (control antiseptic) to 1.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine–5% DMSO (P antiseptics containing strongly polarized but nonionizing (polar aprotic) solvents. PMID:22378911

  5. Comparative antibacterial effectiveness of alcohol and herbal based commercially available hand antiseptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Vipin Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human skin is a reservoir of numerous microorganisms. Even though hand washing with soap and water alone reduces the microbial load, the complementary uses of hand antiseptics enhance the antimicrobial effect. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of two commercially available hand antiseptics, routinely used in dental practice, after hand washing with antiseptic soap. Method: A clinical trial with cross over design was carried out on 12 health care workers (HCWs. The antibacterial effectiveness of two hand antiseptics (Alcohol based -Sterillium and Herbal Based-Himalaya′s ′Pure Hands′ compared using fingerprint contact sampling on blood agar. Bacterial samples were obtained before and after hand washing (with antiseptic soap and after hand disinfection. The data was tabulated and analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey′s post hoc test for pair-wise comparison. Result: There was a slight decrease in the Colony forming units (CFUs count following use of antiseptic soap when compared to the baseline values. A statistically significant reduction (p<0.000 in the CFUs count was seen following use of both hand antiseptics but the mean number of CFUs reduction was more in case of alcohol based hand antiseptic(sterillium than herbal based hand antiseptic(Himalaya′s ′PureHands". Conclusion: Using alcohol based antiseptic soap before hygienic hand disinfection will provide maximum benefit in reducing the microbial count.

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL QUALITIES OF MEDICINAL ANTISEPTIC DRUGS

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    Paliy D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our research results of the study of antimicrobial, physical and chemical qualities of antiseptic medicines of decamethoxin (DCM. Antimicrobial activity of DCM, palisan, decasan, deseptol against srains of S.aureus (n 56, S.epidermidis (n 26, E.coli (n 24, P.mirabilis (n 11, P.vulgaris (n 8 was studied by means of method of serial dilutions. Obtained data of mass spectrometry study of antimicrobial compositions with constant concentrations of DCM have shown that medicinal forms of DCM are complex physical and chemical systems, because of different origin and number of adjuvant ingredients used during their fabrication. Among synthetic quaternary ammonium agents there have been found the substance (commercial name of medicine is decamethoxin to have high antimicrobial activity against strains of grampositive and gram-negative microorganisms, an also C.albicans. There was found that antimicrobial activity of antiseptic palisan had been higher comparably to DCM in equivalent concentration. The composition and concentrations of acting agents and the methodology of preparation of palisan have been substantiated on the basis of microbiological, mass spectrometry characteristics of antiseptics DCM, palisan.

  7. Hexachlorophene emulsions and antiseptic skin care of newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plueckhahn, V D; Collins, R B

    1976-05-29

    This paper reviews 81,756 live births and 858 infant deaths occurring during the years 1959 to 1969. Sixty-three instances of central nervous system vacuolation are reported. Prematurity is shown to be a necessary prerequisite for central nervous system vacuolation to occur during routine antiseptic skin care of newborn infants with 3% hexachlorophene emulsions. Hyperbilirubinaemia is a contributory factor in such premature infants. Long-term clinical follow-up studies show that, should central nervous system vacuolation occur in premature infants, there is no resultant detriment to their immediate clinical progress and physical and neurological development. Normal newborn infants weighing more than 2,000 g do not develop such central nervous system vacuolation during routine antiseptic skin care. The writers conclude that there is no rationale for regulations to restrict the use of 3% hexachlorophene emulsions in routine antiseptic skin care of normal newborn infants and that the benefits of such use far outweigh any possible risks from central nervous system vacuolation.

  8. [Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of antiseptics used in current practice on cultures of fibroblasts and keratinocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabreguette, A; Zhi Hua, S; Lasne, F; Damour, O

    1994-11-01

    Infection is the greatest problem in burn patients and topical antiseptics must be chosen with great care especially when cultured skin is grafted. We examined the cytotoxicity of 6 antiseptics commonly used on cultured human fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Cultured cells were exposed for 15 min to Hibitane (chlorhexidine), Biseptine (chlorhexidine + benzalkonium chloride + benzylic alcool), dermic Betadine (polvidone iodine + nonoxinol), scrub Betadine (polyvidone iodine + quaternary ammonium) and gynecologic Betadine (polyvidone iodine). The cell viability was determined using the MTT test. At therapeutic concentration all the antiseptics were cytotoxic for fibroblasts and keratinocytes. The data suggest that the antiseptics must be used in function of the time of the grafting of the cultured epithelium.

  9. Evaluation of antiseptic disinfectant activity with static light scattering technology

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    Gaia Ortalli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Healthcare-associated infections (HAI are an increasingly important issue, for this reason disinfection and antisepsis practices acquire importance. The use of products with antiseptic activity and reports of resistance to these molecules, pose the need to test, in the local area, the sensitivity pattern. The aim of this study is to verify the ability of the analytical system Alfred 60AST (Alifax Spa Isola dell’Abbà, Polverara - PD - Italy in evaluating the antimicrobial effectiveness in vitro of different molecules in comparison to the membrane filtration reference method, in accordance with the procedure NF T72- 152 proposed by the Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR. Materials and Methods. We used four antiseptic-disinfectant substances, commonly used in hospital practic: Iodopovidone, Ethanol, Chlorhexidine and DECS. ATCC strains were assessed both with clinical isolates. The eventual development occurs by means of microbial ALFRED AST60 was carried out in progressive times (30, 60 and 120 minutes with different dilutions for each of the disinfectant molecules tested. Results and Conclusions. Comparison tests carried out between membrane filtration method and instrumentation Alfred 60AST gave results almost totally concordant. The analyzer Alfred 60AST can then be appropriately adapted to the in vitro evaluation of antiseptics, representing a valuable aid in the periodic monitoring of their activities and the prior assessment of sensitivity for therapeutic use. Though preliminary, the study confirms the existence of bacteria resistant to alcohols and biguanides, and it emphasizes the opportunity to verify the in vitro sensitivity profile.

  10. Comparison of the antiseptic efficacy of tissue-tolerable plasma and an octenidine hydrochloride-based wound antiseptic on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Schanzer, S; Patzelt, A; Thiede, G; Kramer, A; Weltmann, K-D; Hartmann, B; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B

    2012-01-01

    Colonization and infection of wounds represent a major reason for the impairment of tissue repair. Recently, it has been reported that tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) is highly efficient in the reduction of the bacterial load of the skin. In the present study, the antiseptic efficacy of TTP was compared to that of octenidine hydrochloride with 2-phenoxyethanol. Both antiseptic methods proved to be highly efficient. Cutaneous treatment of the skin with octenidine hydrochloride and 2-phenoxyethanol leads to a 99% elimination of the bacteria, and 74% elimination is achieved by TTP treatment. Technical challenges with an early prototype TTP device could be held responsible for the slightly reduced antiseptic properties of TTP, compared to a standard antiseptic solution, since the manual treatment of the skin surface with a small beam of the TTP device might have led to an incomplete coverage of the treated area. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Controlled antiseptic release by alginate polymer films and beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Bayer, Ilker S; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-30

    Biodegradable polymeric materials based on blending aqueous dispersions of natural polymer sodium alginate (NaAlg) and povidone iodine (PVPI) complex, which allow controlled antiseptic release, are presented. The developed materials are either free standing NaAlg films or Ca(2+)-cross-linked alginate beads, which properly combined with PVPI demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activity, suitable for therapeutic applications, such as wound dressing. Glycerol was used as the plasticizing agent. Film morphology was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. It was found that PVPI complex forms well dispersed circular micro-domains within the NaAlg matrix. The beads were fabricated by drop-wise immersion of NaAlg/PVPI/glycerol solutions into aqueous calcium chloride solutions to form calcium alginate beads encapsulating PVPI solution (CaAlg/PVPI). Controlled release of PVPI was possible when the composite films and beads were brought into direct contact with water or with moist media. Bactericidal and fungicidal properties of the materials were tested against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The results indicated very efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity within 48 h. Controlled release of PVPI into open wounds is highly desired in clinical applications to avoid toxic doses of iodine absorption by the wound. A wide variety of applications are envisioned such as external and internal wound dressings with controlled antiseptic release, hygienic and protective packaging films for medical devices, and polymer beads as water disinfectants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiseptics and microcosm biofilm formation on titanium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia VERARDI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oral rehabilitation with osseointegrated implants is a way to restore esthetics and masticatory function in edentulous patients, but bacterial colonization around the implants may lead to mucositis or peri-implantitis and consequent implant loss. Peri-implantitis is the main complication of oral rehabilitation with dental implants and, therefore, it is necessary to take into account the potential effects of antiseptics such as chlorhexidine (CHX, chloramine T (CHT, triclosan (TRI, and essential oils (EO on bacterial adhesion and on biofilm formation. To assess the action of these substances, we used the microcosm technique, in which the oral environment and periodontal conditions are simulated in vitro on titanium discs with different surface treatments (smooth surface - SS, acid-etched smooth surface - AESS, sand-blasted surface - SBS, and sand-blasted and acid-etched surface - SBAES. Roughness measurements yielded the following results: SS: 0.47 µm, AESS: 0.43 µm, SB: 0.79 µm, and SBAES: 0.72 µm. There was statistical difference only between SBS and AESS. There was no statistical difference among antiseptic treatments. However, EO and CHT showed lower bacterial counts compared with the saline solution treatment (control group. Thus, the current gold standard (CHX did not outperform CHT and EO, which were efficient in reducing the biofilm biomass compared with saline solution.

  13. Preoperative skin antiseptic preparations for preventing surgical site infections: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Chris; McGahan, Lynda; Polisena, Julie; Mierzwinski-Urban, Monika; Embil, John M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of preoperative skin antiseptic preparations and application techniques for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). Systematic review of the literature using Medline, EMBASE, and other databases, for the period January 2001 to June 2011. Comparative studies (including randomized and nonrandomized trials) of preoperative skin antisepsis preparations and application techniques were included. Two researchers reviewed each study and extracted data using standardized tables developed before the study. Studies were reviewed for their methodological quality and clinical findings. Twenty studies (n = 9,520 patients) were included in the review. The results indicated that presurgical antiseptic showering is effective for reducing skin flora and may reduce SSI rates. Given the heterogeneity of the studies and the results, conclusions about which antiseptic is more effective at reducing SSIs cannot be drawn. The evidence suggests that preoperative antiseptic showers reduce bacterial colonization and may be effective at preventing SSIs. The antiseptic application method is inconsequential, and data are lacking to suggest which antiseptic solution is the most effective. Disinfectant products are often mixed with alcohol or water, which makes it difficult to form overall conclusions regarding an active ingredient. Large, well-conducted randomized controlled trials with consistent protocols comparing agents in the same bases are needed to provide unequivocal evidence on the effectiveness of one antiseptic preparation over another for the prevention of SSIs.

  14. Joseph Lister and the performance of antiseptic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worboys, Michael

    2013-09-20

    This article highlights a neglected feature of Joseph Lister's work, namely how, in addition to promoting germ theories and the principles of the antiseptic system, he also devoted much time and effort to communicating the performative aspects of antisepsis and of the many other surgical innovations that he developed. Attention to 'detail' and striving for 'improvement' were crucial to Listerian practice, and he sought to convey his credo in three main ways: first, his publications aimed at 'bringing the subject out in the same sort of way as it had been worked out by himself'; second, he set out strict protocols and information on materials and methods, yet also encouraged surgeons to improvise; and third, he made himself an exemplar of a new form of professionalism, which made constancy and vigilance in practice a moral duty for surgeons.

  15. Antiseptic mouthwashes could worsen xerostomia in patients taking polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Marlene; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Precheur, Isabelle; Lamure, Julie; Pouyssegur-Rougier, Valerie

    2015-05-01

    Polypharmacy is a common cause of xerostomia. This study aimed to investigate whether xerostomia could be an adverse drug event of mouthwashes, when they are used for longer than 2 weeks by patients taking polypharmacy. This cross-sectional observational study included 120 hospitalized patients (60 middle-aged and 60 elderly patients), taking polypharmacy (≥4 drugs daily) and at risk of drug-induced xerostomia. Xerostomia was assessed by questioning participants. A total of 62.5% of patients complained of xerostomia. In the middle-aged group (mean age=44.0 (8.7) years; 35.0% women) xerostomia seemed independently associated to mouthwashes, at the limit of significance (OR=5.00, 95% CI=0.99-25.3, p=0.052). Active principles in mouthwashes were mainly quaternary ammonium compounds (91.9%). Mouthwashes may disturb the healthy balance of the biofilm moisturizing the oral mucosa. The biofilm contains mucins, salivary glycoproteins with oligosaccharides side chains able to sequester water and endogenous bacteria surrounded by a glycocalyx. Oral bacteria are fully susceptible to quaternary ammonium (chlorhexidine, hexetidine, cetylpyridinium chloride) and to other antiseptics used in mouthwashes, such as betain, resorcin, triclosan, essential oils and alcohol. However, caregivers currently recommend such dental plaque control products to patients suffering from xerostomia in order to reduce the risk of caries and periodontitis. This study is the first report that use of antiseptic mouthwashes for more than 2 weeks could worsen xerostomia in patients taking polypharmacy. Oral care protocols should avoid this iatrogenic practice, particularly when xerostomia alters the quality-of-life and worsens malnutrition.

  16. [Sanation of biliary system using antiseptic decasan in complex treatment of cholangitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aripova, N U; Magzumov, I Kh

    2014-02-01

    Experience of treatment of 17 patients, suffering cholangitis of various genesis, using antiseptic Decasan, is presented. Clinical efficacy of the preparation in complex treatment of cholangitis, confirmed by results of the bile bacteriological investigation, was noted.

  17. The Effect of Antiseptic on 99mTc-DMSA Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firuzyar, Tahereh; Ghaedian, Tahereh

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 30 years ago, it has been suggested that chlorhexidine, which is used as antiseptic, can produce Tc colloid complex during Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) preparation. However, in all cases of liver and spleen uptake in Tc-DMSA scan, it should still be kept in mind because of the introduction of new antiseptic brands with different formulation under various names. Our case is just a sample of this effect, which resulted from application of a new brand of antiseptic by technologists in our center that unintentionally led to low-quality Tc-DMSA scans for a period, and after restrict control of all other confounding factors in the preparation of kit, it was just resolved by changing antiseptic to ethanol.

  18. [Importance of wound irrigation solutions and fluids with antiseptic effects in therapy and prophylaxis : Update 2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Christian; Scheuermann-Poley, Catharina; Stichling, Marcus; von Stein, Thomas; Kramer, Axel

    2017-07-01

    Despite the use of modern antibiotics as well as complex perioperative, intraoperative and postoperative prophylactic measures, the rate of surgical site infections (SSI) could not be significantly reduced. The introduction of biocompatible antiseptic drugs with a high microbiocidal effect provided a successful alternative for infection prevention and therapy, particularly in a time of increasing occurrence of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Hence, questions about the risk-benefit ratio of antiseptic wound irrigation solutions, the prophylactic use of wound irrigation solutions for the reduction of SSI and the effect of negative pressure wound therapy combined with instillation (NPWTi) need to be answered. Against the background of our own experiences with the use of antiseptic wound irrigation solutions, a literature analysis (e.g. computer-supported MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane database research as of April 2017) was performed. Antiseptic fluids can be used both prophylactically and therapeutically, in acute and chronic, clean, contaminated and infected wounds to reduce the posttraumatic and postoperative wound infection rates. The antiseptic solutions that are commonly used in orthopedic and trauma surgery (e.g. PVP-iodine, octenidine, polyhexanide, sodium hypochlorite/hypochlorous acid and acetic acid), have in common that no development of resistance has so far been shown and that when the contraindications are taken into account, the antiseptic effect can develop without any clinically significant local and systemic side effects. As a rule the biocompatibility index is higher than 1 for the substances mentioned. In addition, they show an antiseptic effect against biofilms and multi-drug resistant pathogens. These antiseptic solutions can also be used for NPWTi with some limitations for octenidine. As the basic equipment in trauma surgery, a selection of three different antiseptic wound irrigation solutions for the reduction of the rates of posttraumatic

  19. The Classic: On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Lister, Baron Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Baron Joseph Lister, On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery. An accompanying biographical sketch of Baron Joseph Lister is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1319-3. The Classic Article is ©1867 and is reprinted with courtesy from Lister J. On the antiseptic principle in the practice of surgery. Br Med J. 1867;ii:246.

  20. The classic: On the antiseptic principle in the practice of surgery. 1867.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Baron Joseph

    2010-08-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Baron Joseph Lister, On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery. An accompanying biographical sketch of Baron Joseph Lister is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1319-3 . The Classic Article is (c)1867 and is reprinted with courtesy from Lister J. On the antiseptic principle in the practice of surgery. Br Med J. 1867;ii:246.

  1. Umbilical cord antiseptics for preventing sepsis and death among newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdad, Aamer; Bautista, Resti Ma M; Senen, Kathlynne Anne A; Uy, Ma Esterlita V; Mantaring, Jacinto Blas; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-05-31

    antiseptics were 70% alcohol, triple dye and chlorhexidine.Only one antiseptic, chlorhexidine was studied in community settings for umbilical cord care. Three community trials reported data on all-cause mortality that comprised 1325 deaths in 54,624 participants and combined results showed a reduction of 23% (average risk ratio (RR) 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 0.94, random-effects, T² = 0.02, I² = 50%) in the chlorhexidine group compared with control. The reduction in omphalitis ranged from 27% to 56% depending on the severity of infection. Cord separation time was increased by 1.7 days in the chlorhexidine group compared with dry cord care (mean difference (MD) 1.75 days, 95% CI 0.44 to 3.05, random-effects, T² = 0.88, I² = 100%). Washing of umbilical cord with soap and water was not advantageous compared with dry cord care in community settings.Among studies conducted in hospital settings, no study reported data for mortality or tetanus. No antiseptic was advantageous to reduce the incidence of omphalitis compared with dry cord care in hospital settings. Topical triple dye application reduced bacterial colonization with Staphylococcus aureus compared with dry cord care (average RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.22, four studies, n = 1319, random-effects, T² = 0.04, I² = 24%) or alcohol application (average RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.80, two studies, n = 487, random-effects, T² = 0.00, I² = 0%). There was no advantage of application of alcohol and triple dye for reduction of colonization with streptococcus. Topical alcohol application was advantageous in reduction of colonization with Enterococcus coli compared with dry cord care (average RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.92, two studies, n = 432, random-effects, T² = 0.00, I² = 0%) and in a separate analysis, triple dye increased the risk of colonization compared with alcohol (RR 3.44, 95% CI 2.10 to 5.64, one study, n = 373). Cord separation time was significantly increased with topical application of alcohol (MD 1

  2. Effectiveness of Piper betle leaf infusion as a palpebral skin antiseptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnun Amalia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of an antiseptic is to eliminate or greatly reduce the number of microorganisms in the surgical field at the time of the surgery. The objective of this study was to verify the effectiveness of 20% Piper betle leaf infusion as an antiseptic solution in pre-surgery cataract patients. A clinical trial with partner-matching design was conducted on 31 pairs of eyelids. From each pair of eyelids, one eyelid was asigned to the Piper betle infusion group and the opposite one to the povidone-iodine group. The microorganisms were collected by swab from the patient’s palpebral skin, inoculated on nutrient agar, and incubated at 37oC for 20 hours. The antiseptic effectiveness was measured by counting the microbial colonies before and after administration of the antiseptic solutions. This study demonstrates that the mean colony counts after application of 20% Piper betle leaf infusion showed a significant reduction of 27-100% compared with those before administration (p=0.001. Mean colony counts after 10% povidone-iodine administration showed a significant reduction of 88-100% compared with the mean counts before the solution was applied (p=0.000. The 20% Piper betle infusion has an antiseptic potential. Nevertheless, the 10% povidone-iodine solution has more effective antiseptic capability.

  3. Design of antiseptic formulations containing extract of Plinia cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Alexandre de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of the Brazilian species Plinia cauliflora were used to obtain active hydroalcoholic extract and fractions enabling the development of efficient antiseptic pharmaceutical formulations. A chemical composition of 70% ethanol extract, aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and for phenol content. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans by the agar diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was assayed by broth microdilution. Extract microbiological quality was tested to avoid contamination in the formulations. A mouthwash and a topical cream containing the extract were developed and antiseptic activity was assessed by agar diffusion. Sensory and physicochemical stability of the formulations were assayed. Chromatography indicated the presence of terpenes, flavonoids and tannins in the extract and fractions and total phenol content were found to be high. The plant samples were active against all the microorganisms tested, except for Lactobacillus acidophilus. Both topical formulations showed antiseptic activity and stability. Thus, these may be used as antimicrobials in skin infections, but would be more useful in the treatment of candidiasis.As folhas da espécie brasileira Plinia cauliflora foram utilizadas a fim de se obter um extrato hidroalcoólico e frações ativas proporcionando o desenvolvimento de eficazes formulações farmacêuticas antissépticas. A composição química do extrato etanólico 70%, fração aquosa e acetato de etila foi analisada por cromatografia em camada delgada e teor de fenóis. A atividade antimicrobiana foi testada frente a Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus e Candida albicans por difusão em ágar e a concentração inibitória mínima foi determinada por microdiluição. A

  4. Microbiological effects of an antiseptic mouthrinse in irradiated cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzós, Isabel; Herrera, David; Santos, Sagrario; O'Connor, Ana; Peña, Carmen; Lanzós, Eduardo; Sanz, Mariano

    2011-11-01

    To assess the microbiological effects of an antiseptic, non-alcohol based mouth-rinse containing chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride, in patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. This was a parallel, double-blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial, including patients irradiated as part of the therapy of head-and-neck cancer, aged 18-75, with at least 10 teeth, and willing to sign an informed consent. Cancer patients were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments (test mouth-rinse or a placebo). Three visits were scheduled (baseline, 14 and 28 days). Microbiological findings were evaluated in tongue, mucosa and subgingival samples, by means of culture. Microbiological variables were assessed by means of the Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and chi-square tests. 70 patients were screened and 36 were included. The detection of Candida species in mucosa and tongue samples showed significant reductions in the test group. Total bacterial counts decreased in both groups from baseline to the 2-week visit, while minor changes occurred between 2 and 4 weeks (effects on P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, C. rectus, E. corrodens). Within the limitations of the small sample size, this study suggests that the use of the tested mouth-rinse may lead to improvements in microbiological parameters in patients irradiated for head-and-neck cancer.

  5. Mucositis in irradiated cancer patients: effects of an antiseptic mouthrinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzós, Isabel; Herrera, David; Santos, Sagrario; O'Connor, Ana; Peña, Carmen; Lanzós, Eduardo; Sanz, Mariano

    2010-09-01

    To assess the effects of an antiseptic, non-alcohol based mouth-rinse containing chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride, in preventing the oral complications associated to radiation therapy in head-and-neck cancer patients. This was a parallel, double blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial. Cancer patients were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments (test mouth-rinse or a placebo). Three visits were scheduled (baseline, 14 and 28 days). Different outcome variables were evaluated: mucositis, plaque and gingival indices, stimulated saliva and salivary pH. 70 patients were screened and 36 were included. The presence and the degree of mucositis significantly increased in both groups and no significant differences were detected between groups, although the median increase in the placebo group (1.81) at 2 weeks was higher than in the test group (1.20). Within the limitations of the small sample size, this study suggests that the use of the tested mouth-rinse may lead to some improvements in clinical parameters in patients irradiated for head-and-neck cancer.

  6. Handwashing and antiseptic-containing soaps in hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, J. D.; Wynne, C. D.; Enwright, L.; Williams, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Two aspects of handwashing in hospital were considered. A study was carried out to examine the contamination of bar soap and containers, and the use of antiseptic soaps in reducing the resident flora of the skin. Swabs were collected from soap dishes on six wards and from a bacteriology laboratory on four consecutive days. The unmedicated bar soap was replaced by bar soap containing 2·5% povidone-iodine, and further swabs were collected over a period of seven days. Ninety-two isolates from 48 samples were obtained when unmedicated bar soap was used, and nine isolates from 42 samples when povidone-iodine (Betadine) soap was substituted. The number of organisms recovered when povidone-iodine soap was used was much reduced, and Pseudomonas spp were recovered in low numbers on only one occasion. Six laboratory workers took part in a study to compare bar soap with other agents—povidone-iodine soap, povidone-iodine surgical scrub, povidone-iodine alcoholic solution, chlorhexidine surgical scrub, and alcoholic chlorhexidine. Samples were collected after standard washes and after surgical gloves had been worn for 90 minutes. The effect of multiple washes was assessed by samples collected after six washes with the agent under study (three per day) followed by 90 minutes wearing surgical gloves. The average percentage reduction in normal flora obtained indicated that alcoholic chlorhexidine was superior to the other agents. PMID:500840

  7. Surgery for acquired cardiovascular disease: antiseptic treatment of contaminated vein grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F P; Peivandi, A A; Kohnen, W; Jansen, B

    2014-04-01

    Saphenous vein grafts harvested for use as bypass conduits can be contaminated intraoperatively, e.g. by being inadvertently dropped to the floor of the operating room (OR). This study was performed to investigate microorganisms most likely contaminating vein grafts and to assess the possible efficacy of measures to treat potentially contaminated vein grafts antiseptically for further use. In a first step we determined the microbiological flora of the OR using surface cultures and cultures from intentionally dropped vein grafts. Several antiseptic agents (PVP-iodine 10%, octenidinhydrochloride 0.1%, polyhexanide 1%) were evaluated for their in vitro efficacy to disinfect artificially contaminated vein segments. The most promising antiseptic regimen was tested on veins contaminated in a real OR setting. Finally, we tested for possible alterations in mechanical properties of the veins caused by antiseptic treatment. Coagulase-negative staphylococci where the predominant bacteria recovered from the OR with 59.9%. Antiseptic treatment with a combination of octenidine and PVP-iodine resulted in a higher rate of negative cultures than any single agent. Treatment of 50 saphenous vein grafts contaminated in the OR with the combination regimen resulted in only 3 positive cultural results within 7 days. Mechanical tear-stress testing comparing antiseptically treated vein grafts with controls showed no difference in their resistance to tear stress. Antiseptic treatment of contaminated vein grafts was shown to be effective in a high percentage of cases without altering mechanical properties of grafts and may be an option for the surgeon in case of a contamination.

  8. Antiseptics: a forgotten weapon in the control of antibiotic resistant bacteria in hospital and community settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, D N; Gibson, S A; Lewis, R

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the activity of a selection of widely-used antiseptic/disinfectant agents against antibiotic resistant bacteria and strains isolated from patients infected with clinically significant species. Four antiseptic agents (Dettol, Dettol Hospital Concentrate, Savlon and Betadine) were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus hirae, Vancomicin Resistant Enterococcus sp (VRE), Escherichia coli and E. coli 0157. The antiseptics were applied at recommended use dilutions and at a half and a quarter of those concentrations in a standard suspension test (EST). Organic material was added to mimic the presence of blood, protein and other such contaminants to be found in the clinical situation. All antiseptics tested were effective against both the antibiotic sensitive and antibiotic resistant strains of S. aureus and E. hirae as well as normal and clinical strains of E. coli at recommended concentrations. All but Betadine were also effective against the antibiotic resistant bacteria at a half and a quarter of normal concentration. The iodine containing antiseptic, however, failed the test against MRSA at a half normal concentration and showed virtually no activity against MRSA at a quarter normal concentration.

  9. Synergistic effects in the short-term preservation of hides with antiseptics and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Russell, A.E.; Stevens, R.C.B.; Galloway, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    The normal time lapse between the skinning and tanning processes of green hides necessitates the need for a short-term preservation technique to be employed. The most common method of bringing about such preservation is the coarse salting of the flesh side of hides. More recently the antiseptic treatment of hides was introduced to overcome the serious environmental pollution brought about by the salting process. The antiseptic treatment, however, must also be carefully controlled to avoid upsetting the biological breakdown processes in effluent plants. The gamma sterilization of such hides presents a non-polluting alternative to these methods. As the nature of this product demands excessively high radiation doses to be effective, which negatively influences the economics of the process and the physical properties of the resultant leather, a combination process employing radiation and antiseptics was investigated. It was observed that the radiation dose could be lowered from 50 kGy to 8 kGy in combination with certain antiseptics, whilst the required antiseptic concentration could be substantially lowered in the presence of radiation. The resultant leather was of an excellent quality whilst minimizing the environmental pollution problem. (author)

  10. Synergistic effects in the short-term preservation of hides with antiseptics and gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, TA; Russell, AE; Stevens, RCB; Galloway, AC

    The normal time lapse between the skinning and tanning processes of green hides necessitates the need for a short-term preservation technique to be employed. The most common method of bringing about such preservation is the coarse salting of the flesh side of hides. More recently the antiseptic treatment of hides was introduced to overcome the serious environmental pollution brought about by the salting process. The antiseptic treatment, however, must also be carefully controlled to avoid upsetting the biological breakdown processes in effluent plants. The gamma sterilization of such hides presents a non-polluting alternative to these methods. As the nature of this product demands excessively high radiation doses to be effective, which negatively influences the economics of the process and the physical properties of the resultant leather, a combination process employing radiation and antiseptics was investigated. It was observed that the radiation dose could be lowered from 50 kGy to 8 kGy in combination with certain antiseptics, whilst the required antiseptic concentration could be substantially lowered in the presence of radiation. The resultant leather was of an excellent quality whilst minimizing the environmental pollution problem.

  11. Selection of an optimal antiseptic solution for intraoperative irrigation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meurs, S J; Gawlitta, D; Heemstra, K A; Poolman, R W; Vogely, H C; Kruyt, M C

    2014-02-19

    With increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance and an increased infection risk due to more complicated surgical procedures and patient populations, prevention of surgical infection is of paramount importance. Intraoperative irrigation with an antiseptic solution could provide an effective way to reduce postoperative infection rates. Although numerous studies have been conducted on the bactericidal or cytotoxic characteristics of antiseptics, the combination of these characteristics for intraoperative application has not been addressed. Bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis) and human cells were exposed to polyhexanide, hydrogen peroxide, octenidine dihydrochloride, povidone-iodine, and chlorhexidine digluconate at various dilutions for two minutes. Bactericidal properties were calculated by means of the quantitative suspension method. The cytotoxic effect on human fibroblasts and mesenchymal stromal cells was determined by a WST-1 metabolic activity assay. All of the antiseptics except for polyhexanide were bactericidal and cytotoxic at the commercially available concentrations. When diluted, only povidone-iodine was bactericidal at a concentration at which some cell viability remained. The other antiseptics tested showed no cellular survival at the minimal bactericidal concentration. Povidone-iodine diluted to a concentration of 1.3 g/L could be the optimal antiseptic for intraoperative irrigation. This should be established by future clinical studies.

  12. A Randomized Trial Comparing Skin Antiseptic Agents at Cesarean Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuli, Methodius G; Liu, Jingxia; Stout, Molly J; Martin, Shannon; Cahill, Alison G; Odibo, Anthony O; Colditz, Graham A; Macones, George A

    2016-02-18

    Preoperative skin antisepsis has the potential to decrease the risk of surgical-site infection. However, evidence is limited to guide the choice of antiseptic agent at cesarean delivery, which is the most common major surgical procedure among women in the United States. In this single-center, randomized, controlled trial, we evaluated whether the use of chlorhexidine-alcohol for preoperative skin antisepsis was superior to the use of iodine-alcohol for the prevention of surgical-site infection after cesarean delivery. We randomly assigned patients undergoing cesarean delivery to skin preparation with either chlorhexidine-alcohol or iodine-alcohol. The primary outcome was superficial or deep surgical-site infection within 30 days after cesarean delivery, on the basis of definitions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. From September 2011 through June 2015, a total of 1147 patients were enrolled; 572 patients were assigned to chlorhexidine-alcohol and 575 to iodine-alcohol. In an intention-to-treat analysis, surgical-site infection was diagnosed in 23 patients (4.0%) in the chlorhexidine-alcohol group and in 42 (7.3%) in the iodine-alcohol group (relative risk, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.90; P=0.02). The rate of superficial surgical-site infection was 3.0% in the chlorhexidine-alcohol group and 4.9% in the iodine-alcohol group (P=0.10); the rate of deep infection was 1.0% and 2.4%, respectively (P=0.07). The frequency of adverse skin reactions was similar in the two groups. The use of chlorhexidine-alcohol for preoperative skin antisepsis resulted in a significantly lower risk of surgical-site infection after cesarean delivery than did the use of iodine-alcohol. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01472549.).

  13. Penetration power of antiseptic creams ("in vitro" model with pig skin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Torres, V; Herruzo, R; Santos Heredero, F X; Lenguas, F; Martinez Ratero, S; del Fresno, C

    1991-01-01

    By means of an "in vitro" method using pig skin, the authors determine the penetration power of some antiseptic creams in order out the most effective one from this point of view in the treatment of subscar-located infections. The following antiseptic creams were studied: 1% Silver Sulfadiazine, 1% Silver Sulfadiazine with 2.2% Cerium Nitrate, 2.2% Cerium Nitrate, 10% Iodine Povidone, 0.2% Nitrofurazone 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% Chlorhexidine. These products were faced with 17 microorganisms isolated from burn wounds and a control one. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) obtained after passing through the penetration power of some antiseptic creams in order to find out the most effective one from this point of view in the treatment of subscar-located infections.

  14. Identification and compatibility of the major active principles in some new natural origin antiseptics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, G. S.; Zlatković, S.; Nikolić, N.

    2009-09-01

    The newly established instrumentation of HPLC/DAD, FTIR, and NMR techniques have been applied for simultaneous identification and physicochemical compatibility determination of the potential major antiseptic constituents ( Hypericum perforatum L. and Usnea barbata extracts) which can be present in some new origin pharmaceutical preparation. Based on the obtained results the conclusion is that a simultaneous use of the analyzed constituents in production of some new preparations with antiseptic properties is possible. The chromatographic separation of antiseptic mixture was performed on a RP-HPLC C18 column. For the NMR detection, the analytes eluted from LC column were trapped and hereafter transported into the NMR flow-cell. The NMR and FTIR techniques allowed the characterization of the major constituent of Hypericum perforatum L., mainly hypericin, as well as of Usnea barbata, mainly usnic acid.

  15. Antiseptic and antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, D J; Thomas, B

    1980-01-01

    A collection of 802 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections was made from general practice, antenatal clinics, and local hospitals. The organisms were tested for their sensitivity to chlorhexidine, cetrimide, glutaraldehyde, phenyl mercuric nitrate, a phenolic formulation, and a proprietary antiseptic containing a mixture of picloxydine, octyl phenoxy polyethoxyethanol, and benzalkonium chloride. Escherichia coli, the major species isolated, proved to be uniformly sensitive to these agents. Approximately 10% of the total number of isolates, however, exhibited a degree of resistance to the cationic agents. These resistant organisms were members of the genera Proteus, Providencia, and Pseudomonas; they were also generally resistant to five, six, or seven antibiotics. It is proposed therefore that an antiseptic policy which involves the intensive use of cationic antiseptics might lead to the selection of a flora of notoriously drug-resistant species. PMID:6769972

  16. Microbial contamination of disinfectants and antiseptics in four major hospitals in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajadhar Tswana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the microbial contamination of disinfectants and antiseptics in major hospitals on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, disinfectants and antiseptics were sampled from the pharmacy departments, the pediatric/neonatal wards, and the surgical wards of four hospitals. The samples were cultured for aerobic bacteria on nutrient agar using the surface plating method. The antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial isolates was determined by the disk diffusion method, using 14 antimicrobial agents. We studied a total of 180 disinfectant/antiseptic samples: 60 of chlorhexidine gluconate (Hibitane, 60 of chlorhexidine gluconate and cetrimonium bromide (Savlon, and 60 of methylated spirit. RESULTS: Of the 180 samples studied, 11 of them (6.1% were contaminated by aerobic bacteria. All bacteria isolated were Pseudomonas spp. Of the 11 contaminated samples, 6 of them (54.5% occurred at the pharmacy level while 5 (45.5% were from diluted pre-use or in-use samples in the pediatric/neonatal wards or the surgical wards. Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetrimonium bromide accounted for 9 of the 11 contaminated disinfectants/antiseptics (81.8%, and chlorhexidine gluconate accounted for the remaining 2 (18.2%. Only two of the four hospitals had contaminated disinfectant/antiseptic samples. All 24 isolates of Pseudomonas spp. tested were resistant to one or more of the 14 antimicrobial agents tested, with the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, tobramycin, and gentamicin being 58.3%, 50.0%, 45.8%, and 41.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that contaminated disinfectants/antiseptics pose a health risk to patients, particularly in the pediatric and surgical wards. The high prevalence of resistance to antimicrobial agents exhibited by the Pseudomonas spp. that were isolated is of special therapeutic concern.

  17. Effect of oral antiseptic agents on phospholipase and proteinase enzymes of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun-Can, Banu; Kadir, Tanju; Gumru, Birsay

    2016-02-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most prevalent form of oral candida infections among the denture wearers. Generally, antiseptic oral rinses used in the treatment of these infections are considered as an adjunct or alternative antifungal treatment. Studies have suggested that the intraoral concentrations of antiseptics decrease substantially to the sub-therapeutic levels on account of the dynamics of the oral cavity. This condition yields the question about the minimum antiseptic concentration that effect the character or pathogenesis of Candida during treatment. The extracellular phospholipase and proteinase enzymes of Candida albicans are regarded to have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of human fungal infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different sub-therapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, hexetidine and triclosan on the production of these enzymes by C. albicans strains isolated from 20 patients with denture stomatitis. Phospholipase test was done by using Sabouraud dextrose agar with egg yolk, proteinase test was done by using bovine serum albumin agar. Phospholipase test was done by using Sabouraud dextrose agar with egg yolk, proteinase test was done by using bovine serum albumin agar. Exoenzyme production of 20 strains which were brief exposured to sub-therapeutic concentrations of three antiseptic agents decreased significantly compared with the strains that were not exposured with antiseptic values (pantiseptics (pantiseptic was compared, there were no significant differences between enzymatic activities (p>0.05). The results of this study show that sub-therapeutic levels of each antiseptic may modulate candidal exoenzyme production, consequently suppressing pathogenicity of C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Review on the efficacy, safety and clinical applications of polihexanide, a modern wound antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, N-O; Kramer, A

    2010-01-01

    Infected wounds are still one of the great challenges in medicine. In the last decade, it has become increasingly clear that antimicrobial chemotherapy is limited by the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Fortunately, new, highly effective antiseptic substances with a broad antimicrobial spectrum are available, so local treatment is expected to get increasingly more important in wound therapy. This paper reviews the antiseptic agent polihexanide (polyhexamethylene biguanide, PHMB), one of the most promising substances available today, from a clinical point of view, focusing on efficacy, safety and clinical applications. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. [Prevention of catheter-related infection: usefulness and cost-effectiveness of antiseptic catheters in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Ana M; Vassallo, Juan C; Moreno, Guillermo E; Althabe, María; Gómez, Silvia; Magliola, Ricardo; Casimir, Lidia; Bologna, Rosa; Barretta, Jorge; Ruffa, Pablo

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the antiseptic-impregnated catheter compared with conventional catheters in preventing catheter- related blood stream infections (CR-BSI). Cost-effectiveness analysis; clinical trial, experimental, randomized, controlled, prospective, open label. Patients and methods. A 172 patient cohort, under 1-year-old or less than 10 kg, postoperative cardiovascular children with central venous catheters (CVC) admitted to Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (UCI 35) at Hospital Nacional de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan", since September 2005 to December 2007. Demographic and CVC data were retrieved to compare: age, gender, weight, diagnosis, surgery, CVC days, costs and complications. Intervention. CVC Arrow, double-lumen, > 48 h of duration; intervention group: antiseptic-impregnated CVC vs. control group: CVC without antiseptics (conventional). The incidence of CR-IE (CR-Infected Events: colonization, local infection and/or CRBSI; combined end point) was 27% for antiseptic- impregnated CVC vs. 31% for conventional catheters (p= 0.6) with similar accumulated incidence of CR- BSI: 2.8 vs. 3.3 per 1000 dayscatheter. We found no differences between groups, except in weight: median 4.0 kg (r 2-17) vs. 4.7 kg (r 2-9) p= 0.0002 and age, median 2 months (r 1- 48) vs. 5 months (r 1- 24) p= 0.0019 in antiseptic-impregnated CVC group. These differences, though statistically significant were clinically non relevant. Median cost per patient during intensive care stay in the conventional CVC group was $3.417 (359-9.453) and in the antiseptic-impregnated-CVC group was $4.962 (239-24.532), p= 0.10. The use of antiseptic-impregnated CVC compared with conventional CVC did not decrease CR-BSI in this population. The cost per patients was higher in the antiseptic impregnated CVC group. These results do not support the routine use of this type of CVC in our population.

  20. Joseph Lister (1827-1912): a pioneer of antiseptic surgery remembered a century after his death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessney, Benn

    2012-08-01

    Joseph Lister was a remarkable British surgeon who pioneered principles of antisepsis. He died 100 years ago after devoting his life to developing and promoting safe, antiseptic surgery. In the 1800 s as many as 80% of all operations resulted in infection but many people refused to accept the true nature of infection, believing instead that the deaths were coincidental. Lister became familiar with the work of Pasteur while working in Glasgow. He recognized the truth in Pasteur's work and in 1867 Lister published his landmark paper 'On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery' in the British Medical Journal. It proved to be a turning point in healthcare.

  1. [THE ROLE OF ANTISEPTICS AND STRATEGY OF BIOFILM REMOVAL IN CHRONIC WOUND].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucisec-Tepes, Nastja

    2016-03-01

    Chronic wound does not heal within the expected time frame because it remains in the inflammation phase of healing. The reason for this is the presence of necrotic tissue and a large number of microorganisms, primarily bacteria that secrete the biofilm, along with ischemia, hypoxia and edema. Biofilm is present in 90% of chronic wounds and 6% of the acute ones. Biofilm is a corporative association of microbes which adhere to the surface of the wound, guided by quorum sensing molecules. The association is surrounded by a moisturizing matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (slime) which protect the microbes from the impact of antibiotics, antiseptics, macro-organism defense and stress. Biofilm is the primary cause of the wound chronicity because it causes permanent inflammation, delayed granulation tissue formation and migration of epithelium cells, thus providing a reservoir of microbes that lead to infection of the chronic wound. The aim of good clinical practice is to enable healing of a chronic wound within the expected time frame. In order to achieve this aim, it is necessary to reduce and thoroughly remove the biofilm from the wound and prevent its reappearance. This is achieved by the application of active anti-biofilm compounds and procedures that disintegrate the quorum sensing molecules, degrade the extracellular polymeric substances and block adherence to the surfaces. Recent researches have shown that the application of antiseptics is effective in the prevention of infection and is a support to targeted treatment. However, the fact is that only some antiseptics are applicable to chronic wounds and can have an impact on biofilms of the primary infective agents such as Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective antiseptics are octenidine dihydrochloride, polyhexanides, povidone and cadexomer iodine, nanocrystal silver and Manuka-type honey. Immobile biofilm is a persistent problem of chronic and chronic infected

  2. Combined antibacterial effects of tissue-tolerable plasma and a modern conventional liquid antiseptic on chronic wound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebes, Martin; Ulrich, Christin; Kluschke, Franziska; Patzelt, Alexa; Vandersee, Staffan; Richter, Heike; Bob, Adrienne; von Hutten, Johanna; Krediet, Jorien T; Kramer, Axel; Lademann, Jürgen; Lange-Asschenfeld, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    Potential antimicrobial effects of sequential applications of tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) and the conventional liquid antiseptic octenidine dihydrochloride (ODC) were investigated. 34 patients with chronic leg ulcers were treated with TTP, ODC or a combination of both. The bacterial colonization was measured semi-quantitatively before and immediately after treatment and changes in the microbial strains' compositions before and after antiseptic treatments were analyzed. All antiseptic procedures reduced the bacterial counts significantly. The sequential application of TTP and ODC displayed the highest antimicrobial efficacy. Me combined use of TTP and conventional antiseptics might represent the most efficient strategy for antiseptic treatment of chronic wounds. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Cytokine expression in human osteoblasts after antiseptic treatment: a comparative study between polyhexanide and chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhner, Eric; Hoff, Paula; Gaber, Timo; Lang, Annemarie; Vörös, Pauline; Buttgereit, Frank; Perka, Carsten; Windisch, Christoph; Matziolis, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Chlorhexidine and polyhexanide are frequently used antiseptics in clinical practice and have a broad antimicrobial range. Both antiseptics are helpful medical agents for septic wound treatment with a high potential for defeating joint infections. Their effect on human osteoblasts has, so far, not been sufficiently evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the activating potential of polyhexanide and chlorhexidine on inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in human osteoblasts in vitro. Human osteoblasts were isolated and cultivated in vitro and then treated separately with 0.1% and 2% chlorhexidine and 0.04% polyhexanide as commonly applied concentrations in clinical practice. Detection of cell structure and cell morphology was performed by light microscopic inspection. Cytokine and chemokine secretion was determined by using a multiplex suspension array. Cell shrinking, defective cell membrane, and the loss of cell adhesion indicated cell damage of human osteoblasts after treatment with both antiseptics was evaluated by using light microscopy. Polyhexanide, but not chlorhexidine, caused human osteoblasts to secrete various interleukins (1β, 6, and 7), interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, vascular endothelial growth factor, eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor basic, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor as quantified by multiplex suspension array. Both antiseptics induced morphological cell damage at an optimum exposure between 1 and 10 min. But only polyhexanide mediated a pronounced secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human osteoblasts. Therefore, we recommend a preferred usage of chlorhexidine in septic surgery to avoid the induction of an inflammatory reaction.

  4. Antibiotic and antiseptic resistance genes are linked on a novel mobile genetic element: Tn6087

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciric, Lena; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Tn916-like elements are one of the most common types of integrative and conjugative element (ICE). In this study we aimed to determine whether novel accessory genes, i.e. genes whose products are not involved in mobility or regulation, were present on a Tn916-like element (Tn6087) isolated from Streptococcus oralis from the human oral cavity. Methods A minocycline-resistant isolate was analysed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis on amplicons derived from Tn916 and DNA sequencing to determine whether there were genetic differences in Tn6087 compared with Tn916. Mutational analysis was used to determine whether the novel accessory gene found was responsible for an observed extra phenotype. Results A novel Tn916-like element, Tn6087, is described that encodes both antibiotic and antiseptic resistance. The antiseptic resistance protein is encoded by a novel small multidrug resistance gene, designated qrg, that was shown to encode resistance to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), also known as cetrimide bromide. Conclusions This is the first Tn916-like element described that confers both antibiotic and antiseptic resistance, suggesting that selection of either antibiotic or antiseptic resistance will also select for the other and further highlights the need for prudent use of both types of compound. PMID:21816764

  5. Current and Emerging Topical Antibacterials and Antiseptics: Agents, Action, and Resistance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Deborah A; Carter, Glen P; Howden, Benjamin P

    2017-07-01

    Bacterial skin infections represent some of the most common infectious diseases globally. Prevention and treatment of skin infections can involve application of a topical antimicrobial, which may be an antibiotic (such as mupirocin or fusidic acid) or an antiseptic (such as chlorhexidine or alcohol). However, there is limited evidence to support the widespread prophylactic or therapeutic use of topical agents. Challenges involved in the use of topical antimicrobials include increasing rates of bacterial resistance, local hypersensitivity reactions (particularly to older agents, such as bacitracin), and concerns about the indiscriminate use of antiseptics potentially coselecting for antibiotic resistance. We review the evidence for the major clinical uses of topical antibiotics and antiseptics. In addition, we review the mechanisms of action of common topical agents and define the clinical and molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in these agents. Moreover, we review the potential use of newer and emerging agents, such as retapamulin and ebselen, and discuss the role of antiseptic agents in preventing bacterial skin infections. A comprehensive understanding of the clinical efficacy and drivers of resistance to topical agents will inform the optimal use of these agents to preserve their activity in the future. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Umbilical Microflora, Antiseptic Skin Preparation, and Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeff, Jörg; Erkan, Mert; Jäger, Carsten; Menacher, Maximilian; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Hartel, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) following abdominal surgery are frequent and a major cause of postoperative morbidity and prolonged hospital stay. Besides antibiotic prophylaxis, antiseptic skin preparation is an important measure to prevent SSI. Here we prospectively analyzed the effectiveness of antiseptic skin preparation in a cohort of 93 patients undergoing laparotomy, with special emphasis on the umbilical region. The microflora of the umbilicus contained a large number of resident (mostly staphylococci species and corynebacteria) and transient germs (including enterococci species). Following antiseptic skin preparation, bacteria could still be cultured from 24.7% of the patients' umbilici. In case of postoperative SSI, only one of seven SSI was caused by the microorganism that was present in the umbilicus before and after skin preparation. Antiseptic skin preparation fails to completely eradicate the microflora of the umbilical region in one quarter of the patients. However, at least in abdominal surgery, the vast majority of SSI are caused by intra-abdominal contamination rather than the skin microflora.

  7. Response to antiseptic agents of periodontal pathogens in in vitro biofilms on titanium and zirconium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M C; Fernández, E; Llama-Palacios, A; Figuero, E; Herrera, D; Sanz, M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop in vitro biofilms on SLA titanium (Ti-SLA) and zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) surfaces and to evaluate the effect of antiseptic agents on the number of putative periodontal pathogenic species. An in vitro biofilm model was developed on sterile discs of Ti-SLA and ZrO 2 . Three antiseptic agents [chlorhexidine and cetyl-pyridinium-chloride (CHX/CPC), essential oils (EEOOs) and cetyl-peridinium-chloride (CPC)] were applied to 72-h biofilms, immersing discs during 1min in the antiseptic solution, either with or without mechanical disruption. Viable bacteria [colony forming units (CFU/mL)] were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with propidium monoazide. A generalized lineal model was constructed to determine the effect of the agents on the viable bacterial counts of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum on each surface. The exposure to each antiseptic solution resulted in a statistically significant reductions in the number of viable target species included in the in vitro multi-species biofilm, on both Ti-SLA and ZrO 2 (pantiseptics when grown in multispecies biofilms on titanium and zirconium surfaces, in spite of the described structural differences between these bacterial communities. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antiseptic mouth rinses: an update on comparative effectiveness, risks and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osso, Diane; Kanani, Nehal

    2013-02-01

    Antiseptic mouth rinses are widely recommended and marketed to improve oral health. This article summarizes current studies on the comparative effectiveness of selected antiseptic mouth rinses in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as well as risks associated with daily exposure, including salivary flow rate, oral cancer and wear of composite restorations. Electronic database searches were conducted using Google Scholar and PubMed to identify articles comparing the effectiveness of 4 commercially marketed antiseptic mouth rinses differing in active ingredients (0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, essential oils (menthol, thymol and eucalyptol) and methyl salicylate, 0.7% cetylpyridinium chloride and 20% aloe vera gel) for controlling plaque and gingivitis. Criteria for inclusion included controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews appearing in English language publications evaluating the comparative effectiveness of the mouth rinses in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as well as risks associated with daily usage. The majority of studies have shown mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine gluconate or essential oils and methyl salicylate provide clinically significant anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque benefits. Cetylpyridinium chloride has been found to provide only limited clinical benefits compared to inactive control mouth rinse. Inadequate evidence is available to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of aloe vera gel. Chlorhexidine, essential oils and cetylpyridinium have been found to be safe. However, limited data are available on the effects of the mouth rinse on wear patterns of dental restorations. Studies reviewed reported no significant difference in salivary flow rate related to alcohol based mouth rinse. Research supports the effectiveness of antiseptic mouth rinses in reducing plaque and gingivitis as an adjunct to home care. Insufficient evidence is available to support the claim that oral antiseptics can reduce the risk of developing periodontitis or the

  9. In vitro efficacy of teat antiseptics against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Paoli Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of teat disinfection is a widely accepted component of successful mastitis control programs by reducing the number of bacteria on the teat skin and healing teat lesions. For contagious pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, post-milking teat disinfection remains a simple, effective and economical practice for prevention of new intramammary infections (IMIs of lactating dairy cows. Despite the universal acceptance of teat dipping as a method of mastitis control, variations in the susceptibility and resistance profile of mastitis pathogens among antiseptics have been described. Thus, here we sought to explore the in vitro efficacy of the followings antiseptics against S. aureus isolated from IMIs: chlorhexidine (2.0%, chlorine (2.5%, quarternary ammonium (4.0%, lactic acid (2.0% and iodine (0.6%. We used 50 S. aureus strains isolated from bovine IMIs from 50 dairy herds located at Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul States (Brazil. The antiseptics were evaluated at four different specific intervals (15, 30, 60 and 300 s. We found a higher activity for quarternary ammonium and chlorhexidine against S. aureus at all time-points, followed by iodine and then chlorine. Lactic acid treatment produced the worst results for all time-points and strains. Due to variations in the sensitivity and resistance profile of antiseptics against S. aureus isolated from IMIs, the effectiveness of the antiseptics against the major mastitis pathogens should be periodically evaluated in dairy farms in an attempt to reduce the rate of new IMIs in the herd.

  10. Safety and Effectiveness of Health Care Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is issuing this final rule establishing that certain active ingredients used in nonprescription (also known as over-the-counter or OTC) antiseptic products intended for use by health care professionals in a hospital setting or other health care situations outside the hospital are not generally recognized as safe and effective (GRAS/GRAE). FDA is issuing this final rule after considering the recommendations of the Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee (NDAC); public comments on the Agency's notices of proposed rulemaking; and all data and information on OTC health care antiseptic products that have come to the Agency's attention. This final rule finalizes the 1994 tentative final monograph (TFM) for OTC health care antiseptic drug products that published in the Federal Register of June 17, 1994 (the 1994 TFM) as amended by the proposed rule published in the Federal Register (FR) of May 1, 2015 (2015 Health Care Antiseptic Proposed Rule (PR)).

  11. In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin using a nanoparticle-emulsion containing the antiseptic polihexanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, M; Patzelt, A; Lademann, J; Richter, H; Sterry, W; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B; Vergou, T; Kramer, A; Mueller, G

    2012-01-01

    Earlier investigations regarding the distribution of the bacterial flora on the human skin demonstrate that the hair follicle acts as a bacterial reservoir, providing a quick source for secondary recontamination. These findings highlight the importance of the hair follicle as a target for modern antiseptics. In the present study, we have assessed the follicular penetration of a curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic into porcine skin by laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, the follicular penetration depth of the curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic was compared to the follicular penetration depth of curcumin-labeled particles without antiseptic. The investigation was performed in vitro using porcine skin biopsies. By superposition of the images acquired in the transmission and the fluorescent modus, it was possible to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent dye inside the hair follicles. Quantitative and qualitative results showed that both dispersions penetrated efficiently into the hair follicles. The average penetration depth of the particles with attached antiseptic polihexanide was significantly higher than that of particles without the attached antiseptic. Also, whilst very little sample preparation was needed, laser scanning microscopy was found to be an efficient tool to visualize the skin relief and in particular the hair follicle shaft and localize fluorescent markers within the skin tissue and hair follicles

  12. Sutures coated with antiseptic pomade to prevent bacterial colonization: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fernando; Leite, Fabiola; Cruz, Gustavo; Cruz, Silvia; Reis, Juarez; Pierce, Matthew; Cruz, Mauro

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess if an antiseptic pomade could reduce the bacterial colonization on multifilament sutures. A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 40 volunteer patients of both sexes aged 18-70, randomly separated into experimental (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. The experimental group received pomade-coated sutures (iodoform + calendula) and the control group uncoated sutures. Two millimeters of the suture was harvested from each patient from the 1st to the 15th postoperative day. The bacteria that had adhered to them were cultured. The number of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) was determined and the groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney statistical test (P antiseptic pomade was effective in reducing bacterial colonization on silk braided sutures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of antiseptic mouthwash on resting metabolic rate: A randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Michaela L; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2016-12-30

    The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function. Here we tested if also RMR would be affected by an antiseptic mouthwash. Seventeen healthy normotensive female subjects (23 ± 4 y) participated in this randomized, double-blinded, crossover study. During two 3-day periods separated by 28 days the subjects consumed a diet low in nitrate combined with rinsing their mouth three times daily with a chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash (mouthwash) or placebo mouthwash (placebo) with similar taste but no antiseptic properties. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by indirect calorimetry and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure recordings were obtained after each intervention together with blood, saliva and urine samples. Treatment with chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash effectively reduced oral conversion of nitrate to nitrite but had no effect on plasma levels of these anions or plasma cGMP. RMR and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure were unaffected by the intervention. We conclude that in young healthy females an antiseptic mouthwash was effective in disrupting oral bacterial nitrate conversion to nitrite, but this was not associated with changes in plasma nitrite, RMR or blood pressure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biocompatibility index of antiseptic agents by parallel assessment of antimicrobial activity and cellular cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gerald; Kramer, Axel

    2008-06-01

    To assess the suitability of an antiseptic agent, both the microbicidal activity and the cytotoxic effect must be taken into consideration to derive biocompatible antibacterial agents. We defined the biocompatibility index (BI) by measuring the antibacterial activity against the test organisms Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and, in parallel, the cytotoxicity on cultured murine fibroblasts. The antiseptic agents tested were benzalkonium chloride (BAC), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), mild silver protein (MSP), octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT), polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), povidone iodine in solution [PVP-I(s)], povidone iodine in ointment [PVP-I(o)], silver nitrate (AgNO(3)), silver (I) sulfadiazine (SSD) and triclosan (TRI). Assays were carried out for 30 min of exposure at 37 degrees C in the presence of cell culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. The resulting dimensionless BI was defined as the ratio of the concentration at which 50% of the murine fibroblasts are damaged and the microbicidal effect producing at least 3 log(10) (99.9%) reduction. The resulting rank ordering of BI for the ratio of fibroblast cytotoxicity to E. coli toxicity was OCT > PHMB > CHX > PVP-I(o) > PVP-I(s) > BAC > CPC > TRI > MSP and that to S. aureus was OCT > PHMB > CHX > CPC > PVP-I(o) > BAC > PVP(s) > TRI > MSP. OCT and PHMB were the most suitable agents with a BI greater than 1. The BI presented may be a useful tool to evaluate antiseptic agents for use in clinical practice.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine and Tris-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Ghibaudo, Giovanni; Damborg, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA (Otodine) were determined by broth microdilution for 150 isolates representing the most common pathogens associated with canine otitis. The microorganisms were classified into three groups according to their levels of susceptibility. The most susceptible group included Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Malassezia pachydermatis, Streptococcus canis and Corynebacterium auriscanis, which were generally killed by 1 : 64 dilution of the antiseptic product (MBC = 23/0.8 microg/mL of chlorhexidine/Tris-EDTA). The most resistant organism was Proteus mirabilis, which survived up to 1 : 8 dilution of the product (MBC = 375/12 microg/mL). Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus displayed intermediate MBCs ranging between 188/6 and 47/1.5 microg/mL. Interestingly, S. pseudintermedius was more susceptible than S. aureus, and no significant difference was observed between meticillin-resistant and meticillin-susceptible isolates within each species, indicating that antiseptic use is unlikely to co-select for meticillin resistance. Although the concentrations required for killing (MBCs) varied considerably with microorganism type, the combination of chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA was active against all the pathogens most commonly involved in canine otitis.

  16. Antiseptic cyclodextrin-functionalized hydrogels and gauzes for loading and delivery of benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Maria José; Brackman, Gilles; Coenye, Tom; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and management of wound infections receive a lot of attention, since the presence of micro-organisms interferes with the wound-healing process. The aim of this work was to use cyclodextrins (CDs) to endow hydrogels and gauzes with the ability to take up antiseptics and sustain their delivery for several hours. Benzalkonium chloride (BzCl) can form inclusion complexes with cross-linked CDs that regulate the release through an affinity-driven mechanism. Grafting of CDs to cotton gauzes using citric acid as the linker, at 190 °C and for 15 min, led to grafting yields of about 148%, much larger than those obtained at 180 °C or with shorter reaction times. Microbiological tests revealed that the BzCl-loaded networks can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli both on agar plates and in liquid medium. Furthermore, the antiseptic-loaded gauzes were able to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus RN1HG pMV158GFP when applied in early stages of biofilm formation and could reduce the number of living cells in preformed biofilms grown in a chronic wound biofilm model. These findings highlight the role of CDs as main components of hydrogels and gauzes for the efficient delivery of antiseptics.

  17. Tissue Hypoperfusion, Hypercoagulopathy, and Kidney and Liver Dysfunction after Ingestion of a Naphazoline-Containing Antiseptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphazoline is a peripheral α2-adrenergic receptor agonist commonly used as a topical decongestant. In Japan, over-the-counter antiseptics often contain naphazoline to effect local hemostasis. We present the first case involving the development of hypercoagulopathy, with kidney and liver dysfunction, following a naphazoline overdose. A 22-year-old Japanese woman with a history of depression ingested 160 mL of a commercially available antiseptic containing 0.1% naphazoline. Three days later, she was brought to the emergency department because of general fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed cool, pale extremities. Laboratory data showed evidence of severe kidney and liver dysfunction (creatinine, 9.2 mg/dL; alanine aminotransferase, 2948 IU/L, hypercoagulation (D-dimers, 58.3 μg/mL, and thrombocytopenia (platelet count, 90,000/μL. After infusion of normal saline, intravenous administration of alprostadil, and hemodiafiltration, her organ function completely recovered. Because both the kidney and liver express α2-adrenergic receptors, their failure was likely associated with naphazoline overdose-induced hypoperfusion. The most plausible causes of hypercoagulation are peripheral low perfusion and subsequent microthrombus formation. This case illustrates that severe organ dysfunction can occur following over-the-counter antiseptic ingestion and serves as a caution for both drug manufacturers and healthcare professionals.

  18. Preoperative bathing or showering with skin antiseptics to prevent surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Osborne, Sonya

    2015-02-20

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are wound infections that occur after invasive (surgical) procedures. Preoperative bathing or showering with an antiseptic skin wash product is a well-accepted procedure for reducing skin bacteria (microflora). It is less clear whether reducing skin microflora leads to a lower incidence of surgical site infection. To review the evidence for preoperative bathing or showering with antiseptics for preventing hospital-acquired (nosocomial) surgical site infections. For this fifth update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 18 December 2014); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2014 Issue 11); Ovid MEDLINE (2012 to December Week 4 2014), Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations December 18, 2014); Ovid EMBASE (2012 to 2014 Week 51), EBSCO CINAHL (2012 to December 18 2014) and reference lists of articles. Randomised controlled trials comparing any antiseptic preparation used for preoperative full-body bathing or showering with non-antiseptic preparations in people undergoing surgery. Two review authors independently assessed studies for selection, risk of bias and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. We did not identify any new trials for inclusion in this fifth update. Seven trials involving a total of 10,157 participants were included. Four of the included trials had three comparison groups. The antiseptic used in all trials was 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (Hibiscrub/Riohex). Three trials involving 7791 participants compared chlorhexidine with a placebo. Bathing with chlorhexidine compared with placebo did not result in a statistically significant reduction in SSIs; the relative risk of SSI (RR) was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80 to 1.04). When only trials of high quality were included in this comparison, the RR of SSI was 0.95 (95%CI 0.82 to 1.10). Three trials of 1443 participants compared bar soap with

  19. Comparison of Four Antiseptic Preparations for Skin in the Prevention of Contamination of Percutaneously Drawn Blood Cultures: a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, David P.; Farr, Barry M.

    2002-01-01

    A number of skin antiseptics have been used to prevent the contamination of blood cultures, but the comparative efficacies of these agents have not been extensively evaluated. We therefore sought to compare the efficacy of four skin antiseptics in preventing blood culture contamination in a randomized, crossover, investigator-blinded study conducted in an emergency department and the inpatient wards of a university hospital. The patient group included all patients from whom blood samples were obtained percutaneously for culture. Skin antisepsis was performed with 10% povidone-iodine, 70% isopropyl alcohol, tincture of iodine, or povidone-iodine with 70% ethyl alcohol (i.e., Persist). The blood culture contamination rate associated with each antiseptic was then determined. A total of 333 (2.62%) of 12,692 blood cultures were contaminated during the study period compared to 413 (3.21%) of 12,859 blood cultures obtained during the previous 12-month period (relative risk = 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 0.94; P = 0.006). During the study, the contamination rates were determined to be 2.93% with povidone-iodine, 2.58% with tincture of iodine, 2.50% with isopropyl alcohol, and 2.46% with Persist (P = 0.62). We detected no significant differences in the blood culture contamination rates among these four antiseptics, although there was some evidence suggesting greater efficacy among the alcohol-containing antiseptics. Among the evaluated antiseptics, isopropyl alcohol may be the optimal antiseptic for use prior to obtaining blood for culture, given its convenience, low cost, and tolerability. PMID:11980938

  20. Choline and Geranate Deep Eutectic Solvent as a Broad-Spectrum Antiseptic Agent for Preventive and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrewsky, Michael; Banerjee, Amrita; Apte, Sanjana; Kern, Theresa L; Jones, Mattie R; Sesto, Rico E Del; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T; Mitragotri, Samir

    2016-06-01

    Antiseptic agents are the primary arsenal to disinfect skin and prevent pathogens spreading within the host as well as into the surroundings; however the Food and Drug Administration published a report in 2015 requiring additional validation of nearly all current antiseptic agents before their continued use can be allowed. This vulnerable position calls for urgent identification of novel antiseptic agents. Recently, the ability of a deep eutectic, Choline And Geranate (CAGE), to treat biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica was demonstrated. Here it is reported that CAGE exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against a number of drug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and viruses including clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans as well as laboratory strains of Herpes Simplex Virus. Studies in human keratinocytes and mice show that CAGE affords negligible local or systemic toxicity, and an ≈180-14 000-fold improved efficacy/toxicity ratio over currently used antiseptic agents. Further, CAGE penetrates deep into the dermis and treats pathogens located in deep skin layers as confirmed by the ability of CAGE in vivo to treat Propionibacterium acnes infection. In combination, the results clearly demonstrate CAGE holds promise as a transformative platform antiseptic agent for preventive as well as therapeutic applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Reduction of nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage in health care professionals by treatment with a nonantibiotic, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Lisa L; Costello, Justin; Lohia, Shivangi; Jones, Taylor; Spannhake, Ernst W; Nguyen, Shaun

    2014-08-01

    Antibiotics used to reduce nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in patients before admission are inappropriate for carriage reduction on a regular basis within a hospital community. Effective nonantibiotic alternatives for daily use in the nares will allow reduction of this bacterial source to be addressed. Our study tested the effectiveness of a nonantibiotic, alcohol-based antiseptic in reducing nasal bacterial carriage in health care professionals (HCPs) at an urban hospital center. HCPs testing positive for vestibular S aureus colonization were treated 3 times during the day with topical antiseptic or control preparations. Nasal S aureus and total bacterial colonization levels were determined before and at the end of a 10-hour workday. Seventy-eight of 387 HCPs screened (20.2%) tested positive for S aureus infection. Of 39 subjects who tested positive for S aureus infection who completed the study, 20 received antiseptic and 19 received placebo treatment. Antiseptic treatment reduced S aureus colony forming units from baseline by 99% (median) and 82% (mean) (P antiseptic was effective in reducing S aureus and total bacterial carriage, suggesting the usefulness of this approach as a safe, effective, and convenient alternative to antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ability of root canal antiseptics used in dental practice to induce chromosome aberrations in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Higo, Yukari; Ohno, Maki; Tsutsui, Takeo W; Tsutsui, Takeki

    2008-01-08

    Root canal antiseptics are topically applied to root canals within the pulpless teeth to treat the root canal and periapical infections. Because the antiseptics that are applied to root canals can penetrate through dentin or leak out through an apical foramen into the periodontium and distribute by the systemic circulation, it is important to study the safety of these antiseptics. In the present study, we examined the ability to induce chromosome aberrations in human dental pulp cells of five root canal antiseptics, namely, carbol camphor (CC), camphorated p-monochlorophenol (CMCP), formocresol (FC), calcium hydroxide, and iodoform which are most commonly used in dental practice. Statistically significant increases in the levels of chromosome aberrations were induced by CC, FC, or iodoform in a concentration-dependent manner. Conversely, CMCP and calcium hydroxide failed to induce chromosome aberrations in the absence or presence of exogenous metabolic activation. The percentages of cells with polyploid or endoreduplication were enhanced by FC or iodoform. Our results indicate that the root canal antiseptics that exhibited a positive response are potentially genotoxic to human cells.

  3. Efficacy of handrubbing with alcohol based solution versus standard handwashing with antiseptic soap: randomised clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girou, Emmanuelle; Loyeau, Sabrina; Legrand, Patrick; Oppein, Françoise; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of handrubbing with an alcohol based solution versus conventional handwashing with antiseptic soap in reducing hand contamination during routine patient care. Design Randomised controlled trial during daily nursing sessions of 2 to 3 hours. Setting Three intensive care units in a French university hospital. Participants 23 healthcare workers. Interventions Handrubbing with alcohol based solution (n=12) or handwashing with antiseptic soap (n=11) when hand hygiene was indicated before and after patient care. Imprints taken of fingertips and palm of dominant hand before and after hand hygiene procedure. Bacterial counts quantified blindly. Main outcome measures Bacterial reduction of hand contamination. Results With handrubbing the median percentage reduction in bacterial contamination was significantly higher than with handwashing (83% v 58%, P=0.012), with a median difference in the percentage reduction of 26% (95% confidence interval 8% to 44%). The median duration of hand hygiene was 30 seconds in each group. Conclusions During routine patient care handrubbing with an alcohol based solution is significantly more efficient in reducing hand contamination than handwashing with antiseptic soap. What is already known on this topicTo improve compliance with hand hygiene during patient care, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution has been proposed as a substitute for handwashing because of its rapid action and accessibilityExperimental studies show that handrubbing is at least as effective as medicated soap in reducing artificial contamination of handsMany healthcare workers still have reservations regarding its efficacy and are reluctant to use this techniqueWhat this study addsWhen used in routine practice, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution after contact with patients achieved a greater reduction in bacterial contamination of hands than conventional handwashing with medicated soap PMID:12183307

  4. RESEARCH IN SENSITIVITY TO ANTIBIOTICS, ANTISEPTICS IN PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA STRAINS ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Nazarchuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infections caused by Pseudomonas are one of the topical issues of medicine. Objective. The aim of the research was to study sensityvity to antibiotics, antiseptics of P. aeruginosa clinical strains that cause infectious complications in patients with burns. Methods. Microbiological study of biological material, received from 435 patients with burns of the 3rd-4th stages (2011-2015 years. In early terms of burn disease 127 clinical strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from patients. Standard methods were used to identify clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa by their morphological, tinctirial, culture and biochemical properties. The research of antimicrobial action of antiseptics, antibiotics against Pseudomonas were carried out by means of standard methods according to the Directive of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine (No. 167 from 05.04.2007 р. and guidelines of National Committee of Clinical and Laboratory Study (NCCLS, 2002. Results. It was established that P. aeruginosa caused infectious complications in 23.9% of patients among other pathogens. Clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were found to be low sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanate (30.76%, ceftazidime (25.92%, cefoperazonum/sulbactam (46.15%, aztreonam (51.85%, tobramycin (38.46%, amicacin (70.34%, doxiciclini (26.92%, fluoroquinolones (59.26%. The analitical progistic criteria of decrease of sensitivity to ceftazidime, cefepim, meropenem and gatifloxacin were found in P. aeruginosa. This pathogen was determined to be sensitive to decasan ®, antimicrobial composition of decamethoxine ®, iodine pvidone. Conclusions. Clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, being highly resistant to antibiotics, are also very sensitive to antiseptics decasan ®, antimicrobial of decamethoxine®, povidone iodine.

  5. Adherence and factors related to acceptance of alcohol for antiseptic hand rubbing among nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Identify rates of adhesion and related factors to acceptance of an alcohol based preparation to hands antiseptic friction among nursing professionals in a unit of intensive therapy. METHOD A cross-sectional study, which involved direct observation of hand hygiene opportunities and nursing professionals’ completion of questionnaires, was conducted at a university hospital between January and July 2015. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed, with a 5% significance level. RESULTS It was observed 956 opportunities of hand hygiene among 46 nursing professionals. The rate of adhesion to alcohol-based handrub (ABH was 34.8% and about 87.0% preferred handwashing. Nurses used ABH more frequently than nursing technicians (p <0.001, and the report of feeling of clean hands after using the alcohol product was directly related to higher rates of adherence to antiseptic friction through observation (P <0.05. CONCLUSION The finding indicating low ABH usage highlights the need for greater institutional investment in strategies that help health professionals to recognize the advantages of this type of HH with respect to time spent, ease of access to dispensers, effectiveness in eliminating microorganisms, and maintaining skin moisturization.

  6. Comparing two polymeric biguanides: chemical distinction, antiseptic efficacy and cytotoxicity of polyaminopropyl biguanide and polyhexamethylene biguanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembe, Julian-Dario; Fromm-Dornieden, Carolin; Schäfer, Nadine; Böhm, Julia K; Stuermer, Ewa K

    2016-08-01

    In this study, polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB) was compared to the molecularly closely related polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) with respect to chemical relationship, antiseptic efficacy and cytotoxicity in vitro. Cytotoxicity for human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and murine fibroblasts (L929) was determined according to ISO EN 10993-5 for both substances. Antimicrobial efficacy tests were performed via determination of the MBC, quantitative suspension method for substances and investigation of two PAPB- or PHMB-containing dressings against Staphyloccoccus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, according to international standards. Prior mass spectrometry was performed for chemical differentiation of the investigated substances. PHMB showed high toxicity even in low concentrations for both tested cell lines and a high antimicrobial efficacy against S. aureus and E. coli. In the case of PAPB, no or only low cytotoxicity was detected after 72 h, whilst comparable antibacterial features are lacking, as PAPB showed no relevant antimicrobial effects. Even though chemically closely related, PAPB proved to be ineffective in bacterial eradication, whilst PHMB showed a high efficacy. The discovery and establishment of safe and effective alternative antiseptics are important issues for the treatment of infected wounds. In particular, rising bacterial resistances to established agents, as well as ongoing discussions of potential toxic or carcinogenic effects emphasize this necessity. Nevertheless, the presented results highlight that even small changes in the chemical structure of related agents such as PHMB and PAPB can dramatically affect their efficacy and, therefore, need to be carefully distinguished and assessed side by side.

  7. Controlled antiseptic/eosin release from chitosan-based hydrogel modified fibrous substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Ilaria; Ayadi, Farouk; Rizzello, Loris; Summa, Maria; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Brandi, Fernando; Bayer, Ilker S; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2015-10-20

    Fibers of cellulose networks were stably coated with N-methacrylate glycol chitosan (MGC) shells using subsequent steps of dip coating and photo-curing. The photo-crosslinked MGC-coated cellulose networks preserved their fibrous structure. A model hydrophilic antiseptic solution containing eosin, chloroxylenol and propylene glycol was incorporated into the shells to study the drug release dynamics. Detailed drug release mechanism into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutions from coated and pristine fibers loaded with the antiseptic was investigated. The results show that the MGC-coated cellulose fibers enable the controlled gradual release of the drug for four days, as opposed to fast, instantaneous release from eosin coated pristine fibers. This release behavior was found to affect the antibacterial efficiency of the fibrous cellulose sheets significantly against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. In the case of the MGC-eosin functionalized system the antibacterial efficiency was as high as 85% and 90%, respectively, while for the eosin coated pristine cellulose system the efficiency was negative, indicating bacterial proliferation. Furthermore, the MGC-eosin system was shown to be efficacious in a model of wound healing in mice, reducing the levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines that modulate early inflammatory phase responses. The results demonstrate good potential of these coated fibers for wound dressing and healing applications. Due to its easy application on common passive commercial fibrous dressings such as gauzes and cotton fibers, the method can render them active dressings in a cost effective way. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Detection of stain formation on teeth by oral antiseptic solution using fiber optic displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, H. A.; Rahim, H. R. A.; Harun, S. W.; Yasin, M.; Apsari, R.; Ahmad, H.; Wan Abas, W. A. B.

    2013-02-01

    The application of a simple intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor for the detection of stain formation on human teeth is demonstrated. The proposed sensor uses a concentric type bundled plastic optical fiber (POF) as a probe in conjunction with the surfaces of five human teeth as the reflecting targets. Prior to the experiment, the stains were produced extrinsically by soaking the teeth in different concentrations of oral antiseptic solution containing hexetidine. The concentration of the oral antiseptic solution is measured in volume%. For a concentration change from 0% to 80%, the peak voltage decreases exponentially from 1.15 mV to 0.41 mV with a measured resolution of 0.48% and 1.75% for concentration ranges of 0-40% and 40-80%, respectively. The correlation between the detector output and variation in the color of human tooth surface has successfully been examined. Simple in design and low in cost, this sensor can detect color changes due to hexetidine-induced stain on a tooth surface in a fast and convenient way. Thus, this sensor will be very promising in esthetic dentistry, dental color matching techniques, chemical and biomedical applications.

  9. Antiseptic wick: does it reduce the incidence of wound infection following appendectomy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGreal, Gerald T

    2012-02-03

    The role of prophylactic antibiotics is well established for contaminated wounds, but the use of antiseptic wound wicks is controversial. The aim of this work was to study the potential use of wound wicks to reduce the rate of infection following appendectomy. This prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at a university hospital in the department of surgery. The subjects were patients undergoing appendectomy for definite acute appendicitis. They were randomized by computer to primary subcuticular wound closure or use of an antiseptic wound wick. For the latter, ribbon gauze soaked in povidone-iodine was placed between interrupted nylon skin sutures. Wicks were soaked daily and removed on the fourth postoperative day. All patients received antibiotic prophylaxis. They were reviewed while in hospital and 4 weeks following operation for evidence of wound infection. The main outcome measures were wound infection, wound discomfort, and cosmetic result. The overall wound infection rate was 8.6% (15\\/174). In patients with wound wicks it was 11.6% (10\\/86) compared to 5.6% (5\\/88) in those whose wounds were closed by subcuticular sutures (p = NS). We concluded that the use of wound wicks was not associated with decreased wound infection rates following appendectomy. Subcuticular closure is therefore appropriate in view of its greater convenience and safety.

  10. Treating infected diabetic wounds with superoxidized water as anti-septic agent: a preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi, S.F.; Khaliq, T.; Zubair, M.; Saaiq, M.; Sikandar, I.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of superoxidized water (MicrocynTM) in diabetic patients with different wounds. One hundred known diabetic patients were enrolled. Half were randomized to the intervention group (those whose wounds were managed with superoxidized water) and half to the control group (whose wounds were treated with normal saline) using a table of random numbers. The two groups were matched for age, gender, duration of diabetes and category of wound. All patients received appropriate surgical treatment for their wounds as required. Local wound treatment was carried out daily using superoxidized water soaked gauzes on twice daily basis in the intervention group and normal saline in the control group. The treatment was continued until wound healing. The main outcome measures were duration of hospital stay, downgrading of the wound category, wound healing time and need for interventions such as amputation. Statistically significant differences were found in favour of the superoxidized water group with respect to duration of hospital stay, downgrading of the wound category and wound healing time. Although the initial results of employing superoxidized water for the management of infected diabetic wounds are encouraging, further multicentre clinical trials are warranted before this antiseptic is recommended for general use. It may offer an economical alternative to other expensive antiseptics with positive impact on the prevailing infection rates, patient outcomes and patient satisfaction. (author)

  11. Gastroprotective and blood pressure lowering effects of dietary nitrate are abolished by an antiseptic mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Joel; Carlström, Mattias; Schreiber, Olof; Phillipson, Mia; Christoffersson, Gustaf; Jägare, Annika; Roos, Stefan; Jansson, Emmelie A; Persson, A Erik G; Lundberg, Jon O; Holm, Lena

    2009-04-15

    Recently, it has been suggested that the supposedly inert nitrite anion is reduced in vivo to form bioactive nitric oxide with physiological and therapeutic implications in the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Intake of nitrate-rich food such as vegetables results in increased levels of circulating nitrite in a process suggested to involve nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity. Here we investigated the importance of the oral microflora and dietary nitrate in regulation of gastric mucosal defense and blood pressure. Rats were treated twice daily with a commercial antiseptic mouthwash while they were given nitrate-supplemented drinking water. The mouthwash greatly reduced the number of nitrate-reducing oral bacteria and as a consequence, nitrate-induced increases in gastric NO and circulating nitrite levels were markedly reduced. With the mouthwash the observed nitrate-induced increase in gastric mucus thickness was attenuated and the gastroprotective effect against an ulcerogenic compound was lost. Furthermore, the decrease in systemic blood pressure seen during nitrate supplementation was now absent. These results suggest that oral symbiotic bacteria modulate gastrointestinal and cardiovascular function via bioactivation of salivary nitrate. Excessive use of antiseptic mouthwashes may attenuate the bioactivity of dietary nitrate.

  12. Reduction of viable bacteria in dental aerosols by preprocedural rinsing with an antiseptic mouthrinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, D H; Furgang, D; Korik, I; Olshan, A; Barnett, M L; Vincent, J W

    1993-10-01

    Two double-blind controlled clinical studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of preprocedural rinsing with Cool Mint Listerine Antiseptic mouthrinse on the level of viable bacteria recovered from dental aerosols when generated immediately after and 40 minutes after rinsing. Eighteen healthy subjects participated in each study. In the first study, following a 24-hour no-oral-hygiene period, subjects received a 10-minute ultrasonic scaling of a randomly chosen half mouth, rinsed with either Cool Mint Listerine or a control, and received an ultrasonic scaling of the remaining half mouth. During each scaling period, aerosolized bacteria were collected on a sterile filter using a modified air-sampling device. The filters were overlaid on culture media, incubated aerobically, and colonies were counted. The second study followed the same basic design except that ultrasonic scaling was done for 5 minutes, and the post-rinsing sampling was performed following a 40-minute simulated dental treatment period. Rinsing with Cool Mint Listerine resulted in a 92.1% reduction in viable bacteria in aerosols generated immediately after rinsing and a 91.3% reduction in aerosols generated 40 minutes after rinsing. These reductions were significantly greater than control (P = 0.0001). These studies suggest that preprocedural rinsing with Cool Mint Listerine Antiseptic may potentially reduce the risk of cross contamination in the dental operatory.

  13. Inhibitory effects of antiseptic mouthrinses on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A; Leishman, S J; Walsh, L J; Seow, W K

    2015-06-01

    Oral antiseptics are valuable in controlling oral infections caused by cariogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mouthrinses and pure antiseptic compounds on Streptococcus mutans and non-mutans bacteria (Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus). The agar diffusion assay was employed to determine bacterial growth inhibition. Commercial mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.05%) and sodium fluoride (0.05%) produced statistically similar growth inhibition of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus (with zones of inhibition ranging from 7.56 ± 0.52 mm to 7.39 ± 0.53 mm, 17.44 ± 0.94 mm to 18.31 ± 0.62 mm and 8.61 ± 1.43 to 8.67 ± 1.43 mm respectively, p > 0.05). The chlorhexidine mouthwash produced the greatest mean growth inhibition of S. sanguinis and S. mutans compared to all other mouthrinses tested (p < 0.01). The minimum concentrations at which inhibition against S. mutans could be detected were chlorhexidine gluconate at 0.005% (wt/vol), cetylpyridinium chloride 0.01% (wt/ vol), povidone iodine 10% (wt/vol) and sodium hypochlorite 0.5% (vol/vol). Chlorhexidine (0.01%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.01%), povidone iodine (10%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.5%) are effective at inhibiting the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  14. Suprathel-acetic acid matrix versus acticoat and aquacel as an antiseptic dressing: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, Henning; Germann, Günter; Riedel, Katrin; Reichenberger, Matthias; Hellmich, Susanne; Kloeters, Oliver

    2010-10-01

    The treatment of burn wounds is still a challenge regarding the management of antiseptic wound conditioning. Especially, in the United States, silver-containing dressings, such as Acticoat and Aquacel are frequently used. Because silver-containing dressings have well-known drawbacks such as an antimicrobial lack against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we sought to develop an alternative dressing method. In previous studies, we could demonstrate the excellent antiseptic properties of acetic acid against common burn unit germs, and in another study, the feasibility and suitability of a Suprathel-acetic acid matrix as an antiseptic dressing. This study was designed to test the in vitro antimicrobial effect of a Suprathel-acetic acid matrix versus Acticoat and Aquacel. To cover the typical bacterial spectrum of a burn unit, the following Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria strains were tested: Escherichia coli, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The tests showed an excellent bactericidal effect of the Suprathel-acetic acid matrix particularly with problematic Gram-negative bacteria such as Proteus vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The efficiency was superior to that of Acicoat and Aquacel. Our results support the notion, that the Suprathel-acetic acid matrix has an excellent bactericidal effect and therefore seems to be suitable as a local antiseptic agent in the treatment of burn wounds.

  15. Irritancy of antiseptics tested by repeated open exposures on the human skin, evaluated by non-invasive methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; Schuur, J; Coenraads, PJ

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the irritancy of 6 antiseptics in an open exposure model. The following agents were tested in their normal use concentrations using open exposures, 2x daily for 4 days in 20 subjects: chlorhexidine 4% (CH), chlorhexidine 0.5% in ethanol 70% (CE), ethanol 70% (ET),

  16. Evaluation of bactericidal effect of three antiseptics on bacteria isolated from wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, D U A; Fernando, S S N; Kottahachchi, J; Dissanayake, D M B T; Athukorala, G I D D A D; Chandrasiri, N S; Damayanthi, K W N; Hemarathne, M H S L; Pathirana, A A

    2015-01-01

    Antiseptics are widely used in wound management to prevent or treat wound infections due to their proven wound healing properties regardless of their cytotoxicity. The objective of this study was to determine the bactericidal effects of three antiseptics on pathogens known to cause wound infections. The study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital and a university microbiology laboratory in Sri Lanka in 2013. The three acids (acetic acid, ascorbic acid and boric acid) in increasing concentration (0.5%, 0.75% and 1%) were tested against bacterial suspensions equivalent to 0.5 McFarland standard. The Bacteria isolates used were isolated from wound and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There were 33 (68.8%) Coliforms, 10 (20.8%) Pseudomonas species, and 5 (10.4%) strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Acetic acid at concentration of 0.5% inhibited growth of 37 (77%) and 42 (87.5%) of tested isolates when exposed for 30 and 60 minutes, respectively. However 100% inhibition was achieved at four hours. At a concentration of 0.75%, 40 (83.3%) and 44 (91.7%) were inhibited when exposed for 30 and 60 minutes, respectively, with 100% inhibition at 4 hours. At concentration of 1%, 46 (95.8%) inhibition was seen at 30 minutes and 100% inhibition at 60 minutes. Ascorbic acid, at 0.5% and 0.75 % concentrations, inhibited growth of 45(93.7%) and 47(97.9%) of isolates respectively when exposed for 30 minutes. At these two concentrations, 100% inhibition was achieved when exposed for one hour. At 1% concentration, 100% inhibition was achieved at 30 minutes. Boric acid did not show bactericidal effect at concentrations of 0.5%, 0.75 % and 1%. Pseudomonas species were inhibited at 30 minutes by 0.5% acetic acid. Bactericidal effect against all the standard strains was seen with three acids at each concentration tested from 30 minutes onwards Ascorbic acid was bactericidal for all organisms tested within the shortest exposure time

  17. Chlorhexidine Antiseptic Irrigation Eradicates Staphylococcus epidermidis From Biofilm: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kenneth; Estes, Chris; McLaren, Alex; Spangehl, Mark J

    2018-03-01

    Antiseptic and antibacterial solutions used for intraoperative irrigation are intended to kill bacteria and thereby decrease the incidence of surgical site infections. It is unknown if the concentrations and exposure times of irrigation solutions commonly used for prophylaxis in clean cases (povidone-iodine 0.35% for 3 minutes) are effective against bacteria in biofilm that are present in implant infections. Currently, povidone-iodine (0.35%), chlorhexidine (0.05%), sodium hypochlorite (0.125%), and triple antibacterial solution are all being used off-label for wound irrigation after surgical débridement for orthopaedic infections. Do commonly used antibacterials and antiseptics kill bacteria in established biofilm at clinically relevant concentrations and exposure times? Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC#35984) biofilms were exposed to chlorhexidine (0.025%, 0.05%, and 0.1%), povidone-iodine (0.35%, 1.0%, 3.5%, and 10%), sodium hypochlorite (0.125%, 0.25%, and 0.5%,), and triple antibacterial solution (bacitracin 50,000 U/L, gentamicin 80 mg/L, and polymyxin 500,000 U/L) for 1, 5, and 10 minutes in triplicate. Surviving bacteria were detected by 21-day subculture. Failure to eradicate all bacteria in any of the three replicates was considered to be "not effective" for that respective solution, concentration, and exposure time. Chlorhexidine 0.05% and 0.1% at all three exposure times, povidone-iodine 10% at all three exposure times, and povidone-iodine 3.5% at 10 minutes only were effective at eradicating S epidermidis from biofilm. All concentrations and all exposure times of sodium hypochlorite and triple antibacterial solution were not effective. Chlorhexidine is capable of eradicating S epidermidis from biofilm in vitro in clinically relevant concentrations and exposure times. Povidone-iodine at commonly used concentrations and exposure times, sodium hypochlorite, and triple antibacterial solutions are not. This in vitro study suggests that chlorhexidine may be

  18. Impact of Health Care Exposure on Genotypic Antiseptic Tolerance in Staphylococcus aureus Infections in a Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, J Chase; Hultén, Kristina G; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L

    2017-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus possessing either the smr gene or the qacA/B genes is associated with decreased susceptibility to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and other antiseptics. Previous studies of antiseptic-tolerant staphylococci have focused largely on high-risk populations, and the exact role of health care exposure in the acquisition of these organisms is unclear. We sought to describe the risk factors and features of infection caused by antiseptic-tolerant S. aureus in a general pediatric population. Isolates were selected from an ongoing S. aureus surveillance study. Every third sequential isolate in the year 2014 was selected for inclusion. All isolates underwent PCR for the genes qacA/B and smr Medical records were reviewed. Five hundred six isolates were included in the study, with 377 (74.3%) being community acquired. One hundred (19.8%) isolates were smr positive and 79 (15.6%) qacA/B positive. In univariable analyses, the presence of either gene was associated with underlying medical conditions, nosocomial acquisition, recent hospitalization, central venous lines, and CHG exposure. In multivariable analyses, only differences between patients with chronic medical conditions (odds ratio [OR] = 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22 to 2.64) and nosocomial acquisition (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.16 to 8.17) remained statistically significant. Among patients without risk factors, 27.9% had infection with an antiseptic-tolerant isolate. smr - or qacA/B -positive S. aureus isolates are common in children and are independently associated with nosocomial acquisition and underlying medical conditions. These findings imply a role for the health care environment in acquisition of these organisms. However, genotypic antiseptic tolerance was seen in >25% of healthy children with an S. aureus infection, indicating that these organism are prevalent in the community as well. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Eradication of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in burn wounds by antiseptic pulsed electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Broelsch, G. Felix; Vecchio, Daniela; Khan, Saiqa; Hamblin, Michael R.; Austen, William G.; Sheridan, Robert L.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging bacterial resistance to multiple drugs is an increasing problem in burn wound management. New non-pharmacologic interventions are needed for burn wound disinfection. Here we report on a novel physical method for disinfection: antiseptic pulsed electric field (PEF) applied externally to the infected burns. In a mice model, we show that PEF can reduce the load of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii present in a full thickness burn wound by more than four orders of magnitude, as detected by bioluminescence imaging. Furthermore, using a finite element numerical model, we demonstrate that PEF provides non-thermal, homogeneous, full thickness treatment for the burn wound, thus, overcoming the limitation of treatment depth for many topical antimicrobials. These modeling tools and our in vivo results will be extremely useful for further translation of the PEF technology to the clinical setting, as they provide the essential elements for planning of electrode design and treatment protocol. PMID:25089285

  20. Thermodynamic clarification of interaction between antiseptic compounds and lipids consisting of stratum corneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aki, Hatsumi; Kawasaki, Yuhsuke

    2004-01-01

    The interactions of antiseptic compounds with quaternary ammonium, such as benzalkonium chloride (BC), benzethonium chloride (BZC), dodecyldiaminoethyl-glycine hydrochloride (AEG), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), with components of the stratum corneum were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry at pH 7.5 and 25 deg. C. The different mechanisms for their permeation to stratum corneum were clarified. Cationic surfactants of BC and BZC bound to cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate with high affinity (10 5 -10 6 M -1 ) to extract endogenous cholesterol and its derivatives from the stratum corneum and penetrated via an intercellular route. CHG also bound to cholesterol and accumulated in the stratum corneum without removing endogenous cholesterol. On the other hand, an amphoteric surfactant of AEG seemed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer and bound to ceramide with its polar end close to the lipid polar heads by hydrophobic interaction

  1. Thermodynamic clarification of interaction between antiseptic compounds and lipids consisting of stratum corneum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, Hatsumi; Kawasaki, Yuhsuke

    2004-06-24

    The interactions of antiseptic compounds with quaternary ammonium, such as benzalkonium chloride (BC), benzethonium chloride (BZC), dodecyldiaminoethyl-glycine hydrochloride (AEG), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), with components of the stratum corneum were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry at pH 7.5 and 25 deg. C. The different mechanisms for their permeation to stratum corneum were clarified. Cationic surfactants of BC and BZC bound to cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate with high affinity (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sup -1}) to extract endogenous cholesterol and its derivatives from the stratum corneum and penetrated via an intercellular route. CHG also bound to cholesterol and accumulated in the stratum corneum without removing endogenous cholesterol. On the other hand, an amphoteric surfactant of AEG seemed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer and bound to ceramide with its polar end close to the lipid polar heads by hydrophobic interaction.

  2. No need for preoperative antiseptics in elective outpatient plastic surgical operations: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Hormozi, A J; Davami, Babak

    2005-08-01

    The development of antisepsis in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries revolutionized health care. The time-honored technique of skin preparation is to scrub the entire operative area of the patient for 5 to 7 minutes with a germicidal detergent solution and then paint the region with an antimicrobial solution of either tincture of povidone-iodine (Betadine) or chlorhexidine. Although antiseptics result in lower colony counts on the skin, they have side effects and higher cost in relation to normal saline. The authors have prepared patients by showering the surgical site with soap and water and rinsing it with normal saline, in 905 cases of outpatient, clean-wound plastic surgery. In another 905 cases that served as the control group, the traditional method of preoperative shower and scrub with chlorhexidine or Betadine was used. In both groups, there was no incidence of wound infection.

  3. Antiseptic resistance: what do we know and what does it mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Albert T

    2005-01-01

    Biocides (antiseptics, disinfectants, preservatives, sterilants) are used in clinical medicine as intervention strategies that prevent the dissemination of nosocomial pathogens. Biocides are also used for personal hygiene and to prevent cross-contamination of food-borne pathogens in homes, restaurants, day care centers, and nursing homes. However, laboratory evidence has emerged suggesting that the mechanism of nonsusceptibility to biocides may counter-select for resistance to antibiotics. Nature conserves successful survival strategies. Using existing mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics and their means of dissemination, microorganisms have adopted this same survival strategy for biocide nonsusceptibility. These mechanisms are intrinsic in nature or are acquired. The consequences to biocide efficacy in the clinical setting are probably not significant from the biocide perspective. But, the selective pressure biocides exert on bacterial populations that have mechanisms of resistance similar to those to antibiotics or that are also substrates for antibiotic resistance is of concern.

  4. [Effects of antiseptic on the analysis of greenhouse gases concentrations in lake water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qi-Tao; Hu, Zheng-Hu; James, Deng; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Shou-Dong; Li, Xu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into antiseptic effects on the concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O in lake water, antisepetic (CuSO4 and HgCl2) were added into water sample, and concentrations of greenhouse gases were measured by the gas chromatography based on water equilibrium method. Experiments were conducted as following: the control group without antisepetic (CK), the treatment group with 1 mL CuSO4 solution (T1), the treatment group with 5 mL CuSO4 solution (T2), and the treatment group with 0.5 mL HgCl2 solution (T3). All groups were divided into two batches: immediately analysis (I), and after 2 days analysis (II). Results showed that CuSO4 and HgCl2 significantly increased CO2 concentration, the mean CO2 concentration (Mco2) of CK (I) and CK (II) were (11.5 +/- 1.47) micromol x L(-1) and (14.38 +/- 1.59) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T1 (I) and T1 (II) were (376 +/- 70) micromol x L(-1) and (448 +/- 246.83) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T2 (I) and T2 (II) were (885 +/- 51.53) micromol x L(-1) and (988.83 +/- 101.96) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T3 (I) and T3 (II) were (287.19 +/- 30.01) micromol x L(-1) and (331.33 +/- 22.06) micromol x L(-1), respectively. The results also showed that there was no difference in CH4 and N2O concentrations among treatments. Water samples should be analyzed as soon as possible after pretreatment. Our findings suggest that adding antiseptic may lead an increase in CO2 concentration.

  5. Hygienic safety of alcohol-based hand disinfectants and skin antiseptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhauer, Katrin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall risk of hand disinfectants and skin antiseptics to become contaminated with bacterial spores throughout the production process and the subsequent in-use period, hence posing a public health risk. Methods: Microbiological assessment of primary packaging material was carried out and long-term survival of bacterial spores in alcohol was assessed using sporulated ATCC 6633 as a standard. In-use contamination of alcohol-based formulations was tested by repeated use over 12 months under practical conditions and microbiological and physico-chemical data were determined.Results: Among 625 containers analyzed, 542 did not yield any microbial growth. Median colony count for aerobic spore-forming bacteria was 0.2 cfu/10 ml container content. No anaerobic spore-forming bacteria were detected. Additionally, long-term survival of bacterial spores in aliphatic C2–C3 alcohols revealed 1-propanol to reduce the number of spores most effectively, with 2-propanol and ethanol having a somewhat less pronounced impact. In-use tests did not detect any microbial contamination or change in the physicochemical properties of the tested products over 12 months. Conclusions: Our data reveals that state-of-the-art production processes of alcohol-based hand rubs and antiseptics can be regarded safe. Primary packaging material and use were not found to pose a significant contamination risk as far as bacterial spores are concerned. Based on the data from this study, a microbial limit of <1 cfu/10 ml can be suggested as a quality-control threshold for finished goods to ensure high quality and safe products.

  6. Evaluating the Effectivenes of Antiseptic Solution Decasan in Treatment of Necrotic Soft Tisue Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Julia; Palii, Victor; Voloboyeva, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Sepsis is a severe generalised infection caused usually by pathogenic bacteria. It is often the cause of hospitalization and death in patients treated in intensive care and other hospital wards. Latest research brought to better understanding of patomechanisms, took place significant development of therapy heading to improvement of general patients condition treated as a basis and additionally supported by local therapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using the solution Decasan in the comprehensive treatment of patients necrosis of soft tissues. The study included 192 patients (W/M 103/89; average -aged 53.35 ± 5.36 years). According to the classification of septic states (Chicago, 1991), patients were divided into three groups: first - patients to the local form of the infection, the second - with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), which lasted up to 72 hours and the third - patients with various forms of sepsis, SIRS in which lasted 72 hours. As a result of our studies carried out in patients where the wound was made decontamination solution Decasanu, received: pain reduction, decrease tissue swelling, early debridement of the wound and the appearance in the wound granulation, to reduce delays wound healing. Proposed algorithms treatment of various forms of sepsis, pointed out the essential elements, ie.: a comprehensive approach to the treatment of infection by early surgical intervention, intensive supportive therapy (fluid resuscitation), antibiotic therapy directed to microorganisms that cause infections and topical antiseptics therapy (solution Decasanu). The preparation antiseptic Decasan can be safely used for disinfection of skin, mucous membranes and wounds in the foci of infections caused by bacteria, fungi and protozoa.

  7. Cetylpyridinium chloride and miramistin as antiseptic substances in chronic wound management - prospects and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm-Dornieden, Carolin; Rembe, Julian-Dario; Schäfer, Nadine; Böhm, Julia; Stuermer, Ewa K

    2015-04-01

    The antimicrobial activity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and miramistin (MST) solutions at different concentrations (5×10(-5) to 0.4%) and a dressing, containing 0.15% CPC, were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli after 30 (solutions) and 60 min (fleece) incubation, respectively. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effects of CPC and MST were examined in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and murine fibroblast (L929) cell lines. A dose of 3×10(-3)% CPC or MST was sufficient to entirely eradicate S. aureus after 30 min incubation. To achieve the same effect, higher concentrations were required against E. coli (0.025% CPC; 0.0125% MST) and P. aeruginosa (0.5% CPC; 0.05% MST). The CPC-fleece showed a high antiseptic effect against all three bacterial strains, although it did not completely eliminate P. aeruginosa. Both substances showed a high cytotoxic impact at higher tested concentrations (CPC >3×10(-3)%; MST >8×10(-4)%). CPC showed high antimicrobial potency at low concentrations against S. aureus, accompanied by low cytotoxic (side) effects at these concentrations, whilst the required minimal concentration to eradicate E. coli and P. aeruginosa was shown to be cytotoxic for keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The necessary antibacterial amounts of MST were lower, but also cytotoxic in direct contact with typical human wound cells. With regard to demographic changes and increasing bacterial resistance, new effective antiseptics, such as CPC and MST, incorporated in wound dressings without releasing an active substance could help to improve the treatment and healing rates of chronic wounds. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. Effects of Antiseptic Solutions Commonly Used in Dentistry on Bone Viability, Bone Morphology, and Release of Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kosaku; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Schaller, Benoit; Miron, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Antiseptic solutions are commonly used in dentistry for a number of sterilization procedures, including harvesting of bone chips, irrigation of extraction sockets, and sterilization of osteonecrotic bone. Despite its widespread use, little information is available regarding the effects of various antiseptic solutions on bone cell viability, morphology, and the release of growth factors. The antiseptic solutions included 1) 0.5% povidone iodine (PI), 2) 0.2% chlorhexidine diguluconate (CHX), 3) 1% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 4) 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (HYP). Bone samples collected from porcine mandibular cortical bone were rinsed in the antiseptic solutions for 10 minutes and assessed for cell viability using an MTS assay and protein release of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1β, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing. After antiseptic rinsing, changes to the surface protein content showed marked alterations, with an abundant protein layer remaining on CHX-rinsed bone samples. The amount of surface protein content gradually decreased in the following order: CHX, H2O2, PI, and HYP. A similar trend was also observed for the relative cell viability from within bone samples after rinsing, with up to 6 times more viable cells found in the CHX-rinsed bone samples than in the HYP- and PI-rinsed samples. An analysis of the growth factors found that both HYP and PI had significantly lower VEGF and TGF-β1 protein release from bone samples at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing compared with CHX and H2O2. A similar trend was observed for RANKL and IL-1β protein release, although no change was observed for BMP2. The results from the present study have demonstrated that antiseptic solutions present with very different effects on bone samples after 10 minutes of

  9. In vitro evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates to antiseptics and disinfectants: comparison between clinical and environmental isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Lanjri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to assess the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates to the antiseptics and disinfectants commonly used, and to the non-approved product. Methods This is a prospective study carried out from February to August 2015, in the Bacteriology department of Mohammed V Military Teaching hospital of Rabat on A.baumannii isolates collected from colonized and/or infected patients and environmental samples. The antiseptics and disinfectants susceptibility testing was assessed using the micromethod validated in our department. The antiseptics and disinfectants studied were: 70% ethyl alcohol, chlorhexidine, povidone-iodine, didecyldimethylammonium chloride and a commercial product which was presented as a hospital disinfectant (non-registered product. Results Povidone-iodine, 0.5% chlorhexidine digluconate, 70% ethyl alcohol and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride in combination with N- (3-aminopropyl -N-dodecylpropane-1, 3-diamine were effective against all the 81 A.baumannii isolates tested, and their logarithmic reduction ≥ 5 were observed in 100% of the isolates in their undiluted form. The strains isolated from patients were more resistant than environmental strains: at a dilution of ½ for 70% ethyl alcohol (37.77% vs 11.11%, p = 0.007 and at a dilution of 1/10 (100% vs 69.44%, p < 0.001 for povidone iodine. The non-registered product was ineffective with a resistance rate of 96.29% at a dilution of 1/50, 45.67% at a dilution of 1/10 and 13.58% in its purest form. Conclusion Our study revealed the effectiveness of the main disinfectants and antiseptics used in Morocco; three antiseptics tested were effective in their purest form against the 81 A.baumannii isolates. Regarding disinfectants, our results showed an efficacy of didecyl dimethyl ammonium at the recommended use concentration and in its purest form. This study emphasizes the need for using disinfectants and antiseptics in dilutions

  10. In vitro evaluation of the susceptibility ofAcinetobacter baumanniiisolates to antiseptics and disinfectants: comparison between clinical and environmental isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjri, Sanae; Uwingabiye, Jean; Frikh, Mohammed; Abdellatifi, Lina; Kasouati, Jalal; Maleb, Adil; Bait, Abdelouahed; Lemnouer, Abdelhay; Elouennass, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to assess the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates to the antiseptics and disinfectants commonly used, and to the non-approved product. This is a prospective study carried out from February to August 2015, in the Bacteriology department of Mohammed V Military Teaching hospital of Rabat on A.baumannii isolates collected from colonized and/or infected patients and environmental samples. The antiseptics and disinfectants susceptibility testing was assessed using the micromethod validated in our department. The antiseptics and disinfectants studied were: 70% ethyl alcohol, chlorhexidine, povidone-iodine, didecyldimethylammonium chloride and a commercial product which was presented as a hospital disinfectant (non-registered product). Povidone-iodine, 0.5% chlorhexidine digluconate, 70% ethyl alcohol and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride in combination with N- (3-aminopropyl) -N-dodecylpropane-1, 3-diamine were effective against all the 81 A.baumannii isolates tested, and their logarithmic reduction ≥ 5 were observed in 100% of the isolates in their undiluted form. The strains isolated from patients were more resistant than environmental strains: at a dilution of ½ for 70% ethyl alcohol (37.77% vs 11.11%, p  = 0.007) and at a dilution of 1/10 (100% vs 69.44%, p  < 0.001) for povidone iodine. The non-registered product was ineffective with a resistance rate of 96.29% at a dilution of 1/50, 45.67% at a dilution of 1/10 and 13.58% in its purest form. Our study revealed the effectiveness of the main disinfectants and antiseptics used in Morocco; three antiseptics tested were effective in their purest form against the 81 A.baumannii isolates. Regarding disinfectants, our results showed an efficacy of didecyl dimethyl ammonium at the recommended use concentration and in its purest form. This study emphasizes the need for using disinfectants and antiseptics in dilutions recommended by the manufacturer because the insufficient

  11. Skin preparation with alcohol versus alcohol followed by any antiseptic for preventing bacteraemia or contamination of blood for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Foxlee, Ruth

    2015-02-12

    Blood for transfusion may become contaminated at any point between collection and transfusion and may result in bacteraemia (the presence of bacteria in the blood), severe illness or even death for the blood recipient. Donor arm skin is one potential source of blood contamination, so it is usual to cleanse the skin with an antiseptic before blood donation. One-step and two-step alcohol based antiseptic regimens are both commonly advocated but there is uncertainty as to which is most effective. To assess the effects of cleansing the skin of blood donors with alcohol in a one-step compared with alcohol in a two-step procedure to prevent contamination of collected blood or bacteraemia in the recipient. In December 2014, for this third update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), The Cochrane Library; Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. All randomised trials (RCTs) comparing alcohol based donor skin cleansing in a one-step versus a two-step process that includes alcohol and any other antiseptic for pre-venepuncture skin cleansing were considered. Quasi randomised trials were to have been considered in the absence of RCTs. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion. No studies (RCTs or quasi RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. We did not identify any eligible studies for inclusion in this review. It is therefore unclear whether a two-step, alcohol followed by antiseptic skin cleansing process prior to blood donation confers any reduction in the risk of blood contamination or bacteraemia in blood recipients, or conversely whether a one-step process increases risk above that associated with a two-step process.

  12. Evaluation of the tissue toxicity of antiseptics by the hen's egg test on the chorioallantoic membrane (HETCAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Antiseptics are frequently used for the prophylaxis and treatment of local infections of chronic wounds. Whereas local antiseptics in general have a positive effect on wound healing an uncritical use may impair wound healing due to toxic side effects. Objective We sought to assess the vascular irritation potential of different antiseptic solutions and ointments commonly used for short and long term application as a measure of tissue toxicity. Method The vascular irritation was evaluated by the hen's egg test (HET) on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The effects on the vessels of a mucous membrane were directly assessed by stereomicroscopic observation in vivo. Results Severe CAM irritation was observed after short-term applications of 1% octenidin-2HCl (Octeni sept™), 72% isopropanol (Cutasept™), 0.35% chloroxylenol (Dettol™) and 10% PVP-I ointment (Betaisodona™). Medium irritations were observed for 10% PVP-I solution (Betaisodona™), 3% lysosomal PVP-I ointment (Repithel™), 1.8% cadexomer-iodine ointment (Iodosorb™) and 1% cadexomer-iodine pellets (Iodosorb™). Finally, slight irritations were observed for 1% PVP-I solution (Betaisodona™), 0.1% polyhexanid plus betain (Prontosan™) and 1% silver-sulfadiazine ointment (Flammazine™), whereas 0.04% polyhexanid solution (Lavanid™), washings from sterile maggots of Lucilia sericata and filtrated enzymes from Clostridium histolyticum (Iruxol-N™) showed no effects of irritation. In the long-term approaches, no vascular irritations were found for polyhexanid, washings from Lucilia sericata and enzyme filtrations from Clostridium histolyticum. Conclusion The vascular injuries caused by the studied antiseptics are an indirect indicator of their tissue toxicity. Strikingly, even therapeutic substances, which have been regarded as safe in their application for the treatment of chronic wounds in clinical studies, showed severe irritations on the CAM. We suggest that agents with no or low

  13. Antiseptic barrier cap effective in reducing central line-associated bloodstream infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voor In 't Holt, Anne F; Helder, Onno K; Vos, Margreet C; Schafthuizen, Laura; Sülz, Sandra; van den Hoogen, Agnes; Ista, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Microorganisms can intraluminally access a central venous catheter via the catheter hub. The catheter hub should be appropriately disinfected to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). However, compliance with the time-consuming manual disinfection process is low. An alternative is the use of an antiseptic barrier cap, which cleans the catheter hub by continuous passive disinfection. To compare the effects of antiseptic barrier cap use and manual disinfection on the incidence of CLABSIs. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We systematically searched Embase, Medline Ovid, Web-of-science, CINAHL EBSCO, Cochrane Library, PubMed Publisher and Google Scholar until May 10, 2016. The primary outcome, reduction in CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days, expressed as an incidence rate ratio (IRR), was analyzed with a random effects meta-analysis. Studies were included if 1) conducted in a hospital setting, 2) used antiseptic barrier caps on hubs of central lines with access to the bloodstream and 3) reported the number of CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days when using the barrier cap and when using manual disinfection. A total of 1537 articles were identified as potentially relevant and after exclusion of duplicates, 953 articles were screened based on title and abstract; 18 articles were read full text. Eventually, nine studies were included in the systematic review, and seven of these nine in the random effects meta-analysis. The pooled IRR showed that use of the antiseptic barrier cap was effective in reducing CLABSIs (IRR=0.59, 95% CI=0.45-0.77, Pantiseptic barrier cap is associated with a lower incidence CLABSIs and is an intervention worth adding to central-line maintenance bundles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antiseptic solutions modulate the paracrine-like activity of bone chips: differential impact of chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kosaku; Caballé-Serrano, Jordi; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Schaller, Benoit; Miron, Richard J; Buser, Daniel; Gruber, Reinhard

    2015-09-01

    Chemical decontamination increases the availability of bone grafts; however, it remains unclear whether antiseptic processing changes the biological activity of bone. Bone chips were incubated with four different antiseptic solutions including (1) povidone-iodine (0.5%), (2) chlorhexidine diguluconate (0.2%), (3) hydrogen peroxide (1%) and (4) sodium hypochlorite (0.25%). After 10 min. of incubation, changes in the capacity of the bone-conditioned medium (BCM) to modulate gene expression of gingival fibroblasts was investigated. Conditioned medium obtained from freshly prepared bone chips increased the expression of TGF-β target genes interleukin 11 (IL11), proteoglycan4 (PRG4), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and decreased the expression of adrenomedullin (ADM), and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in gingival fibroblasts. Incubation of bone chips with 0.2% chlorhexidine, followed by vigorously washing resulted in a BCM with even higher expression of IL11, PRG4 and NOX4. These findings were also detected with a decrease in cell viability and an activation of apoptosis signalling. Chlorhexidine alone, at low concentrations, increased IL11, PRG4 and NOX4 expression, independent of the TGF-β receptor I kinase activity. In contrast, 0.25% sodium hypochlorite almost entirely abolished the activity of BCM, whereas the other two antiseptic solutions, 1% hydrogen peroxide and 0.5% povidone-iodine, had relatively no impact respectively. These in vitro findings demonstrate that incubation of bone chips with chlorhexidine differentially affects the activity of the respective BCM compared to the other antiseptic solutions. The data further suggest that the main effects are caused by chlorhexidine remaining in the BCM after repeated washing of the bone chips. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of the tissue toxicity of antiseptics by the hen's egg test on the chorioallantoic membrane (HETCAM

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    Marquardt C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiseptics are frequently used for the prophylaxis and treatment of local infections of chronic wounds. Whereas local antiseptics in general have a positive effect on wound healing an uncritical use may impair wound healing due to toxic side effects. Objective We sought to assess the vascular irritation potential of different antiseptic solutions and ointments commonly used for short and long term application as a measure of tissue toxicity. Method The vascular irritation was evaluated by the hen's egg test (HET on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM. The effects on the vessels of a mucous membrane were directly assessed by stereomicroscopic observation in vivo. Results Severe CAM irritation was observed after short-term applications of 1% octenidin-2HCl (Octeni sept™, 72% isopropanol (Cutasept™, 0.35% chloroxylenol (Dettol™ and 10% PVP-I ointment (Betaisodona™. Medium irritations were observed for 10% PVP-I solution (Betaisodona™, 3% lysosomal PVP-I ointment (Repithel™, 1.8% cadexomer-iodine ointment (Iodosorb™ and 1% cadexomer-iodine pellets (Iodosorb™. Finally, slight irritations were observed for 1% PVP-I solution (Betaisodona™, 0.1% polyhexanid plus betain (Prontosan™ and 1% silver-sulfadiazine ointment (Flammazine™, whereas 0.04% polyhexanid solution (Lavanid™, washings from sterile maggots of Lucilia sericata and filtrated enzymes from Clostridium histolyticum (Iruxol-N™ showed no effects of irritation. In the long-term approaches, no vascular irritations were found for polyhexanid, washings from Lucilia sericata and enzyme filtrations from Clostridium histolyticum. Conclusion The vascular injuries caused by the studied antiseptics are an indirect indicator of their tissue toxicity. Strikingly, even therapeutic substances, which have been regarded as safe in their application for the treatment of chronic wounds in clinical studies, showed severe irritations on the CAM. We suggest that agents

  16. Human Coronaviruses: Insights into Environmental Resistance and Its Influence on the Development of New Antiseptic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E.

    2012-01-01

    environment and the efficacy of well-known antiseptic-disinfectants against them, with particular focus on the development of new methodologies to evaluate the activity of new antiseptic-disinfectants on viruses. PMID:23202515

  17. Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E

    2012-11-12

    environment and the efficacy of well-known antiseptic-disinfectants against them, with particular focus on the development of new methodologies to evaluate the activity of new antiseptic-disinfectants on viruses.

  18. Vaginal preparation with antiseptic solution before cesarean section for preventing postoperative infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, David M; Morgan, Sarah; Contreras, Karenrose

    2014-12-21

    Cesarean delivery is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by obstetricians. Infectious morbidity after cesarean delivery can have a tremendous impact on the postpartum woman's return to normal function and her ability to care for her baby. Despite the widespread use of prophylactic antibiotics, postoperative infectious morbidity still complicates cesarean deliveries. To determine if cleansing the vagina with an antiseptic solution before a cesarean delivery decreases the risk of maternal infectious morbidities, including endometritis and wound complications. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (10 December 2014). We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials assessing the impact of vaginal cleansing immediately before cesarean delivery with any type of antiseptic solution versus a placebo solution/standard of care on post-cesarean infectious morbidity. We independently assessed eligibility and quality of the studies. Seven trials randomizing 2816 women (2635 analyzed) evaluated the effects of vaginal cleansing (all with povidone-iodine) on post-cesarean infectious morbidity. The risk of bias was generally low, with the quality of most of the studies being high. Vaginal preparation immediately before cesarean delivery significantly reduced the incidence of post-cesarean endometritis from 8.3% in control groups to 4.3% in vaginal cleansing groups (average risk ratio (RR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25 to 0.81, seven trials, 2635 women). The risk reduction was particularly strong for women who were already in labor at the time of the cesarean delivery (7.4% in the vaginal cleansing group versus 13.0% in the control group; RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.95, three trials, 523 women) and for women with ruptured membranes (4.3% in the vaginal cleansing group versus 17.9% in the control group; RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.55, three trials, 272 women). No other outcomes realized statistically significant

  19. Comparative antibacterial activity of topical antiseptic eardrops against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Cha Kyung; Jang, Sook-Jin; Jo, Eu-Ri; Choi, Ji Ae; Sim, Ju-Hwan; Cho, Sung Il

    2016-06-01

    Aural irrigation using antiseptic solutions can be an effective medical treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) owing to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant CSOM infections. In the present study, we compared the antimicrobial activities of 100% Burow's solution, 50% Burow's solution, 2% acetic acid, vinegar with water (1:1), and 4% boric acid solution against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (QRPA), and quinolone-susceptible P. aeruginosa (QSPA) in vitro. We examined the antimicrobial activities of five antiseptic solutions against MRSA, MSSA, QRPA, and QSPA. The antimicrobial activities of the solutions were calculated as a percentage of the surviving microorganisms by dividing the viable count in each antiseptic solution with that in control. The time (D10 value) required for each of the five solutions to inactivate 90% of the microorganism population was also investigated. Burow's solution exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity and the lowest D10 value against MRSA, MSSA, QRPA, and QSPA, followed by 2% acetic acid, vinegar with water (1:1), and 4% boric acid solution. Our results indicate that Burow's solution has the most potent activity against bacteria including antibiotic-resistant strains. Twofold dilution of the solution is recommended to avoid ototoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [The effect of two different oral antiseptics on dental plaque formation (de novo biofilm) and on gingival inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelić, Obrad; Cakić, Sasa; Luković, Natalija

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery that periodontal diseases are caused by microbial plaque the interest of many scientists has been focused on oral antiseptics. There are very few mouthrinses with oral antiseptic effect originally designed in our country. One of these is Ozosept solution. This study evaluated the effect of Ozosept solution (phenol compound) on the oral hygiene and gingival inflammation, in comparison with Hibidex DAP solution (chlorhexidine digluconate). Two groups, each of 21 persons, which did not significantly differ concerning Silness-Löe plaque index (PI) and Löe-Sillnes gingival index (GI), used one of the studied oral antiseptic for a 15-day period. Oral hygiene was maintained by subjects' habitual home methods, and no technique of professionally advised brushing was performed during the experimental period. At the end of the study, PI and GI scores were lowered to a statistically high significance in both groups of participants in comparison to the indexes at the beginning of the study. At the end of the study, PI and GI scores did not significantly differ between the two analyzed groups. No side effects, which were recorded in the Hibidex DAP group (tooth and filling staining 9.5% and 4.74% respectively, transitory tongue numbness 28.6% and reduced taste sensation 14.3%), were registered in the group of subjects using Ozosept solution. It is concluded that Ozosept solution is effective in the control of dental plaque--biofilm accumulation and gingival inflammation, and produces no side effects related to chlorhexidine digluconate usage.

  1. Efficacy and dermal tolerance of a novel alcohol-based skin antiseptic in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannahill, Victoria J; Cogan, Tristan; Allen, Kate; Acutt, Elizabeth; Busschers, Evita

    2018-04-14

    To determine the efficacy and dermal tolerance of a novel alcohol-based skin antiseptic (ABSA) in horses. Experimental study. Systemically healthy horses (n = 25) with no history or clinical signs of skin disease. Four clipped sites on the abdomen were randomly assigned to a skin preparation protocol: saline (negative control; NC), chlorhexidine gluconate followed by isopropyl alcohol (positive control; PC), saline followed by the ABSA (ABSA A), or a commercially available horse shampoo followed by the ABSA (ABSA B). Microbiological swabs were obtained from each site and cultured on MacConkey and mannitol salt agar plates. Colony-forming units were counted 18-24 hours later. All sites were scored for signs of skin reaction before, immediately after, 1 hour after, and 24 hours after skin preparation. The PC, ABSA A, and ABSA B methods reduced skin microbial burden compared with the NC method (P horses required veterinary treatment. The ABSA preparations tested in this study were as effective and well tolerated as a chlorhexidine gluconate-based method, but required less time in healthy horses. The ABSA tested here provides an efficacious, fast-acting, and well-tolerated alternative to achieve skin antisepsis in healthy horses. These results justify further investigation in clinical cases. © 2018 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. Comparison of local metronidazole and a local antiseptic in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakov Mikic, Aleksandra; Budakov, Dragan

    2010-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a mixed flora of pathogenic anaerobic bacteria and associated with risks of pathologic conditions. In the present study, therapy with a local antiseptic spray (octenidine hydrochloride/phenoxyethanol, OHP) for 7 or 14 days is compared against the standard local therapy of BV (metronidazole) in a Serbian patient population. As much as 450 women were treated in groups with either 7 days metronidazole vaginal tablets, 7 days OHP, or 14 days OHP. Control smears were taken after each treatment period. In total, 63.2% of the women were without indications of BV after therapy (metronidazole: 61.0%, OHP 7 days: 57.6%, and OHP 14 days: 71.0%). Significantly fewer women were affected from infections after treatment with 14 days OHP compared to OHP for 7 days. Octenidine hydrochloride/phenoxyethanol spray was as effective as the standard therapy with metronidazole. Patients stated that OHP was more comfortable, easier to apply, and side effects were lesser.

  3. An antiseptic religion: discovering a hybridity on the flux of hygiene and Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin K

    2008-06-01

    An antiseptic religion is a form of Protestant Christianity that was shaped in the context of colonization in Korea. This term was coined to explain a religious hybrid that was produced by the intermingling of American Evangelical Protestant Christianity, the concept of hygiene (germ theory) and indigenous Korean religiosity. This research deals with a historical process of making 'a medicalized religion' in Asia from a perspective of postcolonialism. Most of the early American Protestant missionaries in Korea were medical doctors who were influenced by the Germ theory of illness and considered Western medicine as an efficient tool to evangelize the country. As a result of their mission, a religious culture which emphasized washing away sins from the soul as analogous to washing away germs from the body was born. In addition, the Korean people developed a very unique form of public bathing ritual centered in the development of public baths to alleviate anxiety and to destabilize the solid strategies of the Japanese and the Americans, the two major colonial powers in Korea's history in the late 19th century.

  4. SENSITIVITY TO ANTIBIOTICS, ANTISEPTICAL NOSOCOMIAL PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA, ISOLATED IN UROLOGICAL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymsha E.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Given the active introduction into clinical practice of new groups of antibiotics and antiseptics, the problem of treatment of purulent-inflammatory complications after prostatectomy and today is relevant. Of particular concern belated cases of diagnosis and treatment of postoperative complications in urological practice patients receiving antibiotic therapy The use of traditional antibiotics is not prevents the development of infection, because the problem of resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics and antiseptics remains relevant. The solution to the problem of development of infectious complications and prevent the formation of resistant clinical strains largely depends on the isolated pathogen, susceptibility to antimicrobial agents based on its bioavailability , ability to spread and penetrate into cells and tissues, selection of dose, interval, and route of administration to maintain minimum bactericidal concentration Material and methods. The study involved 145 patients who were treated in the urology Department of the Vinnytsia regional clinical hospital named of M. I. Pirogov. Patients underwent the surgical treatment of benign hypertrophic prostate. Material for bacteriological studies of purulent-inflammatory diseases were urine, pieces of the prostate, remote operationally, urinary catheters, through which conducted irrigation of the bladder. Specimen collection, transportation was carried out in accordance with modern requirements. Identification was done by morphological, cultural and biochemical properties. The definition of antibiotic resistance were performed according to "guidelines for the definition of sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics by the method of diffusion in agar using discs" (No. 2675-83, Kiev, 2007 12 .]. Evaluation of the results of determining the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics was carried out on the basis of the determination of the zone of growth (mm of the studied

  5. Surgical, antiseptic, and antibiotic practice in cataract surgery: Results from the European Observatory in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behndig, Anders; Cochener-Lamard, Beatrice; Güell, José; Kodjikian, Laurent; Mencucci, Rita; Nuijts, Rudy; Pleyer, Uwe; Rosen, Paul; Szaflik, Jacek; Tassignon, Marie-Jose

    2015-12-01

    To report the results from the first iteration of the European Observatory of Cataract Surgery, which was initiated to track changes in surgical, antiseptic, and antibiotic practices in cataract surgery over the coming years. Practicing European cataract surgeons (n = 479). Internet-based declarative questionnaire or telephone questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised 37 questions divided into 8 categories as follows: screening, surgeon profile, surgical procedure used, product use before arrival at the operating room, techniques for mydriasis and anesthesia, product use during the surgery, product use after the patient leaves the operating room, and surgeon's attitude to guidelines. Cataract surgeons (n = 2700) were initially contacted, of whom 479 (17.7%) were included in the survey. The current baseline survey revealed considerable variation between countries in their implementation of infectious postoperative endophthalmitis (IPOE) prophylaxis. In some countries, adoption of intracameral cefuroxime is almost universal, whereas in others, the use of such prophylaxis is below one half. When intracameral cefuroxime is used, it is generally cefuroxime powder designed for parenteral use. A preparation specifically registered for intracameral use is now available, and this formulation is more commonly used in countries in which intracameral cefuroxime was most widely adopted. The baseline results from this ongoing survey suggest a considerable level of heterogeneity between European countries in IPOE prophylaxis. Further iterations of this survey will monitor whether a consensus begins to emerge. This work was supported by Laboratoires Théa, under the supervision of the expert group. Members of the expert group were remunerated by Laboratoires Théa. J.F. Stolz, MD, PhD, provided editorial assistance in manuscript preparation, for which he was remunerated by Laboratoires Théa. Anders Behndig, Rita Mencucci, and Jacek P. Szaflik report no relevant conflicts of

  6. Bactericidal Effects and Mechanism of Action of Olanexidine Gluconate, a New Antiseptic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Koushi; Nii, Takuya; Nakata, Hikaru; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Inoue, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Olanexidine gluconate [1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate] (development code OPB-2045G) is a new monobiguanide compound with bactericidal activity. In this study, we assessed its spectrum of bactericidal activity and mechanism of action. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of the compound for 30-, 60-, and 180-s exposures were determined with the microdilution method using a neutralizer against 320 bacterial strains from culture collections and clinical isolates. Based on the results, the estimated bactericidal olanexidine concentrations with 180-s exposures were 869 μg/ml for Gram-positive cocci (155 strains), 109 μg/ml for Gram-positive bacilli (29 strains), and 434 μg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria (136 strains). Olanexidine was active against a wide range of bacteria, especially Gram-positive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and had a spectrum of bactericidal activity comparable to that of commercial antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine. In vitro experiments exploring its mechanism of action indicated that olanexidine (i) interacts with the bacterial surface molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid, (ii) disrupts the cell membranes of liposomes, which are artificial bacterial membrane models, (iii) enhances the membrane permeability of Escherichia coli, (iv) disrupts the membrane integrity of S. aureus, and (v) denatures proteins at relatively high concentrations (≥160 μg/ml). These results indicate that olanexidine probably binds to the cell membrane, disrupts membrane integrity, and its bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects are caused by irreversible leakage of intracellular components. At relatively high concentrations, olanexidine aggregates cells by denaturing proteins. This mechanism differs slightly from that of a similar biguanide compound, chlorhexidine. PMID:25987609

  7. Effect of antiseptic irrigation on infection rates of traumatic soft tissue wounds: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B; Neuenschwander, R; Brill, F; Wurmitzer, F; Wegner, C; Assadian, O; Kramer, A

    2017-03-02

    Acute traumatic wounds are contaminated with bacteria and therefore an infection risk. Antiseptic wound irrigation before surgical intervention is routinely performed for contaminated wounds. However, a broad variety of different irrigation solutions are in use. The aim of this retrospective, non-randomised, controlled longitudinal cohort study was to assess the preventive effect of four different irrigation solutions before surgical treatment, on wound infection in traumatic soft tissue wounds. Over a period of three decades, the prophylactic application of wound irrigation was studied in patients with contaminated traumatic wounds requiring surgical treatment, with or without primary wound closure. The main outcome measure was development of wound infection. From 1974-1983, either 0.04 % polihexanide (PHMB), 1 % povidone-iodine (PVP-I), 4 % hydrogen peroxide, or undiluted Ringer's solution were concurrently in use. From 1984-1996, only 0.04 % PHMB or 1 % PVP-I were applied. From 1997, 0.04 % PHMB was used until the end of the study period in 2005. The combined rate for superficial and deep wound infection was 1.7 % in the 0.04 % PHMB group (n=3264), 4.8 % in the 1 % PVP-I group (n=2552), 5.9 % in the Ringer's group (n=645), and 11.7 % in the 4 % hydrogen peroxide group (n=643). Compared with all other treatment arms, PHMB showed the highest efficacy in preventing infection in traumatic soft tissue wounds (p<0.001). However, compared with PVP-I, the difference was only significant for superficial infections. The large patient numbers in this study demonstrated a robust superiority of 0.04 % PHMB to prevent infection in traumatic soft tissue wounds. These retrospective results may further provide important information as the basis for power calculations for the urgently needed prospective clinical trials in the evolving field of wound antisepsis.

  8. Bactericidal Effects and Mechanism of Action of Olanexidine Gluconate, a New Antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagi, Akifumi; Iwata, Koushi; Nii, Takuya; Nakata, Hikaru; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Inoue, Yasuhide

    2015-08-01

    Olanexidine gluconate [1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate] (development code OPB-2045G) is a new monobiguanide compound with bactericidal activity. In this study, we assessed its spectrum of bactericidal activity and mechanism of action. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of the compound for 30-, 60-, and 180-s exposures were determined with the microdilution method using a neutralizer against 320 bacterial strains from culture collections and clinical isolates. Based on the results, the estimated bactericidal olanexidine concentrations with 180-s exposures were 869 μg/ml for Gram-positive cocci (155 strains), 109 μg/ml for Gram-positive bacilli (29 strains), and 434 μg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria (136 strains). Olanexidine was active against a wide range of bacteria, especially Gram-positive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and had a spectrum of bactericidal activity comparable to that of commercial antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine. In vitro experiments exploring its mechanism of action indicated that olanexidine (i) interacts with the bacterial surface molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid, (ii) disrupts the cell membranes of liposomes, which are artificial bacterial membrane models, (iii) enhances the membrane permeability of Escherichia coli, (iv) disrupts the membrane integrity of S. aureus, and (v) denatures proteins at relatively high concentrations (≥160 μg/ml). These results indicate that olanexidine probably binds to the cell membrane, disrupts membrane integrity, and its bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects are caused by irreversible leakage of intracellular components. At relatively high concentrations, olanexidine aggregates cells by denaturing proteins. This mechanism differs slightly from that of a similar biguanide compound, chlorhexidine. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  9. The toxicity of a mixture of two antiseptics, triclosan and triclocarban, on reproduction and growth of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingskes, Anna Katharina; Spann, Nicole

    2018-05-01

    Many widely used healthcare products contain antiseptics, whose persistence in aquatic environments, soils, and sediments leads to the contamination of ecosystems and adversely affects wildlife. Recently, the impact not only of high but also low doses of contaminants and mixtures of several chemicals has become a focus of concern. In this study, toxicity tests of the antiseptics triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) were performed in an aquatic test medium using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nominal concentrations of TCS and TCC were tested in separate single-substance toxicity tests (96-h-exposure), focussing on growth and reproduction endpoints. Median effective concentrations (EC50s) from the single-substance tests were subsequently used to set up five different ratios of TCS:TCC mixtures leading to the same toxicity. Six dilutions of each mixture ratio were tested for effon reproduction of C. elegans. In the single-substance tests, TCC was about 30 times more toxic than TCS when considering effects on growth and concerning reproduction, TCC was about 50 times more toxic than TCS. For both substances, the toxic effect on reproduction was more pronounced than the one on growth. Low doses of TCS (1-10 µmol L -1 ) stimulated reproduction by up to 301% compared to the control, which might be due to endocrine disruption or other stress-related compensation responses (hormesis). Neither antiseptic stimulated growth. In the mixtures, increasing amounts of TCC inhibited the stimulatory effects of TCS on reproduction. In addition, the interactions of TCS and TCC were antagonistic, such that mixtures displayed lower toxicity than would have been expected when TCS and TCC mixtures adhered to the principle of concentration addition.

  10. Comparison of Outcomes for Normal Saline and an Antiseptic Solution for Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy with Instillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E; Oliver, Noah; Garwood, Caitlin; Evans, Karen K; Steinberg, John S; Lavery, Larry A

    2015-11-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation is an adjunctive treatment that uses periodic instillation of a solution and negative pressure for a wide diversity of wounds. A variety of solutions have been reported, with topical antiseptics as the most frequently chosen option. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of normal saline versus an antiseptic solution for negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation for the adjunctive treatment of infected wounds. This was a prospective, randomized, effectiveness study comparing 0.9% normal saline versus 0.1% polyhexanide plus 0.1% betaine for the adjunctive treatment of infected wounds that required hospital admission and operative débridement. One hundred twenty-three patients were eligible, with 100 patients randomized for the intention-to-treat analysis and 83 patients for the per-protocol analysis. The surrogate outcomes measured were number of operative visits, length of hospital stay, time to final surgical procedure, proportion of closed or covered wounds, and proportion of wounds that remained closed or covered at the 30-day follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in the demographic profiles in the two cohorts except for a larger proportion of male patients (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the surrogate outcomes with the exception of the time to final surgical procedure favoring normal saline (p = 0.038). The authors' results suggest that 0.9% normal saline may be as effective as an antiseptic (0.1% polyhexanide plus 0.1% betaine) for negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation for the adjunctive inpatient management of infected wounds. Therapeutic, II.

  11. Prevalence of antiseptic-resistance genes in staphylococci isolated from orthokeratology lens and spectacle wearers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang-sen; Boost, Maureen; Cho, Pauline

    2015-05-01

    To compare isolation of staphylococci from periorbital tissues and accessories of orthokeratology (ortho-k) lens and spectacle wearers and investigate prevalence of antiseptic-resistance (QAC) genes. To determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antiseptics and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates. Staphylococci were isolated from eyelids, eyelashes, and conjunctival sacs of 23 ortho-k lens wearers and 20 spectacle wearers. Samples were also collected from ortho-k lenses, lens cases, and spectacle frames. Isolations of Staphylococcus aureus were compared between ortho-k subjects and controls for all samples and for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) from conjunctival sacs. QAC genes were amplified in 110 S. aureus and 59 CNS isolates and prevalence compared in isolates from ortho-k lens and spectacle wearers. Associations were assessed between presence of QAC genes and antibiotic and antiseptic susceptibility. Although isolation of S. aureus did not differ significantly in periorbital samples from ortho-k and control subjects, QAC genes were significantly more common in both S. aureus and CNS from ortho-k subjects (odds ratio 4.4 and 10.74, respectively). Overall, qacA/B was the predominant gene detected, being present in 26.5% CNS and 11% S. aureus. smr and qacH were present in 12% of CNS, but were less common in S. aureus. QAC gene-positive isolates had higher MICs to benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine digluconate. Our results suggest that long-term use of multipurpose solutions containing quaternary ammonium compounds may select for carriage of organisms harboring QAC genes. As these genes are associated with antibiotic resistance, their increased prevalence in isolates from contact lens wearers is a concern.

  12. The effect of two different oral antiseptics on dental plaque formation (De Novo Biofilm and on gingival inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelić Obrad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since the discovery that periodontal diseases are caused by microbial plaque the interest of many scientists has been focused on oral antiseptics. There are very few mouthrinses with oral antiseptic effect originally designed in our country. One of these is Ozosept® solution. Objective. This study evaluated the effect of Ozosept® solution (phenol compound on the oral hygiene and gingival inflammation, in comparison with Hibidex DAP® solution (chlorhexidine digluconate. Methods. Two groups, each of 21 persons, which did not significantly differ concerning Silness-Löe plaque index (PI and Löe-Sillnes gingival index (GI, used one of the studied oral antiseptic for a 15-day period. Oral hygiene was maintained by subjects' habitual home methods, and no technique of professionally advised brushing was performed during the experimental period. Results. At the end of the study, PI and GI scores were lowered to a statistically high significance in both groups of participants in comparison to the indexes at the beginning of the study. At the end of the study, PI and GI scores did not significantly differ between the two analyzed groups. No side effects, which were recorded in the Hibidex DAP® group (tooth and filling staining 9.5% and 4.74% respectively, transitory tongue numbness 28.6% and reduced taste sensation 14.3%, were registered in the group of subjects using Ozosept® solution. Conclusion. It is concluded that Ozosept® solution is effective in the control of dental plaque - biofilm accumulation and gingival inflammation, and produces no side effects related to chlorhexidine digluconate usage.

  13. Serratia marcescens bacteraemia outbreak in haemodialysis patients with tunnelled catheters due to colonisation of antiseptic solution. Experience at 4 hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, José L; Bouarich, Hanane; Pita, Mª José; Martínez, Patricia; Bueno, Blanca; Caldés, Silvia; Corchete, Elena; Jaldo, Mª Teresa; Espejo, Beatriz; Paraíso, Vicente

    The application of antiseptic solution for handling tunnelled catheters is recommended in patients undergoing haemodialysis. These routine antiseptic procedures in handling catheters are crucial to avoid complications. We report an outbreak of Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) bacteraemia in numerous haemodialysis units of the Community of Madrid. The first cases of bacteraemia due to S. marcescens were isolated in December 2014. The Preventive Medicine Services were informed of the detection of an atypical pathogen in several patients, suspecting a probable nosocomial outbreak. Information from 4 centres with similar S. marcescens bacteraemia was analysed. Twenty-one cases of bacteraemia related to S. marcescens were identified. The mean age of affected patients was 72±10 years. The mean time on haemodialysis of affected patients was 33±13 months (range: 3-83 months), the median time of tunnelled catheter was 22±13 months. In 11 cases the clinical picture was similar, with hypotension and general malaise during the haemodialysis session. Fever was present in a further 7 cases. In 3 cases the presentation was asymptomatic and was detected by blood cultures. All patients had tunnelled catheters (12 patients with catheter in the right jugular vein, 5 in the left jugular, 2 in the right femoral artery and 2 in the left subclavian artery). Gentamicin intravenous doses (1mg/kg) with catheter lock solution with ciprofloxacin post-dialysis were administered for 3 weeks in 6 patients. In 12 patients the treatment was ceftazidime (2g IV) plus catheter lock solution with the same antibiotic, for 2 weeks. Four patients received oral ciprofloxacin for 2 weeks, in one case together with IV vancomycin. The patients were asymptomatic and without new episodes 48hours after the treatment. No major complications were observed. The teams informed the health authorities of the situation, which then reported the presence of batches of antiseptic (chlorhexidine 0.05 and 2

  14. Methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus with high-level antiseptic and low-level mupirocin resistance in Malaysia.

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    Ghasemzadeh-Moghaddam, Hamed; van Belkum, Alex; Hamat, Rukman Awang; van Wamel, Willem; Neela, Vasanthakumari

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence and spread of mupirocin and antiseptic resistance among colonizing and infectious Staphylococcus aureus were determined. S. aureus isolated from anterior nares and infection sites of patients hospitalized in the largest tertiary care referral hospital in Malaysia was investigated for mupirocin and antiseptic susceptibility testing, and for PCR detection of mupA, qacA/B, and smr genes. Twelve isolates showed resistance to mupirocin by disk diffusion, of which 10 (3.8%) harbored the mupA gene. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 64 to 768 μg/ml for mupA positive and below 46 μg/ml for negative isolates. The mupA was more common among ST239 isolates (70%). The qacA/B was carried in 67 out of 95 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (70.5%) and 3 out of 164 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (1.8%), while smr was carried in 6 out of 95 MRSA (6.3%) strains. MICs ranged from 3.9 to 15.6 μg/ml for benzethonium chloride (BTC) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC), and from 10.3 to 20.7 μg/ml for chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG). Isolates with qacA/B and smr or qacA/B alone showed higher MIC (20.7 μg/ml for CHG and 15.6 μg/ml for BTC and BKC) than the isolates that lacked antiseptic resistance genes (10.3 μg/ml for CHG and 3.9 μg/ml for BTC and BKC). In 16 cases, ST239 was isolated from the infection site and the nares simultaneously, and shared identical resistance patterns (qacAB or qacAB+smr), suggesting possible endogenous infection. Spread of low-level mupirocin resistance expressing ST239 MRSA and high-level resistance expressing emerging ST1, co-existing with antiseptic-resistant genes showing elevated MICs, should be monitored for effective infection control.

  15. The influence of human acute wound fluid on the antibacterial efficacy of different antiseptic polyurethane foam dressings: An in vitro analysis.

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    Rembe, Julian-Dario; Fromm-Dornieden, Carolin; Böhm, Julia; Stuermer, Ewa K

    2018-01-24

    Treating infected acute and/or chronic wounds still represents a major challenge in medical care. Various interactions of antiseptic dressings with wound environments regarding antimicrobial efficacy remain unclear. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the influence of human acute wound fluid (AWF) on the antimicrobial performance of different antiseptic foam dressings in vitro against typical bacterial wound pathogens. Eight antiseptic polyurethane foam dressings containing either a silver formulation or a polyhexamethylene-biguanide (PHMB) were assessed regarding their antimicrobial potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a modified time-kill assay based on ISO EN 20743. The antiseptic efficacy was evaluated standardly as well as under the influence of human AWF after 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours. The specific chemical formulation and concentration of the antiseptic substance (ionic or nanocrystalline silver, silver sulfadiazine, PHMB 0.1%/0.5%) embedded within the dressings seemed to play a key role. For certain dressings (two nanocrystalline and one ionic silver dressing), the antimicrobial efficacy was significantly reduced under the influence of AWF compared to unchallenged test series. Unchallenged the efficacy of PHMB was comparable to silver against P. aeruginosa and even significantly superior against S. aureus and E. coli. Challenged with AWF the reduction rates for silver adjusted or even exceeded (P. aeruginosa) those of PHMB. Within a challenging wound environment, especially some silver formulations demonstrated a reduced bacterial reduction. Regarding the presented in vitro results, the biomolecular interactions of antiseptic wound dressings with wound fluid should be part of more extensive investigations, considering varying factors such as bacterial species and wound (micro)environment to develop targeted therapeutic regimes for the individual. © 2018 by the Wound Healing Society.

  16. [Antiseptics and disinfectants: aiming at rational use. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Healthcare Associated Infections. Sociedad Chilena de Infectología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomedi, Alexis; Chacón, Eiiana; Delpiano, Luis; Hervé, Beatrice; Jemenao, M Irene; Medel, Myriam; Quintanilla, Marcela; Riedel, Gisela; Tinoco, Javier; Cifuentes, Marcela

    2017-04-01

    Proper use of antiseptics and disinfectants, is an essential tool to prevent the spread of infectious agents and to control of healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Given the increasing importance of environmental aspects, as well as several advances and updates in the field of its proper use at local and intemational level, the SOCHINF HAI Advisory Committee considers that it is necessary to develop a guide for the rational use of antiseptics and disinfectants, which it will provide consistent scientific basis with that purpose.

  17. Comparison of the antiseptic effects of Betadine and Sterillium on microbial load of surgical hands

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    Ahmad Entezari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Hand washing is an essential measure in controlling the infection in the operating room, the correct implementation of which requires time. Therefore, the use of fast-acting and safe disinfectant is of great importance in this regard. Regarding this, the present study aimed to compare the antiseptic effects of Betadine and Sterillium on the microbial load of the surgical hands. Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 93 operating room staff working at teaching hospitals of Yazd, Iran, in 2013, using random sampling method. Hand washing was first performed uniformly using 5 ml of non-antibacterial soap for 1 min. Subsequently, the hand washing was performed on two separate occasions with an interval of one week with 12 ml of Betadine and Sterillum for 3 min following the instructions of each solution. The sampling was carried out immediately after hand washing. In order to evaluate the lasting effects of the disinfectants, another sampling was also performed after the surgery. The data were analysed using Chi-square tests, independent t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA through the SPSS version 17. Results: At post-intervention stage, the mean difference of microbial load of the hands washed with Betadine was 15.97±3.08 CFU/ml which decreased to -0.64±0.28 CFU/ml (P=0.012. Regarding the Sterillum, the mean microbial loads of the hands were 16.73±3.0 and -0.032±0.64 CFU/ml at the pre- and post-intervention stages, respectively (P=0.037. This difference between the two solutions was significant (P=0.04. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that the Sterillum was more fast-acting, than the Betadine. However, Betadine showed more lasting effect as compared to the Sterillum. Therefore, it is suggested to choose the disinfectant with regard to the onset and duration of the surgery.

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of Antiseptic Hand Hygiene Methods in an Outpatient Surgery Clinic.

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    Therattil, Paul J; Yueh, Janet H; Kordahi, Anthony M; Cherla, Deepa V; Lee, Edward S; Granick, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Outpatient wound care plays an integral part in any plastic surgery practice. However, compliance with hand hygiene measures has shown to be low, due to skin irritation and lack of time. The objective of this trial was to determine whether single-use, long-acting antiseptics can be as effective as standard multiple-use hand hygiene methods in an outpatient surgical setting. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was performed in the authors' outpatient plastic surgery clinic at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ to compare the efficacy of an ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer (Avagard D Instant Hand Aniseptic, 3M Health Care, St. Paul, MN), a benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer (Soft & Shield, Bioderm Technologies, Inc, Trenton, NJ, distributed by NAPP Technologies, Hackensack, NJ ), and soap and- water handwashing. Subjects included clinic personnel, who were followed throughout the course of a 3-hour clinic session with hourly hand bacterial counts taken. During the course of the trial, 95 subjects completed the clinic session utilizing 1 of the hand hygiene methods (36 ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer, 38 benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer, and 21 soap-and-water handwashing). There was no difference between hand bacterial counts using the different methods at 4 hourly time points (P greater than 0.05). Hand bacterial counts increased significantly over the 3-hour clinic session with the ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer (9.24 to 21.90 CFU, P less than 0.05), benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer (6.69 to 21.59 CFU, P less than 0.05), and soap-and-water handwashing (8.43 to 22.75 CFU, P less than 0.05). There does not appear to be any difference in efficacy between single-use, long-acting sanitizer, and standard multiple-use hand hygiene methods. Hand bacterial counts increased significantly over the course of the 3-hour clinic session regardless of the hand hygiene measure used. Hand condition of subjects was improved with the ethyl alcohol

  19. Antifungal activity of synthetic antiseptics and natural compounds against Candida dubliniensis before and after in vitro fluconazole exposure

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    Cássia Franco Reginato

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the susceptibilities of oral candidiasis-derived Candida albicans, fluconazole-resistant (FR Candida dubliniensis, and fluconazole-susceptible (FS C. dubliniensis to synthetic antiseptics [chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC, and triclosan (TRC] and natural compounds (carvacrol, eugenol and thymol. METHODS: Susceptibility tests were performed based on the M27-A3 reference method. The fluconazole-resistant C. dubliniensis strains were obtained after prolonged in vitro exposure to increasing fluconazole concentrations. The geometric mean values for minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicidal concentrations were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Fluconazole-susceptible C. dubliniensis was more sensitive to CPC and TRC than FR C. dubliniensis and C. albicans were. However, eugenol and thymol were more active against FR C. dubliniensis. The fungicidal activities of CHX and TRC were similar for the three groups, and FR C. dubliniensis and C. albicans had similar sensitivities to CPC. CONCLUSIONS: The resistance of C. dubliniensis to fluconazole affects its sensitivity the synthetic antiseptics and natural compounds that were tested.

  20. Effect on infection resistance of a local antiseptic and antibiotic coating on osteosynthesis implants: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälicke, Thomas; Schierholz, Jörg; Schlegel, Urs; Frangen, Thomas Manfred; Köller, Manfred; Printzen, Gert; Seybold, Dominik; Klöckner, Stefan; Muhr, Gert; Arens, Stephan

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to acquire information about the effect of an antibacterial and biodegradable poly-L-lactide (PLLA) coated titanium plate osteosynthesis on local infection resistance. For our in vitro and in vivo experiments, we used six-hole AO DC minifragment titanium plates. The implants were coated with biodegradable, semiamorphous PLLA (coating about 30 microm thick). This acted as a carrier substance to which either antibiotics or antiseptics were added. The antibiotic we applied was a combination of Rifampicin and fusidic acid; the antiseptic was a combination of Octenidin and Irgasan. This produced the following groups: Group I: six-hole AO DC minifragment titanium plate without PLLA; Group II: six-hole AO DC minifragment titanium plate with PLLA without antibiotics/antiseptics; Group III: six-hole AO DC minifragment titanium plate with PLLA + 3% Rifampicin and 7% fusidic acid; Group IV: six-hole AO DC minifragment titanium plate with PLLA + 2% Octenidin and 8% Irgasan. In vitro, we investigated the degradation and the release of the PLLA coating over a period of 6 weeks, the bactericidal efficacy of antibiotics/antiseptics after their release from the coating and the bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to the implants. In vivo, we compared the infection rates in white New Zealand rabbits after titanium plate osteosynthesis of the tibia with or without antibacterial coating after local percutaneous bacterial inoculations at different concentrations (2 x 10(5)-2 x 10(8)): The plate, the contaminated soft tissues and the underlying bone were removed under sterile conditions after 28 days and quantitatively evaluated for bacterial growth. A stepwise experimental design with an "up-and-down" dosage technique was used to adjust the bacterial challenge in the area of the ID50 (50% infection dose). Statistical evaluation of the differences between the infection rates of both groups was performed using the two-sided Fisher exact test (p

  1. A randomized controlled trial of 1% aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate compared with 10% povidone-iodine for topical antiseptic in neonates: effects on blood culture contamination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuntnarumit, Pracha; Sangsuksawang, Nartsiri

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial in neonates with birth weight greater than or equal to 1,500 g that compared 1% aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) with 10% povidone-iodine (PI) as a topical antiseptic. We found 1% CHG to be more effective than 1% PI in reducing blood culture contamination rates, and no contact dermatitis was observed.

  2. Hand hygiene with soap and water is superior to alcohol rub and antiseptic wipes for removal of Clostridium difficile.

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    Oughton, Matthew T; Loo, Vivian G; Dendukuri, Nandini; Fenn, Susan; Libman, Michael D

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate common hand hygiene methods for efficacy in removing Clostridium difficile. Randomized crossover comparison among 10 volunteers with hands experimentally contaminated by nontoxigenic C. difficile. Interventions included warm water with plain soap, cold water with plain soap, warm water with antibacterial soap, antiseptic hand wipes, alcohol-based handrub, and a control involving no intervention. All interventions were evaluated for mean reduction in colony-forming units (CFUs) under 2 contamination protocols: "whole hand" and "palmar surface." Results were analyzed according to a Bayesian approach, by using hierarchical models adjusted for multiple observations. Under the whole-hand protocol, the greatest adjusted mean reductions were achieved by warm water with plain soap (2.14 log(10) CFU/mL [95% credible interval (CrI), 1.74-2.54 log(10) CFU/mL]), cold water with plain soap (1.88 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 1.48-2.28 log(10) CFU/mL), and warm water with antibacterial soap (1.51 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 1.12-1.91 log(10) CFU/mL]), followed by antiseptic hand wipes (0.57 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 0.17-0.96 log(10) CFU/mL]). Alcohol-based handrub (0.06 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, -0.34 to 0.45 log(10) CFU/mL]) was equivalent to no intervention. Under the palmar surface protocol, warm water with plain soap, cold water with plain soap, and warm water with antibacterial soap again yielded the greatest mean reductions, followed by antiseptic hand wipes (26.6, 26.6, 26.6, and 21.9 CFUs per plate, respectively), when compared with alcohol-based handrub. Hypothenar (odds ratio, 10.98 [95% CrI, 1.96-37.65]) and thenar (odds ratio, 6.99 [95% CrI, 1.25-23.41]) surfaces were more likely than fingertips to remain heavily contaminated after handwashing. Handwashing with soap and water showed the greatest efficacy in removing C. difficile and should be performed preferentially over the use of alcohol-based handrubs when contact with C. difficile is suspected or likely.

  3. Practical use of povidone-iodine antiseptic in the maintenance of oral health and in the prevention and treatment of common oropharyngeal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagalingam, J; Feliciano, R; Hah, J H; Labib, H; Le, T A; Lin, J-C

    2015-11-01

    To better inform medical practitioners on the role of antiseptics in oropharyngeal health and disease, this article focuses on povidone-iodine (PVP-I), an established and widely-available antiseptic agent. Review of the anti-infective profile, efficacy and safety of PVP-I in managing common upper respiratory tract infections such as the common cold, influenza and tonsillo-pharyngitis, as well as oral complications resulting from cancer treatment (oral mucositis), and dental conditions (periodontitis, caries). Antiseptics with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity and low resistance potential offer an attractive option in both infection control and prevention. While there is some evidence of benefit of antiseptics in a variety of clinical settings that include dental and oral hygiene, dermatology, oncology, and pulmonology, there appears to be discordance between the evidence-base and practice. This is especially apparent in the management and prevention of oropharyngeal infections, for which the use of antiseptics varies considerably between clinical practices, and is in marked contrast to their dermal application, where they are extensively used as both a prophylaxis and a treatment of skin and wound infections, thus minimising the use of antibiotics. The link between oral and oropharyngeal health status and susceptibility to infection has long been recognised. The high rates of antibiotic misuse and subsequent development of bacterial resistance (e.g. increasing vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) in large parts of the world, especially across Asia Pacific, highlight the need for identifying alternative antimicrobials that would minimise the use of these medications. This, together with recent large-scale outbreaks of, for example, avian and swine influenza virus, further underline the importance of an increasing armamentarium for infection prevention and control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of gingival and dental plaque antiseptic decontamination on nosocomial infections acquired in the intensive care unit: a double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study.

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    Fourrier, François; Dubois, Didier; Pronnier, Philippe; Herbecq, Patrick; Leroy, Olivier; Desmettre, Thibaut; Pottier-Cau, Elodie; Boutigny, Hervé; Di Pompéo, Christophe; Durocher, Alain; Roussel-Delvallez, Micheline

    2005-08-01

    To document the effect of gingival and dental plaque antiseptic decontamination on the rate of nosocomial bacteremias and respiratory infections acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU). Prospective, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy study. Six ICUs: three in university hospitals and three in general hospitals. A total of 228 nonedentulous patients requiring endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, with an anticipated length of stay > or =5 days. Antiseptic decontamination of gingival and dental plaque with a 0.2% chlorhexidine gel or a placebo gel, three times a day, during the entire ICU stay. Demographic and clinical characteristics, organ function data (Logistic Organ Dysfunction score), severity of condition (Simplified Acute Physiologic Score), and dental plaque status were assessed at baseline and until 28 days. Bacteriologic sampling of dental plaque and saliva was done every 5 days, and blood, tracheal aspirate, and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures were performed when appropriate. The primary efficacy end point was the incidence of bacteremia, bronchitis, and ventilator-associated pneumonia, expressed as a percentage and per 1000 ICU days. All baseline characteristics were similar between the treated and the placebo groups. The incidence of nosocomial infections was 17.5% (13.2 per 1000 ICU days) in the placebo group and 18.4% (13.3 per 1000 ICU days) in the plaque antiseptic decontamination group (not significant). No difference was observed in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia per ventilator or intubation days, mortality, length of stay, and care loads (secondary end points). On day 10, the number of positive dental plaque cultures was significantly lower in the treated group (29% vs. 66%; p dental plaque were not eradicated by the antiseptic decontamination. No side effect was reported. Gingival and dental plaque antiseptic decontamination significantly decreased the oropharyngeal colonization by aerobic

  5. Effect of perioperative mupirocin and antiseptic body wash on infection rate and causative pathogens in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Philipp; Sommerstein, Rami; Schönrath, Felix; Ajdler-Schäffler, Evelyne; Anagnostopoulos, Alexia; Tschirky, Sandra; Falk, Volkmar; Kuster, Stefan P; Sax, Hugo

    2015-07-01

    Preoperative nasal mupirocin has been shown to reduce surgical site infections (SSIs) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We analyzed the effect of mupirocin plus antiseptic body wash on SSI rate and etiology. Prospective SSI surveillance was done for patients undergoing cardiac surgery before and after implementation of mupirocin nasal ointment and chlorhexidine/octenidine body wash. Overall SSI rate was 8.6% (81 out of 945) for the control and 6.9% (58 out of 842) for the intervention cohort (P = .19). In multivariable analysis, the study protocol was associated with an odds ratio of 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.91; P = .015) with regard to any SSI. This effect was exclusively due to a reduction in superficial SSIs and was observed both in patients with preoperative and postoperative treatment initiation. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), the most commonly isolated pathogen, were found in 37% and 48% (P = .19) of patients in the control and the intervention cohort, respectively. CoNS were methicillin resistant in 69% of cases. Mupirocin and antiseptic body wash reduced the rate of superficial but not deep or organ/space SSIs. Postoperative patient treatment may be critical in reducing the risk for superficial SSI, presumably due to a reduction of bacterial skin load. A high proportion of SSI was due to methicillin-resistant CoNS and thus not covered by routine perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Polymicrobial Gardnerella biofilm resists repeated intravaginal antiseptic treatment in a subset of women with bacterial vaginosis: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Swidsinski, Sonja; Verstraelen, Hans

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a recalcitrant polymicrobial biofilm infection that often resists standard antibiotic treatment. We therefore considered repeated treatment with octenidine, a local antiseptic that has previously been shown to be highly effective in several biofilm-associated infections. Twenty-four patients with recurrent BV were treated with a 7-day course of octenidine (octenidine dihydrochloride spray application with the commercial product Octenisept). In case of treatment failure or relapse within 6 months, patients were re-treated with a 28-day course of octenidine. In case of recurrence within 6 months after the second treatment course, patients were treated again with a 28-day course followed by weekly applications for 2 months. Treatment effect was evaluated by assessment of the presence of the biofilm on voided vaginal epithelial cells through fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The initial cure rate following a 7-day course of octenidine was as high as 87.5%. The 6-month relapse rate was, however, as high as 66.6%. Repeated treatment for 28 days led to an overall cure rate of 75.0%; however, it was also associated with emergence of complete resistance to octenidine in a subset of women. The overall cure rate after three treatment courses with 1-year follow-up was 62.5 %, with 37.5 % of the patients showing complete resistance to octenidine. Our preliminary results showed that octenidine dihydrochloride was initially highly effective, but the efficacy of repeated and prolonged treatment dropped quickly as challenge with the antiseptic rapidly led to bacterial resistance in a considerable subset of women.

  7. Enrichment, development, and assessment of Indian basil oil based antiseptic cream formulation utilizing hydrophilic-lipophilic balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Meher, Jaya Gopal; Pandey, Neelam; Luqman, Suaib; Yadav, Kuldeep Singh; Chanda, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    The present work was aimed to develop an antiseptic cream formulation of Indian basil oil utilizing hydrophilic-lipophilic balance approach. In order to determine the required-hydrophilic lipophilic balance (rHLB) of basil oil, emulsions of basil oil were prepared by phase inversion temperature technique using water, Tween 80, and Span 80. Formulated emulsions were assessed for creaming (BE9; 9.8, BE10; 10.2), droplet size (BE18; 3.22 ± 0.09 μ m), and turbidity (BE18; 86.12 ± 2.1%). To ensure correctness of the applied methodology, rHLB of light liquid paraffin was also determined. After rHLB determination, basil oil creams were prepared with two different combinations of surfactants, namely, GMS : Tween 80 (1 : 3.45) and SLS : GMS (1 : 3.68), and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity, skin irritation test, viscosity and consistency. The rHLB of basil oil and light liquid paraffin were found to be 13.36 ± 0.36 and 11.5 ± 0.35, respectively. Viscosity, and consistency parameters of cream was found to be consistent over 90 days. Cream formulations showed net zone of growth inhibition in the range of 5.0-11.3 mm against bacteria and 4.3-7.6 mm against fungi. Primary irritation index was found to be between 0.38 and1.05. Conclusively stable, consistent, non-irritant, enriched antiseptic basil oil cream formulations were developed utilizing HLB approach.

  8. Evaluation of inactivation of intracanal antiseptics by dentin, demineralized dentin, dentin matrix and mineral component of dentin

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    Razmi H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many studies have shown that microorganisms are the main cause of pulpal diseases and the main purpose of root canal therapy is their elimination from the root canal system. Antiseptic agents are used to reduce bacteria but their antibacterial activities differ from in vivo to in vitro studies and might be inactivated by dentin and its components in root canal space. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dentin on antibacterial activity of different antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two antibacterial agents (sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine with different concentrations were used in four experimental groups: Group 1: dentin, Group 2: demineralized dentin with EDTA, Group 3: dentin matrix and Group 4: dentin mineral component. The species used in this study was Entrococcus faecalis. Different concentration of agents were added to mixture of each experimental group and bacteria. At the baseline and after one and 24 hours, samples were collected and cultured. After incubation period, colonies were counted. Data were analyzed by Tukey test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: 2% and 0.2% chlorhexidine, and 5% sodium hypochlorite solutions at the three studied times eliminated Entrococcus faecalis completely. 1% sodium hypochlorite eliminated all bacteria in 1h and 24 hs. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between experimental and control groups (P<0.05. Sodium 1% hypochlorite at time 0, could reduce bacteria significantly (P<0.05 but didn’t eliminate them completely. Conclusion: Inactivation of intracanal antiseptics was not observed in this study. As elimination of bacteria occurred, application of these antibacterial agents are recommended in endodontic treatment. Further investigations on other antibacterial agents, other concentrations and shorter time intervals are recommended.

  9. The effect of antiseptic oral sprays on dental plaque and gingival inflammation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Ab Malik, N; McGrath, C; Lam, Olt

    2018-02-06

    To review the effectiveness of antiseptic oral sprays on oral health. Three electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Web of Science) were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of oral sprays to placebo/control spray or mouthrinse on dental plaque and gingival inflammation were included. Among a total of 996 papers, 20 effective studies fulfilled the selection criteria, and 8 studies were suitable for inclusion in meta-analyses. A meta-analysis of three studies using a 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) spray intervention, without prophylaxis at baseline, showed reductions in Plaque Index (PI) (Silness and Löe) and Gingival Index (GI) (Silness and Löe) scores of 0.74 (95% CI: -1.03 to -0.45) and 0.22 (95% CI: -0.38 to -0.06), respectively. Five studies provided a prophylaxis for subjects before study initiation. Three of these five studies used 0.2% CHX spray. A meta-analysis demonstrated an increase of 0.18 (95% CI: -0.01 to 0.37) in PI (Silness and Löe) scores. Two RCTs compared 0.12% and 0.2% CHX spray, and a meta-analysis showed increases of 1.71 (95% CI: 1.27 to 2.14) and 1.58 (95% CI: 1.23 to 1.93), respectively, in PI (Quigley and Hein) scores. Of the RCTs not amenable to meta-analysis, eight studies reported significant improvements in PI and GI scores. Available evidence suggests that oral sprays are an acceptable delivery method for antiseptic agents. Further high-quality studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness of alternative chemotherapeutic agents delivered via oral sprays on oral health. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Frequency of Antiseptic Resistance Among Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated From a University Hospital in Central Iran

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    Nona Taheri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reduced biocide susceptibility in Staphylococci is associated with various antiseptic resistance genes encoding efflux systems. Our aim was to determine the susceptibility to three disinfectant agents, including benzalkonium chloride (BAC, benzethonium chloride (BZT, and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHDG among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 60 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, 54 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and 51 CoNS isolates from a single hospital to three biocidal agents (BAC, BZT, and CHDG was determined. Biocide resistance genes (qacA/B, smr, qacG, qacH, qacJ, and norA were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: All isolates had MICs for BAC and BZT from 0.25 to 8 µg/mL, and for CHDG from 0.5 to 64 µg/mL. qacA/B was the most common biocide resistance gene among all 165 Staphylococcus isolates (76; 46%, which comprised 38 (63.3% MRSA, 14 (25.9% MSSA, and 24 (47% CoNS. Eleven (6.7% and 24 (14.5% isolates among the 165 Staphylococci carried smr and norA genes, respectively. In contrast, other resistance genes such as qacG, qacH, and qacJ were absent in all Staphylococci studied. The qacA/B and smr genes were detected concomitantly in 3% of isolates, and 23.6% strains of the total 165 Staphylococcus isolates were negative for each studied gene. Conclusions: The carriage of several biocide resistance genes, including qacA/B, smr, and norA, alone or concurrently, is associated with reduced susceptibility. Use of antiseptics may select for antibiotic-resistant strains and assist their survival in the healthcare environment.

  11. Frequency of Antiseptic Resistance AmongStaphylococcus aureusand Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated From a University Hospital in Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Nona; Ardebili, Abdollah; Amouzandeh-Nobaveh, Alireza; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah

    2016-11-01

    Reduced biocide susceptibility in Staphylococci is associated with various antiseptic resistance genes encoding efflux systems. Our aim was to determine the susceptibility to three disinfectant agents, including benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BZT), and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHDG) among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 60 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 54 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 51 CoNS isolates from a single hospital to three biocidal agents (BAC, BZT, and CHDG) was determined. Biocide resistance genes ( qacA/B, smr, qacG, qacH, qacJ, and norA ) were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction assay. All isolates had MICs for BAC and BZT from 0.25 to 8 µg/mL, and for CHDG from 0.5 to 64 µg/mL. qacA/B was the most common biocide resistance gene among all 165 Staphylococcus isolates (76; 46%), which comprised 38 (63.3%) MRSA, 14 (25.9%) MSSA, and 24 (47%) CoNS. Eleven (6.7%) and 24 (14.5%) isolates among the 165 Staphylococci carried smr and norA genes, respectively. In contrast, other resistance genes such as qacG , qacH , and qacJ were absent in all Staphylococci studied. The qacA/B and smr genes were detected concomitantly in 3% of isolates, and 23.6% strains of the total 165 Staphylococcus isolates were negative for each studied gene. The carriage of several biocide resistance genes, including qacA/B , smr , and norA , alone or concurrently, is associated with reduced susceptibility. Use of antiseptics may select for antibiotic-resistant strains and assist their survival in the healthcare environment.

  12. Use of antiseptic for cord care and its association with neonatal mortality in a population-based assessment in Bihar State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Rakhi; Kochar, Priyanka S; Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Lalit

    2017-01-25

    Dry cord care is recommended for all births by the Health Ministry in India. We report prevalence of antiseptic cord care in the context of neonatal mortality in the Indian state of Bihar. Population-based cross-sectional study with multistage stratified random sampling. Households in 1017 clusters in Bihar. A representative sample of 12 015 women with a live birth in the last 12 months were interviewed from all 38 districts of Bihar (90.7% participation) in 2014. Use of antiseptic cord care at birth and its association with neonatal mortality using multiple logistic regression. Topical application of any material on cord was reported by 6534 women (54.4%; 95% CI 53.5% to 55.3%). Antiseptic cord care prevalence was 49.7% (95% CI 48.8% to 50.6%), the majority of which was gentian violet (76.4%). The odds of antiseptic use for cord care were higher in facility births (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.27 to 1.69) and for deliveries by a qualified health provider (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.66), but were lower for births that occurred before the expected delivery date (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.61 to 0.96). A total of 256 (2.1%) newborns died during the neonatal period. The odds of neonatal death were significantly higher for live births with no reported antiseptic use (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.99), and this association persisted when live births in health facilities were considered separately. Even though dry cord care is recommended by health authorities in India, half the women in this study reported use of antiseptic for cord care mainly with gentian violet; and its use had beneficial effect on neonatal mortality. These findings suggest that the application of readily available gentian violet for cord care in less developed settings should be assessed further for its potential beneficial influence on neonatal mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Pre-operative antiseptic shower and bath policy decreases the rate of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus surgical site infections in patients undergoing joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, Kristin; Statz, Catherine; Glover, James; Banton, Kaysie; Beilman, Greg

    2015-04-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) following joint arthroplasty increases length of stay, hospital cost, and leads to patient and healthcare provider dissatisfaction. Due to the presence of non-biologic implants (the prosthetic joint) in these procedures, infection is often devastating and treatment of the infection is more difficult. For this reason, prevention of SSI is of crucial importance in this population. Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nares of approximately 30-40% of the population, is the most common pathogen causing SSI, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rate. A pre-operative shower or bath with an antiseptic is an inexpensive and effective method of removal of these transient skin pathogens prior to the procedure and may be used to decrease SSI. We hypothesize that a preoperative antiseptic shower or bath will decrease the rate of SSI. A retrospective review was performed at two affiliated hospitals within the same system, one with a hospital-wide policy enforcing pre-operative antiseptic shower or bath and the other with no policy, with cases included from January 2010 to June 2012. International Classification of Disease-Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes and chart review were used to identify patients undergoing joint arthroplasty and to identify those with SSI. Two thousand three-hundred forty-nine arthroplasties were performed at the University of Minnesota Medical Center, a tertiary-care hospital with a pre-operative antiseptic shower or bath policy in place. An additional 1,693 procedures were performed at Fairview Ridges Hospital, a community hospital with no pre-operative policy. There was no difference in the rate of SSI between the two hospitals (1.96% vs. 1.95%; p=1.0). However, the rate of SSI caused by S. aureus was significantly decreased by pre-operative antiseptic shower/bath (17% vs. 61%; p=0.03), as was the rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections (2% vs. 24% p=0.002). A pre

  14. In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin using a nanoparticle-emulsion containing the antiseptic polihexanide In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, M.; Patzelt, A.; Vergou, T.; Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Kramer, A.; Müller, G.; Sterry, W.; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B.

    2012-05-01

    Earlier investigations regarding the distribution of the bacterial flora on the human skin demonstrate that the hair follicle acts as a bacterial reservoir, providing a quick source for secondary recontamination. These findings highlight the importance of the hair follicle as a target for modern antiseptics. In the present study, we have assessed the follicular penetration of a curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic into porcine skin by laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, the follicular penetration depth of the curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic was compared to the follicular penetration depth of curcumin-labeled particles without antiseptic. The investigation was performed in vitro using porcine skin biopsies. By superposition of the images acquired in the transmission and the fluorescent modus, it was possible to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent dye inside the hair follicles. Quantitative and qualitative results showed that both dispersions penetrated efficiently into the hair follicles. The average penetration depth of the particles with attached antiseptic polihexanide was significantly higher than that of particles without the attached antiseptic. Also, whilst very little sample preparation was needed, laser scanning microscopy was found to be an efficient tool to visualize the skin relief and in particular the hair follicle shaft and localize fluorescent markers within the skin tissue and hair follicles.

  15. Class 1 Integrons and the Antiseptic Resistance Gene (qacEΔ1) in Municipal and Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Plants and Wastewater-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min Tao; Chou, Chin Cheng

    2015-06-02

    Class 1 integrons are mobile gene elements (MGEs) containing qacEΔ1 that are resistant to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants. This study compared the abundances of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in municipal (M) and swine slaughterhouse (S) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and investigated the presence of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wastewater samples. The abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 96 wastewater samples were quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR), and 113 MRSA isolates recovered from the wastewater samples were detected class 1 integrons and linked antiseptic resistance genes (qacEΔ1), and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for QAC antiseptics. The intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in all the wastewater samples, and they were more abundant in S-WWTP samples than in M-WWTP samples. A higher percentage of MRSA isolates carried qacEΔ1 in MRSA from swine wastewater samples (62.8%) than in municipal MRSA (3.7%). All the MRSA isolates showed high MICs for antiseptic agents. This study provides important evidence regarding the abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in municipal and swine slaughterhouse wastewater, and antiseptic-resistant MRSA strains were detected in swine slaughterhouse wastewater.

  16. Class 1 Integrons and the Antiseptic Resistance Gene (qacEΔ1) in Municipal and Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Plants and Wastewater—Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min Tao; Chou, Chin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Class 1 integrons are mobile gene elements (MGEs) containing qacEΔ1 that are resistant to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants. This study compared the abundances of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in municipal (M) and swine slaughterhouse (S) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and investigated the presence of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wastewater samples. The abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 96 wastewater samples were quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR), and 113 MRSA isolates recovered from the wastewater samples were detected class 1 integrons and linked antiseptic resistance genes (qacEΔ1), and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for QAC antiseptics. The intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in all the wastewater samples, and they were more abundant in S-WWTP samples than in M-WWTP samples. A higher percentage of MRSA isolates carried qacEΔ1 in MRSA from swine wastewater samples (62.8%) than in municipal MRSA (3.7%). All the MRSA isolates showed high MICs for antiseptic agents. This study provides important evidence regarding the abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in municipal and swine slaughterhouse wastewater, and antiseptic-resistant MRSA strains were detected in swine slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:26042365

  17. Class 1 Integrons and the Antiseptic Resistance Gene (qacEΔ1 in Municipal and Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Plants and Wastewater—Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Tao Wan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Class 1 integrons are mobile gene elements (MGEs containing qacEΔ1 that are resistant to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC disinfectants. This study compared the abundances of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in municipal (M and swine slaughterhouse (S wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs and investigated the presence of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA isolated from wastewater samples. The abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 96 wastewater samples were quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR, and 113 MRSA isolates recovered from the wastewater samples were detected class 1 integrons and linked antiseptic resistance genes (qacEΔ1, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs for QAC antiseptics. The intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in all the wastewater samples, and they were more abundant in S-WWTP samples than in M-WWTP samples. A higher percentage of MRSA isolates carried qacEΔ1 in MRSA from swine wastewater samples (62.8% than in municipal MRSA (3.7%. All the MRSA isolates showed high MICs for antiseptic agents. This study provides important evidence regarding the abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in municipal and swine slaughterhouse wastewater, and antiseptic-resistant MRSA strains were detected in swine slaughterhouse wastewater.

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of antiseptic agents for meatal cleaning in the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasugba, O; Koerner, J; Mitchell, B G; Gardner, A

    2017-03-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections. Antiseptic cleaning of the meatal area before and during catheter use may reduce the risk of CAUTIs. To undertake a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of studies investigating the effectiveness of antiseptic cleaning before urinary catheter insertion and during catheter use for prevention of CAUTIs. Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and compared across intervention and control groups using DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed. Heterogeneity was estimated using the I 2 statistic. In total, 2665 potential papers were identified; of these, 14 studies were eligible for inclusion. There was no difference in the incidence of CAUTIs when comparing antiseptic and non-antiseptic agents (pooled OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.73-1.10; P=0.31), or when comparing different agents: povidone-iodine vs routine care; povidone-iodine vs soap and water; chlorhexidine vs water; povidone-iodine vs saline; povidone-iodine vs water; and green soap and water vs routine care (P>0.05 for all). Comparison of an antibacterial agent with routine care indicated near significance (P=0.06). There was no evidence of heterogeneity (I 2 =0%; P>0.05). Subgroup analyses showed no difference in the incidence of CAUTIs in terms of country, setting, risk of bias, sex and frequency of administration. There were no differences in CAUTI rates, although methodological issues hamper generalizability of this finding. Antibacterial agents may prove to be significant in a well-conducted study. The present results provide good evidence to inform infection control guidelines in catheter management. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of changing antiseptic skin preparation agent used for cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) procedures on the risk of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qintar, Mohammed; Zardkoohi, Omeed; Hammadah, Muhammad; Hsu, Amy; Wazni, Oussama; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Tarakji, Khaldoun G

    2015-02-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection is a major complication that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recent data suggested a relationship between the antiseptic agent used for skin preparation at time of CIED procedure and risk for infection. On April 30, 2011, we changed the antiseptic agent used for skin preparation at our tertiary care facility from chlorhexidine-alcohol to povidone-iodine for all CIED procedures. We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients who underwent CIED procedure 1 year before and after the change. CIED infection was defined as pocket or endovascular systemic infection that required removal within 1 year of the index procedure. We examined if the change affected the risk of CIED infection. A total of 2,792 patients underwent 2,840 CIED procedures; 1,748 (61.5%) had implantable cardioverter defibrillator procedures and 1,092 (38.4%) had permanent pacemaker procedures. Chlorhexidine-alcohol agent was used in 1,450 (51.1%) procedures, and povidone-iodine agent was used in 1,390 (48.9%). After 1 year of follow-up, 31 patients (1.09%) developed CIED infection that required system removal. The 1-year infection rate was 1.1% among both antiseptic agent groups and there were no significant differences in the infection presentations among both groups (P = 0.950). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that risk factors for infection within 1 year included age, diabetes, and African American race. In one large cohort of patients undergoing CIED procedures, the antiseptic agent used for skin preparation (chlorhexidine-alcohol vs povidone-iodine) was not associated with increased risk of developing CIED infection. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prospective evaluation of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate as an antiseptic agent for blood donor arm preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the use of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate (2% AlcCHG in donor arm preparation, to monitor the contamination rate of blood products after the collection and to find incidence of transfusion associated bacteremia. Settings and Design: Optimal skin antisepsis of the phlebotomy site is essential to minimize the risk of contamination. Food and Drug Administration (FDA in India has recommended antisepsis with three-step regimen of spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit for donor arm antisepsis, but not with chlorhexidine, which is recommended by many other authors. Material and Methods: A total of 795 donors were studied from July 2011 to January 2012. Spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit was used for 398 donors and 2% AlcCHG was used for 397 donors with the two-step method for arm antisepsis. Swabs were collected before and after use of antiseptic agents for all the donors. All the blood products collected from donors with growth in post-antisepsis swabs were cultured. A total of 123 various blood products were cultured irrespective of the method and result of antisepsis was observed. A total of seven patients had mild transfusion reaction. The transfused blood products, blood and urine specimen of the patients who had transfusion reaction were also cultured. Results: Seven donors out of 398 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit protocol and three donors out of 397 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with 2% AlcCHG protocol. All blood products collected from donors who had growth in post-antisepsis swabs when cultured had no growth. There was no contamination of blood products. Conclusions: Two percent (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate with two-step protocol can be used as an antiseptic agent for donor arm preparation without considerable cost difference. It is at par with spirit 10% povidone iodine spirit protocol as suggested by FDA in India

  1. Preoperative shower revisited: can high topical antiseptic levels be achieved on the skin surface before surgical admission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Krepel, Candace J; Seabrook, Gary R; Lewis, Brian D; Brown, Kellie R; Towne, Jonathan B

    2008-08-01

    Skin asepsis is a sentinel strategy for reducing risk of surgical site infections. In this study, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) skin concentrations were determined after preoperative showering/skin cleansing using 4% CHG soap or 2% CHG-impregnated polyester cloth. Subjects were randomized to one of three shower (4% soap)/skin cleansing (2% cloth) groups (n = 20 per group): (group 1 A/B) evening, (group 2 A/B) morning, or (group 3 A/B) evening and morning. After showering or skin cleansing, volunteers returned to the investigator's laboratory where CHG skin surface concentrations were determined at five separate skin sites. CHG concentrations were compared with CHG minimal inhibitory concentration that inhibits 90% (MIC(90)) of staphylococcal skin isolates. CHG MIC(90) for 61 skin isolates was 4.8 parts per million (ppm). In group 1A, 4% CHG skin concentrations ranged from 17.2 to 31.6 ppm, and CHG concentrations were 361.5 to 589.5 ppm (p < 0.0001) in group 1B (2%). In group 2A (4%), CHG levels ranged from 51.6 to 119.6 ppm and 848.1 to 1,049.6 ppm in group 2B (2%), respectively (p < 0.0001). CHG levels ranged from 101.4 to 149.4 ppm in the 4% CHG group (group 3A) compared with 1,484.6 to 2,031.3 ppm in 2% CHG cloth (group 3B) group (p < 0.0001). Effective CHG levels were not detected in the 4% CHG group in selected sites in seven (35%) subjects in group 1A, three (15%) in group 2A, and five (25%) in group 3A. Effective CHG levels were achieved on most skin sites after using 4% CHG; gaps in antiseptic coverage were noted at selective sites even after repeated application. Use of the 2% CHG polyester cloth resulted in considerably higher skin concentrations with no gaps in antiseptic coverage. Effective decolonization of the skin before hospital admission can play an important role in reducing risk of surgical site infections.

  2. Molecular dynamics and docking simulation of a natural variant of Activated Protein C with impaired protease activity: implications for integrin-mediated antiseptic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ursi, Pasqualina; Orro, Alessandro; Morra, Giulia; Moscatelli, Marco; Trombetti, Gabriele; Milanesi, Luciano; Rovida, Ermanna

    2015-01-01

    Activated Protein C (APC) is a multifunctional serine protease, primarily known for its anticoagulant function in the coagulation system. Several studies have already elucidated its role in counteracting apoptosis and inflammation in cells, while significant effort is still ongoing for defining its involvement in sepsis. Earlier literature has shown that the antiseptic function of APC is mediated by its binding to leukocyte integrins, which is due to the presence of the integrin binding motif Arg-Gly-Asp at the N-terminus of the APC catalytic chain. Many natural mutants have been identified in patients with Protein C deficiency diagnosis including a variant of specificity pocket (Gly216Asp). In this work, we present a molecular model of the complex of APC with αVβ3 integrin obtained by protein-protein docking approach. A computational analysis of this variant is hereby presented, based on molecular dynamics and docking simulations, aiming at investigating the effects of the Gly216Asp mutation on the protein conformation and inferring its functional implications. Our study shows that such mutation is likely to impair the protease activity while preserving the overall protein fold. Moreover, superposition of the integrin binding motifs in wild-type and mutant forms suggests that the interaction with integrin can still occur and thus the mutant is likely to retain its antiseptic function related to the neutrophyl integrin binding. Therapeutic applications could result in this APC mutant which retains antiseptic function without anticoagulant side effects.

  3. When the tendon autograft is dropped accidently on the floor: A study about bacterial contamination and antiseptic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, O; Danis, J; Versier, G; Ollat, D

    2015-10-01

    Inadvertent contamination of the autograft can occur during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction if the autograft is dropped on the floor during surgery. A study was undertaken to determine the incidence of contamination when a graft is dropped on the operating room floor and the efficacy of antimicrobial solutions to decontaminate it. Samples from 25 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction with a hamstring tendon were sectioned and dropped onto the floor. Cultures were taken after immersion in antiseptic solutions (a chlorhexidine gluconate solution (group 1), a povidone-iodine solution (group 2), and a sodium hypochlorite solution (group 3)). A fourth piece (group 0) was cultured without being exposed to any solution. Cultures of a floor swab were taken at the same time. The floor swab cultures were positive in 96% of cases. The rate of contamination was 40% in group 0, 8% in group 1, 4% in group 2, and 16% in group 3. There was a significant difference between groups 1 and 2 and group 0 (p<0.05) but not between groups 3 and 0. Immersing a graft dropped on the floor during surgery in a chlorhexidine gluconate solution or povidone-iodine solution significantly reduces contamination of the graft. Soaking of the hamstring autograft in one of these solutions is recommended in the case of inadvertent contamination. Laboratory investigation (level 2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of a local acting antiseptic agent in the treatment of vaginal dysbiosis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Volker; Neumann, Gerd; Waldschläger, Juliane; May, Theodor W; Siebert, Jörg; Gerber, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, the efficacy and tolerability of the local acting antiseptic octenidine hydrochloride/phenoxyethanol (OHP) for the treatment of vaginal dysbiosis (VD) and/or bacterial vaginosis (BV) in pregnancy and its potential influence on preterm births and low-weight newborns were examined. One-hundred nine pregnant women with increased pH values (>4.5) and BV characteristic symptoms were treated with OHP for 7 days and a second time in case of a recurrent pH increase. pH values were continuously controlled by women's self-measurements. pH decreased to ≤ 4.5 in 67.9% of patients. Seven of 12 women (58.3%) treated again with OHP due to a recurrent pH increase finally reached the pH target (pH ≤ 4.5). No preterm birth occurred in the OHP group; no newborn had a birth weight <2,000 g. Rates of preterm births and low-weight newborns were comparable between OHP group and pregnant women without VD/BV. OHP is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of VD/BV also in pregnancy without side effects and the occurrence of resistances. It could be an additional therapeutic option in the prevention of the multifactorial disease pattern 'preterm birth' with all their consequences.

  5. In Vitro Evaluation of Mitochondrial Function and Estrogen Signaling in Cell Lines Exposed to the Antiseptic Cetylpyridinium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; He, Guochun; Tomilov, Alexey; Sahdeo, Sunil; Denison, Michael S; Cortopassi, Gino

    2017-08-22

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QUATS), such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and benzalkonium chloride (BAK), are frequently used in antiseptic formulations, including toothpastes, mouthwashes, lozenges, throat and nasal sprays, and as biocides. Although in a recent ruling, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned CPC from certain products and requested more data on BAK's efficacy and safety profile, QUATS, in general, and CPC and BAK, in particular, continue to be used in personal health care, food, and pharmaceutical and cleaning industries. We aimed to assess CPC's effects on mitochondrial toxicity and endocrine disruption in vitro . Mitochondrial O 2 consumption and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rates of osteosarcoma cybrid cells were measured before and after CPC and BAK treatment. Antiestrogenic effects of the compounds were measured by a luciferase-based assay using recombinant human breast carcinoma cells (VM7Luc4E2, ERalpha-positive). CPC inhibited both mitochondrial O 2 consumption [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ): 3.8μM] and ATP synthesis (IC 50 : 0.9μM), and additional findings supported inhibition of mitochondrial complex 1 as the underlying mechanism for these effects. In addition, CPC showed concentration-dependent antiestrogenic activity half maximal effective concentration [(EC 50 ): 4.5μM)]. BAK, another antimicrobial QUATS that is structurally similar to CPC, and the pesticide rotenone, a known complex 1 inhibitor, also showed mitochondrial inhibitory and antiestrogenic effects. In all three cases, there was overlap of the antiestrogenic activity with the mitochondrial inhibitory activity. Mitochondrial inhibition in vitro occurred at a CPC concentration that may be relevant to human exposures. The antiestrogenic activity of CPC, BAK, rotenone, and triclosan may be related to their mitochondrial inhibitory activity. Our findings support the need for additional research on the mitochondrial inhibitory and

  6. Novel Antiseptic Urinary Catheters for Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections: Correlation of In Vivo and In Vitro Test Results▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Ray; Reitzel, Ruth; Borne, Agatha; Jiang, Ying; Tinkey, Peggy; Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Chandra, Jyotsna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Raad, Issam

    2009-01-01

    Urinary catheters are widely used for hospitalized patients and are often associated with high rates of urinary tract infection. We evaluated in vitro the antiadherence activity of a novel antiseptic Gendine-coated urinary catheter against several multidrug-resistant bacteria. Gendine-coated urinary catheters were compared to silver hydrogel-coated Foley catheters and uncoated catheters. Bacterial biofilm formation was assessed by quantitative culture and scanning electron microscopy. These data were further correlated to an in vivo rabbit model. We challenged 31 rabbits daily for 4 days by inoculating the urethral meatus with 1.0 × 109 CFU streptomycin-resistant Escherichia coli per day. In vitro, Gendine-coated urinary catheters reduced the CFU of all organisms tested for biofilm adherence compared with uncoated and silver hydrogel-coated catheters (P < 0.004). Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that a thick biofilm overlaid the control catheter and the silver hydrogel-coated catheters but not the Gendine-coated urinary catheter. Similar results were found with the rabbit model. Bacteriuria was present in 60% of rabbits with uncoated catheters and 71% of those with silver hydrogel-coated catheters (P < 0.01) but not in those with Gendine-coated urinary catheters. No rabbits with Gendine-coated urinary catheters had invasive bladder infections. Histopathologic assessment revealed no differences in toxicity or staining. Gendine-coated urinary catheters were more efficacious in preventing catheter-associated colonization and urinary tract infections than were silver hydrogel-coated Foley catheters and uncoated catheters. PMID:19805562

  7. Antimicrobial Agent of Susceptibilities and Antiseptic Resistance Gene Distribution among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Patients with Impetigo and Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Norihisa; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Nishijima, Setsuko; Kurokawa, Ichiro; So, Hiromu; Sasatsu, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents of and distributions of antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated between 1999 and 2004 in Japan were examined. The data of MRSA strains that are causative agents of impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) were compared with those of MRSA strains isolated from patients with other diseases. The susceptibilities to antiseptic agents in MRSA isolates from patients with impetigo and SSSS were higher than those in MRSA isolates from patients with other diseases. The distribution of the qacA/B genes in MRSA strains isolated from patients with impetigo and SSSS (1.3%, 1/76) was remarkably lower than that in MRSA strains isolated from patients with other diseases (45.9%, 95/207). Epidemiologic typings of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that MRSA strains isolated from patients with impetigo and SSSS had type IV SCCmec (75/76), except for one strain, and 64.5% (49/76) of the strains had different PFGE types. In addition, the patterns of restriction digestion of all tested qacA/B plasmid in MRSA isolates having different PFGE types were identical. The results showed that a specific MRSA clone carrying qacA/B was not prevalent, but qacA/B was spread among health care-associated MRSA strains. Therefore, it was concluded that the lower distribution rate of qacA/B resulted in higher susceptibilities to cationic antiseptic agents in MRSA isolated from patients with impetigo and SSSS. PMID:16757607

  8. The Effect of Polyhexanide, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, and Tea Tree Oil as Topical Antiseptic Agents on In Vivo Microcirculation of the Human Skin: A Noninvasive Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Jens; Krauss, Sabrina; Tschumi, Christian; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Held, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Antiseptics are indispensable for wound management and should focus not only on the efficacy in reducing the bacterial burden but also on how much they interfere in wound healing. In this study, the authors analyzed the direct effect of topical antiseptic agents on the microcirculation of intact human skin. The perfusion dynamics were assessed before, and 10 minutes after, the volunteers' fingers of the right hand (n = 20) were immersed in the following solutions - octenidine dihydrochloride, polyhexanide, tea tree oil, and saline solution. The authors used the Oxygen to See (LEA Medizintechnik GmbH, Giessen, Germany) diagnostic device for noninvasive determination of oxygen supply in microcirculation of blood perfused tissues, which combines a laser light to determine blood flow, as well as white light to determine hemoglobin oxygenation and the relative amount of hemoglobin. Tea tree oil (÷19.0%) (B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) and polyhexanide (÷12.4%) (Lavanid, Serag Wiessner GmbH, Naila, Germany) caused a significant increase in blood flow compared to the negative control (-25.6%). Octenidine (Octenisept, Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany) showed a nonsignificant trend towards an increase in blood flow (÷7.2%). There were alterations in the values of hemoglobin oxygenation and the relative amount of hemoglobin, but these were not significant. Perfusion is an important factor for wound healing. Therefore, it might be advantageous if antiseptic agents would increase blood flow. Tea tree oil and polyhexanide have a positive effect on skin blood flow and can therefore be used especially in critically perfused wounds, provided the adverse reactions and the antimicrobial efficacy are comparable.

  9. Synthesis of novel 4,6-di(substituted)amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3,5-triazine derivatives as topical antiseptic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shirou; Kita, Toshiko; Meguro, Kanji

    2009-02-12

    A series of novel 4,6-di(substituted)amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3,5-triazine derivatives designed to have ClogP of 5.1-7.5 was synthesized and evaluated for their antiseptic properties by MIC and MBC tests against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including MRSA, VRE, and P. aeruginosa. Among these compounds, 4-alkyl-6-aralkyl derivatives having ClogP of 6.6-7.1 and 4-alkyl-6-aryl or 4,6-dialkyl derivatives with ClogP of 6.0-6.4 showed pronounced antibacterial activities in both tests.

  10. Efficacy of two antiseptic regimens on skin colonization of insertion sites for two different catheter types: a randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Juergen Thomas; Diener, Isabel Victoria; Freiberg, Kerstin; Zillmann, Robert; Shah-Hosseini, Kija; Seifert, Harald; Berger-Schreck, Bettina; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar

    2016-12-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections affect patients in surgical and intensive care settings worldwide, causing complications, aggravation of existing symptoms and increased length of stay. The trial aimed at comparing two registered skin antiseptics with respect to their residual and therefore infection-preventing effects. In a parallel, monocentric, prospective, triple-blind, randomized trial the difference in bacterial recolonization of catheter skin sites in central venous (CVC) and epidural catheters (EC) was investigated by comparing two alcoholic-based skin disinfectants. Patients receiving planned surgeries or intensive care were eligible for the trial. Those in the trial group received skin disinfection with the additive octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) (n = 51), those in the control group were treated with benzalkonium chloride as additive (BAC) (n = 59) prior to catheter insertion. Randomization was carried out by assigning patients to groups week-wise. Endpoints of the investigation were skin colonization of the catheter site counted in colony forming units per swab at three time points: (1) prior to catheter insertion, on untreated skin; (2) directly after catheter insertion, prior to sterile coverage; (3) 48 h after catheter insertion. The hypothesis was tested by a Wilcoxon test with a two-sided alpha = 5 %. From second to third swab, recolonization of the catheter-surrounding skin was significantly lower in the trial group for both sorts of catheters: delta 2-3 OCT group: 0.72 (95 % CI: 0.42; 1.02); delta 2-3 BAC group: 1.97 (95 % CI: 1.45; 2.50); p < 0.001. None of the patients enrolled developed a catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) during follow-up. Previous studies have shown that skin colonization is strongly associated with the occurrence of CRBSI. This randomized controlled trial supports the observations made in previous trials that octenidine dihydrochloride in disinfectants is more effective than agents

  11. Antiseptic effect of vicenin-2 and scolymoside from Cyclopia subternata (honeybush) in response to HMGB1 as a late sepsis mediator in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhwa; Yoon, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Min; Park, Dong Ho; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2015-08-01

    Cyclopia subternata is a medicinal plant commonly used in traditional medicine to relieve pain. In this study, we investigated the antiseptic effects and underlying mechanisms of vicenin-2 and scolymoside, which are 2 active compounds from C. subternata that act against high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)-mediated septic responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice. The antiseptic activities of vicenin-2 and scolymoside were determined by measuring permeability, neutrophil adhesion and migration, and activation of proinflammatory proteins in HMGB1-activated HUVECs and mice. According to the results, vicenin-2 and scolymoside effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced release of HMGB1, and suppressed HMGB1-mediated septic responses such as hyperpermeability, the adhesion and migration of leukocytes, and the expression of cell adhesion molecules. In addition, vicenin-2 and scolymoside suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 6, and activation of nuclear factor-κB and extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 by HMGB1. Collectively, these results indicate that vicenin-2 and scolymoside could be a potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various severe vascular inflammatory diseases via inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway.

  12. Antiseptic Effect of Conventional Povidone-Iodine Scrub, Chlorhexidine Scrub, and Waterless Hand Rub in a Surgical Room: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jui-Chen; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Huang, Yen-Jung; Loh, El-Wui; Wen, Hsiao-Yun; Wang, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Yin-Tai; Hsieh, Wen-Shyang; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Effective perioperative hand antisepsis is crucial for the safety of patients and medical staff in surgical rooms. The antimicrobial effectiveness of different antiseptic methods, including conventional hand scrubs and waterless hand rubs, has not been well evaluated. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the 3 antiseptic methods among surgical staff of Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital. For each method used, a group of 80 participants was enrolled. INTERVENTION Surgical hand cleansing with conventional 10% povidone-iodine scrub, conventional 4% chlorhexidine scrub, or waterless hand rub (1% chlorhexidine gluconate and 61% ethyl alcohol). RESULTS Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were collected using the hand imprinting method before and after disinfection and after surgery. After surgical hand disinfection, the mean CFU counts of the conventional chlorhexidine (0.5±0.2, Pantiseptic method (P=.0036), but not other variables, predicted the mean CFU count. CONCLUSIONS Conventional chlorhexidine scrub and waterless hand rub were superior to a conventional povidone-iodine product in bacterial inhibition. We recommend using conventional chlorhexidine scrub as a standard method for perioperative hand antisepsis. Waterless hand rub may be used if the higher cost is affordable. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:417-422.

  13. Effect of the hand antiseptic agents benzalkonium chloride, povidone-iodine, ethanol, and chlorhexidine gluconate on atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakane, Kaori; Ichinose, Takamichi

    2015-01-01

    Antiseptic agents can cause skin irritation and lead to severe problems, especially for individuals with atopic diatheses. We investigated the effect of 4 different antiseptic agents using an atopic dermatitis (AD) model mouse. NC/Nga mice were subcutaneously injected with mite allergen (Dp) to induce AD-like skin lesions (ADSLs), and an application of 0.2% (w/v) benzalkonium chloride (BZK), 10% (w/v) povidone-iodine (PVP-I), 80% (v/v) ethanol (Et-OH), or 0.5% (v/v) chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was applied to the ear envelope. BZK induced a significant increase in the severity of the clinical score, infiltration of inflammatory cells, local expression of inflammatory cytokines in subcutaneous tissue, and total serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E. PVP-I increased the clinical score, number of mast cells, and production of inflammatory cytokines, and total serum IgE. Et-OH increased the clinical score and number of inflammatory cells, but showed no effect on serum IgE levels. No differences in any parameters were observed between CHG and the vehicle. Collectively, the results suggest the severity of the ADSL was related in part to the strength of the immunoreaction. These findings suggest that CHG could offer the lowest risk of inducing ADSL in individuals with atopic dermatitis and that medical staff and food handlers with AD could benefit from its use.

  14. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia, mortality and all intensive care unit acquired infections by topically applied antimicrobial or antiseptic agents: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Claudia; Bianco, Aida; Flotta, Domenico; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pavia, Maria

    2011-06-24

    Given the high morbidity and mortality attributable to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, prevention plays a key role in the management of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. One of the candidate preventive interventions is the selective decontamination of the digestive or respiratory tract (SDRD) by topical antiseptic or antimicrobial agents. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effect of topical digestive or respiratory tract decontamination with antiseptics or antibiotics in the prevention of VAP, of mortality and of all ICU-acquired infections in mechanically ventilated ICU patients. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was performed. The U.S. National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database, Embase, and Cochrane Library computerized bibliographic databases, and reference lists of selected studies were used. Selection criteria for inclusion were: randomised controlled trials (RCTs); primary studies; examining the reduction of VAP and/or mortality and/or all ICU-acquired infections in ICU patients by prophylactic use of one or more of following topical treatments: 1) oropharyngeal decontamination using antiseptics or antibiotics, 2) gastrointestinal tract decontamination using antibiotics, 3) oropharyngeal plus gastrointestinal tract decontamination using antibiotics and 4) respiratory tract decontamination using antibiotics; reported enough data to estimate the odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) and their variance; English language; published through June 2010. A total of 28 articles met all inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The overall estimate of efficacy of topical SDRD in the prevention of VAP was 27% (95% CI of efficacy = 16% to 37%) for antiseptics and 36% (95% CI of efficacy = 18% to 50%) for antibiotics, whereas in none of the meta-analyses conducted on mortality was a significant effect found. The effect of topical SDRD in the prevention of all ICU

  15. Comparative effectiveness of skin antiseptic agents in reducing surgical site infections: a report from the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Timo W; Dellinger, E Patchen; Evans, Heather L; Farjah, Farhood; Farrokhi, Ellen; Steele, Scott R; Thirlby, Richard; Flum, David R

    2014-03-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are an important source of morbidity and mortality. Chlorhexidine in isopropyl alcohol is effective in preventing central venous-catheter associated infections, but its effectiveness in reducing SSI in clean-contaminated procedures is uncertain. Surgical studies to date have had contradictory results. We aimed to further evaluate the relationship of commonly used antiseptic agents and SSI, and to determine if isopropyl alcohol has a unique effect. We performed a prospective cohort analysis to evaluate the relationship of commonly used skin antiseptic agents and SSI for patients undergoing mostly clean-contaminated surgery from January 2011 through June 2012. Multivariate regression modeling predicted expected rates of SSI. Risk adjusted event rates (RAERs) of SSI were compared across groups using proportionality testing. Among 7,669 patients, the rate of SSI was 4.6%. The RAERs were 0.85 (p = 0.28) for chlorhexidine (CHG), 1.10 (p = 0.06) for chlorhexidine in isopropyl alcohol (CHG+IPA), 0.98 (p = 0.96) for povidone-iodine (PVI), and 0.93 (p = 0.51) for iodine-povacrylex in isopropyl alcohol (IPC+IPA). The RAERs were 0.91 (p = 0.39) for the non-IPA group and 1.10 (p = 0.07) for the IPA group. Among elective colorectal patients, the RAERs were 0.90 (p = 0.48) for CHG, 1.04 (p = 0.67) for CHG+IPA, 1.04 (p = 0.85) for PVI, and 1.00 (p = 0.99) for IPC+IPA. For clean-contaminated surgical cases, this large-scale state cohort study did not demonstrate superiority of any commonly used skin antiseptic agent in reducing the risk of SSI, nor did it find any unique effect of isopropyl alcohol. These results do not support the use of more expensive skin preparation agents. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term efficacy of Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation vs. liquid paraffin plus antiseptic cream in the treatment of recurrent epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Qiu, Rongxing; Wei, Chunsheng

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation with that of liquid paraffin plus antiseptic cream in the management of recurrent epistaxis. Eighty consecutive patients who suffered from recurrent anterior epistaxis presented to the Otolaryngology Department at the Eye and ENT Hospital, Fudan University between February 2011 and June 2011. These patients with histories of recurrent epistaxis were randomly assigned to receive treatment in an outpatient setting consisting of either a combination of liquid paraffin plus antiseptic cream (Group 1) or Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation (Group 2). the following outcome measures were assessed: bleeding intensity; bleeding frequency 2 years after treatment (0 = no bleeding, 1 = reduced bleeding, 2 = the same, 3 = worse), participant's perception of discomfort during the management (grade 0-10, where 10 is the worst pain), and complications. Finally, 70 patients remain in our study. At 2 years, 86 % of laser patients versus 31 % of control patients had no reported bleeding. The outcome score at 2 years after treatment showed a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.000, P < 0.01). The median and mean ± SD pain levels experienced were 5.0 and 5.2 ± 2.2. Both groups had no complications. It can be further concluded that Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation is a preferable therapy in the treatment of recurrent epistaxis in long-term efficacy. The level of pain associated with the procedure was well tolerated. It is a simple, easy, safe and rapid therapy, which can be performed in an office setting.

  17. Oral nitrite circumvents antiseptic mouthwash-induced disruption of enterosalivary circuit of nitrate and promotes nitrosation and blood pressure lowering effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Lucas C; Ferreira, Graziele C; Amaral, Jefferson H; Portella, Rafael L; Tella, Sandra de O C; Passos, Madla A; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2016-12-01

    The nitric oxide (NO • ) metabolites nitrite and nitrate exert antihypertensive effects by mechanisms that involve gastric formation of S-nitrosothiols. However, while the use of antiseptic mouthwash (AM) is known to attenuate the responses to nitrate by disrupting its enterosalivary cycle, there is little information about whether AM attenuates the effects of orally administered nitrite. We hypothesized that the antihypertensive effects of orally administered nitrite would not be prevented by AM because, in contrast to oral nitrate, oral nitrite could promote S-nitrosothiols formation in the stomach without intereference by AM. Chronic effects of oral nitrite or nitrate were studied in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats (and normotensive controls) treated with AM (or vehicle) once/day. We found that orally administered nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects that were not affected by AM. This finding contrasts with lack of antihypertensive responses to oral nitrate in 2K1C hypertensive rats treated with AM. Nitrite and nitrate treatments increased plasma nitrites, nitrates, and S-nitrosothiols concentrations. However, while treatment with AM attenuated the increases in plasma nitrite concentrations after both nitrite and nitrate treatments, AM attenuated the increases in S-nitrosothiols in nitrate-treated rats, but not in nitrite-treated rats. Moreover, AM attenuated vascular S-nitrosylation (detected by the SNO-RAC method) after nitrate, but not after nitrite treatment. Significant correlations were found between the hypotensive responses and S-nitrosothiols, and vascular S-nitrosylation levels. These results show for the first time that oral nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects notwithstanding the fact that antiseptic mouthwash disrupts the enterosalivary circulation of nitrate. Our results support a major role for S-nitrosothiols formation resulting in vascular S-nitrosylation as a key mechanism for the antihypertensive effects of both oral

  18. Prevention of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infections: Single Operator Technique with Use of Povidone-Iodine, Double Gloving, Meticulous Aseptic/Antiseptic Measures and Antibiotic Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Antonis S; Melita, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation is complicated by infection still at a worrisome rate of 2-5%. Since early on during device implantation procedures, we have adopted an infection-preventive technique which has hitherto resulted in effective prevention of infections. Herein we present our results of applying this technique by a single operator in a prospective series of 762 consecutive patients undergoing device implantation. A meticulous search for and treatment of active, occult, or smoldering infection was undertaken preoperatively. An aseptic/antiseptic technique was used for implantation of each device. Skin preparation is thorough with initial cleansing performed with alcohol followed by povidone-iodine 10% solution, which is also used in the wound and inside the pocket. In addition, we routinely use double gloving, and IV antibiotic prophylaxis 1 hour before and for 48 hours afterwards followed by oral antibiotic for 2-3 days after discharge. The skin is closed with absorbable sutures. The study includes 382 patients having a new pacemaker (n = 333) or battery change, system upgrade or lead revision (n = 49), and 380 patients having a new implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (n = 296) or device replacement/upgrade/lead revision (n = 84). The pacemaker group, aged 70.2 ± 16.5 years, includes 18% VVI, 49% DDD, 29% VDD, and 4% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The ICD group, aged 61.3 ± 13.0 years, with a mean ejection fraction of 36 ± 13%, includes 325 ICD and 55 CRT implants. Over 26.6 ± 33.4 months for the pacemaker group and 36.6 ± 38.3 months for the ICD group, infection occurred in one patient in each group (0.26%) having a device replacement. A consistent and strict approach of aseptic/antiseptic technique with the use of double gloving and povidone-iodine solution within the pocket plus a 4-day regimen of antibiotic prophylaxis minimizes infections in CIED implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Short communication: The effect of 4 antiseptic compounds on umbilical cord healing and infection rates in the first 24 hours in dairy calves from a commercial herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A L; Timms, L L; Stalder, K J; Tyler, H D

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 4 antiseptic compounds on the healing rate and incidence of infection of umbilical cords in newborn calves (n=60). Late gestation Jersey cows were monitored at a commercial farm (Sioux Jersey, Salix, IA) and newborn purebred (n=30) and crossbred (n=30) calves were obtained within 30min after birth. Calves were alternately assigned by birth order to 4 treatment groups: 7% tincture of iodine, 0.1% chlorine created using a novel chlorine disinfectant technology, chlorohexidine gluconate 4.0% wt/vol, and 10% trisodium citrate. Prior to dipping (within 30min of birth), diameter of the umbilical cords (as an indicator of cord drying and healing) were determined using digital calipers. In addition, as an indicator of umbilical infections, surface temperature of the umbilical stump (along with a reference point at the midpoint of the sternum) was determined using a dual-laser infrared thermometer. These measurements were all repeated at 24±1 h of age. All data were analyzed using mixed model methods. All models included fixed effects of breed (Jersey or Jersey cross), sex (bull or heifer), and treatment. Fixed effect interactions were not included in the statistical model due to the relatively small sample size. No treatment differences were noted for healing rate of umbilical cords. Initially, mean umbilical cord diameter was 22.84±3.89mm and cords healed to a mean diameter of 7.64±4.12mm at 24 h of age. No umbilical infections were noted for calves on any treatment during the course of this study. Mean surface temperature of the umbilical stump was 33.1±2.2°C at birth (1.5±1.6°C higher than the sternal reference temperature), and at 24±1 h of age the mean temperature of the umbilical stump was 33.0±4.3°C (0.5±1.8°C lower than the sternal reference temperature). These data suggest that these antiseptic compounds are equally effective for preventing infections and permitting healing of the umbilical cord

  20. The Effect of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy With Antiseptic Instillation on Biofilm Formation in a Porcine Model of Infected Spinal Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devinder P; Gowda, Arvind U; Chopra, Karan; Tholen, Michael; Chang, Sarah; Mavrophilipos, Vasilios; Semsarzadeh, Nina; Rasko, Yvonne; Holton Iii, Luther

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluates the effect of negative pressure wound therapy with antiseptic instillation (NPWTi) in the clearance of infection and biofilm formation in an in vivo model of infected spinal implants compared to traditional treatment modalities. Five pigs underwent titanium rod implantation of their spinous processes followed by injection of 1 x 106 CFUs/100μL of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus through the fascia at each site. At 1 week postoperatively, an experimental arm of 3 pigs received NPWTi, and a control arm of 2 pigs received wet-to-dry dressings. The persistence of local infection in the experimental group was compared to the control group using tissue cultures. Biofilm development on spinal implants was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Mean bacterial count showed a statistical difference between the experimental and the control groups (P < .05). Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of uniform biofilm formation across the surface of control group instrumentation, whereas the experimental group showed interrupted areas between biofilm formations. The authors concluded that NPWTi is associated with decreased bacterial load and biofilm formation compared to wet-to-dry dressings in an in vivo porcine model of infected spinal instrumentation.

  1. Optimal skin antiseptic agents for prevention of surgical site infection in cesarean section: a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaping; Li, Guirong; Wang, Haiyan; He, Mei

    2017-08-30

    The best choice of antiseptic agent for skin preparation at cesarean section remains controversial. We performed this meta-analysis to assess whether chlorhexidine (CH)-based skin antisepsis was more effective than povidone iodine (PI)-based antisepsis for the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) after cesarean section. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched to identify English publications that compared chlorhexidine gluconate (CH) as a skin preparation agent with PI in cesarean section. The primary outcome was SSI rate. Review Manager 5.3 was used to analyze the collected data and trial sequential analysis (TSA) Software 0.9 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK) beta was applied to estimate whether the overall pooled outcome was conclusive. Six articles involving 4385 participants were included in this study. The outcomes showed that CH-based skin antisepsis, compared with PI-based antisepsis, was not associated with a decreased overall rate of SSI (risk ratio [RR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.02; p = .07). TSA indicated that the current available evidence was inconclusive. There were no differences in adverse skin reactions in the two groups. This study provides evidence that CH-based antisepsis for skin preparation does not show an additional advantage in reducing risk of SSI after cesarean section. However, additional high-quality, randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  2. Evidence for a Standardized Preadmission Showering Regimen to Achieve Maximal Antiseptic Skin Surface Concentrations of Chlorhexidine Gluconate, 4%, in Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Lee, Cheong J; Krepel, Candace J; Spencer, Maureen; Leaper, David; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian D; Rossi, Peter J; Malinowski, Michael J; Seabrook, Gary R

    2015-11-01

    To reduce the amount of skin surface bacteria for patients undergoing elective surgery, selective health care facilities have instituted a preadmission antiseptic skin cleansing protocol using chlorhexidine gluconate. A Cochrane Collaborative review suggests that existing data do not justify preoperative skin cleansing as a strategy to reduce surgical site infection. To develop and evaluate the efficacy of a standardized preadmission showering protocol that optimizes skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate and to compare the findings with the design and methods of published studies on preoperative skin preparation. A randomized prospective analysis in 120 healthy volunteers was conducted at an academic tertiary care medical center from June 1, 2014, to September, 30, 2014. Data analysis was performed from October 13, 2014, to October 27, 2014. A standardized process of dose, duration, and timing was used to maximize antiseptic skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate applied during preoperative showering. The volunteers were randomized to 2 chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, showering groups (2 vs 3 showers), containing 60 participants each, and 3 subgroups (no pause, 1-minute pause, or 2-minute pause before rinsing), containing 20 participants each. Volunteers used 118 mL of chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, for each shower. Skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate were analyzed using colorimetric assay at 5 separate anatomic sites. Individual groups were analyzed using paired t test and analysis of variance. Preadmission showers using chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%. The primary outcome was to develop a standardized approach for administering the preadmission shower with chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, resulting in maximal, persistent skin antisepsis by delineating a precise dose (volume) of chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%; duration (number of showers); and timing (pause) before rinsing. The mean (SD) composite chlorhexidine gluconate

  3. In vitro treatment of Candida albicans biofilms on denture base material with volume dielectric barrier discharge plasma (VDBD) compared with common chemical antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Rutger; Jablonowski, Lukasz; Koban, Ina; Quade, Antje; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Schlueter, Rabea; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Kramer, Axel; Kocher, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    To prevent oral candidiasis, it is crucial to inactivate Candida-based biofilms on dentures. Common denture cleansing solutions cannot sufficiently inactivate Candida albicans. Therefore, we investigated the anticandidal efficacy of a physical plasma against C. albicans biofilms in vitro. Argon or argon plasma with 1 % oxygen admixture was applied on C. albicans biofilms grown for 2, 7, or 16 days on polymethylmethacrylate discs; 0.1 % chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and 0.6 % sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions served as positive treatment controls. In addition, these two solutions were applied in combination with plasma for 30 min to assess potential synergistic effects. The anticandidal efficacy was determined by the number of colony forming units (CFU) in log(10) and expressed as reduction factor (RF, the difference between control and treated specimen). On 2-day-biofilms, plasma treatment alone or combined with 30 min CHX treatment led to significant differences of means of CFU (RF = 4.2 and RF = 4.3), clearly superior to CHX treatment alone (RF = 0.6). Plasma treatment of 7-day-or 16-day-old biofilms revealed no significant CFU reduction. The treatment of 7-day-old (RF = 1.7) and 16-day-old (RF = 1.3) biofilms was slightly more effective with NaOCl alone than with the combined treatment of NaOCl and plasma (RF = 1.6/RF = 1.9). The combination of CHX and plasma increased the RF immaterially. The use of plasma alone and in combination with antiseptics is promising anticandidal regimens for daily use on dentures when biofilms are not older than 2 days. Plasma could help to reduce denture-associated candidiasis.

  4. Prevalence of antiseptic resistance genes increases in staphylococcal isolates from orthokeratology lens wearers over initial six-month period of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang-Sen, Shi; Boost, Maureen; Cho, Pauline

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antiseptic-resistance (QAC) genes in staphylococci colonizing periorbital tissues and accessories of orthokeratology (ortho-k) lens wearers over a 6-month period and determine the effect of their presence on minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of disinfectants and log reduction of multipurpose contact lens solutions (MPS). Staphylococci were isolated from periorbital tissues and accessories of patients before commencing ortho-k therapy and at two subsequent visits. Presence of QAC genes in 116 S. aureus and 67 CNS isolates was determined by PCR and association with period of ortho-k use determined. MICs and MBCs of staphylococci gene-positive were compared with gene-negative strains and the effectiveness of four MPS for rigid contact lenses investigated. S. aureus carriage rates in the conjunctiva decreased significantly from 41.2 % (baseline) to 11.8 % (3-months), and 13.3 % (6-months) (p trend 0.03), while CNS increased from 58.8 %(baseline) to 94.1 % (3-months), and 93.3 % (6-months) (p trend 0.02). Prevalence of qacA/B increased considerably over time (S. aureus: 4.4 % to 15.4 %, CNS: 6.7 % to 25 %), but frequency of smr was relatively stable. Only five CNS isolates harboured qacH. MICs and MBCs of gene-positive isolates were significantly increased and three MPS did not achieve a 3-log reduction of many QAC-positive strains. Ortho-k lens wear contributed to changes of staphylococcal carriage rates in the conjunctival sac. Use of MPS containing quaternary ammonium compounds may select for the carriage of organisms harbouring QAC genes, as the low concentration of disinfecting agents is not adequate for killing gene-positive strains.

  5. Influence of antiseptic on the impurities in the preparation of dimercaptosuccinic labelled with {sup 99m}Tc; Influence des antiseptiques sur la presence d'impuretes dans la preparation de l'acide dimercaptosuccinique marque au 99mTc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metaye, T.; Rosenberg, T.; Perdrisot, R. [CHU de Poitiers, Service de medecine nucleaire et biophysique, 86 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: antiseptic solutions are used to disinfect the rubber stoppers on the bottles of radiopharmaceutical. Small amounts of these solutions can pass into the bottle when the cap is pricked to inject the {sup 99m}Tc. After finding in a patient a suboptimal labelling using biseptin, we studied the effect of various antiseptics on the presence of impurities in the preparation of the dimercaptosuccinic acid labelled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-D.M.S.A.). Conclusions: We recommend using 70% isopropanol or modified alcohol Cooper instead of biseptin to disinfect the D.M.S.A. bottles caps. (N.C.)

  6. [Antiseptic effect of compound lysostaphin disinfectant and its preventive effect on infection of artificial dermis after graft on full-thickness skin defect wound in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J; Zhou, H; Cui, Z C; Wang, L; Luo, P F; Ji, S Z; Hu, X Y; Ma, B; Wang, G Y; Zhu, S H; Xia, Z F

    2018-04-20

    Objective: To study the antiseptic effect of compound lysostaphin disinfectant and its preventive effect on infection of artificial dermis after graft on full-thickness skin defect wound in rats. Methods: (1) Each one standard strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were selected. Each 20 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were collected from those isolated from wound exudates of burn patients hospitalized in our wards from January 2014 to December 2016 according to the random number table. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of compound lysostaphin disinfectant to above-mentioned strains were detected. The experiment was repeated 3 times. Compared with the corresponding standard strain, the clinical strain with higher MIC and/or MBC was considered as having decreased sensitivity to the disinfectant. The percentage of strains of each of the three kinds of bacteria with decreased sensitivity was calculated. (2) Artificial dermis pieces were soaked in compound lysostaphin disinfectant for 5 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h, respectively, with 21 pieces at each time point. After standing for 0 (immediately), 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 h (with 3 pieces at each time point), respectively, the diameters of their inhibition zones to standard strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were measured. The experiment was repeated 3 times. The shortest soaking time corresponding to the longest standing time, after which the disinfectant-soaked artificial dermis could form an effective inhibition zone (with diameter more than 7 mm), was the sufficient soaking time of the disinfectant to the artificial dermis. (3) Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into post injury day (PID) 3, 7, 14, and 21 sampling groups according to the random number table, with 10 rats in each group. A full-thickness skin

  7. Development and evaluation of hexaplex PCR for rapid detection of methicillin, cadmium/zinc and antiseptic-resistant staphylococci, with simultaneous identification of PVL-positive and -negative Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sasmita; Kar, Sarita; Choudhury, Ranginee; Sharma, Savitri; Singh, Durg V

    2014-03-01

    We developed a multiplex PCR to detect the presence of methicillin- (mecA), cadmium/zinc-(czrC) and antiseptic-resistant (qacA/B) staphylococci and to identify Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive and -negative Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from infected and healthy eyes. The assay was validated on 177 staphylococci comprising of 55 each of S. aureus and CoNS isolated from infected eyes and five S. aureus and 62 CoNS isolated from healthy eyes and nine direct ocular samples. Nine direct ocular samples for in situ testing consisted of corneal scrapings (4), conjunctiva swabs (2) and others (3). Multiplex PCR result was correlated with genotype data obtained with single PCR and dot-blot assay. The control strains that were positive in multiplex PCR for 16S rRNA, nuc, mecA, pvl, czrC and qacA/B genes were also positive in the dot-blot assay. The specificity of amplified genes obtained with reference strains was further confirmed by DNA sequencing. The single step-hexaplex PCR method can be used for rapid detection of mecA, nuc, pvl, czrC and qacA/B genes in staphylococci with simultaneous identification of PVL-positive and -negative S. aureus and CoNS from a variety of ocular samples. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro activity of antifungal and antiseptic agents against dermatophyte isolates from patients with tinea pedis Atividade in vitro de antifúngicos e anti-sépticos frente a dermatófitos isolados de pacientes com tinea pedis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magali Stelato Rocha Soares

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activity of antifungal and antiseptic agents were evaluated against dermatophytes isolated from patients with tinea pedis. The antifungals studied were: ciclopirox olamine, cetoconazole, tolciclate and terbinafine, and the antiseptics were: povidine iodine (PVPI, propolis, Fungol®, Andriodermol®, and boric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC or the minimal dilution concentration (MDC was determined by an agar dilution method using modified yeast nitrogen agar base, and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC or minimum fungicidal dilution (MFD was determined with subcultures on Sabouraud dextrose agar. All drugs studied were active against the dermatophytes at lower concentrations than those used in products and/or pharmaceutical preparations for topical use. Some antifungal agents, mainly terbinafine and tolciclate, presented higher efficacy than the other drugs, with lower MICs and MFCs values. It was concluded that the use of these antiseptic drugs represent an excellent alternative for the topical treatment of tinea pedis. For the treatment of severe cases these are the antifungal agents of choice.A atividade in vitro de antifúngicos e anti-sépticos foram avaliadas frente a dermatófitos isolados de pacientes com tinea pedis. Os antifúngicos estudados foram: ciclopirox olamine, cetoconazol, tolciclato e terbinafina, e os anti-sépticos foram: iodo povidine (PVPI, própolis, Fungol®, Andriodermol®e ácido bórico. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM ou a diluição inibitória mínima (DIM foi determinada pelo método de diluição em ágar utilizando "yeast nitrogen" base modificado, e a concentração fungicida mínima (CFM ou diluição fungicida mínima (DFM foi determinada por subcultura em Saboraud dextrose ágar. Todas as drogas estudadas foram ativas frente aos dermatófitos em concentrações menores do que as utilizadas em produtos e/ou preparações farmacêuticas para uso tópico. Alguns

  9. Types of urethral catheter for reducing symptomatic urinary tract infections in hospitalised adults requiring short-term catheterisation: multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of antimicrobial- and antiseptic-impregnated urethral catheters (the CATHETER trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, R; Lam, T; Maclennan, G; Starr, K; Kilonzo, M; McPherson, G; Gillies, K; McDonald, A; Walton, K; Buckley, B; Glazener, C; Boachie, C; Burr, J; Norrie, J; Vale, L; Grant, A; N'dow, J

    2012-11-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a major preventable cause of harm for patients in hospital and incurs significant costs for health-care providers such as the UK NHS. Many preventative strategies and measures have been introduced to minimise CAUTI risk, including the use of antimicrobial catheters. However, there is considerable uncertainty regarding their usefulness in terms of reducing symptomatic CAUTI, and whether or not they are cost-effective. Do antimicrobial catheters reduce the rate of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) during short-term hospital use and is their use cost-effective for the UK NHS? A pragmatic multicentre UK randomised controlled trial comparing three catheters as they would be used in the UK NHS: antimicrobial-impregnated (nitrofurazone) and antiseptic-coated (silver alloy) catheters with the standard polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-coated catheters. Economic evaluation used a decision model populated with data from the trial. Sensitivity analysis was used to explore uncertainty. Relevant clinical departments in 24 NHS hospitals throughout the UK. Adults requiring temporary urethral catheterisation for a period of between 1 and 14 days as part of their care, predominantly as a result of elective surgery. Eligible participants were randomised 1 : 1 : 1 to one of three types of urethral catheter in order to make the following pragmatic comparisons: nitrofurazone-impregnated silicone catheter compared with standard PTFE-coated latex catheter; and silver alloy-coated hydrogel latex catheter compared with standard PTFE-coated latex catheter. The primary outcome for clinical effectiveness was the incidence of UTI at any time up to 6 weeks post randomisation. This was defined as any symptom reported during catheterisation, up to 3 days or 1 or 2 weeks post catheter removal or 6 weeks post randomisation combined with a prescription of antibiotics, at any of these times, for presumed symptomatic UTI. The primary economic

  10. Macroscopic and microscopic study of tissue response to oral antiseptics and its influence on carcinigenesis Estudo macro e microscópico da resposta tecidual frente ao uso de anti-sépticos bucais e sua influência na carcinogênese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Lopes Cardoso

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have related the action of alcohol on the oral mucosa as a promoter of carcinogenesis, once most oral antiseptics contain alcohol. Its utilization for mouthrinses from 30 to 60 seconds, as indicated on the labels, yields a longer-lasting topical action when compared to the intake of alcoholic beverages. This study aimed at conducting a macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the tissue response of tongue mucosa of hamsters to daily topical applications of antiseptics (Anapyon, Listerine, Oral B during 13 and 20 weeks, following the methodology for carcinogenesis investigation developed by the Discipline of Pathology of Bauru Dental School, University of São Paulo. After sacrificing the animals, their tongues were removed and fixed on 10% formalin. Macroscopic examination did not reveal significant alterations, and the specimens were processed by routine histotechnical procedures for HE staining. Three serial sections of each tongue were evaluated, and characteristics related to epithelial hyperkeratinization, atrophy, hyperplasia and dysplasia were organized in tables. Despite the observation for moderate dysplasia in one case in the Anapyon 20 week group, the further results were very similar to the control group (saline solution, eliminating the need of comparative statistical tests. By means of such methodology for testing the carcinogenesis-initiating action, it was concluded that oral antiseptics are unable to trigger the development of neoplasms.Estudos associam a ação do álcool na mucosa bucal como promotora da carcinogênese e a maioria dos anti-sépticos bucais contém álcool. Sua utilização com bochechos de 30 a 60 segundos indicados nos frascos possui ação tópica mais duradoura em comparação com a ingestão de bebidas alcoólicas. Este estudo objetivou analisar macro e microscopicamente a resposta tecidual da mucosa lingual de hamsters após aplicações tópicas diárias de anti-sépticos (Anapyon, Listerine, Oral

  11. Microbiological evaluation of different antiseptic povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine formulations after intentional contamination of containers Evaluación microbiológica de las diferentes formulaciones antisépticas, polivinil-pirrolidona-yodo y clorexidina, después de la contaminación intencional de los recipientes Avaliação microbiológica das diferentes formulações anti-sépticas, polivinilpirrolidona-iodo e clorexidina, após contaminação intencional das almotolias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Moreira Padovani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the survival rate of microorganisms within different antiseptic formulations - povidone-iodine (PVP-I and chlorhexidine (CHX - after intentional contamination, and to establish the minimum care necessary to ensure sterilization of non-disposable antiseptic solution containers. A laboratory study was performed with 180 antiseptic containers, which were contaminated with Serratia marcescens [1 x 105 UFC/mL]. The containers were closed and stored, at room temperature, during seven days and shaken daily. The antiseptic cultures were evaluated to be 100% negative to Serratia marcescens in all of the non-disposable containers. These results suggested that antiseptic solutions inactivate microorganisms [1 x 105 UFC/mL]. Since cleaned antiseptic containers have around 102 UFC coming from tap water, it can be inferred that cleansing is a safe minimum procedure to ensure reuse of containers for distribution of CHX and PVP-I solutions in aqueous, detergent and alcoholic formulations.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar la sobre vivencia de los micro organismos en las diferentes formulaciones de los antisépticos clorexidina (CHX y polivinil-pirrolidona-yodo (PVP-Y, después de una contaminación intencional de los recipientes y extrapolar los resultados de los laboratorios para el cuidado mínimo a ser dispensado a los recipientes de múltiple uso para el envase de los antisépticos probados. Para esto, fue desarrollado un estudio de laboratorio, en que 180 recipientes fueron contaminados con 1 x 105 UFC/mL de suspensión conteniendo S.marcescens. Después de la contaminación, seis diferentes formulaciones de antisépticos (clorexidina y PVP-Y en los vehículos alcohólico, detergente y acuoso fueron distribuidos y sometidos a la cultura diaria durante siete días, a fin de verificar se hubo crecimiento del microorganismo. Los resultados de esta investigación permiten recomendar la limpieza como el procedimiento m

  12. Synthesis and characterization of antiseptic soap from neem oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, neem oil and shea butter oil were mixed in various proportions and used in preparing soaps which were subsequently characterized. The combination of Neem oil to Shea butter oil considered were 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 (wt:wt). The physical properties of the prepared soap ...

  13. Evaluation of the antiseptic efficacy and local tolerability of a polihexanide-based antiseptic on resident skin flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli-Gany, Dianne; Brill, Florian H H; Hintzpeter, Matthias; Andrée, Simone; Pavel, Viktoria

    2012-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of polihexanide 0.02% and 0.04% with chlorhexidine 0.05% after 30 minutes of topical treatment on healthy intact skin. This study was performed as a double-blind, randomized, comparator-controlled, 3-arm, crossover study. : A phase I dermatological study unit. Twenty healthy volunteers with intact skin. : Test areas of 5 cm on the subjects' arms were treated with the investigational products using a polyurethane swab. Skin swabs were taken before and after treatment for quantitative microbial evaluation. The main outcome measure was the log reduction factor of colony-forming units on the skin after 30 minutes of treatment. No statistically significant difference was seen between both of the polihexanide test products (mean lgRF polihexanide 0.02%, 1.2251 [SD, 0.9399]; mean lgRF polihexanide 0.04%, 1.8991 [SD, 0.88]) and the comparator, chlorhexidine 0.05% (P > .1). The results of this study indicate that polihexanide is a suitable alternative to chlorhexidine for skin and wound antisepsis.

  14. Pesquisa de Micobactérias Ambientais em água de torneira, luvas e soluções utilizadas em procedimentos cirúrgicos no Hospital Universitário Getúlio Vargas - Manaus/AM Investigation of Environmental Mycobacteria in tap water, surgical gloves and antiseptic solutions used in surgical procedures at the Getúlio Vargas University Hospital, Manaus-AM/Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vallejo Restrepo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se por métodos bacteriológicos (cultivo e moleculares (PCR - Restriction Enzyme Analysis, PRA, a presença de micobactérias ambientais em águas de torneira, soluções e luvas cirúrgicas, utilizadas nas etapas dos procedimentos cirúrgicos executados no centro cirúrgico do Hospital Universitário Getulio Vargas (HUGV, na cidade de Manaus-Amazonas/Brasil. Foram colhidas e analisadas 105 amostras sendo: 24 de águas (colhidas das 2 torneiras existentes no centro cirúrgico, 8 de solução de Povidine e 7 de solução de Clorhexidina, que servem para a higienização das mãos dos cirurgiões; 39 de luvas cirúrgicas (superfícies internas e externas; e 27 de soluções que foram efetivamente utilizadas durante o ato cirúrgico. Por método bacteriológico obteve-se 41 isolados micobacterianos apenas de águas das torneiras. Pelo PRA obteve-se a detecção de DNA micobacteriano somente na amostra de água que forneceu acima de 100 colônias de micobactérias por tubo semeado. Os isolados foram identificados como sendo Mycobacterium celatum perfil 2, M. gordonae perfil 3, M. gordonae perfil 6, M. intracellulare perfil 1, M. lentiflavum perfil 3 e M. mucogenicum perfil 1. O encontro de M. mucogenicum, espécie já incriminada em surtos pós-cirúrgicos, indica que devem ser efetuados procedimentos de limpeza e monitoramento em todos os pontos de distribuição de águas, visando à prevenção de surtos de micobacterioses nosocomiais induzidos pelo uso das águas nas diferentes atividades de manuseio ou higienização dos pacientes submetidos a procedimentos invasivos.Using bacteriological (culture and molecular (PCR - Restriction Enzyme Analysis, PRA methods, we investigated the presence of environmental mycobacteria in tap water, antiseptic solutions and surgical gloves, used in carrying out surgical procedures at the Getúlio Vargas University Hospital Surgical Center, in Manaus -Amazonas/Brazil. Samples (105 were collected and

  15. Antibacterial Chemical Constituent and Antiseptic Herbal Soap from Salvinia auriculata Aubl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioassay-guided isolation of the active extract of Salvinia auriculata Aubl. led to the separation of three main compounds, characterized as stigmasterone, stigmasterol, and friedelinol. The pure form of diketosteroid presented a potential antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 0.01 mg mL−1 against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals with mastitis infections. The active extract also showed a similar result to that previously obtained with pure diketosteroid when tested with the same isolates. The present study’s results demonstrate the potential of this plant as an excipient for the production of antibacterial soaps aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections, especially on small farms.

  16. Antimicrobial and toxicological studies on an antiseptic based on hexachlorophene and destructive distillate of castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M A; Mahmood, I; Basit, N; Ahmed, S; Bukhari, A Q

    1978-01-01

    Bactericidal, bacteriostatic, fungistatic and toxicological evaluaton of an emulsion containing 0.25% hexachlorophene (W/V), 9.5% terpineol (V/V), 1.5% oil of terpentine (V/V), 13% ethanol (V/V), 6% castor oil distillate 1201275 degrees C (V/V) and 6% sodium salt of the residue (W/V) in aqueous medium was performed. The bactericidal concentration for Salmonella typhi was found to be 1:400 which increased to 1:350 in the presence of 5% horse serum. The bacteriostatic concentration of the emulsion varied from organism to organism. A 4% solution of the emulsione was found to be most effective against Microsporum vanbreuseghemii showing an inhibition zone of 7.2 cm and was least effective on Aspergillus niger. 1 to 8% solution of the emulsion given orally or instilled into conjunctival sacs of albino mice indicated lethal and insignificant toxic manifestations respectively but a dose equivalent to 50 mg/Kg given subcutaneously was found to produce a subacute lethal effect in guinea pigs.

  17. Long-term effects of Listerine antiseptic on dental plaque and gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, N M; Charles, C H; Dills, S S

    1989-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic mouthrinses are useful adjuncts to normal oral hygiene and regular professional care for patients whose mechanical plaque removal is less than optimal. Recognizing this, the American Dental Association Council on Dental Therapeutics published guidelines for evaluating the safety and efficacy of products for the control of gingivitis. Four 6-month or longer controlled clinical trials have shown Listerine to be significantly effective in helping prevent the development of both supragingival plaque and gingivitis. Two microbiology studies have demonstrated that no resistant microorganisms, opportunistic microorganisms, or presumptive oral pathogens emerge as a result of long-term, daily Listerine use. Listerine is the first nonprescription mouthrinse to receive the Council on Dental Therapeutics Seal of Acceptance as safe and effective in helping to prevent and reduce supragingival plaque accumulation and gingivitis when used in a conscientiously applied program of oral hygiene and regular professional care.

  18. Antiseptic mouthwash against pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a randomised controlled trial and an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric Pf; Howden, Benjamin P; Walker, Sandra; Lee, David; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Chen, Marcus Y; Snow, Anthony; Cook, Stuart; Fehler, Glenda; Fairley, Christopher K

    2017-03-01

    Gonorrhoea is increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed to determine whether Listerine, a commercial mouthwash product, has an inhibitory effect against Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and an in vitro study, and therefore may be a potentially useful agent for gonorrhoea control. In vitro: a suspension of ∼10 8 colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL) of N. gonorrhoeae was added to a serial of dilutions (up to 1:32) of alcohol-containing Listerine mouthwashes (Cool Mint and Total Care) for 1 min. A 10 µL aliquot was spread over the surface of a gonococcal agar plate and the number of N. gonorrhoeae colonies present at each dilution was calculated. The phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was used as a control. RCT: we recruited MSM with pharyngeal gonorrhoea who returned for treatment at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between May 2015 and February 2016. Untreated men were randomised to rinse and gargle either Listerine Cool Mint or saline for 1 min. Pharyngeal swabs were taken before and after rinsing and gargling for culture of N. gonorrhoeae . The analysis included only men who were culture positive for N. gonorrhoeae before using the allocated solution on the day of recruitment. In vitro: Listerine mouthwashes at dilutions of up to 1:4 for 1 min resulted in significant reduction of total N. gonorrhoeae counts but PBS has no inhibitory effect against N. gonorrhoeae . RCT: a total of 196 MSM were recruited, 58 (30%) were culture positive before using the solution. After gargling the allocated solution, men in the Listerine group were significantly less likely to be culture positive on the pharyngeal surface (52%) compared with men in the saline group (84%) (p=0.013). This data suggest Listerine, significantly reduces the amount of N. gonorrhoeae on the pharyngeal surface. With daily use it may increase gonococcal clearance and have important implications for prevention strategies. ACTRN12615000716561. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Mechanisms of the inhibition of endplate acetylcholine receptors by antiseptic chlorhexidine (experiments and models)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaihutdinova, A.R.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František; Skorinkin, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 380, č. 6 (2009), s. 551-560 ISSN 0028-1298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : acetylcholine * endplate currents Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.631, year: 2009

  20. [Influence of quaternary ammonium salt on liberation of drug with antiseptic effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitková, Zuzana; Herdová, Petra; Oremusová, Jarmila; Cižmárik, Jozef; Tóthová, Katarína

    2013-12-01

    The paper evaluates the influence of three surfactants (carbetopendecinium halogenides) on the liberation of the drug chlorhexidine dihydrochloride (CHX) in 0.1% (w/w) from the dosage form-gel and also the flow properties of gels. The following tensides were evaluated: carbetopendecinium bromide (SB), carbetopendecinium chloride (SC), and carbetopendecinium iodide (SI). The tenside concentration was set under the critical micelle concentration. The biopolymer - chitosan (CHIT) in 2.5% (w/w) concentration was used as a gel creating substance. Based on the flow properties of the studied gels, it was found that the employed tensides exhibited no influence on the character of the system. The gels exhibited the character of plastic systems with time-independent flow. The drug liberation was evaluated at the temperatures of 20, 30 and 40 °C. Between the types of the tensides, the statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found as to the amount of the liberated CHX, which was reflected by the increased amount of the liberated drug. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the most suitable was the SI tenside. From the gel with this tenside the greatest amount of CHX was liberated, which had the highest value of the liberation rate constant.

  1. Analysis of cytotoxic effects of chlorhexidine gluconate as antiseptic agent on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Alami, Bahare; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) on human blood lymphocytes as a useful ex vivo model for accelerated human toxicity studies. Using biochemical and flow cytometry assessments, we demonstrated that addition of CHG at 1 μM concentration to human blood lymphocytes induced cytotoxicity following 6 h. The CHG-induced cytotoxicity on human blood lymphocytes was associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, lysosomal membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of glutathione. According to our results, CHG triggers oxidative stress and organelles damages in lymphocytes which are important cells in defense against foreign agents. Finally our findings suggest that using of antioxidants and mitochondrial/lysosomal protective agents could be of benefit for the people in the exposure with CHG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Photocytotoxicity of a 5-nitrofuran-ethenyl-quinoline antiseptic (Quinifuryl to P388 mouse leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daghastanli N.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinifuryl (MW 449.52, 2-(5'-nitro-2'-furanylethenyl-4-{N-[4'-(N,N-diethylamino-1'-methylbutyl]carbamoyl} quinoline, is a water soluble representative of a family of 5-nitrofuran-ethenyl-quinoline drugs which has been shown to be highly toxic to various lines of transformed cells in the dark. In the present study, the toxicity of Quinifuryl to P388 mouse leukemia cells was compared in the dark and under illumination with visible light (390-500 nm. Illumination of water solutions of Quinifuryl (at concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 9.0 µg/ml in the presence of P388 cells resulted in its photodecomposition and was accompanied by elevated cytotoxicity. A significant capacity to kill P388 cells was detected at a drug concentration as low as 0.09 µg/ml. The toxic effect detected at this drug concentration under illumination exceeded the effect observed in the dark by more than three times. Moreover, the general toxic effect of Quinifuryl, which included cell proliferation arrest, was nearly 100%. Both dose- and time-dependent toxic effects were measured under illumination. The LC50 value of Quinifuryl during incubation with P388 cells was ~0.45 µg/ml under illumination for 60 min and >12 µg/ml in the dark. We have demonstrated that the final products of the Quinifuryl photolysis are not toxic, which means that the short-lived intermediates of Quinifuryl photodecomposition are responsible for the phototoxicity of this compound. The data obtained in the present study are the first to indicate photocytotoxicity of a nitroheterocyclic compound and demonstrate the possibility of its application as a photosensitizer drug for photochemotherapy.

  3. Acquired resistance to chlorhexidine - is it time to establish an 'antiseptic stewardship' initiative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, G

    2016-11-01

    Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is an antimicrobial agent used for different types of applications in hand hygiene, skin antisepsis, oral care, and patient washing. Increasing use raises concern regarding development of acquired bacterial resistance. Published data from clinical isolates with CHG minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were reviewed and compared to epidemiological cut-off values to determine resistance. CHG resistance is rarely found in Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci. In Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Providencia spp. and Enterococcus spp., however, isolates are more often CHG resistant. CHG resistance may be detected in multi-resistant isolates such as extremely drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Isolates with a higher MIC are often less susceptible to CHG for disinfection. Although cross-resistance to antibiotics remains controversial, some studies indicate that the overall exposure to CHG increases the risk for resistance to some antibiotic agents. Resistance to CHG has resulted in numerous outbreaks and healthcare-associated infections. On an average intensive care unit, most of the CHG exposure would be explained by hand hygiene agents when liquid soaps or alcohol-based hand rubs contain CHG. Exposure to sub-lethal CHG concentration may enhance resistance in Acinetobacter spp., K. pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas spp., all species well known for emerging antibiotic resistance. In order to reduce additional selection pressure in nosocomial pathogens it seems to make sense to restrict the valuable agent CHG to those indications with a clear patient benefit and to eliminate it from applications without any benefit or with a doubtful benefit. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antiseptic Effects of New 3'-N-Substituted Carbazole Derivatives In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhwa; Kwak, Soyoung; Yun, Eunju; Lee, Jee Hyun; Na, MinKyun; Song, Gyu-Yong; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2015-08-01

    Inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and restoration of endothelial integrity are emerging as attractive therapeutic strategies in the management of sepsis. Here, new five structurally related 3'-N-substituted carbazole derivatives were examined for their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated release of HMGB1 and on modulation of HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses. We accessed this question by monitoring the effects of posttreatment carbazole derivatives on LPS- and CLP-mediated release of HMGB1 and HMGB1-mediated regulation of proinflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and septic mice. The new 3'-N-substituted carbazole derivatives 1-5 inhibited the release of HMGB1 and downregulated HMGB1-dependent inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells. New compounds also inhibited HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability and leukocyte migration in mice. In addition, treatment with each compound reduced CLP-induced release of HMGB1 and sepsis-related mortality and pulmonary injury in mice. These results indicate that the new 3'-N-substituted carbazole derivatives could be candidate therapeutic agents for various severe vascular inflammatory diseases owing to their inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway.

  5. The efficacy of antiseptic mouth rinses in comparison with dental floss in controlling interproximal gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythri, H.; Ananda, S. R.; Prashant, G. M.; Subba Reddy, V. V.; Chandu, G. N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Maintaining good oral hygiene is important to combat periodontal diseases. The use of tooth brush alone does not serve the purpose, especially in inaccessible areas like proximal embrasures, which demand the use of some adjuncts like proximal cleaning aids. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of two antimicrobial mouth rinses (Cool mint Listerine and 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate) with dental floss in reducing interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque in an unsupervised condition. Materials and Methods: A randomized, controlled, single-blind (observer), parallel-group clinical trial in accordance with the ADA guidelines was conducted for a period of 6 months. Four index age groups (12, 15, 35–44, and 65–74 years) were divided into four groups, i.e., brushing, brushing and flossing, brushing and rinsing with Listerine, and brushing and rinsing with Chlorhexidine, so that each group comprised 40 subjects. Interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque were assessed using Modified Gingival Index, Turesky–Gilmore–Glickman modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index and Gingival Bleeding Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons, followed by Tukey's post hoc for group-wise comparisons. Results: Chlorhexidine and Listerine showed significant reduction in plaque and gingivitis level compared to others, the activity of Chlorhexidine being more significant. Conclusions: The level of interproximal gingivitis control efficacy provided by the Listerine and Chlorhexidine was “at least as good as” that provided by the dental floss. Hence, they can be recommended for the patients with gingivitis as an adjunctive to the usual home care routine. PMID:24478951

  6. Comparative analysis of antibacterial activity of povidone iodine and homoeopathic mother tinctures as antiseptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mohsin Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms the antibacterial activity and more effectiveness of Thuja occidentalis and Rhus glabra mother tinctures than povidone iodine. The other tested mother tinctures also have antibacterial activity against tested bacteria, except Echinacea.

  7. The efficacy of antiseptic mouth rinses in comparison with dental floss in controlling interproximal gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythri, H; Ananda, S R; Prashant, G M; Subba Reddy, V V; Chandu, G N

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining good oral hygiene is important to combat periodontal diseases. The use of tooth brush alone does not serve the purpose, especially in inaccessible areas like proximal embrasures, which demand the use of some adjuncts like proximal cleaning aids. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of two antimicrobial mouth rinses (Cool mint Listerine and 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate) with dental floss in reducing interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque in an unsupervised condition. A randomized, controlled, single-blind (observer), parallel-group clinical trial in accordance with the ADA guidelines was conducted for a period of 6 months. Four index age groups (12, 15, 35-44, and 65-74 years) were divided into four groups, i.e., brushing, brushing and flossing, brushing and rinsing with Listerine, and brushing and rinsing with Chlorhexidine, so that each group comprised 40 subjects. Interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque were assessed using Modified Gingival Index, Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index and Gingival Bleeding Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons, followed by Tukey's post hoc for group-wise comparisons. Chlorhexidine and Listerine showed significant reduction in plaque and gingivitis level compared to others, the activity of Chlorhexidine being more significant. The level of interproximal gingivitis control efficacy provided by the Listerine and Chlorhexidine was "at least as good as" that provided by the dental floss. Hence, they can be recommended for the patients with gingivitis as an adjunctive to the usual home care routine.

  8. A comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of local antiseptics in revision hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Loskutov A.E.; Digtiar A.V.; Stepanskiy D.A.

    2017-01-01

    In our study there is presented information on the research of antagonistic activity of medications octenidine, decamethoxine, dioxydine, myramistin, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine in standard dosage form and in dilution (1:1 and 1:5) on microorganisms: S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolitycus, P. aeruginоsa, E. agglomerans, E. coli isolated from patients in revision hip arthroplasty. A considerable bacrteriostatic and bacreticidal activity of investigated medications on microorganisms was ...

  9. ANTIMICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NEW NATURAL ANTISEPTIC FORMULATION ON NON-INFECTED VENOUS LEG ULCER: PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Binić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous leg ulcers represent a significant public health problem that will increase as the population ages. Numerous herbs and their extracts are potentially conducive to wound healing, including the ability to serve as antimicrobial, antifungal, astringent etc. The aim of the study was to establish the in-vivo antimicrobial effects of herbal hydrogel formulation DermaplantG. The major components of the DermaplantG were the extracts of Allii bulbus, Hyperici herba and extract of Calendulae flos. A total of 12 patients with non-infected venous leg ulcers were treated twice daily, for 5 weeks, with new hydrogel formulation. All ulcers showed clinical signs of contamination or colonization without signs of systemic infection. Premoistening the swab with sterile saline was considered when the surface of the wound was dry. The tip of the swab was rolled on its side in a zigzag pattern for at least one full rotation. Standard methods for isolation and identification of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were used. On baseline assessment, a large number of different types of bacteria were detected in all venous leg ulcers. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were isolated from almost all controls.On baseline, mixed bacterial flora (50% was isolated in six venous leg ulcers (five ulcers with S. aureus-P. aeruginosa and one ulcer with E.coli-Enterobacter spp-P.aeruginosa. At the end of the treatment in DermaplantG group in 8 venous ulcers were detected S. aureus (66.66% and P. aeruginosa (16.66%, and one venous leg ulcers was detected as sterile (8.33%. The number of different types of isolated bacterial species decreased significantly (P<0.05 after the use of DermaplantG herbal preparations. Therapy in DermaplantG group was administered without any side effects.The preliminary results of this pilot study demonstrate potential antimicrobial effects of herbal therapy on non-infected venous leg ulcers.

  10. The efficacy of antiseptic mouth rinses in comparison with dental floss in controlling interproximal gingivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mythri, H.; Ananda, S. R.; Prashant, G. M.; Subba Reddy, V. V.; Chandu, G. N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Maintaining good oral hygiene is important to combat periodontal diseases. The use of tooth brush alone does not serve the purpose, especially in inaccessible areas like proximal embrasures, which demand the use of some adjuncts like proximal cleaning aids. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of two antimicrobial mouth rinses (Cool mint Listerine and 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate) with dental floss in reducing interproximal gingivitis and dental ...

  11. The effect of negative pressure wound therapy with antibacterial dressings or antiseptics on an in vitro wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiasek, J; Domig, K J; Djedovic, G; Babeluk, R; Assadian, O

    2017-05-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial bioburden in experimental in vitro wounds during the application of conventional negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), with and without antimicrobial dressings (polyhexanide, silver), against NPWT instillation of octenidine. Experimental wounds produced in an in vitro porcine wound model were homogenously contaminated with bacterial suspension and treated with NPWT and different options. Group A: non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing; group B: antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing containing silver; group C: antimicrobial gauze dressing containing polyhexanide; group D: non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing intermittently irrigated with octenidine; group E: negative control (non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing without NPWT). Standard biopsies were harvested after 24 and 28 hours. This study demonstrated that the use of NPWT with intermitted instillation of octenidine (group D) or application of silver-based polyurethane foam dressings (group B) is significantly superior against Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in experimental wounds compared with non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing (group A) after 48 hours. Surprisingly, the polyhexanide-based dressing (group C) used in this model showed no statistical significant effect compared with the control group (group E) after 24 or 48 hours of treatment. Both intermitted instillation of octenidine and silver-based dressings in standard NPWT were significantly superior compared with non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressings or PHMB coated gauze dressing after 48 hours.

  12. Antiseptic barrier cap effective in reducing central line-associated bloodstream infections : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voor In 't Holt, Anne F; Helder, Onno K; Vos, Margreet C; Schafthuizen, Laura; Sülz, Sandra; van den Hoogen, Agnes; Ista, Erwin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microorganisms can intraluminally access a central venous catheter via the catheter hub. The catheter hub should be appropriately disinfected to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). However, compliance with the time-consuming manual disinfection process is

  13. Preservation of bovine hide using less salt with low concentration of antiseptic, part I: effectiveness of developed formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine raw hides are commercially cured either with high salt concentration of about half the weight of actual hide or 95% saturated brine solution. This conventional technique is very popular due to the availability of common salt (sodium chloride) and its cost effective procedure but it generates ...

  14. Evaluation of disinfectants and antiseptics to eliminate bacteria from the surface of turkey eggs and hatch gnotobiotic poults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird eggs and are in contact with intestinal microbiota prior to oviposition, but are protected from bacterial translocation by a glycoprotein cuticle layer, the shell and internal membranes. In a preliminary study, turkey eggs were hatched in a germ-free environment. Firmicutes 16S rRNA gene was de...

  15. Comparative study of inactivation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by commonly used antiseptic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croughan, W.S.; Behbehani, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study of the different reactions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to Lysol, Listerine, bleach, rubbing alcohol, Alcide disinfectant (Alcide Corp., Westport, Conn.), and various pHs, temperatures, and UV light exposures was performed. Both types of stock virus (titers of approximately 10(6) and 10(5.5) for types 1 and 2, respectively) were inactivated by 0.5% Lysol in 5 min; by Listerine (1:1 mixtures) in 5 min; by 2000 ppm (2000 microliters/liter) of bleach in 10 min; by rubbing alcohol (1:1 mixtures) at zero time; by Alcide disinfectant (0.2 ml of virus plus 2.0 ml of Alcide) at zero time; by pHs 3, 5, and 11 in 10 min; and by a temperature of 56 degrees C in 30 min. A germicidal lamp at a distance of 48 cm failed to completely inactivate the two types in 15 min. Type 1 showed slightly more resistance to Listerine and bleach and significantly more resistance to heat; moreover, pH 9 did not affect the infectivity of either type after 10 min

  16. Synthesis of New Fluoro-Benzimidazole Derivatives as an Approach towards the Discovery of Novel Intestinal Antiseptic Drug Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Ulviye Acar; Saglik, Begum Nurpelin; Ozkay, Yusuf; Canturk, Zerrin; Bueno, Juan; Demirci, Fatih; Koparal, Ali Savas

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, nineteen new fluoro-benzimidazole derivatives, including nifuroxazide analogs, were synthesized by microwave-supported reactions and tested against a panel of pathogenic microorganisms consisting of resistant strains. The synthesized compounds were characterized and identified by FT-IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analyses, respectively. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of the synthesized compounds were determined by microdilution and by [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay. The compound 4-[5(6)-fluoro-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-N'-(2- methylbenzylidene)]benzohydrazide (18) showed particularly high inhibitory activity against the gastro-intestinal pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Escherichiacoli ATCC 8739, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 13311 standard strains, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC90) ranging from 0.49-0.98 μg/mL. The microbial panel contained a total of ten pathogens including Klebsiella sp., Mycobacterium sp., MRSA, etc., for which the level of inhibitory activity measured was higher than that exhibited by the tested concentrations (MIC > 1000 μg/mL). In vitro cytotoxicity results revealed that the inhibitory concentration (IC50) value (210.23 μg/mL) of compound 18 against CCD 841 CoN cells (human intestinal epithelial cell line) is about 430 times higher than its MIC90 value against the tested Escherichia coli strains. Furthermore, the docking study of compound 18 suggested that its structure is very compatible with the active site pocket of the phosphofructokinase-2 enzyme. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. The efficacy of an essential oil antiseptic mouthrinse vs. dental floss in controlling interproximal gingivitis: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauroth, K; Charles, C H; Mankodi, S M; Simmons, K; Zhao, Q; Kumar, L D

    2003-03-01

    The use of dental floss has long been considered to be effective in controlling interproximal plaque and gingivitis. The authors compared this method with that of use of a mouthrinse. Subjects with mild-to-moderate gingivitis enrolled in a long-term, six-month study. They received a dental prophylaxis and were randomized into one of the three following treatment groups: brushing and rinsing with an essential oil-containing mouthrinse (the BEO group), brushing and flossing (the BF group) and brushing and rinsing with a control rinse (the B group). A total of 326 subjects were evaluated. The BEO and BF had significantly lower (P flossing daily in reducing interproximal plaque and gingivitis. Clinical Implications. When weighing recommendations for oral hygiene home care, clinicians should consider that an essential oil-containing mouthrinse may be a useful adjunct in patients with gingival inflammation.

  18. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feasible, the employer shall provide either an appropriate antiseptic hand cleanser in conjunction with clean cloth/paper towels or antiseptic towelettes. When antiseptic hand cleansers or towelettes are ...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.1030 - Bloodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... antiseptic hand cleanser in conjunction with clean cloth/paper towels or antiseptic towelettes. When antiseptic hand cleansers or towelettes are used, hands shall be washed with soap and running water as soon...

  20. [A Cochrane review on the umbilical cord care and prevention of infections. Antiseptic solutions are not necessary in developed countries but life-saving in developing countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Inge

    2002-03-19

    One million newborn infants die every year by bacterial infections, which often have entered the body via the umbilicus. A Cochrane systematic review on "Topical umbilical cord care at birth" by J Zupan and P Garner is reviewed. Zupan and Garner conclude that simply to keep the umbilical cord dry and clean is sufficient for healthy, term neonates in rich countries; disinfectants do not offer any advantage. However, cleaning the umbilical cord with disinfectants may reduce the risk of serious bacterial infections in babies in poor countries or in neonatal wards. Observational studies in poor countries indicate that the life of numerous infants can be saved if pregnant women are vaccinated against tetanus and disinfectants are substituted for harmful cord care traditions. This Cochrane review is credible, but it should be updated and considered tentative since no data on sepsis are included. The search strategy should be better described and observational studies (case control and cohort studies) from poor countries should be included since there are no randomized control trials from these countries.

  1. [Subcutaneous implantation type central venous port management in patients with malignant tumors effect of different antiseptic agents on central venous port-related infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Junya; Kumagai, Masumi; Kato, Kenichi; Akahane, Akio; Suzuki, Michiko; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Sone, Miyuki; Kudo, Kenzo

    2014-08-01

    Subcutaneous implantation type central venous ports(CV ports)are used in chemotherapy. Here, we prospectively examined the frequency of CV port-related infections when the disinfectant was changed from 10% povidone iodine to 1% chlorhexidine ethanol or 70% ethanol. The subjects were patients with malignant tumors, who had newly been implanted with CV ports. We examined CV port-related infections at 1 week after CV port implantation and every 2 weeks thereafter, following sterilization upon insertion of a Huber needle to the CV port. CV port evulsion due to CV port-related infection was noted in 3 patients(4.8%)in whom 15%chlorhexidine ethanol was used(n=62)and in 2 patients(3.3%)in whom 70% ethanol was used(n=60). Infection rates per 1,000 days of CV port use were 1.48% and 1.01%, respectively. Thus, the outcomes of sterilization using 1% chlorhexidine ethanol and 70% ethanol did not differ significantly from those on using 10% povidone iodine for sterilization, based on preliminary results at our institution(3 of 59 patients[5.1%]had port evulsion due to CV port-related infection and the infection rate per 1,000 days of CV port use was 1.47%, Akahane et al, 2012). Chlorhexidine ethanol and ethanol are very convenient to use because they dry quickly and do not need discoloration. Accordingly, chlorhexidine ethanol and ethanol might be useful in CV port management.

  2. Intra-Operative Surgical Irrigation of the Surgical Incision: What Does the Future Hold-Saline, Antibiotic Agents, or Antiseptic Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Leaper, David J

    2016-12-01

    Intra-operative surgical site irrigation (lavage) is common practice in surgical procedures in general, with all disciplines advocating some form of irrigation before incision closure. This practice, however, has been neither standardized nor is there compelling evidence that it effectively reduces the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). This narrative review addresses the laboratory and clinical evidence that is available to support the practice of irrigation of the abdominal cavity and superficial/deep incisional tissues, using specific irrigation solutions at the end of an operative procedure to reduce the microbial burden at wound closure. Review of PubMed and OVID for pertinent, scientific, and clinical publications in the English language was performed. Incision irrigation was found to afford a three-fold benefit: First, to hydrate the bed; second, to assist in allowing better examination of the area immediately before closure; and finally, by removing superficial and deep incisional contamination and lowering the bioburden, expedite the healing process. The clinical practice of intra-operative peritoneal lavage is highly variable and is dependent solely on surgeon preference. By contrast, intra-operative irrigation after device-related procedures has become a standard of care for the prophylaxis of acute peri-prosthetic infection. The clinical evidence that supports the use of antibiotic irrigation is limited and based on retrospective analysis and few acceptable randomized controlled trials. The results of laboratory and animal studies using aqueous 0.05% chlorhexidine gluconate are favorable, suggesting that further studies are justified to determine its clinical efficacy. The adoption of appropriate and standardized intra-operative irrigation practices into peri-operative care bundles, which include other evidence-based strategies (weight-based antimicrobial prophylaxis, antimicrobial sutures, maintenance of normothermia, and glycemic control), offers an inexpensive and effective method to reduce the risk of post-operative SSI and deserves further evaluation.

  3. Photodynamic Inactivation of Actinomyces naeslundii in Comparison With Chlorhexidine and Polyhexanide--A New Approach for Antiseptic Treatment of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sigurd; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Storz, Enno; Wieser, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Local antimicrobial therapy is a fundamental principle in the treatment of lesions of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as a local application for the treatment of microbial infections has become more widely used in recent years. In the mouth, the bone surface is in constant contact with saliva and thus cannot be kept sterile, making the development of strategies for disinfection even more important. Different methods currently in use include local rinses with chlorhexidine (CHX), polyhexanide (PHX), or aPDT. This study compared the efficiency of these 3 methods. The in vitro activity of 3 different agents against slowly growing Actinomyces naeslundii isolated from a patient with osteonecrosis was evaluated. PHX 0.04% solution, CHX 0.12% solution, and methylene blue (MB) based dye with a laser light of 660-nm wavelength (aPDT) were compared. The decrease in colony-forming units by each method was measured using an in vitro killing assay based on a water-exposed surface in a well plate. MB dye with laser (10 seconds) decreased the bacterial load by more than 4 orders of magnitude and was superior to PHX and CHX exposure for 60 seconds. Laser exposure alone and MB dye exposure alone decreased bacterial loads slightly, but less efficiently than 60-second exposure to PHX or CHX. The most effective means of decreasing colony-forming units was achieved by a combination of laser light and dye, which also can be used clinically. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of face washing with soap and water and cleaning with antiseptics on upper-lid bacteria of surgical eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekibele, Charles O; Kehinde, Aderemi O; Ajayi, Benedictus G K

    2010-12-01

    To determine the effect of face washing with soap and water and cleaning with povidone iodine and cetrimide/chlorhexidine gluconate (Savlon) on upper-lid bacteria. Prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial. Eighty patients attending the Eye Clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Eighty patients assigned to 4 groups had swabs of the upper eyelid skin taken before and after face wash with soap and water, and cleansing with Savlon and 5% povidone iodine. Specimens were cultured and Gram stained. Bacterial counts were carried out using standard techniques. Face washing with soap and water increased the proportion of patients with bacterial isolates from 80.0% to 87.5%. The average colony count increased from 187.1 to 318.5 colony units per mL (p = 0.02). Application of 5% povidone iodine without face washing with soap and water reduced the proportion of patients with bacterial isolates from 82.6% (mean count 196.5) to 28.6% (mean count 34.1)(p = 0.001); in comparison, the application of 5% povidone iodine after face washing with soap and water reduced the proportion from 71.4% (mean count 133.9) to 40.0% (mean count 69.0)(p = 0.01). Application of Savlon without face washing with soap and water reduced the proportion of patients with bacterial isolates from 100% (mean count 310.9) to 41.2% (mean count 19.8)(p = 0.004) compared with the application after face washing, which reduced the proportion from 89.5% (mean count 240.3) to 41.2% (mean count 82.9)(p = 0.02). Both povidone and Savlon are effective in reducing periocular bacteria in an African setting. Prior face washing with soap and water had no added benefit in reducing bacterial colony count.

  5. Validated RP-HPLC and TLC-Densitometric Methods for Analysis of Ternary Mixture of Cetylpyridinium Chloride, Chlorocresol and Lidocaine in Oral Antiseptic Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Nada S; Ali, Nouruddin W; Abdelkawy, M; Emam, Aml A

    2016-03-01

    This work was concerned with development, optimization, application and validation of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometric methods for analysis of cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorocresol and lidocaine in Canyon(®) gel. The first developed RP-HPLC method depended on chromatographic separation on a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C8 column, with elution with a mobile phase consisting of 0.05% phosphoric acid solution : acetonitrile : methanol (15 : 24 : 61, by volume), pumping the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min(-1), with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm. While in the subsequently developed method, the TLC-densitometric method, complete separation of the studied mixture was achieved using methanol : acetone : acetic acid (7 : 3 : 0.2, by volume) as a mobile phase, aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 as a stationary phase and 215 nm as the scanning wavelength. Factors affecting the developed methods were studied and optimized; moreover, methods had been validated as per the International Conference of Harmonization guideline and the results indicated that the suggested methods were reproducible, reliable and applicable for rapid routine analysis. Statistical comparison of the two developed methods with the reported HPLC ones using F- and Student's t tests showed no significant difference. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Betadine trial - antiseptic wound irrigation prior to skin closure at caesarean section to prevent surgical site infection: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Kassam; Ibiebele, Ibinabo; Buchanan, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) occur in around 10% of women following a caesarean section. Efforts to reduce SSI include wound irrigation with povidone-iodine (PVI), but studies are nonconclusive, mostly old and few on women having caesarean section (CS). To assess povidone-iodine (PVI) (Betadine) irrigation of wound prior to skin closure in reducing incidence of SSI after CS. Our hypothesis was that there would be no benefit with its use in reducing SSIs. A randomised controlled trial with 3027 women. Women having CS were allocated to receive PVI irrigation or no irrigation after closure of fascia and before skin closure. Women were followed up to four weeks to assess for SSI. Main outcome measure was surgical site infection. The two groups (1520 in Betadine and 1507 on no Betadine group) were well balanced. The incidence of SSI was similar in the two groups (9.5% vs 9.8%, RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.78-1.21). There was no difference between groups (2.6% vs 2.0%, RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.81-2.06 Betadine vs no Betadine, respectively) in readmission for wound infection requiring intravenous antibiotics; this was so in both the elective CS group as well as CS in labour group. PVI irrigation after the closure of fascia and before closure of skin is of no benefit in the prevention of SSI in women undergoing CS. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. White blood cell count - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hand. The puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic, and a tourniquet (an elastic band) or blood ... or young child: The area is cleansed with antiseptic and punctured with a sharp needle or a ...

  8. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene.

  9. Novel antiseptic compound OPB-2045G shows potent bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus both in vitro and in vivo: a pilot study in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuhide; Hagi, Akifumi; Nii, Takuya; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Nakata, Hikaru; Iwata, Koushi

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for new compounds to effectively treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). The novel monobiguanide compound 1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate (OPB-2045G) has potential bactericidal activity. We sought to elucidate the potency of OPB-2045G bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE compared to those of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and povidone iodine (PVP-I). In vitro bactericidal activity was analysed using minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) as the index. The in vivo bactericidal efficacy of OPB-2045G was examined by determining MRSA and VRE contamination of the normal dorsal skin of mice following removal of hair. After a 3 min treatment period, the MBC of OPB-2045G was lower than that of CHG and PVP-I against standard strains and clinical isolates. Additionally, in our in vivo mouse model, the in vivo bactericidal activity of 1.5 % OPB-2045G (a clinically relevant dose) was higher than that of 0.5 % CHG and equivalent to that of 10 % PVP-I against MRSA. Similarly, the in vivo bactericidal activity of OPB-2045G was higher than that of 0.5 % CHG and 10 % PVP-I against VRE. OPB-2045G showed more potent bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE both in vitro and in vivo compared to CHG and PVP-I, indicating that OPB-2045G may provide better protection against health care-associated infections caused by these pathogens. © 2015 The Authors.

  10. Efektivitas Mencuci Tangan Menggunakan Cairan Pembersih Tangan Antiseptik (Hand Sanitizer) Terhadap Jumlah Angka Kuman

    OpenAIRE

    Desiyanto, Fajar Ardi; Djannah, Sitti Nur

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hand washing is one of the sanitation actions by washing fingers with water or other liquid for the purpose of getting clean, religious ceremony or others. Antiseptic was chemical substance to prevent multiplication of microorganism on the surface of body, by killing the microorganism or blocking the growth and activity of its metabolic. The commonly used antiseptic of hand sanitizer was alcohol; alcohol has been widely used as skin antiseptic because it had an effect of blocking ...

  11. Comparative antibacterial activity of some Nigerian honey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative antibacterial activity of some Nigerian honey and commonly used antiseptic agents against strains of MRSA and other multidrug resistant staphylococci isolates from surgical wound infections.

  12. News in wound healing and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, Finn; Jørgensen, Bo; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2009-01-01

    . In the treatment of wounds, the new trend in the wound device marked is to produce dressings containing compounds or drugs. This could be local antiseptics (silver, other antiseptics, honey) and pain relieving drugs such as ibuprofen and morphine. New treatments such as anti-tumor necrosis factor alfa (anti...

  13. Comparison of alcohol, povidone-iodine and octenidine dihydrochloride as skin disinfectants to reduce bacterial count prior to peripheral venous catheter insertions in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Rundjan

    2011-10-01

    Results Ninety subjects were divided into 3 groups of 30, each group using either 70% alcohol swabs, 10% povidone-iodine, or octenidine as skin antiseptic. Skin swabs were taken before and after antiseptic application and drying, as well as 5 minutes after application. The mean reductions in CFU/cm2 (% after antiseptic application (and fully dried were 97.54% for povidone-iodine, 97.52% for octenidine, and 89.07% for alcohol. There were no significant differences in mean CFU reductions among the three antiseptics groups (P=0.299. Furthermore, 5 minutes after application, there were still no significant differences in the three antiseptic groups (P=0.289. Conclusions Although octenidine showed a significant bacterial count reduction after application, it was not significantly different from those of alcohol or povidone-iodine. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:277-81].

  14. Dilemma in the Diagnosis of Povidone-Iodine Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Povidone-iodine is a commonly used antiseptic solution in surgical practice. Almost every patient who needs a minor or a major surgical procedure (sometimes, a medical procedure too gets exposed to this antiseptic. Even though the use of this antiseptic is widespread, the number of cases reporting hypersensitivity to it is meagre. This case report highlights a case of povidone-iodine – induced hypersensitivity, which presented a great difficulty in diagnosis, due to the usage of other drugs that could have been more likely causes for this hypersensitivity.

  15. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  16. Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections Share ... Flickr. Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Some hand sanitizers and antiseptic products come with claims that they ...

  17. Dialogue design for the openphone system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndwe, TJ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available properly. Cleaning household items How to wash your linen. Dealing with body fluids & infected waste Keeping a clean household When to wash your hands Washing your hands with an antiseptic Hygiene & Cleanliness Preparing and Storing food...

  18. Wang and Li Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(1):99 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF ADEWUNMI

    . The unique structure of polyphenol grants its many distinctive physiological functions like anti-tumor, anti-oxidization, anti- arteriosclerosis, and antiseptic properties and prevention of coronary heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular ...

  19. African Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 17, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-vitro Bactericidal Kinetics of Chlorhexidine Gluconate Disinfectant/ Antiseptic Formulations Containing Different Additives · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PA Idowu, OS Idowu, 37-42 ...

  20. The antimicrobial activity of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine against equine pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, D. M. T.; Damborg, P.; Verwilghen, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    also bactericidal. The tested local anaesthetics possessed antimicrobial activity against equine pathogens at concentrations that are routinely applied in clinical cases. However, this antimicrobial activity should not discourage antiseptic preparation prior to local anaesthetic injections....

  1. Bi-Layer Wound Dressing System for Combat Casualty Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martineau, Lucie; Shek, Pang N

    2004-01-01

    .... Biopsies taken from full-thickness, pig wounds infected with Ps. aeruginosa and Staph. epidermidis showed a 2- to 5-log reduction in the bacterial load of antiseptic-treated wounds compared to those of control wounds...

  2. Early Bacterial Cultures from Open Fractures - Differences Before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    hours after injury, had antiseptic wound dressing, had received antibiotics, presented with contamination from the gastrointestinal or genitourinary injuries or were known to have diabetes, peripheral vascular disease or immunosuppression. Informed consent was obtained. Early Bacterial Cultures from Open Fractures -.

  3. The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mahlos

    2012-05-29

    inflammatorys (Camellia sinensis), antiseptic (Camellia sinensis), and haemostatic pharma- ceuticals (Polygonum aviculare) against diarrhoea and nasopharyngeal tumors (Acacia farnesiana) (Haslam,. 1989; Saijo et al., 1989; Hatano et ...

  4. Biographical Sketch: Baron Joseph Lister, FRCS, 1827–1912

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    This biographical sketch on Baron Joseph Lister corresponds to the historic text, The Classic: On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery (1867), available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1320-x.

  5. Biographical Sketch: Baron Joseph Lister, FRCS, 1827-1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Richard A

    2010-08-01

    This biographical sketch on Baron Joseph Lister corresponds to the historic text, The Classic: On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery (1867), available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1320-x .

  6. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can carry other diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever. Spider Bites Most spider bites are minor, ... Clean the area with soap and water, and treat with an antiseptic or antibiotic cream to avoid ...

  7. Antibacterial activity of the resinous exudates from Haplopappus uncinatus and Haplopappus foliosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, A; Mendoza, L

    2001-05-01

    The antibacterial activities of the resinous exudates from Haplopappus uncinatus and H. foliosus are reported. The results provide a justification to the traditional use of the resinous exudates of Haplopappus spp as an antiseptic.

  8. Comparison of two pre-surgical skin preparation techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, K L; Donald, A W; Hariharan, H; McCarville, C

    1997-01-01

    A one-step iodophor skin preparation solution was compared to chlorhexidine gluconate application as a pre-operative skin preparation method in 100 animals undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. Pre-operative and intra-operative skin cultures demonstrated no difference in antiseptic efficacy. No animal in the study demonstrated signs of systemic infection, and no adverse local effects from either antiseptic were seen. The iodophor solution evaluated (DuraPrep) is a safe and effective pre-ope...

  9. Penentuan Kadar Triklosan Dalam Cairan Antiseptik Resik-V Manjakani Dan Pasta Gigi Formula Secara Kromatogarfi Cair Kinerja Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Yona S., Ayu Shilvya

    2015-01-01

    Determination levels of triclosan in Resik-V Manjakani antiseptics liquid and Formula toothpaste has been done. Determination levels of triclosan use triclosan liquid as an internal standar by using high performance liquid chromatograph. Determination was based on the peak area and retention time of triclosan standard. The result of this determination showed that Resik-V Manjakani antiseptic liquid contain 0,0955% triclosan and Formula toothpaste contain 0,10785% triclosan, because of that l...

  10. Bundled preparation of skin antisepsis decreases the risk of cardiac implantable electronic device-related infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huang-Chung; Chen, Mien-Cheng; Chen, Yung-Lung; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Pan, Kuo-Li; Lin, Yu-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of bundled skin antiseptic preparation to prevent cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections. From January 2010 to November 2013, 665 consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the strategy of skin preparation. In Period 1 (January 2010 to June 2012), 395 patients received the standard skin antiseptic preparation. In Period 2 (July 2012 to November 2013), 270 patients received a triple-step skin antiseptic preparation, 'bundled skin antiseptic preparation', consisting of applying 75% alcohol over anterior chest on the night before the index day, povidone-iodine 10 min before operation, and the standard skin antiseptic preparation before incision. During follow-up, the occurrence of CIED infection was recorded. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determinate the risk factors of CIED infection. During a mean follow-up of 26.9 ± 16.2 months, 20 episodes of CIED infection developed in 19 patients (2.9%), and the incidence of minor and major infection episodes was 2.2% and 0.8%, respectively. Patients with the bundled skin antiseptic preparation had a significantly lower incidence of CIED infection, compared with patients with the standard preparation (0.7 vs. 4.3%, P = 0.007). In multivariate analysis, pocket haematoma (P = 0.020), atrial fibrillation (P = 0.033), and complex procedures (P = 0.047) were independent predictors for CIED infection. In contrast, the bundled skin antiseptic preparation was a significant predictor against CIED infection (P = 0.014). Pocket haematoma was the most important risk factor for CIED infection. The bundled skin antiseptic preparation strategy significantly reduced the risk of minor CIED infection. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Inefficacy of alcohol-based hand rub on mites in a patient with hyperkeratotic scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotti, E; Perrot, J L; Labeille, B; Maguet, H; Couzan, C; Flori, P; Cambazard, F

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization is strongly promoting alcohol-based hand rubs to interrupt transmission of pathogens within the healthcare environment, and in some hospitals they are being recommended in cases of scabies. However, there are no studies that demonstrate the efficacy of such hand rubs against scabies. To evaluate the viability of Sarcoptes scabiei after the application of various topical antiseptics used for hand hygiene, and the effect of hand washing on the number of parasites present on the skin surface of a patient with scabies. We applied three different topical antiseptics (two alcohol-based and one povidone-iodine-based) to the skin of one hand that was affected by scabies, and took a skin scraping of each area to evaluate the viability of the mites over time. A skin scraping of a control area without antiseptic application was also taken. We also tested the antiseptics directly on the mites. Statistical comparison between the percentages of vital mites in the different samples was assessed using the χ(2) test. We also captured a dermoscopic image of the other hand before and after hand washing to count the number of parasites on the skin surface. Topical antiseptics did not reduce the number of living mites compared with control skin, and hand washing did not reduce the number of parasites on the skin surface. Application of topical antiseptics does not reduce the viability of S. scabiei, and is therefore unable to prevent the transmission of scabies. The usefulness of hand washing in preventing transmission of scabies to new subjects remains to be investigated. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. [Mouthwash solutions with microencapsuled natural extracts: Efficiency for dental plaque and gingivitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervelle, A; Mouhyi, J; Del Corso, M; Hippolyte, M-P; Sammartino, G; Dohan Ehrenfest, D M

    2010-06-01

    Mouthwash solutions are mainly used for their antiseptic properties. They currently include synthetic agents (chlorhexidine, triclosan, etc.) or essential oils (especially Listerine). Many natural extracts may also be used. These associate both antiseptic effects and direct action on host response, due to their antioxidant, immunoregulatory, analgesic, buffering, or healing properties. The best known are avocado oil, manuka oil, propolis oil, grapefruit seed extract, pycnogenol, aloe vera, Q10 coenzyme, green tea, and megamin. The development of new technologies, such as microencapsulation (GingiNat concept), may allow an in situ slow release of active ingredients during several hours, and open new perspectives for mouthwash solutions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. TREATMENT OF ACUTE INFLAMMATORY DISEASES ACCOMPANIED BY THROAT IRRITATION AND PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Petrovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenetically, prescription of local action drugs containing a wide spectrum antiseptic is reasonable for the upper respiratory tract diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain. It should be noted that such drugs are very popular among parents; however, most of these drugs may have a range of side effects, which considerably complicate their use in children. That is why the right choice of local action drugs for the acute inflammatory diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain is a guarantee of treatment efficacy and high compliance. This article examines pharmacological qualities of an antiseptic-containing local action drug permitted to use in children over 4 years of age.

  14. Analysis of the structure of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate ultrathin fibers modified with iron (III) complex with tetraphenylporphyrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhov, A. A.; Karpova, S. G.; Lobanov, A. V.; Tyubaeva, P. M.; Artemov, N. S.; Iordansky, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    In the treatment of many infectious diseases and cancer, transdermal systems based on solid polymer matrices or gels containing functional substances with antiseptic (antibacterial) properties are often used. One of the most promising types of matrices with antiseptic properties are the ones of nano- and microfiber-bonded cloth obtained by electrospinning based on biopolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). The present work investigates the effects of iron (III) complex with tetraphenylporphyrin and the influence on the geometry, crystalline order and molecular dynamics in the intercrystalline (amorphous phase) of ultrathin PHB fibers.

  15. Interaction between some disinfectants and Tcsup(99m)-radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, A.; Cleynhens, B.; Hoogmartens, M.; De Roo, M.

    1985-01-01

    Contamination of Tcsup(99m) sulphur colloid with small amounts of iodinated antiseptics has been described to result in the formation of free pertechnetate and excessive blood-pool activity upon injection. As far as we know similar or other interactions have not been reported for disinfectants that are effective by another mechanism than oxidizing activity. The present study has been set up to investigate the effect of small amounts of a wide variety of commonly available antiseptics on the radiochemical and biological behaviour of different Tcsup(99m) labelled radiopharmaceuticals. (Auth.)

  16. No need to change the skin knife in modern arthroplasty surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, C; Skovby, A; Troelsen, A

    2014-01-01

    to conflicting conclusions regarding discarding the skin knife or not. This study evaluates the prevalence of contamination of a separate skin knife using modern antiseptic technique in primary THA and TKA without laminar airflow. Three knives from each primary THA and TKA surgery in non-laminar airflow.......8 %) and contamination of the control knife in five patients (1.8 %). No patient developed an infection with 1-year follow-up. Our findings suggest a very low rate of contamination of the skin knife using modern antiseptic technique without laminar airflow and/or plastic adhesive draping and do not support the use...

  17. Nanofiber-bonded cloth materials based on poly-3-hydroxybutyrate with antibacterial properties for medical purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyubaeva, P. M.; Olkhov, A. A.; Karpova, S. G.; Iordansky, A. L.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Different transdermal systems based on solid polymer matrices or gels containing functional substances with antiseptic (antibacterial) properties have application to the therapy of many infectious diseases and cancer. Today the most promising type of matrices with antiseptic characteristics are the nano- and microfiber nonwoven materials. Fibers on the biopolymer (poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)) basis were obtained using the electrospinning method. In the present work, the effects of iron (III) complex with tetraphenylporphyrin and its influence on bactericidal and antibacterial properties of the ultrathin PHB fibers were investigated.

  18. Surgical Skills Beyond Scientific Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    During the Great War, the French surgeon Alexis Carrel, in collaboration with the English chemist Henry Dakin, devised an antiseptic treatment for infected wounds. This paper focuses on Carrel's attempt to standardise knowledge of infected wounds and their treatment, and looks closely at the vision of surgical skill he espoused and its difference from those associated with the doctrines of scientific management. Examining contemporary claims that the Carrel-Dakin method increased rather than diminished demands on surgical work, this paper further shows how debates about antiseptic wound treatment opened up a critical space for considering the nature of skill as a vital dynamic in surgical innovation and practice.

  19. BIOFILM AND OUR CLINICAL EXPERIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucigaj, Tanja Planinsek

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria organized in biofilms are insensitive to the usual treatment with dressings or antibiotics. Most successful is surgical debridement to remove their colonies, but this option may not be possible in all environments. Dressings with silver and other antiseptics are often the only tools available to nurses at patient homes or to dermatologists at outpatient clinics. In our clinical studies conducted several years ago, we demonstrated that dressings with antiseptics were an effective tool in daily clinical practice to remove bacteria/biofilms from chronic wounds.

  20. The development, implementation and evaluation of a cross organisational clinical guideline for the management and prevention of wound infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Nikki; Sandoe, Jonathan; Mc Ginnis, Elizabeth; Edmunds, Heather

    2012-11-01

    The Tissue Viability services in acute and primary care in Leeds had concerns about the increasing inappropriate use of topical antiseptic dressings for wound management and were aware that the use was disproportionate to the evidence supporting their prescribing. A scoping exercise of the use of topical antiseptics and systemic antibiotic usage in Leeds led to the identification of heterogeneous prescribing of systemic antibiotics and an almost £500,000 spend on topical antiseptics across Leeds community. The project involved the following stages. 1- Local scoping of topical antiseptics and systemic antibiotic prescribing. 2- A cross organisational working group to develop and implement a clinical best practice guideline for the prevention, diagnosis and management of wound infection. 3- Development of a revised local dressings formulary. 4- The establishment of a new referral process to Tissue Viability for wounds requiring topical antiseptic treatments. 5- Evaluation of the new guideline through- monitoring prescribing- monitoring wound sampling- monitoring A & E admissions- collecting patient feedback through the ‘Tell Tissue Viability’ process. *Expenditure on topical antiseptic dressings for the period Oct 2009-Dec 2009 was £128,864 and this reduced to £65,604 for the period Nov 2011-Jan 2012. This demonstrates an overall saving of £63,260 with a projected annual saving of £237,584 within the community trust alone. *A reduction in the number of wound swabs sent to microbiology from inpatient locations by 1500/year comparing 2008/9 with 2010/11. *An increase in wound swabs sent from GPs by 100/year comparing 2008/9 with 2010/11. *A reduction in penicillin V and co-fluampicil prescriptions and an increase in flucloxacillin prescriptions in general practise suggesting greater concordance with local antibiotic prescribing recommendations. The implementation of a clinical guideline in association with support from the specialist team, for patients

  1. Anti-platelet aggregation of mixtures of betulinic oleanolic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Anti-platelet aggregation of mixtures of betulinic oleanolic ... Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals. (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline ... antiseptic, aphrodisiac, anti-emetic, anti- inflammatory and carminative properties [5,6].

  2. Timing, choice and duration of perioperative prophylactic antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tissue engineering: surgical strategies in wound treatment. World J Surg. 2008 Sep;32(9):2114-21. 2. Toledo-Pereyra LH, Toledo MM. A critical study of Lister's work on antiseptic surgery. Am J Surg. 1976 Jun;131(6):736-. 44. 3. Ludwig KA, Carlson MA, Condon RE. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery. Annu Rev Med. 1993 ...

  3. Natural Rubber Latex: Study of a Novel Carrier for Casearia sylvestris Swartz Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo Borges, Felipe; Cesar Bolognesi, Luis Felipe; Trecco, Alberto; de Camargo Drago, Bruno; Baldo de Arruda, Larisa; Noronha Lisboa Filho, Paulo; Gonçalves Pierri, Elaise; de Oliveira Graeff, Carlos Frederico; Gonzaga dos Santos, André; Romeiro Miranda, Matheus Carlos; Donizetti Herculano, Rondinelli

    2014-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) from Hevea brasiliensis has showed interesting biomedical properties as improving wound healing, cell adherence, tissue formation, and angiogenesis. It is used for biosynthesis of nanoparticles, sensors and prosthesis and for drug delivery systems (for drugs, plant extracts, and nanoparticles). To enhance its wound healing properties was incorporated Casearia sylvestris Swartz extract, whose pharmacological activity includes anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiseptic,...

  4. Advances in Biotechnology and the Biosciences for Warfighter Performance and Protection: Anti-Aptamers for Revenom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    forearm after envenomation. bite victim, 8 as shown in Figure 2. In recent years several techniques have been devised for the synthesis and functional...snakebites, along with administration of plasma expanders, pain medication, diazepam , tetanus toxoid, antiseptics and antibiotics. Patients who have pain

  5. The conservative treatment of giant omphalocele by tanning with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intra-abdominal pressure, which can cause haemodynamic and ventilator disturbances [9]. Local application of antiseptics on the sac gives progressive epidermization of the sac and scheduled closure of the defect. This procedure may take time but has safety advantages, especially in our countries where neonatal surgery ...

  6. awareness and practice on biomedical waste management among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-02

    Feb 2, 2013 ... of a sharps management system, waste reduction, avoidance of hazardous substances wherever ... bags and strong plastic containers for infectious waste such as empty containers of antiseptics used in the ... soiled linen, plastic and rubber goods is to be achieved at point of generation by usage of sodium.

  7. Umbilical cord Separation time among infantS Seen at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-01

    Jan 1, 2011 ... hsu, c. f., Wang, c. c., yuh, y. S., chen, y. h. and. 25. chu, m. l. the effectiveness of single and multiple applications of triple dye on umbilical cord separation time. Eur. J. Pediatr. 1999; 158: 144 – 146. Panyavudhikrai, S., Danchaivijitr, S., Vantanasiri, C.,. 26. et al. antiseptics for preventing omphalitis. J. Med.

  8. Anaphylactic hypersensitivity to mercurochrome (merbrominum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales Torres, J L; De Corres, F

    1985-03-01

    By the use of intradermal tests, passive transfer (P.K.), and an in vitro histamine release test, we were able to demonstrate immediate hypersensitivity to Mercurochrome in a young man who had suffered anaphylactic shock after having contact with this antiseptic. Cross-reactions among different organic mercurial compounds were observed.

  9. Akinkunmi and Lamikanra Afr. J. Infect. Dis. (2015) 9(2):67-72 http ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    refractory to therapy because of the prevalence of antibiotic resistance associated with CoNS strains involved in such infections (Archer and Climo,. 1994). Reports have ... Concentrations (MICs) for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have been reported for some antiseptics, including chlorhexidine ...

  10. Descriptive survey of personal hygiene and knowledge of exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the poultry workers have adequate personal hygiene while use of antiseptics as part of hand washing practices is relatively low. Forty-three percent of poultry workers have some knowledge of occupational exposure factors and 27.3% have some knowledge of non-occupational exposure factors to zoonotic ...

  11. Immediate hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Mi; Rajgopal Bala, Harini; Cahill, Jennifer; Toholka, Ryan; Nixon, Rosemary

    2018-02-01

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used and effective antiseptic agent. Although skin contact is usually well tolerated, it may cause both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of immediate hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine causing both skin and respiratory symptoms following occupational exposure to chlorhexidine in a health-care worker. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  12. Germicidal activity of antimicrobials and VIOlight Personal Travel Toothbrush sanitizer: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneduce, C; Baxter, K A; Bowman, J; Haines, M; Andreana, S

    2010-08-01

    The study evaluated the antibacterial effect of VIOlight (VL) Personal Travel Toothbrush Sanitizer on biofilms after toothbrush exposure to human saliva compared to Listerine Antiseptic (LA), 3% hydrogen peroxide (3%HP) and water. Twenty toothbrush heads (n=5/Gp) were immersed in saliva and to allow for bacterial growth and biofilm formation for 24h. VL sanitizer and antiseptic(s) were used for 7 min; after treatment, brush heads were rinsed and placed into 10 mL of 2x AOAC Letheen Broth, sonicated and vortexed for 10s. Tenfold serial dilutions were prepared and plated and incubated aerobically and anaerobically. Log(10)CFU/mL data were compared utilizing ANOVA (p<0.05). Results showed 3%HP with significantly lower counts than LA, VL and control for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. LA had significantly lower counts than VL and control for both types of bacteria and VIOlight had significantly lower counts than the control for aerobic bacteria. 3%HP and LA were most effective in rapidly killing bacteria when compared to VIOlight. Results showed that 3% hydrogen peroxide was most effective in reducing the numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria present on the toothbrush heads. Under the same test conditions, Listerine Antiseptic was shown to be secondarily effective for the same bacteria while the VIOlight unit was the least effective when compared to the other treatment groups. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The use of povidone-iodine in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Kanclerz, Piotr; Myers, William G

    2018-01-01

    Povidone-iodine (PVI) is a disinfectant and antiseptic agent used for preoperative preparation of the skin and mucous membranes, as well as for the treatment of contaminated wounds. Currently regimens for prophylaxis against postsurgical endophthalmitis are being modified, including a total withdrawal of antibiotics in intravitreal injections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of PVI in ophthalmology. As a result of its broad spectrum of microbicidal activity, PVI is routinely used in ophthalmic surgery. However, various protocols are applied worldwide and within different procedures. Additional indications include prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum, acute conjunctivitis, adenoviral conjunctivitis, bacterial keratitis or corneal ulcer, endophthalmitis, giant fornix syndrome, and antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients with Boston type I keratoprosthesis. Despite the introduction of new antiseptics in surgery, PVI is still the preeminent antiseptic measure in ophthalmology. Its use is economically reasonable. There have been no reports of resistance to PVI or anaphylaxis with topical ophthalmic use. Furthermore, it does not induce resistance or cross-grztance to antibiotics. With these advantages the range of indications for topical use of antibiotics might decrease, with PVI as the sole perioperative antiseptic measure. Additional studies are required to assess the optimal timing, concentration and exposure time within different ophthalmic procedures.

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutiu, WB. Vol 7, No 2 (2008) - Articles In-vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Carex Powerful Antiseptic Liquid Abstract. ISSN: 1595-8272. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  15. Toxicological Problems with the Redy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broch Møller, B.; Bahnsen, M.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1976-01-01

    be substituted by another antiseptic. Of special interest was the finding of a very high concentration of boron in the dialysate. It is suggested that this metal, which is a potentially toxic substance, may emanate from the patient. It is concluded that use of the REDY system carries no obvious toxicological...

  16. Involvement of Vacuolar Sequestration and Active Transport in Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Hop Iso-?-Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelwood, L.A.; Walsh, M.C.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The hop plant, Humulus lupulus L., has an exceptionally high content of secondary metabolites, the hop -acids, which possess a range of beneficial properties, including antiseptic action. Studies performed on the mode of action of hop iso--acids have hitherto been restricted to lactic acid bacteria.

  17. J. Grobbelaar, AW Lishman*, WA Botha, DJ MilIar** and SF Lesch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    111mof topical antiseptic (Surgispray, Novo Industries). A 50 mm x 50 mm square of adhesive plaster (Elasto- plast) was moistened with anaesthetic ether and pressed down finnly over the wound. A 50 mm wide strip of masking tape was then wound around the neck of the sheep to shield completely the point of entry into ...

  18. The Biochemical Impact of Surgery and Anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Hol (Jaap Willem)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ General anesthesia has been considered by some medical historians as one of the most important contributions to modern medicine second to perhaps the concept of antiseptic medicine and hygiene. The first historical mention of a deep unnatural sleep so that surgery

  19. Non-accidental dettol poisoning in a 3 day old neonate : a rare form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, Dettol® Antiseptic Solution poisoning is an uncommon occurrence in all age groups. In a registered child specialist clinic in Kano, a three – day old neonate presented with clinical features believed initially to be due to neonatal seizures and sepsis, but which turned out to be due to non-accidental dettol® ...

  20. A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study of persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Danish broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Rattenborg, Erik

    2003-01-01

    with house status-but that were beyond the control of the farmer-were the salmonella type and the percentage of salmonella positive samples in the first crop. Factors which could be controlled by the farmer and which were associated with reduced prevalence of multiple-infection houses included antiseptic...

  1. Stability of silver nanoparticles (nAg) in aqueous solution: the role of particle size and water ionic strength

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Radebe, N

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available , South Africa Silver nanoparticles Nanosilver (nAg) • Amongst the most widely used ENP’s ≈30% registered commercial nano-products • Antimicrobial properties • Antiseptic activity • High electrical and thermal conductivity • Chemical stability...

  2. Bullose diabétique | El Makrini | Pan African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutically, no particular treatment seems necessary except local antiseptic care after the recess bubbles. Bullosis diabeticorum is a characteristic skin complication of diabetes. Its etiology is still unknown. Its evolution is benign and its management is essentially preventive. Pan African Medical Journal 2016; 23 ...

  3. Efficacy of dental rinse formulations marketed in Abuja, Nigeria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the microbial quality and effectiveness of seven brands of antiseptic dental rinses marketed in Abuja, Nigeria. Seven brands of dental rinses were randomly purchased from the open market and pharmacies. According to the products literature, the brands contained sodium fluoride + triclosan, sodium ...

  4. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... some justifications for the folkloric use of AP seed powder as an antiseptic paste and warrants further studies to determine the structure of the active compound in chromatographic fraction ST 13 -15F. Key words: Adenanthera pavonina, antimicrobial activity, chromatographic fractions, methanolic extract.

  5. Wound infection caused by Lichtheimia ramosa due to a car accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bibashi, E.; de Hoog, G.S.; Pavlidis, T.E.; Symeonidis, N.; Sakantamis, A.; Walther, G.

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old immunocompetent man sustained severe traumas contaminated with organic material due to a car accident. An infection caused by Lichtheimia ramosa at the site of contamination was early diagnosed and cured by multiple surgical debridement and daily cleansing with antiseptic solution

  6. Antisepsis with Argyrol, acrimony and advocacy for African art ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite lack of evidence regarding its antiseptic superiority over silver nitrate for preventing ophthalmia neonatorum, Argyrol was promoted so savvily by Albert Coombs Barnes that the revenues enabled him to amass a unique art collection reflecting his early appreciation of the African influence on European painters.

  7. Characterization of putative multidrug resistance transporters of the major facilitator-superfamily expressed in Salmonella Typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, Aqsa; Ismat, Fouzia; Iqbal, Mazhar

    2015-01-01

    -hypersensitive Escherichia coli strain KAM42, and tested for transport of 25 antibacterial compounds, including representative antibiotics of various classes, antiseptics, dyes and detergents. Of the 15 tested putative transporters, STY0901, STY2458 and STY4874 exhibited a drug-resistance phenotype. Among these, STY4874...

  8. Intravascular catheter related infections in children admitted on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peripheral venous intravascular catheters uncoated with no antibiotic or antiseptic, was done. Social demographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical examination including the catheter site were determined at enrollment. The children had their blood, catheter tip and hub samples taken off for culture and sensitivity as ...

  9. Studies on the antimicrobial properties of formulated creams and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their performances were compared with those of standard antiseptic creams and ointments. The results of agar diffusion studies on cream and ointment formulations revealed that the topical bases used to disperse the medicaments could significantly affect the antimicrobial effectiveness of the formulation. Formulations ...

  10. Vesico Vaginal Fistula Following Sexual Assault: Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She had indwelling urethral catheter for 21 days with urinary antiseptic and the fistula healed. This approach is a treatment option in young girls with traumatic VVF particularly where limited tissue access will make surgical repair difficult. Key Words: Vesico-Vaginal Fistula, Sexual Assault. [ Trop J Obstet Gynaecol, 2004 ...

  11. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome hos voksne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Bisgaard; Jensen, Thøger Gorm

    2010-01-01

    parts of her body. The bullae ruptured easily and left a erythematous base. The histopathological changes were characteristic for adult SSSS. The patient was well-treated with intravenous dicloxacillin, topical antibiotic and antiseptic treatment. The patient had marked thrombocytosis, but no interest...

  12. Enterocutaneous fistula and internal hernia: unusual complications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He underwent a laparotomy with thorough antiseptic irrigation and repositioning of the VPS in peritoneal cavity. Postoperatively, the faeculent discharge from the upper anterior abdominal wall ceased. He was discharged home in 2 weeks. There was complete resolution after 6 months. We conclude that there should be a ...

  13. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Equipment and consumables. Ultrasound machine(Medison S600V. ®. ) with a 6.5MHz transcutaneous curve-linear probe and a Sony videographic thermal printer with printing paper, aquasonic gel, tissue paper, cotton wool, antiseptic soap, packets of tiger razor blade, petrol and 1800 MW generator and extension cable.

  14. ",COMMONLY USED D1SIN'FECTANTS IN TANZANIA c. v.s. Mwasha

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Besides heat sterilization and heat disinfection, chemical disinfectants play a role in dental practice. Disinfection of the surrounding area of the surgery and all equipment is important in order to prevent cross-infection. Antiseptics and disinfectants are generally used to destroy or inhibit the growth of pathogenic ...

  15. on in vitro callus initiation using leaf of artemisia annua

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecticidal, anticancerous, antiseptic and febrifuge properties. It's oil has been found to repel fleas, mosquitoes and killed house flies(Morton 1981).In antiquity, plants of the genus Artemisia were also used to control the pangs of childbirth, regulate women's menstrual disorders, and as an abortifacient. In 1969, the Chinese.

  16. Mupirocin Ointment with and without Chlorhexidine Baths in the Eradication of Staphylococcus Aureus Nasal Carriage in Nursing Home Residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Watanakunakorn; C. Axelson; B. Bota; C. Stahl

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMupirocin ointment has been shown to be effective in eradicating Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in residents of a long- term care facility. Antiseptic soaps have been used as adjunct to this therapy. We compared the efficacy of short-term intranasal mupirocin ointment with and

  17. lipolytic effect of calotropis procera in the skin of wistar rats.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    used as an antiseptic for skin infection. Several studies have been carried out on the effects of various extracts of Calotropis procera on different organs of animals (Al-Robai et al, 1993a, 1993b;. Jam et al, 1996; Basu et al, 1997). On the contrar), there is little or no information on the effect of the plant extract on the skin.

  18. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-07-20

    Jul 20, 2015 ... On arrival to the emergency department, damage control stabilization and surgery was commenced, debridement of contaminated non-viable tissue, abundant antiseptic lavage and application of external fixation coupled with the use of antibiotic spacer. Following normalization of inflammatory markers and ...

  19. Synthesis and antiulcer activity of 2-[5-substituted-1-H-benzo(d ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    An antiseptic cream was applied over the wound. Thereafter, the animal was kept in a separate cage and allowed to recover. Four hours later these animals were sacrificed and the stomach of each of the animals was isolated and cut open through its greater curvature. Its contents emptied into graduated test tube, volume ...

  20. 178 efficacy of three disinfectant formulations against multidrug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Intended application either for antiseptic or disinfection. -. Environmental factors such as presence of organic matter or specificity of microorganism to a particular environment. -. Toxicity of the agent i.e disinfectant toxicity effect. In the hospitals, disinfectants have been found to play an important role in the prevention and ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efunshile, AM. Vol 7, No 2 (2008) - Articles In-vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Carex Powerful Antiseptic Liquid Abstract. ISSN: 1595-8272. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

  2. Does nuclear tissue infected with bacteria following disc herniations lead to Modic changes in the adjacent vertebrae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, H. B.; Lambert, Peter; Rollason, Jess

    2013-01-01

    antiseptic sterile protocols were followed. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were included, mean age 46.4 years (SD 9.7), 27 % female. All patients were immunocompetent. No patient had received a previous epidural steroid injection or undergone previous back surgery. In total, microbiological cultures were...

  3. Radiation reaction of skin treatment with nucliderm-gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandova, V.; Marinova, Ts.; Stefanova, D.; Pantev, T.; Yankova, S.

    1988-01-01

    The process of epithelization and the anticeptic effect of nucliderm-gel applied locally have been studied in 63 oncological patients subjected to radiotherapy. In all cases under study nucliderm-gel promotes skin epithelization and has a high antiseptic effect as compared with the drugs applied hitherto

  4. Gossypol content on leaves and seeds from some wild Malvaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxic effects of gossypol earlier observed against several parasitic protozoa and viruses makes these findings very important, since the Malvaceae specimens studied here have been used in traditional medicine against scalp infection, dysentery, gonorrhea and as antiseptic. On the other hand, it is also noteworthy that ...

  5. Contribution to reconstruction of third degree rectovestibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... Abstract. The study was conducted on ten mares suffering from third degree rectovestibular laceration. Four uterine washes were performed in all cases by using diluted betadine (mixing 5ml of betadine antiseptic solution in 1 liter of sterile saline) to control vaginal and uterine infections before surgery.

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Igile, GO. Vol 7, No 2 (2008) - Articles In-vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Carex Powerful Antiseptic Liquid Abstract. ISSN: 1595-8272. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the antiseptic properties of turpentine. This proved this method's efficacy, and he avoided cauterization thereafter (1). However, treatment such as this were not widely used until many years later. He published his first book The method of curing wounds caused by arquebus and firearms in 1545. Pare also reintroduced the ...

  8. Prevention of perioperative wound infections | Buteera | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aiming at short preoperative stay in hospital, and pre-washing of the area concerned before cleaning with antiseptic are also imperative in reducing SSI. Preoperative skin preparation is an important element in prevention of infection, but removes only up to 80% of skin flora. Standard surgical antisepsis is an accepted ...

  9. The reaction between reducing sugars and amine groups of amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salamatdoust

    2012-07-19

    Jul 19, 2012 ... antiseptic. In the last decades, modern science has shown increasing interest in folk medicine for a better understanding of the chemical composition of natural products and in finding alternative usages (Ahmed et al.,. 1969; Packer et al., 1999; Kähkönen et al., 1999;. Devaraja et al., 2002; Villagomez et al., ...

  10. Wound infection caused by Lichtheimia ramosa due to a car accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bibashi, Evangelia; de Hoog, G Sybren; Pavlidis, Theodoros E; Symeonidis, Nikolaos; Sakantamis, Athanasios; Walther, Grit

    2012-01-01

    A 32-year-old immunocompetent man sustained severe traumas contaminated with organic material due to a car accident. An infection caused by Lichtheimia ramosa at the site of contamination was early diagnosed and cured by multiple surgical debridement and daily cleansing with antiseptic solution

  11. Intravascular catheter-related infection – current concepts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-28

    Aug 28, 2006 ... They have been shown to lower the risk of catheter colonisation and CRBSI in critically ill patients.42,43 The anti-infective effect is short-lived, however, as the collagen to which the silver ions are chelated is biodegradable. Other drawbacks include cost and the need for specialised training. Antiseptic hubs.

  12. Molecular composition and antibacterial effect of essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... 21:242-245. Randhawa MA. Al Ghamdi MJ (2002). A review of pharmacotherapeutic effects of Nigella sativa. Pak. J. Med. Res. 41(2):77-83. Rouibi A (2009). Identification and antiseptic effect of the essential oils of two xerophytes species Cassia acutifolia and Cassia Obovata. Master thesis, dpt of Biology, ...

  13. Non-accidental dettol poisoning in a 3 day old neonate : a rare form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-26

    Feb 26, 2015 ... Abstract: In Nigeria, Dettol®. Antiseptic Solution poisoning is an uncommon occurrence in all age groups. In a registered child specialist clinic in Kano, a three. – day old neonate presented with clinical features believed initially to be due to neonatal seizures and sepsis, but which turned out to be.

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fraise, A.P.. Vol 1, No 1 (1998) - Articles The Role of Antiseptic in Infection Control. Abstract. ISSN: 1119-1716. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER ...

  15. Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aloe barbadensis is a popular house plant that has a long history of a multipurpose folk remedy. It has been documented to have anti-diabetic, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effects. The effect of Aloe barbadensis juice extract on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration in Wistar rats ...

  16. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of tannins isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... shrubs including some vegetables were originally recog- nized as antiseptic. For example, thymol, a simple phenol present in essential oil of plants like Thymus vulgaris and. Monanda punctoda have both antibacterial and antiviral properties (Baton and Hatfield, 1982). Acalypha indica has acalyphine used ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cozean, J. Vol 9, No 1 (2015) - Articles A controlled, crossover study of a persistent antiseptic to reduce hospital-acquired infection. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2006-0165. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  18. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (English: Margosa or Neem tree; Hindi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disorders, ulcers to malaria. The seeds, bark and Leaves contain compounds called Limonoids with proven antiseptic, antiviral, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and anti-fungal uses. Also, inexpensive, non-toxic pesticides and insect repellents are manufactured from seed oil and biomass of different parts of this tree.

  19. 30 days in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mouthwash reduces oral gonorrhoea. Gargling daily with the antiseptic mouthwash, Listerine, may control oral gonorrhoea, according to a study in Australia. Researchers in. Melbourne looked at 196 gay or bisexual men positive for Neisseria gonorrhoea, who presented at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre for treatment.

  20. Observing Precautions against Cutaneous Injuries by Theatre Workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following injury, 78.7% (37) of operating room workers cleaned the wound with antiseptic and covered with dressing. 8.5% (4) cleaned the wound and left it open while10.6% (5) did nothing about any injuries sustained. Conclusion: Theatre workers need to change their present casual attitude towards taking preventive ...

  1. Hautreizungen durch Propylenglykol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Storrs, F J

    1982-01-01

    Propylene glycol is used in foods, medicine and cosmetics because it is a good solvent which has, simultaneously, moisture-regulating, antiseptic, and preservative effects. Propylene glycol may produce eczematous skin reactions of toxic and, more rarely, of allergic nature. Positive patch test...

  2. Comprehensive family hygiene promotion in peri-urban Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilitators from the communities monitored symptoms weekly and reinforced disease prevention behaviours, focusing on handwashing and bathing with soap, cleaning toilet/food surfaces, and treating skin problems with antiseptic. Results. Children aged under 5 years in all communities had significant reductions in ...

  3. Complete Utero Vaginal Prolapse in a Woman with Prolapsed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cleansing of the prolapsed tumor with antiseptic solution for. 3 weeks. This failed to produce significant improvement, and. Complete Utero Vaginal Prolapse in a Woman with. Prolapsed Submucous Fibroid. Aniebue UU, Nwankwo TO. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku, ...

  4. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study provides some justifications for the folkloric use of AP seed powder as an antiseptic paste and warrants further studies to determine the structure of the active compound in chromatographic fraction ST 13 -15F. Key words: Adenanthera pavonina, antimicrobial activity, chromatographic fractions, methanolic extract.

  5. The “Elbow-Way” to Proper Handwashing: A Device Improvised for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of home-made liquid antiseptic soap also made the set useful in preventing contamination, especially as the shelf life of the prepared soap was shown to be up to four weeks with no significant microbial growth. More than 70% of health professionals on a trial run were assertive of the usefulness of the handwashing ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deji-Agboola, AM. Vol 7, No 2 (2008) - Articles In-vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Carex Powerful Antiseptic Liquid Abstract · Vol 9, No 2 (2010) - Articles Predisposing Factors to Pityriasis Versicolor in Primary School Pupils in Remo Land, Ogun State, Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 1595-8272. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  7. Perioperative chlorhexidine allergy: Is it serious?

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic agent, commonly used, in many different preparations, and for multiple purposes. Despite its superior antimicrobial properties, chlorhexidine is a potentially allergenic substance. The following is a review of the current evidence-based knowledge of allergic reactions to chlorhexidine associated with surgical and interventional procedures.

  8. A study of the susceptibility of methicillin resistant coagulase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were further screened against five antiseptic agents namely; benzalkonium chloride, cetrimide, chlorhexidine gluconate, gentian violet and acriflavine by the agar dilution method. Oxacillin resistant isolates were confirmed by screening for the mecA gene by the standard PCR method. Results: Oxacillin resistant ...

  9. In-vitro Bactericidal Kinetics of Chlorhexidine Gluconate Disinfectant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorhexidine gluconate(CHG) is a popular disinfectant/antiseptic which is often formulated with additives. We investigated the effect of additives type on the in vitro bactericidal kinetics of CHG in three commercially available formulations: Hibiscrub®, Savlon® and Purit® commonly used as household and hospital ...

  10. Ghasemi et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Perennial Stems, Leaves. Internal. Anti-calculus, anti-septic, kidney problems, urine tube infection and laxative (for baby). 5. Allium akaka Gmelin. Aliaceae or ..... Tragopogon graminifolius. DC. Asteraceae. Haplook. Shang. Salsify. H. Annual Root, Flowers. Internal/. External. Emollient, sore throat and wound healing. 111.

  11. ELECTRO-GRAVIMETRIC RECOVERY OF SILVER FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silver is also used in X-ray photography, medicine (Ag2O,. AgNO3, Argyrols), bactericide, antiseptic, oil and water purifier (Ag3PO4). In tableware, electric components, circuits, stable electrodes, medals and batteries silver is applied as a conductor and corrosion resistant metal [4-6]. In Pakistan three main types of rocks like ...

  12. ",COMMONLY USED D1SIN'FECTANTS IN TANZANIA c. v.s. Mwasha

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A proper application of disinfectants and antiseptics is very important to make use of the full power and impact of these ... It is incompatible with soap. Dilutions and uses: - 0.5% v/v solution in 70% alcohol is used for hand ... Cresol (Lysol®), 50% v/v cresol in soap solution is a good general disinfectant for inanimate objects.

  13. Antisepsis with Argyrol, Acrimony and Advocacy for African Art

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Despite lack of evidence regarding its antiseptic superiority over silver nitrate for preventing ophthalmia neonatorum, Argyrol was promoted so savvily by Albert Coombs Barnes that the revenues enabled him to amass a unique art collection reflecting his early appreciation of the African influence on European painters.

  14. Okmen et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(5):28 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    have medicinal and cosmetic properties and is widely used in phytotherapy in the Mediterranean region. The storax produced by injuring L. orientalis has good antiseptic properties (Fernandez, 2005; Lee et al., 2009). Also it is used as a topical parasiticide, expectorant and for the treatment of some skin diseases in Turkish ...

  15. Bismuth toxicity in patients treated with bismuth iodoform paraffin packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, A; Cousin, G C S

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth is a heavy metal used in bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP) antiseptic dressings and in a number of other medical preparations. It can be absorbed systemically and cause toxicity. We report 2 cases of such neurotoxicity after it was used in operations on the jaws. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Tissue Tolerable Plasma and Polihexanide: Are Synergistic Effects Possible to Promote Healing of Chronic wounds? In Vivo and In Vitro Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Claudia P.; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Scharf, Christian; Kramer, Axel

    The assumption is that tissue tolerable plasma works as promoter for wound healing and can be beneficially combined with the antiseptic polihexanide to avoid bacterial recolonization. The effects of a combined plasma - polihexanide (PHMB) application on cell integrity, cytotoxicity and its irritative and inflammative potential were tested in vitro and in two dogs in vivo.

  17. An appreciation of A.E. Malloch, MB, MD (1844-1919): a forgotten surgical pioneer

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, J K

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Archibald Edward Malloch was a surgeon whose life and work were greatly influenced by Joseph Lister and his revolutionary system of antiseptic surgery. This paper describes how a young Canadian medical man came to introduce Lister's system to North America in 1869 and studies his career in the light of Lister's surgical epoch.

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MACERATED OIL FROM Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L, Lamiaceae), Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L, Lamiaceae), Mint (Mentha longifolia L, Lamiaceae) and Marigold (Calendula officinalis, Amaryllidaceae) WITH MODIFIED TUBE AGAR DILUTION METHOD AGAINST YERSINIA RUCKERI

    OpenAIRE

    ALTINTERİM, BAŞAR

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants (AMPs) have been most popular for humanand animal in phytotherapy, phytochemistry and pharmacology recently owing totheir anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and antiseptic characteristics. Therefore, experiments were designedfor determination the antibacterial effects of macerated and distilled oils oflemon balm (Melissa officinalis),thyme (Thymus vulgaris), mint (Mentha longifolia) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) against Yersiniaruckeri with modified tube agar dil...

  19. Pharmacognostical studies of Portulaca oleracea Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagepalli Srinivasa Ashok Kumar

    Full Text Available Portulaca oleracea Linn, belongs to family Portulaceae and is a widely distributed weed. It has been used as a folk medicine in many countries as diuretics, febrifuge, antiseptic, antispasmodic and vermifuge. This paper deals with the microscopic study of leaf; stem and root of Portulaca oleracea, along with the physico-chemical and preliminary phytochemical analyses that were also studied.

  20. PREPARATIVE SKIN PREPARATION AND SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjanappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is an established fact now that the normal skin of healthy human beings harbours a rich bacterial fl ora. Normally considered non - pathogenic , these organisms way be a potential source of infection of the surgical wound. Approximately 20% of the resident flora is beyond the reach of surgical scrubs and antiseptics. The goal of surgical preparation of the skin with antiseptics is to remove transient and pathogenic microorganisms on the skin surface and to reduce the resident flora to a low level. Povidone iodine (I odophors and chlorhexidine are most often used antiseptics for pre - operative skin preparation. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine alone and in combination with antiseptic agent containing alcoholic chlorhexidine in preoperative skin p reparation by taking swab culture. (2 To compare the rate of postoperative wound infection in both the groups. METHODS: One hundred patients (fifty in each group undergoing clean elective surgery with no focus of infection on the body were included in th e study. The pre - operative skin preparation in each group is done with the respective antiseptic regimen. In both the groups after application of antiseptics , sterile saline swab culture was taken immediately from site of incision. In cases which showed gr owth of organisms , the bacteria isolated were identified by their morphological and cultural characteristics. Grams staining , coagulase test and antibiotic sensitivity test were done wherever necessary and difference in colonization rates was determined as a measure of efficacy of antiseptic regimen. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that when compared to povidone iodine alone , using a combination of povidone iodine and alcoholic solution of chlorhexidine , the colonization rates of the site of incisi on were reduced significantly. As for the rate of post - operative wound infection , it is also proven that wound infections are also

  1. Optimal irrigation and debridement of infected joint implants: an in vitro methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwechter, Evan M; Folk, David; Varshney, Avanish K; Fries, Bettina C; Kim, Sun Jin; Hirsh, David M

    2011-09-01

    Acute postoperative and acute, late hematogenous prosthetic joint infections have been treated with 1-stage irrigation and debridement with polyethylene exchange. Success rates, however, are highly variable. Reported studies demonstrate that detergents are effective at decreasing bacterial colony counts on orthopedic implants. Our hypothesis is that the combination of a detergent and an antiseptic would be more effective than using a detergent alone to decrease colony counts from a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-coated titanium alloy disk simulating an orthopedic implant. In our study of various agents tested, chlorhexidine gluconate scrub (antiseptic and detergent) was the most effective at decreasing bacterial colony counts both prereincubation and postreincubation of the disks; pulse lavage and scrubbing were not more effective than pulse lavage alone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gold-oxoborate nanocomposites and their biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybrańska, Katarzyna; Paczesny, Jan; Serejko, Katarzyna; Sura, Karolina; Włodyga, Karolina; Dzięcielewski, Igor; Jones, Samuel T; Śliwa, Agnieszka; Wybrańska, Iwona; Hołyst, Robert; Scherman, Oren A; Fiałkowski, Marcin

    2015-02-25

    A novel inorganic nanocomposite material, called BOA, which has the form of small building blocks composed of gold nanoparticles embedded in a polyoxoborate matrix, is presented. It is demonstrated that cotton wool decorated with the BOA nanocomposite displays strong antibacterial activity toward both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria strains. Importantly, the modified cotton does not release any toxic substances, and the bacteria are killed upon contact with the fibers coated with the BOA. Toxicity tests show that the nanocomposite--in spite of its antiseptic properties--is harmless for mammalian cells. The presented method of surface modification utilizes mild, environmentally friendly fabrication conditions. Thus, it offers a facile approach to obtain durable nontoxic antiseptic coatings for biomedical applications.

  3. Optimal Irrigation and Debridement of Infected Joint Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwechter, Evan M.; Folk, David; Varshney, Avanish K.; Fries, Bettina C.; Kim, Sun Jin; Hirsh, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute postoperative and acute, late hematogenous prosthetic joint infections have been treated with 1-stage irrigation and debridement with polyethylene exchange. Success rates, however, are highly variable. Reported studies demonstrate that detergents are effective at decreasing bacterial colony counts on orthopedic implants. Our hypothesis is that the combination of a detergent and an antiseptic would be more effective than using a detergent alone to decrease colony counts from a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-coated titanium alloy disk simulating an orthopedic implant. In our study of various agents tested, chlorhexidine gluconate scrub (antiseptic and detergent) was the most effective at decreasing bacterial colony counts both prereincubation and postreincubation of the disks; pulse lavage and scrubbing were not more effective than pulse lavage alone. PMID:21641757

  4. Treatment of war wounds: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manring, M M; Hawk, Alan; Calhoun, Jason H; Andersen, Romney C

    2009-08-01

    The treatment of war wounds is an ancient art, constantly refined to reflect improvements in weapons technology, transportation, antiseptic practices, and surgical techniques. Throughout most of the history of warfare, more soldiers died from disease than combat wounds, and misconceptions regarding the best timing and mode of treatment for injuries often resulted in more harm than good. Since the 19th century, mortality from war wounds steadily decreased as surgeons on all sides of conflicts developed systems for rapidly moving the wounded from the battlefield to frontline hospitals where surgical care is delivered. We review the most important trends in US and Western military trauma management over two centuries, including the shift from primary to delayed closure in wound management, refinement of amputation techniques, advances in evacuation philosophy and technology, the development of antiseptic practices, and the use of antibiotics. We also discuss how the lessons of history are reflected in contemporary US practices in Iraq and Afghanistan.

  5. Composite Scaffolds Based on Silver Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenel Marian Patrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis, characterisation, and in vitro testing of homogenous and heterogeneous materials containing silver nanoparticles (nanoAg. Three types of antiseptic materials based on collagen (COLL, hydroxyapatite (HA, and collagen/hydroxyapatite (COLL/HA composite materials were obtained. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was realized by chemical reaction as well as plasma sputtering deposition. The use of chemical reduction allows the synthesis of homogenous materials while the plasma sputtering deposition can be easily used for the synthesis of homogeneous and heterogeneous support. Based on the in vitro assays clear antiseptic activity against Escherichia coli was relieved even at low content of nanoAg (10 ppm.

  6. Alcohol application natural drying of umbilical cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, M.F.; Ali, S.; Roshan, E.; Jamal, S.

    2006-01-01

    To compare the outcome, between the application of Alcohol and natural drying to umbilical stump in low risk newborns. Newborns delivered in Military Hospital and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi were randomized into group A (70% Alcohol) and group B (No antiseptic). In group A, 70% Alcohol was applied once daily to the umbilical stump, whereas no antiseptic was applied in group B. These newborns were followed till four weeks of life. Age at separation of umbilical cord was noted. Cases showing signs of neonatal sepsis and omphalitis were documented. Of 100 singleton full-term newborns enrolled, 90 completed the study. No newborn in either group developed a cord infection or neonatal sepsis. The difference of cord separation time between the two groups was statistically significant. Evidence does not support continued use of alcohol for low risk newborn cord care. (author)

  7. Impetigo: A need for new therapies in a world of increasing antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cunha, N M; Peterson, G M; Baby, K E; Thomas, J

    2018-02-01

    Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection and is one of the most common skin infections in children. Antibiotics are the first-line treatment when multiple lesions exist, but with an increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria the successful management of impetigo in the future is an area of concern. Current treatment options that favour the use of oral antibiotic therapy are increasingly problematic. Widespread use of these agents contributes to antimicrobial resistance and has adverse consequences for individuals and communities. There is a need for new topical antimicrobials and antiseptics as an alternative treatment strategy. To successfully treat impetigo into the future and ensure that therapy does not contribute to bacterial resistance, additional research is required to ascertain the usefulness of alternative agents, including new topical antimicrobials and antiseptics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A novel in vitro wound biofilm model used to evaluate low-frequency ultrasonic-assisted wound debridement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, S.; Garde, Christian; Bjarnsholt, T.

    2015-01-01

    disrupts the biofilm leaving bacteria more vulnerable to antiseptic or antibiotic treatment. The objective of this study is to develop a realistic model to elucidate the effect of ultrasound on biofilms. Method: A novel in vitro wound biofilm model was developed. Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus were......Objective: Bacterial biofilms remain difficult to treat. The biofilm mode of growth enables bacteria to survive antibiotic treatment and the inflammatory reaction. Low-frequency ultrasound has recently been shown to improve healing in a variety of settings. It is hypothesised that ultrasound...... device (UA W) in the presence of saline irrigation and treatment with a polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB)-containing antiseptic. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate the effect of treatments on biofilm disruption and cell viability counting measured the antibacterial effects. Results: Confocal...

  9. Efflux Pumps Might Not Be the Major Drivers of QAC Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Megan C; Forman, Megan E; Duggan, Stephanie M; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Wuest, William M

    2017-08-17

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are commonly used antiseptics that are now known to be subject to bacterial resistance. The prevalence and mechanisms of such resistance, however, remain underexplored. We investigated a variety of QACs, including those with multicationic structures (multiQACs), and the resistance displayed by a variety of Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without genes encoding efflux pumps, the purported main driver of bacterial resistance in MRSA. Through minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)-, kinetic-, and efflux-based assays, we found that neither the qacR/qacA system present in S. aureus nor another efflux pump system is the main reason for bacterial resistance to QACs. Our findings suggest that membrane composition could be the predominant driver that allows CA-MRSA to withstand the assault of conventional QAC antiseptics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Stimulatory effect of Eucalyptus essential oil on innate cell-mediated immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Rasi Guido; Federici Memmo; Mercuri Luana; Zonfrillo Manuela; Andreola Federica; Vallebona Paola; Serafino Annalucia; Garaci Enrico; Pierimarchi Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Besides few data concerning the antiseptic properties against a range of microbial agents and the anti-inflammatory potential both in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the influence of Eucalyptus oil (EO) extract on the monocytic/macrophagic system, one of the primary cellular effectors of the immune response against pathogen attacks. The activities of this natural extract have mainly been recognized through clinical experience, but there have been relatively little...

  11. Antibacterial, anti-swarming and anti-biofilm formation activities of Chamaemelum nobile against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Kazemian; Sobhan Ghafourian; Hamid Heidari; Pouya Amiri; Jalil Kardan Yamchi; Aref Shavalipour; Hamidreza Houri; Abbas Maleki; Nourkhoda Sadeghifard

    2015-01-01

    AbstractINTRODUCTION:Chamomile ( Chamaemelum nobile ) is widely used throughout the world, and has anti-inflammatory, deodorant, bacteriostatic, antimicrobial, carminative, sedative, antiseptic, anti-catarrhal, and spasmolytic properties. Because of the increasing incidence of drug-resistant bacteria, the development of natural antibacterial sources such as medical herbs for the treatment of infectious diseases is necessary. Extracts from different plant parts such as the leaves, flowers, fru...

  12. Aloe Vera: The Miracle Plant Its Medicinal and Traditional Uses in India

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rajeswari; M. Umadevi; C. Sharmila Rahale; R.Pushpa; S. Selvavenkadesh; K. P. Sampath Kumar; Debjit Bhowmik

    2012-01-01

    Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. Extracts of Aloe Vera is a proven skin healer. Aloe Vera help to soothe skin injuries affected by burning, skin irritations, cuts and insect bites, and its bactericidal properties relieve itching and skin swellings. It is known to help slow down the appearance of wrinkles and actively repair the damaged skin cells that cause the visible signs of aging. Aloe is a powerfuldetoxifier, antiseptic an...

  13. Chemotheraphy Efficiency of Phosphonium Heterocyclic Compounds with Pyrimidine Cycle in Models of Generalized Staph Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Humenna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It was conducted the study of the effectiveness of chemotherapy with 2-phenyl-4-(1-pyrrolidinyl-6-izopropiltio-5-pyrimidyltriphenylphosphonium perchlorate, which refers to phosphonium heterocyclic compounds with pyrimidine cycle in the experiment on the model of generalized staph infection. The results were positive and they allow make a conclusion about the possibility of their use in clinical trials and develop promising antibacterial and antiseptic preparations on their basis.

  14. Cervical cancer in the work of the unconventional Samuel Pozzi (1846-1918), pioneer of modern gynaecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanou, Marianna; Drogosis, Achilleas; Salakos, Nikolaos; Markatos, Kostas; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Androutsos, George

    2018-01-01

    Advocate of Lister's antiseptic techniques, promoter of anesthesia, professor of the first chair of gynaecology in Medical School of Paris, academician, successful politician, art collector, friend and lover of the famous, Samuel Pozzi lived a fascinating life. His book "Treatise of clinical and surgical gynaecology" published in 1890 became the gold standard in medical practice while his approach in the treatment of cervical cancer, including cases of pregnant women, remained in vogue for almost fifty years.

  15. [Labor epidural analgesia for a woman with a pityriasis versicolor in the lumbar region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubar, G; Omarjee, M; Viguié, C; Barbarot, S; Mignon, A

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is usually contraindicated in case of infection at the site of needle insertion. Tinea versicolor is a benign superficial cutaneous fungal infection caused by the proliferation of a skin commensal yeast of low pathogenicity. We report the case of a pregnant woman with a tinea versicolor in the lumbar region, who benefited from a labor epidural analgesia, realised with reinforced antiseptic measures. No neurological or infectious complication occurred. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. BENEFITS OF HERBAL EXTRACTS IN COSMETICS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Amreen Fatima*, Shashi Alok, Parul Agarwal, Prem Prakash Singh and Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Herbal extracts are primarily added to the cosmetic formulations due to several associated properties such as antioxidant, anti inflammatory, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. Even today, people in rural and urban areas depend upon herbs for traditional cosmetics. Information on the herbal cosmetics was collected via electronic search (using pub med, scifinder, Google Scholar and web of science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, informati...

  17. A review of current strategies to reduce intraoperative bacterial contamination of surgical wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Dohmen, Pascal M.; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Surgical site infections are a mean topic in cardiac surgery, leading to a prolonged hospitalization, and substantially increased morbidity and mortality. One source of pathogens is the endogenous flora of the patient?s skin, which can contaminate the surgical site. A number of preoperative skin care strategies are performed to reduce bacterial contamination like preoperative antiseptic showering, hair removal, antisepsis of the skin, adhesive barrier drapes, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. Fu...

  18. Comparative efficacy of two daily use mouthrinses: randomized clinical trial using an experimental gingivitis model

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Christine Ann; McGuire, James Anthony; Sharma, Naresh Chandra; Qaqish, James

    2011-01-01

    Two antimicrobial agents, a fixed combination of essential oils (EOs) and 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) are found in commercially available mouthrinses, Listerine® Antiseptic and Crest® Pro HealthTM, respectively. Both mouthrinses have been shown to control dental plaque and gingivitis in short and longer term studies. The aim of this study was to determine the comparative effectiveness of these two mouthrinses using a 2-week experimental gingivitis model. Qualified subjects were rando...

  19. Leader’s Guide to Force Protection through Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    mouth parts in the skin. Apply antiseptic to the bite site. - Scorpion stings: Do not perform incision or suction of venom . Immerse sting area in ice...nets or screens at every opportunity. • Reinforce precautions at night and just before dawn, when mosquitoes are most prevalent. • If a wasp or bee ...clothing, bedding, and bed netting. Require that soldiers sleep under a bed net. 41 • Warn soldiers of the high incidence of HIV (AIDS), hepatitis

  20. An unusual complication of late onset allergic contact dermatitis to povidone iodine in oral & maxillofacial surgery - a report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyazulla, M A; Gopinath, A L; Vaibhav, N; Raut, R P

    2014-07-01

    Povidone iodine (PVP-I) is a chemical complex of polyvinylpyrrolidone (also known as povidone or PVP) and elemental iodine. Iodine containing compounds are widely and commonly used as antiseptics and disinfectants. They are available in various forms like aqueous solution, tincture, aerosol, ointment, or foam. Skin irritation to them is due to the oxidative effects of iodine. Because of the low free iodine concentration in povidone-iodine, skin irritation is less frequent from short contact (1). We report two cases, both with no history of allergy to any drugs, who developed an allergic reaction 24 hours after the usage of povidone iodine as a pre-operative antiseptic to prepare (scrub) the lower third of face before surgical removal of third molars. This case report was granted an exemption by the ethical committee of our institution review board. The Helsinki declaration doesn't apply to this case presentation. PVP-1 is the most commonly used antiseptic scrubbing solution prior to most surgeries. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to PVP-I has not been extensively documented or reported and hence under evaluated, compared to other commonly encountered allergens. There is almost general agreement to the proposition that PVP-I is a very rare sensitizer (2,3) though there are some conflicting reports on the matter. However, sometimes when prolonged skin contact with PVP-I occurs when used as a pre-operative antiseptic agent, it can cause allergic dermatitis (4,5). Does this finding make pre-operative testing for allergies to PVP-1 necessary in all patients? A point to ponder.

  1. Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurel, Kamil; Karabay, Oguz; Gurel, Safiye; Hildebolt, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site. Materials and Methods. Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed was either nonsterile gel or sterile saline. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: nonsterile gel (n = 30) and sterile saline (n = 30). Before the transmission material was used and after antiseptic procedures were performed, microbial swabs of a 10-cm 2 -diameter area were obtained at the biopsy site. Swabs were also obtained from the gel, saline, and povidine-iodine. Inoculated specimen plates were incubated at 37 o C under aerobic conditions, and the numbers of colony-forming units recorded. Nominal logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds of postantisepsis bacterial growth (after antiseptic procedures were performed) based on group, gender, coincidental disease (diabetes, chronic renal failure, and malignancy), biopsy-site location (head and neck or breast and abdomen), and local factors (skin fold, skin tag, and hair). Results. The following odds ratios (adjusted for the other variables) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated: (1) group (2.9 [0.8-11.1]; p = 0.10); (2) gender (1.2 [0.3-5.2]; p = 0.78); (3) coincidental disease (7.6 [0.9-166.7]; p = 0.09); (4) biopsy site location (6.2 [1.4-31.3]; p = 0.02); and (5) local factors (7.0 [1.6-36.0]; p = 0.01). No bacterial growth occurred with swabs obtained from gel, povidine-iodine, or saline. Conclusion. We conclude that nonsterile gel used prior to percutaneous biopsy does not affect biopsy-site asepsis

  2. tamsa Volume 15.qxd:Layout 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philemon Kaganda

    Aloe in China notes Aloe's value as a sinus treatment and treatment of fever and convulsions in children. Also re-confirmed use as a treatment for skin diseases. The Bible has references of aloe use, e.g. in Numbers. 24:6, Psalms 45:8, Proverbs 7:17 and John 19:39. Aloe Contents. Aloe contains at least 6 antiseptic agents:.

  3. Percutaneous absorption of chlorhexidine in neonatal cord care.

    OpenAIRE

    Aggett, P J; Cooper, L V; Ellis, S H; McAinsh, J

    1981-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of chlorhexidine during its routine use in topical antiseptic preparations used in umbilical cord care was investigated by determining plasma chlorhexidine concentrations at ages 5 and 9 days. These showed that percutaneous absorption of chlorhexidine occurred in preterm neonates treated with a 1% solution of chlorhexidine in ethanol, but not in term infants similarly treated, or in preterm infants treated only with a dusting powder containing 1% chlorhexidine and ...

  4. A study of long-term stability and antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine, polyhexamethylene biguanide, and silver nanoparticle incorporated in sericin-based wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampawong, Sumate; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2017-09-01

    In this study, three kinds of antiseptics which were 0.05% chlorhexidine, 0.2% polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), or 200 ppm silver nanoparticle was introduced to incorporate in the sericin-based scaffold to produce the antimicrobial dressing for the treatment of infected chronic wound. The effects of antiseptic incorporation on the stability, release of sericin, and short-term and long-term (6 months) antimicrobial activity of the sericin dressing against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were investigated. We showed that the incorporation of each antiseptic did not have significant effect on the internal morphology (pore size ~ 73-105 μm), elasticity (Young's modulus ~ 200-500 kPa), and the sericin release behavior of the sericin-based dressing. The release of sericin from the dressing was prolonged over 120 h and thereafter. Comparing among three antiseptics, 0.05% chlorhexidine incorporated in the sericin dressing showed the highest immediate and long-term (6 months) antimicrobial effect (largest inhibition zone) against most bacteria either gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. The in vivo safety test following ISO10993 standard (Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part 6: Tests for local effects after implantation) confirmed that the sericin dressing incorporating 0.05% chlorhexidine did not irritate to tissue, comparing with the commercial material used generally in clinic (Allevyn®, Smith & Nephew). We suggested the sericin dressing incorporating 0.05% chlorhexidine for the treatment of infected chronic wound. Chlorhexidine would reduce the risk of infection while the sericin may promote wound healing.

  5. Bioactivity and chemical characterization of phenolic and anthocyanin extracts of Arbutus unedo L. wild fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R.P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic metabolites are common constituents of fruits and vegetables, and the interest of plant phenolic extracts derives from the evidence of their potent antioxidant activity and their wide range of pharmacologic properties including anticancer, antimicrobial and platelet aggregation inhibition activities. The fruits of Arbutus unedo L. are eaten raw or made in liqueurs (1 ]. In traditional folk medicine, they are reported as having antiseptic, diuretic and laxative effects, be...

  6. Preoperative skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine as a factor in the prevention of surgical site infection

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn Solano Castro

    2014-01-01

    The results of secondary research that refers to preoperative skin preparation with antiseptic chlorhexidine 2% are presented. Surgical Site Infections are one of the most common complications in surgical procedures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the user and are the third -associated infection more frequent in the health care . Steps of clinical practice based on evidence were applied, considering in the first instance a question in PICO format, then a search for ...

  7. Phenotypic Resistance to Disinfectants and Antibiotics in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares, E; Moreno Roldan, E; Espigares, M; Abreu, R; Castro, B; Dib, A L; Arias, Á

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the phenotypic resistances to disinfectants and antibiotics in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) obtained from Canary black pigs. Analyses were performed on 54 strains of MRSA, isolated in Canary black pigs from the province of Tenerife (Spain); all of them carried the mecA gene. The strains were isolated by means of nasal swab samples of healthy pigs, collected under veterinarian supervision. Bactericidal activity of antiseptics and disinfectants was tested by means of the dilution-neutralization method. Susceptibility to the disinfectants glutaraldehyde, peracetic acid and silver nitrate was assessed, as well as to the antiseptics chlorhexidine, benzalkonium chloride and povidone iodine. Susceptibility to a wide array of antibiotics representing the main groups was determined by means of the disc diffusion method. All the strains demonstrated susceptibility to the disinfectants tested at the recommended concentration, and even to dilutions equal to or lesser than 1/16. The most effective antiseptic and disinfectant were, respectively, chlorhexidine and silver nitrate. With regard to the antibiotics, the strains proved to be multiresistant. All presented phenotypic resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics ampicillin, penicillin and cefoxitin, as well as to numerous aminoglycosides, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. It was also observed that 61.1% of the strains were carriers of plasmids. Our results underline that in the strains such as MRSA, which show multiple resistances to antibiotics, the antiseptics and disinfectants show great efficacy. Moreover, as other authors also suggest, for the treatment and prevention of infections caused by MRSA, the use of β-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics may be less effective. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Preoperative disinfection of surgeons' hands: use of alcoholic solutions and effects of gloves on skin flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowbury, E J; Lilly, H A; Ayliffe, G A

    1974-11-16

    A single application of about 10 ml of 95% alcoholic chlorhexidine (0.5%) or tetrabrom-o-methyl phenol (0.1%) rubbed on to the hands until they were dry led to mean reduction in viable bacterial counts from standard handwashings of 97.9 +/- 1.09% and 91.8 +/- 4.63% respectively. After six of such treatments, three on each of two successive days, the mean reductions in relation to viable counts before the first treatment were 99.7 +/- 0.09% for alcoholic chlorhexidine and 99.5 +/- 0.17% for tetrabrom-o-methyl phenol. These reductions were greater than those obtained with 4% chlorhexidine detergent solution- 87.1 +/- 3.5% and 98.2 +/- 1.6%, and with 95% or 70% ethyl alcohol and with aqueous 0.5% chlorhexidine. Preoperative washing of the surgeon's hands with alcoholic chlorhexidine used without addition of water is more effective and less expensive than handwashing with antiseptic detergent preparations and running water.The viable counts of washings from hands treated with various antiseptics, including ethyl alcohol, were lower in relation to the pretreatment levels when gloves had been worn for three hours than when samples for counts were taken immediately after the antiseptic treatment. No such difference was found in samplings from hands washed with unmedicated soap.Tests for residual action of antiseptics on the skin showed a greater effect with alcoholic chlorhexidine than with tetrabrom-o-methyl phenol, though both showed greater residual activity than an Irgasan DP 300 detergent preparation. No residual action was shown after 70% ethyl alcohol.

  9. [Health problems of combatants during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Hugues; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Tabbagh, Xavier; Domanski, Laurent; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2014-06-01

    The First World War because of the use of new weapons, injured more than 3 500 000 people (500 000 in the face), more than diseases (tuberculosis, typhoid fever, etc.) or even weather circumstances. The healing of the war wounds through surgery undertook a significant evolution thanks to the use of asepsis and antiseptics. Mortality go down, opening the way to the physical and psychological rehabilitation of those injured by the war.

  10. Chlorine dioxide is a size-selective antimicrobial agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Noszticzius

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND / AIMS: ClO2, the so-called "ideal biocide", could also be applied as an antiseptic if it was understood why the solution killing microbes rapidly does not cause any harm to humans or to animals. Our aim was to find the source of that selectivity by studying its reaction-diffusion mechanism both theoretically and experimentally. METHODS: ClO2 permeation measurements through protein membranes were performed and the time delay of ClO2 transport due to reaction and diffusion was determined. To calculate ClO2 penetration depths and estimate bacterial killing times, approximate solutions of the reaction-diffusion equation were derived. In these calculations evaporation rates of ClO2 were also measured and taken into account. RESULTS: The rate law of the reaction-diffusion model predicts that the killing time is proportional to the square of the characteristic size (e.g. diameter of a body, thus, small ones will be killed extremely fast. For example, the killing time for a bacterium is on the order of milliseconds in a 300 ppm ClO2 solution. Thus, a few minutes of contact time (limited by the volatility of ClO2 is quite enough to kill all bacteria, but short enough to keep ClO2 penetration into the living tissues of a greater organism safely below 0.1 mm, minimizing cytotoxic effects when applying it as an antiseptic. Additional properties of ClO2, advantageous for an antiseptic, are also discussed. Most importantly, that bacteria are not able to develop resistance against ClO2 as it reacts with biological thiols which play a vital role in all living organisms. CONCLUSION: Selectivity of ClO2 between humans and bacteria is based not on their different biochemistry, but on their different size. We hope initiating clinical applications of this promising local antiseptic.

  11. Peritonitis prevented in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis by using the Hong Kong connection.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, R D

    1984-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that air contamination is an important cause of peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, a simple and cheap connection system was developed whereby a clear polyethylene bag containing an antiseptic gauze was used as a sterilising chamber, effectively enclosing the connection procedure. Seven modifications to the connection technique were introduced over 32 months in 28 patients during 27.9 patient years of experience. The overall rate of peritonitis wa...

  12. Phase 2 Remedial Investigation Report Army Materials Technology Laboratory, Task Order 1 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Volume 5 - Appendices K-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    and severe gastrointestinal damage. Therapeutic administration of mercury salts (forK its diuretic and antiseptic properties) has resulted in nephrotic...Toxicological profile for mercury . Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. E Andres P. 1984. IgA-IgG disease in the intestine of...RADIOLOGICAL APPENDIX R - DETAILED TOXICITY SUMMARIES APPENDIX S - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION APPENDIX T - PATHWAY ELIMINATIONS APPENDIX U - QUALITY

  13. Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Abu-Darwish; C. Cabral; I. V. Ferreira; M. J. Gonçalves; C. Cavaleiro; M. T. Cruz; T. H. Al-bdour; L. Salgueiro

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectro...

  14. Preparation of hydrogel by radiation for the healing of diabetic ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Youn-Mook

    2014-01-01

    Honey has been used in wound care for thousands of years. The major advantage of honey in wound care is the high osmotic activity, which accelerates the debridement of necrotic tissue and procures an antibacterial effect. It has been reported that the ancient Greeks and Romans used honey as a topical antiseptic for sores and skin ulcers. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antibacterial activities and the healing effect for diabetic ulcers from carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrogel involving honey.

  15. The etiological structure, biological properties of causative agents of peri-implant mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Faustova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the peri-implant mucositis microflora and sensitivity of dominant pathogens to antibiotics and antiseptics. Materials and methods. The study involved 43 patients with peri-implant mucositis. During the study 162 clinical strains of microorganisms were isolated and identified. Cultivation of clinical isolates was performed by the standard method, final identification was carried out with using bacteriological automatic analyzer Vitec – 2compact bioMérieux (France. Determination of sensitivity to antibiotics of pathogens was carried with disc-diffusion method; the study of sensitivity to antiseptics was carried by means of double serial dilutions method by the standard procedure approved by the Order № 167 of the Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine on “On Approval of Training Guidance “Assessment of the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics”, dated by April, 5, 2007. Results. It is The microflora of peri-implant area of patients with mucositis was revealed to consist of opportunistic species. Representatives of Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were dominating among them, although Kocuria spp., Enterobacter spp. and yeast-like fungi Candida spp. were detected quite common. Investigated clinical strains of microorganisms had different sensitivity to antibiotics. All cultures were sensitive to fluoroquinolones, but very significant number of them showed resistance to penicillins, macrolides and lincosamides. In turn, horosten, dekasan and chlorhexidine had powerful antimicrobial effect on dominant pathogens of periimplant mucositis in patients. Moreover, the effect of decametoxine-based antiseptics on some of them significantly exceeded the activity of chlorhexidine. Conclusions. Microflora from peri-implant area of patients with peri-implant mucositis consists mainly of aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, belonging to normal oral microflora. Most of pathogens of mucositis obtaine

  16. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Kadam; K.N. Yadav; F.A. Patel; F.A. Karjikar; M.J. Patil

    2013-01-01

    Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy,...

  17. Guava: phytochemical composition of a potential source of antioxidants for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Galdorfini Chiari-Andréo; Eliane Trovatti; Joana Marto; Maria Gabriela José de Almeida-Cincotto; Ana Melero; Marcos Antonio Corrêa; Leila Aparecida Chiavacci; Helena Ribeiro; Teresa Garrigues; Vera Lucia Borges Isaac

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a native fruit of the American tropics with commercial applications for its taste, flavor and aroma. Numerous pharmacological uses have been described for it, such as the antiseptic effect of its leaves, the use of the fresh fruit and tea from its leaves for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes mellitus, and others. However, considering its rich composition, the guava also is a potential source of antioxidants to be used in the development of n...

  18. Catalytic oxidation of lignin in the medium of nitrobenzene with vanillin obtaining

    OpenAIRE

    Shimanskaya E.; Shavlukevich G.; Gakipova D.

    2017-01-01

    Lignin, due to its structure, is a very valuable supplier of aromatic aldehydes which find wide application in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. One of these substances is vanillin, which is widely used in pharmaceutical chemistry. Derivatives of vanillin have antiseptic and antibacterial properties. Drugs, derived from vanillin, are used to stimulate digestion, to treat cardiovascular diseases. Nitrobenzene is the most selective oxidant of lignin and therefore gives the highest p...

  19. Anatomical studies of Baccharis grisebachii Hieron. (Asteraceae). Used in folk medicine of San Juan province, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Hadad, Martín Ariel; Gattuso, Susana Julia; Gattuso, Martha Ana; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Tapia, Aníbal Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Baccharis grisebachii Hieron., commonly known as “quilchamali”, is a bushy plant that lives in the high mountains of Argentina and southern Bolivia. The infusion or decoction of aerial parts is used in the traditional medicine of San Juan province, Argentina, to treat gastric ulcers, digestive problems, and as antiseptic and wound healing in humans and horses. The aim of this study is to analyze the anatomical characters of B. grisebachii for specific identification and quality control. The r...

  20. Consensus guidelines for the identification and treatment of biofilms in chronic nonhealing wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Gregory; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; James, Garth A.

    2017-01-01

    diagnostic options; clinical indicators of biofilms; future options for diagnostic tests; treatment strategies; mechanical debridement; topical antiseptics; screening antibiofilm agents; and levels of evidence when choosing antibiofilm treatments. Conclusion: This consensus document attempts to clarify...... misunderstandings about the role of biofilms in clinical practice, and provides a basis for clinicians to recognize biofilms in chronic nonhealing wounds and manage patients optimally. A new paradigm for wound care, based on a stepped-down treatment approach, was derived from the consensus statements....

  1. Study on Patients Who Underwent Suspected Diagnosis of Allergy to Amide-Type Local Anesthetic Agents by the Leukocyte Migration Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Saito

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions:: There is a high possibility that these adverse reactions were caused by pseudoallergy to drug. Even by allergic reactions, it was assumed that 80% of them might be caused by antiseptic agents such as paraben. In addition, it was suggested that ALAs, especially lidocaine hydrochloride preparations have high antigenicity (sensitizing property. Furthermore, it was considered that patients with past history of drug or food allergies have a high potential for manifestation of the reactions.

  2. Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Adkar, Prafulla; Dongare, Amita; Ambavade, Shirishkumar; Bhaskar, V. H.

    2014-01-01

    Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful...

  3. Hepatitis C virus maintains infectivity for weeks after drying on inanimate surfaces at room temperature: implications for risks of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paintsil, Elijah; Binka, Mawuena; Patel, Amisha; Lindenbach, Brett D; Heimer, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Healthcare workers may come into contact with fomites that contain infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) during preparation of plasma or following placement or removal of venous lines. Similarly, injection drugs users may come into contact with fomites. Hypothesizing that prolonged viability of HCV in fomites may contribute significantly to incidence, we determined the longevity of virus infectivity and the effectiveness of antiseptics. We determined the volume of drops misplaced during transfer of serum or plasma. Aliquots equivalent to the maximum drop volume of plasma spiked with the 2a HCV reporter virus were loaded into 24-well plates. Plates were stored uncovered at 3 temperatures: 4°C, 22°C, and 37°C for up to 6 weeks before viral infectivity was determined in a microculture assay. The mean volume of an accidental drop was 29 µL (min-max of 20-33 µL). At storage temperatures 4°C and 22°C, we recovered viable HCV from the low-titer spots for up to 6 weeks of storage. The rank order of HCV virucidal activity of commonly used antiseptics was bleach (1:10) > cavicide (1:10) > ethanol (70%). The hypothesis of potential transmission from fomites was supported by the experimental results. The anti-HCV activity of commercial antiseptics varied.

  4. A 2000 patient retrospective assessment of a new strategy for burn wound management in view of infection prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glik, Justyna; Łabuś, Wojciech; Kitala, Diana; Mikuś-Zagórska, Karolina; Roberts, Christopher D; Nowak, Mariusz; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Kawecki, Marek

    2017-12-15

    Infections in burn patients are still the principal cause of complications in burn injuries. The aim of this study is to assess a new strategy for burn wound management in view of infection prevention and treatment in the experience of the Burn Treatment Center in Siemianowice Śląskie. The applied methodology involved the analysis of patient records describing the hospital's epidemiological situation between 2014 and 2016. The analysis also included the use and cost of antibiotics, silver-containing dressings, and other antiseptics relative to the number of sepsis cases, including those caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as the mortality ratio. The total costs of prevention and treatment of infections were reduced, while the use of silver-containing dressings and antiseptics increased. The number of patients with sepsis decreased, including cases caused by P. aeruginosa, and the mortality ratio was reduced. Introducing a strategy for burn wound-oriented infection prevention and treatment in burn patients provides a number of benefits. It is also cost-effective. Using locally applied active dressings and antiseptics can be a welcome choice for often-unnecessary antibiotic therapy of a suspected or existing burn wound infection. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Joseph Lister's surgical revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2010-10-01

    Joseph Lister (1827-1912), renowned British surgeon-scientist, introduced to the world the use and appreciation of the antiseptic method for the prevention of wound sepsis. Armed with the ideas of Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) regarding the role of microorganisms in infections or the so-called germ theory of disease, he advanced the surgical field by using antiseptics, such as carbolic acid, in the treatment of contaminated wounds. These developments constituted a real surgical revolution. No breakthrough before Lister's, except perhaps the discovery of anesthesia, had contributed to such an incredible advancement in relationship to the surgical arena. After 1867, the year in which Lister published his remarkable paper in Lancet, it was possible to appropriately treat or prevent wound infections with the use of antiseptics at the site of the operated wound. Lister's method was complicated but produced its desired effect--to diminish wound morbidity and patient mortality. His contribution was secured for future generations and a surgical revolution had begun!

  6. Mouthwashes for the control of supragingival biofilm and gingivitis in orthodontic patients: evidence-based recommendations for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Nogueira HAAS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Properly performed daily mechanical biofilm control is the most important prevention strategy for periodontal diseases. However, proper mechanical biofilm control is not performed effectively by the majority of the population, mainly due to lack of motivation and of manual dexterity. Local biofilm retention factors may aggravate home oral hygiene quality. For this reason, patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances comprise a group that may benefit from the daily use of mouthwashes. The purpose of this review was to perform a systematic search in the literature on antiseptics used to control supragingival biofilm and gingivitis in orthodontic patients. Six studies investigating the effect of chlorhexidine and 5 studies evaluating the effect of the daily use of antiseptics were found. Chlorhexidine showed better results in reducing plaque and gingivitis. However, because of its adverse effects after continuous use, it should not be indicated for long-term periods. Among the agents considered for daily use, the fixed combination of essential oils was the only one evaluated in a clinical trial, in which a comparative group presented a statistically significant clinical impact. There is no direct evidence supporting the indication of antiseptic agents for orthodontic patients other than chlorhexidine and essential oils. It can be concluded that, for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, chlorhexidine should be considered for treating acute gingival inflammation, whereas essential oils should be indicated for long-term daily use in controlling supragingival biofilm.

  7. [The bacterial biofilm and the possibilities of chemical plaque control. Literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, István

    2008-06-01

    Most microorganisms in the oral cavity attach to surfaces and form matrix-embedded biofilms. Biofilms are structured and spatially organized, composed of consortia of interacting microorganisms. The properties of the mass of biofilm are different from that of the simple sum of the component species. The older the plaque (biofilm) is the more structurally organized and become more resistant to environmental attacks. The bacterial community favors the growth of obligatory anaerobic microorganisms. The most effective means of the elimination of matured biofilm is the mechanical disruption of the interbacterial protective matrix and removal of bacterial colonies. The antiseptic agents are primarily effective in the prevention of biofilm formation and anticipation of the maturation of the bacterial plaque. Bacteria in matured biofilms are less susceptible to antimicrobial agents because several physical and biological factors protect the bacterial consortia. To kill bacteria in a matured, well organized biofilm, significantly higher concentration and longer exposition are required. Antiseptic mouthrinses in a conventional dose and time can only reach the superficial bacteria while the bacteria in the depth of the biofilm remains intact. Therefore, the efficacy of any antiseptic mouthwash depends not just on its microbicidal properties demonstrated in vitro, but also on its ability to penetrate the organized biofilm on the teeth. Recent studies have demonstrated that both bisbiguanid compounds and essential oils are capable of penetrating the biofilm, and reduce established plaque and gingivitis. The essential oils showed high penetrability and were more effective on organized biofilm than stannous fluorides or triclosan copolymer antiplaque agents.

  8. Liquid dosage forms with antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Mykhalyk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development and implementation of effective liquid medicines with antiseptic action on the basis of new substances and their complex combinations into medical practice is an important task of modern pharmaceutical and medical science. In the "National List of Essential medicines and medical devices" on anatomical, therapeutic and chemical classification the code D10AE was assigned to antiseptic preparations.The Purpose was to study modern liquid medications with antiseptic action in regulatory documents of Ministry of Health of Ukraine, State Formulary of drugs.Antiseptic and disinfectants are separated by the chemical structure into inorganic compounds (halogens and halogencontaining substances, oxidants, acids, alkalis, compounds of heavy metals and organic compounds (aliphatic: aldehydes, alcohols, detergents (surface-active substances, aromatic: phenol derivatives (as birch tar containing phenol, toluene, xylene, tar, etc., nitrofuran and hydroxyquinoline compounds, dyes, antibiotics for topical use (microcide, novoimaninum, gramicidin.Boric acid, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, brilliant green and the most efficient – iodine preparations appeared under antiseptic preparations in Compendium up to 2000.Iodine preparations containing elemental iodine are particularly distinguished among the halogens. In modern medical practice, pharmaceutical compositions of iodine molecules in polymeric compounds (Iodinolum, Iodopiron, Iodovidon, Рovidone – iodine are among the most important ones. Introduction of iodine into molecules of polymeric compounds makes it possible to preserve a wide range of antimicrobial, fungicidal, antiviral activity, neutralize toxicity when injected into the body of higher animals and humans.In the pharmaceutical and medical practice Dimexidum (DMSO has been used for a long period as a solvent and medication. Modern effective drug with antimicrobial and antiviral action containing Іodine, Glycerin and Dimexidium called

  9. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF PREOPERATIVE SKIN PREPARATION WITH AQUEOUS POVIDONE IODINE ONLY AND IN COMBINATION WITH ALCHOLIC CHLORHEXIDINE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE AND EMERGENCY SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latchu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Many techniques are there for skin preparation before surgery, the commonest being initial scrub with antiseptic soap solution, followed by painting the prepared area with antiseptic paint solution. But degerming of the skin can be done with antiseptics us ed for less than one minute which is as effective as five minute scrub with germicidal soap solution followed by painting with antiseptics . AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : 1. To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine alone and antiseptic agent containing alcoholic chlorhexidine with povidone iodine in preoperative skin preparation by taking swab culture. 2. To compare the rate of postoperative wound infection in both the groups . METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Comparative study conducted on 100 patients in two groups. STUDY SETTING: Sri Venkateswara Medical College Tirupathi SOURCE OF DATA: 100 Patients (50 in each Group undergoing elective and emergency surgery admitted in the Department of General Surgery in S.V.R.R. Government General Hospital, Tirupati from 2013 to 2014. INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Patients undergoing elective & emergency surgery in department of general surgery. 2. Patients with no focus of infection anywhere on the body. 3. Patients irrespective of their age and sex. 4. Patients neither immunocompromised nor on any long term steroids. 5. Patients undergoing mes h repair of hernia are also included. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Immuno compromised patients and patients on long term steroids. 2. Patients with septicemia. 3. Patients suffering from malignancies or undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy. 4. Contaminat ed surgeries in which viscus was opened were excluded from the study. 5. Patients with co - morbid medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension etc. METHOD OF COLLECTION OF DATA: In each case preoperatively, detailed history was taken and routine investiga tions like haemoglobin, total count, differential count, ESR, RBS and chest X - ray, ultrasound were done to

  10. ESTIMATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DECASAN, DECAMETHOXIN AND ITS COMPOSITION USAGE IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE THERMAL INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarchuk O.А.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays victims with burn trauma are one of the most important categories of patients in the emergent surgery. According to the data of WHO burns happen in 5,6 – 10 % of cases among all kinds of trauma. Purulentinflammatory complications in these patients are of great importance.The aim was to study microbiological, clinical effectiveness of antiseptics, antimicrobial composition of decamethoxin with modified polysaccharides, antimicrobial materials in prophylaxis and treatment of infectious complications in patients with burn injury. Materials and methods. In the research microbiological study of antimicrobial activity of modern antiseptics, antimicrobial materials against opportunistic pathogens of purulent-inflammatory complications in patients with difficult burn injury and clinical observation of effectiveness of the use of antimicrobial composition (AMC of decamethoxin (DKM with carboxymethylamylum, oxyethylcellulose, polyvinilacetate. There were 130 patient with difficult burn injury (the 3rd- 4th stages; injury square – 10,0 – 85,0 % of surface enrolled in the study. All patients underwent early surgery on the 2nd- 3rd day after trauma. Complex intensive care was provided to every patient. Microbiological examinations of patients (100 % were carried out before antibacterial treatment and every 7 days during treatment. Antimicrobial qualities of antiseptics (decasan, miramistin, chlorhexidine digluconate and AMC against S. aureus (n 35, S. epidermidis (n 12, Enterococcus spp. (n 9, P. aeruginosa (n 39, A. baumannii (n 54, Proteus spp. (n 16, Enterobacter spp. (n 11, K. pneumoniae (n 12, E. coli (n 9, C. albicans (n 7 were studied according to standard methods. Antimicrobial qualities of dressings, containing antiseptics we studied on clinical strains of S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa on dense medium, counting diameter of growth delay zones (mm. Results and discussion. Results of study of sensitivity of Gram

  11. Antimicrobial efficacy of the combination of chlorhexidine digluconate and dexpanthenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer, Axel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this standardised experimental study was to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of the combination of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX and the anti-inflammatory pro-vitamin dexpanthenol, which stimulates wound-healing, in the form of Bepanthen Antiseptic Wound Cream, in order to rule out possible antagonistic combination effects of CHX and the alcohol analogue of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5 dexpanthenol.Method: Testing was carried out using the quantitative suspension test at conditions simulating wound bio-burden. Test strains included (ATCC 10541 and (ATCC 10231 in accordance with the standard methods of the German Hygiene and Microbiology Society with the following three organic challenges: i cell culture medium MEM with Earle’s salts, L-glutamine and 10% foetal calf serum (CCM; ii 10% sheep’s blood; iii or a mixture of 4.5% albumin, 4.5% sheep’s blood and 1% mucin. For methodological reasons, the wound cream was tested as a 55% dilution, prepared with 1% Tween 80 (equivalent to a content of 0.275% CHX instead of 0.5% as in the original preparation. CHX 0.275% was tested as control in an aqueous solution and in 1% Tween 80. Additionally, 1% Tween 80 was tested in order to rule out an interfering effect of the dilution medium. A combn of 3% Tween 80, 3% saponin, 0.1% histidine, 0.3% lecithin, 0.5% Na-thiosulphate and 1% ether sulphate was identified as the most appropriate neutraliser during the experiments.Results: Exposed to CCM or 10% sheep’s blood, the tested wound cream fulfilled the requirements for a wound antiseptic against both test species with ≥3 log reduction at 10 minutes. Even at the the worst-case challenge test with 4.5% albumin, 4.5% sheep’s blood and 1% mucin, the requirement for a ≥3 log reduction was met after 24 hours of exposure. Interestingly, the aqueous solution of 0.275% CHX tested as control did not achieve the antimicrobial efficacy of the combination of CHX and 5

  12. Meta-analysis of randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials of topical antibiotics after primary closure for the prevention of surgical-site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, C F; Banks, J L; Lepper, P; Kontopantelis, E; van Driel, M L

    2017-08-01

    Surgical-site infections (SSIs) increase patient morbidity and costs. The aim was to identify and synthesize all RCTs evaluating the effect of topical antibiotics on SSI in wounds healing by primary intention. The search included Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, the Cochrane Wounds Specialized Register, Central Register of Controlled Trials and EBSCO CINAHL from inception to May 2016. There was no restriction of language, date or setting. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. When sufficient numbers of comparable trials were available, data were pooled in meta-analysis. Fourteen RCTs with 6466 participants met the inclusion criteria. Pooling of eight trials (5427 participants) showed that topical antibiotics probably reduced the risk of SSI compared with no topical antibiotic (risk ratio (RR) 0·61, 95 per cent c.i. 0·42 to 0·87; moderate-quality evidence), equating to 20 fewer SSIs per 1000 patients treated. Pooling of three trials (3012 participants) for risk of allergic contact dermatitis found no clear difference between antibiotics and no antibiotic (RR 3·94, 0·46 to 34·00; very low-quality evidence). Pooling of five trials (1299 participants) indicated that topical antibiotics probably reduce the risk of SSI compared with topical antiseptics (RR 0·49, 0·30 to 0·80; moderate-quality evidence); 43 fewer SSIs per 1000 patients treated. Pooling of two trials (541 participants) showed no clear difference in the risk of allergic contact dermatitis with antibiotics or antiseptic agents (RR 0·97, 0·52 to 1·82; very low-quality evidence). Topical antibiotics probably prevent SSI compared with no topical antibiotic or antiseptic. No conclusion can be drawn regarding whether they cause allergic contact dermatitis. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effectiveness of permethrin standard and modified methods in scabies treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Sungkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Permethrin is the drug of choice for scabies with side effects such as erythema, pain, itching and prickling sensation. Whole-body (standard topical application of permethrin causes discomfort; thus, modified application of permethrin to the lesion only, followed with baths twice daily using soap was proposed. The objective of the study is to know the effectiveness of standard against lesion-only application of permethrin in scabies treatment.Methods: An experimental study was conducted in pesantren in East Jakarta and data was collected in May-July 2012. Diagnosis of scabies was made through anamnesis and skin examination. Subjects positive for scabies were divided into three groups: one standard method group (whole-body topical application and two modified groups (lesion-only application followed by the use of regular soap and antiseptic soap group. The three groups were evaluated weekly for three consecutive weeks. Data was processed using SPSS 20 and analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test.Results: Total of 94 subjects was scabies positive (prevalence 50% but only 69 subjects were randomly picked to be analyzed. The cure rate at the end of week III of the standard method group was 95.7%, modified treatment followed by the use of regular soap was 91.3%, and modified treatment followed by the use of antiseptic soap was 78.3% (p = 0.163. The recurrence rate of standard treatment was 8.7%,  modified treatment followed by the use of regular soap was 13% and modified treatment followed by the use of antiseptic soap was 26.1% (p = 0.250.Conclusion: The standard scabies treatment was as effective as the modified scabies treatment.

  14. STUDIES ON THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE VIRUS OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Peter K.; Boëz, Louis

    1927-01-01

    The virus of foot-and-mouth disease exhibits a remarkable resistance to such bactericidal agents as the narcotic solvents (alcohol, ether, chloroform), or such antiseptics as phenol, bichloride of mercury, or cresol, as shown by tests made by others and ourselves. We have shown, however, that the resistance of the incitant to these chemicals is really masked. It is due to the fact that the reagents coagulate the proteins of the medium in which the virus is, as a rule, suspended. As a result the active agent is protected by the coagula which prevents direct contact with the chemicals. On the other hand, if advantage is taken of the periodic phenomenon attending such processes, and coagulation is prevented, the virus can then be brought under direct action of the antiseptics. Under these conditions, the incitant is more sensitive to destruction by the chemicals than is the living staphylococcus. As a corollary, the virus is destroyed as rapidly, or even more so, than are staphylococci by substances such as sodium hydrate (1 to 2 per cent solutions), or antiformin (1 per cent solution) which do not form coagula. We are therefore compelled to contradict the opinion that the extraordinary resistance to certain chemicals of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease, as it ordinarily occurs admixed with proteins, is an indication of its inanimate character. The results of a large series of experiments lead to the conclusion that of a number of antiseptics employed the sodium hydrate in 1 to 2 per cent solutions is an effective virucide. It is capable of killing the virus within 1 minute as shown by tests on cattle and guinea pigs. Furthermore, its effectiveness is not diminished even when the virulent material is admixed with cattle's urine, with manure, or with garden soil. The experimental evidence and the cheapness suggest its use in field practice as a disinfectant. PMID:19869292

  15. Comparative study of different treatment options of grade III and IV diabetic foot ulcers to reduce the incidence of amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poras Chaudhary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the efficacy of antiseptic dressings, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and recombinant human platelet derived growth factor (rhPDGF for two reasons: i to reduce the incidence of lower limb amputations in diabetic foot ulcer; ii to limit the duration of stay in the hospital. A prospective randomized trial was conducted on 60 patients with stage III and IV diabetic foot ulcers (International Association of Enterostomal Therapy classification and patients were divided randomly in three different therapy groups - antiseptics, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, recombinant platelet derived growth factor, with 20 patients in each group. Patients were managed initially on inpatient and then on outpatient basis till the ulcer healed completely. Results among three groups were compared using unpaired T test and the level of significance was set at P<0.05 using ANOVA. This study compares the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, antiseptic dressings, and rhPDGF in grade III and IV diabetic foot ulcers. P value (0.0348 was significant for complete wound contraction while p value healing time (0.6534 and ulcer size (0.0593 in the groups was not significant. PDGF is safe, effective and easy to apply. Results are comparable with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy and cost of treatment is lower than other therapies. Diabetic foot ulcer management requires multidisciplinary and aggressive approach. PDGF should be recommended for all grade III and IV diabetic foot ulcer at least 8 weeks old. HBO is equally good an option but has limitations and side effects.

  16. Removable partial or complete dentures exposed to beverages and mouthwashes: evaluation of microhardness and roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alves Feitosa

    Full Text Available AbstractPurposeTo evaluate microhardness and roughness of denture base polymethylmethacrylate resinn exposed to acid beverages and mouthwashes.Material and methodRectangular samples (n=80 were prepared from poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA. They were divided into 8 groups and had the initial microhardness and Knoop roughness measured. Samples of each group were immersed for 10 min into a test solution (coffee, lemon juice, chlorhexidine gluconate, red wine, cola-based soft drink, vinegar or antiseptic with and without alcohol and after stored in artificial saliva for 23 h and 50 min, completing a period of 24 h. This procedure was performed for 14 consecutive days and after this period the microhardness and surface roughness measurements were made again. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA non parametric, Kruskal-Walis and the Dunn´s test for microhardness and the t-Student and ANOVA for roughness.ResultFor microhardness there were found statistically significant differences among the chlorhexidine gluconate solution, antiseptic without alcohol and cola-based soft drink. For roughness was observed that the mean values between the initial period and after immersion in the test products differed statistically in all groups, without difference among groups.ConclusionThe microhardness of poly(methyl methacrylate was affected by continue exposition to chlorhexidine gluconate, antiseptic without alcohol and cola-based soft drink. The roughness of poly(methyl methacrylate is negatively influenced by the exposure to all tested products. It may be concluded that both, microhardness and roughness, were affected by the treatments.

  17. In vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 strains isolated from clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, A C; Capra, E; Morandi, S; Cremonesi, P; Pantoja, J C F; Langoni, H; de Vargas, A P C; da Costa, M M; Jagielski, T; Bolaños, C A D; Guerra, S T; Ribeiro, M G

    2017-06-01

    Prototheca species have increasingly been reported to be opportunistic pathogens that cause mastitis in dairy herds, and it poses an emergent problem because at present, there are no effective therapies for the treatment of protothecal mastitis. This study investigated the in vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on 75 Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 strains isolated from 75 cases of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. All strains were susceptible to guanidine in vitro with minimal algaecide concentrations ranging from 0·001 to 0·035%. Guanidine is known to have a high microbicidal effect and is considered to be a new generation microbicidal compound. It is not toxic to human mucous membranes and conjunctivas at low concentrations and has been used as a disinfectant in swimming pools and as an antiseptic for human wounds. The algicidal action of guanidine at low concentrations indicates that it could be an alternative disinfectant or antiseptic for cleaning of the dairy environment and milking equipment, in pre- and postdipping solutions, in the chemical dry therapy of bovine teats and even in the intramammary therapy of P. zopfii infections. This is the first report of the in vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on P. zopfii strains of animal origin. Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 is an opportunistic pathogen of bovine mastitis. To date, no effective therapies against protothecal mastitis have been developed. The in vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on 75 P. zopfii genotype 2 strains isolated from cows revealed that all of the isolates were susceptible to the compound at low concentrations, which indicates that guanidine may be used as an antiseptic/disinfectant for dairy milking equipment, in pre- and postdipping solutions, and as a chemical dry therapy or an intramammary therapy. This study describes the in vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on P. zopfii for the first time. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Clinical and Molecular Features of Decreased Chlorhexidine Susceptibility among Nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus Isolates at Texas Children's Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Eric Y.; Vallejo, Jesus G.; Campbell, Judith R.; Hulten, Kristina G.; Mason, Edward O.; Kaplan, Sheldon L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the strategies utilized to decrease infections in the hospital setting relies on topical antimicrobials and antiseptics. While their use is beneficial, concerns arise over the potential to develop resistance or tolerance to these agents. We examined nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 2007 to 2013 for the presence of genes associated with tolerance to chlorhexidine. Isolates and patients were identified from an S. aureus surveillance study at Texas Children's Hospital. Nosocomial S. aureus isolates (those causing infection at ≥72 h of hospitalization) were identified and underwent PCR for the qacA or qacB (qacA/B) and smr genes associated with elevated minimum bactericidal concentrations of chlorhexidine. Molecular typing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and agr typing and a review of the medical record were performed. Two hundred forty-seven nosocomial S. aureus infections were identified. Overall, 111 isolates carried one or both genes (44.9%); 33.1% were positive for smr, 22.7% were positive for qacA/B, and 10.9% of the isolates possessed both genes. The smr-positive isolates were more often resistant to methicillin, ciprofloxacin, and/or clindamycin. The isolates positive for qacA/B were more often associated with indwelling central venous catheters and a vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml. Isolates carrying either smr or qacA/B were associated with a diagnosis of bacteremia. The smr-positive isolates more often belonged to sequence type 8 (ST8) than the isolates that were positive for qacA/B. Mupirocin resistance was detected in 2.8% of the isolates. Antiseptic-tolerant S. aureus strains are common in our children's hospital and are associated with decreased susceptibility to other systemic antimicrobials and with bloodstream infections. Further work is needed to understand the implications that these organisms have on the hospital environment and antiseptic use in the future. PMID:26666947

  19. Study of influence of 2.4 GHz electromagnetic waves on electrophysical properties of coniferous trees wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahimov, Nursulton; Lagunov, Alexey; Melehov, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on changing weather conditions in the Arctic. Wood is a traditional building material in the North of Russia. Supports of communication lines are made of wood. Dry wood is a solid dielectric with a low conductivity. At the same time it is porous material having high hygroscopicity. The presence of moisture leads to wood rotting. To prevent rotting of a support it needs to be impregnated with antiseptics. A tree dried by means of convection drying cannot provide required porosity of wood for impregnation. Our studies of electrophysical properties of coniferous species showed that microwave drying of wood increases the porosity of the wood. Wood dried in this way is easily impregnated with antiseptics. Thorough wood drying requires creating optimal conditions in a microwave oven. During the drying process in a chamber there is a resonant phenomenon. These phenomena depend on electro-physical properties of the material placed in the chamber. Dielectric constant of wood has the most influence. A resonator method to determine the dielectric constant of the wood was used. The values of permittivity for the spruce and pine samples were determined. The measured value of the dielectric constant of wood was used to provide optimal matching of the generator with the resonator in a wood-drying resonator type microwave chamber, and to maintain it in the process of wood drying. It resulted in obtaining the samples with a higher permeability of wood in radial and longitudinal direction. This creates favorable conditions for wood impregnation with antiseptics and flame retardants. Timber dried by means of electromagnetic waves in the 2.4 GHz band has a deeper protective layer. The support made of such wood will serve longer as supports of communication lines.

  20. Influence of different post-interventional maintenance concepts on periodontal outcomes: an evaluation of three systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartenmann, Stefanie J; Dörig, Iris; Sahrmann, Philipp; Held, Ulrike; Walter, Clemens; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2016-07-18

    To selectively review the existing literature on post-interventional maintenance protocols in patients with periodontal disease receiving either non-surgical or surgical periodontal treatment. Three systematic reviews with different periodontal interventions, i.e. scaling and root planing (SRP), SRP with adjunctive antibiotics or regenerative periodontal surgery were evaluated focusing on their post-interventional maintenance care. Due to the early publication of one review an additional literature search update was undertaken. The search was executed for studies published from January 2001 till March 2015 through an electronic database to ensure the inclusion of resent studies on SRP. Two reviewers guided the study selection and assessed the validity of the three reviews found. Within the group of scaling and root planing alone there have been nine studies with more than three appointments for maintenance care and five studies with more than two appointments in the first 2 months after the intervention. Chlorhexidine was the most frequently used antiseptic agent used for 2 weeks after non-surgical intervention. Scaling and root planing with adjunctive antibiotics showed a similar number of visits with professional biofilm debridement, whereas regenerative studies displayed more studies with more than three visits in the intervention group. In addition, the use of antiseptics was longer and lasted 4 to 8 weeks after the regenerative intervention. The latter studies also showed more stringent maintenance protocols. With increased interventional effort there was a greater tendency to increase frequency and duration of the maintenance care program and antiseptic agents.

  1. Catheter-related bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Matthew R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-04-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) are a common, frequently preventable complication of central venous catheterization. CR-BSIs can be prevented by strict attention to insertion and maintenance of central venous catheters and removing unneeded catheters as soon as possible. Antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated catheters are also an effective tool to prevent infections. The diagnosis of CR-BSI is made largely based on culture results. CR-BSIs should always be treated with antibiotics, and except in rare circumstances the infected catheter needs to be removed.

  2. FORMULASI BEDAK TABUR DARI EKSTRAK RIMPANG RUMPUT TEKI (Cyperus rotundus L. SEBAGAI ANTISEPTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Rahim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  Rumput teki (Cyperus rotundus L. merupakan tumbuhan obat yang termasuk family Cyperaceae. Rumput teki merupakan gulma yang dapat tumbuh dengan mudah tanpa memilih tanah atau ketinggian tempat, dimana bagian tumbuhan yang sering digunakan adalah rimpang. Umbi teki ini mengandung komponen-komponen kimia antara lain minyak atsiri, alkaloid, flavonoid, polifenol, resin, amilum, tanin, triterpen, d-glukosa, d-fruktosa dan gula tak mereduksi. Beberapa penelitian yang telah dilaporkan menyebutkan rimpang rumput teki mempunyai aktivitas sebagai antibakteri. Hasil penelitian yang juga telah dilaporkan adalah ekstrak etanol rimpang teki mempunyai aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Staphylococcus epidermidis, Minyak atsiri yang dikandung dalam rimpang rumput teki ini dilaporkan juga memiliki potensi sebagai antibiotik terhadap kuman Staphyllococcus aureus. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan uji aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanol rimpang rumput teki terhadap Staphyllococcus aureus, yang dilanjutkan dengan formulasi bedak tabur ekstrak etanol rimpang rumput teki dan uji daya antiseptic bedak dengan metoda replika. Hasil uji aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanol rimpang rumput teki terhadap Staphylococus aureus termasuk kategori kuat. Ekstrak etanol rimpang rumput teki (Cyperus rotundus L. dapat diformula menjadi bedak tabur yang memenuhi persayaratan bedak tabur, dari semua formula F3 memiliki daya antiseptic yang paling baik dibandingkan F1 dan F2. Kata Kunci : Cyperus rotundus, Staphyllococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, bedak tabur ABSTRACTCyperus rotundus L is a medicinal plant that belongs to the Cyperaceae family. Cyperus rotundus. L is a weed that can grow easily without choosing the soil or altitude of the place, the part of the plant that is often used is the rhizome. This rhizome contains chemical components such as essential oils, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, resins, starch, tannins, triterpenes, d-glucose, d-fructose and non

  3. Experimental and theoretical study of the transport of silver nanoparticles at their prolonged administration into a mammal organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferova, A. A.; Buzulukov, Yu. P.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    The transport of silver nanoparticles in the organism of laboratory animals has been investigated. A mathematical model of the biokinetics of prolonged administration of nonmetabolizable and nonaglomerating pharmaceutical preparations is proposed, and its analytical solution is found. Based on the experimental data on the prolonged introduction and excretion of colloidal silver nanoparticles and the numerical approximation of the solutions to the equations for the proposed model, time dependences of the silver mass content in brain and blood are obtained and some other important biokinetic parameters are determined. It is concluded that both chronic1 and subchronic2 peroral application of these nanoparticles as an biologically active additive or antiseptic is potentially dangerous.

  4. A novel in vitro wound biofilm model used to evaluate low-frequency ultrasonic-assisted wound debridement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, S; Garde, C; Bjarnsholt, T; Alhede, M

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial biofilms remain difficult to treat. The biofilm mode of growth enables bacteria to survive antibiotic treatment and the inflammatory reaction. Low-frequency ultrasound has recently been shown to improve healing in a variety of settings. It is hypothesised that ultrasound disrupts the biofilm leaving bacteria more vulnerable to antiseptic or antibiotic treatment. The objective of this study is to develop a realistic model to elucidate the effect of ultrasound on biofilms. A novel in vitro wound biofilm model was developed. Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus were casted in a semi-solid agar gel composed of either tryptic soy broth (TSB) or a wound simulating media (WSM; composed of Bolton broth with blood and plasma), to resemble the non-surface attached aggregates. The model was used to evaluate the antibiofilm effect of an ultrasonic-assisted wound debridement device (UAW) in the presence of saline irrigation and treatment with a polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB)-containing antiseptic. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate the effect of treatments on biofilm disruption and cell viability counting measured the antibacterial effects. Confocal microscopy showed that application of 10 seconds of moderate-intensity UAW could effectively disrupt semi-solid biofilms grown on both media settings. This treatment only had a small effect on the cell viability. A 24-hour treatment with PHMB was able to reduce the number of bacteria but not eradicate the biofilm in both media settings. Interestingly, the efficacy of the PHMB antiseptic was significantly higher when applied on biofilms grown in the more complex WSM media. However, we found a significant improvement in reducing the number of viable bacteria grown on both media when applying UAW before administration of the PHMB solution. Applying UAW in the presence of PHMB further improved the efficacy. Using a realistic in vitro biofilm wound model, we show combining UAW with a PHMB-containing antiseptic has

  5. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. against Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Zanetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis. The World Health Organization has estimated that 8 million of people develop active TB every year and the situation is complicated by an increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to drugs used in antitubercular therapy: MDR and XDR-TB. Myrtle leaf extracts, used as an antiseptic in Sardinian traditional medicine, have strong antibacterial activity as several investigations showed. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Myrtus communis against clinical strains of M. tuberculosis and M. paratuberculosis.

  6. Neurotoxicity of topically applied hexachlorophene in the young rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, R M; Leech, R W; Alvord, E C

    1975-05-01

    Young rats 6 to 22 days of age are extremely susceptible to the neurotoxic effects of hexachlorophene given as a daily bath of undiluted antiseptic detergent containing 3% hexachlorophene (pHiso-Hex). At this age, most rats are clinically and histologically damaged by as few as two daily baths. Younger rats are relatively resistant, probably because they have less myelin to be affected; older rats cannot be poisoned by this route, probably because the more mature liver excretes the drug more effectively. Age-dose-response curves in rats are similar to those in humans. This experimental model is potentially useful in defining other characteristics of this drug.

  7. [Treatment of superficial bacterial cutaneous infections: a survey among general practitioners in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourtillan, E; Tauveron, V; Binois, R; Lehr-Drylewicz, A-M; Machet, L

    2013-12-01

    Superficial bacterial skin infection and superinfection of skin diseases are usually treated by general practitioners using antiseptics or antibiotics. However, acquired resistance to biocidal agents, both systemic and topical, is growing. Our aim was to assess the skill of GPs in clinical situations involving common skin infections. On 16 June 2010, we sent a questionnaire to all GPs in a rural region of France (the Cher department) together with a stamped addressed envelope for the reply. The questionnaire contained seven pages of multiple-choice questions and five clinical cases, each one illustrated with a photograph (sty, furuncle, whitlow, colonized chronic wounds and impetigo). Anonymity of responses was guaranteed. Data was analysed using the Clinsight(®) software package. The response rate was 51% (102 responses). GPs reported little difficulty in treating these patients (median 3, range 1 to 8 on a scale of increasing difficulty from 0 to 10). The main results of the study are firstly the frequency of combination of at least one antiseptic with one antibiotic (46%); secondly, the frequency of combination of two antibiotics (20% of cases); thirdly, the frequent prescription of systemic antibiotics for chronic wounds colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (61%). Our study shows the high frequency of prescriptions for combined therapy to treat superficial skin infections despite the fact that monotherapy with either an antiseptic or an antibiotic would probably suffice. It also shows the unnecessary prescription of antibiotics for colonization of a chronic wound. The study was limited in terms of size and design: it was a questionnaire rather than an analysis of prescriptions actually made in "real life", and the response rate was 51%. In addition, aside from impetigo, for which randomised studies and recommendations were given, the other surface infections (sty, folliculitis, whitlow) tend to be treated more empirically. Dissemination of recommendations

  8. The application of epoxy resin coating in grounding grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Chen, Z. R.; Xi, L. J.; Wang, X. Y.; Wang, H. F.

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy resin anticorrosion coating is widely used in grounding grid corrosion protection because of its wide range of materials, good antiseptic effect and convenient processing. Based on the latest research progress, four kinds of epoxy anticorrosive coatings are introduced, which are structural modified epoxy coating, inorganic modified epoxy coating, organic modified epoxy coating and polyaniline / epoxy resin composite coating. In this paper, the current research progress of epoxy base coating is analyzed, and prospected the possible development direction of the anti-corrosion coating in the grounding grid, which provides a reference for coating corrosion prevention of grounding materials.

  9. 3.2. Antibacterial activity of ethynyl-piperidol polymers and their three-iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalikov, D.Kh.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethynyl-piperidol polymers and their three-iodides was studied. The antibacterial films based on iodine with copolymer N-vinyl pyrrolidone, methylmethacrylate and butyl acrylate were obtained. It was found that samples containing 9-10% of iodine in copolymer have the antiseptic properties. The antibacterial properties of three-iodides grafted nitrogen containing polymers with cellulose fibrous materials were considered. The membrane-active properties of homo- and copolymers of ethynyl piperidol derivatives were considered as well.

  10. Softlithographic partial integration of surface-active nanoparticles in a PDMS matrix for microfluidic biodevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demming, Stefanie; Buettgenbach, Stephanus [Institute for Microtechnology (IMT), Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Alte Salzdahlumer Strasse 203, 38124 Braunschweig (Germany); Hahn, Anne; Barcikowski, Stephan [Nanotechnology Department, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH), Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Edlich, Astrid; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Krull, Rainer [Institute of Biochemical Engineering (IBVT), Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Gaussstrasse 17, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The mergence of microfluidics and nanocomposite materials and their in situ structuring leads to a higher integration level within microsystems technology. Nanoparticles (Cu and Ag) produced via laser radiation were suspended in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) to permanently modify surface material. A microstructuring process was implemented which allows the incorporation of these nanomaterials globally or partially at defined locations within a microbioreactor (MBR) for the determination of their antiseptic and toxic effects on the growth of biomass. Partially structured PDMS with nanoparticle-PDMS composite. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. A study on contamination and disinfection of film cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Chung, Kyung Mo; Choi, Ji Won

    2000-01-01

    In July 2000, a bacteria infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department of the S. hospital. The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient to prevent from nosocomial infection. The study showed that the laboratory result was identified non-pathologic bacterial in the four different cassette size of the contact surface. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. Also the education of nosocomial infection for radiographer will be required

  12. Ancient tombs in China and shallow ground burial of solid low-intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen; Gu Cunli

    1987-01-01

    Having reviewed the experiences with ancient tombs in China, particularly the experiences with tomb siting, configuration of tombs, backfilling materials, civil engineering techniques, sealing techniques, drainage system, antiseptic techniques, a comparison between the ancient tombs and the shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes is made. The authors believe that the brilliant achievements of ancient tombs in China in keeping ancient corpses and funeral objects are a historical evidence for safety of shallow ground burial of radioactive wastes, and that the main experiences with the ancient tombs may be useful to shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes

  13. Morphology and transport in biodegradable polymer compositions based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and polyamide 54C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhul' kina, A. L.; Ivantsova, E. L.; Filatova, A. G.; Kosenko, R. Yu.; Gumargalieva, K. Z.; Iordanskii, A. L., E-mail: iordan@chph.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    Complex investigation of the equilibrium sorption of water, diffusive transport of antiseptic, and morphology of mixed compositions based on polyoxybutirate and polyamide resin 54C has been performed to develop and analyze new biodegradable polymer compositions for controlled release of medicinal substances. Samples of mixtures were prepared by two methods: pressing under pressure and solvent evaporation from a polymer solution. The samples were compared and their morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the component ratio in the obtained mixtures affects their morphological, transport, and sorption characteristics.

  14. Constituintes químicos de Lippia sidoides (Cham. Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria O. Costa

    Full Text Available Thirteen compounds, 3-O-acetyloleanolic acid (1, methyl 3,4-dihydroxy benzoate (2, lapachenol (3, tecomaquinone (4, tectoquinone (5, tectol (6, acetilated tectol (7, quercetin (8, luteolin (9, glucoluteolin (10, lippisidoquinone (11, taxifolin (12 and isolariciresinol (13, were isolated from ethanol extract of Lippia sidoides. Their structures were assigned unambiguously by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, IR and EIMS spectral data analysis and comparison with the published data for structurally related compounds. In brazilian traditional medicine the aerial parts of this specie are used as anti-infective agent, particularly as antiseptic.

  15. Ancient tombs in China and shallow land disposal of low-intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Gu, C.

    1987-01-01

    The paper summerises the experiences of ancient tombs in China on tomb siting, configuration of tombs, backfilling materials, civil engineering techniques, sealing (or airlight) techniques, drainage system, antiseptic techniques and so on based upon site investigation. Comparison between ancient tombs in China and shallow land disposal of radioactive wastes has been made. The authors point out that the brilliant achievements of ancient tombs in China in keeping ancient corpses and funeral objects is a historical evidence for safety of shallow land disposal of radioactive wastes, and that the main experiences of ancient tombs can be used for reference to shallow land disposal of radioactive wastes

  16. Management of radiation-induced otitis externa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Four cases of otitis externa secondary to radiotherapy are described. This fairly common complication of irradiation to the head and neck, may impede a satisfactory completion of the therapy. Water precautions and regular otoscopic examination of the ears should be encouraged as prevention or early recognition of the condition is essential for the well being of the patient. The treatment of established otitis externa consists of frequent aural toilet and the application of weak antiseptic solutions. However, complete resolution will not occur until the cutaneous reaction has fully settled. (author)

  17. A study on contamination and disinfection of film cassette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Chung, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ji Won [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2000-04-15

    In July 2000, a bacteria infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department of the S. hospital. The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient to prevent from nosocomial infection. The study showed that the laboratory result was identified non-pathologic bacterial in the four different cassette size of the contact surface. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. Also the education of nosocomial infection for radiographer will be required.

  18. Morphology and transport in biodegradable polymer compositions based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and polyamide 54C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhul'kina, A. L.; Ivantsova, E. L.; Filatova, A. G.; Kosenko, R. Yu.; Gumargalieva, K. Z.; Iordanskii, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    Complex investigation of the equilibrium sorption of water, diffusive transport of antiseptic, and morphology of mixed compositions based on polyoxybutirate and polyamide resin 54C has been performed to develop and analyze new biodegradable polymer compositions for controlled release of medicinal substances. Samples of mixtures were prepared by two methods: pressing under pressure and solvent evaporation from a polymer solution. The samples were compared and their morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the component ratio in the obtained mixtures affects their morphological, transport, and sorption characteristics.

  19. Copper complexes as 'radiation recovery' agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, J.R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Copper and its compounds have been used for their remedial effects since the beginning of recorded history. As early as 3000 BC the Egyptians used copper as an antiseptic for healing wounds and to sterilise drinking water; and later, ca 1550 BC, the Ebers Papyrus reports the use of copper acetate, copper sulphate and pulverised metallic copper for the treatment of eye infections. These historical uses of copper and its compounds are particularly interesting in the light of modern evidence concerning the use of certain copper complexes for the treatment of radiation sickness and more recently as an adjunct to radiotherapy for cancer patients. (author)

  20. The ins and outs of periodontal antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Michael G; Slots, Jørgen

    2002-04-01

    A multifaceted antimicrobial approach is necessary for the successful management of destructive periodontal disease. Effective antimicrobial periodontal therapy aims to overwhelm periodontal pathogens with aggressive initial therapy and prevent previously suppressed pathogens from rising up anew through daily oral hygiene measures and frequent professional cleaning. Current antimicrobial periodontal therapy employs mechanical debridement performed with and without surgery, antibiotics, and antiseptics. Subgingival irrigation with povidone-iodine at the dentist's office and subgingival irrigation with dilute sodium hypochlorite for home-care constitute effective, safe, and affordable periodontal antimicrobial therapy. This article describes theoretical and practical guidelines for implementing rational and cost-effective antimicrobial principles in the management of periodontal disease.

  1. Mechanism of action and application of virocids in health care-associated viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Shahbaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are important causes of acute and chronic diseases in humans. Newer viruses are still being discovered. Apart from frequently causing infections in the general community, many types of viruses are significant nosocomial pathogens that with emerging viruses has become a real issue in medical field. There are specific treatments, vaccine and physical barrier to fight some of these infections. Health care-associated viral infections are an important source of patient’s morbidity and mortality. The method of sterilization or disinfection depends on the intended use of the medical devices (comprising critical, semicritical and noncritical items and failure to perform proper sterilization or disinfection of these items may leads to introduction of viruses, resulting in infection. Disinfection is an essential way in reducing or disruption of transmission of viruses by environmental surfaces, instruments and hands which achieves by chemical disinfectants and antiseptics, respectively. This review discusses about chemical agents with virocids properties (e.g. alcohols, chlorine compounds, formaldehyde, phenolic compounds, glutaraldehyde, ortho-phthaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, iodophor, ammonium compounds quaternary, bigunides and so on., mechanisms of action and their applications in health care-associated viral infection control. As well as, we described an overview for hierarchy of viruses in challenge with disinfantans, effective agents on viral inactivation, i.e.targect viruses, viral stability or survival duration time in enviromental surfaces and hands. We explained disinfection of surfaces, challenges in emerging viral pathogens inactivation, viral resistance to chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. Because, there are laboratory studies and clinical evidences for some viruses which viral resistance to biocide or failure to perform proper disinfection can lead to infection outbreaks. Also, we described virucidal

  2. Orthodontic treatment of dogs on the basis of modern knowledge and own experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polkowska Izabela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to demonstrate the orthodontic treatment of malocclusions in dogs, a condition which can lead to cranio-mandibular and functional disorders of the stomatognathic system. The treatment involved the use of maxillofacialorthopaedic appliances, which type depended on the type of disorder and the degree of malocclusion. The applied treatment induced changes in the alveolar bone. Throughout the process of the treatment a great attention was paid to regular brushing off the orthodontic appliance using antiseptics for prophylactic prevention of inflammation of gingival tissue and the palate caused by food getting stuck in the spaces between the teeth.

  3. Management of Open Fracture-Dislocation of the Ankle. A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yaniel Truffin Rodriguez; Indira L. Gómez Gil; Rafael Gámez Arregoitía; Osmany Pérez Martínez

    2014-01-01

    An open fracture-dislocation of the ankle is a rare injury. The case of a 57-year-old patient without a history of previous diseases who attended the emergency department of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos after suffering a work-related accident is presented. To repair this serious injury, the surgical cleaning of the joint with antiseptic solutions was performed urgently, the fracture-dislocation was reduced and an osteosynthesis was carried out. Twe...

  4. Management of radiation-induced otitis externa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, A.C. (Royal Free Hospital, London (UK). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology)

    1990-06-01

    Four cases of otitis externa secondary to radiotherapy are described. This fairly common complication of irradiation to the head and neck, may impede a satisfactory completion of the therapy. Water precautions and regular otoscopic examination of the ears should be encouraged as prevention or early recognition of the condition is essential for the well being of the patient. The treatment of established otitis externa consists of frequent aural toilet and the application of weak antiseptic solutions. However, complete resolution will not occur until the cutaneous reaction has fully settled. (author).

  5. Antisepsis with argyrol, acrimony and advocacy for African art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Lindsay

    2011-09-01

    Despite lack of evidence regarding its antiseptic superiority over silver nitrate for preventing ophthalmia neonatorum, Argyrol was promoted so savvily by Albert Coombs Barnes that the revenues enabled him to amass a unique art collection reflecting his early appreciation of the African influence on European painters. He addressed social disparities specially through access for disadvantaged individuals to his iconoclastic foundation and collaboration with a local African-American university. Legal wrangling over complex management issues and distinctive display arrangements, led to fiscal anguish, cultural torment and local affliction over that trove which is currently relocating to downtown Philadelphia.

  6. Thomas James Walker (1835-1916): Surgeon and general practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Martyn

    2018-02-01

    Thomas James Walker was a surgeon and general practitioner who worked in the city of Peterborough at a time when there were changes and innovations in the practice of medicine. After training in medicine and surgery at Edinburgh University, he qualified in London in 1857. He was a pioneer of laryngoscopy. He played an important role in introducing antiseptic surgery to the Peterborough Infirmary and was instrumental in the development of the operating theatre which opened in 1894. He was a philanthropist and collector of Roman and Saxon artefacts. In 1915, he was recognized as an outstanding member of the Peterborough community when he was offered the Freedom of the City.

  7. Superhydrophobic cellulose-based bionanocomposite films from Pickering emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Steele, Adam; Martorana, Philip J.; Loth, Eric; Miller, Lance

    2009-04-01

    Inherently superhydrophobic and flexible cellulose-based bionanocomposites were fabricated from solid stabilized (Pickering) emulsions. Emulsions were formed by dispersing cyclosiloxanes in water stabilized by layered silicate particles and were subsequently modified by blending into a zinc oxide nanofluid. The polymer matrix was a blend of cellulose nitrate and fluoroacrylic polymer (Zonyl 8740) precompatibilized in solution. Coatings were spray cast onto aluminum substrates from polymer blends dispersed in modified Pickering emulsions. No postsurface treatment was required to induce superhydrophobicity. Effect of antiseptic additives on bionanocomposite superhydrophobicity is also discussed. Replacing cellulose nitrate with commercial liquid bandage solutions produced identical superhydrophobic coatings.

  8. The role of Aloe vera in various fields of medicine and dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andey Venkata Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera is a cactus like plant that actually is part of the lily family. There are more than 300 varieties of the Aloe plant, but the Aloe barbadensis variety exhibits the best medicinal properties. It has strong antiseptic, antibacterial, fungicidal and virucidal properties. It promotes cell growth and is neurologically calming and acts as a detoxifying agent. Others provide nutritional support and some increase the regenerative potential of tissues while others act with anti-inflammatory responses. This article reviews the uses of the plant in different fields of medicine and dentistry.

  9. Antiprotozoal, schistosomicidal, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Natállia A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Morais, Denis R; Caixeta, Soraya C; de Sousa, João P B; Bastos, Jairo K; Cunha, Wilson R; Silva, Márcio L A; Nanayakkara, N P D; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; da Silva Filho, Ademar A

    2010-04-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae), popularly known as 'alecrim do campo', is a native plant from Brazil used in folk medicine as febrifuge, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and to treat skin sores. Also, B. dracunculifolia is the most important plant source of the Brazilian green propolis, which is recognized for its antiseptic and antiprotozoal activities. This study aimed at investigating the in vitro antiprotozoal, schistosomicidal, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from the leaves of B. dracunculifolia. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which allowed the identification of 14 compounds, mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes, such as (E)-nerolidol (33.51%) and spathulenol (16.24%). The essential oil showed activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania donovani, with IC(50) values of 42 microg/ml. The essential oil displayed high activity in the schistosomicidal assay, since all pairs of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms were dead after incubation with the essential oil (10, 50, and 100 microg/ml). B. dracunculifolia essential oil was neither cytotoxic against Vero cells, nor active in the antimicrobial and antiplasmodial assays.

  10. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to enhance the healing of chronic ulcers of the foot in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, R J; Valk, G D; Apelqvist, J; Armstrong, D G; Bakker, K; Game, F L; Hartemann-Heurtier, A; Löndahl, M; Price, P E; van Houtum, W H; Jeffcoate, W J

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of management of diabetic foot ulcers is poor and there is uncertainty concerning optimal approaches to management. We have undertaken a systematic review to identify interventions for which there is evidence of effectiveness. A search was made for reports of the effectiveness of interventions assessed in terms of healing, ulcer area or amputation in controlled clinical studies published prior to December 2006. Methodological quality of selected studies was independently assessed by two reviewers using Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) criteria. Selected studies fell into the following categories: sharp debridement and larvae; antiseptics and dressings; chronic wound resection; hyperbaric oxygen (HBO); reduction of tissue oedema; skin grafts; electrical and magnetic stimulation and ultrasound. Heterogeneity of studies prevented pooled analysis of results. Of the 2251 papers identified, 60 were selected for grading following full text review. Some evidence was found to support hydrogels as desloughing agents and to suggest that a systemic (HBO) therapy may be effective. Topical negative pressure (TNP) may promote healing of post-operative wounds, and resection of neuropathic plantar ulcers may be beneficial. More information was needed to confirm the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these and other interventions. No data were found to justify the use of any other topically applied product or dressing, including those with antiseptic properties. Further evidence to substantiate the effect of interventions designed to enhance the healing of chronic ulcers is urgently needed. Until such evidence is available from robust trials, there is limited justification for the use of more expensive treatments and dressings.

  11. Antibacterial activity of polihexanide formulations in a co-culture of HaCaT keratinocytes and Staphylococcus aureus and at different pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Eberlein, Thomas; Andriessen, Anneke

    2017-05-01

    Complex stalled wounds feature an alkaline milieu that favors tissue destruction and microbial growth. The presence of bacteria in turn perpetuates the inflammatory response. However, only limited knowledge exists of pH dependency on the antibacterial efficacy of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) or the influence of surfactants or delivery vehicle used in antiseptic formulations. So far, PHMB alone has been shown to protect the keratinocytes from bacterial damage in such a co-culture system as well as exhibiting increased antimicrobial activity at higher pH values. Here, the interaction of PHMB with the surfactants macrogolum and undecylenamidopropyl betaine that are most commonly used as additives in antiseptics and rinsing solutions such as Lavasept and Prontosan has been explored in addition to the PHMB-containing biocellulose dressing Suprasorb X + PHMB. Undecylenamidopropyl betaine was found to lower the antimicrobial activity of polihexanide in the co-culture system, while macrogolum and the biocellulose increased polihexanide efficiency to reduce Staphylococcus aureus especially in the presence of serum. The increasing antibacterial efficacy of PHMB with rising pH was not altered by undecylenamidopropyl betaine, macrogolum, or the biocellulose. The results suggest that application of PHMB with macrogolum or by delivery through a biocellulose dressing might be advantageous for management of wound infections. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  12. Prospective evaluation of a multi-factorial prevention strategy on the impact of nosocomial infection in very-low-birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, C; Hart, J; Vemgal, P; Harrison, C

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a multi-factorial intervention on nosocomial infection in very-low-birthweight infants. Consecutive infants with a birth weight less than 1500 g, born between February 2002 and February 2003, were included in this prospective study. The first six-month period (control) included surveillance of current practice. The intervention began in the seventh month and included: (i) changes to handwashing solutions with hand hygiene education; (ii) standardization of intravascular device (IV) insertion with specialized packs; (iii) changes to skin antiseptic solutions (2% aqueous chlorhexidine and 1% chlorhexidine in ethanol); and (iv) mandatory removal or replacement of peripheral IV after 48 hours and removal once enteral intake was > 120 mL/kg/day. Demographic data and details of every device were collected prospectively. Bloodstream infections (BSIs), length of stay (LOS), length of ventilation (LOV) and death were recorded and the rate of nosocomial BSI was calculated. Overall, 174 newborns required 1359 devices. The two cohorts were similar for birth weight and gestation. There was a reduction in nosocomial BSIs from 21% to 9% (control vs. intervention) (P = 0.05, confidence intervals 0.19-1.0). There was no significant difference in LOS, LOV, or mortality. Four infants had complications from 2% chlorhexidine. In conclusion, implementation of the multi-factorial prevention strategy reduced nosocomial BSIs. Alternative antiseptic solutions are needed to reduce the complications caused by 2% aqueous chlorhexidine.

  13. [Richard von Volkmann, one career of orthopaedic surgeon and poet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbasirević, M; Lesić, A; Sudjić, V; Zagorac, S

    2010-01-01

    Richard von Volkman was one of the most famous and important surgeons in the 19th century. He pioneered antiseptic procedures and was especially known for his achivements in orthopedic surgery. Von Volkmann was born in Leipzig, Germany and attended medical schools in Giessen, Halle, and Berlin. Starting in 1867, he worked as a professor of surgery at the University of Halle, also leading its surgical clinic. He was active as a surgeon during Seven Weeks' War with Austria in 1866 and the Franco-Prussian war 1870/1871, in the latter as consulting Generalarzt. He was important in the introduction of antiseptic wound treatment in Germany, and through it to the United States of America. Two observations in orthopaedic surgery bear his name to these days: Volkmans contracture and Heuter-Volkmans low. Volkmann also wrote poetry under the name Richard Leander and his book entitled "Dreams by French Firesides" which still has a place in literature. He died of paralysis due to a chronic spinal disease, following a prolonged illness, in the Binswanger institution in Jena in 1889, at the top of his careere.

  14. Classification of wounds at risk and their antimicrobial treatment with polihexanide: a practice-oriented expert recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemond, J; Assadian, O; Gerber, V; Kingsley, A; Kramer, A; Leaper, D J; Mosti, G; Piatkowski de Grzymala, A; Riepe, G; Risse, A; Romanelli, M; Strohal, R; Traber, J; Vasel-Biergans, A; Wild, T; Eberlein, T

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there are no generally accepted definitions for wounds at risk of infection. In clinical practice, too many chronic wounds are regarded as being at risk of infection, and therefore many topical antimicrobials - in terms of frequency and duration of use - are applied to wounds. Based on expert discussion and current knowledge, a clinical assessment score was developed. The objective of this wounds at risk (W.A.R.) score is to allow decision-making on the indication for the use of antiseptics on the basis of polihexanide. The proposed clinical classification of W.A.R. shall facilitate the decision for wound antisepsis and allow an appropriate general treatment regimen with the focus on the prevention of wound infection. The W.A.R. score is based on a clinically oriented risk assessment using concrete patient circumstances. The indication for the use of antiseptics results from the addition of differently weighted risk causes, for which points are assigned. Antimicrobial treatment is justified in the case of 3 or more points. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Preparation and physicochemical properties of surfactant-free emulsions using electrolytic-reduction ion water containing lithium magnesium sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Masahiro; Wada, Yuko; Hosoya, Takashi; Hino, Fumio; Kitahara, Yoshiyasu; Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2013-04-01

    Surfactant-free emulsions by adding jojoba oil, squalane, olive oil, or glyceryl trioctanoate (medium chain fatty acid triglycerides, MCT) to electrolytic-reduction ion water containing lithium magnesium sodium silicate (GE-100) were prepared, and their physiochemical properties (thixotropy, zeta potential, and mean particle diameter) were evaluated. At an oil concentration of 10%, the zeta potential was ‒22.3 ‒ ‒26.8 mV, showing no marked differences among the emulsions of various types of oil, but the mean particle diameters in the olive oil emulsion (327 nm) and MCT emulsion (295 nm) were smaller than those in the other oil emulsions (452-471 nm). In addition, measurement of the hysteresis loop area of each type of emulsion revealed extremely high thixotropy of the emulsion containing MCT at a low concentration and the olive emulsion. Based on these results, since surfactants and antiseptic agents markedly damage sensitive skin tissue such as that with atopic dermatitis, surfactant- and antiseptic-free emulsions are expected to be new bases for drugs for external use.

  16. Biocide Selective TolC-Independent Efflux Pumps in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipski, Carmine J; Zhanel, George G; Bay, Denice C

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial resistance to biocides used as antiseptics, dyes, and disinfectants is a growing concern in food preparation, agricultural, consumer manufacturing, and health care industries, particularly among Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, some of the most common community and healthcare-acquired bacterial pathogens. Biocide resistance is frequently associated with antimicrobial cross-resistance leading to reduced activity and efficacy of both antimicrobials and antiseptics. Multidrug resistant efflux pumps represent an important biocide resistance mechanism in Enterobacteriaceae. An assortment of structurally diverse efflux pumps frequently co-exist in these species and confer both unique and overlapping biocide and antimicrobial selectivity. TolC-dependent multicomponent systems that span both the plasma and outer membranes have been shown to confer clinically significant resistance to most antimicrobials including many biocides, however, a growing number of single component TolC-independent multidrug resistant efflux pumps are specifically associated with biocide resistance: small multidrug resistance (SMR), major facilitator superfamily (MFS), multidrug and toxin extruder (MATE), cation diffusion facilitator (CDF), and proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) families. These efflux systems are a growing concern as they are rapidly spread between members of Enterobacteriaceae on conjugative plasmids and mobile genetic elements, emphasizing their importance to antimicrobial resistance. In this review, we will summarize the known biocide substrates of these efflux pumps, compare their structural relatedness, Enterobacteriaceae distribution, and significance. Knowledge gaps will be highlighted in an effort to unravel the role that these apparent "lone wolves" of the efflux-mediated resistome may offer.

  17. Delayed norovirus epidemic in the 2009-2010 season in Japan: potential relationship with intensive hand sanitizer use for pandemic influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaida, S; Shobugawa, Y; Matsuno, S; Saito, R; Suzuki, H

    2016-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) epidemics normally peak in December in Japan; however, the peak in the 2009-2010 season was delayed until the fourth week of January 2010. We suspected intensive hand hygiene that was conducted for a previous pandemic influenza in 2009 as the cause of this delay. We analysed the NoV epidemic trend, based on national surveillance data, and its associations with monthly output data for hand hygiene products, including alcohol-based skin antiseptics and hand soap. The delayed peak in the NoV incidence in the 2009-2010 season had the lowest number of recorded cases of the five seasons studied (2006-2007 to 2010-2011). GII.4 was the most commonly occurring genotype. The monthly relative risk of NoV and monthly output of both alcohol-based skin antiseptics and hand soap were significantly and negatively correlated. Our findings suggest an association between hand hygiene using these products and prevention of NoV transmission.

  18. Mouthwashes with hydrogen peroxide are carcinogenic, but are freely indicated on the internet: warn your patients!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It all began in Ancient Egypt where people used to bleach their teeth with antiseptic mouthwashes made of urea from human urine. Teeth harmony is promoted by expression of feelings, communication, a real window of the brain and its content! Tooth bleaching products are medicines, not cosmetics! Mouth washing with hydrogen peroxide is an illogical and dangerous procedure! Hydrogen peroxide must be used in one's mouth only when employed by a dentist who has been properly instructed to protect the mucosa, preventing it from receiving these products. How and for how long these products are going to be used require caution in order to avoid or decrease any adverse effects on the tissues. Many websites instruct people on how to purchase and prepare hydrogen peroxide so that it is used as an antiseptic mouthwash and tooth bleaching agent. Some websites even refer to dentists as "exploiters", accusing them of not instructing patients properly. In this article, we aim at providing evidence and information upon which dentists and assistants may base their thinking as well as their opinion and procedures regarding "the indiscriminate and free use of hydrogen peroxide in the mouth, on teeth and oral mucosa". Those websites, blogs and social network profiles trespass the limits of public trust and should be immediately sued by the government for committing a crime against public health.

  19. Management of mucositis in oral irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feber, T. [Cookridge Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment (55-60 Gy in 4 weeks) to more than 50% of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomized to a research based oral care protocol with either saline 0.9% or hydrogen peroxide 3.5 volumes (HP) as rinses. The results of this study show that, on average, the group receiving saline rinses appeared to do better on some outcomes than the group receiving HP. This suggests that frequent mechanical cleansing of the mouth may be more important than the antiseptic properties of a mouthwash. Antiseptic mouthwashes may be contra-indicated in radiation mucositis. In order to determine best practice in mucositis management, multicentre, multidisciplinary trials should be conducted. (Author).

  20. Management of mucositis in oral irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feber, T.

    1996-01-01

    Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment (55-60 Gy in 4 weeks) to more than 50% of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomized to a research based oral care protocol with either saline 0.9% or hydrogen peroxide 3.5 volumes (HP) as rinses. The results of this study show that, on average, the group receiving saline rinses appeared to do better on some outcomes than the group receiving HP. This suggests that frequent mechanical cleansing of the mouth may be more important than the antiseptic properties of a mouthwash. Antiseptic mouthwashes may be contra-indicated in radiation mucositis. In order to determine best practice in mucositis management, multicentre, multidisciplinary trials should be conducted. (Author)

  1. The effects of daily chlorhexidine bathing on cutaneous bacterial isolates: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma VL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vijaya L Soma1, Xuan Qin2, Chuan Zhou1, Amanda Adler1, Jessica E Berry2, Danielle M Zerr11Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG is a topical antiseptic used in a myriad of clinical settings. Recently, CHG baths have been shown to decrease multidrug-resistant organism acquisition and infections and catheter-associated bloodstream infections. The present study examined the effects of daily bathing with CHG on the recovery and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultivable cutaneous bacteria. The objectives of this study were to (1 explore the effects of clinical CHG bathing on cultivable cutaneous bacteria, (2 study the relationship between CHG minimum inhibitory concentration and antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci, and (3 demonstrate the feasibility of the approach so a more definitive study may be performed. Significant decreases in bacterial colony counts and phenotypic diversity occurred with greater CHG exposure. The findings also suggest an inverse relationship between CHG minimum inhibitory concentration and antimicrobial susceptibility. Larger prospective studies are necessary to fully investigate the clinical impact of CHG usage.Keywords: antiseptic, resistance, Staphylococcus, coagulase-negative

  2. Oral topical decontamination for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Xie, D; Li, A; Yue, J

    2013-08-01

    Oral decontamination is proposed to be an effective prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of oral decontamination in adult patients undergoing ventilation for more than 48h. We included all randomized controlled trials that used oral topical decontamination in adult patients from any population requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 48h, versus placebo, normal saline, or standard oral care. Sixteen trials involving 2399 participants were included. Meta-analysis showed that oral topical antiseptics significantly reduced the incidence of VAP [risk ratio (RR): 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-0.88]. There was a significant reduction of VAP in studies which investigated decontamination with antibiotic agents other than iseganan (RR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18-0.42). Neither antiseptics nor antibiotics affected all-cause mortality, duration of ventilation, or duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Oral decontamination reduced the incidence of VAP in adults undergoing ventilation, but did not affect all-cause mortality, duration of ventilation, or duration of ICU stay in ventilated patients. Further evidence from higher quality trials is necessary. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chlorhexidine vaginal wipes prior to elective cesarean section: does it reduce infectious morbidity? A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Magdy R; Aref, Nisreen K; Sayed Ahmed, Waleed A; Arain, Farzana R

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of preoperative vaginal cleansing using chlorhexidine 0.25% antiseptic wipes on rates of postcesarean section (CS) infectious morbidities (endometritis, febrile morbidity and wound infection). This prospective randomized trial was conducted among 218 pregnant women scheduled for term elective CS. Patients were equally divided into two groups by simple randomization. After spinal anesthesia and catheterization under aseptic technique, the study group had preoperative vaginal cleansing using chlorhexidine 0.25% antiseptic wipes for about 1 min, while the control group did not. All cases received the prophylactic antibiotics and the usual abdominal scrub. All participants received the routine postoperative care without other interventions. Adverse postcesarean infectious morbidities such as endometritis, febrile morbidity and wound infection were observed at the time of hospital discharge and weekly for 6 weeks postpartum. Both groups were matched regarding the baseline patients' characteristics (age, gestational age, BMI, operative time and postoperative hospital stay). Overall, post-CS infectious morbidity were significantly reduced from 24.4% in the control group to 8.8% in the intervention group; p value chlorhexidine 0.25% wipes prior to elective CS appears to be effective in reducing rates of post-CS infectious morbidity mainly endometritis.

  4. Medical Plasma in Dentistry: A Future Therapy for Peri-implantitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Ina; Jablonowski, Lukasz; Kramer, Axel; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Kocher, Thomas

    Biofilm formation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of many oral diseases especially in peri-implantits. To evaluate the anti-biofilm effect of different plasma devices and processes we used different dental biofilm models: Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, aerobe multispecies human saliva and anaerobe plaque biofilms. After 10 min treatment we reduced the biofilms by 5 log10 steps using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. Chlorhexidine is the gold standard antiseptic which achieved in the same time only a 1.5 log10 reduction. All plasma devices (DBD or plasma jets) damaged the membrane of the microorganisms but only etching plasma sources can remove the biofilm as shown in CLSM micrographs. It is possible to improve the plasma process using antiseptics like octenidine. This combination significantly reduced CFU values after 1 min plasma treatment compared to the plasma control. Beside the anti-biofilm effect an additional effect of plasma is the contact angle reduction of different titanium implant surfaces from 90° to super-hydrophilic (<5°). This can improve the implant healing process. Thus in the future, plasma could be an interesting treatment option in dentistry, especially in treatment of peri-implantits.

  5. Preoperative skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine as a factor in the prevention of surgical site infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Solano Castro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of secondary research that refers to preoperative skin preparation with antiseptic chlorhexidine 2% are presented. Surgical Site Infections are one of the most common complications in surgical procedures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the user and are the third -associated infection more frequent in the health care . Steps of clinical practice based on evidence were applied, considering in the first instance a question in PICO format, then a search for information in databases recommended in the Course of Clinical Nursing Practice Evidence-Based, taught by the program for Collaborative Research in Evidence-Based Nursing of Costa Rica ( CIEBE -CR . The PubMed database and Cochrane LIBRARY was consulted, National Center for Biotechnology Information ( NCBI, Google Scholar, CINAHL (cummulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature. SCIELO (Scientific Electronic Library on line www.Scielo.org . 22 documents were recovered, but only three were selected because had methodological rigor. For the critical analysis Critical Reading Sheets 2.0 ( FLC software was used. Was concluded that 2% chlorhexidine, is the best choice for preoperative skin preparation antiseptic, however, it is necessary to conduct further studies in order to determine which is the correct way in strength, frequency, technical and adverse effects in the pediatric population.

  6. ALA-based fluorescent diagnosis of malignant oral lesions in the presence of bacterial porphyrin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, P.; Berndt, A.; Zinner, K.; Zenk, W.; Dietel, W.; Pfister, W.

    2006-02-01

    The aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) -based fluorescence diagnosis has been found to be promising for an early detection and demarcation of superficial oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). This method has previously demonstrated high sensitivity, however this clinical trial showed a specificity of approximately 62 %. This specificity was mainly restricted by tumor detection in the oral cavity in the presence of bacteria. After topical ALA application in the mouth of patients with previously diagnosed OSSC, red fluorescent areas were observed which did not correlate to confirm histological findings. Swabs and plaque samples were taken from 44 patients and cultivated microbiologically. Fluorescence was investigated (OMA-system) from 32 different bacteria strains found naturally in the oral cavity. After ALA incubation, 30 of 32 strains were found to synthesize fluorescent porphyrins, mainly Protoporphyrin IX. Also multiple fluorescent spectra were obtained having peak wavelengths of 636 nm and around 618 nm - 620 nm indicating synthesis of different porphyrins, such as the lipophylic Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and hydrophylic porphyrins (water soluble porphyrins, wsp). Of the 32 fluorescent bacterial strains, 18 produced wsp, often in combination with PpIX, and 5 produced solely wsp. These results clarify that ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis without consideration or suppression of bacteria fluorescence may lead to false-positive findings. It is necessary to suppress bacteria fluorescence with suitable antiseptics before starting the procedure. In this study, when specific antiseptic pre-treatment was performed bacterial associated fluorescence was significantly reduced.

  7. Wound healing applications of sericin/chitosan-capped silver nanoparticles incorporated hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jyoti; Kanoujia, Jovita; Parashar, Poonam; Tripathi, Chandra Bhusan; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2017-02-01

    Microbial contamination in wounds leading to severe sepsis can be treated by silver-based antiseptics. However, frequent application of silver-based antiseptics, staining of skin, burning, and irritation at application site resulted to poor patient compliances. Thus, we formulated sericin- and chitosan-capped silver nanoparticle (S/C-SNP)-loaded hydrogel for accelerated wound healing and antimicrobial properties. The wound healing property of sericin, antibacterial nature of chitosan and silver, and mucoadhesive property of carbopol were utilized in development of novel wound dressing hydrogel to investigate the combined effect of these materials for effective treatment of wounds. The chemical reduction method was successfully employed for the synthesis of SNPs using sericin and chitosan as a capping/reducing agent. The SNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optimized SNPs were further used for preparation of carbopol hydrogel (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 % w/v). The prepared hydrogels were characterized for pH, viscosity, and texture analysis. The antimicrobial activity and wound healing activity of the optimized hydrogel (S/C-SNPs G-1) demonstrated higher bactericidal activity and wound closure, as supported by results of histopathology. Hydrogel containing capped SNPs has application in wound healing treatment.

  8. Pre-Operative Skin Antisepsis with Chlorhexidine Gluconate and Povidone-Iodine to Prevent Port-Site Infection in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaziani, Erasmo; Di Filippo, Annalisa; Orelli, Simone; Fiorini, Flavia; Spaziani, Martina; Tintisona, Orlando; Torcasio, Angelo; De Cesare, Alessandro; Picchio, Marcello

    2018-04-01

    Skin preparation with antiseptic agents is commonly recommended for incisional site cleansing before surgery. We present the result of a prospective case series submitted to a scheduled pre-operative antiseptic procedure combining chlorhexidine gluconate and povidone-iodine before elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Consecutive patients underwent pre-operative standardized cleansing of the operation site combining chlorhexidine gluconate and povidone-iodine. Patients were reviewed one week and four weeks post-operatively. Post-operative infection was observed in seven patients (4.3%). All observed infections were port-site infections, always located at the level of the umbilical incision. In all cases infections involved skin and subcutaneous tissue. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in five patients (71.4%) and miscellaneous aerobic gram-positive bacteria in two subjects (28.6%). Post-operative hospital stay was the only factor significantly associated with the development of port-site infections. Port-site infections are a common complication after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The proposed pre-operative disinfection procedure is effective in reducing port-site infections. Reducing hospital stay may contribute to limiting the occurrence of this complication.

  9. The effect of Beetle leaves (Piper Betle Linn for dental caries formation

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    Adi Kurniawan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is still the main problem in dental and oral health. Caries is caused by several factors working simultaneously. The main principle of management caries is by prioritizing preventive action and avoiding invasive action. Beetle leaves are medicamentous plant which are widely cultivated and very beneficial for Indonesian people. Its active content enable beetle leaves to be used as antimicrobial, antiseptic, antifungal, antioxidant, and disinfectant. The government of Indonesia and WHO greatly support the utilization of natural resources as medical cure. Currently we can find a lot of toothpaste and mouthwash products which use beetle leaves as additional ingredient. Various researches have proved that the use of beetle leaves extract as mouthwash, toothpaste and chewing beetle leaves may decrease plaque score. Chavicol and chavibetol content enable beetle leaves to function as very good antimicrobial. Beetle leaves also contain charvacrol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, cadinene, and seskuiterpene, which can function as antiseptic. Beetle leaves may effect salivary function and secretion and also impede the forming of dental caries.

  10. Control at hospital level of infections by methicillin-resistant staphylococci in children

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    Michel, M. F.; Priem, Catharina C.

    1971-01-01

    Rapid spread of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MeRS) in a children's hospital is described. Within 4 months of the first isolation MeRS had been isolated from infections in all clinical units. MeRS were also regularly isolated at the out-patient department. Protective isolation of one of the clinical units had no effect on the infection rate by MeRS. The use of antiseptics (Hexachlorophene and chlorhexidine) and gentamicin nose cream in children and staff members in three out of five clinical units resulted in a significant reduction of the prevalence of nose colonization by MeRS in children. In staff members a non-significant reduction of the prevalence of colonization and a significant reduction of the acquisition of MeRS was found. After a few months the infection rate decreased to zero in the units where the measures were introduced. It remained unchanged in the other units. Phage typing of two sets of strains collected at an interval of 6 months showed that the infections were mainly caused by two endemic strains of MeRS. The majority of the infections caused by MeRS was of minor importance. In 16% of the infections a strain was isolated repeatedly and for more than 1 week. After the introduction of antiseptics a relative increase of infections by Gram-negative bacteria was observed. The significance of this phenomenon is discussed. PMID:5285944

  11. Great Names in the History of Orthopaedics XIV: Joseph Lister (1827–1912 Part 1

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    Fu Kuo-Tai Louis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the evolution of surgical practices cannot be the efforts of a single individual, Joseph almost single-handedly revolutionised modern surgery. Undoubtedly one of the greatest surgical benefactors of mankind, Joseph Lister was as great a scientist as he was a surgeon. His earliest research after graduation was on the muscles of the iris and coagulation of blood. He was one of the pioneers in bacteriology and the first to isolate bacteria in pure culture. While Professor of Surgery at Glasgow, he appreciated the significance of the antiseptic properties of certain phenolic compounds and applied them in clinical surgery. Although he was not the first person to apply antisepsis in surgery, he was the one who established the principles of antiseptic and later aseptic surgery and convinced the medical profession of his principles. In the world of science, credit goes to the person who developed and propagated the discovery, it first. Indeed, surgery is divided into its pre- and post-Listerian eras.

  12. Pioneers in infection control-Joseph Lister.

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    Newsom, S W B

    2003-12-01

    Joseph Lister is one of the pioneers of Infection Control. Not only did he reduce the incidence of wound infection (usually fatal pre-Lister) by the introduction of antiseptic surgery using carbolic acid, but also he was the first to apply Pasteur's principles to humans. He showed that urine could be kept sterile after boiling in swan-necked flasks. He was the first person to isolate bacteria in pure culture (Bacillus lactis) using liquid cultures containing either Pasteur's solution of turnip infusion and a special syringe to dilute the inoculum and so can be considered a co-founder of medical microbiology with Koch, who later isolated bacteria on solid media. Lister also pioneered the use of catgut and rubber tubing for wound drainage. His life can be split into five periods: 1844-1853, London: first period; 1853-1860, Edinburgh: first period; 1860-1869, Glasgow (where he developed his 'antiseptic system'); 1869-1877, Edinburgh: second period; 1877-1900, London: second period.

  13. Comparison of full-mouth disinfection and quadrant-wise scaling in the treatment of adult chronic periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Fang, H; Han, M; Li, Q-L; Cao, C Y; Xia, R; Zhang, Z-H

    2016-08-01

    Scaling and root planing are widely considered as effective methods for treating chronic periodontitis. A meta-analysis published in 2008 showed no statistically significant differences between full-mouth disinfection (FMD) or full-mouth scaling and root planing (FMS) and quadrant scaling and root planing (Q-SRP). The FMD approach only resulted in modest additional improvements in several indices. Whether differences exist between these two approaches requires further validation. Accordingly, a study was conducted to further validate whether FMD with antiseptics or FMS without the use of antiseptics within 24 h provides greater clinical improvement than Q-SRP in patients with chronic periodontitis. Medline (via OVID), EMBASE (via OVID), PubMed and CENTRAL databases were searched up to 27 January 2015. Randomized controlled trials comparing FMD or FMS with Q-SRP after at least 3 mo were included. Meta-analysis was performed to obtain the weighted mean difference (WMD), together with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Thirteen articles were included in the meta-analysis. The WMD of probing pocket depth reduction was 0.25 mm (p periodontitis, and they do not lead to any obvious discomfort among patients. Moreover, FMD had modest additional clinical benefits over Q-SRP, so we prefer to recommend FMD as the first choice for the treatment of adult chronic periodontitis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The in Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Propolis against Four Oral Pathogens: A Review

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    Nadine Michèle Waldner-Tomic

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study screened the available evidence for the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, a natural herbal resin bee product, against a selection of three bacterial species of relevance to oral diseases. For this purpose, papers dealing with laboratory studies assessing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC or the agar diffusion method to analyze the antimicrobial properties of propolis on three oral pathogens (S. mutans, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum and a yeast (C. albicans are reviewed. Overall, a positive antimicrobial effect could be shown. However, when compared to the commonly used control substances (e.g., specific antibiotics, antiseptics and antifungals, propolis appeared less effective, depending on the bacterial strain, and required higher concentrations than the control substances, in order to show a measurable effect. Nevertheless, propolis as a natural herbal resin bee product can be considered as a natural antiseptic agent within the range of other herbal products, like sanguinarine. Therefore, it may be a valuable compound of non-synthetic, natural origin for patients seeking complementary agents and alternatives for “hard” chemicals.

  15. Contact dermatitis presenting as non-healing wound: case report

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    Leelavathi M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Topical antiseptics are commonly used in the management of minor wounds, burns, and infected skin. These agents are widely used by health professionals and are often self-prescribed by patients as they are easily available over-the-counter. This case illustrates a 73 year old man who presented with a non-healing wound on his right forearm for 4 weeks. The wound started from an insect bite and progressively enlarged with increasing pruritus and burning sensation. Clinically an ill-defined ulcer with surrounding erythema and erosion was noted. There was a yellow crust overlying the center of the ulcer and the periphery was scaly. Further inquiry revealed history of self treatment with a yellow solution to clean his wound for 3 weeks. Patient was provisionally diagnosed to have allergic contact dermatitis secondary to acriflavine. Topical acriflavine was stopped and the ulcer resolved after treatment with non-occlusive saline dressing. Skin patch test which is the gold standard for detection and confirmation of contact dermatitis showed a positive reaction (2+ to acriflavine. Acriflavine is widely used as a topical antiseptic agent in this part of the world. Hence, primary care physicians managing a large variety of poorly healing wounds should consider the possibility of contact allergy in recalcitrant cases, not responding to conventional treatment. Patient education is an important aspect of management as this would help curb the incidence of future contact allergies.

  16. Physico-chemical characterisation of some samples of fresh milk and milk powder

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    Soceanu Alina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk consumption is important in the diet of all age groups because it provides important nutrients that are essential for humans. Children are the largest consumers of milk, thus, it’s very important that milk is free of toxic compounds that can be harmful for humans. Aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of some samples of milk powder for different stage of baby growing and for some samples of fresh milk: raw cow’s milk, milk trade and UHT type. The following physico-chemical properties: density, pH, acidity, the presence of acetone, enzymes, antiseptics, dry substance, the ash, total fat, saponification and peroxide index, total nitrogen and protein content were determined. Comparing the values of acidity for analyzed samples it can be concluded that the powder milk acidity value is much lower than the fresh milk. The presence of antiseptics and acetone was not identified, and amylase and peroxidase were found only in raw cow's milk. The highest protein content was found for milk powder (27.22%.

  17. Interactions of antimicrobial compounds with cross-linking agents of alginate dressings.

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    Goh, Cheong Hian; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Huang, Esther Pei En; Li, Benny Kai Hui; Chan, Lai Wah

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of calcium ions and other cross-linking agents of alginate dressings, as well as their compatibility with commonly used topical antimicrobials. The antimicrobial activities of cross-linking agents and antimicrobials (five antibiotics and four antiseptics) were evaluated by the broth dilution method. The interactions between individual cross-linking agents and antimicrobials were evaluated using the chequerboard test against common skin pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From the MIC determined, antibiotics were the most active, followed by the antiseptics and cross-linking agents. Calcium ions, which are commonly used to cross-link alginate, exhibited very weak antimicrobial activity and higher fractional inhibitory concentration than the other cross-linking agents. The use of calcium and gentamicin resulted in antagonism against S. aureus. In contrast, aluminium, zinc and copper ions exhibited higher antimicrobial activities but insignificant interactions with the antimicrobials. Commonly used topical antimicrobials that are active against the skin pathogens S. aureus and P. aeruginosa could be potentially incompatible with calcium alginate dressings. Copper, zinc and aluminium ions are more suitable cross-linking agents for alginate as they do not show antagonism with the antimicrobials and could impart antimicrobial property to the resultant dressing.

  18. Riboflavin and ultraviolet A as adjuvant treatment against Acanthamoeba cysts.

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    Lamy, Ricardo; Chan, Elliot; Good, Samuel D; Cevallos, Vicky; Porco, Travis C; Stewart, Jay M

    2016-04-01

    Experimental studies have shown that the standard dose of riboflavin (R) or R + ultraviolet-A (UVA) as solo treatment are not able to exterminate Acanthamoeba cysts or even trophozoites. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the application of R + UVA can enhance the cysticidal effects of cationic antiseptic agents in vitro. The log of either polyhexamethylene biguanide or chlorhexidine minimal cysticidal concentration in solutions containing riboflavin (concentrations 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025%) plus either Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts or Acanthamoeba polyphaga cysts was determined and compared in groups treated with UVA 30 mW/cm(2) for 30 min and in control groups (with no exposure to UVA). A permutation test was used to determine the P value associated with treatment. Regardless of the riboflavin concentration and UVA treatment condition, no trophozoites were seen in plates where the cysts were previously exposed to cationic antiseptic agent concentrations ≥200 µg/mL for Acanthamoeba castellanii samples and ≥100 µg/mL for A. polyphaga samples. There was no statistical evidence that R + UVA treatment was associated with minimal cysticidal concentration (P = 0.82). R + UVA in doses up to 10 times higher than recommended for corneal crosslinking does not enhance the cysticidal effect of either polyhexamethylene biguanide or chlorhexidine in vitro. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. Riboflavin and ultraviolet-A as adjuvant treatment against Acanthamoeba cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Ricardo; Chan, Elliot; Good, Samuel D; Cevallos, Vicky; Porco, Travis C; Stewart, Jay M

    2015-01-01

    Background Experimental studies have shown that the standard dose of R or R+UVA as solo treatment are not able to exterminate Acanthamoeba cysts or even trophozoites. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the application of R+UVA can enhance the cysticidal effects of cationic antiseptic agents in vitro. Methods The log of either polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) or chlorhexidine minimal cysticidal concentration (MCC) in solutions containing riboflavin (concentrations 0.1 %; 0.05% and 0.025 %) plus either Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts or Acanthamoeba polyphaga cysts was determined and compared in groups treated with UVA 30 mW/cm2 for 30 min and in control groups (with no exposure to UVA). A permutation test was used to determine the P-value associated with treatment. Results Regardless of the riboflavin concentration and UVA treatment condition, no trophozoites were seen in plates where the cysts were previously exposed to cationic antiseptic agents concentrations ≥ 200 µg/mL for Acanthamoeba castellanii samples and ≥ 100 µg/mL for Acanthamoeba polyphaga samples. There was no statistical evidence that R+UVA treatment was associated with MCC (P = 0.82). Conclusion R+UVA in doses up to 10 times higher than recommended for corneal crosslinking does not enhance the cysticidal effect of either polyhexamethylene biguanide or chlorhexidine in vitro. PMID:26355273

  20. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation

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    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Martinez-Sanmiguel, Juan Jose; Diaz, David; Zumeta-Dube, Inti; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85%) and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized aqueous colloidal Bi2O3 nanoparticles. PMID:23637533

  1. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm

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    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Diaz, David; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Garza-Enriquez, Marianela; De la Garza-Ramos, Myriam A; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities. Results Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM. Conclusion These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation. PMID:22619547

  2. In Situ Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils with and without Alcohol on Oral Biofilm: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Victor Quintas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is little evidence on the in situ antibacterial activity of essential oils (EO without alcohol. This study aimed to evaluate in situ the substantivity and antiplaque effect on the plaque-like biofilm (PL-biofilm of two solutions, a traditional formulation that contains EO with alcohol (T-EO and an alcohol-free formulation of EO (Af-EO. Eighteen healthy adults performed a single mouthwash of: T-EO, Af-EO, and sterile water (WATER after wearing an individualized disk-holding splint for 2 days. The bacterial viability (BV and thickness of the PL-biofilm were quantified at baseline, 30 s, and 1, 3, 5, and 7 h post-rinsing (Test 1. Subsequently, each volunteer wore the splint for 4 days, applying two daily mouthwashes of: T-EO, Af-EO, and WATER. The BV, thickness, and covering grade (CG of the PL-biofilm were quantified (Test 2. Samples were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy after staining with the LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ solution. To conduct the computations of the BV automatically, a Matlab toolbox called Dentius Biofilm was developed. In test 1, both EO antiseptics had a similar antibacterial effect, reducing BV after a single rinse compared to the WATER, and keeping it below baseline levels up to 7 h post-rinse (P < 0.001. The mean thickness of the PL-biofilm after rinsing was not affected by any of the EO formulations and ranged from 18.58 to 20.19 μm. After 4 days, the T-EO and Af-EO solutions were significantly more effective than the WATER, reducing the BV, thickness, and CG of the PL-biofilm (P < 0.001. Although, both EO antiseptics presented a similar bactericidal activity, the Af-EO rinses led to more significant reductions in the thickness and CG of the PL-biofilm than the T-EO rinses (thickness = 7.90 vs. 9.92 μm, P = 0.012; CG = 33.36 vs. 46.61%, P = 0.001. In conclusion, both essential oils antiseptics had very high immediate antibacterial activity and substantivity in situ on the 2-day PL-biofilm after

  3. THE STUDY THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

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    V. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Effective treatment of patients with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes often involves the use of antimicrobial agents.The purpose of the study was an in vitro estimation of cytotoxicity and the efficiency of national resources for local use: gel with bacteriophages («Otofag», «Fagogin», «Fagoderm», «Fagodent» and antiseptic — «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin».Materials and Methods. To study the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents they used to provide crop strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes as one of the most common representatives of pathogens. The study of cell viability and cytotoxicity antimicrobials performed on cell lines KB — epidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity of a human. For this purpose we use mikrotetrazoly test, which is widely used in the assessment of the effects on the cells of toxins, pharmaceuticals, adverse environmental factors, allowing to evaluate the toxicity of investigational drugs in vitro.The results showed that the efficacy against pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, has even a 10‑fold dilution of «Сhlorhexidine» 0.05% and gels with bacteriophages. Antiseptic «Miramistin» is effective only on the initial concentration. The study of cytotoxicity showed that the processing of epidermoid carcinoma cells with «Chlorhexidine» and «Мiramistin» invokes the irreversible reactions, while the composition processing of gels based on bacteriophages not further affect cell viability.Conclusions The results of the experiment confirmed the significant toxicity of tools such as «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin» in proposed concentrations in the pharmacy network. Despite the high efficiency of these vehicles with regard to the studied pathogens, their long-term use in treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes can cause a slowing of repair processes. Gel means with bacteriophages

  4. CLINICAL FEATURES, DIAGNOSIS, THE RESULTS OF THERAPEUTIC AND SURGICAL TREATMENT OF ACANTHAMOEBIC KERATITIS

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    Evg. A. Kasparova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe our experience in Acanthamoeba keratitis diagnostics and treatment in the FGBNU Research Institute of eye diseases, Moscow.Patients and Methods. We observed 24 patients (25 eyes with the Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK. The age ranged from 18 to 47 years. All patients, except one, were contact lenses wearers. Clinical signs included superficial epithelial-stromal lesions in 8 patients (8 eyes, stromal forms of AK- in 16 patients (17 eyes, and mixed keratitis in 9 (9 eyes. We used confocal microscopy, conjunctival smearing and blood immunofluorescent analysis for HSV types I and II. 8 patients (8 eyes underwent penetrating keratoplasty (PKP and their corneal buttons were morphologically examined. AK treatment included 2 biguanid antiseptics — a PHMB ("Comfort-drops" — solution for contact lenses care and 0.025% solution of a chlorhexidini bigluconati, or "Vitabact" in frequent instillations. We also used Diflucan solution 0.2% instillations — 6–8 times a day in, and Orungal or Diflucan per os (200 mg once a day. Eye drops of aminoglycozide or fluorhinolon groups were added to the treatment as well. In the cases of mixed Acanthamoeba and HSV keratitis we used anti-herpetic medications (Poludan, Acyclovir.Results. Cysts were found with confocal microscopy in 66% examined patients, and in 75% of the corneal buttons after keratoplasty. 15 cases (60% healed with various intensity opacities. We removed corneal epithelium in 2 patients with poor effect of the medication treatment. 8 patients (8 eyes underwent PKP with transparent (2 patients and a semi-transparent engraftment (2 patients, in 4 cases (4 eyes AK recurrences had occurred, what required repeated surgery. Long persistence of Acanthamoeba cysts in the cornea after clinical recovery caused the admission of 2 antiseptic biguanids eye drops for 6–20 months in all patients. There were no recurrences in the group of patients during the observation period (range 1 to 6

  5. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of prophylactic topical antibiotics for the prevention of uncomplicated wound infections

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    Tong Q

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiao-Jing Tong,1 Kimberly DP Hammer,2,3 Erika M Johnson,4 Milagros Zegarra,2,3 Michihiko Goto,5,6 Tze Shien Lo3,7 1Department of Infection Control, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; 2Research Service, Fargo VA Health Care System; 3Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Dakota, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Fargo, ND, USA; 4Library Resources, University of North Dakota, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Fargo, ND, USA; 5Center for Comprehensive Access & Delivery Research & Evaluation (CADRE, Iowa City VA Health Care System, West Iowa City, IA, USA; 6Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA; 7Infectious Disease Service, Fargo VA Health Care System, Fargo, ND, USA Background: The prescription of topical antibiotics for the prevention of infections in uncomplicated wounds is common. However, the efficacy is not well reported. Therefore, the objective of the study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence on prevention of uncomplicated wound infections by prophylactic topical antibiotics. Materials and methods: The search included Pubmed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, Embase, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, National Technical Information Service, and the National Guidelines Clearinghouse. Results: We identified eight randomized controlled trials and four quasi-randomized trials that met the criteria for the systematic review. Of these trials, 11 studies were pooled for meta-analysis to compare the effects of topical antibiotics versus placebo and 4 studies were pooled for comparison of effects of topical antibiotics versus topical antiseptics on uncomplicated wounds. Fewer wound infections occurred in the topical antibiotic arms compared to placebo (pooled risk ratio: 0.57 [95% CI: 0.37 to 0.86]; p=0.01 and pooled risk

  6. Types of indwelling urinary catheters for long-term bladder drainage in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Patrick; Beutner, Katrin; Langer, Gero

    2012-10-17

    Prolonged urinary catheterization is common amongst people in long-term care settings and this carries a high risk of developing a catheter-related urinary tract infection and associated complications. A variety of different kinds of urethral catheters are available. Some have been developed specifically to lower the risk of catheter-associated infection, for example antiseptic or antibiotic impregnated catheters. Ease of use, comfort and handling for the caregivers and patients, and cost-effectiveness are also important factors influencing choice. The primary objective was to determine which type of indwelling urinary catheter is best to use for long-term bladder drainage in adults. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (last searched 31 March 2011), which includes searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings, and the reference lists of relevant articles. All randomised trials comparing types of indwelling urinary catheters for long-term catheterization in adults. Long-term catheterization was defined as more than 30 days. Data extraction has been undertaken by two review authors working independently and simultaneously. Any disagreement has been resolved by a third review author. The included trial data were handled according to the methods of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Three trials were included, involving 102 adults in various settings. Two trials had a parallel group design and one was a randomised cross-over trial.Only two of the six targeted comparisons were assessed by these trials: antiseptic impregnated catheters versus standard catheters (one trial) and one type of standard catheter versus another standard catheter (two trials).The single small cross-over trial was inadequate to assess the value of silver alloy (antiseptic) impregnated catheters. In the two trials comparing different types of standard catheters, estimates of differences were all

  7. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

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    Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

  8. Platelet-rich plasma: a biomimetic approach to enhancement of surgical wound healing.

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    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Cabrera, Fernando J; Barbosa, Zonia; Medrano Del Rosal, Guillermo; Weiner, Bradley K; Ellsworth, Warren A; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2017-01-01

    Platelets are small anucleate cytoplasmic cell bodies released by megakaryocytes in response to various physiologic triggers. Traditionally thought to be solely involved in the mechanisms of hemostasis, platelets have gained much attention due to their involvement wound healing, immunomodulation, and antiseptic properties. As the field of surgery continues to evolve so does the need for therapies to aid in treating the increasingly complex patients seen. With over 14 million obstetric, musculoskeletal, and urological and gastrointestinal surgeries performed annually, the healing of surgical wounds continues to be of upmost importance to the surgeon and patient. Platelet-rich plasma, or platelet concentrate, has emerged as a possible adjuvant therapy to aid in the healing of surgical wounds and injuries. In this review, we will discuss the wound healing properties of platelet-rich plasma and various surgical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Allergic urticaria: A case report of rare skin allergy with a common mouthwash

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    Viresh Chopra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is a widely used antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and non-medical environments. Compared to its ubiquitous use, allergic contact dermatitis from chlorhexidine has rarely been reported and so its sensitization rate seems to be low. Chlorhexidine has been used for more than 50 years but it was only in the last two decades, that reports of immediate- type reactions to chlorhexidine were seen. Reactions ranging from localized urticaria to anaphylactic shock and hypersensitivity reactions, including delayed hypersensitivity reactions such as contact dermatitis, fixed drug eruptions, and photosensitivity reactions, began to appear more frequently. However the prevalence of contact urticaria and anaphylaxis due to chlorhexidine remains to be unknown. In this case report we have reported a case of urticaria due to oral use of chlorhexidine. The adverse reaction was confirmed by a skin prick test.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh, Ali; Asadpour, Leila; Naeemi, Akram Sadat; Houshmand, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Increase in the emergence of drug -resistant pathogens led to the development of natural antimicrobials. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica on 16 skin and wound infections isolates of methicillin resistant S. aureus have been studied. Solvent extraction procedure was done using soxhlet apparatus for extracting antimicrobial agents from freeze dried plants. Antibacterial activity was measured using agar well diffusion method. The MIC of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica extracts against the standard strain of S. aureus ATCC 6538 were determined using the micro dilution method at 15 mg and 20 mg respectively. All the test bacteria were found sensitive to the Sambucus ebulus extract and only one isolate was resistant to Urtica dioica extract. Extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica possess antibacterial potency against MRSA isolates and may be used as a natural antiseptics and antimicrobial agents in medicine.

  11. Synergistic bactericidal activity of chlorhexidine-loaded, silver-decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Meng; Wang, Qiu-Jing; Chang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Zheng; Zheng, Xiao; Shao, Dan; Dong, Wen-Fei; Zhou, Yan-Min

    2017-01-01

    Combination of chlorhexidine (CHX) and silver ions could engender synergistic bactericidal effect and improve the bactericidal efficacy. It is highly desired to develop an efficient carrier for the antiseptics codelivery targeting infection foci with acidic microenvironment. In this work, monodisperse mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) nanospheres were successfully developed as an ideal carrier for CHX and nanosilver codelivery through a facile and environmentally friendly method. The CHX-loaded, silver-decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Ag-MSNs@CHX) exhibited a pH-responsive release manner of CHX and silver ions simultaneously, leading to synergistically antibacterial effect against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli . Moreover, the effective antibacterial concentration of Ag-MSNs@CHX showed less cytotoxicity on normal cells. Given their synergistically bactericidal ability and good biocompatibility, these nanoantiseptics might have effective and broad clinical applications for bacterial infections.

  12. The Styracaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Pauletti

    Full Text Available The Styracaceae contains 11 genera and approximately 160 species consisting of small trees and shrubs, mostly native to tropical and subtropical regions. This family is well-known by the genus Styrax, which is notorious due to the production of resinous material, a pathological product, harvested by making incisions into the tree’s bark. The gum is used in perfumes, as antiseptic, expectorant, incense, and fumigating material. This paper reviews the phytochemical and biological studies carried out on 11 species of this family. A total of 92 papers were consulted, and 130 compounds were described, thus these data indicate that Styrax is by far the largest genus in the family, and the only which has been extensively investigated.

  13. Rheology and physical-chemical characteristics of the solutions of the medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakov, A.; Urakova, N.

    2015-04-01

    In the laboratory studied the dynamics of rheology of water solutions with plasma- inflammatory and antiseptic funds when mixing them with blood, plasma and pus under the influence of the following physical and chemical factors of local interaction: gravity, specific gravity, temperature, relative viscosity, internal pressure, sparkling water, total concentration of the ingredients, surface activity, volume of acid and osmotic activity of medicines. Found that the rheology of biological liquids improve hyperthermic, highly alkaline and highly carbonated solution medicines. For the dilution of pus, dense festering mass of sulfur plugs and tear stones invited to apply heated to +39 - +42°C with aqueous solution of 0.5 - 3% hydrogen peroxide and 0.5 - 10% sodium bicarbonate saturated with carbon dioxide to excess pressure 0.2 ATM.

  14. LIPOSOMAL COSMETICS AICIDA IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC DERMATOSES (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Molochkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews literature data on the efficacy of liposomal cosmetics Aicida in the treatment of chronic dermatoses. This product line is Antiseptic Dorogov’s Stimulator (ASD-based which has been applied in dermatology during 60 years. Modern liposomal technologies have been used in the development of new cosmetic bases to ensure conformance to current standards. Gelcream for sensitive face and body skin, hand gelcream and dry scalp balsam have been successfully used in the treatment of psoriasis. Gel-cream for hands and sensitive face and body skin has demonstrated good efficacy in the treatment of hands eczema and mild and moderate atopic dermatitis. Using cosmetic line Aicida for basic care in patients with remission of chronic dermatoses ensures good skin status and promotes longer remissions.

  15. [Use of pervomur in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekhov, P A; Melekhov, E P

    1990-09-01

    The authors show the results of 15-year use of Pervomur solutions for sterilization of surgical material and treatment of the hands of surgeons in medical institutions of the country. Due to the high bactericidal properties of the agent its disinfectant effect is produced within a short time, which is of particular importance in mass admission of casualties in field conditions, in remote and mountainous wilderness, during natural disasters , and in performing surgical interventions on ships under conditions of prolonged autonomous cruises. The absence of an unfavourable effect of solutions of the agent on live tissue allows it to be considered a very promising antiseptic not only for sterilization but also for topical treatment of purulent wounds and cavities, particularly in contamination by polyinfection.

  16. Bioactive Coatings for Orthopaedic Implants—Recent Trends in Development of Implant Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bill G. X.; Myers, Damian E.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Brandt, Milan; Choong, Peter F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Joint replacement is a major orthopaedic procedure used to treat joint osteoarthritis. Aseptic loosening and infection are the two most significant causes of prosthetic implant failure. The ideal implant should be able to promote osteointegration, deter bacterial adhesion and minimize prosthetic infection. Recent developments in material science and cell biology have seen the development of new orthopaedic implant coatings to address these issues. Coatings consisting of bioceramics, extracellular matrix proteins, biological peptides or growth factors impart bioactivity and biocompatibility to the metallic surface of conventional orthopaedic prosthesis that promote bone ingrowth and differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts leading to enhanced osteointegration of the implant. Furthermore, coatings such as silver, nitric oxide, antibiotics, antiseptics and antimicrobial peptides with anti-microbial properties have also been developed, which show promise in reducing bacterial adhesion and prosthetic infections. This review summarizes some of the recent developments in coatings for orthopaedic implants. PMID:25000263

  17. [Reading the 'natural book': notes towards a history of anatomical and surgical studies in Buenos Aires (1870-1895)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pablo; Hurtado, Diego

    2010-12-01

    The article explores transformations in anatomical and surgical studies within the school of medical thought in Buenos Aires in the latter half of the nineteenth century, focusing on the tension between how this knowledge should be conveyed and the changing surgical worldviews of the most visible medical groups of the 1870s. The influence of European surgical traditions is analyzed within this context, particularly the influence of the Paris tradition, which can be linked to study abroad by young Ignacio Pirovano, who would later become professor of anatomy and major surgery in Buenos Aires. The article pays special attention to changes in forms of experiments and in the new material conditions afforded through the introduction of antiseptic surgery, some types of anesthesia, and bone resection.

  18. Are specialized endotracheal tubes and heat-and-moisture exchangers cost-effective in preventing ventilator associated pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Michael A; Siobal, Mark S

    2010-02-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and serious complication of mechanical ventilation via an artificial airway. As with all nosocomial infections, VAP increases costs, morbidity, and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). VAP prevention is a multifaceted priority of the intensive care team, and can include the use of specialized artificial airways and heat-and-moisture exchangers (HME). Substantial evidence supports the use of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) that allow subglottic suctioning; silver-coated and antiseptic-impregnated ETTs; ETTs with thin-walled polyurethane cuffs; and HMEs, but these devices also can have adverse effects. Controversy still exists regarding the evidence, cost-effectiveness, and disadvantages and risks of these devices.

  19. Fur rubbing behavior in free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C J

    2000-07-01

    Members of the population of black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, use the leaves of three Rutaceae species in a behavior that resembles fur rubbing in the white faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus). This behavior has not been reported from other sites where Ateles has been studied. During more than 1,200 hours of observation, 30 episodes of this behavior were recorded ad libitum. Adult males engage in this behavior more than adult females. Season did not impact the frequency of the behavior. The behavior described here differs in many respects from that reported for Cebus capucinus, and does not fit the hypotheses that the behavior functions in repelling insects or other antiseptic purposes. It is proposed that fur rubbing in this group of spider monkeys is a modification of a behavior previously recorded in Ateles and may function in scent marking.

  20. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF THE COLLODIAL SOLUTION BASED ON BIOGENIC METAL NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Liapina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was obtaining a stable suspension based on biocompatible substances with application of biogenic metal nanoparticles encapsulated into NaCl salt matrix, as a precursor. Water-soluble complex based on different amine derivatives with antiseptic properties was selected as a liquid for salt dissolution. The solution was subjected to dispersion using ultrasonication at elevated temperature. Dispersion is accompanied by salt shell removal with simultaneous formation of an organic shell on the surfaces of metal nanoparticles that ensure their stabilization. Study of the suspension after soaking at room temperature for 100 days showed that its characteristics remain stable. A method for producing a stable colloidal solution based on nanoparticles of biogenic metal (Cu, Co, fem etc. was developed. Metal nanopowder encapsulated into salt shell was used as a precursor. It is shown that such colloidal solutions are characterized by narrow size dispersion, as well as stability to temperature impact and time factor.

  1. [Evaluation of effective treatment drugs against Acanthamoeba cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, K; Asari, S; Shimomura, Y; Endo, T; Yanagihara, T

    1997-10-01

    Cysts of 2 isolates of Acanthamoeba from the cornea of 2 patients with confirmed Acanthamoeba keratitis were tested in vitro for sensitivity to antimycotic agents such as fluconazole, miconazole, amphotericin-B, pimaricin, antiprotozoal agents such as pentamidine isetionate and antiseptics which could be use in the ophthamological region. Pimaricin was the most successful cysticidal agent against the two strains. Sensitivity to pentamidine isetionate showed variation. Fluconazole, miconazole and amphotericin-B were resistant against cysts with concentration of eye drops that have been used in the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. It was supposed that 5% pimaricin eye drops could be use in the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis in addition to keratomycosis. Pentamidine isetionate which belong to the diamidine family, is not yet clear as to the side effects to corneal epithelium cell, but we believe that this drug could be expected as a new therapeutic agent for Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  2. Vaginal absorption of hexachlorophene during labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, D M; Leonard, R G; Stavchansky, S; Benoit, T; Wilson, R T

    1983-12-01

    Surgical soap that contains hexachlorophene is used as an antiseptic lubricant for vaginal examinations during labor in some centers. Theoretically, hexachlorophene can be absorbed from the vaginal mucosa and be potentially toxic to the fetus and neonate. To evaluate vaginal absorption and placental transfer of hexachlorophene, we measured levels in mixed arterial/venous cord serum and postpartum maternal serum in 28 women whose vaginal examinations were lubricated with pHisoHex during labor. The serum of 12 women had detectable levels of hexachlorophene, with a high level of 942 ng/ml. Cord serum had detectable levels in nine neonates, with a high level of 617 ng/ml. The conclusion is that hexachlorophene from vaginal lubricants is variably absorbed from the vaginal mucosa, and appreciable amounts can be detected in maternal and cord serum. Because of the potential for neonatal hexachlorophene toxicity, we recommend the use of alternative lubricants for pelvic examinations during labor.

  3. Aqueous dispersions of oxide nanoparticles as a treatment for pyoinflammatory diseases with chronic component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutberg, Ph; Kolikov, V; Snetov, V; Stogov, A [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power Russian Academy of Sciences, 18 Dvortsovaya nab., St.-Petersburg, 191186 (Russian Federation); Moshkin, A; Khalilov, M, E-mail: Stogov2007@yandex.ru [Oryol State University, Medical Institute, October st. 25, Oryol, 302028 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    Promising direction of surgery related to the treatment of acute purulent wounds with chronic component could be utilization of aqueous dispersions of nanostructures (ADN) produced by pulsed electric discharge in water. The investigation is addressed to finding out the opportunity of usage of an ADN for treatment of purulent wounds with a chronic component and comparison of its efficiency with the widespread antiseptics. For realization of investigation was used ADN, which has maximal share of 'small' nanostructures (<100 nm) with the greatest surface electric charge. High activity of reparative processes is established at use of ADN and subsequent moderate changes of the further healing. The attributes of cellular atypia and preternatural representations about inflammatory reactions are not revealed at local use of ADN.

  4. Microbiological effect of essential oils in combination with subgingival ultrasonic instrumentation and mouth rinsing in chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, Toshiya; Kubota, Takehiko; Abe, Daisuke; Shimizu, Taro; Nohno, Kaname; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2013-01-01

    Thirty chronic periodontitis patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups: control, saline, and essential oil-containing antiseptic (EO). Subgingival plaque was collected from a total of 90 pockets across all subjects. Subsequently, subgingival ultrasonic instrumentation (SUI) was performed by using EO or saline as the irrigation agent. After continuous mouth rinsing at home with EO or saline for 7 days, subgingival plaques were sampled again. Periodontopathic bacteria were quantified using the modified Invader PLUS assay. The total bacterial count in shallow pockets (probing pocket depth (PPD) = 4-5 mm) was significantly reduced in both saline (P bacterial count (P bacterial counts in both shallow and deep pockets. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000007484.

  5. Comparative study of microvascular density in experimental third-degree skin burns treated with topical preparations containing herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogoşanu, G D; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Lascăr, I; Mogoantă, L

    2013-01-01

    During the healing process of third-degree skin burns, a very complex response involves different cells and tissues linked together by intra- and extra-cellular mechanisms. For the restoration of damaged tissues, angiogenesis is the key point in the formation of new blood vessels. By their emollient, astringent, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, active principles from natural products contribute to the acceleration of the wound-healing process. In our study, we investigated the angiogenesis process in experimental model of third-degree skin burns treated with three topical preparations (cold-creams) containing 10% herbal extracts, comparing with 1% sulfadiazine cream and cold-cream base respectively. By their biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, cold-creams with herbal extracts are locally modulators of the cellular response and support the wound healing. The phytocomplex stimulates the favorable evolution of the burnt skin wounds and the development of neoangiogenesis capillaries.

  6. Thiomersal-containing vaccines - a review of the current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołoś, Aleksandra; Lutyńska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Thiomersal is an organomercury compound known for its antiseptic and antifungal properties and used as an antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical products, including vaccines and other injectable biological products. In recent years, concerns about the possible link between immunization with thiomersal-containing vaccines and autism development have grown. Many case-control and cohort studies have been conducted on a number of populations, and none of them have confirmed the hypothetical relation between thiomersal and increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) development. It is also confirmed by the fact, that since 1999, number of thiomersal-containing vaccines used worldwide is decreasing year by year, while the prevalence of ASDs cases is rising. There are no contraindications to the use of vaccines with thiomersal in infants, children and non-pregnant women. The risk of serious complications associated with the development of diseases in unvaccinated individuals far outweighs the potential risk of adverse consequences associated with immunization with thiomersal-containing vaccines.

  7. An FDA-Drug Library Screen for Compounds with Bioactivities against Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Ying Lau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of new antibacterial drugs entering the market and their misuse have resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, posing a major health crisis worldwide. In particular, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, a pathogen responsible for numerous human infections, has become endemic in hospitals worldwide. Drug repurposing, the finding of new therapeutic indications for approved drugs, is deemed a plausible solution to accelerate drug discovery and development in this area. Towards this end, we screened 1163 drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for bioactivities against MRSA in a 10 μM single-point assay. After excluding known antibiotics and antiseptics, six compounds were identified and their MICs were determined against a panel of clinical MRSA strains. A toxicity assay using human keratinocytes was also conducted to gauge their potential for repurposing as topical agents for treating MRSA skin infections.

  8. Investigation of Observed Changes in Treated Hemp Hurds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzová Ivana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effort to achieve sustainable development using renewable materials instead of limited ones is the current trend in the construction industry. Need for the development of environmentally friendly products is related to industrial interest in using natural plant fibres as reinforcement in composites. The combination of organic filler and inorganic matrix creates high-quality products such as fibre boards and composites. Industrial hemp fibres are one of the mostly used natural fibres and due to their unique mechanical, thermal insulation, acoustic and antiseptic properties have a great potential in composite materials. However, improving the interfacial bond between fibre and matrix is an important factor in fibre-reinforced composites. Optimizing the adhesion between fibre and inorganic matrix is related to surface treatment processes. This paper deals with morphology characterization, study changes in the chemical composition and structure of hemp fibres using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR before and after physico-chemical treatment.

  9. POTENTIONALS OF TOPIC TREATMENT OF TONSILLOPHARYNGITIS IN CHILDREN IN LOCAL PEDIATRICIANS PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Tchernova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to high risk of bacterial complications in children with viral tonsillopharyngitis as an ambulatory preventive treatment the topic antiseptic drugs are frequently used. These drugs contribute to prolongation of normal microflora restoration in reconvalescents. The observed clinical observation showed the equal efficacy (according to dynamics of severity and duration of subjective viral respiratory tract infections complaints in children of oropharynx mucous membrane instillations with elimination spray, prepared on the base of natural hypertonic sea water with herbal extracts, and topic drugs consisting hexetidine. However the wider range of action contributed to normalization of pharyngoscopic picture at the average of 1,5 days earlier, than during hexetidine treatment. Received data allow recommending spray with natural hypertonic sea water and chamomile and aloe extracts as the first-line drugs in ambulatory treatment of non-complicated viral tonsillopharyngitis in children. 

  10. Oil Essential Mouthwashes Antibacterial Activity against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: A Comparison between Antibiofilm and Antiplanktonic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Erriu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the antibacterial activity of three marketed mouthwashes on suspended and sessile states of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The efficacy of two commonly used products in clinical practice, containing essential oils as active ingredients (menthol, thymol, methyl salicylate, and eucalyptol in association with or without alcohol, has been evaluated in comparison with a chlorhexidine-based mouthwash. The microtiter plate assay, in order to obtain a spectrophotometric measurement of bacterial responses at growing dilutions of each antiseptic, was used for the study. The analysis revealed that a good antibacterial activity is reached when the abovementioned mouthwashes were used at concentration over a 1/24 dilution and after an exposure time of 30 seconds at least. In conclusion, the alcoholic mouthwash appears to have a better biofilm inhibition than its antiplanktonic activity while the nonalcoholic product demonstrates an opposite effect with a better antiplanktonic behavior.

  11. Oil Essential Mouthwashes Antibacterial Activity against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: A Comparison between Antibiofilm and Antiplanktonic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erriu, Matteo; Pili, Francesca Maria Giovanna; Tuveri, Enrica; Pigliacampo, Daniela; Scano, Alessandra; Montaldo, Caterina; Piras, Vincenzo; Denotti, Gloria; Pilloni, Andrea; Garau, Valentino; Orrù, Germano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the antibacterial activity of three marketed mouthwashes on suspended and sessile states of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The efficacy of two commonly used products in clinical practice, containing essential oils as active ingredients (menthol, thymol, methyl salicylate, and eucalyptol) in association with or without alcohol, has been evaluated in comparison with a chlorhexidine-based mouthwash. The microtiter plate assay, in order to obtain a spectrophotometric measurement of bacterial responses at growing dilutions of each antiseptic, was used for the study. The analysis revealed that a good antibacterial activity is reached when the abovementioned mouthwashes were used at concentration over a 1/24 dilution and after an exposure time of 30 seconds at least. In conclusion, the alcoholic mouthwash appears to have a better biofilm inhibition than its antiplanktonic activity while the nonalcoholic product demonstrates an opposite effect with a better antiplanktonic behavior.

  12. Eye bank procedures: donor selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sidney Júlio de Faria E; Sousa, Stella Barretto de Faria E

    2018-01-01

    Eye banks use sterile procedures to manipulate the eye, antiseptic measures for ocular surface decontamination, and rigorous criteria for donor selection to minimize the possibility of disease transmission due to corneal grafting. Donor selection focuses on analysis of medical records and specific post-mortem serological tests. To guide and standardize procedures, eye bank associations and government agencies provide lists of absolute and relative contraindications for use of the tissue based on donor health history. These lists are guardians of the Hippocratic principle "primum non nocere." However, each transplantation carries risk of transmission of potentially harmful agents to the recipient. The aim of the procedures is not to eliminate risk, but limit it to a reasonable level. The balance between safety and corneal availability needs to be maintained by exercising prudence without disproportionate rigor.

  13. Decontamination of burns contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vykouril, L.

    1986-01-01

    The suitability of various solutions for the decontamination of burnt skin and their efficiency were tested by experiments on rats. Tested was the decontamination of undisturbed skin, second degree skin burns and third degree skin burns. Decontamination solutions used included: distilled water, jodonal (an aqueous solution of iodine, ethoxylated nonylphenols, the copolymer of ethylene oxide with propylene oxide, and phosphoric acid) and a decontamination mixture of Sapon, Komplexon (trade names of detergents) and sodium hexametaphosphate. Decontamination efficiency was 68.4% for second degree burns and 47.1% for third degree burns. Most effective was the decontamination solution with an efficiency of 72%; the efficiency of jodonal was 67% and of water - 54%. Jodonal is the most suitable: in addition, it acts as a disinfectant and antiseptic. (M.D.)

  14. Disinfection efficacy of an ultraviolet light on film cassettes for preventive of the nosocomial infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Yong Woong; Cho, Am [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    The bacterial infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department of the S. hospital. The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient prevention from nosocomial infection and for improvement of the hospital environment. The laboratory result was identified non-pathologic bacterial in the five different cassette size of the contact surface. Film cassettes were exposed to ultraviolet light for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Ultraviolet light disinfection is proven suitable for bacterial. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. In addition education of nosocomial infection for radiographers will be required. In conclusion, ultraviolet is considered effective to irradiate bacterial. Additionally, two minutes are required to sterilize film cassettes.

  15. Using an indwelling catheter for the domiciliary management of malignant effusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many patients with malignant pleural effusions and ascites require repeated hospital visits for paracentesis. Materials and Methods: Patients and caregivers were taught to drain malignant effusions at home, using an indwelling catheter inserted into the pleural/ peritoneal cavity. The catheter, (ARROW 14 wire gauge with three additional side holes made to prevent blockage was inserted using the Seldenger technique for central venous cannulation and secured with a stitch. A three way stopcock was used to regulate fluid drainage. The caregiver was taught to do biweekly dressings with antiseptic ointment. Results: The catheter has been used in 200 patients over a period of five years. Two patients developed infections in the pleural cavity, which were managed with antibiotics. Two patients needed catheter change because of blockage. Other patients retained the catheter till last follow up or death. The procedure can be carried out as a day case. This article describes practical guidelines for inserting and maintaining the catheter.

  16. Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus: A Review of Their Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Bozorgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia, a genus of flowering plants from the family Anacardiaceae, contains about twenty species, among them five are more popular including P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus. Different parts of these species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes like tonic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antihypertensive and management of dental, gastrointestinal, liver, urinary tract, and respiratory tract disorders. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological activities from various parts of these species, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antidiabetic, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, and hepatoprotective activities and also their beneficial effects in gastrointestinal disorders. Various types of phytochemical constituents like terpenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and sterols have also been isolated and identified from different parts of Pistacia species. The present review summarizes comprehensive information concerning ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of the five mentioned Pistacia species.

  17. Clinical variables in radiotracer biodistributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.; Scott, J.R.; Schmidt, R.P.; Noujaim, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous iatrogenic causes of altered radiotracer biodistributions have been described. Cancer chemotherapy is a particularly potent cause of changed biodistributions while even a trivial matter such as preparing the skin with an iodine containing antiseptic may cause displacement of technetium from its compounds. In the blocking of thyroid uptake of radioiodines, there is good precedent for the manipulation of regional tissue dosimetry. It is possible to go beyond the mere cataloguing of these effects to look creatively at the subject of comparative tissue biodistributions and hence comparative dosimetry. Effects such as the clinical observation of the interference by cis-platinum with the usual biodistribution of radio-gallium suggests that such compounds can be used as probes each to lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the other

  18. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero eSalminen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs. Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC. The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70 % molar yield towards citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide.

  19. Medical management of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushmanov, A.; Nadezhina, N.; Kretov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Medical management during acute period in a case of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure includes 3 stages. During the fist stage patient got conservative treatment according to the common pathogenetic mechanisms of LRI (dis aggregating therapy, stimulation of regeneration, dis intoxication therapy, antibiotic therapy, pain relief therapy, Local anti-burn therapy-specific non-adhesive bandage with antiseptic and anti-burn medicaments); estimation of severity, deepness and area of injury by clinical picture and dates of instrumental methods of examining; defining necessity and volume of surgical treatment; preparing arrangements for surgical treatment. This stage ends with forming of demarcation line of a very hard severity of a Local Radiation Injure. The second stage includes necrectomy of the area of a very hard severity with microsurgical plastic by re vascularized flap and auto dermoplastic. The third stage - adaptation of re vascularized flap and total epithelization of injured area. (author)

  20. Disinfection Effect of Film Cassettes by Ultraviolet Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Park, Peom [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    A bacteria infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department. Studies have demonstrated a bactericidal effect of ultraviolet irradiation, and to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient prevent from nosocomial infection. The study showed that the laboratory result was identified non-pathologic and pathologic bacterial in the five different cassette size of the contact surface. Film cassettes were exposed to ultraviolet light for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Ultraviolet light disinfection practices suitable for bacteria. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. In conclusion, ultraviolet irradiate on film cassette over the surface more than 2 minutes. Ultraviolet dose of 1565 {mu}W {center_dot} s/cm{sup 2}Win in 30 second relative to ultraviolet dose in time.