Sample records for antisepsis

  1. New strategies for preoperative skin antisepsis. (United States)

    Ulmer, Miriam; Lademann, Juergen; Patzelt, Alexa; Knorr, Fanny; Kramer, Axel; Koburger, Torsten; Assadian, Ojan; Daeschlein, Georg; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard


    During the past decades, encouraging progress has been made in the prevention of surgical site infections (SSI). However, as SSI still occur today, strategic prevention measures such as standardized skin antisepsis must be implemented and rigorously promoted. Recent discoveries in skin physiology necessitate the development of novel antiseptic agents and procedures in order to ameliorate their efficacy. In particular, alternate target structures in the skin need to be taken into consideration for the development of the next generation of antiseptics. Recent investigations have shown that a high number of microorganisms are located within and in the close vicinity of the hair follicles. This suggests that these structures are an important reservoir of bacterial growth and activity in human skin. To date, it has not been fully elucidated to what extent conventional liquid antiseptics sufficiently target the hair follicle-related microbial population. Modern technologies such as tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) have been tested for their potential antiseptic efficiency by reducing the bacterial load in the skin and in the hair follicles. First experiments using liposomes to deliver antiseptics into the hair follicles have been evaluated for their potential clinical application. The present review evaluates these two innovative methods for their efficacy and applicability in preoperative skin antiseptics.

  2. [Asepsis and antisepsis in dental offices in Dakar]. (United States)

    Lo, C M M; Cisse, D; Faye, D; Kane, A W


    To evaluate hygiene in dental offices in Dakar, the authors questioned 64 public, private and semi-private dentists. From 62 practitioners who completed their questionnaire, it appeared that the dry-heated sterilizer (poupinel) was 5 times more used than the autoclave; The almost practitioners sayed respecting the sterilisation process and 66% of them said wearing gloves, masks and glasses during interventions. In spite of the hope these results give, this study is limited because it doesn't take into account many aspects of asepsis and antisepsis in dental office which require a rigorous application next to a personal who needs to be better trained.

  3. Antisepsis of the follicular reservoir by treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) (United States)

    Lademann, O.; Kramer, A.; Richter, H.; Patzelt, A.; Meinke, M. C.; Roewert-Huber, J.; Czaika, V.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Hartmann, B.; Koch, S.


    The application of tissue-tolerable electrical plasma (TTP) is highly efficient in skin antisepsis. However, the germs are not only located on the skin surface, but also in the hair follicles, from where they re-colonize the skin surface after antisepsis, e.g. The objective of the present study was to show that plasma is able to reach the follicular reservoir for antisepsis. For this purpose, a solution containing particulate chlorophyll dye had been applied onto porcine skin samples. The fluorescent properties of the dye changed during the plasma tissue interaction. The results demonstrate that TTP penetrates deep into the hair follicles, whereupon the hairs act as a conductor for the plasma. Therefore, it can be concluded that micro-organisms of the follicular reservoir are destroyed more efficiently by the plasma than by conventional liquid antiseptics.

  4. The Forgotten Role of Alcohol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy and Perceived Role of Chlorhexidine in Skin Antisepsis


    Maiwald, Matthias; Chan, Edwin S. Y.


    Background Skin antisepsis is a simple and effective measure to prevent infections. The efficacy of chlorhexidine is actively discussed in the literature on skin antisepsis. However, study outcomes due to chlorhexidine-alcohol combinations are often attributed to chlorhexidine alone. Thus, we sought to review the efficacy of chlorhexidine for skin antisepsis and the extent of a possible misinterpretation of evidence. Methods We performed a systematic literature review of clinical trials and s...

  5. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques. (United States)

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid


    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis. PMID:21316990

  6. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques. (United States)

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid


    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis.

  7. Does chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine preoperative antisepsis reduce surgical site infection in cranial neurosurgery? (United States)

    Davies, B M; Patel, H C


    Introduction Surgical site infection (SSI) is a significant cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Effective preoperative antisepsis is a recognised prophylactic, with commonly used agents including chlorhexidine (CHG) and povidone-iodine (PVI). However, there is emerging evidence to suggest an additional benefit when they are used in combination. Methods We analysed data from our prospective SSI database on patients undergoing clean cranial neurosurgery between October 2011 and April 2014. We compared the case-mix adjusted odds of developing a SSI in patients undergoing skin preparation with CGH or PVI alone or in combination. Results SSIs were detected in 2.6% of 1146 cases. Antisepsis with PVI alone was performed in 654 (57%) procedures, while 276 (24%) had CHG alone and 216 (19%) CHG and PVI together. SSIs were associated with longer operating time (pSSI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.63) than either agent alone. There was no difference in SSI rates between CHG and PVI alone (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.24-1.5). Conclusions Combination skin preparation with CHG and PVI significantly reduced SSI rates compared to CHG or PVI alone. A prospective, randomized study validating these findings is now warranted. PMID:27055411

  8. A new surgical handwashing and hand antisepsis from scrubbing to rubbing. (United States)

    Furukawa, Kiyonori; Ogawa, Rho; Norose, Yoshihiro; Tajiri, Takashi


    In 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines for surgical handwashing and hand antisepsis on the Internet. According to these guidelines, we revised our surgical handwashing method from scrubbing with brushes to rubbing with antiseptic. The new method consists of scrubbing around the nails with brushes and rubbing the hands and arms with antiseptic from the elbow to the antebrachium. A total of 182 surgeons and operating-room nurses participated in the current study. Bacterial contamination was investigated using the glove-juice method. The new surgical handwashing method is simple, and requires only a short time to perform (2 minutes 50 seconds). The bacterial examination confirmed that rubbing the hands with antiseptic was significantly more effective than scrubbing with brushes. In terms of sterilization or prolonged effects, 4% chlor-hexidine gluconate (CHG) was superior to 7.5% povidone-iodine (PVI) throughout a 3-hour period after hand antisepsis. Although bacterial counts were increased 3 hours after the beginning of surgery, additional hand rubbing with 0.2% chlorhexidine-83% ethanol (Hibisoft(TM)) was effective in suppressing the number of bacteria. Hibisoft(TM) successfully prolonged sterilization for more than 3 hours. For long surgical procedures, CHG should be used as an antiseptic and gloves should be changed every 3 hours, alcohol-based hand rubbing should also be performed 3 hours after the initial handwashing. This new technique will be included in the OSCE curriculum to ensure its standardization. Moreover, in-depth education regarding central operating-room practices is desired.

  9. Genital antisepsis--test methodology and efficacy of povidone-iodine. (United States)

    Wewalka, G; Kurz, C; Enzelsberger, H


    Indications for antiseptic prophylaxis include use prior to urinary catheterization and other transurethral instrumentations, diagnostic or therapeutic instrumentation of the cavum uteri, and operations on the external genitalia and the vagina. Indications for antiseptic therapy include treatment of wounds and of infections of the genital tract and also include treatment of the vaginas of pregnant women to prevent infection in the newborn. For prophylactic antisepsis the aim is the optimal reduction of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. In some fields of application, e.g. before urinary catheterization, an immediate effect on the mucous membrane is required, but on other occasions, such as transvaginal operations, an additional sustained effect is desired. Testing the efficacy of mucous membrane antiseptics, especially for the genital tract, necessitates the establishment of standardized test methods. The variability in vaginal flora at various ages makes it reasonable to study women aged 20-50 years. Studies presented in this paper indicate that microorganism sampling using a cotton swab moistened with neutralizing fluid can be favoured compared to using a rinsing technique and that anaerobic culture techniques enable the measurement of the high reduction factors achieved by very efficient antiseptic procedures. Test methods validated for hand disinfectants are used for calculations and statistical evaluation. The antimicrobial efficacy of six vaginal antiseptic procedures were compared in patients prior to vaginal surgery. Three minutes after treatment, the highest mean reduction (log RF) of the normal vaginal flora as well as of potentially pathogenic microorganisms was obtained by povidone-iodine solution undiluted and povidone-iodine solution 1:10 (log RF 3.60 and 2.68, respectively). Out of three detergents with antimicrobial efficacy, octenidine 0.1% was the most effective preparation (log RF 2.32). Chlorhexidine 0.1%, hexetidine 0.1% and chlorhexidine 0

  10. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses. (United States)

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne


    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  11. Combined education and skin antisepsis intervention for persistently high blood-culture contamination rates in neonatal intensive care. (United States)

    O'Connor, C; Philip, R K; Powell, J; Slevin, B; Quinn, C; Power, L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P


    Contaminated blood cultures represent challenges regarding diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, antimicrobial use, pharmacy and laboratory costs. Facing problematic neonatal blood culture contamination (3.8%), we instigated a successful intervention combining skin antisepsis using sterile applicators with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% isopropanol prior to phlebotomy (replacing 70% isopropanol) and staff education. In the six months prior to intervention, 364 neonatal peripheral blood samples were collected. Fourteen (3.8%) were contaminated. In the post-intervention six months, 314 samples were collected. Three (0.96%) were contaminated, representing significant improvement (Fisher's exact test: P = 0.0259). No dermatological sequelae were observed. The improvement has been sustained. PMID:26944902

  12. Beyond antisepsis: Examining the relevance of the works of Joseph Baron Lister to the contemporary surgeon-scientist

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    Graeme E Glass


    Full Text Available As the father of antispesis, the legacy of Joseph Baron Lister is assured and his influence on the development of contemporary surgical practice is recognised in the context of his achievement of predictable, infection-free surgery. However, looking beyond Lister′s finest achievement and examining this work in the context of his whole career as a surgeon-scientist reveals important lessons pertinent to aspiring peers in how, by replacing surgical dogma with observation, deductive reasoning and scientific verification, by pursuing good ideas in the face of resistance and by making research directly relevant and patient-focused, lasting changes can be accomplished. This short paper aims to put Lister′s developments in antisepsis in the context of his whole career, to evaluate his legacy and to commend his approach to contemporary surgeon-scientists.

  13. Beyond antisepsis: Examining the relevance of the works of Joseph Baron Lister to the contemporary surgeon-scientist. (United States)

    Glass, Graeme E


    As the father of antispesis, the legacy of Joseph Baron Lister is assured and his influence on the development of contemporary surgical practice is recognised in the context of his achievement of predictable, infection-free surgery. However, looking beyond Lister's finest achievement and examining this work in the context of his whole career as a surgeon-scientist reveals important lessons pertinent to aspiring peers in how, by replacing surgical dogma with observation, deductive reasoning and scientific verification, by pursuing good ideas in the face of resistance and by making research directly relevant and patient-focused, lasting changes can be accomplished. This short paper aims to put Lister's developments in antisepsis in the context of his whole career, to evaluate his legacy and to commend his approach to contemporary surgeon-scientists. PMID:25593429


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    Ângela Faccin


    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as an alternative treatment for health problems. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a median tree that belongs to the Anacardiaceae family. The antibacterial effect of leaves extract of this plant has already been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to test a substance derived from this plant to be used in pre- and post-milking teat antisepsis. The hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian pepper tree was used in opposite quarters for twelve consecutive weeks, and commercial iodine was used as control. None of the indices analyzed – black background mug, CMT, intramammary infections, skin health, and teat health – showed a statistical difference between the treatments, suggesting that the plant extract can be used in pre- and post-milking teat antisepsis, as a substitute for conventional products for herds in an agroecological production system.

  15. Knowledge of aseptics and antisepsis and following their rules as elements of infection prevention in the work of paramedics

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    Łukasz Szarpak


    Full Text Available Background: The health-care professionals, particularly paramedics are exposed to bloodborne infections during medical rescue operations. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge of bloodborne infections, their prevention and interrupted routes of infection transmission among paramedics. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 220 paramedics employed in emergency departments and ambulance services. Material was collected using an anonymus questionnaire, developed for the purpose of this study. Results: As many as 80% of the surveyed people reported frequent contact with patients' blood; 65% of the paramedics before establishing the intravenous access palpates the conduct of the vein; 81% introduce peripheral venous catheter directly after disinfection of the skin; and 98% apply personal protection measures. Conclusions: The analysis of knowledge of asepsis and antisepsis of bloodborne infections among paramedics points to a series of shortcomings in their adequate preparation to reduce the effects of exposure to infectious material. However, it should be emphasized that people with higher education presented a higher level of knowledge than those with postsecondary vocational education. In the opinion of the study group mandatory training in the discussed area would prove to be the most effective method for reducing the number of bloodborne infections. Med Pr 2013;64(2:239–243

  16. 消炎片抗菌抗炎作用的研究%Study of antisepsis and antiinflammatory effects of Xiaoyan tablet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桂雅; 王海峰; 唐晓东; 张景艳; 张惠政; 陈国平


    OBJECTIVE:To observe the antisepsis and anti-inflammatory action of Xiaoyan tablet.METHODS:Using physiological saline as control,the antiinflammatory effiects on the oncotic extent of the ear auricle of the mouse caused by xylene and swollen toes of rat caused by rat mucllago. and the antibiotic effects on staphylococcus aureus,beta hemolytic streptococcus,pneumococcus,bacillus influenzae were studied.RESULTS:The inflammatory effects of taking medicine group was dramatic compared with physiological saline group(P<0.01).Its antisepsis action is equivalent to oral liquor of double coptis chinensis.CONCLUSION:The antisepsis and anti-inflammatory action of Xiaoyan tablet is better.%目的:观察消炎片抗菌抗炎作用。方法:以生理盐水为对照组,考察消炎片对小鼠二甲苯性耳壳肿胀程度和大鼠角叉菜胶性足跖肿胀程度的影响,并观察其对金黄色葡萄球菌,乙型溶血性链球菌,肺炎双球菌,流感嗜血杆菌的抑菌作用。结果:用药组与生理盐水组比较,其抗炎作用十分显著(P<0.01),其抑菌作用与双黄连口服液相当。结论:消炎片具有较好的抗菌抗炎作用。

  17. Gecompliceerde fractuur en antisepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepel, Jan Arnold Cornelis


    Bij het bestudeeren van de geschiedenis der geneeskunde blijkt. dat pas na de vinding van de antiseptische methode door Lister. ± 1865. van cen doeltreffende behandeling van gecompliceerde fracturen sprake heeft kunnen zijn. Was het v66r dien Hjd een zeldzaamheid, dat een ernstig gecompliceerde frac

  18. Efeito da anti-sepsia da ferida cirúrgica alveolar sobre o crescimento bacteriano em fios de sutura de algodão Effect of the antisepsis of the alveolar surgical wound on bacterial growth over cotton suture threads

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    Ulysses Nicida SOARES


    Full Text Available Embora os fios de sutura empregados rotineiramente em cirurgias bucais possam favorecer o acúmulo e o crescimento bacteriano, há poucos trabalhos na literatura relatando preocupação com a anti-sepsia da ferida cirúrgica durante o período pós-operatório e antes de sua remoção. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de dois métodos de anti-sepsia intra-oral sobre o crescimento bacteriano em fios de sutura de algodão. Os resultados evidenciaram que todos os fios de sutura apresentaram-se contaminados com estreptococos, antes e após a anti-sepsia da ferida cirúrgica. A análise dos resultados obtidos permitiu concluir que os dois métodos de anti-sepsia avaliados reduziram o número de estreptococos isolados dos fragmentos de fios de sutura, entretanto, a análise estatística demonstrou que os dois métodos avaliados não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes.The objective of this study was to evaluate bacterial growth on cotton suture. The efficiency of cetylpyridinium chloride (50%, hydrogen peroxide (3% and chlorhexidine (0.12% in antisepsis was investigated. For that, 20 patients who were submitted to extraction of impacted lower third molars were studied. Five days after extraction, samples were obtained from the oral and alveolar sides of the sutures, before and after antisepsis of the wounds, and were submitted to bacteriological analysis. Bacterial growth was observed in all examined samples. The number of streptococci decreased after antisepsis and there were no statistically significant differences between the methods of antisepsis used.

  19. ATP生物荧光法快速监测外科手消毒的应用研究%Application research on ATP bioluminescence assay in the evaluation of the effectiveness for monitoring surgical hand antisepsis rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯雅娟; 许晨耘; 俞诗娃; 周淑萍; 冯菲菲


    目的 探讨三磷酸腺苷(ATP)生物荧光法在外科手消毒效果评价中应用的可行性及能反映外科手消毒合格的ATP相对吸光值.方法 采用ATP生物荧光法与细菌培养计数法观察外科手消毒监测效果,用百分位数法计算ATP生物荧光仪的测量RLU值95%正常值上限,并进行成本比较.结果 ATP生物荧光仪测量的RLU值与细菌培养监测结果不成线性关系,RLU值95%正常值上限为48.02;其监测成本比细菌培养法节约59.89元.结论 ATP生物荧光法可快速监测外科手消毒效果,且操作成本较低,利于推广至现场快速监测工作.%OBJECTIVE To discuss the application feasibility of the ATP bioluminescence assay in the evaluation of the effectiveness of surgical hand antisepsis and ATP relative extinction value which can reflect the disinfection qualified. METHODS We used the ATP bioluminescence assay and bacilli culture notation respectively, to monitor the effectiveness of surgical hand antisepsis and calculate by method of percentiles to measure RLU value 95% normal value upper limit of ATP bioluminescence assay, then compared the cost. RESULTS The RLU value of ATP bioluminescence assay was not linear related to the results of bacilli culture, RLU value 95% normal value upper limit of ATP bioluminescence assay was 48.02, and the cost was 59.89 RMB less than bacilli culture. CONCLUSION ATP bioluminescence assay may appraise the effectiveness of monitoring surgical hand antisepsis rapidly and is lower cost, which can promote application on scene monitoring.

  20. Status Quo of Twice Supplying Water for High Building and Antisepsis Effect of MF-2 Disinfector%高层建筑二次供水的现状及MF-2消毒剂的消毒效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆增; 王金兰


    Objective To discuss status quo of twice supplying water for high building and validateantisepsis effect of MF - 2 disinfector. Methods By field test and searching reference, discussing thequestions of above - describe. According to state prescriptive method for disinfecting drinking water, vali-dating the antisepsis effect of disinfecting twice supplying water. Results Currently, establishment fortwice supplying water and the quality of the supplying water has some questions. According to the qualityof twice supplying water, acceding to some MF - 2 disinfector to disinfect, it will achieve the standard ofdrinking water. Conclusion Circumstance management department and sanitation supervise departmentshould smeliorate and manage the quality of twice supplying water, and insure the safety of using drinkingwater. So MF - 2 disinfector may replace contain chlorin disinfector to disinfect twice supplying water.

  1. Research progress in advancing sorbic acid and potassium sorbate's effect in antisepsis%提高山梨酸及钾盐防腐效果的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁文慧; 陆利霞; 熊晓辉


    Sorbic acid has been recognized so far as one kind of the best antiseptic agents that can participate in normal metabolism of human body.Sorbic acid is well-known food preservative,but it has little preservative effect in the neutral condition and it also has poor water solubility.Potassium sorbate has good water solubility,but it can not turn into sorbic acid molecular which has preservative effect in the acid condition.The study on advancing sorbic acid and potassium sorbate's effect in antisepsis was summarized.%山梨酸在人体内能参加正常的新陈代谢,是迄今为止国际公认最好的食品防腐剂之一。山梨酸是酸性防腐剂,不易溶于水,且在中性条件下,抑菌效果差;而常用的山梨酸钾在水中的溶解性好,但在酸性条件下很难形成真正具有抑菌作用的山梨酸分子。本文主要介绍了目前国内外对提高山梨酸及钾盐防腐效果的研究进展。

  2. Revisão sistemática sobre antissepsia cirúrgica das mãos com preparação alcoólica em comparação aos produtos tradicionais Revisión sistemática sobre antisepsia quirúrgica de manos con preparación alcohólica comparada a productos tradicionales A systematic review of surgical hand antisepsis utilizing an alcohol preparation compared to traditional products

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    Karen de Jesus Gonçalves


    soporte a la seguridad de las preparaciones alcohólicas para la antisepsia quirúrgica de las manos.Surgical hand antisepsis aims at preventing surgical site infections, an important cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality and escalating hospital costs. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of alcohol preparations with traditional surgical hand antisepsis products by means of a systematic review of the literature. Primary and secondary studies were included, considering the microbial count or surgical site infection rates as outcomes. The search was performed on the BVS Portal, PubMed, Ask and MEDLINE. Twenty-five studies were selected (two systematic reviews, nineteen experimental and four cohort studies. The alcohol preparations promoted a microbial reduction equal to and/or greater than traditional products in 17 studies, and a lesser reduction in four studies; similar surgical site infection rates were identified. Therefore, there is scientific evidence that support the safety of alcohol preparations for surgical hand antisepsis.

  3. Effect of biomechanical preparation and calcium hydroxide pastes on the antisepsis of root canal systems in dogs Ação do preparo biomecânico e de pastas à base de hidróxido de cálcio na anti-sepsia do sistema de canais radiculares de cães

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    Janir Alves Soares


    Full Text Available In the endodontic treatment of root canals with necrotic pulps associated with periapical radiolucent areas, one of the main objectives of treatment consists in eliminating the microorganisms spread throughout the ramifications of the root canal system. The scope of this study was to evaluate the antiseptic efficacy of biomechanical preparation and two calcium hydroxide-based pastes, in dogs' teeth with experimentally induced chronic periapical lesions. After initial microbiological sampling, instrumentation of the root canals was undertaken using the conventional technique, using K type files used in conjunction with a solution of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. After ninety-six hours, further microbiological sampling was undertaken and Calen/CPMC or Calasept pastes were applied for 15 and 30 days. Ninety six hours after the removal of the medication, the third microbiological sampling was undertaken and finally histomicrobiological analysis followed using Brown & Brenn staining. The results were analyzed using the Kruskall-Wallis test, with a level of significance established at 5% (p0.05, characterized by an elevated incidence of cocci, bacilli and filaments, predominantly gram-positive, in root canals, secondary canals and accessories, apical cementoplasts and dentinal tubules, but with a low incidence of microorganisms in areas of cementum resorption and the periapical lesion. The biomechanical preparation and intracanal dressing based on calcium hydroxide were important in the antisepsis of the root canal; however, both procedures did not produce significant changes in the microbiological aspects of the root canal system.No tratamento endodôntico dos canais radiculares com polpa necrótica associados à áreas radiolúcidas periapicais, um dos principais objetivos consiste em eliminar os microrganismos situados em todo o sistema de ramificações. Por conseguinte, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia anti-séptica do preparo

  4. Effect of rotary instrumentation and of the association of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on the antisepsis of the root canal system in dogs Efeito da instrumentação automatizada e da associação hidróxido de cálcio e clorexidina na anti-sepsia de canais radiculares de cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janir Alves Soares


    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the antisepsis of the root canal system (RCS and periapical region (PR provided by rotary instrumentation associated with chlorhexidine + calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicament. Chronic periapical lesions were induced in 26 pre-molar roots in two dogs. After microbiological sampling, automatic instrumentation using the Profile system and irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution, with a final rinse of 14.3% EDTA followed by profuse irrigation with physiological saline were carried out in 18 root canals. After drying the canals, a paste based on calcium hydroxide associated with a 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution was placed inside them. After 21 days, the medication was removed, leaving the root canals empty and coronally sealed. After 96 hours, a final microbiological sample was obtained, followed by histomicrobiological processing by the Brown & Brenn method. Eight untreated root canals represented the control group (C-G. Based on the Mann-Whitney test at a confidence level of 5% (p Este estudo objetivou avaliar a anti-sepsia do sistema de canais radiculares (SCR e da região periapical (RP proporcionada pela instrumentação automatizada associada a medicação intracanal à base de hidróxido de cálcio + clorexidina. Lesões periapicais crônicas foram induzidas em 26 raízes de pré-molares de dois cães. Após amostragem microbiológica, procedeu-se à instrumentação automatizada de 18 canais radiculares (CR utilizando-se o sistema Profile e a solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25%, com irrigação final com EDTA a 14,3%, seguida de irrigação profusa com soro fisiológico. Após se secarem os canais, foi colocada em seu interior uma pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio P.A. associada à solução de digluconato de clorexidina a 2%. Transcorridos 21 dias, removeu-se a medicação, deixando-se os CR vazios e selados coronariamente. Após 96 horas, obteve-se a amostra microbiol

  5. Experimental evaluation of chlorhexidine gluconate for ocular antisepsis.


    Hamill, M B; Osato, M S; Wilhelmus, K R


    Chlorhexidine gluconate is a bisguanide germicide currently available with 70% isopropanol (Hibistat, Hibitane) or a detergent (Hibiclens, Hibiscrub) for preoperative skin preparation. As these solvents are toxic to the cornea, we investigated the safety and efficacy of aqueous chlorhexidine solutions for ophthalmic use. Chlorhexidine in Tris-glycine buffer was evaluated for retardation of epithelial regeneration after experimental corneal abrasion in rabbits. Irrigant concentrations of 2.0 a...

  6. 现代消毒学及其进展%Mordern antisepsis and its progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    一个独立学科的形成必须具备三个基本条件:(1)有一部奠基专著;(2)有一家专业杂志;(3)有一批专业队伍。1977年美国的BlockSS出版了(Disinfection,Sterilization and Preservation)(消毒,灭茵和保存),这部书详细介绍了消毒灭茵和保存的理论和技术,提出了现代消毒学概念,为国际现代消毒学科的建立奠了基。在我国,1986年薛广波主编出版了我国第一部消毒学专著《实用消毒学》,这部90万字的著作首次全面系统地阐述了传统消毒学的理论和技术,为我国消毒学学科的建立奠了基。1984年,刘育京等创办了我国第一家消毒学杂志《消毒与灭菌》(后改为《中国消毒学杂志》),迄今为止,是我国唯一的专业的消毒学杂志。1985年王有森等受卫生部委托组织召开了“北京国际消毒会议”,此后在卫生部的领导下组织和发展了中国消毒学专业队伍。应该说,我国消毒学成为一个独立学科是在80年代中期。1992年我国学科分类上将消毒学列为一个独立的学科。2002年,薛广波主编出版了《现代消毒学》,这部240万字的专著首次详细阐述了现代消毒学的基本概念、研究内容和研究方法,将我国的传统消毒学推进到了和国际接轨的现代消毒学阶段。

  7. Effect of postmilking teat antisepsis on teat canal infections in lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Nickerson, S C; Watts, J L; Boddie, R L; Ray, C H


    Effects of a .18% iodophor teat dip and a fatty acid plus lactic acid teat dip on teat canal infections were studied in two separate trials under experimental challenge procedures using Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The iodophor teat dip was 90% effective in preventing new S. aureus teat canal infections and 95.6% effective in reducing progression of S. aureus teat canal infections to intramammary infections. The dip also reduced persistence of S. aureus teat canal colonizations from week to week by 94.4%. The fatty acid plus lactic acid dip had no effect on preventing S. aureus teat canal infections but reduced progression of S. aureus teat canal infections to intramammary infections by 43.8%. The fatty acid plus lactic acid dip also reduced the persistence of S. aureus teat canal infections by 39%. An insufficient number of Strep. agalactiae teat canal infections was detected in both trials for valid analyses. Neither dip had any effect on prevalence of naturally occurring, coagulase-negative staphylococcal teat canal infections or on teat canal infections by other organisms. PMID:2184176

  8. Antisepsis and Fresh-keeping Effects of Natamycin Coating Compounds Treatment on Red Global Grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling ZHOU; Meiying LIU; Xiaolin REN; Zhulian WU; Wei ZHANG


    The aim was to research fresh-keeping effects of natamycin on cold-pre- served grape. Red globe grapes were processed with compound coating liquid of chitosan with mass fraction at 1% and natamycin with mass fractions at 0.20% (T1), 0.40% (T2) and 0.60% (T3), respectively. Grapes processed with water (CK3) and 1% chitosan (CK2) were taken as control groups. Rotten rate, seed shattering rate, mass loss rate, respiratory intensity and related physiological quality in test and control groups were compared. The results indicated that respiratory intensity, mass loss rate, rotten rate and seed shattering rate in CK1 were all higher than those in CK2. In addition, T1, T2 and T3 were lower in the indices than CK1 and CK2, but still kept at a high level in fruit hardness. Furthermore, mass fractions of Vc and titratable acid declined more slowly in T1, T2 and T3, compared with CK1 and CK2. Natamycin better preserved grapes and prolonged storage period. In general, natamycin with mass fraction at 0.4% proved best in fresh-keeping.

  9. Comparison of Chlorhexidine and Tincture of Iodine for Skin Antisepsis in Preparation for Blood Sample Collection


    Barenfanger, Joan; Drake, Cheryl; Lawhorn, Jerry; Verhulst, Steven J.


    Rates of contamination of blood cultures obtained when skin was prepared with iodine tincture versus chlorhexidine were compared. For iodine tincture, the contamination rate was 2.7%; for chlorhexidine, it was 3.1%. The 0.41% difference is not statistically significant. Chlorhexidine has comparable effectiveness and is safer, cheaper, and preferred by staff, so it is an alternative to iodine tincture.

  10. Antisepsis of the Skin by Treatment with Tissue-Tolerable Plasma (TTP): Risk Assessment and Perspectives (United States)

    Lademann, Jürgen; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Meinke, Martina C.; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Kramer, Axel; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Lademann, Olaf

    The application of tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) is well suited for ­disinfection of living tissue. In particular, when treating chronic wounds, it has ­several advantages in comparison to the classical application of antiseptics, which do not penetrate sufficiently into the tissue or inhibit wound regeneration. The mode of action of the plasma is mainly based on synergetic effects between temperature increase and the formation of free radicals, which destroy the bacteria and fungi.

  11. 喷砂技术在火电厂防腐工程中的应用%Application of Sandblast Technology for Antisepsis Projec tin Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立冬; 孙艳芬


    对西柏坡电厂三期扩建工程防腐除锈施工中大量使用的喷砂技术进行了介绍,并对施工中存在的问题和解决方案进行了陈述,对施工经验进行了总结, 并对今后的施工工作提出了建议.

  12. An anti-sepsis monomer, 2',5,6',7-tetrahydroxyflavanonol (THF), identified from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi neutralizes lipopolysaccharide in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Fu, Jianfeng; Cao, Hongwei; Wang, Ning; Zheng, Xinchun; Lu, Yongling; Liu, Xin; Yang, Dong; Li, Bin; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong


    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a known trigger in the pathogenesis of sepsis, lipid A being the toxic component. One of several adjuvant therapeutic approaches for severe sepsis is currently focusing on the neutralization of LPS. In order to obtain the components from traditional Chinese herbs that can neutralize the endotoxin, aqueous extractions of twelve herbs were tested using affinity biosensor technology. From twelve herbs, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang Qin) found to possess high lipid A-binding abilities, and was selected in subsequent experiments. After subjected to macroporous adsorptive resins and HPLC, we obtained 2',5,6',7-tetrahydroxyflavanonol (THF) from S. baicalensis Georgi under the direction of neutralization of LPS and reducing proinflammatory cytokines. In vitro, THF directly bound to LPS and neutralized its activity. THF not only down-regulated TNF-alpha mRNA expression but also decreased TNF-alpha and IL-6 release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. THF-mediated inhibition on proinflammatory cytokine release is probably associated with downregulation of LPS-induced TLR4 mRNA augmentation. In vivo, THF could significantly protect mice against a lethal challenge with heat-killed E. coli 35218 (E. coli 35218) in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased the plasma LPS level in endotoxemia mice. These findings provide compelling evidence that THF may be an important potential drug for sepsis treatment. Considering the inhibitory effects of THF on LPS-induced cytokine release are unlikely due to its nonspecific cellular toxicity, THF should be considered as a safe putative candidate for development as a drug for sepsis treatment. PMID:18755299

  13. Detecting and Renovation of Antisepsis Tier for City Housing Estate Gas Steel Buries Field Pipelines%城市小区天然气钢质埋地管道防腐层检测与修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李渊平; 袁洪波; 陆军全



  14. Design of Ventilation and Dust Removal for Large Structures of Antisepsis Sandblast(Bepowder) Plant%大型构件防腐喷砂(涂)车间通风除尘设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈开岩; 李江; 李钢



  15. 功能性玻璃钢在烟气排放控制工程中的应用%Application of Functional Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics in Flue Gas Emission Control Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺朝铸; 赵丰; 吴斐; 许凯奇; 黄楠


    The paper presents the several common use equipment antisepsis programs in lfue gas emission control en-gineering of power plant;explicates the development on the compound material antisepsis program of functional glass ifber reinforced plastics and application prospect in the antisepsis ifeld of wet lfue gas.%介绍了火电厂烟气排放控制工程中几种常用的设备防腐方案,阐述了功能性玻璃钢复合材料防腐方案的发展和在湿烟气防腐领域的应用前景。

  16. O gluconato de clorexidina ou o álcool-iodo-álcool na anti-sepsia de campos operatórios em cães Chlorhexidine gluconate or alcohol-iodine-alcohol in the antisepsis of surgical area in dogs


    Décio Adair Rebellatto da Silva; Mateus Matiuzzi da Costa; Agueda Castagna de Vargas; Marcelo Meller Alievi; João Eduardo Wallau Schossler; Tatiana Resende da Silva


    Foi comparada a efetividade da anti-sepsia de sítios operatórios em vinte e quatro animais, subdivididos em três grupos, utilizando água destilada (grupo controle), álcool-iodo-álcool (grupo I) e gluconato de clorexidina (grupo II). As amostras foram coletadas através de swab da pele, depois da tricotomia (T0), após anti-sepsia (T1) e duas horas após o uso do anti-séptico (T2), e submetidas à contagem de Unidades Formadoras de Colônia(UFC)/ml. Nos três grupos, ocorreu crescimento bacteriano e...

  17. Prospective evaluation of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate as an antiseptic agent for blood donor arm preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shah


    Full Text Available Aim: A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the use of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate (2% AlcCHG in donor arm preparation, to monitor the contamination rate of blood products after the collection and to find incidence of transfusion associated bacteremia. Settings and Design: Optimal skin antisepsis of the phlebotomy site is essential to minimize the risk of contamination. Food and Drug Administration (FDA in India has recommended antisepsis with three-step regimen of spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit for donor arm antisepsis, but not with chlorhexidine, which is recommended by many other authors. Material and Methods: A total of 795 donors were studied from July 2011 to January 2012. Spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit was used for 398 donors and 2% AlcCHG was used for 397 donors with the two-step method for arm antisepsis. Swabs were collected before and after use of antiseptic agents for all the donors. All the blood products collected from donors with growth in post-antisepsis swabs were cultured. A total of 123 various blood products were cultured irrespective of the method and result of antisepsis was observed. A total of seven patients had mild transfusion reaction. The transfused blood products, blood and urine specimen of the patients who had transfusion reaction were also cultured. Results: Seven donors out of 398 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit protocol and three donors out of 397 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with 2% AlcCHG protocol. All blood products collected from donors who had growth in post-antisepsis swabs when cultured had no growth. There was no contamination of blood products. Conclusions: Two percent (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate with two-step protocol can be used as an antiseptic agent for donor arm preparation without considerable cost difference. It is at par with spirit 10% povidone iodine spirit protocol as suggested by FDA in India

  18. Nanostructure formation enhances the activity of LPS-neutralizing peptides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas-Moruno, C.; Cascales, L.; Cruz, L.J.; Mora, P.; Perez-Paya, E.; Albericio, F.


    Peptides that interact with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can provide the basis for the development of new antisepsis agents. In this work, several LPS-neutralizing acyl peptides derived from LALF, BPI, and SAP were prepared, structurally characterized, and biologically evaluated. In all cases, peptides

  19. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia


    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…


    Santacatalina Mas, Roser; Peix Sagues, Ma Teresa; Miranda Salmerón, Josep; Claramunt Jofre, Marta; López López, Alba; Salas Marco, Elena


    The importance of protocols for preoperative antisepsis of the hands is given by the risk of transferring bacteria from the hands of the surgical team to the patient during surgery and it is relationship with infection of surgical wound site (SSI). Careful surgical scrub reduces the number of bacteria on the skin, but does not eliminate them completely, remaining transient microorganisms on hands after the surgical scrub. There fore if micropuncture in surgical gloves occurs, the correct preoperative preparation of hands and double gloving will be essential to reduce the risk of bacterial transmission to patients. The protocols for surgical hand antisepsis are two: Surgical scrub with antiseptic soap (hand scrubbing). Surgical scrub by rubbing alcohol (handrubbing). The hand antisepsis by rubbing with an alcohol solution has proved to be significantly more effective compared to soap solutions. We must also see that in surgical hand antisepsis with soap, you must rinse them with water. And often hospitals' taps and keys are contaminated by Pseudomonas spp., including P. aeuinosa. PMID:27101645

  1. Povidone-iodine in the treatment of burn patients. (United States)

    Zellner, P R; Bugyi, S


    The improvement in infusion therapy of burn patients in the last decades has led to a marked reduction of the early mortality rate and to an increase in the importance of severe wound infection and septicaemia. For the control of infection, detailed bacteriological monitoring is recommended. The main therapeutic fields for prevention of infection are: immunotherapy, antisepsis, aseptic techniques, and rapid restoration of the destroyed body surface. The most important part of antisepsis in burns is topical treatment. The good bacteriological and clinical results with povidone-iodine (PVP-I), in combination with open treatment are described. A possible disadvantage of this therapy was the extensive iodine resorption. However, no disorders of thyroid function were revealed, and the TRH test indicated no abnormal reactions of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. The high serum and urine iodine levels returned rapidly to normal after discontinuing the PVP-I application.

  2. Extremely high prevalence of antiseptic resistant Quaternary Ammonium Compound E gene among clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Malaysia


    Babaei, Mohammad Reza; Sulong, Anita; Hamat, Rukman Awang; Nordin, Syafinaz Amin; Neela, Vasantha Kumari


    Background Antiseptics are commonly used for the management of MDR (multiple drug resistance) pathogens in hospitals. They play crucial roles in the infection control practices. Antiseptics are often used for skin antisepsis, gauze dressing, preparation of anatomical sites for surgical procedure, hand sterilization before in contact with an infected person, before an invasive procedure and as surgical scrub. Methods We screened 122 multiple drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) isola...

  3. Antibacterial effects on dry-fast and traditional water-based surgical scrubbing methods: a two-time points experimental study. (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Hwa; Chou, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Jui-Chen; Tang, Ya-Fen; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Chien, Li-Yu


    This study determined the in-use effects of dry-fast and traditional hand-washing surgical scrubs among operating room staff members. This is a static group comparison study with purposive sampling. A total of 156 staff members were recruited in an operating room in a medical center located in southern Taiwan. The participants were divided into traditional and dry-fast hand-washing groups. Microbial counts were measured right after the two groups finished surgical scrubbing and at the completion of surgery. The results showed that the use of dry-fast antisepsis has a better persistent effect (P = 0.001), more nurses chose dry-fast antisepsis than surgeons (P = 0.012), and the post-operation number of colonies for nurses was significantly higher than that for surgeons (P = 0.003). Operating room nurses are long-term and frequent users of antibacterial agents, and their requirement of skin protection is higher. The dry-fast technique has the advantage of being less irritating to the skin and less time consuming; therefore, brush-free and dry-fast antisepsis is recommended. PMID:23992610

  4. Antoni Christian Bryk (1820-1881) - professor of forensic medicine at Jagiellonian University (1852-1860), and director of the surgical clinic of Jagiellonian University in Cracow (1860-1881). (United States)

    Zajączkowski, Tadeusz


    scientific discipline. In the 19th century two milestones revolutionised surgery: the development of narcosis, which enabled painless surgery, and the introduction of antisepsis and asepsis. The author presents the beginnings of academic surgery in Cracow. Its pioneer surgeons are presented. Extensive research was undertaken to collect the literature and documents in Polish, Austrian and German archives and libraries in order to prepare this study. Biographical details of the director of the Surgical Clinic, Prof. Antoni Bryk, are provided. He was the first person in Poland to introduce antisepsis and galvanocautery as routine procedures in the Cracow Clinic. The introduction of antisepsis contributed to a reduction in infection during surgery, and a reduction in postoperative mortality in Cracow Surgical Clinic. In this way Professor Bryk became the first Polish surgeon to apply Lister's antiseptic method in the treatment of wounds. Thus enlarged, the scope of surgery for intracranial, bone and other procedures became routine. Surgery is the oldest discipline in medicine. Poland's first university chair of surgery was established in the 18th century. Surgery, which until then had been the domain of barbers and bath house attendants, became a clinical, PMID:25518102

  5. [Johannes Anton von Mikulicz-Radecki (1850-1905). His contributions to the development of urology]. (United States)

    Zajaczkowski, T; Zamann, A M


    On June 14, 1905, Johann Anton von Mikulicz-Radecki, one of the most famous surgeons of the time, died. He was a disciple of famous Theodor Billroth of Vienna and the teacher of Ferdinand Sauerbruch in Breslau. Mikulicz-Radecki's merits in the field of the history of medicine are based on his achievements in developing the system of antisepsis and asepsis. He also devoted himself to urological surgery, and his name is linked with diseases, operations, and construction of new medical instruments. Mikulicz-Radecki created two surgical schools, one in Cracow and a second one in Breslau, where he worked for over 15 years until his death.

  6. Mise au point et évaluation d'une solution hydro-alcoolique colorée de chlorhexidine


    Malriq, Alexia; Monset, A.; Baudoin, Amandine; Renaud, Julie; Salmon, D.; Pirot, Fabrice; Pivot, Christine


    Les solutions hydro alcooliques (70%) de chlorhexidine (0,5%) sont couramment utilisées pour l'antisepsie avant intervention chirurgicale. Cependant, il a été rapporté une instabilité du colorant (azorubine, E122) lors du stockage prolongé à de faibles températures. Dans ce travail, nous avons développé une nouvelle formulation d'une solution hydro alcoolique colorée de chlorhexidine plus stable à faible température. Par ailleurs, une étude préliminaire de biodisponibilité cutanée du colorant...

  7. Committee Opinion No. 571: Solutions for surgical preparation of the vagina. (United States)


    Currently, only povidone-iodine preparations are approved for vaginal surgical-site antisepsis. However, there are compelling reasons to consider chlorhexidine gluconate solutions for off-label use in surgical preparation of the vagina, especially in women with allergies to iodine. Although chlorhexidine gluconate solutions with high concentrations of alcohol are contraindicated for surgical preparation of the vagina, solutions with low concentrations of alcohol (eg, 4%) are both safe and effective for off-label use as vaginal surgical preparations and may be used as an alternative to iodine-based preparations in cases of allergy or when preferred by the surgeon. PMID:23963423

  8. Development of bacterial resistance to biocides and antimicrobial agents as a consequence of biocide usage


    Seier-Petersen, Maria Amalie; Ussery, David; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Agersø, Yvonne


    Biocider er kemiske stoffer med antimikrobielle egenskaber og bruges i vid udstrækning til desinfektion, antisepsis og til konservering. Biocider er blevet anvendt i århundreder til eksempelvis rensning af sår med vin, eddike eller honning og til saltning af fisk og kød på grund af tidlige empiriske tilgange. I dag, bliver store mængder af biocider anvendt til desinfektion for at opnå et tilfredsstillende niveau af hygiejne i forskellige miljøer og anvendelsen af biocider er blevet en integre...

  9. Study Progress of FRP Rebars in Concrete Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Weichen


    @@ Fiber reinforced plastics ( i. e. FRP ) rebars are one kind of high-performance composite materials used in concrete structures of civil engineering.Compared with ordinary steel rebars, FRP rebars have the characteristics of high tensile strength, antisepsis, light weight, low elastics modulus and low shear strength, et al. At present time, FRP rebars have been studied and applied in Europe,America and Japan. Since 2000, in the Fund of NSFC, we systematically carried out experimental and theoretical studies on FRP rebars. The progress of our research is briefly introduced in this paper.

  10. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HIPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. (United States)

    Boyce, John M; Pittet, Didier


    The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health-care settings. This report reviews studies published since the 1985 CDC guideline (Garner JS, Favero MS. CDC guideline for handwashing and hospital environmental control, 1985. Infect Control 1986;7:231-43) and the 1995 APIC guideline (Larson EL, APIC Guidelines Committee. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:251-69) were issued and provides an in-depth review of hand-hygiene practices of HCWs, levels of adherence of personnel to recommended handwashing practices, and factors adversely affecting adherence. New studies of the in vivo efficacy of alcohol-based hand rubs and the low incidence of dermatitis associated with their use are reviewed. Recent studies demonstrating the value of multidisciplinary hand-hygiene promotion programs and the potential role of alcohol-based hand rubs in improving hand-hygiene practices are summarized. Recommendations concerning related issues (e.g., the use of surgical hand antiseptics, hand lotions or creams, and wearing of artificial fingernails) are also included. PMID:12461507

  11. A historical perspective: infection from cadaveric dissection from the 18th to 20th centuries. (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Benninger, Brion; Agutter, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane


    Today, the study of human anatomy utilizing the ultimate study guide, the cadaver, is relatively safe. In the past, however, human dissection was dangerous. Prior to the germ theory, antibiotics, and the use of gloves, cadavers were often life threatening to dissectors including both the teacher and the student. Medical students who graduated in the United States before 1880 were unlikely to practice antisepsis in the dissecting room. In the present article, we review human cadaveric dissection in Europe and the United States primarily from the 1700s to the early 1900s in regard to its potential for transmission of infection to the dissector. A brief account of the infectious hazards of human cadavers in general and those of cadavers used for dissection in particular is given.

  12. 脓毒症治疗——挑战与机遇并存%Sepsis treatment——Challenge and chance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红; 刘鑫; 郑江


    Sepsis-related organ dysfunction and shock are primary causes of death in critical illness, which is triggered by pathogen associated molecules patterns (PAMPs) and progresses into life threatening stages as a result of systemic dysfunction in inflammatory reactions, coagulation cascades and immune responses. Advances in our understanding of pathogenesis in sepsis prompt different kinds of anti-sepsis strategies. Unfortunately, there is no specific agent for sepsis except for recombinant human activated protein C, which is withdrawn because of its severe adverse effects. Therefore, it is significant to reevaluate the drugs in clinic and reconsider the strategies in preclinical or clinical studies. Herein, we discuss the therapeutic approaches for sepsis that affect different stages of sepsis progression, their efficacy in treating sepsis, and possible fields for discovering new agents for sepsis treatment.

  13. Lack of new antiinfective agents: Passing into the pre-antibiotic age?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus; Brandenburg; Tobias; Schürholz


    The lack of newly developed antibiotics, together with the increase in multi-resistance of relevant pathogenic bacteria in the last decades, represents an alarming signal for human health care worldwide. The number of severely infected persons increases not only in developing but also in highly industrialized countries. This relates in first line to the most severe form of a bacterial infection, sepsis and the septic shock syndrome, with high mortality on critical care units. No particular anti-sepsis drug is available, and the therapy with conventional antibiotics more and more fails to provide a survival benefit. Due to the fact that the pharmaceutical industry has withdrawn to a high degree from the development of anti-infectious agents, a huge challenge for health care is approaching in the 21 st century. In this article, these problems are outlined and possible alternatives are presented which may be helpful to solve the problem.

  14. Chlorhexidine: Patient Bathing and Infection Prevention. (United States)

    Abbas, Salma; Sastry, Sangeeta


    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. They are associated with a substantial increase in health care costs each year. Fortunately, many HAIs are preventable, and their eradication is a national priority. Chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing has been used as an infection prevention measure, either alone or bundled with other interventions, with mostly beneficial results. The recent surge in its use as an agent of choice for skin antisepsis has lead to concerns over emerging resistance among microorganisms. Moreover, compliance with CHG-bathing protocols is not routinely monitored. Policies developed to determine the best infection prevention practice must consider that a "one-size-fits-all" strategy may lead to the selection of CHG-tolerant microorganisms, thereby emphasizing the need for more robust guidelines and additional studies on the role of chlorhexidine bathing for the prevention of HAIs.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建华; 韩舞鹰


    The preparation method of ClO2, its some present products and application are introduced in this paper. Its preparation methods mainly include chemical and electrolysis methods, and their raw materials are mainly sodium chlorate, sodium chlorite and table salt. The present chloride dioxide products are mainly the stable ClO2 aqueous solution and solid chloride dioxide; the solid chloride dioxide has adsorbing type, gelatifying type and mono-packing type etc. due to different preparation technique. They are extensively applied to the aspects of disinfection, sterilization, algue removal, pulp-bleaching, air purification, food antisepsis and retaining freshness etc. of drinking water, industrial wastewater, hospital sewage, industrial cycle cooling water, fowl slaughter, indoor hygiene, beer production and aquiculture etc.%本文详细地介绍了二氧化氯的制备方法和现有的几种二氧化氯制品及其应用。

  16. 影响酱腌菜质量的因素及防腐应注意的问题探讨%Investigation on factors affecting the quality of pickles and the main issues for corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this paper, a variety of pickled vegetables production technology was introduced, some of the major factors that affect the quality of pickles, clear links should be noted in the production process, proposed method to stablity the quality of pickles, the insights for pickle product's antiseps.All these has some significance on pickles production processing, storage and antisepsis.%文中对酱腌菜生产的多种工艺作了介绍,提出了影响酱腌菜质量的一些主要因素,明确了生产过程中应注意的环节,提出了稳定酱腌菜质量的方法,对酱腌菜产品的防腐问题提出了见解.对酱腌菜的生产加工、储存、防腐有一定的指导意义.

  17. A case report of anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine during urinary catheterisation. (United States)

    Noel, J; Temple, A; Laycock, G J A


    Chlorhexidine gluconate is a chemical antiseptic that is effective against Gram positive and negative bacteria and on certain viruses and fungi. A bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic agent, this cationic drug is absorbed on to negatively charged cell surfaces of organisms, disrupting the cell membrane, which results in increased permeability. Its use is mainly topical as a surgical hand antisepsis, site preparation/cleansing and for pre-genitourinary procedures such as urethral catheterisation. Like any drug, caution should be employed with its use as hypersensitivity reactions are being documented increasingly in the medical literature. In the following case, we present a patient who was catheterised with the chlorhexidine containing Instillagel(®) (CliniMed, High Wycombe, UK), prior to undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery.

  18. Gastroschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Arleny Pérez Mayo


    Full Text Available This is a case of a neonate treated because of gastroschisis in San Pedro Necta National Hospital in Huehuetenango Department, Guatemala. As there was no abdominal echography and there were viscera out of the cavity, including the stomach and the small and large intestines, an urgent surgical intervention was carried out during the first hour after birth. A careful preoperative process was carried out which included skin local antisepsis and the administration of amikacin and metronidazole as the available prophylactic antibiotic treatment. The surgical technique consisted of a primary closure of the abdominal wall defect and the return of the intestines to the abdominal cavity. No complications were reported and the hospital stay lasted 14 days.

  19. Chlorhexidine--pharmacology and clinical applications. (United States)

    Lim, K-S; Kam, P C A


    Chlorhexidine is a widely used skin antisepsis preparation and is an ingredient in toothpaste and mouthwash. It is an especially effective antiseptic when combined with alcohol. Its antimicrobial effects persist because it is binds strongly to proteins in the skin and mucosa, making it an effective antiseptic ingredient for handwashing, skin preparation for surgery and the placement of intravascular access. Catheters impregnated with chlorhexidine and antimicrobial agents can reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Contact dermatitis related to chlorhexidine is not common in health care workers. The incidence of contact dermatitis to chlorhexidine in atopic patients is approximately 2.5 to 5.4%. Acute hypersensitivity reactions to chlorhexidine are often not recognised and therefore may be underreported. This review discusses the pharmacology, microbiology, clinical applications and adverse effects of chlorhexidine.

  20. Identification of a new anti-LPS agent, geniposide, from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, and its ability of direct binding and neutralization of lipopolysaccharide in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Zheng, Xinchuan; Yang, Dong; Liu, Xin; Wang, Ning; Li, Bin; Cao, Hongwei; Lu, Yongling; Wei, Guo; Zhou, Hong; Zheng, Jiang


    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS/endotoxin) is a key pathogen recognition molecule for sepsis. Currently, one of the therapeutic approaches for severe sepsis is focusing on the neutralization of LPS, and clinical trials have shown a lot of traditional Chinese herbs possess anti-sepsis function. Herein, to elucidate the bioactive components of traditional Chinese herbs that can neutralize LPS, the lipid A-binding abilities of sixty herbs were tested using affinity biosensor technology. The aqueous extract of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, traditionally used to treat inflammation in Asian countries for centuries, was further investigated. Subsequently, a monomer, identified as geniposide, was isolated. In vitro, geniposide was found to directly bind LPS and neutralize LPS. It dose-dependently inhibited cytokines release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS without affecting the cell viability, and inhibited TNF-α mRNA expression up-regulated by LPS. However, geniposide did not decrease TNF-α release induced by CpG DNA, Poly I:C or IL-1β. Significantly, geniposide dose-dependently down-regulated TLR4 mRNA expression up-regulated by LPS, and suppressed the phosphorylations of p38 MAKP induced by LPS but not by IL-1β. In vivo, geniposide (40mg/kg) could significantly protect mice challenge with lethal heat-killed E. coli, and dose-dependently decreased the level of serum endotoxin which was tightly associated with the cytokine levels in endotoxemia mice. In summary, we successfully isolated geniposide from G. jasminoides Ellis. Geniposide directly bound LPS and neutralized LPS in vitro, and significantly protected sepsis model mice. Therefore, geniposide could be as a useful lead compound for anti-sepsis drug development. PMID:20655404

  1. A family of helminth molecules that modulate innate cell responses via molecular mimicry of host antimicrobial peptides. (United States)

    Robinson, Mark W; Donnelly, Sheila; Hutchinson, Andrew T; To, Joyce; Taylor, Nicole L; Norton, Raymond S; Perugini, Matthew A; Dalton, John P


    Over the last decade a significant number of studies have highlighted the central role of host antimicrobial (or defence) peptides in modulating the response of innate immune cells to pathogen-associated ligands. In humans, the most widely studied antimicrobial peptide is LL-37, a 37-residue peptide containing an amphipathic helix that is released via proteolytic cleavage of the precursor protein CAP18. Owing to its ability to protect against lethal endotoxaemia and clinically-relevant bacterial infections, LL-37 and its derivatives are seen as attractive candidates for anti-sepsis therapies. We have identified a novel family of molecules secreted by parasitic helminths (helminth defence molecules; HDMs) that exhibit similar biochemical and functional characteristics to human defence peptides, particularly CAP18. The HDM secreted by Fasciola hepatica (FhHDM-1) adopts a predominantly α-helical structure in solution. Processing of FhHDM-1 by F. hepatica cathepsin L1 releases a 34-residue C-terminal fragment containing a conserved amphipathic helix. This is analogous to the proteolytic processing of CAP18 to release LL-37, which modulates innate cell activation by classical toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that full-length recombinant FhHDM-1 and a peptide analogue of the amphipathic C-terminus bind directly to LPS in a concentration-dependent manner, reducing its interaction with both LPS-binding protein (LBP) and the surface of macrophages. Furthermore, FhHDM-1 and the amphipathic C-terminal peptide protect mice against LPS-induced inflammation by significantly reducing the release of inflammatory mediators from macrophages. We propose that HDMs, by mimicking the function of host defence peptides, represent a novel family of innate cell modulators with therapeutic potential in anti-sepsis treatments and prevention of inflammation.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊中奎; 郎娟; 夏国园


    二氧化氯(C102)作为一种高效化学消毒剂,能有效地杀灭或抑制病毒、细菌、真菌和寄生虫等各种病原体,在饮用水处理、食品保鲜防腐、废水处理、室内环境消毒、医疗设备和口腔科消毒等领域都具有广阔的应用前景.但是由于存在一些安全性问题,在一定程度上限制了C102推广应用.%Chlorine dioxide, as a chemical sanitizer, is highly effective for sterilizing or inhibiting many pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, so it illustrates a good prospect of application in drinking water treatment, food preservation, effluent disposal, disinfections of interior space and medical equipments, and antisepsis of medical activities in department of stomatology. To some degrees, it is restricted in application and extension for its security fla13:34 2012-7-25ws.

  3. Five millennia of wound care products--what is new? A literature review. (United States)

    Mouës, Chantal M; Heule, Freerk; Legerstee, Ron; Hovius, Steven E R


    The first wound an wound treatments were described five millennia ago. Since then, various principles of wound care have been passed on from generation to generation. In contrast to large numbers of general technological inventions over the last 100 years, progress beyond ancient wound care practices is a recent phenomenon. It is essential to know the historical aspects of wound treatment (both successes and failures) in order to continue this progress and provide future direction. A survey of the literature shows that concepts such as "laudable pus" persisted for hundreds of years and that lasting discoveries and meaningful progress did not occur until grand-scale manufacturing and marketing started. Landmarks such as understanding the principles of asepsis/antisepsis, fundamental cellular research findings, knowledge about antibiotics/antimicrobials, moist wound healing, and the chemical and physical processes of wound healing have provided the foundation to guide major developments in wound management, including available evidence-based guidelines. Although research regarding interaction of basic wound management principles remains limited, the combined efforts of global research and clinical groups predict a bright future for improved wound management. PMID:19359707

  4. Evaluation of antiseptic antiviral activity of chemical agents. (United States)

    Geller, Chloé; Finance, Chantal; Duval, Raphaël Emmanuel


    Antiviral antisepsis and disinfection are crucial for preventing the environmental spread of viral infections. Emerging viruses and associated diseases, as well as nosocomial viral infections, have become a real issue in medical fields, and there are very few efficient and specific treatments available to fight most of these infections. Another issue is the potential environmental resistance and spread of viral particles. Therefore, it is essential to properly evaluate the efficacy of antiseptics-disinfectants (ATS-D) on viruses. ATS-D antiviral activity is evaluated by (1) combining viruses and test product for an appropriately defined and precise contact time, (2) neutralizing product activity, and (3) estimating the loss of viral infectivity. A germicide can be considered to have an efficient ATS-D antiviral activity if it induces a >3 or >4 log(10) reduction (American and European regulatory agency requirements, respectively) in viral titers in a defined contact time. This unit describes a global methodology for evaluating chemical ATS-D antiviral activity.

  5. Antimicrobial Analysis of an Antiseptic Made from Ethanol Crude Extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora in Wistar Rats against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Honório Lins Bernardo


    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical site infection remains a challenge for hospital infection control, especially when it relates to skin antisepsis in the surgical site. Objective. To analyze the antimicrobial activity in vivo of an antiseptic from ethanol crude extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods. Agar drilling and minimal inhibitory tests were conducted for in vitro evaluation. In the in vivo bioassay were used Wistar rats and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990. Statistical analysis was performed through variance analysis and Scott-Knott cluster test at 5% probability and significance level. Results. In the in vitro, ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum and Eugenia uniflora and their combination showed the best antimicrobial potential against S. epidermidis and S. aureus. In the in vivo bioassay against S. epidermidis, there was no statistically significant difference between the tested product and the patterns used after five minutes of applying the product. Conclusion. The results indicate that the originated product is an antiseptic alternative source against S. epidermidis compared to chlorhexidine gluconate. It is suggested that further researches are to be conducted in different concentrations of the test product, evaluating its effectiveness and operational costs.

  6. The snake as the symbol of medicine, toxicology and toxinology. (United States)

    Ramoutsaki, I A; Haniotakis, S; Tsatsakis, A M


    We investigated the meaning and the roots of the snake's usage as a symbol of medicine, the medical profession, toxicology and toxinology by examining mythological, archeological data and a variety of texts from the ancient Greek world. The snake figure was associated with Asclepios, the ancient Greek God of medicine, and possessed benevolent properties. It was believed to be able to cure a patient or a wounded person just by touch. The snake is also connected with pharmacology and antisepsis, as snakes possess an antivenom against their own poison. The snake is related to sciences associated with poison and death, such as toxicology and toxinology, and it also implies a metaphysical idea. It is connected with the underworld, not only because it crawls on the ground, but because it can bring death, connecting the upper with the underground world. The ability of the snake to shed its skin has been associated with the circle of life, and the renaissance spirit also, ever since early Hellenic antiquity. Consequently, as a symbol of the modern medical profession, toxicology and toxinology, the snake twisted around a stick or the snake beside a pharmapeutic cup, which also implies the use of medicines or even poison, has its roots in the ancient Mediterranean area as proven by the archeological data combined with literary references. Its benevolent as well as its poisonous properties could be paralleled by the similar properties of medicines.

  7. Medical and surgical care during the American Civil War, 1861–1865 (United States)


    This review describes medical and surgical care during the American Civil War. This era is often referred to in a negative way as the Middle Ages of medicine in the United States. Many misconceptions exist regarding the quality of care during the war. It is commonly believed that surgery was often done without anesthesia, that many unnecessary amputations were done, and that care was not state of the art for the times. None of these assertions is true. Physicians were practicing in an era before the germ theory of disease was established, before sterile technique and antisepsis were known, with very few effective medications, and often operating 48 to 72 hours with no sleep. Each side was woefully unprepared, in all aspects, for the extent of the war and misjudged the degree to which each would fight for their cause. Despite this, many medical advances and discoveries occurred as a result of the work of dedicated physicians on both sides of the conflict. PMID:27034545

  8. Medical and surgical care during the American Civil War, 1861-1865. (United States)

    Reilly, Robert F


    This review describes medical and surgical care during the American Civil War. This era is often referred to in a negative way as the Middle Ages of medicine in the United States. Many misconceptions exist regarding the quality of care during the war. It is commonly believed that surgery was often done without anesthesia, that many unnecessary amputations were done, and that care was not state of the art for the times. None of these assertions is true. Physicians were practicing in an era before the germ theory of disease was established, before sterile technique and antisepsis were known, with very few effective medications, and often operating 48 to 72 hours with no sleep. Each side was woefully unprepared, in all aspects, for the extent of the war and misjudged the degree to which each would fight for their cause. Despite this, many medical advances and discoveries occurred as a result of the work of dedicated physicians on both sides of the conflict. PMID:27034545

  9. Pasteur, Koch and American bacteriology. (United States)

    Gossel, P P


    This study traces American awareness of the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch from the 1860s to the 1890s. In the years before the Civil War, American interest in germ theories had appeared at times of epidemics and persisted to a limited extent among physician-microscopists. Discussions of Pasteur's work occurred primarily in the context of spontaneous generation and antisepsis. Few Americans imitated his work on immunology or studied with Pasteur, but his work on immunity influenced their faith in the potential of bacteriology as a solution to problems of infectious disease. Koch's discoveries of the bacterial agents of tuberculosis and cholera stimulated American medical and public health interest in bacteriology in a more practical way. Americans learned Koch's methods by taking his courses and imported them directly into their own laboratories. A context of enthusiasm for science, educational reform, and problems of infectious disease associated with urbanization and changes in agriculture aided the growth of bacteriology in the American context.

  10. History and evolution of surgical ethics: John Gregory to the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Namm, Jukes P; Siegler, Mark; Brander, Caroline; Kim, Tae Yeon; Lowe, Christian; Angelos, Peter


    As surgery grew to become a respected medical profession in the eighteenth century, medical ethics emerged as a response to the growing need to protect patients and maintain the public's trust in physicians. The early influences of John Gregory and Thomas Percival were instrumental in the formulation of patient-centered medical ethics. In the late nineteenth century, the modern surgical advances of anesthesia and antisepsis created the need for a discipline of ethics specific to surgery in order to confront new and evolving ethical issues. One of the founding initiatives of the American College of Surgeons in 1913 was to eliminate unethical practices such as fee-splitting and itinerant surgery. As surgery continued to advance in the era of solid organ transplantation and minimally invasive surgery in the latter half of the twentieth century, surgical innovation and conflict of interest have emerged as important ethical issues moving forward into the twenty-first century. Surgical ethics has evolved into a distinct branch of medical ethics, and the core of surgical ethics is the surgeon-patient relationship and the surgeon's responsibility to advance and protect the well-being of the patient. PMID:24763442

  11. Low temperature plasma biomedicine: A tutorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, David B., E-mail: [University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)


    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown to be potentially useful for surface and wound sterilization, antisepsis, bleeding cessation, wound healing, and cancer treatment, among other biomedical applications. This tutorial review summarizes the field, stressing the likely role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species created in these plasmas as the biologically and therapeutically active agents. Reactive species, including radicals and non-radical compounds, are generated naturally within the body and are now understood to be essential for normal biological functions. These species are known to be active agents in existing therapies for wound healing, infection control, and cancer treatment. But they are also observed at elevated levels in persons with many diseases and are associated with aging. The physical and chemical complexity of plasma medical devices and their associated biochemical effects makes the development of safe, effective plasma medical devices and procedures a challenge, but encouragingly rapid progress has been reported around the world in the last several years.

  12. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device infections: associated risk factors and prevention. (United States)

    Rohacek, Martin; Baddour, Larry M


    Infections of cardiovascular implantable electric devices (CIED) are a burden on patients and healthcare systems and should be prevented. The most frequent pathogens are coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus. The most important risk factors for CIED infections are diabetes mellitus, renal and heart failure, corticosteroid use, oral anticoagulation, fever within 24 hours before the procedure and leucocytosis, implantable cardioverter defibrillator compared with pacemaker, especially in the case of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, lack of antibiotic prophylaxis, and postoperative haematoma and other wound complications. Other important risk factors are history of prior procedures and previous CIED infections, number of leads, use of povidone-iodine compared with chlorhexidine-alcohol, and centres and operators with a low volume of implants. To prevent CIED infections, patients undergoing CIED procedures and appropriate devices should be carefully selected, and interventions should be performed by trained operators. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered, and skin antisepsis should be done with chlorhexidine-alcohol. Oral anticoagulation should be continued during CIED procedures in high-risk patients for thromboembolism, instead of bridging with heparin. Early reintervention in cases of haematoma or lead dislodgement should be avoided. The implementation of infection prevention programmes reduces infection rates. More randomised controlled studies are needed to evaluate prevention strategies, especially skin preparation and antibiotic prophylaxis with glycopeptides. PMID:26230056

  13. Surgery, sterilization and sterility. (United States)

    Green, V W


    The history of sterilization was not linked from the first with surgery. Surgery came first, fully 600 years before the principles of asepsis and anesthesia were even introduced in the middle of the 1800s. Also in the 1800s, the beginnings of thermal sterilization were being developed in the food industry. The basic principles of antisepsis and prevention of wound suppuration, including the destruction of germs on instruments, dressings, the hands of the surgeon and his assistants, and everything else in contact with the wound were clearly elucidated by Lister in the 1870s and remain the inviolate principles of surgical asepsis today. In general, the marriage between the surgeons and the sterilizers was a successful one; the major handicap to eternal bliss and harmony, however, was an incompatibility between the partners. As in many marriages, the partners made unwarranted demands upon each other, and became frustrated when these demands were unfulfilled. The field of surgical sterilization and surgical safety is less confused by technical inconsistencies than it is by semantic nightmares, such that we will never reach a universal definition of sterility. However, we do not really need a universal definition of sterility. Rather we should learn how to translate sterility tests in terms of the real world infections hazards.

  14. Relationship between hepatitis B and C virus prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana POPESCU


    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV are major causes for liver disease worldwide and potential causes for substantial morbidity and mortality in the future. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hepatitis C and B virus infection and to identify the associated risk factors of viral hepatitis. In our experiments we use as materials 107 patients, 48 men and 59 women, aged from 7 to 67 years old. The maximum incidence of HBV and HCV hepatitis was observed at patients aged between 40 to 60 and especially at people in urban areas. The number of cases with HCV was twice higher at men than at women, while for HVB the incidence was higher for men than for women. Risk factors for transmission of HCV and HBV were medical procedure in the high-risk group, while vertical or sexual transmission belongs to the low-risk patient group. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection is high, thus asepsis and antisepsis measures should be strictly followed.

  15. Modern pacemaker therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijatov Milan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Pacemakers are devices that modern medicine and cardiology cannot be imagined without. The technique of implantation comes to surgical procedure where all principles of asepsis and antisepsis have to be respected. Although some complications do happen, they are rather rare. Results. After the implantation of the device, the patient is not handicapped (unless the heart was additionally damaged. On the contrary, the patient returns to his work and functions normally within his family in most of the cases. The first medical appointment is scheduled a month after the implantation and the following are three and six months after. Types of devices. Today there are „new types of electrostimulation”- implantable cardioverter defibrillators and multisite electrostimulators. The former is implanted in patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death and the latter in patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block. Owing to these devices, the sudden cardiac death can be prevented successfully and the quality of a patient’s life is improved.

  16. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worthington Tony


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO and 70% (v/v isopropyl alcohol (IPA. The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The 2% (w/v CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v EO in combination with 2% (w/v CHG in 70% (v/v IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.

  17. On the significance of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation in dermatology. (United States)

    Müller, Cornelia Sigrid Lissi; Burgard, Barbara; Zimmerman, Monika; Vogt, Thomas; Pföhler, Claudia


    Methods used in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds undergo constant evolution, reevaluation, and innovation. While negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an established treatment modality, the combination of NPWT and instillation of normal saline as well as solutions with active antiseptic components for topical treatment of the wound bed represents a novel approach. The well-known effects of NPWT may thus be combined with those of local antisepsis. They include a decrease in wound area, induction of granulation tissue, and reduction in bacterial colonization. To date, studies have focused on NPWT with instillation for orthopedic/surgical indications, whereas clinical data in dermatosurgery is limited to case reports or small case series. There are as yet no randomized prospective studies investigating NPWT with instillation in the treatment of skin disorders. The goal of this review is to present the method of NPWT with instillation, to highlight its mode of action as well as possible complications and contraindications, and to review the recent literature. In summary, there is increasing evidence that both simple and complicated wounds may be effectively treated with NPWT with instillation, resulting in markedly accelerated tissue granulation and thus earlier defect closure. PMID:27509412

  18. Study on bacteriostatic activity of extracts of pepper%胡椒提取物抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 袁佳依; 陈文学


    Regarded E. Coli,Bacillus subtilis,Staphylococcus aureus,yeast,and Aspergillus niger as test germs, the MIC of five different organic phases from black pepper were compared with two commonly used preservatives. The result indicated that they all had some antisepsis effect for five test germs,and the chloroform phase extraction was the best,the potassium sorbate was the worst.%以大肠杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、酵母菌、黑曲霉五种菌为供试菌,比较了黑胡椒5种不同有机相提取物及2种常用防腐剂的最低抑菌浓度(MIC).结果表明,黑胡椒5种不同有机相的提取物及2种防腐剂对5种菌都有一定的抑菌效果,其中氯仿相提取物对以上5种常见菌种的抑菌效果最好,而山梨酸钾的抑菌效果最差.

  19. Development of the infant intestinal microbiome: A bird's eye view of a complex process. (United States)

    Meropol, Sharon B; Edwards, Amy


    Infants undergo profound shifts in colonizing intestinal microorganisms during their first year, especially during and after birth and during weaning. Microbiota are passed to infants through the placenta, during the vaginal birth process, and from early diet and other environmental exposures. These microbiota play an active role in the development of healthy infant metabolic and immunologic systems; profound shifts in microbiotal populations can be persistent, are associated with immediate alterations in gene expression, metabolic, immunologic, and neurologic function, and with downstream metabolic and immunologic consequences such as obesity, allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases, and potentially neurologic conditions. Many modern exposures, including Cesarean section, formula feeding, and antibiotics, have been associated with microbiome shifts, and also with downstream diseases; while many published studies considered exposures individually, a more comprehensive understanding of their interaction and impact will consider the entirety of the infant's environment. It is not possible, nor desirable, to return to a world without toilets, sewers, tap water, delivery room antisepsis, Cesarean sections, antibiotics, immunizations, and refrigerators; our other alternative is to better understand these complex changes in infant developmental and molecular physiology. Protecting and repairing the developmental processes of the healthy infant microbiome is the modern medical frontier.

  20. Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. and risk factors associated with bovine mastitis in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina C. Krewer


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to study the etiology of mastitis, determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. and to identify the risk factors associated with infection in dairy cows in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco, Brazil. From the 2,064 milk samples analyzed, 2.6% were associated with cases of clinical mastitis and 28.2% with subclinical mastitis. In the microbiological culture, Staphylococcus spp. (49.1% and Corynebacterium spp. (35.3% were the main agents found, followed by Prototheca spp. (4.6% and Gram negative bacilli (3.6%. In the antimicrobial susceptibility testing, all 218 Staphylococcus spp. were susceptible to rifampicin and the least effective drug was amoxicillin (32.6%. Multidrug resistance to three or more drugs was observed in 65.6% of Staphylococcus spp. The risk factors identified for mastitis were the extensive production system, not providing feed supplements, teat drying process, not disinfecting the teats before and after milking, and inadequate hygiene habits of the milking workers. The presence of multiresistant isolates in bovine milk demonstrates the importance of the choice and appropriate use of antimicrobial agents. Prophylactic and control measures, including teat antisepsis and best practices for achieving hygienic milking should be established in order to prevent new cases of the disease in herds.

  1. Research Advances in Pharmacological Effects of Alkaloid from Lotus Byproducts%莲副产物生物碱的药理活性作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇欢; 金鑫; 刘小如


    Alkaloid is one of the most important active constituents in the natural byproducts of lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera) .This paper summarized the research advances in the chemical components and pharmacological effects ( anti-obesity, antisepsis and anti-inflammation, anticancer, etc.) of alkaloid in lotus byproducts , for the purpose of providing references for the further study of al-kaloid in lotus byproducts and the reasonable utilization of lotus byproduct resources .%生物碱是莲副产物天然产物中最重要的活性成分之一。本文概述了莲副产物中生物碱的化学成分及其生理活性研究进展,包括降脂减肥、抗菌消炎、抗癌等多方面的作用,以期对莲副产物生物碱的进一步研究和莲副产物资源的合理利用提供参考。

  2. Low temperature plasma biomedicine: A tutorial reviewa) (United States)

    Graves, David B.


    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown to be potentially useful for surface and wound sterilization, antisepsis, bleeding cessation, wound healing, and cancer treatment, among other biomedical applications. This tutorial review summarizes the field, stressing the likely role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species created in these plasmas as the biologically and therapeutically active agents. Reactive species, including radicals and non-radical compounds, are generated naturally within the body and are now understood to be essential for normal biological functions. These species are known to be active agents in existing therapies for wound healing, infection control, and cancer treatment. But they are also observed at elevated levels in persons with many diseases and are associated with aging. The physical and chemical complexity of plasma medical devices and their associated biochemical effects makes the development of safe, effective plasma medical devices and procedures a challenge, but encouragingly rapid progress has been reported around the world in the last several years.

  3. Peptide inhibition of p22phox and Rubicon interaction as a therapeutic strategy for septic shock. (United States)

    Kim, Ye-Ram; Koh, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jae-Sung; Yun, Jin-Seung; Jang, Kiseok; Lee, Joo-Youn; Jung, Jae U; Yang, Chul-Su


    Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that complicates severe infection and is characterized by the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), is a life threatening disease characterized by inflammation of the entire body. Upon microbial infection, p22phox-gp91phox NADPH oxidase (NOX) complexes produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are critical for the elimination of invading microbes. However, excess production of ROS represents a key element in the cascade of deleterious processes in sepsis. We have previously reported direct crosstalk between autophagy and phagocytosis machineries by demonstrating that the Rubicon protein interacts with p22phox upon microbial infection, facilitating phagosomal trafficking of the p22phox-gp91phox NOX complex to induce a ROS burst, inflammatory cytokine production, and thereby, potent anti-microbial activities. Here, we showed N8 peptide, an N-terminal 8-amino acid peptide derived from p22phox, was sufficient for Rubicon interaction and thus, capable of robustly blocking the Rubicon-p22phox interaction and profoundly suppressing ROS and inflammatory cytokine production. Consequently, treatment with the Tat-N8 peptide or a N8 peptide-mimetic small-molecule dramatically reduced the mortality associated with Cecal-Ligation-and-Puncture-induced polymicrobial sepsis in mice. This study demonstrates a new anti-sepsis therapeutic strategy by blocking the crosstalk between autophagy and phagocytosis innate immunity machineries, representing a potential paradigm shift for urgently needed therapeutic intervention against this life-threatening SIRS. PMID:27267627

  4. Retention of clay-solidified grouting curtain to Cd2+,Pb2+ and Hg2+ in landfill of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可能; 陈永贵; 邓飞跃; 田庆余


    The effects of components and their ratio of grouts on anti-seepage capability of clay-solidified grouting curtain and its permeability of heavy metal cations were investigated by permeating experiments, using reactive solute transport model to study the permeation of heavy metals (Cd2+ , Pb2+ and Hg2+ ). The study of permeating for different mixture ratios of cement and clay indicates that hydraulic conductivity of clay-solidified grouting curtain with different ratios of solid to liquid or with the same ratio of solid to liquid but with different ratios of cement to clay is changed. The laboratory simulation test results also show that precipitates produced in heavy metal cation migration process in curtain block up water flowing passage which makes the hydraulic conductivity of the solution-permeated curtain decrease with the leakage time. The permeation velocities for different heavy metal cations vary with ionic concentration, exchange capacity and ion radius etc. The test results indicate that the permeation rapidity order of heavy metals cations in clay-solidified grouting curtain is Hg2+ >Pb2+ in the same experimental circumstance. In addition, permeability for different mixture ratios and antisepsis capabilities of clay-solidified grouting curtain were studied in tests.

  5. Hand hygiene among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Ameet


    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

  6. [Cytologic diagnosis of abdominal lesions with fine needle aspiration guided by ultrasound]. (United States)

    Candia, P; Rojas, M; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A; Römer, M A


    The purpose of this work was to analyse the advantages and disadvantages of puncture-aspiration with fine needle, guided by ultrasonography, trying to determine its usefulness in our hospitals and its reliability in the diagnosis of intraabdominal lesions of different locations. 29 punctures were practiced on 19 patients, 9 women and 10 men of ages comprised between 34 and 94 years, with lesions in different organs of the abdominal cavity diagnosed by ultrasonography with real time equipment and lineal 3.5 and 5 MHz transducers. After cleaning and antisepsis a Chiba needle is introduced under ultrasonographic vision, up to the location of the lesion, the guide is removed and under a negative pressure, the sample is taken, which is later dried into the air and coloured using the May-Grünwald-Giemsa Technique. Only in one case it was not possible to obtain adequate material for the cytological study. There were 11 positive cases for malignity and 7 negative, one of which was a false negative. The sensibility of the method was of 91.6% with a specificity of 100% and a reliability of 89.4%. We definitely believe that the method is practical, very easy to carry out in our hospitals with a minimum amount of risk, and most of all, dependable to clarify certain diagnoses. PMID:2152268

  7. Evaluation of bacterial contamination rate of the anterior chamber during phacoemulsification surgery using an automated microbial detection system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim; Kocak; Funda; Kocak; Bahri; Teker; Ali; Aydin; Faruk; Kaya; Hakan; Baybora


    ·AIM: To assess the incidence of anterior chamber bacterial contamination during phacoemulsification surgery using an automated microbial detection system(BacT/Alert).·METHODS: Sixty-nine eyes of 60 patients who had uneventful phacoemulsification surgery, enrolled in this prospective study. No prophylactic topical or systemic antibiotics were used before surgery. After antisepsis with povidone-iodine, two intraoperative anterior chamber aqueous samples were obtained, the first whilst entering anterior chamber, and the second at the end of surgery. BacT/Alert culture system was used to detect bacterial contamination in the aqueous samples.·RESULTS: Neither aqueous samples obtained at the beginning nor conclusion of the surgery was positive for microorganisms on BacT/Alert culture system. The rate of bacterial contamination during surgery was 0%. None of the eyes developed acute-onset endophthalmitis after surgery.· CONCLUSION: In this study, no bacterial contamination of anterior chamber was observed during cataract surgery. This result shows that meticulous surgical preparation and technique can prevent anterior chamber contamination during phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

  8. A study of the effects of different disinfectants used in Riyadh hospitals and their efficacy against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the means of controlling it, continue to be of major interest to the healthcare community. The bactericidal activity of some disinfectants which are in common use in seven major tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh was tested against two control strains of S.aureus, namely MRSA ATCC 33591 and Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) ATCC 29213. The disinfectants tested in this study were a group used for hand antisepsis (Purell, EZ-clean, Cida stat and Manorapid Synergy) and another group used for environmental disinfection (Combi spray, Tristel fusion, Alphadine, Isopropanol, Presept and Diesin). Presept, diesin and tristel fusion had a remarkable effect on the tested strains, both methicillin sensitive and methicillin resistant. There was hardly any noticeable difference between the effects on either (P>0.05). On the other hand, Purell and EZ-clean and Manorapid Synergy hand rubs had a relatively weak action after 15 and 30 minutes while their effect was better after 1 and 2 hours. There was no observable differences between their effects on MRSA or MSSA, P>0.05. Cita stat had a remarkably pronounced effect against both MRSA and MSSA. Contrary to some previous reports, this study has proven also that chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds show comparable efficacy against both MRSA and MSSA. (author)

  9. 天然迎春花提取液作为抑菌成分洗手液的制备%The Preparation of Hand Sanitizer with Natural Jasminum Nudiflorum Extracting Solution as Antibacterial Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书红; 杜慧; 张换平; 田大勇; 高战胜; 赵密柱; 李安林


    采用迎春花提取液作为杀菌抑菌剂,用十二烷基硫酸钠和乙氧基化烷基硫酸钠作为表面去污活性成分,丙三醇和三乙酸甘油酯作为保湿剂,柠檬酸-柠檬酸钠缓冲液作为pH调节剂,制备了一种新型的洗手液。对洗手液进行了性能检测,结果与国家洗手液标准相比较,总活性物含量、泡沫高度、粘度、重金属含量等指标均符合或优于国家洗手液标准。同时对洗手液的抑菌性能进行了检测,结果说明洗手液的抑菌性能良好。%With Jasminum nudiflorum extracting solution as antisepsis agents, lauryl sodium sulfate and Sodium ethoxylated alkyl sulfate as surface decontamination active ingredients, glycerol and triacetin as humectants, citric acid and sodium citrate as pH modifiers, a new type hand sanitizer was prepared.The performances of the hand sanitizer were tested.The results showed that compared with hand sanitizer standards of the state, the total content of active matter, foam height, viscosity and content of heavy metal comply with the standard, or even higher than the standard of the state.Meanwhile, the antibacterial performance of the hand sanitizer was tested.The result showed that it was good.

  10. The toxicity and invasive effects of QDs on mung bean development (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Ruhua; Huang, Xuan; Feng, Gang; Lin, Guimiao; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Gaixia; Chen, Danni


    Objective: Nowadays, the nanomaterials have been applied in every aspects of our life, including cosmetics, fresh-keeping, antisepsis and medicines. However, we know little about the toxic effects of nanoparticles towards plants. In this thesis, we synthesized quantum dots (QDs), and then toxicity and invasive effects of QDs for mung beans were investigated. Methods: We synthesised red CdTe QDs in water sphase with L-Cystein stabilizers, then prepared different concentration of QDs solution to cultivate mung bean plant, the radical length of mung beans was measured after four days every day, after 7 days, the distribution of QDs in mung bean plant was recorded under the microscopic. Results: The result showed the QDs inhibited the growth of mung beans, the higher the concentration of QDs was, the greater the inhibition effect was. After 7 days, the radicle average lengths of mung beans in different concentrations of QDs solution - blank 0.1μmol/L 0.2μmol/L 0.5 μmol/L 1 μmol/L - were 19.350+/- 0.427, 14.050+/- 0.879, 10.525+/- 0.554, 7.250+/- 0.522, 7.650+/- 0.229. The QDs mostly adhered onto the root surface and hairs. Conclusion: In conclusion, the QDs synthesized with L-cystein have effects on the growth of mung beans. However, it is necessary to do more experiments to confirm the mechanism of the toxicity effect of QDs on plants.

  11. NMR structure and binding of esculentin-1a (1-21)NH2 and its diastereomer to lipopolysaccharide: Correlation with biological functions. (United States)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Bera, Swapna; Shai, Yechiel; Mangoni, Maria Luisa; Bhunia, Anirban


    The frog skin-derived antimicrobial peptide esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2 [Esc(1-21)], and its diastereomer Esc(1-21)-1c (containing two D-amino acids at positions 14 and 17), have been recently found to neutralize the toxic effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS), although to different extents. Here, we studied the three-dimensional structure of both peptides in complex with P. aeruginosa LPS, by transferred nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. Lack of NOE peaks revealed that both the peptides adopted a random coil structure in aqueous solution. However, Esc(1-21) adopted an amphipathic helical conformation in LPS micelles with 5 basic Lys residues forming a hydrophilic cluster. In comparison, the diastereomer maintained an alpha helical conformation only at the N-terminal region, whereas the C-terminal portion was quite flexible. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) revealed that the interaction of Esc(1-21) with LPS is an exothermic process associated with a dissociation constant of -4μM. In contrast, Esc(1-21)-1c had almost 8 times weaker binding affinity to LPS micelles. Moreover, STD NMR data supported by docking analysis have identified those amino acid residues responsible for the peptide's binding to LPS micelles. Overall, the data provide important mechanistic insights on the interaction of esculentin-derived peptides with LPS and the reason for their different anti-endotoxin activity. These data might also assist to further design more potent antimicrobial peptides with antisepsis properties, which are highly needed to overcome the widespread concern of the available anti-infective agents. PMID:26724203

  12. 油焖大虾酱的保藏研究%Research on the Preservation of Braised Prawns Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘东潮; 曾习


    油焖大虾为湖北名菜,调味是其烹制的难点,使用油焖大虾酱能使烹制油焖大虾变得简单。油焖大虾酱在制作过程中易被微生物侵染,在贮藏过程中又易氧化变质,因此以一种自制的油焖大虾酱为研究对象,研究了山梨酸钾的防腐抑菌作用及单一抗氧化剂和复配抗氧化剂对油焖大虾酱的抗氧化效果,得出油焖大虾酱最佳保藏条件:山梨酸钾添加量0.03%,BHA 添加量0.05%,TBHQ添加量0.15%,柠檬酸添加量0.05%。%Braised prawns is one of the famous dishes in Hubei.Flavoring is a difficulty during cooking,while using braised prawns sauce will make it simpler.This kind of sauce is easy to be infected by microorganism during the production process,and is easy to go bad due to oxidation in the storing as well.So braised prawns sauce is taken as the research object ,and the study on antisepsis and bacteriostasis effect of potassium sorbate as well as antioxidative effect between individual antioxidant and compound antioxidants on braised prawns sauce is summarized,it is obtained that the optimum storing conditions of braised prawns sauce are:potassium sorbate of 0.3%,BHA of 0.05%, TBHQ of 0.15%,citric acid of 0.05%.

  13. Amniotic fluid iodine concentrations do not vary in pregnant women with varying iodine intake. (United States)

    García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Gallo, Manuel; García, Laureano; Prieto, Stephanie; Alcaide-Torres, Javier; Santiago, Piedad; Velasco, Inés; Soriguer, Federico


    Iodine deficiency is an important clinical and public health problem. Its prevention begins with an adequate intake of iodine during pregnancy. International agencies recommend at least 200 microg iodine per d for pregnant women. We assessed whether iodine concentrations in the amniotic fluid of healthy pregnant women are independent of iodine intake. This cross-sectional, non-interventional study included 365 consecutive women who underwent amniocentesis to determine the fetal karyotype. The amniocentesis was performed with abdominal antisepsis using chlorhexidine. The iodine concentration was measured in urine and amniotic fluid. The study variables were the intake of iodized salt and multivitamin supplements or the prescription of a KI supplement. The mean level of urinary iodine was 139.0 (SD 94.5) microg/l and of amniotic fluid 15.81 (SD 7.09) microg/l. The women who consumed iodized salt and those who took a KI supplement had significantly higher levels of urinary iodine than those who did not (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively). The urinary iodine levels were not significantly different in the women who took a multivitamin supplement compared with those who did not take this supplement, independently of iodine concentration or multivitamin supplement. The concentrations of iodine in the amniotic fluid were similar, independent of the dietary iodine intake. Urine and amniotic fluid iodine concentrations were weakly correlated, although the amniotic fluid values were no higher in those women taking a KI supplement. KI prescription at recommended doses increases the iodine levels in the mother without influencing the iodine levels in the amniotic fluid.

  14. The Preparation of Hand Sanitizer with Natural Jasminum Nudiflorum Extracting Solution as Antibacterial Components%天然迎春花提取液作为抑菌成分洗手液的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书红; 杜慧; 张换平; 田大勇; 高战胜; 赵密柱; 李安林


    With Jasminum nudiflorum extracting solution as antisepsis agents, lauryl sodium sulfate and Sodium ethoxylated alkyl sulfate as surface decontamination active ingredients, glycerol and triacetin as humectants, citric acid and sodium citrate as pH modifiers, a new type hand sanitizer was prepared.The performances of the hand sanitizer were tested.The results showed that compared with hand sanitizer standards of the state, the total content of active matter, foam height, viscosity and content of heavy metal comply with the standard, or even higher than the standard of the state.Meanwhile, the antibacterial performance of the hand sanitizer was tested.The result showed that it was good.%采用迎春花提取液作为杀菌抑菌剂,用十二烷基硫酸钠和乙氧基化烷基硫酸钠作为表面去污活性成分,丙三醇和三乙酸甘油酯作为保湿剂,柠檬酸-柠檬酸钠缓冲液作为pH调节剂,制备了一种新型的洗手液。对洗手液进行了性能检测,结果与国家洗手液标准相比较,总活性物含量、泡沫高度、粘度、重金属含量等指标均符合或优于国家洗手液标准。同时对洗手液的抑菌性能进行了检测,结果说明洗手液的抑菌性能良好。

  15. Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies. (United States)

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E


    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002-2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  16. Care and treatment for patients with chronic filariasis in a town of Wujiang city and its effect%吴江市某镇慢性丝虫病患者关怀照料的方法及其效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 探讨对慢性丝虫病患者关怀照料方法并进行效果评价.方法 纳入照料的256名慢性丝虫病患者,采取以中草药浸泡清洗患肢和抗菌消炎为主的综合照料方法进行照料,并进行照料效果评价.结果 通过综合照料方法的实施,慢性丝虫病患者下肢淋巴管(结)炎急性大、小发作和下肢溃疡的发生情况明显好转(P<0.01),慢性丝虫病患者病情有所好转,Ⅰ期患者比例显著高于照料前(P<0.05).结论 该镇开展的综合照料方法能改善慢性丝虫病患者的病情,阻止疾病的进展,照料效果肯定.%[Objective]To investigate the methods of care and treatment for patients with chronic filariasis, evaluate the effect. [Methods]256 patients with chronic filariasis were given the comprehensive treatments which included Chinese herbal medicine immersion on affected limbs, as well as antisepsis and anti-inflammation. The effect of treatment was evaluated. [ Results] After the comprehensive treatments, the incidence of acute grand/minor seizure of lower extremity lymphangitis and lower limb ulcer decreased significantly (P < 0.01). The disease condition of patients with chronic filariasis had improved, and the proportion of the patients at stage I was significantly higher than that before treatment (P < 0.05). [ Conclusion ] The comprehensive care and treatments can improve the disease condition of patients with chronic filariasis, delay the disease progression, and the effect is obvious.

  17. Fatores de risco para peritonites e internações Risk factors for peritonitis and hospitalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Silva Abrahão


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Investigou-se um universo de 30 crianças e adolescentes portadores de doença renal crônica em tratamento dialítico, assistidos pelo Hospital das Clínicas da UFMG, a fim de determinar fatores de risco para a frequência de peritonites e de internações. MÉTODO: Estudo descritivo em que para a obtenção dos resultados utilizou-se o software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science versão 13.0. Testaram-se as variáveis: baixa escolaridade, baixa renda familiar, nível de informação inadequado, inadequação da antissepsia das mãos para a realização da diálise, ausência de pia no quarto da diálise como fator de risco para maior frequência de peritonites e internações. RESULTADOS: Os valores de Odds Ratio estiveram dentro dos limites dos intervalos de confiança (95% e em alguns casos foram INTRODUCTION: This study assessed 30 children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease on dialysis, cared for at the Hospital das Clínicas of UFMG, aiming at determining the risk factors for the frequency of peritonitis and hospitalizations. METHOD: Descriptive study using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science software, version 13.0. The following variables were assessed as risk factors for a higher frequency of peritonitis and hospitalizations: low educational level; low family income; inadequate level of information; inadequate hand antisepsis during PD; and lack of a sink in the dialysis room. RESULTS: The odds ratio values were within the 95% confidence intervals, and, in some cases, were smaller than 1, indicating the possibility of a negative association between some independent variables and the variables studied, but with no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: No statistical significance was observed for the variables studied, despite the tendency towards that.

  18. Prevenção da infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter venoso central: Uma revisão integrativa | Prevention of bloodstream infection related to central venous catheter: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna Gomes da Silva


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar as produções científicas nacionais e internacionais sobre a adoção aos bundles para prevenção de infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter venoso central em unidade de terapia intensiva adulto. Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão integrativa da literatura nas bases de dados Pubmed, Cinahl e Science Direct, publicados de 2011 a 2014. Resultados: Foram encontrados 11 artigos e em 100% deles as principais medidas adotadas foram antes da inserção do cateter, sendo: antissepsia da pele, uso de barreira máxima de precaução, preferência pela veia subclávia, higienização prévia das mãos e educação e treinamento dos profissionais de saúde. Conclusões: Os bundles estão sendo utilizados na prática clínica como estratégias para redução das infecções, contudo, as infecções da corrente sanguínea relacionadas a cateter continuam a ocorrer de forma alarmante e com grande impacto no cuidado a saúde. Desse modo, estratégias que apontem subsídios para melhoria da prática clínica e segurança do paciente devem ser incentivadas, sobretudo aquelas voltadas para o período crítico da inserção e manutenção do cateter. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Objective: To analyze the national and international scientific production on the adoption of bundles to prevent bloodstream infection related to central venous catheters in adult intensive care unit. Methods: An integrative literature review of studies published from 2011 to 2014 was conducted in the databases Pubmed, CINAHL and Science Direct. Results: 11 articles were found. In all of them the principal measures adopted before catheter insertion were: skin antisepsis, use of maximum barrier precaution, preference by the subclavian vein, previous hand hygiene, and education and training of health professionals. Conclusions: The bundles are being used in clinical practice as

  19. Outlined history of the development of the world and Polish cardiac surgery. (United States)

    Dziatkowiak, A J


    It was the dream of humanity to perform surgery on an open non-beating heart. Scientific and medical discoveries five thousand years ago in China, partially adopted by the Western civilization, laid, through ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome and, later on in the Renaissance, the foundations for the development of empirical medicine. The 19th and the 20th centuries shoved dynamic scientific and technical development in various fields including medicine and surgery whose importance grew with the necessity to help the patients wounded in the wars. A break-through event in the development of surgery was overcoming of pain and discovery of reasons of infections and the control thereof, and, in the case of cardiology and cardiac surgery, the discoveries in physiology of circulation and the diagnostics of cardiovascular system diseases. This review contains a brief description of medical science in the past centuries, emphasizing the most important discoveries. A focus has been placed on the contribution of general surgery and thoracic surgery to the development of Polish and World cardiac surgery. The I Congress of the Polish Surgeons was held in 1889 in the Austria occupied territory of Cracow, which celebrated its one hundredth anniversary. The main obstacles in the development of clinical cardiac surgery included intratracheal general anesthesia, antisepsis and aseptics, hypothermia, oxygenators, extracorporeal circulation, transfusions, blood clotting and thromboses and cardioplegia. The spectacular heart and aorta surgical operations performed for the first time in the world and in Poland as well as the names of cardiac surgeons employed by the important cardiac surgery centers in Poland have been mentioned. The Department of Heart, Vascular and Transplantology Surgery of Cracow, the role and the share of Fundacja Rozwoju Kardiochirurgii COR AEGRUM in Cracow (COR AEGRUM Foundation for the Development of Cardiac Surgery in Cracow) in the construction of the

  20. Efficacy of controlling nosocomial infection of methilcillin-vesistant staphylococcus auveus%MRSA医院感染控制的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温朝阳; 方怡; 邢丽珊; 张薇


    目的:探讨MRSA的医院感染控制方法.为降低医院MRSA感染提供科学的依据.方法:通过建立MRSA的监测,对高发科室进行主动筛查,隔离患者及携带者,制定多重耐药菌的医院感染控制制度,并督导实施.加强清洁、消毒、隔离工作管理,提高手卫生依从性,运用流行病学定量统计方法评估MRSA的控制效果.结果:2009年每千住院日新发MRSA分离量出现明显上升,2010年1月开始干预后,2010年每千住院日新发MRSA分离量出现明显下降.干预前与干预后的MRSA分离量差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);MRSA感染部位以下呼吸道为主.结论:通过加强监测,对高发科室进行主动筛查,建立多重耐药菌的医院感染控制制度,阻断传播途径等干预措施可有效降低MRSA的医院感染,但应加强呼吸机的清洁消毒的管理以降低MRSA的下呼吸道感染.%Objective To investigate the method of controlling nosocomial infection of methilcillin-vesistant staphylococcus auveus (MRSA). Methods Through the MRSA infection auto monitoring system, we identified departments at high rates of MRSA infection. And then carrier isolation and controlling system of multiple infection of drug-resistant bacteria were established, methods were used to improve the compliance of hand hygiene and the management of healthcare. The effect was evaluated by incidence. Results The incidence of MRSA infection began to increase in 2009, and after the intervention which was administered in Jan 2010, the incidence of MRSA infection was decreased significantly (P< 0.05). The MRSA infection was found more frequently in lower respiratory tract. Conclussins The nosocomial infection of MRSA can be decreased effectively by reinforcement of monitoring, sterilizing, and isolating policies and hand hygiene. We should enhance the antisepsis administer of ventilator to debase the infection rate of low respiratory tract of MRSA.

  1. Preoperative povidone-iodine vaginal gel in abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized clinical trial

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    Beigi A


    Full Text Available Background: Infectious complications of hysterectomy remain common despite the use of antibiotic. The usual existing methods of preoperative antisepsis do not control the vaginal bacteria that are the primary cause of contamination at the surgical site. Our goal was to assess whether febrile morbidity after total abdominal hysterectomy is decreased by the addition of povidone-iodine gel at the vaginal apex after the routine vaginal preparation with povidone-iodine solution.Methods: We carried out a prospective randomized trial on women admitted for elective abdominal hysterectomy. Inclusion criteria included planned abdominal hysterectomy for benign or malignant gynecologic conditions. Exclusion criteria consisted of emergency surgery, current treatment for pelvic infection, and known povidone-iodine allergy. A total of 168 patients were randomized to either the control group or the intervention group, who received 20 cc povidone-iodine gel placed at the vaginal apex immediately before the operation. Both groups received the routine preoperative preparation of antimicrobial prophylaxis, abdominal and vaginal scrubbing with povidone-iodine solution prior to the operation. The primary outcome was post-operative febrile morbidity. Other outcomes included abdominal wound infection, vaginal cuff cellulitis or pelvic abscess. Data was analyzed using Fisher's exact test. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: The overall rate of febrile morbidity was 20.5%. Febrile morbidity occurred in ten of 80 (12.5% women receiving the povidone-iodine gel preparation and 24 of 86 (27.9% women not receiving the gel (p<0.05. The rate of abdominal wound infection was 18.6% (16 in the control group, and 5% (4 in the gel group (p<0.05. Vaginal cuff cellulitis was seen in three patients from the control group versus one woman from the gel group (p>0.05. Pelvic abscess was diagnosed in one patient from the control group and in no patients from the

  2. Efficacy of two ethanol-based skin antiseptics on the forehead at shorter application times

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    Pitten Frank-Albert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research suggests that alcohol-based skin antiseptics exhibit their efficacy on the resident skin flora of the forehead in less than 10 minutes. That is why we have looked at the efficacy of two ethanol-based skin antiseptics applied for 10, 2.5 and 2 minutes on skin with a high density of sebaceous glands. Each experiment was performed in a reference-controlled cross-over design with at least 20 participants. Application of isopropanol (70%, v/v for 10 minutes to the forehead served as the reference treatment. The clear (skin antiseptic A and coloured preparations (skin antiseptic B contain 85% ethanol (w/w. Pre-values and post-values (immediately after the application and after 30 min were obtained by swabbing a marked area of 5 cm2 for about 10 s. Swabs were vortexed in tryptic soy broth containing valid neutralizing agents. After serial dilution aliquots were spread on tryptic soy agar. Colonies were counted after incubation of plates at 36°C for 48 h. The mean log10 reduction of bacteria was calculated. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used for a comparison of treatments. Results Skin antiseptic A applied for 10 min was significantly more effective than the reference treatment. When applied for 2.5 min (three experiments it was significantly more effective than the reference treatment immediately after application (2.7 versus 2.2 log10 reduction; p 10 reduction; p = 0.053. Skin antiseptic B applied for 2.5 min (three experiments was significantly more effective than the reference treatment both immediately after application (2.3 versus 1.9 log10 reduction; p 10 reduction; p = 0.002. Conclusion The clear and coloured skin antiseptics applied for 2.5 min on the skin of the forehead fulfilled the efficacy requirements for skin antisepsis. The shorter application time on skin with a high density of sebaceous glands will allow to act more efficiently in clinical practice.

  3. Método bundle na redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateteres centrais: revisão integrativa Método bundle en la redución de infecciones relacionadas a catéteres centrales: una revisión integrativa Care bundle to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: an integrative review

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    Juliana Dane Pereira Brachine


    éter con su retirada inmediata cuando posible. La mayoría de los estudios analizados mostraron una reducción significante de infección sanguínea relacionadas o asociadas con catéteres intravenosos centrales.This is an integrative review of literature aimed to identify evidence-based interventions which make up care bundles to reduce central venous catheter-related or associated bloodstream infections. To collect data in Brazilian and international databases were used the key word bundle and the descriptors catheter-related infection, infection control and central venous catheterization, resulting in fifteen articles, after inclusion criteria application. This work showed five interventions as those commonly employed in the bundles methods: hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate for skin antisepsis, use of maximal sterile barrier precaution during the catheter insertion, avoid the femoral access and daily review of catheter necessity with prompt removal as no longer essential. The majority of the studies showed a significant reduction in bloodstream infection related to or associated with central venous catheters.

  4. Chitosan prevents tendon adhesion after sports injury%几丁糖防治运动损伤后的肌腱粘连

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛廷云; 李雷


    BACKGROUND: Tendon injury is common seen in sports exercise, and tendon adhesion often occurs during the repair of tendon injury. Tendon adhesion can damage tendon function. At present, chitosan is a hotspot for prevention of tendon adhesion.OBJECTIVE: To review the effect of chitosan on post-sports tendon adhesion.METHODS: A computer-based search of CNKI and PubMed from January 1990 to Decembe 2010 was performed with keywords of "chitosan, tendon, adhesion, sports injury" in Chinese and English to retrieve the articles about chitosan for prevention of tendon adhesion after sports injury. Related articles published recently or in authoritative journals were selected. According to the inclusion criteria, 29 papers were selected.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION : The tendon is mainly composed of collagen fibers, and its biomechanical properties are closely related to collagen fibers. The healing process of tendon injury consists of two ways: exogenous and endogenous healing.Tendon adhesion often occur in exogenous healing. Previous animal experiments and clinical studies have demonstrated that chitosan has a good preventive effect on tendon adhesion, which mechanisms include reducing the production of collagen fibers,barrier isolation, hemostasis acceleration, and antisepsis and anti-inflammation. Therefore, chitosan is an ideal material to prevent tendon adhesion, but there are still some problems in clinical application to be resolved.%背景:肌腱损伤是运动训练中的常见损伤,肌腱损伤修复过程中易形成粘连,而使肌腱原有的功能下降或丧失.目前受到国内外学者瞩目的防治肌腱粘连的方法是防粘连材料的应用,众多材料中,丁糖备受关注.目的:综述了几丁糖防治运动损伤后的肌腱粘连.方法:应用计算机检索CNKI和PubMed数据库中1990-01/2010-12关于几丁糖防治运动损伤后肌腱粘连的文章,标题和摘要中以"几丁糖,腱,连,动损伤"或"chitosan,endon,dhesion,ports injury"为

  5. The effects of topical application of sunflower-seed oil on open wound healing in lambs Efeitos da aplicação tópica de óleo de semente de girassol em feridas cutâneas, em carneiros

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    Silvio Romero Marques


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the effects of the use of sunflower seed oil on the treatment of skin wounds. METHODS: Eighteen male Saint Inês lambs were divided in 3 groups according to the pos-operative (7, 14 and 21 days. After antisepsis and local anestesia, two 4cm² wounds on each side of the thoracic region, close to the scapule were surgically produced. The experimental wounds were treated with sunflower seed oil, with high concentration of linoleic acid (LA, and the control ones with sterilized Vaseline. Biopsies of the pos-operative wounds tissue were performed on the 7th, 14th, 21st days and histologically evaluated. RESULTS: Topic application of sunflower seed oil accelerated healing process at the 7th and 21st days, reducing wound area and increasing wound contraction. Granulation tissue increased faster on treated wounds. The epidermis of the treated wounds was completely recovered when compared to control wounds. CONCLUSION: The topic use of sunflower seed oil accelerated the healing process, and it can be used as an alternative therapy on second intention wound healing.OBJETIVO: Demonstrar os efeitos do uso de óleo de semente de girassol no tratamento de feridas cutâneas. MÉTODOS: Dezoito carneiros da raça Santa Inês foram divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o pós-cirúrgico (7, 14, e 21 dias. Após antisepsia e anestesia local foram produzidas cirurgicamente duas feridas de 4 cm² em cada lado da região torácica próxima escápula. As feridas experimentais foram tratadas com óleo de semente de girassol, com alta concentração de ácido linoléico (LA e as controles com vaselina esterilizada. Biopsias dos tecidos das feridas pós-cirúrgicas foram realizadas no 7º, 14º e 21º dias e avaliadas histologicamente. RESULTADOS: A aplicação tópica do óleo de semente de girassol acelerou o processo de cicatrização no 7ºe 21º dias, reduzindo a área e aumentando a contração das feridas. O tecido de granulação se

  6. Fluorescence Enhancement Method for Determination of Lysozyme Using Fluorescent Gold Nanoparticles as Probe%基于发光金纳米粒子荧光增强法测定溶菌酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱章生; 刘玫瑰; 田大慧; 郝丹; 朱昌青


    参照文献方法合成了BSA修饰的水溶性发光金纳米粒子,并考察了其与溶菌酶之间的相互作用.依据溶菌酶对金纳米粒子的发光增强现象,建立了测定溶菌酶的荧光新方法.考察了发光金纳米粒子的浓度、pH值、反应时间及共存物质对测定的影响.优化条件为:发光金纳米粒子浓度4.0×10(-6)mol/L,pH 7.0、反应时间10 min.在此条件下,荧光增强与溶菌酶浓度在2×10(-7)~8×10(-6)mol/L范围内呈良好的线性关系,检出限为3.0×10(-8)mol/L.对4.0×10(-6)mol/L溶菌酶平行测定6次,相对标准偏差为2.6%.本方法具有灵敏度高、探针水溶性好和生物毒性低的优点,同时,常见低等电点蛋白质对分析不干扰.本方法用于合成样品及鸡蛋清中溶菌酶含量测定,平均回收率为97.5%~103.6%.%As lysozyme has the property of dissolving some bacteria, it can be applied in medical treatment, biological engineering, and especially in food antisepsis to replace chemically synthesized ones. Therefore, the development of a simple analytical method for lysozyme assay is very important. Here, water-soluble BSA-modified fluorescent gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared according to the literature, and their interaction with lysozyme was investigated. A novel fluorescence method for the determination of lysozyme has been developed based on the enhancement effect of lysozyme on the fluorescence of GNPs. The effects of GNPs concentration, pH, reaction time and coexisting substances on the determination were tested. Under the optimum conditions, i.e. 4.0 × 10-6 mol/L GNPs, pH 7.0, and reaction time of 10 min, the linear range of the calibration curve was from 2× 10 7 mol/L to 8×l0-6 mol/L and the detection limit was 3. 0× 10-8 mol /L. The relative standard deviation was 2.6% for six replicate measurements of a solution containing 4.0 × 10 6 mol/L lysozyme. The method bore the merits of high sensitivity, good water-solubility and low

  7. Bacteriemia during endodontic treatment in relation to the technique of biomechanical preparation: randomized clinical trial Bacteriemia durante o tratamento endodôntico em função da técnica de preparo biomecânico: ensaio clínico randomizado

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    Adriane Tenório Dourado


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the frequency of bacteriemia during endodontic treatment, with comparison between two techniques for biomechanical preparation of the root canal system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample comprised 50 patients aged 16 to 52 years, of both genders, which were divided into 2 groups with 25 patients each. Group I underwent biomechanical preparation by the step-back technique, and Group II was treated by the rotary technique with nickel-titanium instruments (K3. Patients were submitted to antisepsis of the oral cavity with chlorhexidine digluconate and three samples of blood were collected for blood culture: preoperatively, immediately after the biomechanical preparation and 10 minutes later. The significance level adopted was 5.0%, and analysis was performed by descriptive and inferential statistics by means of the Fisher's exact test, Fisher-Freeman-Halton test and Student's t test. Data were analyzed on the Statexact and SPSS softwares. RESULTS: All blood cultures achieved before and immediately after preparation were negative. On the other hand, with regard to the blood cultures collected 10 minutes after preparation, one (4% positive case was found for Group I. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.50. CONCLUSION: The frequency of bacteriemia was low and observed just for Group I.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste ensaio clínico randomizado foi avaliar a freqüência de bacteriemia durante o tratamento endodôntico comparando duas técnicas de preparo biomecânico do sistema de canais radiculares. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: A amostra constou de 50 pacientes, com idade variando entre 16 e 52 anos e de ambos os sexos, sendo dividida em 2 grupos de 25 pacientes. No Grupo I, realizou-se o preparo biomecânico através da técnica escalonada com recuo progressivo programado, e, no Grupo II, por meio técnica rotatória, empregando instrumentos de níquel-titânio (K3


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    Letícia De Toni


    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to test antimicrobials activities by medicinal plants extracts against more important contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Disinfectants solutions was made from Baccharis trimera (Less D.C., Compositae (Asteracea, Eucalyptus spp Labill., Myrtaceae e Tagetes minuta (Linn., Compositae (Asteracea plants by hidroalcoholic extraction (EHA or decoction (DEC. S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and P. aeruginosa were used. To test for in vitro efficacy, each solution disinfectant was mixed with bacterial suspension containing 105 CFU.mL-1, by 30 seconds, two, 10 ant 30 minutes, with and without 20% of integral milk. Viable bacteria were evaluated by directed plating of neutralized aliquots. The worked included chlorhexidine 0,18% by control and it was executed in duplicate. EHA Eucalytpus spp and EHA T. minuta were as effective as control chlorhexidine against S. aureus. This solutions plus EHA B. trimera, were as effective as control against S. agalactiae. DEC Eucalyptus and DEC B. trimera also inactivated S. agalactiae in more prolongated time. Chlorhexidine was the best against P. multocida in milk absence, although the EHA were effective at ten or thirty minutes. All solutions, inclusive control, it was sensibility to organic load. The observations from the in vitro studies presented here need to be substantiated by in vivo studies by to confirm the potentiality use of plants medicinal extracts as disinfectants/antisepsis in livestock health. O presente trabalho busca avaliar a cinética da atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas medicinais frente a bactérias relacionadas com mastite bovina. Para tal, foram produzidas soluções desinfetantes a partir de folhas e talos de Baccharis trimera (Less D.C., Compositae (Asteraceae, Eucalyptus spp Labill., Myrtaceae e Tagetes minuta (Linn., Compositae (Asteraceae, através de extração hidroalcoólica (EHA e decocto (DEC. Os microrganismos utilizados foram S. aureus, S

  9. Controle da qualidade na coleta do espécime diagnóstico sanguíneo: iluminando uma fase escura de erros pré-analíticos Quality control in the collection of diagnostic blood specimens: illuminating a dark phase of preanalytical errors

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    Gabriel de Souza Lima-Oliveira


    no planejamento da qualidade no laboratório. A lista de verificação proposta permite detectar erros na fase pré-analítica, estabelecer indicadores da qualidade e auxilia no estabelecimento de planos de ações corretivas e preventivas com redução nos custos e ganho na eficiência do processo.BACKGROUND: The preanalytical phase is responsible for more than two thirds of all errors attributed to the clinical laboratory and it has only a few routine procedures for the detection of nonconformity. In this phase, the procedures involving phlebotomy, critical to the obtainment of diagnostic blood specimen, are poorly studied with regard to major sources of errors and procedures related to quality control process. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to propose a tool for finding failures in the preanalytical phase and to establish quality indicators, with emphasis on procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens, in order to monitor potential sources of error in this phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated phlebotomy procedures employed in ten clinical laboratories in São Paulo city, Brazil. All of them with established quality program. The errors that had a frequency higher than 80% were selected to be part of a checklist aiming to evaluate the performance of phlebotomists. Standards and recommendations established by national and international institutions, such as ANVISA, SBPC/ML and CLSI, served as reference to elaborate the checklist. RESULTS: The proposed checklist covers five points of phlebotomy procedures: tourniquet application time, number of phlebotomists that ask patients to clench forearm muscle prior to collection, friction of the forearm muscle in antisepsis process, correct or incorrect sequence of blood collecting tubes and evaluation of accurate or inaccurate homogenization of collected blood specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Phlebotomy evaluation is an essential part of the quality planning in clinical laboratories. The proposed checklist

  10. Correlação entre os métodos de concepção, ocorrência e formas de tratamento das onfalopatias em bovinos: estudo retrospectivo Correlation between conception methods, occurrence, and type o treatment of the umbilical diseases in cattle: a retrospective study

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    Celso A. Rodrigues


    ês foram tratados conservativamente. A análise dos diferentes métodos de concepção, correlacionados à ocorrência de onfalopatias, sugere que os animais provenientes de FIV, apresentam maior frequência de persistência de úraco (66,7%, e aqueles concebidos por IA, maior frequência de hérnia umbilical (58,4%, O tratamento cirúrgico foi mais eficiente que a terapia conservativa. Essa última apresentou melhores resultados nos casos descomplicados e precocemente diagnosticados.Some problems have been observed in bovine products of the in vitro fertilization technical, among these, the high umbilical diseases casuistry. From this observation, the aim of this work was to accomplish a retrospective study of the correlation between the conception methods and the occurrence of umbilical diseases in bovines and describe the results obtained from the conservative and surgical treatments. For this 44 animals attended at Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Unesp Araçatuba, with age varying from one day to 12 months among the years of 2003 and 2007 were used, twenty seven were from in vitro fertilization (IVF, twelve were from artificial insemination (AI, two were from natural mounts and three were from embryo transfer. The clinical-surgical diagnosis of the animals revealed that all of them presented umbilical disorders, being 22 cases of urachus patent, eight omphalophlebitis, eight umbilical hernia, five omphalitis and one umbilical fibrosis. Before and at the postoperative period was administered in all animals once a day for ten days 3mg/kg of ceftiofur sodium IV. In cases of serious infection or lack of response of the initial antimicrobial therapy a complementary treatment during seven days with 6.6 mg/kg of gentamicin sulfate IV was carried out. The antisepsis of the umbilicus with tincture of iodine to 2% was carried out twice daily in cases treated clinically, with out surgery, while the animals underwent surgery received 1.1mg/kg of flunixin meglumine IV once daily

  11. 修复Ⅲ度肩锁关节脱位:带线锚钉重建喙锁韧带的生物力学变化%Treatment of Tossy III acromioclavicular joint dislocation:biomechanical change of anchor-reconstructed coracoclavicular ligament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冰; 冯晖; 陈烁; 王德广; 张传开


    BACKGROUND:The commonly used methods of repairing the acromioclavicular joint dislocation are Kirschner wire tension band internal fixation, clavicular hook internal fixation and suture anchor internal fixation. Each method has their advantages and disadvantages. Both Kirschner wire and clavicular hook require secondary surgery to remove the internal fixators, and their design is not based on the biomechanical principle. OBJECTIVE:To reconstruct coracoclavicular ligament using anchor and perform biomechanical tests. METHODS:Ten shoulder antisepsis specimens were numbered and each specimen was tested by three trials. (1) Stretching coracoclavicular ligament: Specimens were fixed on the biomechanical machine and were tensile until the ligament was ruptured, the maximum failure load was recorded. (2) Reconstruction of coracoclavicular ligament using an anchor: Coracoclavicular ligment was reconstructed using an anchor, then specimens were fixed on the biomechanical machine and were tensile until the ligament was ruptured, the maximum failure load was recorded. (3) Reconstruction of coracoclavicular ligament using two anchors: Coracoclavicular ligment was reconstructed using two anchors, then specimens were fixed on the biomechanical machine and were tensile until the ligament was ruptured, the maximum failure load was recorded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Coracoclavicular ligament fracture load was (413.0±123.48) N; the failure load was (345.1±111.23) N in an anchor group and 465.3±100.64 N in two anchors group. When coracoclavicular ligament is reconstructed using an anchor, the stress is concentrated under external forces, which is prone to the extraction of anchor and the failure of surgery, biomechanical data showed that the fracture load is lower than the coracoclavicular ligament, so the reconstruction is not reliable; when coracoclavicular ligament is reconstructed using two anchors, the stress is dispersed, which meet the biological features and the

  12. Citologia Hormonal do Trato Urinário Baixo e da Vagina de Mulheres na Pós-menopausa, antes e durante Estrogenioterapia Oral e Transdérmica Urinary and Vaginal Cytology of Postmenopausal Women with Oral and Transdermal Estrogen Replacement

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    Áurea Belas Lustosa


    . No entanto, quando se utiliza a via oral, nem sempre este resultado pode ser observado.Objective: to study the effects of oral or transdermal estrogen replacement on the lower urinary tract and vagina in postmenopausal women. Methods: we studied 25 postmenopausal women evaluating the oral or transdermic estrogen replacement effects on the vaginal cells and urinary sediment during 3 months. The patients were randomly distributed into 2 groups: Group I, n = 14, treated orally with 0.625 mg equine conjugated estrogen plus 5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate, daily for 3 months; Group II, n = 11, treated transdermally with 50 mug 17-ß-estradiol, once a week, plus 5 mg medroxyprogesterone. Daily, for 3 months, urinary samples were collected from the first miction in the morning after urogenital antisepsis into sterile tubes. The sample was centrifuged and the sediment was smeared. Vaginal and urinary smears were then fixed in absoluted alcohol and stained by the method of Shorr. Results: the patients who used the oral route presented maturation of the vaginal cells (from 45.4 to 65.5% after 2 months of treatment, maintaing 62% afterwards but this did not occur with urinary cells (56.4 before treatment versus 60.4% at the end of the period. The transdermal route promoted maturation of vaginal and urinary cells. Conclusion: we have concluded that transdermal estrogens have satisfactory effects both on vaginal and urethral sites. However, with the oral route we did not find the expected results in the urinary tract in all cases.

  13. Anti-adhesion effect of absorbable biomaterials during tendon reconstruction%可吸收生物材料在肌腱损伤重建中的防粘连作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    , absorbable biomaterials” in Chinese and English, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Basic and clinical studies on absorbable anti-adhesion materials have achieved remarkable results. Currently absorbable anti-adhesion materials include hyaluronic acid, polylactic acid, colagen and fibrin glue, which have good biocompatibility and can be absorbed and degradedin vivo. With simple clinical implementation, these materials can completely cover the wound surface. The main mechanisms are as folows: reducing the generation of colagen fibers, isolation barrier, accelerating hemostasis, antisepsis and anti-inflammation, thereby effectively reducing reconstructed tendon adhesion and promoting tendon healing. But they have their limitations: hyaluronic acid has short acting durationin vivoand immunogenicity; polylactic acid eventualy is decomposed into smal molecules that cancause aseptic inflammation; colagen and fibrin glue both have certain shortcomings in biocompatibility and activity.

  14. Identification of the pathogens of postharvest apricot fruit diseases and indoor screening of fungicides%杏采后病害病原菌鉴定及室内药剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑾; 徐秉良; 梁巧兰; 张文利; 吴步梅


    [Objective] To identify the main pathogens causing fruit rot of storage apricots and screen the effective fungicides, so as to prolong the storage period of apricots and decrease the losses. [Method] Isolation and identification, as well as pathogenicity test and return inoculation experiments were made for the pathogen causing fruit rot of storage apricots in Lanzhou City, Gansu Province. The effective fungicides for the main pathogens were also screened in the laboratory. [Result] Six fungi were identified as the pathogens causing fruit rot of storage apricots, which were Trichothecium roseum Lk. Ex Fr., Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., Rhizopus nigricans (Ehrenb), Penicillium frequentans, Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey. The main pathogens causing postharvest diseases of apricots were A. Alternata, R. Nigricans and T. Roseum. The isolation frequencies of them were 28. 5%, 48. 9% and 9. 4%, respectively. After artificial inoculation with or without wounds, the incidence of fruits infected by A. Alternata, R. Nigricans and T. Roseum were 100%, 100% and 83%, respectively. The results of chemical screening showed that, in PDA media plate, the fludioxonil (50%WP) and iprodione (50% SC) were most effective in controlling the three main pathogens, and the average effect reached more than 94%. The test of fungicides antisepsis of fruits showed that apricots were dipped in the 9000× diluted solution of fludioxonil (50%WP) or in the 1000 X diluted solution of iprodione (50%SC) for 3 min and stored at room temperature (25℃) for 7 days and 13 days. The control effects of fludioxonil against T. Roseum, A. Alternata and R. Nigricans were 78.3%/65%, 79% /67.5% and 80.3%/69.6%, respectively, and the con-trol effects of iprodione were 76%/64.3%, 78. 3%/64.4% and 78.6%/66.4%, respectively. [Conclusion] Theresults may provide a reference for the control of postharvest diseases of apricots.%[目的]确定引起杏采后病害的主要病原菌及

  15. 肱骨远段内固定物及假体设计与其解剖学参数的关系%Association of designing internal fixator and prosthesis for the distal end of humerus with the anatomical parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友华; 马江川; 吴菊; 赵剑; 刘璠


    experiments were carried out in the Trauma Research Room, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from October 2005 to February 2006. Fifty-four pairs of humerus samples from adult antisepsis corpses were randomly selected (provided by the Department of Human Anatomy, Medical College of Nantong University), including 30 pairs from males and 24 pairs from females, while those with deformation and degeneration of elbow joint were excluded. METHODS: The soft tissues adhered to the humerus samples were all rejected, and the anatomical parameters of the distal end of humerus were measured with slide gaud (0.01 mm in precision, produced by Shanghai Measuring and Cutting Tool Works), calipers and goniometer. ① Measurement of angles related to the distal end of humerus: The measured parameters included the anteverted angle of the distal humerus, the lateral rotation angle of humerus trochlea,the anteverted angulation of humerus capitulum, the anteverted angulation of humerus trochlea, the condyle-shaft angle of humerus, and the internal rotation angle of the line of lateral-medial humerus epicondyle. ② Measurement of structural width and depth related to the distal end of humerus: The measured parameters included the horizontal diameter of the anterior end of humerus trochlea, the horizontal diameter of the inferior end of humerus trochlea, the sagittal diameter of humerus trochlea, the width between medial epicondyle and external epicondyle, the width between medial trochlea and lateral capitulum, the width of olecranon fossa, the depth of olecranon fossa, the width of medial epicondyle, the depth of sulcus for ulnar nerve, the width of humerus capitulum, and the sagittal diameter of humerus capitulum..MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of the angles and structural width or depth related to the distal end of the humerus.males and females in the anteverted angle of the distal humerus [(35.62±5.21)°, (96.22±5.29)°], the lateral rotation angle of humerus trochlea [(5.22±1.15)