Sample records for antisepsis

  1. Disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis: An overview. (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J


    All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Antiseptics are essential to infection prevention as part of a hand hygiene program as well as several other uses such as surgical hand antisepsis and pre-operative skin preparation.

  2. New strategies for preoperative skin antisepsis. (United States)

    Ulmer, Miriam; Lademann, Juergen; Patzelt, Alexa; Knorr, Fanny; Kramer, Axel; Koburger, Torsten; Assadian, Ojan; Daeschlein, Georg; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard


    During the past decades, encouraging progress has been made in the prevention of surgical site infections (SSI). However, as SSI still occur today, strategic prevention measures such as standardized skin antisepsis must be implemented and rigorously promoted. Recent discoveries in skin physiology necessitate the development of novel antiseptic agents and procedures in order to ameliorate their efficacy. In particular, alternate target structures in the skin need to be taken into consideration for the development of the next generation of antiseptics. Recent investigations have shown that a high number of microorganisms are located within and in the close vicinity of the hair follicles. This suggests that these structures are an important reservoir of bacterial growth and activity in human skin. To date, it has not been fully elucidated to what extent conventional liquid antiseptics sufficiently target the hair follicle-related microbial population. Modern technologies such as tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) have been tested for their potential antiseptic efficiency by reducing the bacterial load in the skin and in the hair follicles. First experiments using liposomes to deliver antiseptics into the hair follicles have been evaluated for their potential clinical application. The present review evaluates these two innovative methods for their efficacy and applicability in preoperative skin antiseptics.


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    Shirley Ribeiro Cardoso


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The skin shelters vast micro biota, which could penetrate more internal, layers during the medicine application through parenteral via, therefore the importance of antisepsis for this procedure. We aimed to identify the application of antisepsis through intravenous (IV and intramuscular (IM via for medicine administration as measures for the infection prevention. Descriptive study, accomplished with a nursing team, in eight units from an educational hospital in Goiânia’s district. The data was obtained through observation and filling out the check-list. We observed 212 professionals. As far as the administration via, 19,8% of the procedures were accomplished through direct IV via, 72,6% through IV via with an already installed system and 7,6% through IM via. Most of the professionals, 79,2%, did not wash their hands before accomplishing the procedure. From the 154 medications done in the venous system already installed, the disinfection of the rubber injector was not accomplished in 47 (30,5%. As far as the antisepsis, 72,4% of the medications were accomplished through IV via and 27,6% through IM via, but spite the use of the antiseptic in all the situations, only in 40,5% of the IV injections and in 37,5% of the IM were done five or more movements in the same way with soaked cotton with alcohol at 70%, which is the extolled procedure for the accomplishment for the skin antisepsis. After the antisepsis, 25 professionals touched the place, contaminating it, of these just 13 (52,0% made new antisepsis, therefore, there was recontamination in 12 situations. The data reveals that: necessary measures for the infection prevention in the medicine through parenteral via are not always adopted, representing a challenge for the permanent education and for the infection control at the hospital in study. KEYWORDS: Local Anti-infective Agents; Hospital Infection; Primary Nursing Care.

  4. [Asepsis and antisepsis in dental offices in Dakar]. (United States)

    Lo, C M M; Cisse, D; Faye, D; Kane, A W


    To evaluate hygiene in dental offices in Dakar, the authors questioned 64 public, private and semi-private dentists. From 62 practitioners who completed their questionnaire, it appeared that the dry-heated sterilizer (poupinel) was 5 times more used than the autoclave; The almost practitioners sayed respecting the sterilisation process and 66% of them said wearing gloves, masks and glasses during interventions. In spite of the hope these results give, this study is limited because it doesn't take into account many aspects of asepsis and antisepsis in dental office which require a rigorous application next to a personal who needs to be better trained.

  5. Zinc pyrithione in alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis: persistence of antimicrobial effects. (United States)

    Guthery, Eugene; Seal, Lawton A; Anderson, Edward L


    Alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis have a long history of safety and efficacy in the United States and abroad. However, alcohol alone lacks the required antimicrobial persistence to provide for the sustained periods of skin antisepsis desired in the clinical environment. Therefore, alcohol-based products must have a preservative agent such as iodine/iodophor compounds, chlorhexidine gluconate, or zinc pyrithione, to extend its antimicrobial effects. Iodine, iodophors, and chlorhexidine gluconate are well-characterized antimicrobials and preservatives. The thrust of our effort was to examine the characteristics of the lesser-known zinc pyrithione and to evaluate its utility as a preservative in the formulation of alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis. This work includes a literature review of current zinc pyrithione applications in drugs and cosmetics, a safety and toxicity evaluation, consideration of the proposed mechanisms of antimicrobial action, in vitro and in vivo efficacy data, and a discussion of the mechanisms that confer the desired antimicrobial persistence. In addition, alcohol-based, zinc pyrithione-preserved, commercially available products of skin antisepsis are compared with other commercially available antimicrobials used for skin antisepsis and with additional alcohol-based products with different preservatives. The authors' conclusion is that zinc pyrithione is not only a safe and effective antimicrobial but that its use in certain alcohol-based formulations results in antimicrobial efficacy exceeding that of iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate.

  6. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques. (United States)

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid


    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis.

  7. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses


    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A.; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne


    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing te...

  8. [Hygienic and dermatologic aspects of hand disinfection and prophylactic skin antisepsis]. (United States)

    Kramer, A; Jünger, M; Kampf, G


    Hygienic hand disinfection must be carried out after all patient-care activities associated with contamination risks, as well as when moving from contaminated to clean body sites, after contact with environmental surfaces in the immediate vicinity of patients, after glove removal and before aseptic procedures. Preparatory handwashing (for about 10 seconds) to mechanically remove soil and bacterial spores should be performed at least 10 minutes before surgical hand disinfection. This allows time for the normalization of increased skin hydration, a prerequisite for effective hand disinfection. Depending on the manufacturer's instructions, application times of 1.5, 3 or 5 minutes can be observed. The regular use of skin care and skin protection products can help to prevent toxic skin irritation. For skin antisepsis the recommended exposure times are > or =15 seconds before subcutaneous injections, > or =1 minute before puncture of joints and body cavities as well as preoperatively, and > or =10 minutes on skin areas rich in sebaceous glands. For all 3 indications, alcohol-based formulations are the agents of choice.

  9. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses (United States)

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A.; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne


    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  10. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses. (United States)

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne


    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 刘毅


    目的 观察外科手消毒方法的临床实际消毒效果.方法 通过现场问卷调查和棉拭子涂抹采样检测方法,观察了采用两种消毒液,同样进行免刷式外科手消毒方法后的效果.另外对50名医护人员针对两种手消毒方法的依从性进行问卷调查.结果 200份检测结果均符合消毒技术规范标准.问卷调查结果显示,绝大多数医护人员愿意采用免刷式外科手消毒方法.结论 此外科手消毒方法安全、高效、操作简便、经济,减少了医护人员皮肤不适,大大提高了外科手消毒的依从性.%Objective To observe the clinical disinfection effect of the surgical hand antisepsis methods.Methods Cotton swab sampling and bacterial culture were used to observe the germicidal efficacy of two disinfectants with brush - free surgical hand antisepsis method.In addition, field questionnaire survey was used to understand the compliance of 50 medical staff for the two methods of hand antisepsis.Results The detection results of 200 samplings were qualified with the disinfection technology normative standard.Results of questionnaire survey showed that most of medical staff were willing to use brush - free surgical hand antisepsis.Conclusion Brush - free surgical hand antisepsis method is safe, efficient, easy to operate and economical.This method can reduce skin discomfort of medical staff and greatly increase the compliance of surgical hand antisepsis.


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    Ângela Faccin


    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as an alternative treatment for health problems. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a median tree that belongs to the Anacardiaceae family. The antibacterial effect of leaves extract of this plant has already been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to test a substance derived from this plant to be used in pre- and post-milking teat antisepsis. The hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian pepper tree was used in opposite quarters for twelve consecutive weeks, and commercial iodine was used as control. None of the indices analyzed – black background mug, CMT, intramammary infections, skin health, and teat health – showed a statistical difference between the treatments, suggesting that the plant extract can be used in pre- and post-milking teat antisepsis, as a substitute for conventional products for herds in an agroecological production system.

  13. Knowledge of aseptics and antisepsis and following their rules as elements of infection prevention in the work of paramedics

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    Łukasz Szarpak


    Full Text Available Background: The health-care professionals, particularly paramedics are exposed to bloodborne infections during medical rescue operations. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge of bloodborne infections, their prevention and interrupted routes of infection transmission among paramedics. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 220 paramedics employed in emergency departments and ambulance services. Material was collected using an anonymus questionnaire, developed for the purpose of this study. Results: As many as 80% of the surveyed people reported frequent contact with patients' blood; 65% of the paramedics before establishing the intravenous access palpates the conduct of the vein; 81% introduce peripheral venous catheter directly after disinfection of the skin; and 98% apply personal protection measures. Conclusions: The analysis of knowledge of asepsis and antisepsis of bloodborne infections among paramedics points to a series of shortcomings in their adequate preparation to reduce the effects of exposure to infectious material. However, it should be emphasized that people with higher education presented a higher level of knowledge than those with postsecondary vocational education. In the opinion of the study group mandatory training in the discussed area would prove to be the most effective method for reducing the number of bloodborne infections. Med Pr 2013;64(2:239–243

  14. 不同外科洗手时间和方法对术前消毒效果的影响%Effect of the different time and methods for surgical hand antisepsis on the efifcacy of preoperative disinfection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜贻豹; 韩晓东; 张频; 张弘玮; 周玉龙; 李昆; 狄建忠


    目的:比较不同外科洗手时间和方法对术前消毒效果的影响,探讨术前外科手消毒的最佳方法。方法:按完全随机的方法把手术医生和器械护士共100人平均分为4组:A组和C组分别揉搓洗手1 min和3 min;B组和D组分别刷洗洗手1 min和3 min,以手细菌培养计数法比较消毒洗手前后手部菌落数、菌落阳性率及不同洗手时间和方法对皮肤的影响。结果:各组外科消毒洗手前后菌落数及阳性率无明显差异(P>0.05);A、C两组洗手后皮肤外观、完整性、感觉HSA评分较本组洗手前无明显变化(P>0.05);B、D两组洗手后皮肤外观、完整性和感觉HSA评分较本组洗手前明显降低(P<0.05);四组洗手后皮肤湿度HSA评分较本组洗手前均明显增加(P<0.05)。结论:洗手时间和方法对消毒效果无明显影响,揉搓法对皮肤损伤小,故临床上推荐1 min揉搓外科洗手法。%Objective:To compare the effects of different time and methods for surgical hand antisepsis on the efifcacy of preoperative disinfection and to investigate its best method. Methods:Total 100 surgeons and nurses were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the method for their surgical hand antisepsis:scrubbing hands for 1 min and 3 min in group A and C, and scrubbing hands with sponge for 1 min and 3 min in group B and D, respectively. The number and positive rate of colonies on hands were compared by colony counts before and after hand antisepsis and the effects of different time and methods on the skin were also investigated. Results:There were no signiifcant differences in the number and positive rate of colonies before and after hand antisepsis among 4 groups (P>0.05). The appearance, intactness and sensation HAS score of the skin had no signiifcant change after hand antisepsis compared with before antisepsis in group A and C (P>0.05), but signiifcantly decreased in group B and D (P<0.05). The HAS

  15. Evaluation of two methods of determining the efficacies of two alcohol-based hand rubs for surgical hand antisepsis. (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Heeg, Peter; Paulson, Daryl


    The antimicrobial efficacies of preparations for surgical hand antisepsis can be determined according to a European standard (prEN 12791 [EN]) and a U.S. standard (tentative final monograph for health care antiseptic drug products [TFM]). The U.S. method differs in the product application mode (hands and lower forearms, versus hands only in EN), the number of applications (11 over 5 days, versus a single application in EN), the sampling times (0, 3, and 6 h after application, versus 0 and 3 h in EN), the sampling methods (glove juice versus fingertip sampling in EN), and the outcome requirements (absolute bacterial reduction factor [RF], versus noninferiority to reference treatment in EN). We have studied the efficacies of two hand rubs according to both methods. One hand rub was based on 80% ethanol and applied for 2 min, and the other one was based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol, and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate and applied for 1.5 min. The ethanol-based hand rub was equally effective as the 3-min reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.97 +/- 0.89 versus 2.92 +/- 1.03, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.20 +/- 1.07 versus 2.47 +/- 1.25, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.99 log10 (day 1), 3.00 log10 (day 2), and 3.43 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. The propanol-based hand rub was even more effective than the reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.35 +/- 0.99 versus 1.86 +/- 0.87, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.17 +/- 1.00 versus 1.50 +/- 1.26, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.82 log10 (day 1), 3.29 log10 (day 2), and 3.25 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. Some formulations have been reported to meet the efficacy requirements of one of the methods but not those of the other. That is why we conclude that, despite our results, meeting the efficacy

  16. Efeito da anti-sepsia da ferida cirúrgica alveolar sobre o crescimento bacteriano em fios de sutura de algodão Effect of the antisepsis of the alveolar surgical wound on bacterial growth over cotton suture threads

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    Ulysses Nicida SOARES


    Full Text Available Embora os fios de sutura empregados rotineiramente em cirurgias bucais possam favorecer o acúmulo e o crescimento bacteriano, há poucos trabalhos na literatura relatando preocupação com a anti-sepsia da ferida cirúrgica durante o período pós-operatório e antes de sua remoção. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de dois métodos de anti-sepsia intra-oral sobre o crescimento bacteriano em fios de sutura de algodão. Os resultados evidenciaram que todos os fios de sutura apresentaram-se contaminados com estreptococos, antes e após a anti-sepsia da ferida cirúrgica. A análise dos resultados obtidos permitiu concluir que os dois métodos de anti-sepsia avaliados reduziram o número de estreptococos isolados dos fragmentos de fios de sutura, entretanto, a análise estatística demonstrou que os dois métodos avaliados não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes.The objective of this study was to evaluate bacterial growth on cotton suture. The efficiency of cetylpyridinium chloride (50%, hydrogen peroxide (3% and chlorhexidine (0.12% in antisepsis was investigated. For that, 20 patients who were submitted to extraction of impacted lower third molars were studied. Five days after extraction, samples were obtained from the oral and alveolar sides of the sutures, before and after antisepsis of the wounds, and were submitted to bacteriological analysis. Bacterial growth was observed in all examined samples. The number of streptococci decreased after antisepsis and there were no statistically significant differences between the methods of antisepsis used.

  17. Effect of different methods of hand washing on surgical hand antisepsis%不同清洁洗手方法对外科手消毒效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢伏娟; 刘秋秋; 贺吉群


    OBJECTIVE To compare the influence on the effect of surgical hand antisepsis by different methods hand washing.METHODS With the same liquid skin cleaner and surgical hand disinfectant, prior to surgical hand antisepsis, three methods were selected to compare their immediate antimicrobial efficacies and effct on skin conditions, including hand rub (group A), hand scrub (group B) and no pre-wash (group C).RESULTS In the group C,the colonies(0.27 ±0.45 CFU/cm2 )and the positive rate(46.7%)after surgical hand antisepsis were higher than that of group A and B, there was no significant difference between the group A and B.Hand rub resulted in a smaller skin damage than hand scrub.CONCLUSION Hand rub is the recommended method for prior hand washing to surgical hand antisepsis.%目的 比较不同的清洁洗手方法 对外科手消毒效果的影响. 方法 使用同种手清洁剂和外科手消毒剂,分别采取揉搓清洁洗手(A组)、刷洗清洁洗手(B组)和不进行清洁洗手(C组)3种方法 后按同样的方法 进行外科手消毒,比较其即刻消毒效果和对手部皮肤的影响. 结果 C组外科手消毒后手部菌落数(0.27±0.45)CFU/cm2及手部带菌阳性率(46.7%)明显高于A组和B组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),A组和B组之间比较,差异无统计学意义,均有较好的即刻消毒效果,但刷洗法对皮肤损伤较大. 结论 外科手消毒前推荐使用揉搓清洁洗手方法 .

  18. ATP生物荧光法快速监测外科手消毒的应用研究%Application research on ATP bioluminescence assay in the evaluation of the effectiveness for monitoring surgical hand antisepsis rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯雅娟; 许晨耘; 俞诗娃; 周淑萍; 冯菲菲


    目的 探讨三磷酸腺苷(ATP)生物荧光法在外科手消毒效果评价中应用的可行性及能反映外科手消毒合格的ATP相对吸光值.方法 采用ATP生物荧光法与细菌培养计数法观察外科手消毒监测效果,用百分位数法计算ATP生物荧光仪的测量RLU值95%正常值上限,并进行成本比较.结果 ATP生物荧光仪测量的RLU值与细菌培养监测结果不成线性关系,RLU值95%正常值上限为48.02;其监测成本比细菌培养法节约59.89元.结论 ATP生物荧光法可快速监测外科手消毒效果,且操作成本较低,利于推广至现场快速监测工作.%OBJECTIVE To discuss the application feasibility of the ATP bioluminescence assay in the evaluation of the effectiveness of surgical hand antisepsis and ATP relative extinction value which can reflect the disinfection qualified. METHODS We used the ATP bioluminescence assay and bacilli culture notation respectively, to monitor the effectiveness of surgical hand antisepsis and calculate by method of percentiles to measure RLU value 95% normal value upper limit of ATP bioluminescence assay, then compared the cost. RESULTS The RLU value of ATP bioluminescence assay was not linear related to the results of bacilli culture, RLU value 95% normal value upper limit of ATP bioluminescence assay was 48.02, and the cost was 59.89 RMB less than bacilli culture. CONCLUSION ATP bioluminescence assay may appraise the effectiveness of monitoring surgical hand antisepsis rapidly and is lower cost, which can promote application on scene monitoring.

  19. Status Quo of Twice Supplying Water for High Building and Antisepsis Effect of MF-2 Disinfector%高层建筑二次供水的现状及MF-2消毒剂的消毒效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆增; 王金兰


    Objective To discuss status quo of twice supplying water for high building and validateantisepsis effect of MF - 2 disinfector. Methods By field test and searching reference, discussing thequestions of above - describe. According to state prescriptive method for disinfecting drinking water, vali-dating the antisepsis effect of disinfecting twice supplying water. Results Currently, establishment fortwice supplying water and the quality of the supplying water has some questions. According to the qualityof twice supplying water, acceding to some MF - 2 disinfector to disinfect, it will achieve the standard ofdrinking water. Conclusion Circumstance management department and sanitation supervise departmentshould smeliorate and manage the quality of twice supplying water, and insure the safety of using drinkingwater. So MF - 2 disinfector may replace contain chlorin disinfector to disinfect twice supplying water.

  20. Application of New Type Examining and Repairing Technology in Antisepsis of Desulfurization Absorbing Tower%新型检修工艺在脱硫吸收塔防腐中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The paper analyzes the reason of the tower wal perforation and leakage from the absorbing tower of the wet process of FGD in the thermal power plant. Based on the practice application of the Shanwei power plant, the paper puts forward a sort of new examining and repairing technology in antisepsis of absorbing tower, it is provided with significance for reference to settle the similar problem of FGD system.%分析了火力发电厂湿法烟气脱硫吸收塔塔壁穿孔泄漏的原因,根据汕尾电厂的实践应用提出了一种新的吸收塔防腐检修工艺,对解决烟气脱硫系统类似问题具有借鉴意义。

  1. Research progress in advancing sorbic acid and potassium sorbate's effect in antisepsis%提高山梨酸及钾盐防腐效果的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁文慧; 陆利霞; 熊晓辉


    Sorbic acid has been recognized so far as one kind of the best antiseptic agents that can participate in normal metabolism of human body.Sorbic acid is well-known food preservative,but it has little preservative effect in the neutral condition and it also has poor water solubility.Potassium sorbate has good water solubility,but it can not turn into sorbic acid molecular which has preservative effect in the acid condition.The study on advancing sorbic acid and potassium sorbate's effect in antisepsis was summarized.%山梨酸在人体内能参加正常的新陈代谢,是迄今为止国际公认最好的食品防腐剂之一。山梨酸是酸性防腐剂,不易溶于水,且在中性条件下,抑菌效果差;而常用的山梨酸钾在水中的溶解性好,但在酸性条件下很难形成真正具有抑菌作用的山梨酸分子。本文主要介绍了目前国内外对提高山梨酸及钾盐防腐效果的研究进展。

  2. 外科手消毒后术中不同时段手带菌情况监测的研究%Analysis of clinical disinfection effect at different time during operation course after surgical handa antisepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹燕; 黄旭华; 朱红军; 郑良杰; 林本丹


    Objective To observe the influence of hands-washing and non-hands-washing on clinical disinfection effect before surgical hands antisepsis.Methods Totally 40 surgcal staff wee divided into the handa-washing group and the non-hands-washing group.The sterilizing effect of handa at diggerent time points during operations and kinds of bacteria colony were compared between two groups.Results Bacteria colony of hands at different time points during operations showed no significant difference between two groups.Both groups were detected bacteris colony on their hands,mainly made up of coagulase negative staphylococcus,corynebacterium and eaterococcus and no difference was seen between two groups.Conchusions The non-hands-washing method can acquire the same disinfection effect as traditional hands-washing method.Its disinfection effect lasts three hours,easy to operate,little stimulation on the skin,and was worthy of clinical application.%目的 探讨外科手消毒前免刷手与刷手两种方法对术中不同时点手带菌情况的影响.方法 以参加手术的外科医生和洗手护士为研究对象,随机分为刷手组和无刷手组各20人,比较免刷手和传统刷手洗手法在使用同种新型消毒剂后及术中不同时段的手清洁消毒效果及手皮肤菌落种类.结果 经比较发现,2组手术人员术中不同时段手部存活菌落数比较无显著差异.无刷手组与刷手组各时段手皮肤均有细菌检出,主要以凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌、棒状杆菌及肠球菌为主,组间比较无显著差异.结论 使用新型消毒剂进行外科手消毒,免刷手能够达到与传统刷手洗手法相当的清洁消毒效果,消毒作用能持续3h以上,免去刷手步骤,且操作简单使用方便,对皮肤刺激小,值得临床推广使用.

  3. O gluconato de clorexidina ou o álcool-iodo-álcool na anti-sepsia de campos operatórios em cães Chlorhexidine gluconate or alcohol-iodine-alcohol in the antisepsis of surgical area in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Adair Rebellatto da Silva


    Full Text Available Foi comparada a efetividade da anti-sepsia de sítios operatórios em vinte e quatro animais, subdivididos em três grupos, utilizando água destilada (grupo controle, álcool-iodo-álcool (grupo I e gluconato de clorexidina (grupo II. As amostras foram coletadas através de swab da pele, depois da tricotomia (T0, após anti-sepsia (T1 e duas horas após o uso do anti-séptico (T2, e submetidas à contagem de Unidades Formadoras de Colônia(UFC/ml. Nos três grupos, ocorreu crescimento bacteriano em T0; no T1 a redução média de UFC/ml foi de 26,70% para o grupo controle, 91,61% para o grupo I e 96,67% para o grupo II. No T2, as reduções nos respectivos grupos foram de 21,02%, 91,56% e 96,89%. As duas técnicas utilizando anti-sépticos reduziram significativamente o número de bactérias da pele, tanto no T1 quanto no T2 (pThe efficacy of the antisepsis in a surgical area was compared in twenty four mongrel dogs, divided in three groups, using sterile water, alcohol-iodine-alcohol and chlorhexidine gluconate. All samples of skin swab were collected after thricothomy, after antisepsis, and two hours after application of the antiseptic solution. Samples were collected with a sterile swab and the Colony Formation Unities/ml was determined. Bacterial growth were observed in samples from all groups during the first collection. However, at the first counting (T1, the average reduction of CFU/ml observed was 26.7% for the control group, 96.61% group one, and 96.67% group two. At the second counting (T2, reductions of 21.02%, 91.56%, and 96.89% for the respective groups were observed. The two antiseptic techniques utilized were able to reduced significantly the number of bacteria present on the skin, at T1 as well as T2 (p<0.05. The equality of these two antiseptic methods was demonstrated since no significant difference (p<0.05 between these treatments was observed.

  4. Revisão sistemática sobre antissepsia cirúrgica das mãos com preparação alcoólica em comparação aos produtos tradicionais Revisión sistemática sobre antisepsia quirúrgica de manos con preparación alcohólica comparada a productos tradicionales A systematic review of surgical hand antisepsis utilizing an alcohol preparation compared to traditional products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen de Jesus Gonçalves


    soporte a la seguridad de las preparaciones alcohólicas para la antisepsia quirúrgica de las manos.Surgical hand antisepsis aims at preventing surgical site infections, an important cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality and escalating hospital costs. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of alcohol preparations with traditional surgical hand antisepsis products by means of a systematic review of the literature. Primary and secondary studies were included, considering the microbial count or surgical site infection rates as outcomes. The search was performed on the BVS Portal, PubMed, Ask and MEDLINE. Twenty-five studies were selected (two systematic reviews, nineteen experimental and four cohort studies. The alcohol preparations promoted a microbial reduction equal to and/or greater than traditional products in 17 studies, and a lesser reduction in four studies; similar surgical site infection rates were identified. Therefore, there is scientific evidence that support the safety of alcohol preparations for surgical hand antisepsis.

  5. Effect of biomechanical preparation and calcium hydroxide pastes on the antisepsis of root canal systems in dogs Ação do preparo biomecânico e de pastas à base de hidróxido de cálcio na anti-sepsia do sistema de canais radiculares de cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janir Alves Soares


    Full Text Available In the endodontic treatment of root canals with necrotic pulps associated with periapical radiolucent areas, one of the main objectives of treatment consists in eliminating the microorganisms spread throughout the ramifications of the root canal system. The scope of this study was to evaluate the antiseptic efficacy of biomechanical preparation and two calcium hydroxide-based pastes, in dogs' teeth with experimentally induced chronic periapical lesions. After initial microbiological sampling, instrumentation of the root canals was undertaken using the conventional technique, using K type files used in conjunction with a solution of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. After ninety-six hours, further microbiological sampling was undertaken and Calen/CPMC or Calasept pastes were applied for 15 and 30 days. Ninety six hours after the removal of the medication, the third microbiological sampling was undertaken and finally histomicrobiological analysis followed using Brown & Brenn staining. The results were analyzed using the Kruskall-Wallis test, with a level of significance established at 5% (p0.05, characterized by an elevated incidence of cocci, bacilli and filaments, predominantly gram-positive, in root canals, secondary canals and accessories, apical cementoplasts and dentinal tubules, but with a low incidence of microorganisms in areas of cementum resorption and the periapical lesion. The biomechanical preparation and intracanal dressing based on calcium hydroxide were important in the antisepsis of the root canal; however, both procedures did not produce significant changes in the microbiological aspects of the root canal system.No tratamento endodôntico dos canais radiculares com polpa necrótica associados à áreas radiolúcidas periapicais, um dos principais objetivos consiste em eliminar os microrganismos situados em todo o sistema de ramificações. Por conseguinte, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia anti-séptica do preparo

  6. Effect of rotary instrumentation and of the association of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on the antisepsis of the root canal system in dogs Efeito da instrumentação automatizada e da associação hidróxido de cálcio e clorexidina na anti-sepsia de canais radiculares de cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janir Alves Soares


    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the antisepsis of the root canal system (RCS and periapical region (PR provided by rotary instrumentation associated with chlorhexidine + calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicament. Chronic periapical lesions were induced in 26 pre-molar roots in two dogs. After microbiological sampling, automatic instrumentation using the Profile system and irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution, with a final rinse of 14.3% EDTA followed by profuse irrigation with physiological saline were carried out in 18 root canals. After drying the canals, a paste based on calcium hydroxide associated with a 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution was placed inside them. After 21 days, the medication was removed, leaving the root canals empty and coronally sealed. After 96 hours, a final microbiological sample was obtained, followed by histomicrobiological processing by the Brown & Brenn method. Eight untreated root canals represented the control group (C-G. Based on the Mann-Whitney test at a confidence level of 5% (p Este estudo objetivou avaliar a anti-sepsia do sistema de canais radiculares (SCR e da região periapical (RP proporcionada pela instrumentação automatizada associada a medicação intracanal à base de hidróxido de cálcio + clorexidina. Lesões periapicais crônicas foram induzidas em 26 raízes de pré-molares de dois cães. Após amostragem microbiológica, procedeu-se à instrumentação automatizada de 18 canais radiculares (CR utilizando-se o sistema Profile e a solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25%, com irrigação final com EDTA a 14,3%, seguida de irrigação profusa com soro fisiológico. Após se secarem os canais, foi colocada em seu interior uma pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio P.A. associada à solução de digluconato de clorexidina a 2%. Transcorridos 21 dias, removeu-se a medicação, deixando-se os CR vazios e selados coronariamente. Após 96 horas, obteve-se a amostra microbiol

  7. Dişhekimliği Cerrahisinde Antisepsis ve Asepsis



    ÖZETYara enfeksiyonu kısaca anlatıldıktan sonra asepsie ve antisepsisin tarihçesinden ve cerrahideki öneminden bahsedildi.Operasyon sırasında açılan yaraların ve dolayısıyla bütün organizmanın enfekte olmaması için asepsis antisepsisin nasıl gerçekleştirilebileceği ve bilhassa dişhekimlerinin muayenehanelerinde mümkün olan sterilizasyon şekilleri anlatıldı.

  8. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa


    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene.

  9. [Specific antisepsis and environmental disinfection in preventing "Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea"]. (United States)

    Agolini, G; Protano, C; Puro, V; Raitano, A; Ferraro, F; Vitali, M


    In the last years, Clostridium difficile acquired great interest for public health because of constant increase of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), especially in nosocomial field and as a consequences of its pathogenicity and virulence. Oro-faecal transmission and great environmental persistence of Clostridium difficile indicate hand hygiene of health care workers and environmental disinfection practices as key interventions for prevention and control of nosocomial CDAD. The current indications relative to the hand hygiene suggest the use of soap and water for hand washing and, to achieve a better compliance of health care workers to this treatment, the alternative use of sodium dichloroisocyanurate or alcohol-based solution or gel waterless. Regard to environmental disinfection, to avoid high concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (in the magnitude of 5.000-6.000 ppm), necessary to reduce microbic load of dirty environment, the most appropriate treatment should consist of 2 phases: preliminary cleaning with water and detergents or polyphenol, followed by treatment with solution containing 1.000 ppm available chlorine, obtained from sodium hypochlorite or sodium dichloroisocyanurate.

  10. Keynote lecture: perspective of infection control and prevention in hospitals-importance of antisepsis. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroyoshi


    Since the end of the 20th century, precautions of hospital infection have been re-evaluated with rationalization. Evidence-based precautions are proposed to be discussed. Problems of hospital infection in the early 21st century are highlighted as follows: (1) infections in compromised patients; (2) emergence of resistant bacteria; (3) terminal infection; (4) bloodborne virus infection; (5) neonatal infections; (6) emerging and re-emerging diseases. In the near future, it will be possible to lower the hospital infection rate by increasing medical in place of surgical treatments, the development of low invasive surgeries and/or progress of immunotherapy instead of chemotherapy. Strategies for hospital infection control and prevention in the early 21st century are based on evidence-based precautions, effective organization, accurate surveillance, compliance of precautions, risk management, outcome evaluation and feedback, economical evaluation, sterility assurance and peer review for these strategies.

  11. 现代消毒学及其进展%Mordern antisepsis and its progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    一个独立学科的形成必须具备三个基本条件:(1)有一部奠基专著;(2)有一家专业杂志;(3)有一批专业队伍。1977年美国的BlockSS出版了(Disinfection,Sterilization and Preservation)(消毒,灭茵和保存),这部书详细介绍了消毒灭茵和保存的理论和技术,提出了现代消毒学概念,为国际现代消毒学科的建立奠了基。在我国,1986年薛广波主编出版了我国第一部消毒学专著《实用消毒学》,这部90万字的著作首次全面系统地阐述了传统消毒学的理论和技术,为我国消毒学学科的建立奠了基。1984年,刘育京等创办了我国第一家消毒学杂志《消毒与灭菌》(后改为《中国消毒学杂志》),迄今为止,是我国唯一的专业的消毒学杂志。1985年王有森等受卫生部委托组织召开了“北京国际消毒会议”,此后在卫生部的领导下组织和发展了中国消毒学专业队伍。应该说,我国消毒学成为一个独立学科是在80年代中期。1992年我国学科分类上将消毒学列为一个独立的学科。2002年,薛广波主编出版了《现代消毒学》,这部240万字的专著首次详细阐述了现代消毒学的基本概念、研究内容和研究方法,将我国的传统消毒学推进到了和国际接轨的现代消毒学阶段。


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旭华; 郑良杰; 林静莹


    目的 比较外科两种洗手方式对消毒效果的影响,研究手消毒后不同时段消毒效果的保持情况.方法 采用现场采样检测方法,对外科医护人员术前刷手与不刷手消毒效果进行比较,同时观察手消毒后不同时段消毒效果.结果 外科医护人员术前刷手与不刷手清洗后消毒效果基本一致.手消毒后即刻及手术持续3h之内,手上菌数均可保持在≤5 cfu/cm2.结论 外科医护人员术前洗手刷与不刷,对手消毒效果及其保持时间无影响.

  13. 硅烷浸渍防腐在水工码头中的应用及其对耐久性的影响%The Application and Durability Effect of Impregnation Antisepsis by Silane in Hydraulic Wharf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔坤; 姚学颖


    硅烷是一种性能优异的渗透型浸渍剂,赋予混凝土表面憎水性,并保持呼吸透气功能。表面憎水性使混凝凝土吸水率极低,氯离子吸收效率降低90%以上,有效抑制海水的侵蚀,减缓因钢筋锈蚀和冻融循环对混凝土的破坏,保持混凝土的耐久性。%The silane is a kind of excellent penetrating impr-egnant, which makes concrete hydrophobic at surface and keeps breathable function. Surface hydrophobicity is deduced sharply in water absorption and the absorbing ef iciency of chloride ion is reduced by more than 90%, so that the seawater erosion is effectively restrained, the damage of concrete caused by the corrosion of steel bars and freeze-thaw cycle is relieved, the durability of concrete is kept.

  14. 硫酸盐还原菌腐蚀影响因素及防腐技术的研究进展%Research Progress in Influencing Factors of Corrosion by Sulfate-reducing Bacteria and Corresponding Antisepsis Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗月; 谢飞; 吴明; 王丹; 周伟光; 潘哲


    ABSTRACT:The corrosion phenomenon of metal materials is quite common, which is widely found in soil, air, marine and oil fields, and sulfate reducing bacteria ( SRB) is one of the most important kind of corrosion-causing microorganisms. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the corrosion caused by SRB in metal materials. The physiological characteristics and corrosion mecha-nism of SRB were introduced. The effects of material factors ( composition of alloy, composition content, organization structure etc. ) , environmental factors ( chloride ions, iron ions, magnetic field and temperature etc. ) and other factors ( pH, oxygen con-tent, CO2 , flow velocity etc. ) on metal material corrosion caused by SRB were analyzed. Three kinds of control measures against microbial corrosion ( physical methods, chemical methods and biological methods) and their mechanisms were introduced in detail, providing a theoretical basis for the corrosion prevention process, and biological methods were considered to have good development prospects. The existing problems in microbial corrosion study were summarized and the microbial corrosion mechanism by environ-mental factors and mechanical factors was considered as the core of future development.%微生物对金属材料的腐蚀现象广泛存在于土壤、空气、海洋和油田等环境下,其中硫酸盐还原菌是最重要的一种腐蚀微生物,因此对金属材料硫酸盐还原菌腐蚀现象的深入研究有着重要意义。简单介绍了硫酸盐还原菌的生理特征和腐蚀机理。重点阐述了硫酸盐还原菌对金属材料腐蚀过程的影响因素,包括材料因素(合金的成分、成分含量、组织结构等)、环境因素( Cl-、Fe2+、磁场、温度等)及其他因素( pH、含氧量、CO2、流速等)。详细综述了控制微生物腐蚀的3种方法(物理方法、化学方法和生物方法)及其防腐机理,为防腐蚀工艺提供理论基础,并认为生物技术防腐方式具有较好的发展前景。最后,总结了目前微生物腐蚀研究存在的一些问题,并提出环境因素和力学因素共同作用下的微生物腐蚀机理是未来腐蚀研究发展方向的核心。

  15. Detecting and Renovation of Antisepsis Tier for City Housing Estate Gas Steel Buries Field Pipelines%城市小区天然气钢质埋地管道防腐层检测与修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李渊平; 袁洪波; 陆军全



  16. 川芎提取液对脐橙的防腐保鲜效果%Effect ofLigusticum chuanxiong hortextract for antisepsis and preservation of navel orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓利珍; 刘可; 冷飞凡; 肖红伟; 淳炯; 杨文侠


    为了开发植物源脐橙贮藏保鲜技术,该文研究了川芎提取液在离体和活体条件下对采后脐橙的主要致腐菌意大利青霉和指状青霉的抑制作用,以及对贮藏期脐橙品质和生理生化的影响。结果显示:在离体条件下,川芎提取液对2种供试菌种有显著的抑制作用(P0.05)。结果表明,川芎提取液用于脐橙贮藏保鲜切实可行,研究结果为脐橙天然保鲜剂的开发及脐橙在贮藏、运输和销售期间防腐保鲜提供参考。%Concerning the tissue of the decay of navel oranges caused by blue and green moulds, the continuous use of fungicides has faced 2 major problems: the increasing public concern regarding fungicidal residue contamination, and the proliferation of resistance in the pathogen populations. The aim of this research was to develop the new preservative technology of navel oranges. The bioactivity ofLigusticum chuanxiong Hort extractin vivo andvitro againstPenicillium italicumand Penicillium digitatum, and their effects on the quality of postharvest navel orange fruits were studied. The Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort’s rhizoma was extracted by 70% (v/v) ethanol under ultrasonic conditions. Then the concentration of the extract was adjusted for further experiments. In thein vitroexperiments, thechuanxiong extract was added into potato dextrose agar (medium), and a series ofchuanxiong extracts with different concentrations containing medium were developed to test the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) onPenicillium italicumand Penicillium digitatum. The results showed thatPenicillium italicumand Penicillium digitatumwere inhibited effectively in presence of the extract, and the MIC was both 25.00 g/mL. In thein vivo experiments, the fruits were wounded, inoculated withPenicillium italicum orPenicillium Digitatum, and treated withchuanxiong extract. After 1 week, the green and blue moulds incidences on treated oranges were both reduced. It demonstrated that the extract could significantly inhibit pathogen grow in the navel oranges when the concentration was 4%. The extract was further used on postharvest navel oranges, and the extract had no adverse impact on fruits. What was more, 3% and 4% extracts were good for fruits, especially the 4% extract. The results showed that, compared to the control group, the extract had a significant effect on the preservation and quality maintenance of postharvest navel oranges when the concentration was 4%. The decay time was put off, the fruit rotting rate, the weightlessness rate, and the malonaldehyde (MDA) content were significantly reduced; the activity of peroxidase (POD) was induced, the decrease of total acid content was delayed, and the contents of total sugar and total soluble solid were kept well to some extent, but it had little effect on the peel’s color and the content of vitamin C. After 100 d storage at room temperature, the fruit treated with 4% extract had the rotting rate of 5.42%, the weightlessness rate of 4.16%, the color value of 17.18, the total acid content of 0.51 g/(100 g), the vitamin C content of 52.40 mg/(100 g), the total soluble solid content of 13.9%, the total sugar content of 11.70 g/(100 g), the peroxidase activity of 8.3 u/(min·g), and the malonaldehyde content of 3.89μmol/g. The results indicated that, applying thechuanxiong extract on postharvest navel orange fruits was simple and feasible. This research provides a reference for the exploitation of natural fungicides, and the preservation of navel oranges with Chinese medicine during storage, transportation and selling.

  17. Efeito da anti-sepsia da ferida cirúrgica alveolar sobre o crescimento bacteriano em fios de sutura de algodão Effect of the antisepsis of the alveolar surgical wound on bacterial growth over cotton suture threads


    SOARES Ulysses Nicida; Ito, Izabel Yoko; ROCHA BARROS Valdemar Mallet da


    Embora os fios de sutura empregados rotineiramente em cirurgias bucais possam favorecer o acúmulo e o crescimento bacteriano, há poucos trabalhos na literatura relatando preocupação com a anti-sepsia da ferida cirúrgica durante o período pós-operatório e antes de sua remoção. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de dois métodos de anti-sepsia intra-oral sobre o crescimento bacteriano em fios de sutura de algodão. Os resultados evidenciaram que todos os fios de sutura apresen...

  18. 功能性玻璃钢在烟气排放控制工程中的应用%Application of Functional Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics in Flue Gas Emission Control Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺朝铸; 赵丰; 吴斐; 许凯奇; 黄楠


    The paper presents the several common use equipment antisepsis programs in lfue gas emission control en-gineering of power plant;explicates the development on the compound material antisepsis program of functional glass ifber reinforced plastics and application prospect in the antisepsis ifeld of wet lfue gas.%介绍了火电厂烟气排放控制工程中几种常用的设备防腐方案,阐述了功能性玻璃钢复合材料防腐方案的发展和在湿烟气防腐领域的应用前景。

  19. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene. (United States)

    Goldberg, Judith L


    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  20. The Proteolytically Stable Peptidomimetic Pam-(Lys-ßNSpe)6-NH2 Selectively Inhibits Human Neutrophil Activation via Formyl Peptide Receptor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Larsen, Camilla J.;


    Immunomodulatory host defense peptides (HDPs) are considered to be lead compounds for novel anti-sepsis and anti-inflammatory agents. However, development of drugs based on HDPs has been hampered by problems with toxicity and low bioavailability due to in vivo proteolysis. Here, a subclass...

  1. Nanostructure formation enhances the activity of LPS-neutralizing peptides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas-Moruno, C.; Cascales, L.; Cruz, L.J.; Mora, P.; Perez-Paya, E.; Albericio, F.


    Peptides that interact with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can provide the basis for the development of new antisepsis agents. In this work, several LPS-neutralizing acyl peptides derived from LALF, BPI, and SAP were prepared, structurally characterized, and biologically evaluated. In all cases, peptides

  2. A Quality Improvement Approach to Reducing the Caesarean section Surgical Site Infection Rate in a Regional Hospital

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’ Hanlon, M


    Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are used extensively by hospitals as a basis for quality improvement. A 30-day post-discharge SSI programme for Caesarean section operations has been implemented in Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital since 2011. It has been shown that skin antisepsis and antibiotic prophylaxis are key factors in the prevention of SSI. Using quality improvement methodology, an infection prevention bundle was introduced to address these two factors. Skin antisepsis was changed from povidone-iodine to chlorhexidine-alcohol. Compliance with choice of antibiotic prophylaxis increased from 89.6% in 2014 to 98.5% in 2015. Compliance with timing also improved. The SSI rate of 7.5% was the lowest recorded to date, with the majority of SSIs (64%) diagnosed after hospital discharge. The level of variation was also reduced. However, the continued presence of variation and possibility of lower infection rates from the literature imply that further improvements are required.

  3. Povidone-iodine in the treatment of burn patients. (United States)

    Zellner, P R; Bugyi, S


    The improvement in infusion therapy of burn patients in the last decades has led to a marked reduction of the early mortality rate and to an increase in the importance of severe wound infection and septicaemia. For the control of infection, detailed bacteriological monitoring is recommended. The main therapeutic fields for prevention of infection are: immunotherapy, antisepsis, aseptic techniques, and rapid restoration of the destroyed body surface. The most important part of antisepsis in burns is topical treatment. The good bacteriological and clinical results with povidone-iodine (PVP-I), in combination with open treatment are described. A possible disadvantage of this therapy was the extensive iodine resorption. However, no disorders of thyroid function were revealed, and the TRH test indicated no abnormal reactions of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. The high serum and urine iodine levels returned rapidly to normal after discontinuing the PVP-I application.

  4. Extremely high prevalence of antiseptic resistant Quaternary Ammonium Compound E gene among clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Malaysia


    Babaei, Mohammad Reza; Sulong, Anita; Hamat, Rukman Awang; Nordin, Syafinaz Amin; Neela, Vasantha Kumari


    Background Antiseptics are commonly used for the management of MDR (multiple drug resistance) pathogens in hospitals. They play crucial roles in the infection control practices. Antiseptics are often used for skin antisepsis, gauze dressing, preparation of anatomical sites for surgical procedure, hand sterilization before in contact with an infected person, before an invasive procedure and as surgical scrub. Methods We screened 122 multiple drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) isola...

  5. Handbook on Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus): Health Evaluation Procedures for Use by Land Managers and Researchers (United States)


    mucous membranes Anemia , severe debilitation, shock Ulcers, crusts or scabs (e.g., plaques) on tongue or inside mouth Herpesvirus, iridovirus, bacterial...disease (URTD) in gopher tortoises. MS Thesis . Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University. Brown, D. R., B. C. Crenshaw, G. S. McLaughlin, I. M. Schumacher...1 27 Glossary and Acronyms Anemia : A reduction in the number or volume of red blood cells in the blood. Antisepsis: The elimination or

  6. The gut microbiota and gastrointestinal surgery. (United States)

    Guyton, Kristina; Alverdy, John C


    Surgery involving the gastrointestinal tract continues to prove challenging because of the persistence of unpredictable complications such as anastomotic leakage and life-threatening infections. Removal of diseased intestinal segments results in substantial catabolic stress and might require complex reconstructive surgery to maintain the functional continuity of the intestinal tract. As gastrointestinal surgery necessarily involves a breach of an epithelial barrier colonized by microorganisms, preoperative intestinal antisepsis is used to reduce infection-related complications. The current approach to intestinal antisepsis varies widely across institutions and countries with little understanding of its mechanism of action, effect on the gut microbiota and overall efficacy. Many of the current approaches to intestinal antisepsis before gastrointestinal surgery run counter to emerging concepts of intestinal microbiota contributing to immune function and recovery from injury. Here, we review evidence outlining the role of gut microbiota in recovery from gastrointestinal surgery, particularly in the development of infections and anastomotic leak. To make surgery safer and further reduce complications, a molecular, genetic and functional understanding of the response of the gastrointestinal tract to alterations in its microbiota is needed. Methods can then be developed to preserve the health-promoting functions of the microbiota while at the same time suppressing their harmful effects.

  7. [The history of pediatric plastic surgery]. (United States)

    Glicenstein, J


    The history of pediatric plastic surgery is linked to that of paediatrics. Until the early 19th century, there was no children's hospital. Only some operations were performed before the discovery of anesthesia, aseptic and antisepsis: cleft lip repair, amputation for polydactyly. Many operations were described in the 19th century for cleft lip and palate repair, hypospadias, syndactylies. The first operation for protruding ears was performed in 1881. Pediatric plastic surgery is diversified in the 2nd half of the 20th century: cleft lip and palate, burns, craniofacial surgery, hand surgery become separate parts of the speciality.

  8. [Johannes Anton von Mikulicz-Radecki (1850-1905). His contributions to the development of urology]. (United States)

    Zajaczkowski, T; Zamann, A M


    On June 14, 1905, Johann Anton von Mikulicz-Radecki, one of the most famous surgeons of the time, died. He was a disciple of famous Theodor Billroth of Vienna and the teacher of Ferdinand Sauerbruch in Breslau. Mikulicz-Radecki's merits in the field of the history of medicine are based on his achievements in developing the system of antisepsis and asepsis. He also devoted himself to urological surgery, and his name is linked with diseases, operations, and construction of new medical instruments. Mikulicz-Radecki created two surgical schools, one in Cracow and a second one in Breslau, where he worked for over 15 years until his death.

  9. Anti-inflammatory Properties of Antimicrobial Peptides and Peptidomimetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Franzyk, Henrik


    and peptidomimetics appear to display promising activity. However, in this ongoing search for potential antisepsis drug leads, it will be preferable that the assays used by different research groups lead to readily comparable data for the most efficient compounds. Here, we propose and describe standardized methods...... to be used for testing of novel compounds for their LPS- and LTA-neutralizing capacity with a focus on functional suppression of pro-inflammatory responses in cell-based systems. To best mimic the human in vivo conditions, we suggest the use of freshly isolated human leukocytes combined with an appropriate...

  10. Antiseptic Effect of Conventional Povidone-Iodine Scrub, Chlorhexidine Scrub, and Waterless Hand Rub in a Surgical Room: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Tsai, Jui-Chen; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Huang, Yen-Jung; Loh, El-Wui; Wen, Hsiao-Yun; Wang, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Yin-Tai; Hsieh, Wen-Shyang; Tam, Ka-Wai


    OBJECTIVE Effective perioperative hand antisepsis is crucial for the safety of patients and medical staff in surgical rooms. The antimicrobial effectiveness of different antiseptic methods, including conventional hand scrubs and waterless hand rubs, has not been well evaluated. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the 3 antiseptic methods among surgical staff of Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital. For each method used, a group of 80 participants was enrolled. INTERVENTION Surgical hand cleansing with conventional 10% povidone-iodine scrub, conventional 4% chlorhexidine scrub, or waterless hand rub (1% chlorhexidine gluconate and 61% ethyl alcohol). RESULTS Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were collected using the hand imprinting method before and after disinfection and after surgery. After surgical hand disinfection, the mean CFU counts of the conventional chlorhexidine (0.5±0.2, Pscrub and waterless hand rub were superior to a conventional povidone-iodine product in bacterial inhibition. We recommend using conventional chlorhexidine scrub as a standard method for perioperative hand antisepsis. Waterless hand rub may be used if the higher cost is affordable. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:417-422.

  11. [Conditions of dental extractions in areas health centers of Senegal]. (United States)

    Faye, D; Tine, S D; Cisse, D; Lo, C M; Mbodj, El B; Diouf, M; Diallo, P D


    Dental extraction is a surgical act frequently carried out in the African dental structures. It requires the rigorous respect of the conditions of asepsis and antisepsis. Equipments and anaesthetic and avulsional products must be also sufficient. Our study undertaken among 46 dental services in areas health centers of Senegal aimed to determine the conditions under which dental extractions are carried out. The principle results of our study showed that 93% of dental practitioners wore sterilized gloves. 49% of the dentist's care activity consisted in dental extractions. 50% of the practitioners re-use anaesthetic needles, 2% re-use anaesthetic carpules. We noticed that the dental structures were facing a deficit of materials and products of extraction. Face to the outbreak of serious illnesses as infections of HIV and Hepatitis B, the practitioner and his team must be sensitized and trained to struggle against the transmissible infections and to carry out the dental extraction only if the conditions of asepsis and antisepsis are joined together. A pleading towards the medical authorities must be done to support the services in equipments and periodic renewals of the materials and products of extractions.

  12. Research on antiseptic system of nano-silver cosmetics%纳米银化妆品防腐体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈欣; 白世贞


    化妆品防腐体系的构建极为复杂,化妆品中的微生物对防腐剂具有一定的适应性,传统的防腐体系越来越不能满足新型抗菌化妆品的需要.纳米银通过光催化反应和接触反应实现抑菌功能.与普通药物相比,纳米银具有广谱杀菌、无耐药性的特点,这为构建纳米化妆品抗菌体系提供了思路.%The establishment of an antisepsis system of cosmetics is extremely complicated and microorganisms have a certain level of fitness for preservative, so traditional antisepsis system cannot meet the needs of new antimicrobial cosmetics. Through light catalytic response and handling response, nano-silver realized the bacteriostasis function. Compared with the ordinary drugs, nano-silver has universal bactericide without drug tolerance. This paper provided a new way for the cosmetics anticorrosion system.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建华; 韩舞鹰


    The preparation method of ClO2, its some present products and application are introduced in this paper. Its preparation methods mainly include chemical and electrolysis methods, and their raw materials are mainly sodium chlorate, sodium chlorite and table salt. The present chloride dioxide products are mainly the stable ClO2 aqueous solution and solid chloride dioxide; the solid chloride dioxide has adsorbing type, gelatifying type and mono-packing type etc. due to different preparation technique. They are extensively applied to the aspects of disinfection, sterilization, algue removal, pulp-bleaching, air purification, food antisepsis and retaining freshness etc. of drinking water, industrial wastewater, hospital sewage, industrial cycle cooling water, fowl slaughter, indoor hygiene, beer production and aquiculture etc.%本文详细地介绍了二氧化氯的制备方法和现有的几种二氧化氯制品及其应用。

  14. A review of current research in light-based technologies for treatment of podiatric infectious disease states. (United States)

    Bornstein, Eric


    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in potential phototherapy technologies for the local treatment of bacterial and fungal infection. Currently, onychomycosis is the principle disease that is the target of these phototherapies in podiatric medicine. Some of these technologies are currently undergoing in vitro and in vivo trials approved by institutional review boards. The three light-based technologies are ultraviolet light therapy, near infrared photo-inactivation therapy, and photothermal ablative antisepsis. Each of these technologies have markedly dissimilar mechanisms of action. In this review, each technology will be discussed from the perspectives of history, photobiology, individual mechanism of action, safety, and potential clinical efficacy, with data presented from published material. This review is intended to give podiatric physicians detailed information on state-of-the-art infectious disease phototherapy.

  15. Basque Museum of the History of Medicine: conservation of heritage, teaching and research. (United States)

    Erkoreka, Anton


    The Basque Museum of the History of Medicine was founded in 1982 to preserve the historic memory of medicine in the Basque Country and conserve its scientific heritage. Its permanent exposition comprises approx. 6,000 medical objects of the 19th and 20th centuries arranged, thematically in 24 rooms devoted to different medical specialities: folk medicine, unconventional medicine, pharmacy, weights and measures, asepsis and antisepsis, microscopes, laboratory material, X-rays, obstetrics and gynaecology, surgery, anesthesia, endoscope, odontology, cardiology, ophthalmology, electrotherapy, pathological anatomy and natural sciences. Temporary exhibitions are also held. The Museum is located on the university campus (UPV/EHU) and is important in the training of students in the Faculty of Medicine and the students coming from other faculties. Teaching and research constitute two of the pillars of the Museum that are complemented with publications and the organization of conferences, lectures and other activities.

  16. A historical perspective: infection from cadaveric dissection from the 18th to 20th centuries. (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Benninger, Brion; Agutter, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane


    Today, the study of human anatomy utilizing the ultimate study guide, the cadaver, is relatively safe. In the past, however, human dissection was dangerous. Prior to the germ theory, antibiotics, and the use of gloves, cadavers were often life threatening to dissectors including both the teacher and the student. Medical students who graduated in the United States before 1880 were unlikely to practice antisepsis in the dissecting room. In the present article, we review human cadaveric dissection in Europe and the United States primarily from the 1700s to the early 1900s in regard to its potential for transmission of infection to the dissector. A brief account of the infectious hazards of human cadavers in general and those of cadavers used for dissection in particular is given.

  17. Chlorhexidine--pharmacology and clinical applications. (United States)

    Lim, K-S; Kam, P C A


    Chlorhexidine is a widely used skin antisepsis preparation and is an ingredient in toothpaste and mouthwash. It is an especially effective antiseptic when combined with alcohol. Its antimicrobial effects persist because it is binds strongly to proteins in the skin and mucosa, making it an effective antiseptic ingredient for handwashing, skin preparation for surgery and the placement of intravascular access. Catheters impregnated with chlorhexidine and antimicrobial agents can reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Contact dermatitis related to chlorhexidine is not common in health care workers. The incidence of contact dermatitis to chlorhexidine in atopic patients is approximately 2.5 to 5.4%. Acute hypersensitivity reactions to chlorhexidine are often not recognised and therefore may be underreported. This review discusses the pharmacology, microbiology, clinical applications and adverse effects of chlorhexidine.

  18. 影响酱腌菜质量的因素及防腐应注意的问题探讨%Investigation on factors affecting the quality of pickles and the main issues for corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this paper, a variety of pickled vegetables production technology was introduced, some of the major factors that affect the quality of pickles, clear links should be noted in the production process, proposed method to stablity the quality of pickles, the insights for pickle product's antiseps.All these has some significance on pickles production processing, storage and antisepsis.%文中对酱腌菜生产的多种工艺作了介绍,提出了影响酱腌菜质量的一些主要因素,明确了生产过程中应注意的环节,提出了稳定酱腌菜质量的方法,对酱腌菜产品的防腐问题提出了见解.对酱腌菜的生产加工、储存、防腐有一定的指导意义.

  19. Chlorhexidine: Patient Bathing and Infection Prevention. (United States)

    Abbas, Salma; Sastry, Sangeeta


    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. They are associated with a substantial increase in health care costs each year. Fortunately, many HAIs are preventable, and their eradication is a national priority. Chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing has been used as an infection prevention measure, either alone or bundled with other interventions, with mostly beneficial results. The recent surge in its use as an agent of choice for skin antisepsis has lead to concerns over emerging resistance among microorganisms. Moreover, compliance with CHG-bathing protocols is not routinely monitored. Policies developed to determine the best infection prevention practice must consider that a "one-size-fits-all" strategy may lead to the selection of CHG-tolerant microorganisms, thereby emphasizing the need for more robust guidelines and additional studies on the role of chlorhexidine bathing for the prevention of HAIs.

  20. Lack of new antiinfective agents: Passing into the pre-antibiotic age?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus; Brandenburg; Tobias; Schürholz


    The lack of newly developed antibiotics, together with the increase in multi-resistance of relevant pathogenic bacteria in the last decades, represents an alarming signal for human health care worldwide. The number of severely infected persons increases not only in developing but also in highly industrialized countries. This relates in first line to the most severe form of a bacterial infection, sepsis and the septic shock syndrome, with high mortality on critical care units. No particular anti-sepsis drug is available, and the therapy with conventional antibiotics more and more fails to provide a survival benefit. Due to the fact that the pharmaceutical industry has withdrawn to a high degree from the development of anti-infectious agents, a huge challenge for health care is approaching in the 21 st century. In this article, these problems are outlined and possible alternatives are presented which may be helpful to solve the problem.

  1. Scientific Knowledge and Technology, Animal Experimentation, and Pharmaceutical Development. (United States)

    Kinter, Lewis B; DeGeorge, Joseph J


    Human discovery of pharmacologically active substances is arguably the oldest of the biomedical sciences with origins >3500 years ago. Since ancient times, four major transformations have dramatically impacted pharmaceutical development, each driven by advances in scientific knowledge, technology, and/or regulation: (1) anesthesia, analgesia, and antisepsis; (2) medicinal chemistry; (3) regulatory toxicology; and (4) targeted drug discovery. Animal experimentation in pharmaceutical development is a modern phenomenon dating from the 20th century and enabling several of the four transformations. While each transformation resulted in more effective and/or safer pharmaceuticals, overall attrition, cycle time, cost, numbers of animals used, and low probability of success for new products remain concerns, and pharmaceutical development remains a very high risk business proposition. In this manuscript we review pharmaceutical development since ancient times, describe its coevolution with animal experimentation, and attempt to predict the characteristics of future transformations.

  2. Sarah Bernhardt's 'Doctor God': Jean-Samuel Pozzi (1846-1918). (United States)

    de Costa, Caroline; Miller, Francesca


    Samuel Pozzi was a major figure in the early development of modern gynaecological surgery. His textbook, A Treatise on Gynaecology, published in French in 1890 and rapidly translated into five other languages, was the first internationally acclaimed text integrating modern principles of anaesthesia, antisepsis, diagnosis, surgical technique and postoperative care, and in later editions remained a standard reference up to the 1930s. He was the author of more than 400 papers on gynaecological and general abdominal surgery and his technical expertise drew surgeons from all over the world to his theatre in the Hospital Broca, in one of the poorer parts of Paris. He was equally successful in several professional fields apart from medicine. However, his name is now little known in the English-speaking world. This short biography aims to re-introduce Pozzi to readers of English.

  3. Daniel Mollière (1848-1890), the French anatomist and surgeon, and his encounters with nosocomial infections in the operating theatre. (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Laios, Konstantinos; Karamanou, Marianna; Sgantzos, Markos; Androutsos, George


    Daniel Mollière, was a French anatomist and surgeon, born in Lyon, who succeeded in his short life in making his mark in surgery. He was a prolific writer who left a series of medical treatises and a committed surgeon who was responsible for various significant innovative apparatuses in the medical sper. As he lived in an era when the role of microbe had already been recognized, he was among the first to use antisepsis and install extreme measures against microbes, both in the air and on the skin'. Fountains with fresh clean water, carbonic acid, cross ventilation, medical blouses, combined with Valette's apparatus for the dressing of amputations, were some of his precautions to reduce surgical infections and post-operative mortality.

  4. Positive deviance as a strategy to prevent and control bloodstream infections in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francimar Tinoco de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To describe the application of positive deviance as a strategy to prevent and control bloodstream infections. METHOD An intervention study with nursing and medical team members working in an intensive care unit in a university hospital, between June and December 2014. The four steps of the positive defiance methodology were applied: to define, to determine, to discover and to design. RESULTS In 90 days, 188 actions were observed, of these, 36.70% (n=69 were related to catheter dressing. In 81.15% (n=56 of these dressings, the professionals most adhered to the use of flexible sterile cotton-tipped swabs to perform antisepsis at catheter entry sites and fixation dressing. CONCLUSION Positive deviance contributed to the implementation of proposals to improve work processes and team development related to problems identified in central venous catheter care.

  5. [Significance and prevention of post-operative wound complications]. (United States)

    Napp, M; Gümbel, D; Lange, J; Hinz, P; Daeschlein, G; Ekkernkamp, A


    Although surgical site infections (SSI) in dermatologic operative procedures are extremely rare, it is important to understand risks and etiological factors to initiate risk assessment and specific preventive measures. SSI commonly are associated with a complicated, long-term and expensive outcome. Typical wound pathogens of these infections include a variety of multiresistant organisms along with Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, hemolytic streptococci and the gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective hygienic measures as part of an adequate quality management system should consider the critical points in the development of SSI, particularly in the setting of an outpatient dermatologic unit, such as preparation of the operative area, preoperative skin antisepsis, hand hygiene, safe and skilled technique by surgeons, and barrier nursing to prevent spread of pathogens. The baseline infection incidence in dermatologic surgery inherently is low; nevertheless significant improvements can be achieved by implementation of risk-adapted infection control measures.

  6. Genital trauma during a complicated domiciliary childbirth assisted by a non-expert midwife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Arleny Pérez Mayo


    Full Text Available The study presents the case of a 20-year-old puerpera seen at San Pedro Necta National Hospital of the Department of Huehuetenango, Guatemala, due to a persisting vaginal bleeding and genital tear. The clinical picture was determined as a genital trauma by domiciliary childbirth assisted by a midwife. As there was no abdominal echography and there were signs of hypovolemia, a gynecological checkup was performed at the operating room, having circulatory support with intravenous crystalloid solutions. A careful preoperative preparation was carried out which included local antisepsis with tincture of iodine and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the administration of ceftriaxone as a prophylactic antibiotic for the infection. The surgical intervention consisted in repairing the cervical tears, as well as the traumatic lesions caused by an inadequate manipulation of the external genitals, with absorbable suture material. No complications were reported and the patient progressed satisfactorily, with a 5-day hospital stay.

  7. Gastroschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Arleny Pérez Mayo


    Full Text Available This is a case of a neonate treated because of gastroschisis in San Pedro Necta National Hospital in Huehuetenango Department, Guatemala. As there was no abdominal echography and there were viscera out of the cavity, including the stomach and the small and large intestines, an urgent surgical intervention was carried out during the first hour after birth. A careful preoperative process was carried out which included skin local antisepsis and the administration of amikacin and metronidazole as the available prophylactic antibiotic treatment. The surgical technique consisted of a primary closure of the abdominal wall defect and the return of the intestines to the abdominal cavity. No complications were reported and the hospital stay lasted 14 days.

  8. Study on effect of different anticorrosion agent to carnation cuttage%不同防腐剂对香石竹扦插生根防腐初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林卫东; 蔡金红; 白春荣; 黄云秀


    This article discussed preventing carnation rottenness, enhancing survival of carnation cutrage and cutting cost of carnation production. We carried out contrastive experiments with carnation cuttage which applied five bactericides added rootone ABT(artificial synthesis auxin) and studied on effect of bactericide to antisepsis of cuttage rootage. Our results showed it's very effective to antisepsis and rootage which added 600-fold chlorthalonil 75 % wettable powder to rootone, and it can also enhance survival of carnation cuttage. This study provided indispensable biological evidence for carnation production which is the main breed of Yunnan province.%文章对防止香石竹在扦插过程中根茎部位的腐烂,提高香石竹扦插成活率,降低香石竹切花的生产成本,采用常见五种杀菌剂分别加入生根粉ABT(人工合成生长素)中进行香石竹扦插生根防腐的对比试验,研究杀菌剂对扦插生根的防腐作用。结果显示,600倍百菌清75%可湿性粉剂加入生根粉中,防腐和生根效果明显,具有提高香石竹扦插成活的作用。此研究为云南省花卉主栽品种香石竹的生产提供了必要的生物学依据。

  9. A family of helminth molecules that modulate innate cell responses via molecular mimicry of host antimicrobial peptides. (United States)

    Robinson, Mark W; Donnelly, Sheila; Hutchinson, Andrew T; To, Joyce; Taylor, Nicole L; Norton, Raymond S; Perugini, Matthew A; Dalton, John P


    Over the last decade a significant number of studies have highlighted the central role of host antimicrobial (or defence) peptides in modulating the response of innate immune cells to pathogen-associated ligands. In humans, the most widely studied antimicrobial peptide is LL-37, a 37-residue peptide containing an amphipathic helix that is released via proteolytic cleavage of the precursor protein CAP18. Owing to its ability to protect against lethal endotoxaemia and clinically-relevant bacterial infections, LL-37 and its derivatives are seen as attractive candidates for anti-sepsis therapies. We have identified a novel family of molecules secreted by parasitic helminths (helminth defence molecules; HDMs) that exhibit similar biochemical and functional characteristics to human defence peptides, particularly CAP18. The HDM secreted by Fasciola hepatica (FhHDM-1) adopts a predominantly α-helical structure in solution. Processing of FhHDM-1 by F. hepatica cathepsin L1 releases a 34-residue C-terminal fragment containing a conserved amphipathic helix. This is analogous to the proteolytic processing of CAP18 to release LL-37, which modulates innate cell activation by classical toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that full-length recombinant FhHDM-1 and a peptide analogue of the amphipathic C-terminus bind directly to LPS in a concentration-dependent manner, reducing its interaction with both LPS-binding protein (LBP) and the surface of macrophages. Furthermore, FhHDM-1 and the amphipathic C-terminal peptide protect mice against LPS-induced inflammation by significantly reducing the release of inflammatory mediators from macrophages. We propose that HDMs, by mimicking the function of host defence peptides, represent a novel family of innate cell modulators with therapeutic potential in anti-sepsis treatments and prevention of inflammation.

  10. Comparison of disinfectant effect of Decosept and Betadine-ethanol on hand bacterial flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandiyeh M


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Surgical hand antisepsis is a necessary procedure for the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI. Today, higher efficacy of alcohols has resulted in the worldwide use of alcohol-based disinfectants. This study was conducted in order to compare the disinfectant effect of Decosept hand rub (routine method with that of Betadine-ethanol (experimental method on hand bacterial flora. Materials and Method: This before and after clinical trial was performed on 20 healthy volunteers in 2012. The participants were selected from students and staff of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, using convenience sampling. All research units performed both interventions. In each method, after washing both hands, first sample (prevalue was taken from fingertips of hands, then hands were scrubbed with Decosept and immediately the second sample (immediate was taken from one randomly selected hand. After that, they put on a sterile glove on the other hand and 3 hours later the third sample (3h was taken from fingertips of the same hand. At least one week later, the experimental method was performed. Results were reported as colony-forming unit per milliliter (cfu/ml. To assess effectiveness of solutions, reduction factor (RF was calculated. Data were analyzed using paired t-test in SPSS version16. Results: Evidently, both antiseptics resulted in the reduction of cfu/ml immediately and 3 hours after disinfection. Mean log10 hand bacterial count before and immediately after disinfection with Decosept were 4.07, 0.81, respectively, and in the second hand before and 3 hours after were 1.94 and 3.87, respectively. paired t-test showed a significant difference between prevalue cfu, and immediate and 3h cfu in both methods. However, the immediate RF and 3h RF of Decosept were higher than Betadine- ethanol (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: The effectiveness of the experimental method on skin bacterial flora of the hand was lower than the routine

  11. Improving patient safety during insertion of peripheral venous catheters: an observational intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf, Günter


    Full Text Available [english] Background: Peripheral venous catheters are frequently used in hospitalized patients but increase the risk of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Evidence-based guidelines describe specific steps that are known to reduce infection risk. However, the degree of guideline implementation in clinical practice is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the use of specific steps for insertion of peripheral venous catheters in clinical practice and to implement a multimodal intervention aimed at improving both compliance and the optimum order of the steps.Methods: The study was conducted at University Hospital Hamburg. An optimum procedure for inserting a peripheral venous catheter was defined based on three evidence-based guidelines (WHO, CDC, RKI including five steps with 1A or 1B level of evidence: hand disinfection before patient contact, skin antisepsis of the puncture site, no palpation of treated puncture site, hand disinfection before aseptic procedure, and sterile dressing on the puncture site. A research nurse observed and recorded procedures for peripheral venous catheter insertion for healthcare workers in four different departments (endoscopy, central emergency admissions, pediatrics, and dermatology. A multimodal intervention with 5 elements was established (teaching session, dummy training, e-learning tool, tablet and poster, and direct feedback, followed by a second observation period. During the last observation week, participants evaluated the intervention.Results: In the control period, 207 insertions were observed, and 202 in the intervention period. Compliance improved significantly for four of five steps (e.g., from 11.6% to 57.9% for hand disinfection before patient contact; p<0.001, chi-square test. Compliance with skin antisepsis of the puncture site was high before and after intervention (99.5% before and 99.0% after. Performance of specific steps in the correct order also improved (e.g., from 7.7% to 68

  12. The core competencies of James Marion Sims, MD. (United States)

    Straughn, J Michael; Gandy, Roy E; Rodning, Charles B


    The concept of core competencies in graduate medical education was introduced by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education of the American Medical Association to semiquantitatively assess the professional performance of students, residents, practitioners, and faculty. Many aspects of the career of J. Marion Sims, MD, are exemplary of those core competencies: MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE: Author of the first American textbook related to gynecology. MEDICAL CARE: Innovator of the Sims' Vaginal Speculum, Sims' Position, Sims' Test, and vesico-/rectovaginal fistulorrhaphy; advocated abdominal exploration for penetrating wounds; performed the first cholecystostomy. PROFESSIONALISM: Served as President of the New York Academy of Medicine, the American Medical Association, and the American Gynecologic Society. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS/COMMUNICATION: Cared for the indigent, hearthless, indentured, disenfranchised; served as consulting surgeon to the Empress Eugénie (France), the Duchess of Hamilton (Scotland), the Empress of Austria, and other royalty of the aristocratic Houses of Europe; accorded the National Order of the Legion of Honor. PRACTICE-BASED LEARNING: Introduction of silver wire sutures; adoption of the principles of asepsis/antisepsis; adoption of the principles of general anesthesia. SYSTEMS-BASED PRACTICE: Established the Woman's Hospital, New York City, New York, the predecessor of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Center for the Treatment of Cancer and Allied Diseases; organized the Anglo-American Ambulance Corps under the patronage of Napoleon III. What led him to a life of clinical and humanitarian service? First, he was determined to succeed. His formal medical/surgical education was perhaps the best available to North Americans during that era. Second, he was courageous in experimentation and innovation, applying new developments in operative technique, asepsis/antisepsis, and general anesthesia. Third, his curiosity was not burdened by rigid

  13. Zum Stellenwert der Unterdruck-Instillationstherapie in der Dermatologie. (United States)

    Müller, Cornelia Sigrid Lissi; Burgard, Barbara; Zimmerman, Monika; Vogt, Thomas; Pföhler, Claudia


    Die Methoden zur Behandlung akuter und chronischer Wunden unterliegen einer steten Weiterentwicklung, Reevaluierung und Anwendung innovativer Therapieformen. Die Vakuumtherapie zur Wundbehandlung gehört zu den etablierten Behandlungsmodalitäten. Ein innovatives Verfahren kombiniert die Vakuumtherapie mit der automatisierten, kontrollierten Zufuhr und Drainage wirkstoffhaltiger Lösungen zur topischen Wundbehandlung im Wundbett und auch wirkstofffrei durch Instillation physiologischer Kochsalzlösung (Unterdruck-Instillationstherapie). Hierdurch können die Effekte der konventionellen Vakuumtherapie mit denen der lokalen Antisepsis kombiniert werden. Hierdurch kommt es zu einer Reduktion der Wundfläche, einer Induktion von Granulationsgewebe sowie einer Reduktion der Keimbesiedelung der Wunden. Bisher publizierte Studien konzentrieren sich auf die Anwendung dieses Therapieverfahrens zur Behandlung orthopädisch-chirurgischer Krankheiten. Die Datenlage bezüglich der Vakuum-Instillationstherapie in der Dermatochirurgie beschränkt sich derzeit auf Fallberichte und Einzelfallerfahrungen. Randomisierte, prospektive Studien zum Vergleich der Vakuum-Instillationstherapie zur Behandlung dermatologischer Krankheitsbilder existieren bislang nicht. Ziele des vorliegenden Artikels sind die Vorstellung der Vakuumtherapie mit Instillation einschließlich ihres Wirkprinzips, deren mögliche Komplikationen, die Diskussion erdenklicher Kontraindikationen sowie eine Übersicht über die aktuell verfügbare Datenlage. Zusammenfassend scheint sich die Evidenz zu verdichten, dass mittels Unterdruck-Instillationstherapie sowohl einfache als auch komplizierte Wunden effizient behandelt werden können, was sich in einer deutlichen Beschleunigung der Wundgranulation mit konsekutiv früher möglichem Defektverschluss äußert.

  14. [Interventional Patient Hygiene Model. A critical reflection on basic nursing care in intensive care units]. (United States)

    Bambi, Stefano; Lucchini, Alberto; Solaro, Massimo; Lumini, Enrico; Rasero, Laura


    Interventional Patient Hygiene Model. A critical reflection on basic nursing care in intensive care units. Over the past 15 years, the model of medical and nursing care changed from being exclusively oriented to the diagnosis and treatment of acute illness, to the achievement of outcomes by preventing iatrogenic complications (Hospital Acquired Conditions). Nursing Sensitive Outcomes show as nursing is directly involved in the development and prevention of these complications. Many of these complications, including falls from the bed, use of restraints, urinary catheter associated urinary infections and intravascular catheter related sepsis, are related to basic nursing care. Ten years ago in critical care, a school of thought called get back to the basics, was started for the prevention of errors and risks associated with nursing. Most of these nursing practices involve hygiene and mobilization. On the basis of these reflections, Kathleen Vollman developed a model of nursing care in critical care area, defined Interventional Patient Hygiene (IPH). The IPH model provides a proactive plan of nursing interventions to strengthen the patients' through the Evidence-Based Nursing Care. The components of the model include interventions of oral hygiene, mobilization, dressing changes, urinary catheter care, management of incontinence and bed bath, hand hygiene and skin antisepsis. The implementation of IPH model follows the steps of Deming cycle, and requires a deep reflection on the priorities of nursing care in ICU, as well as the effective teaching of the importance of the basic nursing to new generations of nurses.

  15. Elimination of central line-associated bloodstream infections: application of the evidence. (United States)

    Posa, Patricia J; Harrison, Denise; Vollman, Kathleen M


    Central line-associated bloodstream infections are considered to be an avoidable complication of care delivery. In addition to considerable morbidity and use of resources, central line-associated bloodstream infections carry an attributable morality between 12% and 25%. The estimated cost per infection is approximately 25,000 US dollars. Research over the last decade has focused on a number of care activities that have been shown to reduce the incidence of bloodstream infections related to central line placement in the critically ill patient. A significant reduction or elimination of central line-associated bloodstream infections can occur with implementation of a comprehensive central line-associated bloodstream infection prevention program that includes staff education, hand hygiene, use of maximal sterile barrier precautions, chlorhexidine gluconate skin antisepsis, avoidance of femoral lines, empowerment of staff to stop the procedure if sterile technique is broken, and daily assessment of the continued need for a central line. This article focuses on strategies for implementing a comprehensive central line-associated bloodstream infections prevention program and a tool and process for defect analysis as part of a statewide collaborative in Michigan.

  16. Survival of Serratia marcescens in benzalkonium chloride and in multiple-dose medication vials: relationship to epidemic septic arthritis. (United States)

    Nakashima, A K; Highsmith, A K; Martone, W J


    In an epidemic of septic arthritis due to Serratia marcescens, the intra-articular injection of contaminated methylprednisolone may have played a key role. The epidemic strain was found in used multiple-dose vials of methylprednisolone and in a canister of cotton balls soaked in benzalkonium chloride. The cotton balls had been used for antisepsis and disinfection. Growth characteristics of the epidemic strain of S. marcescens were compared with those of control strains of S. marcescens which had been obtained from unrelated nosocomial outbreaks. The epidemic strain was able to survive in 1:100 dilutions of benzalkonium chloride and was able to grow to greater than 10(5) CFU/ml in multiple-dose vials of methylprednisoline; control strains could not be recovered after 24 h in the same solutions. The preservative in methylprednisolone is gamma-myristyl picolinium chloride, a compound chemically related to benzalkonium chloride. We speculate that the epidemic strain of S. marcescens, which was resistant to benzalkonium chloride, had cross-resistance to gamma-myristyl picolinium chloride. If the cotton balls were used to disinfect the tops of the multiple-dose vials of methylprednisolone, small numbers of organisms subsequently introduced into the solution could have grown to high concentrations. PMID:3298309

  17. Evaluation of bacterial contamination rate of the anterior chamber during phacoemulsification surgery using an automated microbial detection system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim; Kocak; Funda; Kocak; Bahri; Teker; Ali; Aydin; Faruk; Kaya; Hakan; Baybora


    ·AIM: To assess the incidence of anterior chamber bacterial contamination during phacoemulsification surgery using an automated microbial detection system(BacT/Alert).·METHODS: Sixty-nine eyes of 60 patients who had uneventful phacoemulsification surgery, enrolled in this prospective study. No prophylactic topical or systemic antibiotics were used before surgery. After antisepsis with povidone-iodine, two intraoperative anterior chamber aqueous samples were obtained, the first whilst entering anterior chamber, and the second at the end of surgery. BacT/Alert culture system was used to detect bacterial contamination in the aqueous samples.·RESULTS: Neither aqueous samples obtained at the beginning nor conclusion of the surgery was positive for microorganisms on BacT/Alert culture system. The rate of bacterial contamination during surgery was 0%. None of the eyes developed acute-onset endophthalmitis after surgery.· CONCLUSION: In this study, no bacterial contamination of anterior chamber was observed during cataract surgery. This result shows that meticulous surgical preparation and technique can prevent anterior chamber contamination during phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

  18. [Endosseous integrated implantation: multiple post-extraction implantationing threaded cyclindric titanium. Use of a semipermeable reabsorbable membrane]. (United States)

    Landi, F; Bonura, G; Cancellieri, G


    On the basis of their experience of postextractive oral grafts, the authors examine all the surgical possibilities of this technique, at times using osteoinducing materials or at others semipermeable reabsorbable membrane; on other occasions an ostroinducing material associated with reabsorbable membrane is used to stimulate piloted regeneration of underlying bone tissue. Although not widely used, the post-extractive technique is presented as a fascinating reality that certainly, if used with due care, produces satisfactory and gratifying results. The authors are convinced that the contribution to simplifying surgical procedures and the reduced number of sessions that a patient has to undergo is without doubt a considerable advantage. In fact, using the postextractive technique with reabsorbable membrane the patient only undergoes a single operation. The authors have experience of three hundred post-extractive grafts with a very low failure rate (loss of seven grafts). These results can be attributed to clear rules: respect for antisepsis precautions, minimum surgery involving bone tissue, design of access flap to bone arch, positioning of fixture in correct spatial and occlusal direction, instant graft stability and perioplantar bone neoformation free of interference. The use of grafts has become a routine technique and is a valid alternative to prosthetic rehabilitation stages. It has become a true field with precise characteristics in the context of modern dentistry.

  19. Surgery, sterilization and sterility. (United States)

    Green, V W


    The history of sterilization was not linked from the first with surgery. Surgery came first, fully 600 years before the principles of asepsis and anesthesia were even introduced in the middle of the 1800s. Also in the 1800s, the beginnings of thermal sterilization were being developed in the food industry. The basic principles of antisepsis and prevention of wound suppuration, including the destruction of germs on instruments, dressings, the hands of the surgeon and his assistants, and everything else in contact with the wound were clearly elucidated by Lister in the 1870s and remain the inviolate principles of surgical asepsis today. In general, the marriage between the surgeons and the sterilizers was a successful one; the major handicap to eternal bliss and harmony, however, was an incompatibility between the partners. As in many marriages, the partners made unwarranted demands upon each other, and became frustrated when these demands were unfulfilled. The field of surgical sterilization and surgical safety is less confused by technical inconsistencies than it is by semantic nightmares, such that we will never reach a universal definition of sterility. However, we do not really need a universal definition of sterility. Rather we should learn how to translate sterility tests in terms of the real world infections hazards.

  20. Low temperature plasma biomedicine: A tutorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, David B., E-mail: [University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)


    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown to be potentially useful for surface and wound sterilization, antisepsis, bleeding cessation, wound healing, and cancer treatment, among other biomedical applications. This tutorial review summarizes the field, stressing the likely role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species created in these plasmas as the biologically and therapeutically active agents. Reactive species, including radicals and non-radical compounds, are generated naturally within the body and are now understood to be essential for normal biological functions. These species are known to be active agents in existing therapies for wound healing, infection control, and cancer treatment. But they are also observed at elevated levels in persons with many diseases and are associated with aging. The physical and chemical complexity of plasma medical devices and their associated biochemical effects makes the development of safe, effective plasma medical devices and procedures a challenge, but encouragingly rapid progress has been reported around the world in the last several years.

  1. Hand hygiene among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Ameet


    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

  2. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worthington Tony


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO and 70% (v/v isopropyl alcohol (IPA. The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The 2% (w/v CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v EO in combination with 2% (w/v CHG in 70% (v/v IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.

  3. [M.A. Mendes de Leon (1856-1924), a founding father of gynaecology]. (United States)

    Lammes, F B


    M.A. Mendes de Leon (1856-1924) was appointed private lecturer at the Department of Obstetrics of the University of Amsterdam in 1884. He promoted gynaecology in the Netherlands as a separate speciality, partly because of the new surgical possibilities following the discoveries of anaesthesia and antisepsis, but also due to the prevailing belief that the physiology of reproduction qualified the physical and psychological disorders of women. In his private gynaecological clinic he devoted himself to the surgery of ovarian tumours, uterus myomatosus and genital prolapse, but also to the diagnosis and treatment of supposed inflammations of the cervix and endometrium as cause of psychological disorders. In this he followed the opinions of contemporary English gynaecologists. As he was not aware of physiological histology, he nearly always found signs of inflammation. He treated this with curettage and drastic caustics, sometimes after using a dilation knife (hysterotome) for the cervix. At the turn of the twentieth century Dutch gynaecologists such as Treub and Nijhoff began to cast doubt on such theories of "reflex neurosis", but Mendes de Leon persisted in his views. Nevertheless, he can still be considered one of the founding fathers of gynaecology in the Netherlands, partly because of his surgical skills, but also due to his study into the interaction between gynaecological and psychological problems.

  4. Study on bacteriostatic activity of extracts of pepper%胡椒提取物抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 袁佳依; 陈文学


    Regarded E. Coli,Bacillus subtilis,Staphylococcus aureus,yeast,and Aspergillus niger as test germs, the MIC of five different organic phases from black pepper were compared with two commonly used preservatives. The result indicated that they all had some antisepsis effect for five test germs,and the chloroform phase extraction was the best,the potassium sorbate was the worst.%以大肠杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、酵母菌、黑曲霉五种菌为供试菌,比较了黑胡椒5种不同有机相提取物及2种常用防腐剂的最低抑菌浓度(MIC).结果表明,黑胡椒5种不同有机相的提取物及2种防腐剂对5种菌都有一定的抑菌效果,其中氯仿相提取物对以上5种常见菌种的抑菌效果最好,而山梨酸钾的抑菌效果最差.

  5. Breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact for pain relief of newborns during hepatitis B vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Moraes Leite


    Full Text Available The objective was to compare the combination of skin-to-skin contact with breastfeeding, to skin-to-skin contact during hepatitis B vaccination in newborns. Randomized clinical trial with a sample of 55 full-term newborns divided between two groups, namely; skin-to-skin contact (GP, n = 38, and breastfeeding combined with skin-to-skin contact (GPA, n = 27. The pain of newborns was assessed by facial movements. The heart rate (HR of all newborns was measured, as well as the suckling frequency of newborns in the GPA. There was a statistically significant difference in the periods of compression and recovery between the groups for the NFCS scores. The average values of HR were significantly higher in the GP during antisepsis/injection. The suckling in the GPA ranged between 10-28 suckles per minute. The breastfeeding combined with maternal skin-to-skin contact can enhance the analgesic effect of maternal skin-to-skin contact, contributing to a better recovery of newborns after the procedure.

  6. Evaluation of antiseptic antiviral activity of chemical agents. (United States)

    Geller, Chloé; Finance, Chantal; Duval, Raphaël Emmanuel


    Antiviral antisepsis and disinfection are crucial for preventing the environmental spread of viral infections. Emerging viruses and associated diseases, as well as nosocomial viral infections, have become a real issue in medical fields, and there are very few efficient and specific treatments available to fight most of these infections. Another issue is the potential environmental resistance and spread of viral particles. Therefore, it is essential to properly evaluate the efficacy of antiseptics-disinfectants (ATS-D) on viruses. ATS-D antiviral activity is evaluated by (1) combining viruses and test product for an appropriately defined and precise contact time, (2) neutralizing product activity, and (3) estimating the loss of viral infectivity. A germicide can be considered to have an efficient ATS-D antiviral activity if it induces a >3 or >4 log(10) reduction (American and European regulatory agency requirements, respectively) in viral titers in a defined contact time. This unit describes a global methodology for evaluating chemical ATS-D antiviral activity.

  7. Antimicrobial Analysis of an Antiseptic Made from Ethanol Crude Extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora in Wistar Rats against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Honório Lins Bernardo


    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical site infection remains a challenge for hospital infection control, especially when it relates to skin antisepsis in the surgical site. Objective. To analyze the antimicrobial activity in vivo of an antiseptic from ethanol crude extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods. Agar drilling and minimal inhibitory tests were conducted for in vitro evaluation. In the in vivo bioassay were used Wistar rats and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990. Statistical analysis was performed through variance analysis and Scott-Knott cluster test at 5% probability and significance level. Results. In the in vitro, ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum and Eugenia uniflora and their combination showed the best antimicrobial potential against S. epidermidis and S. aureus. In the in vivo bioassay against S. epidermidis, there was no statistically significant difference between the tested product and the patterns used after five minutes of applying the product. Conclusion. The results indicate that the originated product is an antiseptic alternative source against S. epidermidis compared to chlorhexidine gluconate. It is suggested that further researches are to be conducted in different concentrations of the test product, evaluating its effectiveness and operational costs.

  8. Modern pacemaker therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijatov Milan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Pacemakers are devices that modern medicine and cardiology cannot be imagined without. The technique of implantation comes to surgical procedure where all principles of asepsis and antisepsis have to be respected. Although some complications do happen, they are rather rare. Results. After the implantation of the device, the patient is not handicapped (unless the heart was additionally damaged. On the contrary, the patient returns to his work and functions normally within his family in most of the cases. The first medical appointment is scheduled a month after the implantation and the following are three and six months after. Types of devices. Today there are „new types of electrostimulation”- implantable cardioverter defibrillators and multisite electrostimulators. The former is implanted in patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death and the latter in patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block. Owing to these devices, the sudden cardiac death can be prevented successfully and the quality of a patient’s life is improved.

  9. Relationship between hepatitis B and C virus prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana POPESCU


    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV are major causes for liver disease worldwide and potential causes for substantial morbidity and mortality in the future. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hepatitis C and B virus infection and to identify the associated risk factors of viral hepatitis. In our experiments we use as materials 107 patients, 48 men and 59 women, aged from 7 to 67 years old. The maximum incidence of HBV and HCV hepatitis was observed at patients aged between 40 to 60 and especially at people in urban areas. The number of cases with HCV was twice higher at men than at women, while for HVB the incidence was higher for men than for women. Risk factors for transmission of HCV and HBV were medical procedure in the high-risk group, while vertical or sexual transmission belongs to the low-risk patient group. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection is high, thus asepsis and antisepsis measures should be strictly followed.

  10. The prevention, diagnosis and management of central venous line infections in children. (United States)

    Chesshyre, Emily; Goff, Zoy; Bowen, Asha; Carapetis, Jonathan


    With advancing paediatric healthcare, the use of central venous lines has become a fundamental part of management of neonates and children. Uses include haemodynamic monitoring and the delivery of lifesaving treatments such as intravenous fluids, blood products, antibiotics, chemotherapy, haemodialysis and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Despite preventative measures, central venous catheter-related infections are common, with rates of 0.5-2.8/1000 catheter days in children and 0.6-2.5/1000 catheter days in neonates. Central line infections in children are associated with increased mortality, increased length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, treatment interruptions, and increased complications. Prevention is paramount, using a variety of measures including tunnelling of long-term devices, chlorhexidine antisepsis, maximum sterile barriers, aseptic non-touch technique, minimal line accessing, and evidence-based care bundles. Diagnosis of central line infections in children is challenging. Available samples are often limited to a single central line blood culture, as clinicians are reluctant to perform painful venepuncture on children with a central, pain-free, access device. With the advancing evidence basis for antibiotic lock therapy for treatment, paediatricians are pushing the boundaries of line retention if safe to do so, due to among other reasons, often limited venous access sites. This review evaluates the available paediatric studies on management of central venous line infections and refers to consensus guidelines such as those of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA).

  11. Development of the infant intestinal microbiome: A bird's eye view of a complex process. (United States)

    Meropol, Sharon B; Edwards, Amy


    Infants undergo profound shifts in colonizing intestinal microorganisms during their first year, especially during and after birth and during weaning. Microbiota are passed to infants through the placenta, during the vaginal birth process, and from early diet and other environmental exposures. These microbiota play an active role in the development of healthy infant metabolic and immunologic systems; profound shifts in microbiotal populations can be persistent, are associated with immediate alterations in gene expression, metabolic, immunologic, and neurologic function, and with downstream metabolic and immunologic consequences such as obesity, allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases, and potentially neurologic conditions. Many modern exposures, including Cesarean section, formula feeding, and antibiotics, have been associated with microbiome shifts, and also with downstream diseases; while many published studies considered exposures individually, a more comprehensive understanding of their interaction and impact will consider the entirety of the infant's environment. It is not possible, nor desirable, to return to a world without toilets, sewers, tap water, delivery room antisepsis, Cesarean sections, antibiotics, immunizations, and refrigerators; our other alternative is to better understand these complex changes in infant developmental and molecular physiology. Protecting and repairing the developmental processes of the healthy infant microbiome is the modern medical frontier.

  12. 轻钢门式刚架结构设计中几个关键问题%Several critical issues in the structural design of light-weight steel portal frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    According to actual condition,based on many years' design experience,in light of several critical issues in the structural design of light-weight steel portal frame including load value,setting of bracing and rigid-tied arches,setting of knee-bracing,wind-resistant column,foundation and column foot,and antisepsis and fire prevention and so on,the essay proposes suggestions,with a view to provide certain reference for similar engineering design.%根据实际情况,总结多年设计经验,针对轻钢门式刚架结构设计中荷载取值、支撑和刚性系杆的布置、隅撑的设置、抗风柱、基础与柱脚、防腐与防火几个关键问题提出了建议,以期对此类工程设计提供一定的参考。


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊中奎; 郎娟; 夏国园


    二氧化氯(C102)作为一种高效化学消毒剂,能有效地杀灭或抑制病毒、细菌、真菌和寄生虫等各种病原体,在饮用水处理、食品保鲜防腐、废水处理、室内环境消毒、医疗设备和口腔科消毒等领域都具有广阔的应用前景.但是由于存在一些安全性问题,在一定程度上限制了C102推广应用.%Chlorine dioxide, as a chemical sanitizer, is highly effective for sterilizing or inhibiting many pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, so it illustrates a good prospect of application in drinking water treatment, food preservation, effluent disposal, disinfections of interior space and medical equipments, and antisepsis of medical activities in department of stomatology. To some degrees, it is restricted in application and extension for its security fla13:34 2012-7-25ws.

  14. Methods to evaluate the microbicidal activities of hand-rub and hand-wash agents. (United States)

    Rotter, M; Sattar, S; Dharan, S; Allegranzi, B; Mathai, E; Pittet, D


    In vitro carrier tests, suspension tests, time-kill curves, and determinations of minimum inhibitory concentrations to evaluate the microbicidal activities of hand antiseptics provide only a preliminary indication of the antimicrobial spectrum and speed of action of a given formulation. Ex vivo testing with human or animal skin at human skin temperature and at contact times reflecting field conditions may give a better indication of a formulation's ability to tackle hand-transmitted pathogens. Field testing of hands for levels of skin microbiota before and after antisepsis may be easier to perform, but it is subject to many uncontrollable factors. Whereas randomised clinical trials may be the ultimate approach to assess the effectiveness of hand hygiene protocols and products in preventing microbial cross-transmission and, ultimately, infections, they can be prohibitively expensive, time-consuming, difficult to design, and therefore impractical. Hence, the primary emphasis should be on in vivo testing on human hands, using a well-designed protocol that closely simulates the recommended field use of the formulation, and possibly followed by clinical studies. The use of these method is the most likely to yield useful data on the potential of a formulation to interrupt the spread of pathogens transmitted by hands in healthcare settings. This review provides a critical assessment of the methods currently used to meet regulatory requirements for hand antiseptics in Europe and North America.

  15. The snake as the symbol of medicine, toxicology and toxinology. (United States)

    Ramoutsaki, I A; Haniotakis, S; Tsatsakis, A M


    We investigated the meaning and the roots of the snake's usage as a symbol of medicine, the medical profession, toxicology and toxinology by examining mythological, archeological data and a variety of texts from the ancient Greek world. The snake figure was associated with Asclepios, the ancient Greek God of medicine, and possessed benevolent properties. It was believed to be able to cure a patient or a wounded person just by touch. The snake is also connected with pharmacology and antisepsis, as snakes possess an antivenom against their own poison. The snake is related to sciences associated with poison and death, such as toxicology and toxinology, and it also implies a metaphysical idea. It is connected with the underworld, not only because it crawls on the ground, but because it can bring death, connecting the upper with the underground world. The ability of the snake to shed its skin has been associated with the circle of life, and the renaissance spirit also, ever since early Hellenic antiquity. Consequently, as a symbol of the modern medical profession, toxicology and toxinology, the snake twisted around a stick or the snake beside a pharmapeutic cup, which also implies the use of medicines or even poison, has its roots in the ancient Mediterranean area as proven by the archeological data combined with literary references. Its benevolent as well as its poisonous properties could be paralleled by the similar properties of medicines.

  16. Pasteur, Koch and American bacteriology. (United States)

    Gossel, P P


    This study traces American awareness of the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch from the 1860s to the 1890s. In the years before the Civil War, American interest in germ theories had appeared at times of epidemics and persisted to a limited extent among physician-microscopists. Discussions of Pasteur's work occurred primarily in the context of spontaneous generation and antisepsis. Few Americans imitated his work on immunology or studied with Pasteur, but his work on immunity influenced their faith in the potential of bacteriology as a solution to problems of infectious disease. Koch's discoveries of the bacterial agents of tuberculosis and cholera stimulated American medical and public health interest in bacteriology in a more practical way. Americans learned Koch's methods by taking his courses and imported them directly into their own laboratories. A context of enthusiasm for science, educational reform, and problems of infectious disease associated with urbanization and changes in agriculture aided the growth of bacteriology in the American context.

  17. [The private society 'Utrechtsch Geneeskundig Gezelschap Matthias van Geuns' as a source of history and inspiration]. (United States)

    Haneveld, G T


    The Utrechtsch Geneeskundig Gezelschap [Utrecht Medical Society] Matthias van Geuns (1793 to the present) is the oldest still active local medical society in the Netherlands. Membership is select and limited to only one local representative from every medical specialty. Proceedings of the medical meetings have never been published, neither was a prize offered for a best essay. The minutes of the meetings, however, have been preserved. They give a fascinating insight into the way this small society reacted to the developments in medicine during two centuries. Infectious diseases, for example cholera, abdominal typhus and tuberculosis, and newly introduced surgical procedures like anaesthesia and antisepsis or asepsis were discussed. The lectures had to be attended by all members and were meant to be aimed at a general medical audience. The society members were expected to prepare themselves and take part in the discussion afterwards, everyone from his own point of view. This procedure was both instructive and stimulating. The minutes of the Utrechtsch Geneeskundig Gezelschap Matthias van Geuns are a valuable source for scientific research on medical developments in the Netherlands, particularly in Utrecht.

  18. 新生儿中心静脉导管相关性感染的预防%Prevention of central venous catheter-related infections in neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Central venous catheters are indispensable in modern-day medical practice in neonatal intensive care units.Infection is the most frequent serious complication during these catheter-inserted days.Several strategies to prevent catheter-related infections are disputed all over the world.Studies have shown that some measures played a role in reducing the infection rate,which include maximal sterile barrier precautions,chlorhexidine preparation for skin antisepsis,routine replacement of catheter site dressings and connection sets,time-limited catheter insert,removal catheter after infected,antibiotic locked catheters and so on.%中心静脉导管是新生儿重症监护室常用的静脉通道,而感染是中心静脉导管置管术严重的并发症,各国的新生儿中心都在积极研究各种预防措施,但其有效性仍有争议.研究表明,严格无菌操作、洗必泰皮肤消毒剂、周期性更换辅料及导管连接装置、限期拔管、感染后及时拔管、抗生素封闭导管等措施在降低感染率方面有一定的作用.

  19. Pyrazole derived ultra-short antimicrobial peptidomimetics with potent anti-biofilm activity. (United States)

    Ahn, Mija; Gunasekaran, Pethaiah; Rajasekaran, Ganesan; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Soo-Jae; Bang, Geul; Cho, Kun; Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Jeon, Young Ho; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Shin, Song Yub; Bang, Jeong Kyu


    In this study, we report on the first chemical synthesis of ultra-short pyrazole-arginine based antimicrobial peptidomimetics derived from the newly synthesized N-alkyl/aryl pyrazole amino acids. Through the systematic tuning of hydrophobicity, charge, and peptide length, we identified the shortest peptide Py11 with the most potent antimicrobial activity. Py11 displayed greater antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including MRSA, MDRPA, and VREF, which was approximately 2-4 times higher than that of melittin. Besides its higher selectivity (therapeutic index) toward bacterial cells than LL-37, Py11 showed highly increased proteolytic stability against trypsin digestion and maintained its antimicrobial activity in the presence of physiological salts. Interestingly, Py11 exhibited higher anti-biofilm activity against MDRPA compared to LL-37. The results from fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggested that Py11 kills bacterial cells possibly by integrity disruption damaging the cell membrane, leading to the cytosol leakage and eventual cell lysis. Furthermore, Py11 displayed significant anti-inflammatory (endotoxin-neutralizing) activity by inhibiting LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α. Collectively, our results suggest that Py11 may serve as a model compound for the design of antimicrobial and antisepsis agents.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 张浩; 刘翠林; 尚晶


    目的 了解医院实施手卫生行业标准情况,为进一步落实手卫生措施提供依据.方法 采用问卷调查方式,对甘肃省部分医院执行《医务人员手卫生规范》情况进行了调查.结果 共调查14所医院的医护人员203人,分布在新生儿室、重症监护病房、感染性疾病科、口腔科、门诊采血室.各项手卫生设施配有率范围在26.11%~91.63%之间;外科手消毒设施配有率为19.70%~82.27%;各种洗手方法知晓率为31.03% ~96.55%;外科手消毒原则知晓率为82.76% ~89.66%.结论 甘肃省医院手卫生设施配备与手卫生行业标准存在差距,医务人员手卫生规范知晓率亟待提高.%Objective To know the implementation status of Standard for Hand Hygiene for Healthcare Workers in hospitals,and to provide guides for carrying out the hand hygiene measures further.Methods ' Questionnaires are used to survey the implementation situation of Standard for Hand Hygiene for Healthcare Workers in some hospitals of Gansu province.Results 203 medical staff from 14 hospitals are investigated who are working for newborn nursery,ICU,department of infectious diseases,department of stomatology,outpatient blood collection room.The rate range of being equipped with the hand hygiene facilities is between 26.11% to 91.63% ; the rate of being equipped with surgical hand antisepsis facilities is between 19.70% to 82.27% ; the rate of knowing various handwashing methods is between 31.03% to 96.55% ; the rate of knowing the principles of surgical hand antisepsis is between 82.76% to 89.66%.Conclusion There is difference between the equipment rate of hand hygiene facilities in hospitals of Gansu province and the standard rate of the hand hygiene sector and the medical staff need to improve their knowledge of Standard for Hand for Healthcare Worker.

  1. [Spanish disinfectants for the 21st century]. (United States)

    Herruzo Cabrera, R


    There are two chemical disinfectants patents from Spain that permit to obtain advantageous products on other disinfectants: Nduopropenide (two iodures of quaternary ammonium) and "Peroxidine" (hydrogen peroxide that active to lactic acid and a surfactant mixture). The first product is used as an antiseptic or disinfectant, but the second, only act as disinfectant. DISINFECTION: It is studied (by germ-carrier methods), the microbicide effect on different microorganisms (Gram positive cocci, Gram negative bacilli, fungus, Mycobacteria and B subtilis spores), comparing these two products with different disinfectants as 2% glutaraldehyde, 1/8 phenate-glutaraldehyde, peracetic acid compounds, 11% oxygen peroxide and 2% sodium hypoclorite. It is obtained that 1/4 Peroxidine in 5 minutes or 1/6 Peroxidine in 10 minutes, are the most effective disinfectant on all microorganisms used (includes the most resistant) since it produces destruction of 4 log-10 of spores and 5 log-10 of Mycobacteria. Moreover, it can destroy, completely, the inoculum of commercial spores, routinely used for sterilization process evaluation, in 20 minutes, when 2% glutaraldehyd needs 3-10 hours. ANTISEPSIE: It is studied the "hygienization" and surgical handwashing with Nduopropenide solution, in comparison with classical washing methods (neutral soap in routinely handwashing and 5% chlorhexidine or 10% iodine-povidone in surgical washing): 1) Nduopropenide and alcohol solution is more effective that routinely handwashing. 2) This product is more effective and persistent, after surgical washing that chlorhexidine or iodine-povidone. Moreover, it does not must be applied with brush. 3) The mixture Nduopropenide and chlorhexidine makes a synergy, then it can be used in hand or skin washing, on heath personnel or patient people, being advantageous on the other products.

  2. Comparison of two alcohol-based surgical scrub solutions with an iodine-based scrub brush for presurgical antiseptic effectiveness in a community hospital. (United States)

    Gupta, C; Czubatyj, A M; Briski, L E; Malani, A K


    The antiseptic effectiveness and acceptability of a commercial alcohol-based waterless (ABWL) and an alcohol-based water-aided (ABWA) scrub solution were compared with a brush-based iodine solution (BBIS) under conditions encountered in community hospital operating rooms. This randomized partially blinded study was based on guidelines from the American Society for Testing and Methods. The three scrub solutions were compared for antimicrobial efficacy, using criteria within the Food and Drug Administration's Tentative Final Monograph for Healthcare Antiseptic Products (FDA-TFM), and for participants' acceptance of the products. Volunteer surgical staff that worked daily in the same operating room for the entire duration of the study were enrolled. In total, 1126 surgical scrub procedures were performed over the duration of the study. Only the ABWL met all of the FDA-TFM criteria. The BBIS performed better than both of the alcohol-based solutions at the end of Day 1 (P=0.03), but the ABWL was more efficacious than the ABWA and the BBIS at the end of Days 2 and 5 (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively). When colony-count reductions were compared over the entire duration of the study, there was no significant difference between the three solutions (P=0.2). The participants found the ABWL easiest to use (P<0.001), with the fewest adverse effects on skin (P=0.007), and it was their preferred product (P<0.001). Although both of the commercially available alcohol-based solutions may be considered as acceptable alternatives to the BBIS for presurgical antisepsis, the ABWL was found to have significantly higher user acceptability.

  3. Determination of antiseptic efficacy of rubs on the forearm and consequences for surgical hand disinfection. (United States)

    Hübner, N-O; Kellner, N B; Partecke, L I; Koburger, T; Heidecke, C-D; Kohlmann, T; Kramer, A


    While hands are acknowledged to be the most important source of pathogens from the skin of the surgical team, the transmission of pathogens from the forearms may also be relevant. Preoperative hand disinfection is recommended, but evidence-based standards for the forearms are lacking. As neither the European standard EN 12791 nor the American guidelines ASTM 1115 are applicable to the forearms, a new test method based on the European standard EN 12791 and the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM) method for testing for the efficacy of skin antiseptics was developed to address the forearms. The antiseptic efficacy of a commercially available alcohol-based hand rub [76.7% (w/w) ethanol] was assessed on the upper arm after 15s, 2.5 min, and 30 min, and on the lower arm after 2.5 min, 30 min, and 3 h. On the upper arm, application of the product followed the DGHM standard procedure. On the forearm, the product was applied by the participants themselves with the right hand over the left forearm and vice versa as performed during preoperative hand disinfection. Sampling and culture were performed according to the DGHM method for skin antisepsis on the upper arm. Twenty-two volunteers were investigated. The efficacy of the antiseptic treatment on the forearm was not significantly lower than on the upper arm for any of the areas tested (P > 0.05). Reduction factors for all tested areas and times were quite similar, with confidence intervals ranging between 1.43 and 2.31 log₁₀. We suggest that an application time of 10s may be sufficient for the treatment of the forearm as part of preoperative hand disinfection, provided that an appropriate product is used.

  4. Ethanol in pre-surgical hand rubs: concentration and duration of application for achieving European Norm EN 12791. (United States)

    Suchomel, M; Rotter, M


    In Europe, ethanol is a common active agent in hand rub formulations and nowadays it is also recommended in guidelines for hand hygiene published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by the World Health Organization. However, data on the range of concentrations and durations of application providing a basis for passing the efficacy test of the European norm EN 12791 are still lacking. Therefore, the bactericidal efficacy of rubbing clean hands with pure ethanol in volume concentrations of 95%, 85% or 75% during 3 min was compared with that of the reference procedure of EN 12791 employing n-propanol 60% v/v for 3 min, immediately and 3h after disinfection. Ethanol 85% was also tested at a 5 min application. A Latin-square design was used with 20 randomly allotted volunteers. Whereas the mean immediate bacterial reductions caused by ethanol at concentrations of 75% (log RF 1.68) and 95% (log RF 2.70) were significantly less efficacious compared to that of the reference (log RF 3.27), at 85% they were not significantly less active with both applications, 3 and 5 min (log RFs 2.90 and 3.12, respectively). Three hours after antisepsis, the bacterial reduction on the gloved hand was only significantly less efficacious than that of the reference when 75% ethanol was used. It is concluded that ethanol-based hand rubs have a good chance of meeting the EN 12791 requirements if their ethanol concentration is >75% v/v but <95% v/v and if they are applied for at least 3 min.

  5. 孜然精油的层析分离及GC-MS分析%Column Chromatography Separation and GC-MS Determination of Essential Oil Components of C.cyminum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建伟; 黄建新; 黄磊; 刘林


    [ Objective] The research aimed to separate the essential oil of C. Cyminum L. , and analyze its components, to lay a experimental foundation for its applications. [ Method ] Essential oil was extracted from C. Cyminum L. By using low boiling-point organic solvents and was separated and identified by Column Chromatography and GC-MS. [ Result] The results showed that optimum petroleum ether extraction conditions for essential oil were as follows: Extraction temperature 33 ℃, extract time 10 h. The essential oil could be separated from four chemical components; Aliphatics, aromatics, nonhydrocarbon and pectin. [Conclusion] The study confirms the main components from essential oil of C. Cyminwn L. Restrained bacterium in foodstuff antisepsis.%[目的]分离孜然(Cuminum cyminum L.)精油,并对其成分进行分析,为其应用奠定基础.[方法]采用低沸点有机溶剂的索式抽提得到孜然精油,并用柱层析法对精油进行了组分分离、GC-MS进行组分的定性和定量分析.[结果]以石油醚为溶剂的孜然精油的提取工艺为:加热温度33℃,抽提时间10h;采用柱层析可以有效地将孜然精油分为饱和烃、芳烃、非烃和胶质4种组分.[结论]该研究确定了孜然精油中对食品防腐具有抑菌活性的主要成分.

  6. History of parenteral nutrition. (United States)

    Dudrick, Stanley J


    The concept of feeding patients entirely parenterally by injecting nutrient substances or fluids intravenously was advocated and attempted long before the successful practical development of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) four decades ago. Realization of this 400 year old seemingly fanciful dream initially required centuries of fundamental investigation coupled with basic technological advances and judicious clinical applications. Most clinicians in the 1950's were aware of the negative impact of starvation on morbidity, mortality, and outcomes, but only few understood the necessity for providing adequate nutritional support to malnourished patients if optimal clinical results were to be achieved. The prevailing dogma in the 1960's was that, "Feeding entirely by vein is impossible; even if it were possible, it would be impractical; and even if it were practical, it would be unaffordable." Major challenges to the development of TPN included: (1) formulate complete parenteral nutrient solutions (did not exist), (2) concentrate substrate components to 5-6 times isotonicity without precipitation (not easily done), (3) demonstrate utility and safety of long-term central venous catheterization (not looked upon with favor by the medical hierarchy), (4) demonstrate efficacy and safety of long-term infusion of hypertonic nutrient solutions (contrary to clinical practices at the time), (5) maintain asepsis and antisepsis throughout solution preparation and delivery (required a major culture change), and (6) anticipate, avoid, and correct metabolic imbalances or derangements (a monumental challenge and undertaking). This presentation recounts approaches to, and solution of, some of the daunting problems as really occurred in a comprehensive, concise and candid history of parenteral nutrition.

  7. Amniotic fluid iodine concentrations do not vary in pregnant women with varying iodine intake. (United States)

    García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Gallo, Manuel; García, Laureano; Prieto, Stephanie; Alcaide-Torres, Javier; Santiago, Piedad; Velasco, Inés; Soriguer, Federico


    Iodine deficiency is an important clinical and public health problem. Its prevention begins with an adequate intake of iodine during pregnancy. International agencies recommend at least 200 microg iodine per d for pregnant women. We assessed whether iodine concentrations in the amniotic fluid of healthy pregnant women are independent of iodine intake. This cross-sectional, non-interventional study included 365 consecutive women who underwent amniocentesis to determine the fetal karyotype. The amniocentesis was performed with abdominal antisepsis using chlorhexidine. The iodine concentration was measured in urine and amniotic fluid. The study variables were the intake of iodized salt and multivitamin supplements or the prescription of a KI supplement. The mean level of urinary iodine was 139.0 (SD 94.5) microg/l and of amniotic fluid 15.81 (SD 7.09) microg/l. The women who consumed iodized salt and those who took a KI supplement had significantly higher levels of urinary iodine than those who did not (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively). The urinary iodine levels were not significantly different in the women who took a multivitamin supplement compared with those who did not take this supplement, independently of iodine concentration or multivitamin supplement. The concentrations of iodine in the amniotic fluid were similar, independent of the dietary iodine intake. Urine and amniotic fluid iodine concentrations were weakly correlated, although the amniotic fluid values were no higher in those women taking a KI supplement. KI prescription at recommended doses increases the iodine levels in the mother without influencing the iodine levels in the amniotic fluid.

  8. The toxicity and invasive effects of QDs on mung bean development (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Ruhua; Huang, Xuan; Feng, Gang; Lin, Guimiao; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Gaixia; Chen, Danni


    Objective: Nowadays, the nanomaterials have been applied in every aspects of our life, including cosmetics, fresh-keeping, antisepsis and medicines. However, we know little about the toxic effects of nanoparticles towards plants. In this thesis, we synthesized quantum dots (QDs), and then toxicity and invasive effects of QDs for mung beans were investigated. Methods: We synthesised red CdTe QDs in water sphase with L-Cystein stabilizers, then prepared different concentration of QDs solution to cultivate mung bean plant, the radical length of mung beans was measured after four days every day, after 7 days, the distribution of QDs in mung bean plant was recorded under the microscopic. Results: The result showed the QDs inhibited the growth of mung beans, the higher the concentration of QDs was, the greater the inhibition effect was. After 7 days, the radicle average lengths of mung beans in different concentrations of QDs solution - blank 0.1μmol/L 0.2μmol/L 0.5 μmol/L 1 μmol/L - were 19.350+/- 0.427, 14.050+/- 0.879, 10.525+/- 0.554, 7.250+/- 0.522, 7.650+/- 0.229. The QDs mostly adhered onto the root surface and hairs. Conclusion: In conclusion, the QDs synthesized with L-cystein have effects on the growth of mung beans. However, it is necessary to do more experiments to confirm the mechanism of the toxicity effect of QDs on plants.

  9. Repair process of surgical defects filled with autogenous bone grafts in tibiae of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônatas Caldeira Esteves


    Full Text Available From a biological standpoint, the best material for reconstruction of bone defects is the autogenous bone graft. However, as tissue healing is affected under diabetic conditions, major changes might take place in the revascularization, incorporation, replacement and remodeling phases of the grafted area. The purpose of this study was to assess the bone healing process in surgical wounds prepared in tibiae of diabetic rats and filled with autogenous bone. Forty male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar were randomly assigned to receive an endovenous injection (penile vein of either citrate buffer solution (Group 1 - control; n=20 or streptozotocin dissolved in citrate buffer solution (35 mg/kg to induce diabetes (Group 2 - diabetic; n=20. After determination of glycemia, the animals were anesthetized and the anterolateral regions of the tibiae of both limbs were shaved, antisepsis was performed and longitudinal incisions were made in each limb. The tibiae were exposed and two 2mm-diameter surgical cavities were prepared: one in the right limb, filled with particulate autogenous bone and the other in the left limb, filled with blood clot. The animals were euthanized at 10 and 30 postoperative days. The anatomic pieces were obtained, submitted to laboratory processing and sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's Trichrome for histomorphologic and histometric analyses. In both groups, the wounds filled with autogenous bone graft showed better results than those filled with blood clot. The control group showed higher new bone formation in wounds filled with autogenous bone graft at 30 days than the diabetic group, but without statistical significance. It may be concluded that, in general, the new bone formation occurred with autogenous graft was quantitatively similar between control and diabetic groups and qualitatively better in the control group.

  10. 天然迎春花提取液作为抑菌成分洗手液的制备%The Preparation of Hand Sanitizer with Natural Jasminum Nudiflorum Extracting Solution as Antibacterial Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书红; 杜慧; 张换平; 田大勇; 高战胜; 赵密柱; 李安林


    采用迎春花提取液作为杀菌抑菌剂,用十二烷基硫酸钠和乙氧基化烷基硫酸钠作为表面去污活性成分,丙三醇和三乙酸甘油酯作为保湿剂,柠檬酸-柠檬酸钠缓冲液作为pH调节剂,制备了一种新型的洗手液。对洗手液进行了性能检测,结果与国家洗手液标准相比较,总活性物含量、泡沫高度、粘度、重金属含量等指标均符合或优于国家洗手液标准。同时对洗手液的抑菌性能进行了检测,结果说明洗手液的抑菌性能良好。%With Jasminum nudiflorum extracting solution as antisepsis agents, lauryl sodium sulfate and Sodium ethoxylated alkyl sulfate as surface decontamination active ingredients, glycerol and triacetin as humectants, citric acid and sodium citrate as pH modifiers, a new type hand sanitizer was prepared.The performances of the hand sanitizer were tested.The results showed that compared with hand sanitizer standards of the state, the total content of active matter, foam height, viscosity and content of heavy metal comply with the standard, or even higher than the standard of the state.Meanwhile, the antibacterial performance of the hand sanitizer was tested.The result showed that it was good.

  11. 埋地输油管道防腐技术的研究现状%Progress of Pipeline Corrosion Protection in soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒炼; 李晓敏; 胡苏


    The domestic and foreign oil pipeline that buried in earth, and the current status of research about the anti-corrosion methods, which suffered soil corrosion and caused serious accidents, were mainly discussed. based on the investigation of current exposition of antisepsis methods, soil corrosion effect and problems of controlling corrosion were elaborated, different conditions were analyzed, and the corresponding anti-corrosion measures was put forward. The buried soil pipeline according to the actual environment should have maximum protection by protective coating, corrosion inhibitor, electrochemical protection, cathode protection, and so on.%主要探讨了国内外输油管道在埋地铺设后,遭受土壤腐蚀而引起的严重事故及目前防腐方法的研究现状。本文在目前防腐方法调研的基础上阐述了土壤腐蚀影响、控制问题、腐蚀措施等方面,分析了不同情况下的影响因素,并提出了相应的防腐措施。对于埋地土壤中输油管道应根据实际铺设环境应采取涂层保护、缓蚀剂保护、电化学保护、阴极保护等手段因地制宜相结合,使输油管线得到最大的保护。

  12. 苯并三氮唑(BTA)在青铜文物缓蚀中的反应活性探讨%Investigation on the reactivity properties of benzotriazole (BTA) in bronze cultural relics protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安梅梅; 李晓东


    苯并三氮唑(BTA)作为性能优异地金属和气相防腐缓蚀剂而被广泛地应用到青铜保护.采用密度泛函理论(DFT)、概念DFT活性指数和Multiwfn波函数分析法等现代量子化学工具,计算和分析了BTA及高聚物膜[BTA-Cu(Ⅰ)]n中BTA-Cu(Ⅰ)单元的反应活性位点、反应前后前线轨道能和BTA分子反应结构;发现BTA和Cu(Ⅰ)可以发生成键反应,形成的高聚物膜[BTA-Cu(Ⅰ)]n较BTA单独分子在化学键长、键角和UV-Vis吸收峰上有明显地变化,并且从概念DFT的活性指数(主要为μ,η,ω,△En,△Ee)比较中发现,BTA-Cu(Ⅰ)的亲电性和亲核性较BTA有所增加,并计算了BTA-Cu(Ⅰ)单元分子间的相互作用能,%The benzotriazole (BTA) was applied to bronze cultural relics protection with execllect properties of metal antisepsis and gas phase inhibition. Using density functional theory (DFT) , conceptual DFT reactivity index and Multiwfn wavefunction analyzer, the reaction site, frontier molecular orbital energy, reactivity structure and BTA - Cu( I ) unit in polymer film CBTA - Cu( I )]n were systematically investigated in this work. The results showed that the bond length and bond angle in BTA -Cu( I ) unit have changed compared to BTA molecular, judged by conceptual DFT reactivity index (μ,η,ω,ΔEn,ΔEe) about BTA and BTA - Cu( I ) unit, we found the electrophilicity and nucleophilic property were improved compared with BTA. Especially, the more electrophilicity BTA-Cu ( I ) unit will increase reactivity property, the more high polymer film will be formed.

  13. Efficacy of controlling nosocomial infection of methilcillin-vesistant staphylococcus auveus%MRSA医院感染控制的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温朝阳; 方怡; 邢丽珊; 张薇


    目的:探讨MRSA的医院感染控制方法.为降低医院MRSA感染提供科学的依据.方法:通过建立MRSA的监测,对高发科室进行主动筛查,隔离患者及携带者,制定多重耐药菌的医院感染控制制度,并督导实施.加强清洁、消毒、隔离工作管理,提高手卫生依从性,运用流行病学定量统计方法评估MRSA的控制效果.结果:2009年每千住院日新发MRSA分离量出现明显上升,2010年1月开始干预后,2010年每千住院日新发MRSA分离量出现明显下降.干预前与干预后的MRSA分离量差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);MRSA感染部位以下呼吸道为主.结论:通过加强监测,对高发科室进行主动筛查,建立多重耐药菌的医院感染控制制度,阻断传播途径等干预措施可有效降低MRSA的医院感染,但应加强呼吸机的清洁消毒的管理以降低MRSA的下呼吸道感染.%Objective To investigate the method of controlling nosocomial infection of methilcillin-vesistant staphylococcus auveus (MRSA). Methods Through the MRSA infection auto monitoring system, we identified departments at high rates of MRSA infection. And then carrier isolation and controlling system of multiple infection of drug-resistant bacteria were established, methods were used to improve the compliance of hand hygiene and the management of healthcare. The effect was evaluated by incidence. Results The incidence of MRSA infection began to increase in 2009, and after the intervention which was administered in Jan 2010, the incidence of MRSA infection was decreased significantly (P< 0.05). The MRSA infection was found more frequently in lower respiratory tract. Conclussins The nosocomial infection of MRSA can be decreased effectively by reinforcement of monitoring, sterilizing, and isolating policies and hand hygiene. We should enhance the antisepsis administer of ventilator to debase the infection rate of low respiratory tract of MRSA.

  14. 消毒供应中心实行集中管理及全程质控的实践与效果%Effect of Centralized management and the entire quality control for disinfection supply center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张定洁; 张爱容; 黄玉洁


    Objective To explore the effect of Centralized management and the entire quality control for disinfection supply center ( CSSD) . Methods The hospital should strengthen its hardware construction and cultivate the quality of employees. Strengthening the management of the high risk medical instrument by callback, clean out, antisepsis, sterilization, deposit, supply the surgical instruments and sterilize items timely. Strictly follow the operation procedure and set up a quality control team carrying out entire quality control work. Results After a year of centralized management,all the quality indicators were statistically improved (P< 0.05).Conclusion Centralized management and entire quality control can provide qualified clinical sterile items and ensure the quality of medical treatment and nursing.%目的:探讨消毒供应中心( CSSD)实行集中管理及全程质控的效果。方法医院加强CSSD的硬件建设,培养员工的整体素质,对手术室、全院多个专科的手术器械及消毒物品通过及时回收、清洗、消毒、包装、灭菌、储存发放,加强对外来器械的管理,严格执行各项操作流程;并成立质控小组,开展全程质控工作。结果实行集中管理一年后的各项工作质量指标与实行集中管理前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 CSSD只有实行集中管理及全程质控,才能为临床提供合格的无菌物品,保证医疗及护理质量。

  15. Human Coronaviruses: Insights into Environmental Resistance and Its Influence on the Development of New Antiseptic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihayl Varbanov


    Full Text Available The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV, were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002–2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV; led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1, NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity, on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections, the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to

  16. Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies. (United States)

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E


    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002-2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  17. 中草药结合涂膜用于草莓保鲜的研究%Chinese Herbal Medicine Combined with Coating for the Preservation of Strawberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐放; 赵鹏宇; 吴小虎; 石莹; 艾启俊


    [目的]研究中草药结合涂膜保鲜技术对草莓保鲜的效果.[方法]以可食性的壳聚糖、纳米氧化硅,以及甘油、单甘脂等为材料,制出一种可食性的草莓保鲜膜,并将鹿蹄草、黄芩、黄柏、半边莲、北豆根5种中草药的单一或组配制剂中保鲜防腐效果最佳的组配进行前期处理.通过腐败率、感官评价等指标判断其对草莓的保鲜效果.[结果]试验表明,壳聚糖-纳米氧化硅保鲜涂膜与鹿蹄草水煎液能够显著抑制青霉、灰霉的繁殖,该处理对草莓有较好的抑菌保鲜作用,能够使常温下“丰香”草莓的保鲜期达到5d.[结论]研究可为目前市场上草莓的常温保鲜提供参考依据.%[Objective] To study fresh-keeping effect of Chinese herbs combing with coating technology on strawberry. [Method] With edible chitosan, nano silica, glycerol, monoglyceride as materials, a kind of edible strawberry plastic wrap was made. Early treatment was conducted on five kinds of Chinese herbal medicine wintergreen, baicalin, Cortex Phellodendri, lobelia, Rhizoma Menispermi in single or group of formulation of preservation and antisepsis effect. The fresh-keeping effect of strawberry was judged by decay rate, sensory evaluation index. [ Result] The experimental results showed that the chitosan-nano silica preservation coating and wintergreen water extract can inhibit the propagation of Penicillium, gray mold, the processing of strawberry has better antibacterial fresh-keeping effect, can make the room temperature" Toyonoka strawberry" preservation period up to 5 days. [Conclusion] The study can provide reference basis for normal temperature preservation of strawberry.

  18. Diagnosis and Treatment of the Mixed Infection of Escherichia coli and Coccidian in Male Lambs of Tibetan Sheep%藏系绵羊公羔大肠杆菌和球虫混合感染的诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晨阳; 冯静; 宋天增


    41 lambs of Tibetan Sheep were purchased from Cuomei County of Shannan Prefecture in Tibet. The diarrhea of lambs that defecated watery putrid dark stools occurred after they arrived at Lhasa one day. Some lambs defecated the bloody stools or even died. The mixed infection of Escherichia coli and coccidian was confirmed by clinical diagnosis,postmortem and lab examination. The drug sensitivity results of E. coli isolated and cultured showed that E. coli was sensitive to gentamicin, amikacin, cephalosporinⅤand ceftazidime. Taking antisepsis and anti-inflammation, supplementing body fluid, preventing the electrolyte disorder and self acidosis and anti-shock as the treatment principles, a series of comprehensive measures were taken, and the diseased lambs were healed after 2 weeks.%因试验需要,从西藏山南地区措美县购买了41只实验用藏系绵羊公羔,抵达拉萨1 d后羔羊陆续发生腹泻,排黑色恶臭粥样粪便,个别羔羊排血便,病情严重并有死亡情况发生。经临床诊断、剖检及实验室检查,确诊为大肠杆菌和球虫混合感染。同时,对分离培养的大肠杆菌进行药物敏感试验,结果发现,其对庆大霉素、阿米卡星、先锋霉素Ⅴ、头孢他啶4种药物敏感。以抗菌消炎、补充体液、防止电解质紊乱、防止自体酸中毒、抗休克为治疗原则,采取一系列综合治疗措施,2周后病羊痊愈。

  19. Biomechanics of Internal Fixation for Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation and Scapula Neck Fracture%肩锁关节脱位并肩胛颈骨折内固定治疗的生物力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段连鸿; 黄继锋; 梁栋柱; 赵卫东; 夏平光


    Objective To evaluate the biomechanical stability of internal fixation for acromioclavicular joint dislocation and scapula neck fracture. Methods The superior shoulder suspensory complex (SSSC) was anatomized from 7 cases of right upper limb antisepsis specimens including collarbone and scapula. The damage models were established. The stability of the SSSC was compared among the normal group, injury group and fixation group. Results The mean ranges of motion (ROMs) and neutral zones (ZNs) in different directions of the fixation group were lower than those of the injury group (P<0.05), but higher than those of the normal group (P<0.05). Conclusion Open reduction and rigid internal fixation should be applied for the patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocation and scapula neck fracture to avoid the shoulder instability.%目的 从生物力学方面评价肩锁关节脱位并肩胛颈骨折采取手术内固定治疗后的稳定性.方法 取7例包含锁骨及肩胛骨的右侧上肢防腐标本,解剖出肩胛上悬吊复合体(superior shoulder suspensory complex,SSSC),制作损伤模型,并对正常组、损伤组、固定组3种状态标本的活动度进行检测并前后比较.结果 浮肩损伤固定状态在不同方向上的中性区(neutral zone,NZ)及活动范围(range of motion,ROM)均值都明显小于损伤状态(P<0.05),但仍大于正常状态(P<0.05).结论 对肩锁关节脱位并肩胛颈骨折的患者,需要进行切开复位坚强内固定,以避免造成肩关节不稳定.

  20. Outlined history of the development of the world and Polish cardiac surgery. (United States)

    Dziatkowiak, A J


    It was the dream of humanity to perform surgery on an open non-beating heart. Scientific and medical discoveries five thousand years ago in China, partially adopted by the Western civilization, laid, through ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome and, later on in the Renaissance, the foundations for the development of empirical medicine. The 19th and the 20th centuries shoved dynamic scientific and technical development in various fields including medicine and surgery whose importance grew with the necessity to help the patients wounded in the wars. A break-through event in the development of surgery was overcoming of pain and discovery of reasons of infections and the control thereof, and, in the case of cardiology and cardiac surgery, the discoveries in physiology of circulation and the diagnostics of cardiovascular system diseases. This review contains a brief description of medical science in the past centuries, emphasizing the most important discoveries. A focus has been placed on the contribution of general surgery and thoracic surgery to the development of Polish and World cardiac surgery. The I Congress of the Polish Surgeons was held in 1889 in the Austria occupied territory of Cracow, which celebrated its one hundredth anniversary. The main obstacles in the development of clinical cardiac surgery included intratracheal general anesthesia, antisepsis and aseptics, hypothermia, oxygenators, extracorporeal circulation, transfusions, blood clotting and thromboses and cardioplegia. The spectacular heart and aorta surgical operations performed for the first time in the world and in Poland as well as the names of cardiac surgeons employed by the important cardiac surgery centers in Poland have been mentioned. The Department of Heart, Vascular and Transplantology Surgery of Cracow, the role and the share of Fundacja Rozwoju Kardiochirurgii COR AEGRUM in Cracow (COR AEGRUM Foundation for the Development of Cardiac Surgery in Cracow) in the construction of the

  1. Efficiency of Local Antiseptic Alkosol (Ethanol, Isopropanol-30g and Ortophenilphenol) and Povidone Iodide on the Incidence Of Surgical Site Infection After Inguinal Hernioplasty (United States)

    Djozic, Harun; Pandza, Haris; Hasukic, Sefik; Custovic, Samir; Pandza, Berina; Krupalija, Amina; Beciragic, Edin


    Background: The risk of wound infection after elective inguinal hernia repair depends on several factors. One of the most important factors is the preoperative skin preparation. The use of antisepsis is performed to reduce the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs) and to remove causing organisms. This work compares two different agent forms for preoperative skin preparation to prevent SSIs. Objectives: The objective of the study is comparing the effects of two different agents used for preoperative skin preparation and prevention of SSIs. Material and methods: 100 adult patients were divided and randomized into two groups, each containing 50 patients. Both groups included patients that are scheduled for elective Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair. The first group includes patients whose skin preparations were done with povidone iodine (PI) only. The second group included patients that are treated with two antiseptics; Alkosol (96% ethanol, isopropanol-30g and ortophenilphenol-0.1g) and povidone iodide. Alkosol is applied before the induction of anesthesia. The povidone iodide is applied after Alkosol has evaporated. The presence of bacterial growth in the wound was determined 24 and 48 hours after operation. Swabs were used to take samples, which were then cultivated to check for bacterial growth. The presence of infection was also determined by the following criteria: pain or tenderness, induration, erythema, local warmth of the wound etc. Results: The surgeon or clinician declared that after 24 hours the wound was infected in 20 patients in the control group and in 22 patients after 48 hours. In the Alkosol (96% ethanol, isopropanol-30g and ortophenilphenol-0.1g) and povidone iodide group infection was declared in only 3 patients after 24 hours. Discussion: Compared to the use of providone only, the use of Alkosol (96% ethanol, isopropanol-30g and ortophenilphenol-0.1g) and povidone iodide has many advantages and was associated with lower rates of SSIs

  2. Método bundle na redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateteres centrais: revisão integrativa Método bundle en la redución de infecciones relacionadas a catéteres centrales: una revisión integrativa Care bundle to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dane Pereira Brachine


    éter con su retirada inmediata cuando posible. La mayoría de los estudios analizados mostraron una reducción significante de infección sanguínea relacionadas o asociadas con catéteres intravenosos centrales.This is an integrative review of literature aimed to identify evidence-based interventions which make up care bundles to reduce central venous catheter-related or associated bloodstream infections. To collect data in Brazilian and international databases were used the key word bundle and the descriptors catheter-related infection, infection control and central venous catheterization, resulting in fifteen articles, after inclusion criteria application. This work showed five interventions as those commonly employed in the bundles methods: hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate for skin antisepsis, use of maximal sterile barrier precaution during the catheter insertion, avoid the femoral access and daily review of catheter necessity with prompt removal as no longer essential. The majority of the studies showed a significant reduction in bloodstream infection related to or associated with central venous catheters.

  3. 甲醛遗体防腐剂改良研究%The study on the improved formaldehyde preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霜玲; 李玉光; 付慧群; 王永阔; 姜思朋; 周雪媚


    Objective To reduce the harm of formaldehyde-containing preservatives to the health of staff, a new improved preservative, EM1, was developed, which has lower concentration of formaldehyde. Methods By means of formaldehyde release test, bacterial quantitative germicidal test and fungus germicidal test, laboratory rat injection antisepsis test, and a field test on cadavers in funeral home, the disinfection and antiseptic effect of EM1 was investigated. Results EM1 showed lower formaldehyde release as 35.7%of formal antiseptic;it could effectively kill Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and other microorganisms;it could help the dead rats injected with EM1 staying for 30 days, and the morphology of which was closer tothe alive condition in comparison with that of the Dodge-treated rats; the effective embalming rate of cadaver was above 95%at room temperature. Conclusions This improved preservative EM1 has the characteristics of low toxicity, good antiseptic and fixed effect. Furthermore, the embalmed specimens shrink little, and almost show the living condition. By effectively controlling the spread of pathogenic microorganisms, the development of corruption and autolysis of remains, EM1 can do contribution to anatomy research and embalming for funeral.%目的:为减少甲醛防腐剂对人体造成的危害,研制新型改良甲醛遗体防腐剂EM1。方法通过甲醛释放量检测、细菌定量杀灭试验与真菌杀灭试验、实验室大鼠注射防腐实验、殡仪馆遗体防腐现场实验,考察遗体防腐剂的消毒、防腐效果。结果 EM1防腐剂甲醛释放量为常规防腐剂的35.7%;能有效杀灭金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌等微生物;使用EM1进行注射防腐的大鼠可保存30d,且比Dodge处理的大鼠更接近活体状态;室温下对遗体的有效防腐率达95%以上。结论 EM1防腐剂具有毒性低、防腐固定效果好、所保存的标本收缩率小、色泽接近活体状态等特点

  4. Determination of sodium formaldehyde sulphoxylate in rice flour by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定米粉中次硫酸氢钠甲醛(吊白块)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 罗明; 舒海霞; 杨鸿波


    A fewer manufacture use sodium formaldehyde sulphoxylate in rice flour to bleach, improve the texture and antisepsis the flour.But sodium formaldehyde sulphoxylate may raise pulmonary edema, hepatohemia, nephrohemia, angioedema and even the cancers.To ensure the food safety, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was used to determine sodium formaldehyde sulphoxylate in rice flour.Formaldehyde extracted in the acidity solvent was decomposed into Dinitrophenylhydrazine, and then reacted with n - hexane to form the derivative which can be quantitatively detected by HPLC.The best time for the reaction was 20min.The best detecting condition was acetonitrile∶ water (60∶ 40), the flow rate was 0.8mL/min.Use the retention time of standard formaldehyde derivative as the control to calculate the content of sodium formaldehyde sulphoxylate.The detection limit was 0.1 μg/g in samples, and recovery was 88.2%~96.1%.The method was used to determinate 100 samples of rice flour from the city market and showed a good linear relationship, strong specialty, and good repetition.This method is suitable to determine the formaldehyde in rice flour with satisfactory results.%少数米粉加工者违法加入次硫酸氢钠甲醛(吊白块)起到漂白、增色、改善食品口感及防腐等作用,但次硫酸氢钠甲醛可引起肺水肿、肝、肾充血及血管周围水肿,甚至可能致癌.利用高效液相色谱法可测定米粉中的次硫酸氢钠甲醛,确保消费者食用的米粉质量安全.该方法中样品经酸性溶液提取次硫酸氢钠甲醛分解得到的甲醛,与衍生试剂2,4-二硝基苯肼发生反应,经优化试验确定衍生时间为20min衍生效果最好,正己烷提取衍生产物,利用高效液相色谱测定,试验条件确定为乙腈 ∶水(60:40),流速为0.8mL/min,分离效果最好,利用标准甲醛衍生物保留时间对照定性,标准曲线定量测定次硫酸氢钠甲醛含量.该方法检出限为0.1

  5. Chitosan prevents tendon adhesion after sports injury%几丁糖防治运动损伤后的肌腱粘连

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛廷云; 李雷


    BACKGROUND: Tendon injury is common seen in sports exercise, and tendon adhesion often occurs during the repair of tendon injury. Tendon adhesion can damage tendon function. At present, chitosan is a hotspot for prevention of tendon adhesion.OBJECTIVE: To review the effect of chitosan on post-sports tendon adhesion.METHODS: A computer-based search of CNKI and PubMed from January 1990 to Decembe 2010 was performed with keywords of "chitosan, tendon, adhesion, sports injury" in Chinese and English to retrieve the articles about chitosan for prevention of tendon adhesion after sports injury. Related articles published recently or in authoritative journals were selected. According to the inclusion criteria, 29 papers were selected.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION : The tendon is mainly composed of collagen fibers, and its biomechanical properties are closely related to collagen fibers. The healing process of tendon injury consists of two ways: exogenous and endogenous healing.Tendon adhesion often occur in exogenous healing. Previous animal experiments and clinical studies have demonstrated that chitosan has a good preventive effect on tendon adhesion, which mechanisms include reducing the production of collagen fibers,barrier isolation, hemostasis acceleration, and antisepsis and anti-inflammation. Therefore, chitosan is an ideal material to prevent tendon adhesion, but there are still some problems in clinical application to be resolved.%背景:肌腱损伤是运动训练中的常见损伤,肌腱损伤修复过程中易形成粘连,而使肌腱原有的功能下降或丧失.目前受到国内外学者瞩目的防治肌腱粘连的方法是防粘连材料的应用,众多材料中,丁糖备受关注.目的:综述了几丁糖防治运动损伤后的肌腱粘连.方法:应用计算机检索CNKI和PubMed数据库中1990-01/2010-12关于几丁糖防治运动损伤后肌腱粘连的文章,标题和摘要中以"几丁糖,腱,连,动损伤"或"chitosan,endon,dhesion,ports injury"为

  6. 国内首起本地感染甲型H1N1流感疫情的流行病学分析%Epidemiological characteristic of first case of locally identified A/H1N1 secondary cases caused by imported source of infection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智聪; 毛新武; 李海麟; 湛柳华; 肖晓玲; 刘建平; 沈纪川; 蔡文峰; 王鸣; 李铁钢; 刘于飞; 吴新伟; 袁俊; 谢朝军; 李魁彪; 蒋丽云; 陈艺韵


    Objective To study the first locally identifcd A/HINI secondary cases outbreak in China. Methods Interview and field investigation were integrated to describe the whole process of transmission on each case and to illustrate the relationships between the onset of the disease and the retated factors. Results Two contact persons appearanced fever and whose throat swabs were tested positive to H1N1 viral nucleic acid. The two had a history of contact in a short distance with the initial imported case without any protective measure in the poor air ventilation. The patients clinical situation was slight. The incubation was between 37 hours and 57 hours. No other new case was found after intervention as isolation and antisepsis were taken. Conclusion This event was proved to be an outbreak of local A/H1N1 secondary cases caused by the imported case. The main mode of transmission was personal contact in a short distance without protection, through air and droplet. The locus with poor air ventilation was high risk place. Contact persons should be observed seven days and tested continuously.Infectivity and pathogenicity of the A/H1N1 virus were limited and appeared weakened by generations. Patient's condition was related with persistence and frequency of contact with the infection sources. Enhancing management of contact persons, health education, early diagnose, early treatment and early insulation were effective measures of controling and prenventing the spread A/H1N1.%目的 分析周内首起甲型H1N1流感输入性传染源引发本地二代病例疫情,探讨发病规律和流行特征.方法 设计统一调查表,采用面对面病例个案调查和现场调查,以指示病例为起点进行追踪,描述传播过程及各因素与发病之间的关系,分析疫情的流行病学特征.结果 发现指示病例后,密切接触者中有2人出现发热和上呼吸道症状且咽拭子甲型H1N1流感病毒核酸检测阳性,被确诊为国内首起本地感染甲型H1N

  7. Bacteriemia during endodontic treatment in relation to the technique of biomechanical preparation: randomized clinical trial Bacteriemia durante o tratamento endodôntico em função da técnica de preparo biomecânico: ensaio clínico randomizado

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    Adriane Tenório Dourado


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the frequency of bacteriemia during endodontic treatment, with comparison between two techniques for biomechanical preparation of the root canal system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample comprised 50 patients aged 16 to 52 years, of both genders, which were divided into 2 groups with 25 patients each. Group I underwent biomechanical preparation by the step-back technique, and Group II was treated by the rotary technique with nickel-titanium instruments (K3. Patients were submitted to antisepsis of the oral cavity with chlorhexidine digluconate and three samples of blood were collected for blood culture: preoperatively, immediately after the biomechanical preparation and 10 minutes later. The significance level adopted was 5.0%, and analysis was performed by descriptive and inferential statistics by means of the Fisher's exact test, Fisher-Freeman-Halton test and Student's t test. Data were analyzed on the Statexact and SPSS softwares. RESULTS: All blood cultures achieved before and immediately after preparation were negative. On the other hand, with regard to the blood cultures collected 10 minutes after preparation, one (4% positive case was found for Group I. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.50. CONCLUSION: The frequency of bacteriemia was low and observed just for Group I.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste ensaio clínico randomizado foi avaliar a freqüência de bacteriemia durante o tratamento endodôntico comparando duas técnicas de preparo biomecânico do sistema de canais radiculares. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: A amostra constou de 50 pacientes, com idade variando entre 16 e 52 anos e de ambos os sexos, sendo dividida em 2 grupos de 25 pacientes. No Grupo I, realizou-se o preparo biomecânico através da técnica escalonada com recuo progressivo programado, e, no Grupo II, por meio técnica rotatória, empregando instrumentos de níquel-titânio (K3

  8. The effects of topical application of sunflower-seed oil on open wound healing in lambs Efeitos da aplicação tópica de óleo de semente de girassol em feridas cutâneas, em carneiros

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    Silvio Romero Marques


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the effects of the use of sunflower seed oil on the treatment of skin wounds. METHODS: Eighteen male Saint Inês lambs were divided in 3 groups according to the pos-operative (7, 14 and 21 days. After antisepsis and local anestesia, two 4cm² wounds on each side of the thoracic region, close to the scapule were surgically produced. The experimental wounds were treated with sunflower seed oil, with high concentration of linoleic acid (LA, and the control ones with sterilized Vaseline. Biopsies of the pos-operative wounds tissue were performed on the 7th, 14th, 21st days and histologically evaluated. RESULTS: Topic application of sunflower seed oil accelerated healing process at the 7th and 21st days, reducing wound area and increasing wound contraction. Granulation tissue increased faster on treated wounds. The epidermis of the treated wounds was completely recovered when compared to control wounds. CONCLUSION: The topic use of sunflower seed oil accelerated the healing process, and it can be used as an alternative therapy on second intention wound healing.OBJETIVO: Demonstrar os efeitos do uso de óleo de semente de girassol no tratamento de feridas cutâneas. MÉTODOS: Dezoito carneiros da raça Santa Inês foram divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o pós-cirúrgico (7, 14, e 21 dias. Após antisepsia e anestesia local foram produzidas cirurgicamente duas feridas de 4 cm² em cada lado da região torácica próxima escápula. As feridas experimentais foram tratadas com óleo de semente de girassol, com alta concentração de ácido linoléico (LA e as controles com vaselina esterilizada. Biopsias dos tecidos das feridas pós-cirúrgicas foram realizadas no 7º, 14º e 21º dias e avaliadas histologicamente. RESULTADOS: A aplicação tópica do óleo de semente de girassol acelerou o processo de cicatrização no 7ºe 21º dias, reduzindo a área e aumentando a contração das feridas. O tecido de granulação se

  9. Cateter urinário: mitos e rituais presentes no preparo do paciente Catéter urinario: mitos y rituales presentes en la preparación del paciente Urinary catheter: myths and rituals present in preparation of patients

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    Alessandra Mazzo


    divergentes para la higiene y antisepsia del meato uretral, con presencia de mitos y rituales que se exceden a las evidencias científicas y destacam el modelo funcionalista en los procedimientos realizados por el equipo de enfermería. CONCLUSIÓN: Hay necesidad de reevaluar la intervención del cateterismo urinario, con discusiones interdisciplinarias, dando énfasis a la utilización de principios científicos.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify and describe myths and rituals in preparing patients for urinary catheter insertion. METHODS: This was an observational, exploratory and descriptive study conducted in nine hospitals of a city in the interior of Brazil. Following ethical precepts, data were collected by interview, with the nurse designated by the institution, using a semistructured instrument. Among the 13 institutions of the municipality, nine participated in the study. RESULTS: All hospitals had a standardized, implemented procedure for urinary catheterization. During the preparation of patients, five participants (55.5% made no reference to orientation, privacy and humanization. All adopted divergent procedures for hygiene and antisepsis of the urethral meatus, with the presence of myths and rituals that exist outside the scientific evidence and highlight the functionalist model of the procedures performed by nursing staff. CONCLUSION: There is a need to reassess the intervention of urinary catheterization, with interdisciplinary discussions, emphasizing the use of scientific principles.


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    Letícia De Toni


    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to test antimicrobials activities by medicinal plants extracts against more important contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Disinfectants solutions was made from Baccharis trimera (Less D.C., Compositae (Asteracea, Eucalyptus spp Labill., Myrtaceae e Tagetes minuta (Linn., Compositae (Asteracea plants by hidroalcoholic extraction (EHA or decoction (DEC. S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and P. aeruginosa were used. To test for in vitro efficacy, each solution disinfectant was mixed with bacterial suspension containing 105 CFU.mL-1, by 30 seconds, two, 10 ant 30 minutes, with and without 20% of integral milk. Viable bacteria were evaluated by directed plating of neutralized aliquots. The worked included chlorhexidine 0,18% by control and it was executed in duplicate. EHA Eucalytpus spp and EHA T. minuta were as effective as control chlorhexidine against S. aureus. This solutions plus EHA B. trimera, were as effective as control against S. agalactiae. DEC Eucalyptus and DEC B. trimera also inactivated S. agalactiae in more prolongated time. Chlorhexidine was the best against P. multocida in milk absence, although the EHA were effective at ten or thirty minutes. All solutions, inclusive control, it was sensibility to organic load. The observations from the in vitro studies presented here need to be substantiated by in vivo studies by to confirm the potentiality use of plants medicinal extracts as disinfectants/antisepsis in livestock health. O presente trabalho busca avaliar a cinética da atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas medicinais frente a bactérias relacionadas com mastite bovina. Para tal, foram produzidas soluções desinfetantes a partir de folhas e talos de Baccharis trimera (Less D.C., Compositae (Asteraceae, Eucalyptus spp Labill., Myrtaceae e Tagetes minuta (Linn., Compositae (Asteraceae, através de extração hidroalcoólica (EHA e decocto (DEC. Os microrganismos utilizados foram S. aureus, S

  11. Experimental biomechanical analysis of standing position in both-column acetabular fractures fixed by anterior reconstruction plate combinated with trans-plate quadrilateral screws%前路钛板加方形区螺钉治疗髋臼双柱骨折的站立位力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡贤华; 吴咏德; 刘曦明; 张红喜


    [目的]探讨前路特殊塑形钛板加方形区螺钉治疗髋臼双柱骨折早期站立的可能性.[方法]选取成年防腐保湿处理的全骨盆标本6具,保留韧带及髋关节囊,制作单侧髋臼高位双柱骨折模型,随机先后采用前路特殊塑形钛板加方形区螺钉(B组)及常规塑形钛板加1/3管型钛板(C组)内固定,固定标本于ZWICKZ100电子万能材料试验机上,模拟站立位以400~700 N垂直加载,分别测定完整骨盆(A组)、B组及C组后柱内壁横向位移、髋臼顶纵向位移,并计算刚度.[结果]随着载荷增加,各位移值呈逐渐增加的线性关系,且A组<B组<C组;在生理负荷600N载荷下,横向与纵向位移值均为C组>B组>A组、刚度为C组>B组>A组,C组与B组、A组与C组间差异明显(P<0.05),B组与A组差异无显著意义(P>0.05).[结论]站立位下,前路特殊塑形钛板加方形区螺钉较常规塑形钛板加1/3管型钛板内固定即刻力学性能更为可靠,稳定性与完整骨盆接近,这表明早期站立并不影响前路特殊塑形钛板加方形区螺钉内固定的稳定性.%[ Objective] To explore the standing possibility in the early after both - column acetabular fracture fixed by anterior specially - shaped reconstruction plate combinated with trans - plate quadrilateral screws on cadaver. [ Method] Six Chinese adult wetly pelvic specimens with their ligament and joint capsule of hip joint preserved with antisepsis were made into the model with high both-column acetabular fracture on one side. The fractures were fixed randomly by anterior specially-shaped titanium plate with quadrilateral screws( group B) or conventionally-shaped reconstruction titanium plate with 1/3 tubular titanium plate (group C). To imitate the static standing position of the patient,the specimen fixed on ZWICK-Z100 electronic universal material testing machine received the vertical loading from 400 N to 700 N to measure the transverse displacement of

  12. Controle da qualidade na coleta do espécime diagnóstico sanguíneo: iluminando uma fase escura de erros pré-analíticos Quality control in the collection of diagnostic blood specimens: illuminating a dark phase of preanalytical errors

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    Gabriel de Souza Lima-Oliveira


    no planejamento da qualidade no laboratório. A lista de verificação proposta permite detectar erros na fase pré-analítica, estabelecer indicadores da qualidade e auxilia no estabelecimento de planos de ações corretivas e preventivas com redução nos custos e ganho na eficiência do processo.BACKGROUND: The preanalytical phase is responsible for more than two thirds of all errors attributed to the clinical laboratory and it has only a few routine procedures for the detection of nonconformity. In this phase, the procedures involving phlebotomy, critical to the obtainment of diagnostic blood specimen, are poorly studied with regard to major sources of errors and procedures related to quality control process. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to propose a tool for finding failures in the preanalytical phase and to establish quality indicators, with emphasis on procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens, in order to monitor potential sources of error in this phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated phlebotomy procedures employed in ten clinical laboratories in São Paulo city, Brazil. All of them with established quality program. The errors that had a frequency higher than 80% were selected to be part of a checklist aiming to evaluate the performance of phlebotomists. Standards and recommendations established by national and international institutions, such as ANVISA, SBPC/ML and CLSI, served as reference to elaborate the checklist. RESULTS: The proposed checklist covers five points of phlebotomy procedures: tourniquet application time, number of phlebotomists that ask patients to clench forearm muscle prior to collection, friction of the forearm muscle in antisepsis process, correct or incorrect sequence of blood collecting tubes and evaluation of accurate or inaccurate homogenization of collected blood specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Phlebotomy evaluation is an essential part of the quality planning in clinical laboratories. The proposed checklist

  13. Correlação entre os métodos de concepção, ocorrência e formas de tratamento das onfalopatias em bovinos: estudo retrospectivo Correlation between conception methods, occurrence, and type o treatment of the umbilical diseases in cattle: a retrospective study

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    Celso A. Rodrigues


    ês foram tratados conservativamente. A análise dos diferentes métodos de concepção, correlacionados à ocorrência de onfalopatias, sugere que os animais provenientes de FIV, apresentam maior frequência de persistência de úraco (66,7%, e aqueles concebidos por IA, maior frequência de hérnia umbilical (58,4%, O tratamento cirúrgico foi mais eficiente que a terapia conservativa. Essa última apresentou melhores resultados nos casos descomplicados e precocemente diagnosticados.Some problems have been observed in bovine products of the in vitro fertilization technical, among these, the high umbilical diseases casuistry. From this observation, the aim of this work was to accomplish a retrospective study of the correlation between the conception methods and the occurrence of umbilical diseases in bovines and describe the results obtained from the conservative and surgical treatments. For this 44 animals attended at Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Unesp Araçatuba, with age varying from one day to 12 months among the years of 2003 and 2007 were used, twenty seven were from in vitro fertilization (IVF, twelve were from artificial insemination (AI, two were from natural mounts and three were from embryo transfer. The clinical-surgical diagnosis of the animals revealed that all of them presented umbilical disorders, being 22 cases of urachus patent, eight omphalophlebitis, eight umbilical hernia, five omphalitis and one umbilical fibrosis. Before and at the postoperative period was administered in all animals once a day for ten days 3mg/kg of ceftiofur sodium IV. In cases of serious infection or lack of response of the initial antimicrobial therapy a complementary treatment during seven days with 6.6 mg/kg of gentamicin sulfate IV was carried out. The antisepsis of the umbilicus with tincture of iodine to 2% was carried out twice daily in cases treated clinically, with out surgery, while the animals underwent surgery received 1.1mg/kg of flunixin meglumine IV once daily

  14. Anti-adhesion effect of absorbable biomaterials during tendon reconstruction%可吸收生物材料在肌腱损伤重建中的防粘连作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    , absorbable biomaterials” in Chinese and English, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Basic and clinical studies on absorbable anti-adhesion materials have achieved remarkable results. Currently absorbable anti-adhesion materials include hyaluronic acid, polylactic acid, colagen and fibrin glue, which have good biocompatibility and can be absorbed and degradedin vivo. With simple clinical implementation, these materials can completely cover the wound surface. The main mechanisms are as folows: reducing the generation of colagen fibers, isolation barrier, accelerating hemostasis, antisepsis and anti-inflammation, thereby effectively reducing reconstructed tendon adhesion and promoting tendon healing. But they have their limitations: hyaluronic acid has short acting durationin vivoand immunogenicity; polylactic acid eventualy is decomposed into smal molecules that cancause aseptic inflammation; colagen and fibrin glue both have certain shortcomings in biocompatibility and activity.

  15. Bone metabolism changes of the rats with diabetic osteoporosis and the intervention effect of Shuanghuang yigu recipe%糖尿病骨质疏松大鼠骨代谢改变及双黄益骨方的干预作用

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    李赛美; 陈长青; 熊莉华; 杨艳红; 邓长青; 王志高; 张新亮; 朱艳芳; 莫伟


    after menopause by the compound method of ovariectomy plus streptoxotocin,and to probe into the therapeutic effect of shuanghuang yigu recipe on the osteoporosis in rats with diabetics from bone metabolism angle and its dose-effect relationship.DESIGN: Completely randomized design and controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Diabetics, First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the key laboratory of Chinese Medicine Therapy of Difficult and Complicated Diseases,Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from June to December 2002.Totally 150 Sprague Dawley (SD) female rats of clean class were recruited and randomly divided into 5 group: namely, sham-operation,model group , shuanghuang yigu recipe 23.00,5.75 g/kg group and nilestriol group with 30 rats in each group .METHODS: ①Model of rats with ovariectomy: The rats were anesthetized with the antisepsis by iodine, the nick was cut along the middle line of the back and from up to bottom. Then the uterus angle was tied and cut off and the ovary was extirpated. The treatment of the sham-operation group was the same as model groups except that the ovary did not need to be extirpated. ② Diabetic rats model with overiectomy: One week after the ovariectomy, rats were fasted for 12 hours. Next step was to intraperitoneally inject streptozotocin (STZ) with the dosage of 45 mg per kilogram. The blood sample should be drawn at the time of 24 hours and 72 hours later separately by cutting tails. Then blood glucose was tested with blood glucose monitor of American Abbott Laboratories Ltd. The rats whose blood glucose was higher than 11.1 mmol/L were recruited. ③ Diabetic osteoporosis rats model with ovariectomy: After the overiectomy were performed in the diabetic osteoporosis rats, the rats were raised. Deoxypyridinoline (DPD)and biomechanical index were tested, if they were significantly lower than that of the normal control group

  16. 肱骨远段内固定物及假体设计与其解剖学参数的关系%Association of designing internal fixator and prosthesis for the distal end of humerus with the anatomical parameters

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    王友华; 马江川; 吴菊; 赵剑; 刘璠


    experiments were carried out in the Trauma Research Room, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from October 2005 to February 2006. Fifty-four pairs of humerus samples from adult antisepsis corpses were randomly selected (provided by the Department of Human Anatomy, Medical College of Nantong University), including 30 pairs from males and 24 pairs from females, while those with deformation and degeneration of elbow joint were excluded. METHODS: The soft tissues adhered to the humerus samples were all rejected, and the anatomical parameters of the distal end of humerus were measured with slide gaud (0.01 mm in precision, produced by Shanghai Measuring and Cutting Tool Works), calipers and goniometer. ① Measurement of angles related to the distal end of humerus: The measured parameters included the anteverted angle of the distal humerus, the lateral rotation angle of humerus trochlea,the anteverted angulation of humerus capitulum, the anteverted angulation of humerus trochlea, the condyle-shaft angle of humerus, and the internal rotation angle of the line of lateral-medial humerus epicondyle. ② Measurement of structural width and depth related to the distal end of humerus: The measured parameters included the horizontal diameter of the anterior end of humerus trochlea, the horizontal diameter of the inferior end of humerus trochlea, the sagittal diameter of humerus trochlea, the width between medial epicondyle and external epicondyle, the width between medial trochlea and lateral capitulum, the width of olecranon fossa, the depth of olecranon fossa, the width of medial epicondyle, the depth of sulcus for ulnar nerve, the width of humerus capitulum, and the sagittal diameter of humerus capitulum..MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of the angles and structural width or depth related to the distal end of the humerus.males and females in the anteverted angle of the distal humerus [(35.62±5.21)°, (96.22±5.29)°], the lateral rotation angle of humerus trochlea [(5.22±1.15)