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Sample records for antisense peptide nucleic

  1. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) antisense effects in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Good, L; Nielsen, P E

    1999-01-01

    Antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA) can be used to control cell growth, gene expression and growth phenotypes in the bacteria Escherichia coli. PNAs targeted to the RNA components of the ribosome can inhibit translation and cell growth, and PNAs targeted to mRNA can limit gene expression with gene...... and sequence specificity. In an E. coli cell extract, efficient inhibition is observed when using PNA concentrations in the nanomolar range, whereas micromolar concentrations are required for inhibition in growing cells. A mutant strain of E. coli that is more permeable to antibiotics also is more susceptible...... to antisense PNAs than the wild type. This chapter details methods for testing the antisense activities of PNA in E. coli. As an example of the specific antisense inhibition possible, we show the effects of an anti-beta-galactosidase PNA in comparison to control PNAs. With improvements in cell uptake...

  2. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) antisense effects in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Good, L; Nielsen, P E

    1999-01-01

    to antisense PNAs than the wild type. This chapter details methods for testing the antisense activities of PNA in E. coli. As an example of the specific antisense inhibition possible, we show the effects of an anti-beta-galactosidase PNA in comparison to control PNAs. With improvements in cell uptake...

  3. Calcium ions effectively enhance the effect of antisense peptide nucleic acids conjugated to cationic tat and oligoarginine peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Pankratova, Stanislava; Nielsen, Peter E

    2005-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides have been widely used to improve cellular delivery of a variety of proteins and antisense agents. However, recent studies indicate that such cationic peptides are predominantly entering cells via an endosomal pathway. We now show that the nuclear antisense effect in He......La cells of a variety of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) peptide conjugates is significantly enhanced by addition of 6 mM Ca(2+) (as well as by the lysosomotrophic agent chloroquine). In particular, the antisense activities of Tat(48-60) and heptaarginine-conjugated PNAs were increased 44-fold and 8.5-fold......, respectively. Evidence is presented that the mechanism involves endosomal release. The present results show that Ca(2+) can be used as an effective enhancer for in vitro cellular delivery of cationic peptide-conjugated PNA oligomers, and also emphasize the significance of the endosomal escape route...

  4. Cell number and transfection volume dependent peptide nucleic acid antisense activity by cationic delivery methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llovera Nadal, Laia; Berthold, Peter; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    Efficient intracellular delivery is essential for high activity of nucleic acids based therapeutics, including antisense agents. Several strategies have been developed and practically all rely on auxiliary transfection reagents such as cationic lipids, cationic polymers and cell penetrating...... peptides as complexing agents and carriers of the nucleic acids. However, uptake mechanisms remain rather poorly understood, and protocols always require optimization of transfection parameters. Considering that cationic transfection complexes bind to and thus may up-concentrate on the cell surface, we......-octaarginine conjugate upon varying the cell culture transfection volume (and cell density) at fixed PNA concentration. The results show that for all delivery modalities the cellular antisense activity increases (less than proportionally) with increasing volume (in some cases accompanied with increased toxicity...

  5. Cellular delivery and antisense effects of peptide nucleic acid conjugated to polyethyleneimine via disulfide linkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Peter R; Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is potentially an attractive antisense and antigene agent for which more efficient cellular delivery systems are still warranted. The cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) is commonly used for cellular transfection of DNA and RNA complexes, but is not readily applicable...... for PNA due to the (inherent) charge neutrality of PNA. However, PEI could function as an efficient scaffold for PNA via chemical conjugation. Accordingly, we modified PEI with the amine-reactive heterobifunctional linker agent N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate (SPDP) (with and without a PEG...

  6. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) cell penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugates as carriers for cellular delivery of antisense oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    splicing correction of the mutated luciferase gene in the HeLa pLuc705 cell line, reporting cellular (nuclear) uptake of the antisense PNA via luciferase activity measurement. Carrier CPP-PNA constructs were studied in terms of construct modification (with octaarginine and/or decanoic acid) and carrier PNA......We have explored the merits of a novel delivery strategy for the antisense oligomers based on cell penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugated to a carrier PNA with sequence complementary to part of the antisense oligomer. The effect of these carrier CPP-PNAs was evaluated by using antisense PNA targeting...

  7. Nanomolar cellular antisense activity of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) cholic acid ("umbrella") and cholesterol conjugates delivered by cationic lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-02-15

    Limited cellular uptake and low bioavailability of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have restricted widespread use of PNAs as antisense/antigene agents for cells in culture and not least for in vivo applications. We now report the synthesis and cellular antisense activity in cultured HeLa pLuc705 cells of cholesterol and cholic acid ("umbrella") derivatives of splice correction antisense PNA oligomers. While the conjugates alone were practically inactive up to 1 μM, their activity was dramatically improved when delivered by a cationic lipid transfection agent (LipofectAMINE2000). In particular, PNAs, conjugated to cholesterol through an ester hemisuccinate linker or to cholic acid, exhibited low nanomolar activity (EC(50) ∼ 25 nM). Excellent sequence specificity was retained, as mismatch PNA conjugates did not show any significant antisense activity. Furthermore, we show that increasing the transfection volume improved transfection efficiency, suggesting that accumulation (condensation) of the PNA/lipid complex on the cellular surface is part of the uptake mechanism. These results provide a novel, simple method for very efficient cellular delivery of PNA oligomers, especially using PNA-cholic acid conjugates which, in contrast to PNA-cholesterol conjugates, exhibit sufficient water solubility. The results also question the generality of using cholic acid "umbrella" derivatives as a delivery modality for antisense oligomers.

  8. Potent Antibacterial Antisense Peptide-Peptide Nucleic Acid Conjugates Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe infections in hospital settings, especially with immune compromised patients, and the increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant strains urges search for new drugs with novel mechanisms of action. In this study we introduce...... significantly reduced bacterial survival. These results open the possibility of development of antisense antibacterials for treatment of Pseudomonas infections....

  9. Improved cellular uptake of antisense Peptide nucleic acids by conjugation to a cell-penetrating Peptide and a lipid domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    based on a splicing correction of a mutated luciferase gene in HeLa pLuc705 cells by targeting antisense oligonucleotides to a cryptic splice site. Further improvement in the delivery of CatLip-PNA conjugates is achieved by using auxiliary agents/treatments (e.g., chloroquine, calcium ions...... peptides known as cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is attracting wide attention for a variety of biologically active molecules. CPP-mediated delivery is typically based on the covalent conjugation of the (therapeutic) cargo to CPPs, and is particularly relevant for the delivery of noncharged RNA...

  10. Subnanomolar antisense activity of phosphonate-peptide nucleic acid (PNA) conjugates delivered by cationic lipids to HeLa cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Hamzavi, Ramin; Nielsen, Peter E

    2008-01-01

    oligomer. This modification of the PNA does not interfere with the nucleic acid target binding affinity based on thermal stability of the PNA/RNA duplexes. When delivered to cultured HeLa pLuc705 cells by Lipofectamine, the PNAs showed dose-dependent nuclear antisense activity in the nanomolar range...

  11. Optimization of Peptide Nucleic Acid Antisense Oligonucleotides for Local and Systemic Dystrophin Splice Correction in the mdx Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, HaiFang; Betts, Corinne; Saleh, Amer F; Ivanova, Gabriela D; Lee, Hyunil; Seow, Yiqi; Kim, Dalsoo; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew JA

    2010-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) have the capacity to alter the processing of pre-mRNA transcripts in order to correct the function of aberrant disease-related genes. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked muscle degenerative disease that arises from mutations in the DMD gene leading to an absence of dystrophin protein. AOs have been shown to restore the expression of functional dystrophin via splice correction by intramuscular and systemic delivery in animal models of DMD and in DMD patients via intramuscular administration. Major challenges in developing this splice correction therapy are to optimize AO chemistry and to develop more effective systemic AO delivery. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) AOs are an alternative AO chemistry with favorable in vivo biochemical properties and splice correcting abilities. Here, we show long-term splice correction of the DMD gene in mdx mice following intramuscular PNA delivery and effective splice correction in aged mdx mice. Further, we report detailed optimization of systemic PNA delivery dose regimens and PNA AO lengths to yield splice correction, with 25-mer PNA AOs providing the greatest splice correcting efficacy, restoring dystrophin protein in multiple peripheral muscle groups. PNA AOs therefore provide an attractive candidate AO chemistry for DMD exon skipping therapy. PMID:20068555

  12. Oxacillin sensitization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius by antisense peptide nucleic acids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Shan; Loeffler, Anette; Lloyd, David H; Nair, Sean P; Good, Liam

    2015-11-11

    Antibiotic resistance genes can be targeted by antisense agents, which can reduce their expression and thus restore cellular susceptibility to existing antibiotics. Antisense inhibitors can be gene and pathogen specific, or designed to inhibit a group of bacteria having conserved sequences within resistance genes. Here, we aimed to develop antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) that could be used to effectively restore susceptibility to β-lactams in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Antisense PNAs specific for conserved regions of the mobilisable gene mecA, and the growth essential gene, ftsZ, were designed. Clinical MRSA and MRSP strains of high oxacillin resistance were treated with PNAs and assayed for reduction in colony forming units on oxacillin plates, reduction in target gene mRNA levels, and cell size. Anti-mecA PNA at 7.5 and 2.5 μM reduced mecA mRNA in MRSA and MRSP (p resistance in staphylococci. Further studies are warranted as clinical treatment alternatives are needed.

  13. Nucleic Acid Backbone Structure Variations: Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic analogues and mimics of the natural genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are potential gene therapeutic (antisense or antigene) drugs. One of these mimics, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), are chemically closer to peptides and proteins than to DNA, but nonetheless have retained many...

  14. Efficiency of cellular delivery of antisense peptide nucleic acid by electroporation depends on charge and electroporation geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Mette; Agerholm-Larsen, Birgit; Nielsen, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    with a functional luciferase readout, we demonstrate that parameters such as peptide nucleic acid (PNA) charge and the method of electroporation have dramatic influence on the efficiency of productive delivery. In a suspended cell electroporation system (cuvettes), a positively charged PNA (+8) was most efficiently...... transferred, whereas charge neutral PNA was more effective in a microtiter plate electrotransfer system for monolayer cells. Surprisingly, a negatively charged (-23) PNA did not show appreciable activity in either system. Findings from the functional assay were corroborated by pulse parameter variations......, polymerase chain reaction, and confocal microscopy. In conclusion, we have found that the charge of PNA and electroporation system combination greatly influences the transfer efficiency, thereby illustrating the complexity of the electroporation mechanism....

  15. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  17. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  18. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  19. Nanomolar Cellular Antisense Activity of Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) Cholic Acid ("Umbrella") and Cholesterol Conjugates Delivered by Cationic Lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    of cholesterol and cholic acid ("umbrella") derivatives of splice correction antisense PNA oligomers. While the conjugates alone were practically inactive up to 1 µM, their activity was dramatically improved when delivered by a cationic lipid transfection agent (LipofectAMINE2000). In particular, PNAs...... volume improved transfection efficiency, suggesting that accumulation (condensation) of the PNA/lipid complex on the cellular surface is part of the uptake mechanism. These results provide a novel, simple method for very efficient cellular delivery of PNA oligomers, especially using PNA-cholic acid...... conjugates which, in contrast to PNA-cholesterol conjugates, exhibit sufficient water solubility. The results also question the generality of using cholic acid "umbrella" derivatives as a delivery modality for antisense oligomers....

  20. Antibacterial Peptide Nucleic Acid-Antimicrobial Peptide (PNA-AMP) Conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anna Mette; Bonke, Gitte; Larsen, Camilla Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers constitute a novel class of potential antibiotics that inhibit bacterial growth via specific knockdown of essential gene expression. However, discovery of efficient, nontoxic delivery vehicles for such PNA oligomers has remained a challenge. In the p......Antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers constitute a novel class of potential antibiotics that inhibit bacterial growth via specific knockdown of essential gene expression. However, discovery of efficient, nontoxic delivery vehicles for such PNA oligomers has remained a challenge...

  1. Role of Cell-Penetrating Peptides in Intracellular Delivery of Peptide Nucleic Acids Targeting Hepadnaviral Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndeboko, Benedicte; Ramamurthy, Narayan; Lemamy, Guy Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are potentially attractive antisense agents against hepatitis B virus (HBV), although poor cellular uptake limits their therapeutic application. In the duck HBV (DHBV) model, we evaluated different cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) for delivery to hepatocytes of a PNA...

  2. Inhibiting the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in vitro with antisense peptide nucleic acid conjugates targeting the ftsZ gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the potent effects of PNAs on bacterial growth and cell viability were mediated by the down-regulation or even knock-out of ftsZ gene expression. This highlights the utility of ftsZ as a promising target for the development of new antisense antibacterial agents to treat MRSA infections.

  3. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  4. Enhanced cellular delivery of cell-penetrating peptide-peptide nucleic acid conjugates by photochemical internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    )) or tetraphenylporphyrin tetrasulfonic acid (TPPS). Cellular uptake of the PNA conjugates were evaluated by using a sensitive cellular method with HeLa pLuc705 cells based on the splicing correction of luciferase gene by targeting antisense oligonucleotides to a cryptic splice site of the mutated luciferase gene......Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been widely used for a cellular delivery of biologically relevant cargoes including antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs). Although chemical conjugation of PNA to a variety of CPPs significantly improves the cellular uptake of the PNAs, bioavailability...

  5. Double-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  6. Synthetic Procedures for Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  7. Sequence-specific inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robaczewska, Magdalena; Narayan, Ramamurthy; Seigneres, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) appear as promising new antisense agents, that have not yet been examined as hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibitors. Our aim was to study the ability of PNAs targeting the duck HBV (DHBV) encapsidation signal epsilon to inhibit reverse transcription (RT...

  8. Delivery of antisense oligonucleotide into cells using synthetic peptide; Gosei pepuchido wo mochiita anchisensu origonukureochido no saibounai donyu

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    Niidome, Takuro [Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-12-16

    Much attention has been attracted to the antisense oligonucleotide as a novel nucleic acid medicine. However, many problems to be solved such as delivery system in vivo and permeation through cell membrane are pointed out. In this study, we found out that some cationic peptides were useful as an oligonucleotide-carrier molecule into cells. Furthermore, to develop a cell specific gene delivery system using the cationic peptide, we modified the peptides with several galactose residues. As a result, the modified peptides showed high transfer efficiencies into hepatoma cells, and then, it was clear that the internalization into cells was mediated by asialoglycoprotein receptor on hepatoma cell. (author)

  9. Construction of tunable peptide nucleic acid junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Tanghui; He, Liu; Tokura, Yu; Liu, Xin; Wu, Yuzhou; Shi, Zhengshuang

    2018-03-15

    We report here the construction of 3-way and 4-way peptide nucleic acid (PNA) junctions as basic structural units for PNA nanostructuring. The incorporation of amino acid residues into PNA chains makes PNA nanostructures with more structural complexity and architectural flexibility possible, as exemplified by building 3-way PNA junctions with tunable nanopores. Given that PNA nanostructures have good thermal and enzymatic stabilities, they are expected to have broad potential applications in biosensing, drug delivery and bioengineering.

  10. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Enhanced Binding Affinity and Sequence Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA strand, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and binding affinity. Methods of increasing binding affinity and sequence specificity of peptide nucleic acids...

  11. Short antisense-locked nucleic acids (all-LNAs) correct alternative splicing abnormalities in myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkowiak-Szlachcic, Agnieszka; Taylor, Katarzyna; Stepniak-Konieczna, Ewa; Sznajder, Lukasz J; Mykowska, Agnieszka; Sroka, Joanna; Thornton, Charles A; Sobczak, Krzysztof

    2015-03-31

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic disorder caused by expansion of CTG triplet repeats in 3'-untranslated region of DMPK gene. The pathomechanism of DM1 is driven by accumulation of toxic transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats (CUG(exp)) in nuclear foci which sequester several factors regulating RNA metabolism, such as Muscleblind-like proteins (MBNLs). In this work, we utilized very short chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides composed exclusively of locked nucleic acids (all-LNAs) complementary to CUG repeats, as potential therapeutic agents against DM1. Our in vitro data demonstrated that very short, 8- or 10-unit all-LNAs effectively bound the CUG repeat RNA and prevented the formation of CUG(exp)/MBNL complexes. In proliferating DM1 cells as well as in skeletal muscles of DM1 mouse model the all-LNAs induced the reduction of the number and size of CUG(exp) foci and corrected MBNL-sensitive alternative splicing defects with high efficacy and specificity. The all-LNAs had low impact on the cellular level of CUG(exp)-containing transcripts and did not affect the expression of other transcripts with short CUG repeats. Our data strongly indicate that short all-LNAs complementary to CUG repeats are a promising therapeutic tool against DM1. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. A Simple Three-Step Method for Design and Affinity Testing of New Antisense Peptides: An Example of Erythropoietin

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    Nikola Štambuk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Antisense peptide technology is a valuable tool for deriving new biologically active molecules and performing peptide–receptor modulation. It is based on the fact that peptides specified by the complementary (antisense nucleotide sequences often bind to each other with a higher specificity and efficacy. We tested the validity of this concept on the example of human erythropoietin, a well-characterized and pharmacologically relevant hematopoietic growth factor. The purpose of the work was to present and test simple and efficient three-step procedure for the design of an antisense peptide targeting receptor-binding site of human erythropoietin. Firstly, we selected the carboxyl-terminal receptor binding region of the molecule (epitope as a template for the antisense peptide modeling; Secondly, we designed an antisense peptide using mRNA transcription of the epitope sequence in the 3'→5' direction and computational screening of potential paratope structures with BLAST; Thirdly, we evaluated sense–antisense (epitope–paratope peptide binding and affinity by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and microscale thermophoresis. Both methods showed similar Kd values of 850 and 816 µM, respectively. The advantages of the methods were: fast screening with a small quantity of the sample needed, and measurements done within the range of physicochemical parameters resembling physiological conditions. Antisense peptides targeting specific erythropoietin region(s could be used for the development of new immunochemical methods. Selected antisense peptides with optimal affinity are potential lead compounds for the development of novel diagnostic substances, biopharmaceuticals and vaccines.

  13. Efficient in vitro inhibition of HIV-1 gag reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) at minimal ratios of PNA/RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Zachar, Vladimir; Nielsen, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    We have tested the inhibitory potential of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) on in vitro reverse transcription of the HIV-1 gag gene. PNA was designed to target different regions of the HIV-1 gag gene and the effect on reverse transcription by HIV-1, MMLV and AMV reverse transcriptases (RTs......) was investigated. We found that a bis-PNA (parallel antisense 10mer linked to antiparallel antisense 10mer) was superior to both the parallel antisense 10mer and antiparallel antisense 10mer in inhibiting reverse transcription of the gene, thus indicating triplex formation at the target sequence. A complete arrest...... of reverse transcription was obtained at approximately 6-fold molar excess of the bis-PNA with respect to the gag RNA. At this molar ratio we found no effect on in vitro translation of gag RNA. A 15mer duplex-forming PNA was also found to inhibit reverse transcription at very low molar ratios of PNA/ gag RNA...

  14. Peptide nucleic acid probes with charged photocleavable mass markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Rachel J; Green, Philip S; Gale, Nittaya; Langley, G John

    2010-01-01

    Halogen-labelled peptide organic acid (HPOA) monomers have been synthesised and incorporated into sequence-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. Three different types of probe have been prepared; the unmodified PNA probe, the PNA probe with a mass marker, and the PNA probe with photocleavable mass marker. All three types of probe have been used in model studies to develop a mass spectrometry-based hybridisation assay for detection of point mutations in DNA. PMID:21687524

  15. Modulating gene function with peptide nucleic acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E.; Crooke, Stanley T.

    2008-01-01

    A review on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers as modulators of gene expression ranging from gene silencing at the mRNAor the dsDNA (antigene) level, and redirection of mRNA splicing to gene activation through transcription bubble mimicking. PNA chem., anti-infective agents, cellular delivery...

  16. Peptide nucleic acids and their potential applications in biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, O.; Egholm, M.; Berg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are novel DNA mimics in which the sugar-phosphate backbone has been replaced with a backbone based on amino acids1-3. PNAs exhibit sequence-specific binding to DNA and RNA with higher affinities and specificities than unmodified DNA. They,are resistant to nuclease...

  17. Recent Advances in Chemical Modification of Peptide Nucleic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriks Rozners

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptide nucleic acid (PNA has become an extremely powerful tool in chemistry and biology. Although PNA recognizes single-stranded nucleic acids with exceptionally high affinity and sequence selectivity, there is considerable ongoing effort to further improve properties of PNA for both fundamental science and practical applications. The present paper discusses selected recent studies that improve on cellular uptake and binding of PNA to double-stranded DNA and RNA. The focus is on chemical modifications of PNA's backbone and heterocyclic nucleobases. The paper selects representative recent studies and does not attempt to provide comprehensive coverage of the broad and vibrant field of PNA modification.

  18. Short locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides potently reduce apolipoprotein B mRNA and serum cholesterol in mice and non-human primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Fisker, Niels; Hedtjärn, Maj

    2010-01-01

    The potency and specificity of locked nucleic acid (LNA) antisense oligonucleotides was investigated as a function of length and affinity. The oligonucleotides were designed to target apolipoprotein B (apoB) and were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The high affinity of LNA enabled the des...

  19. Targeting Multidrug-resistant Staphylococci with an anti-rpoA Peptide Nucleic Acid Conjugated to the HIV-1 TAT Cell Penetrating Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa FN Abushahba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibiotics. Due to their unique mode of action, peptide nucleic acids are novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics to tackle the issue of bacterial multidrug resistance. In this study, we designed a peptide nucleic acid covalently conjugated to the HIV-TAT cell penetrating peptide (GRKKKRRQRRRYK in order to target the RNA polymerase α subunit gene (rpoA required for bacterial genes transcription. We explored the antimicrobial activity of the anti-rpoA construct (peptide nucleic acid-TAT against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, linezolid-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis in pure culture, infected mammalian cell culture, and in an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. The anti-rpoA construct led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth (at micromolar concentrations in vitro and in both infected cell culture and in vivo in C. elegans. Moreover, rpoA gene silencing resulted in suppression of its message as well as reduced expression of two important methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin. This study confirms that rpoA gene is a potential target for development of novel antisense therapeutics to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

  20. Recent Developments in Peptide-Based Nucleic Acid Delivery

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    Tobias Restle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that non-viral nucleic acid delivery systems are generally considered to be less efficient than viral vectors, they have gained much interest in recent years due to their superior safety profile compared to their viral counterpart. Among these synthetic vectors are cationic polymers, branched dendrimers, cationic liposomes and cellpenetrating peptides (CPPs. The latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids and a length of 10-30 residues. CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, aptamers and antisenseoligonucleotides, which are internalised by cells at a very low rate when applied alone. Up to now, numerous sequences have been reported to show cell-penetrating properties and many of them have been used to successfully transport a variety of different cargos into mammalian cells. In recent years, it has become apparent that endocytosis is a major route of internalisation even though the mechanisms underlying the cellular translocation of CPPs are poorly understood and still subject to controversial discussions. In this review, we will summarise the latest developments in peptide-based cellular delivery of nucleic acid cargos. We will discuss different mechanisms of entry, the intracellular fate of the cargo, correlation studies of uptake versus biological activity of the cargo as well as technical problems and pitfalls.

  1. Logic gates and antisense DNA devices operating on a translator nucleic Acid scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyahovsky, Bella; Li, Yang; Lioubashevski, Oleg; Elbaz, Johann; Willner, Itamar

    2009-07-28

    A series of logic gates, "AND", "OR", and "XOR", are designed using a DNA scaffold that includes four "footholds" on which the logic operations are activated. Two of the footholds represent input-recognition strands, and these are blocked by complementary nucleic acids, whereas the other two footholds are blocked by nucleic acids that include the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme sequence. The logic gates are activated by either nucleic acid inputs that hybridize to the respective "footholds", or by low-molecular-weight inputs (adenosine monophosphate or cocaine) that yield the respective aptamer-substrate complexes. This results in the respective translocation of the blocking nucleic acids to the footholds carrying the HRP-mimicking DNAzyme sequence, and the concomitant release of the respective DNAzyme. The released product-strands then self-assemble into the hemin/G-quadruplex-HRP-mimicking DNAzyme that biocatalyzes the formation of a colored product and provides an output signal for the different logic gates. The principle of the logic operation is, then, implemented as a possible paradigm for future nanomedicine. The nucleic acid inputs that bind to the blocked footholds result in the translocation of the blocking nucleic acids to the respective footholds carrying the antithrombin aptamer. The released aptamer inhibits, then, the hydrolytic activity of thrombin. The system demonstrates the regulation of a biocatalytic reaction by a translator system activated on a DNA scaffold.

  2. Peptides, polypeptides and peptide-polymer hybrids as nucleic acid carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marya

    2017-10-24

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), and protein transduction domains (PTDs) of viruses and other natural proteins serve as a template for the development of efficient peptide based gene delivery vectors. PTDs are sequences of acidic or basic amphipathic amino acids, with superior membrane trespassing efficacies. Gene delivery vectors derived from these natural, cationic and cationic amphipathic peptides, however, offer little flexibility in tailoring the physicochemical properties of single chain peptide based systems. Owing to significant advances in the field of peptide chemistry, synthetic mimics of natural peptides are often prepared and have been evaluated for their gene expression, as a function of amino acid functionalities, architecture and net cationic content of peptide chains. Moreover, chimeric single polypeptide chains are prepared by a combination of multiple small natural or synthetic peptides, which imparts distinct physiological properties to peptide based gene delivery therapeutics. In order to obtain multivalency and improve the gene delivery efficacies of low molecular weight cationic peptides, bioactive peptides are often incorporated into a polymeric architecture to obtain novel 'polymer-peptide hybrids' with improved gene delivery efficacies. Peptide modified polymers prepared by physical or chemical modifications exhibit enhanced endosomal escape, stimuli responsive degradation and targeting efficacies, as a function of physicochemical and biological activities of peptides attached onto a polymeric scaffold. The focus of this review is to provide comprehensive and step-wise progress in major natural and synthetic peptides, chimeric polypeptides, and peptide-polymer hybrids for nucleic acid delivery applications.

  3. 2′-O-Methyl RNA/Ethylene-Bridged Nucleic Acid Chimera Antisense Oligonucleotides to Induce Dystrophin Exon 45 Skipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a fatal muscle-wasting disease characterized by dystrophin deficiency from mutations in the dystrophin gene. Antisense oligonucleotide (AO-mediated exon skipping targets restoration of the dystrophin reading frame to allow production of an internally deleted dystrophin protein with functional benefit for DMD patients who have out-of-frame deletions. After accelerated US approval of eteplirsen (Exondys 51, which targets dystrophin exon 51 for skipping, efforts are now focused on targeting other exons. For improved clinical benefits, this strategy requires more studies of the delivery method and modification of nucleic acids. We studied a nucleotide with a 2′-O,4′-C-ethylene-bridged nucleic acid (ENA, which shows high nuclease resistance and high affinity for complementary RNA strands. Here, we describe the process of developing a 2′-O-methyl RNA(2′-OMeRNA/ENA chimera AO to induce dystrophin exon 45 skipping. One 18-mer 2′-OMeRNA/ENA chimera (AO85 had the most potent activity for inducing exon 45 skipping in cultured myotubes. AO85 was administered to mdx mice without significant side effects. AO85 transfection into cultured myotubes from 13 DMD patients induced exon 45 skipping in all samples at different levels and dystrophin expression in 11 patients. These results suggest the possible efficacy of AO-mediated exon skipping changes in individual patients and highlight the 2′-OMeRNA/ENA chimera AO as a potential fundamental treatment for DMD.

  4. Antisense locked nucleic acids targeting agrA inhibit quorum sensing and pathogenesis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, F; Yao, L; Su, Z; Hou, Z; Li, Z; Xue, X; Meng, J; Luo, X

    2017-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is commonly associated with nonnosocomial skin and soft tissue infections due to its virulence, which is mainly controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing (QS) system. In this study (KFF) 3 K peptide-conjugated locked nucleic acids (PLNAs) targeting agrA mRNA were developed to inhibit agr activity and arrest the pathogenicity of CA-MRSA. Two PLNAs were designed, and synthesized, after predicting the secondary structure of agrA mRNA. The influence on bacterial growth was tested using a growth curve assay. RT-qPCR, haemolysis assay, lactate dehydrogenase release assay and chemotaxis assay were used to evaluate the effects of the PLNAs on inhibiting agr QS. A mouse skin infection model was employed to test the protective effect of the PLNAs in vivo. None of the PLNAs were found to be bacteriostatic or bactericidal in vitro. However, one PLNA, PLNA34, showed strong ability to suppress expression of agrA and the effector molecule RNAIII in USA300 LAC strain. Furthermore, PLNA34 inhibited the expression of virulence genes that are upregulated by agr, including hla, psmα, psmβ and pvl. The haemolytic activity of the supernatants from PLNA34-treated bacteria was also dramatically reduced, as well as the capacity to lyse and recruit neutrophils. Moreover, PLNA34 showed high levels of protection in the CA-MRSA mouse skin infection model. The anti-agrA PLNA34 can effectively inhibit the agr QS and suppress CA-MRSA pathogenicity. agrA is a promising target for the development of antisense oligonucleotides to block agr QS. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Design of peptide-targeted liposomes containing nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Adriana O; da Silva, Lígia C Gomes; Bimbo, Luís M; de Lima, Maria C Pedroso; Simões, Sérgio; Moreira, João N

    2010-03-01

    Anticancer systemic gene silencing therapy has been so far limited by the inexistence of adequate carrier systems that ultimately provide an efficient intracellular delivery into target tumor cells. In this respect, one promising strategy involves the covalent attachment of internalizing-targeting ligands at the extremity of PEG chains grafted onto liposomes. Therefore, the present work aims at designing targeted liposomes containing nucleic acids, with small size, high encapsulation efficiency and able to be actively internalized by SCLC cells, using a hexapeptide (antagonist G) as a targeting ligand. For this purpose, the effect of the liposomal preparation method, loading material (ODN versus siRNA) and peptide-coupling procedure (direct coupling versus post-insertion) on each of the above-mentioned parameters was assessed. Post-insertion of DSPE-PEG-antagonist G conjugates into preformed liposomes herein named as stabilized lipid particles, resulted in targeted vesicles with a mean size of about 130 nm, encapsulation efficiency close to 100%, and a loading capacity of approximately 5 nmol siRNA/mumol of total lipid. In addition, the developed targeted vesicles showed increased internalization in SCLC cells, as well as in other tumor cells and HMEC-1 microvascular endothelial cells. The improved cellular association, however, did not correlate with enhanced downregulation of the target protein (Bcl-2) in SCLC cells. These results indicate that additional improvements need to be performed in the future, namely by ameliorating the access of the nucleic acids to the cytoplasm of the tumor cells following receptor-mediated endocytosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Side chain modified peptide nucleic acids (PNA for knock-down of six3 in medaka embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorn Sebastian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic antisense molecules have an enormous potential for therapeutic applications in humans. The major aim of such strategies is to specifically interfere with gene function, thus modulating cellular pathways according to the therapeutic demands. Among the molecules which can block mRNA function in a sequence specific manner are peptide nucleic acids (PNA. They are highly stable and efficiently and selectively interact with RNA. However, some properties of non-modified aminoethyl glycine PNAs (aegPNA hamper their in vivo applications. Results We generated new backbone modifications of PNAs, which exhibit more hydrophilic properties. When we examined the activity and specificity of these novel phosphonic ester PNAs (pePNA molecules in medaka (Oryzias latipes embryos, high solubility and selective binding to mRNA was observed. In particular, mixing of the novel components with aegPNA components resulted in mixed PNAs with superior properties. Injection of mixed PNAs directed against the medaka six3 gene, which is important for eye and brain development, resulted in specific six3 phenotypes. Conclusions PNAs are well established as powerful antisense molecules. Modification of the backbone with phosphonic ester side chains further improves their properties and allows the efficient knock down of a single gene in fish embryos.

  7. Rational Design of Short Locked Nucleic Acid-Modified 2′-O-Methyl Antisense Oligonucleotides for Efficient Exon-Skipping In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao T. Le

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Locked nucleic acid is a prominent nucleic acid analog with unprecedented target binding affinity to cDNA and RNA oligonucleotides and shows remarkable stability against nuclease degradation. Incorporation of locked nucleic acid nucleotides into an antisense oligonucleotide (AO sequence can reduce the length required without compromising the efficacy. In this study, we synthesized a series of systematically truncated locked nucleic acid-modified 2′-O-methyl AOs on a phosphorothioate (PS backbone that were designed to induce skipping exon 23 from the dystrophin transcript in H-2Kb-tsA58 mdx mouse myotubes in vitro. The results clearly demonstrated that shorter AOs (16- to 14-mer containing locked nucleic acid nucleotides efficiently induced dystrophin exon 23 skipping compared with the corresponding 2′-O-methyl AOs. Our remarkable findings contribute significantly to the existing knowledge about the designing of short LNA-modified oligonucleotides for exon-skipping applications, which will help reduce the cost of exon-skipping AOs and potential toxicities, particularly the 2′-OMe-based oligos, by further reducing the length of AOs.

  8. Templated Synthesis of Peptide Nucleic Acids via Sequence-Selective Base-Filling Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Heemstra, Jennifer M.; Liu, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The templated synthesis of nucleic acids has previously been achieved through the backbone ligation of preformed nucleotide monomers or oligomers. In contrast, here we demonstrate templated nucleic acid synthesis using a base-filling approach in which individual bases are added to abasic sites of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Because nucleobase substrates in this approach are not self-reactive, a base-filling approach may reduce the formation of nontemplated reaction products. Using either re...

  9. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Enhanced Binding Affinity, Sequence Specificity and Solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA strand, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of naturally......-occurring nucleobases and non-naturally-occurring nucleobases attached to a polyamide backbone, and contain C1-C8 alkylamine side chains. Methods of enhancing the solubility, binding affinity and sequence specificity of PNAs are provided....

  10. A locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotide (LNA silences PCSK9 and enhances LDLR expression in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Gupta

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 is an important factor in the etiology of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH and is also an attractive therapeutic target to reduce low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. PCSK9 accelerates the degradation of hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR and low levels of hepatic PCSK9 activity are associated with reduced levels of circulating LDL-cholesterol.The present study presents the first evidence for the efficacy of a locked nucleic acid (LNA antisense oligonucleotide (LNA ASO that targets both human and mouse PCSK9. We employed human hepatocytes derived cell lines HepG2 and HuH7 and a pancreatic mouse beta-TC3 cell line known to express high endogenous levels of PCSK9. LNA ASO efficiently reduced the mRNA and protein levels of PCSK9 with a concomitant increase in LDLR protein levels after transfection in these cells. In vivo efficacy of LNA ASO was further investigated in mice by tail vein intravenous administration of LNA ASO in saline solution. The level of PCSK9 mRNA was reduced by approximately 60%, an effect lasting more than 16 days. Hepatic LDLR protein levels were significantly up-regulated by 2.5-3 folds for at least 8 days and approximately 2 fold for 16 days. Finally, measurement of liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels revealed that long term LNA ASO treatment (7 weeks does not cause hepatotoxicity.LNA-mediated PCSK9 mRNA inhibition displayed potent reduction of PCSK9 in cell lines and mouse liver. Our data clearly revealed the efficacy and safety of LNA ASO in reducing PCSK9 levels, an approach that is now ready for testing in primates. The major significance and take home message of this work is the development of a novel and promising approach for human therapeutic intervention of the PCSK9 pathway and hence for reducing some of the cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome.

  11. Peptide nucleic acid probe for protein affinity purification based on biotin-streptavidin interaction and peptide nucleic acid strand hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Jenny; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zengeya, Thomas; Rozners, Eriks; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2015-02-01

    We describe a new method for protein affinity purification that capitalizes on the high affinity of streptavidin for biotin but does not require dissociation of the biotin-streptavidin complex for protein retrieval. Conventional reagents place both the selectively reacting group (the "warhead") and the biotin on the same molecule. We place the warhead and the biotin on separate molecules, each linked to a short strand of peptide nucleic acid (PNA), synthetic polymers that use the same bases as DNA but attached to a backbone that is resistant to attack by proteases and nucleases. As in DNA, PNA strands with complementary base sequences hybridize. In conditions that favor PNA duplex formation, the warhead strand (carrying the tagged protein) and the biotin strand form a complex that is held onto immobilized streptavidin. As in DNA, the PNA duplex dissociates at moderately elevated temperature; therefore, retrieval of the tagged protein is accomplished by a brief exposure to heat. Using iodoacetate as the warhead, 8-base PNA strands, biotin, and streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, we demonstrate retrieval of the cysteine protease papain. We were also able to use our iodoacetyl-PNA:PNA-biotin probe for retrieval and identification of a thiol reductase and a glutathione transferase from soybean seedling cotyledons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of SbmA in the Uptake of Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA)-Peptide Conjugates in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Vitali, Ally; Stach, James E M

    2013-01-01

    Antisense PNA oligomers targeting essential genes (acpP or ftsZ) and conjugated to the delivery peptide L((KFF)(3)K) show complete growth inhibition of wild type E. coli strain (MG1655) with submicromolar MIC. In this study we show that resistant mutants generated against such PNA......-peptide conjugates had disruptions in the region of sbmA, a gene encoding an inner membrane peptide transporter. The wild type sensitivity to the PNA conjugates was re-established in the resistance mutants by complementation with sbmA. Furthermore, deletion of sbmA in E. coli AS19, a strain that is sensitive...

  13. Versatile phosphoramidation reactions for nucleic acid conjugations with peptides, proteins, chromophores, and biotin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Pin; Chiou, Yi-Jang; Chen, Yi; Wang, Eng-Chi; Hwang, Long-Chih; Chen, Bing-Hung; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Ko, Chun-Han

    2010-09-15

    Chemical conjugations of nucleic acids with macromolecules or small molecules are common approaches to study nucleic acids in chemistry and biology and to exploit nucleic acids for medical applications. The conjugation of nucleic acids such as oligonucleotides with peptides is especially useful to circumvent cell delivery and specificity problems of oligonucleotides as therapeutic agents. However, current approaches are limited and inefficient in their ability to afford peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs). Here, we report an effective and reproducible approach to prepare POCs and other nucleic acid conjugates based on a newly developed nucleic acid phosphoramidation method. The development of a new nucleic acid phosphoramidation reaction was achieved by our successful synthesis of a novel amine-containing biotin derivative used to systematically optimize the reactions. The improved phosphoramidation reactions dramatically increased yields of nucleic acid-biotin conjugates up to 80% after 3 h reaction. Any nucleic acids with a terminal phosphate group are suitable reactants in phosphoramidation reactions to conjugate with amine-containing molecules such as biotin and fluorescein derivatives, proteins, and, most importantly, peptides to enable the synthesis of POCs for therapeutic applications. Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to study incorporation of biotin or fluorescein-tagged DNA primers into the reaction products demonstrated that appropriate controls of nucleic acid phosphoramidation reactions incur minimum adverse effects on inherited base-pairing characteristics of nucleotides in nucleic acids. The phosphoramidation approach preserves the integrity of hybridization specificity in nucleic acids when preparing POCs. By retaining integrity of the nucleic acids, their effectiveness as therapeutic reagents for gene silencing, gene therapy, and RNA interference is ensured. The potential for POC use was demonstrated by two-step phosphoramidation reactions to

  14. Dopamine-induced apoptosis in human neuronal cells: inhibition by nucleic acides antisense to the dopamine transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porat, S.; Gabbay, M.; Tauber, M.; Ratovitski, T.; Blinder, E.; Simantov, R.

    1996-01-01

    Human neuroblastoma NMB cells take up [ 3 H]dopamine in a selective manner indicating that dopamine transporters are responsible for this uptake. These cells were therefore used as a model to study dopamine neurotoxicity, and to elucidate the role of dopamine transporters in controlling cell death. Treatment with 0.05-0.4 mM dopamine changed cells' morphology within 4 h, accompanied by retraction of processes, shrinkage, apoptosis-like atrophy, accumulation of apoptotic particles, DNA fragmentation and cell death. Cycloheximide inhibited dopamine's effect, suggesting that induction of apoptosis by dopamine was dependent upon protein synthesis. Dopamine cytotoxicity, monitored morphologically by flow cytometric analysis, and by lactate dehydrogenase released, was blocked by cocaine but not by the noradrenaline and serotonin uptake blockers desimipramine and imipramine, respectively. Attempting to inhibit dopamine transport and toxicity in a drug-free and highly selective way, three 18-mer dopamine transporter antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (numbers 1, 2 and 3) and a new plasmid vector expressing the entire rat dopamine transporter complementary DNA in the antisense orientation were prepared and tested. Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide 3 inhibited [ 3 H]dopamine uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Likewise, transient transfection of NMB cells with the plasmid expressing dopamine transporter complementary DNA in the antisense orientation partially blocked [ 3 H]dopamine uptake. Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide 3 also decreased, dose-dependently, the toxic effect of dopamine and 6-hydroxydopamine. Western blot analysis with newly prepared anti-human dopamine transporter antibodies showed that antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide 3 decreased the transporter protein level. These studies contribute to better understand the mechanism of dopamine-induced apoptosis and neurotoxicity. (Copyright (c) 1996 Elsevier Science B

  15. Synthesis, Improved Antisense Activity and Structural Rationale for the Divergent RNA Affinities of 3;#8242;-Fluoro Hexitol Nucleic Acid (FHNA and Ara-FHNA) Modified Oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egli, Martin; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Allerson, Charles R.; Prakash, Thazha P.; Berdeja, Andres; Yu, Jinghua; Lee, Sam; Watt, Andrew; Gaus, Hans; Bhat, Balkrishen; Swayze, Eric E.; Seth, Punit P. (Isis Pharm.); (Vanderbilt)

    2012-03-16

    The synthesis, biophysical, structural, and biological properties of both isomers of 3'-fluoro hexitol nucleic acid (FHNA and Ara-FHNA) modified oligonucleotides are reported. Synthesis of the FHNA and Ara-FHNA thymine phosphoramidites was efficiently accomplished starting from known sugar precursors. Optimal RNA affinities were observed with a 3'-fluorine atom and nucleobase in a trans-diaxial orientation. The Ara-FHNA analog with an equatorial fluorine was found to be destabilizing. However, the magnitude of destabilization was sequence-dependent. Thus, the loss of stability is sharply reduced when Ara-FHNA residues were inserted at pyrimidine-purine (Py-Pu) steps compared to placement within a stretch of pyrimidines (Py-Py). Crystal structures of A-type DNA duplexes modified with either monomer provide a rationalization for the opposing stability effects and point to a steric origin of the destabilization caused by the Ara-FHNA analog. The sequence dependent effect can be explained by the formation of an internucleotide C-F {hor_ellipsis} H-C pseudo hydrogen bond between F3' of Ara-FHNA and C8-H of the nucleobase from the 3'-adjacent adenosine that is absent at Py-Py steps. In animal experiments, FHNA-modified antisense oligonucleotides formulated in saline showed a potent downregulation of gene expression in liver tissue without producing hepatotoxicity. Our data establish FHNA as a useful modification for antisense therapeutics and also confirm the stabilizing influence of F(Py) {hor_ellipsis} H-C(Pu) pseudo hydrogen bonds in nucleic acid structures.

  16. Enhanced peptide nucleic acid binding to supercoiled DNA: possible implications for DNA "breathing" dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, T; Nielsen, Peter E.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of DNA topology on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) binding was studied. Formation of sequence-specific PNA2/dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) complexes was monitored by a potassium permanganate probing/primer extension assay. At low ionic strengths, the binding of PNA was 2-3 times more effici...

  17. Selection, optimization, and pharmacokinetic properties of a novel, potent antiviral locked nucleic acid-based antisense oligomer targeting hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxton, Carl; Brady, Kevin; Moschos, Sterghios; Turnpenny, Paul; Rawal, Jaiessh; Pryde, David C; Sidders, Ben; Corbau, Romu; Pickford, Chris; Murray, E J

    2011-07-01

    We have screened 47 locked nucleic acid (LNA) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting conserved (>95% homology) sequences in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome using the subgenomic HCV replicon assay and generated both antiviral (50% effective concentration [EC(50)]) and cytotoxic (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC(50)]) dose-response curves to allow measurement of the selectivity index (SI). This comprehensive approach has identified an LNA ASO with potent antiviral activity (EC(50) = 4 nM) and low cytotoxicity (CC(50) >880 nM) targeting the 25- to 40-nucleotide region (nt) of the HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES) containing the distal and proximal miR-122 binding sites. LNA ASOs targeting previously known accessible regions of the IRES, namely, loop III and the initiation codon in loop IV, had poor SI values. We optimized the LNA ASO sequence by performing a 1-nucleotide walk through the 25- to 40-nt region and show that the boundaries for antiviral efficacy are extremely precise. Furthermore, we have optimized the format for the LNA ASO using different gapmer and mixomer patterns and show that RNase H is required for antiviral activity. We demonstrate that RNase H-refractory ASOs targeting the 25- to 40-nt region have no antiviral effect, revealing important regulatory features of the 25- to 40-nt region and suggesting that RNase H-refractory LNA ASOs can act as potential surrogates for proviral functions of miR-122. We confirm the antisense mechanism of action using mismatched LNA ASOs. Finally, we have performed pharmacokinetic experiments to demonstrate that the LNA ASOs have a very long half-life (>5 days) and attain hepatic maximum concentrations >100 times the concentration required for in vitro antiviral activity.

  18. Nucleic acid and peptide aptamers: fundamentals and bioanalytical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascini, Marco; Palchetti, Ilaria; Tombelli, Sara

    2012-02-06

    In recent years new nucleic acid and protein-based combinatorial molecules have attracted the attention of researchers working in various areas of science, ranging from medicine to analytical chemistry. These molecules, called aptamers, have been proposed as alternatives to antibodies in many different applications. The aim of this Review is to illustrate the peculiarities of these combinatorial molecules which have initially been explored for their importance in molecular medicine, but have enormous potential in other biotechnological fields historically dominated by antibodies, such as bioassays. A description of these molecules is given, and the methods for their selection and production are also summarized. Moreover, critical aspects related to these molecules are discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Templated synthesis of peptide nucleic acids via sequence-selective base-filling reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemstra, Jennifer M; Liu, David R

    2009-08-19

    The templated synthesis of nucleic acids has previously been achieved through the backbone ligation of preformed nucleotide monomers or oligomers. In contrast, here we demonstrate templated nucleic acid synthesis using a base-filling approach in which individual bases are added to abasic sites of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Because nucleobase substrates in this approach are not self-reactive, a base-filling approach may reduce the formation of nontemplated reaction products. Using either reductive amination or amine acylation chemistries, we observed efficient and selective addition of each of the four nucleobases to an abasic site in the middle of the PNA strand. We also describe the addition of single nucleobases to the end of a PNA strand through base filling, as well as the tandem addition of two bases to the middle of the PNA strand. These findings represent an experimental foundation for nonenzymatic information transfer through base filling.

  20. End-labeling of peptide nucleic acid with osmium complex. Voltammetry at carbon and mercury electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Emil; Trefulka, Mojmír; Fojta, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2009), s. 359-362 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400310651; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : peptide nucleic acid end-labeling * osmium tetroxide complexes * electroactive labels Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.243, year: 2009

  1. Synthetic Nucleic Acid Analogues in Gene Therapy: An Update for Peptide-Oligonucleotide Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskova, Maria; Mantsiou, Anna; Astakhova, Kira

    2017-09-05

    The main objective of this work is to provide an update on synthetic nucleic acid analogues and nanoassemblies as tools in gene therapy. In particular, the synthesis and properties of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs), which have high potential in research and as therapeutics, are described in detail. The exploration of POCs has already led to fruitful results in the treatment of neurological diseases, lung disorders, cancer, leukemia, viral, and bacterial infections. However, delivery and in vivo stability are the major barriers to the clinical application of POCs and other analogues that still have to be overcome. This review summarizes recent achievements in the delivery and in vivo administration of synthetic nucleic acid analogues, focusing on POCs, and compares their efficiency. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Convenient and Scalable Synthesis of Fmoc-Protected Peptide Nucleic Acid Backbone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor A. Feagin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The peptide nucleic acid backbone Fmoc-AEG-OBn has been synthesized via a scalable and cost-effective route. Ethylenediamine is mono-Boc protected, then alkylated with benzyl bromoacetate. The Boc group is removed and replaced with an Fmoc group. The synthesis was performed starting with 50 g of Boc anhydride to give 31 g of product in 32% overall yield. The Fmoc-protected PNA backbone is a key intermediate in the synthesis of nucleobase-modified PNA monomers. Thus, improved access to this molecule is anticipated to facilitate future investigations into the chemical properties and applications of nucleobase-modified PNA.

  3. Nanoparticle for delivery of antisense γPNA oligomers targeting CCR5

    OpenAIRE

    Bahal, Raman; McNeer, Nicole Ali; Ly, Danith H.; Saltzman, W. Mark; Glazer, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a new class of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), i.e., gamma PNAs (γPNAs), creates the need for a general and effective method for its delivery into cells for regulating gene expression in mammalian cells. Here we report the antisense activity of a recently developed hydrophilic and biocompatible diethylene glycol (miniPEG)-based gamma peptide nucleic acid called MPγPNAs via its delivery by poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanoparticle system. We show that MPγPNA oligome...

  4. Modulation of mdm2 pre-mRNA splicing by 9-aminoacridine-PNA (peptide nucleic acid) conjugates targeting intron-exon junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Eysturskard, Jonhard; Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Modulation of pre-mRNA splicing by antisense molecules is a promising mechanism of action for gene therapeutic drugs. In this study, we have examined the potential of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) 9-aminoacridine conjugates to modulate the pre-mRNA splicing of the mdm2 human...... cancer gene in JAR cells. METHODS: We screened 10 different 15 mer PNAs targeting intron2 at both the 5;- and the 3;-splice site for their effects on the splicing of mdm2 using RT-PCR analysis. We also tested a PNA (2512) targeting the 3;-splice site of intron3 with a complementarity of 4 bases to intron......3 and 11 bases to exon4 for its splicing modulation effect. This PNA2512 was further tested for the effects on the mdm2 protein level as well as for inhibition of cell growth in combination with the DNA damaging agent camptothecin (CPT). RESULTS: We show that several of these PNAs effectively...

  5. Formulation of pH responsive peptides as inhalable dry powders for pulmonary delivery of nucleic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, JKW; Chan, HK; Chow, YT; Tang, P; Liang, W; Kwok, PCL; Mason, AJ

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acids have the potential to be used as therapies or vaccines for many different types of disease but delivery remains the most significant challenge to their clinical adoption. pH responsive peptides containing either histidine or derivatives of 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (Dap) can mediate effective DNA transfection in lung epithelial cells with the latter remaining effective even in the presence of lung surfactant containing bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), making this class of peptides ...

  6. Peptide nucleic acid probes with charged photocleavable mass markers: Towards PNA-based MALDI-TOF MS genetic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Rachel J; Green, Philip S; Gale, Nittaya; Langley, G John; Brown, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Halogen-labelled peptide organic acid (HPOA) monomers have been synthesised and incorporated into sequence-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. Three different types of probe have been prepared; the unmodified PNA probe, the PNA probe with a mass marker, and the PNA probe with photocleavable mass marker. All three types of probe have been used in model studies to develop a mass spectrometry-based hybridisation assay for detection of point mutations in DNA.

  7. Peptide nucleic acid probes with charged photocleavable mass markers: Towards PNA-based MALDI-TOF MS genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Rachel J; Green, Philip S; Gale, Nittaya; Langley, G John; Brown, Tom

    2010-07-01

    Halogen-labelled peptide organic acid (HPOA) monomers have been synthesised and incorporated into sequence-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. Three different types of probe have been prepared; the unmodified PNA probe, the PNA probe with a mass marker, and the PNA probe with photocleavable mass marker. All three types of probe have been used in model studies to develop a mass spectrometry-based hybridisation assay for detection of point mutations in DNA.

  8. Label-free potentiometry for detecting DNA hybridization using peptide nucleic acid and DNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tatsuro; Singi, Ankit Balram; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Akira; Torimura, Masaki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Yuji

    2013-02-07

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) has outstanding affinity over DNA for complementary nucleic acid sequences by forming a PNA-DNA heterodimer upon hybridization via Watson-Crick base-pairing. To verify whether PNA probes on an electrode surface enhance sensitivity for potentiometric DNA detection or not, we conducted a comparative study on the hybridization of PNA and DNA probes on the surface of a 10-channel gold electrodes microarray. Changes in the charge density as a result of hybridization at the solution/electrode interface on the self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-formed microelectrodes were directly transformed into potentiometric signals using a high input impedance electrometer. The charge readout allows label-free, reagent-less, and multi-parallel detection of target oligonucleotides without any optical assistance. The differences in the probe lengths between 15- to 22-mer dramatically influenced on the sensitivity of the PNA and DNA sensors. Molecular type of the capturing probe did not affect the degree of potential shift. Theoretical model for charged rod-like duplex using the Gouy-Chapman equation indicates the dominant effect of electrostatic attractive forces between anionic DNA and underlying electrode at the electrolyte/electrode interface in the potentiometry.

  9. Label-Free Potentiometry for Detecting DNA Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid and DNA Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tatsuro; Singi, Ankit Balram; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Akira; Torimura, Masaki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) has outstanding affinity over DNA for complementary nucleic acid sequences by forming a PNA-DNA heterodimer upon hybridization via Watson-Crick base-pairing. To verify whether PNA probes on an electrode surface enhance sensitivity for potentiometric DNA detection or not, we conducted a comparative study on the hybridization of PNA and DNA probes on the surface of a 10-channel gold electrodes microarray. Changes in the charge density as a result of hybridization at the solution/electrode interface on the self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-formed microelectrodes were directly transformed into potentiometric signals using a high input impedance electrometer. The charge readout allows label-free, reagent-less, and multi-parallel detection of target oligonucleotides without any optical assistance. The differences in the probe lengths between 15- to 22-mer dramatically influenced on the sensitivity of the PNA and DNA sensors. Molecular type of the capturing probe did not affect the degree of potential shift. Theoretical model for charged rod-like duplex using the Gouy-Chapman equation indicates the dominant effect of electrostatic attractive forces between anionic DNA and underlying electrode at the electrolyte/electrode interface in the potentiometry. PMID:23435052

  10. Synthesis and optical properties of pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid carrying a clicked Nile red label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawut Yotapan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA or its analogues with an environment-sensitive fluorescent label are potentially useful as a probe for studying the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids. In this work, pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA was labeled at its backbone with Nile red, a solvatochromic benzophenoxazine dye, by means of click chemistry. The optical properties of the Nile red-labeled acpcPNA were investigated by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy in the absence and in the presence of DNA. In contrast to the usual quenching observed in Nile red-labeled DNA, the hybridization with DNA resulted in blue shifting and an enhanced fluorescence regardless of the neighboring bases. More pronounced blue shifts and fluorescence enhancements were observed when the DNA target carried a base insertion in close proximity to the Nile red label. The results indicate that the Nile red label is located in a more hydrophobic environment in acpcPNA–DNA duplexes than in the single-stranded acpcPNA. The different fluorescence properties of the acpcPNA hybrids of complementary DNA and DNA carrying a base insertion are suggestive of different interactions between the Nile red label and the duplexes.

  11. Anionic magnetite nanoparticle conjugated with pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid for DNA base discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadsai, Sudarat; Rutnakornpituk, Boonjira [Naresuan University, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence in Biomaterials, Faculty of Science (Thailand); Vilaivan, Tirayut [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemistry, Organic Synthesis Research Unit, Faculty of Science (Thailand); Nakkuntod, Maliwan [Naresuan University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science (Thailand); Rutnakornpituk, Metha, E-mail: methar@nu.ac.th [Naresuan University, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence in Biomaterials, Faculty of Science (Thailand)

    2016-09-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were surface modified with anionic poly(N-acryloyl glycine) (PNAG) and streptavidin for specific interaction with biotin-conjugated pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Hydrodynamic size (D{sub h}) of PNAG-grafted MNPs varied from 334 to 496 nm depending on the loading ratio of the MNP to NAG in the reaction. UV–visible and fluorescence spectrophotometries were used to confirm the successful immobilization of streptavidin and PNA on the MNPs. About 291 pmol of the PNA/mg MNP was immobilized on the particle surface. The PNA-functionalized MNPs were effectively used as solid supports to differentiate between fully complementary and non-complementary/single-base mismatch DNA using the PNA probe. These novel anionic MNPs can be efficiently applicable for use as a magnetically guidable support for DNA base discrimination.Graphical Abstract.

  12. Anionic magnetite nanoparticle conjugated with pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid for DNA base discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadsai, Sudarat; Rutnakornpituk, Boonjira; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Nakkuntod, Maliwan; Rutnakornpituk, Metha

    2016-09-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were surface modified with anionic poly( N-acryloyl glycine) (PNAG) and streptavidin for specific interaction with biotin-conjugated pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Hydrodynamic size ( D h) of PNAG-grafted MNPs varied from 334 to 496 nm depending on the loading ratio of the MNP to NAG in the reaction. UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometries were used to confirm the successful immobilization of streptavidin and PNA on the MNPs. About 291 pmol of the PNA/mg MNP was immobilized on the particle surface. The PNA-functionalized MNPs were effectively used as solid supports to differentiate between fully complementary and non-complementary/single-base mismatch DNA using the PNA probe. These novel anionic MNPs can be efficiently applicable for use as a magnetically guidable support for DNA base discrimination.

  13. Anionic magnetite nanoparticle conjugated with pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid for DNA base discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadsai, Sudarat; Rutnakornpituk, Boonjira; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Nakkuntod, Maliwan; Rutnakornpituk, Metha

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were surface modified with anionic poly(N-acryloyl glycine) (PNAG) and streptavidin for specific interaction with biotin-conjugated pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Hydrodynamic size (D h ) of PNAG-grafted MNPs varied from 334 to 496 nm depending on the loading ratio of the MNP to NAG in the reaction. UV–visible and fluorescence spectrophotometries were used to confirm the successful immobilization of streptavidin and PNA on the MNPs. About 291 pmol of the PNA/mg MNP was immobilized on the particle surface. The PNA-functionalized MNPs were effectively used as solid supports to differentiate between fully complementary and non-complementary/single-base mismatch DNA using the PNA probe. These novel anionic MNPs can be efficiently applicable for use as a magnetically guidable support for DNA base discrimination.Graphical Abstract

  14. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  15. Downregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and estrogen receptor alpha in MCF-7 cells by antisense oligonucleotides containing locked nucleic acid (LNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Pfundheller, Henrik M; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E

    2004-01-01

    of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (PS AONs). The antisense efficiency of LNA-containing oligonucleotides was systematically compared with standard PS AONs targeting expression of two endogenous proteins in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, namely, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1...

  16. Peptide nucleic acid as a selective recognition element for electrochemical determination of Hg2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Agnieszka; Górski, Łukasz

    2018-02-01

    A novel electrochemical PNA-based biosensor for the determination of Hg 2+ is described. The receptor layer, containing single strands of polythymine PNA (peptide nucleic acid), was formed at the surface of gold electrode. Due to the presence of thymine bases and peptide bonds, an interaction between Hg 2+ ion and receptor layer occurs. The influence of chain modification - PNA vs. DNA - and type of redox marker - anionic AQMS-Na (sodium salt of anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid) and Fe II/III (potassium ferri/ferrocyanide) or cationic MB (methylene blue) and RuHex (hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride) - were studied. Proposed PNA-based biosensor with anionic AQMS-Na as a redox marker demonstrated significantly better analytical parameters, as compared to results obtained for other tested redox markers (for measurements at pH6.0). The linear response towards Hg 2+ was in the range from 5 to 500nmol·L -1 with the detection limit of 4.5nmol·L -1 . The developed sensor distinguishes itself with high selectivity towards Hg 2+ , even for solutions containing several interfering cations. Interactions between Hg 2+ and PNA receptor layer were studied using square wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel dual lock method for down-regulation of genes, in which a target mRNA is captured at 2 independent positions by linked locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Ryohei; Makado, Gouki; Kitamura, Ayaka; Watanabe, Hajime; Wada, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor κB (NFκB), which is composed of the RelA and p50 subunits, binds to NFκB response elements (NREs) and stimulates the transcription of inflammation-related genes. Here, locked nucleic acid (LNA) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) complementary to the termini of the 3'- and 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of the RelA mRNA were generated; these molecules were named 3'-LNA and 5'-LNA, respectively. To evaluate their effects on NFκB activity, HeLa cells were co-transfected with the LNA ASOs and a luciferase reporter gene carrying an NRE. Transfection of the cells with 3'-LNA reduced NFκB activity by 30-40%, without affecting RelA mRNA accumulation. Concomitant transfection of HeLa cells with 5'-LNA and 3'-LNA resulted in a 70% reduction in NFκB activity. Furthermore, partial poly(A) tail shortening occurred in LNA ASO-transfected cells. We also employed triethylene glycol as a spacer to link 5'-LNA and 3'-LNA. Reporter gene assays showed that the spacer-linked LNA ASO reduced NFκB activity similarly to a combination of 5'-LNA and 3'-LNA. In addition, an in vitro translation assay revealed that spacer-linked LNA ASOs inhibited the translation of a target mRNA in a specific manner. In summary, this study describes a novel antisense method capturing the target mRNA at independent positions.

  18. Formulation of pH responsive peptides as inhalable dry powders for pulmonary delivery of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wanling; Kwok, Philip C L; Chow, Michael Y T; Tang, Patricia; Mason, A James; Chan, Hak-Kim; Lam, Jenny K W

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acids have the potential to be used as therapies or vaccines for many different types of disease, but delivery remains the most significant challenge to their clinical adoption. pH responsive peptides containing either histidine or derivatives of 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (Dap) can mediate effective DNA transfection in lung epithelial cells with the latter remaining effective even in the presence of lung surfactant containing bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), making this class of peptides attractive candidates for delivering nucleic acids to lung tissues. To further assess the suitability of pH responsive peptides for pulmonary delivery by inhalation, dry powder formulations of pH responsive peptides and plasmid DNA, with mannitol as carrier, were produced by either spray drying (SD) or spray freeze drying (SFD). The properties of the two types of powders were characterised and compared using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), next generation impactor (NGI), gel retardation and in vitro transfection via a twin stage impinger (TSI) following aerosolisation by a dry powder inhaler (Osmohaler™). Although the aerodynamic performance and transfection efficacy of both powders were good, the overall performance revealed SD powders to have a number of advantages over SFD powders and are the more effective formulation with potential for efficient nucleic acid delivery through inhalation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Implementation of antimicrobial peptides for sample preparation prior to nucleic acid amplification in point-of-care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krõlov, Katrin; Uusna, Julia; Grellier, Tiia; Andresen, Liis; Jevtuševskaja, Jekaterina; Tulp, Indrek; Langel, Ülo

    2017-12-01

    A variety of sample preparation techniques are used prior to nucleic acid amplification. However, their efficiency is not always sufficient and nucleic acid purification remains the preferred method for template preparation. Purification is difficult and costly to apply in point-of-care (POC) settings and there is a strong need for more robust, rapid, and efficient biological sample preparation techniques in molecular diagnostics. Here, the authors applied antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) for urine sample preparation prior to isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP). AMPs bind to many microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses causing disruption of their membrane integrity and facilitate nucleic acid release. The authors show that incubation of E. coli with antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 for 5 min had a significant effect on the availability of template DNA compared with untreated or even heat treated samples resulting in up to six times increase of the amplification efficiency. These results show that AMPs treatment is a very efficient sample preparation technique that is suitable for application prior to nucleic acid amplification directly within biological samples. Furthermore, the entire process of AMPs treatment was performed at room temperature for 5 min thereby making it a good candidate for use in POC applications.

  20. A convenient and highly efficient synthesis of one kind of peptide nucleic acid monomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Tang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available S-Thyminyl-L-cysteine methyl ester hydrochloride (compound 1, a non-classical peptide nucleic acid monomer, was synthesized through the key intermediate, N-tert- butoxycarbonyl-S-thyminyl-L-cysteine (compound 3, which afforded from the reaction of S-thyminyl-L-cysteine hydrochloride (compound 2 with di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc2O. This was followed by the esterification and deprotection of compound 3 at an overall yield of 82%. The mixture of thionyl chloride and methanol was found as an efficient reagent for simultaneous deprotection of tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc group and esterification of carboxy group of compound 3. This high-yield two-step method was also applied to other analogues of compound 1 successfully. The chemical structures of four new compounds (5a-5d were confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i3.10

  1. Inducible Alkylation of DNA by a Quinone Methide-Peptide Nucleic Acid Conjugate†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Rokita, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    The reversibility of alkylation by a quinone methide intermediate (QM) avoids the irreversible consumption that plagues most reagents based on covalent chemistry and allows for site specific reaction that is controlled by the thermodynamics rather than kinetics of target association. This characteristic was originally examined with an oligonucleotide QM conjugate but broad application depends on alternative derivatives that are compatible with a cellular environment. Now, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) derivative has been constructed and shown to exhibit an equivalent ability to delivery the reactive QM in a controlled manner. This new conjugate demonstrates high selectivity for a complementary sequence of DNA even when challenged with an alternative sequence containing a single T/T mismatch. Alkylation of non-complementary sequences is only possible when a template strand is present to co-localize the conjugate and its target. For efficient alkylation in this example, a single-stranded region of the target is required adjacent to the QM conjugate. Most importantly, the intrastrand self adducts formed between the PNA and its attached QM remained active and reversible over more than eight days in aqueous solution prior to reaction with a chosen target added subsequently. PMID:22243337

  2. Modulation of mdm2 pre-mRNA splicing by 9-aminoacridine-PNA (peptide nucleic acid conjugates targeting intron-exon junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Peter E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modulation of pre-mRNA splicing by antisense molecules is a promising mechanism of action for gene therapeutic drugs. In this study, we have examined the potential of peptide nucleic acid (PNA 9-aminoacridine conjugates to modulate the pre-mRNA splicing of the mdm2 human cancer gene in JAR cells. Methods We screened 10 different 15 mer PNAs targeting intron2 at both the 5' - and the 3'-splice site for their effects on the splicing of mdm2 using RT-PCR analysis. We also tested a PNA (2512 targeting the 3'-splice site of intron3 with a complementarity of 4 bases to intron3 and 11 bases to exon4 for its splicing modulation effect. This PNA2512 was further tested for the effects on the mdm2 protein level as well as for inhibition of cell growth in combination with the DNA damaging agent camptothecin (CPT. Results We show that several of these PNAs effectively inhibit the splicing thereby producing a larger mRNA still containing intron2, while skipping of exon3 was not observed by any of these PNAs. The most effective PNA (PNA2406 targeting the 3'-splice site of intron2 had a complementarity of 4 bases to intron2 and 11 bases to exon3. PNA (2512 targeting the 3'-splice site of intron3 induced both splicing inhibition (intron3 skipping and skipping of exon4. Furthermore, treatment of JAR cells with this PNA resulted in a reduction in the level of MDM2 protein and a concomitant increase in the level of tumor suppressor p53. In addition, a combination of this PNA with CPT inhibited cell growth more than CPT alone. Conclusion We have identified several PNAs targeting the 5'- or 3'-splice sites in intron2 or the 3'-splice site of intron3 of mdm2 pre-mRNA which can inhibit splicing. Antisense targeting of splice junctions of mdm2 pre-mRNA may be a powerful method to evaluate the cellular function of MDM2 splice variants as well as a promising approach for discovery of mdm2 targeted anticancer drugs.

  3. Immobilization-free electrochemical DNA detection with anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongpeth, Jutatip; Jampasa, Sakda; Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Chailapakul, Orawon; Vilaivan, Tirayut

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical detection provides a simple, rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method for DNA detection. In traditional electrochemical DNA biosensors, the probe is immobilized onto the electrode. Hybridization with the DNA target causes a change in electrochemical signal, either from the intrinsic signal of the probe/target or through a label or a redox indicator. The major drawback of this approach is the requirement for probe immobilization in a controlled fashion. In this research, we take the advantage of different electrostatic properties between PNA and DNA to develop an immobilization-free approach for highly sequence-specific electrochemical DNA sensing on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) using a square-wave voltammetric (SWV) technique. Anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (AQ-PNA) was employed as a probe together with an SPCE that was modified with a positively-charged polymer (poly quaternized-(dimethylamino-ethyl)methacrylate, PQDMAEMA). The electrostatic attraction between the negatively-charged PNA-DNA duplex and the positively-charged modified SPCE attributes to the higher signal of PNA-DNA duplex than that of the electrostatically neutral PNA probe, resulting in a signal change. The calibration curve of this proposed method exhibited a linear range between 0.35 and 50 nM of DNA target with a limit of detection of 0.13 nM (3SD(blank)/Slope). The sub-nanomolar detection limit together with a small sample volume required (20 μL) allowed detection of syndrome virus (WSSV) DNA was successfully demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of multidrug resistance by SV40 pseudovirion delivery of an antigene peptide nucleic acid (PNA in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Macadangdang

    Full Text Available Peptide nucleic acid (PNA is known to bind with extraordinarily high affinity and sequence-specificity to complementary nucleic acid sequences and can be used to suppress gene expression. However, effective delivery into cells is a major obstacle to the development of PNA for gene therapy applications. Here, we present a novel method for the in vitro delivery of antigene PNA to cells. By using a nucleocapsid protein derived from Simian virus 40, we have been able to package PNA into pseudovirions, facilitating the delivery of the packaged PNA into cells. We demonstrate that this system can be used effectively to suppress gene expression associated with multidrug resistance in cancer cells, as shown by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and cell viability under chemotherapy. The combination of PNA with the SV40-based delivery system is a method for suppressing a gene of interest that could be broadly applied to numerous targets.

  5. Electrochemical paper-based peptide nucleic acid biosensor for detecting human papillomavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teengam, Prinjaporn [Program in Petrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Siangproh, Weena [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, 10110 (Thailand); Tuantranont, Adisorn [Nanoelectronics and MEMS Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Pathumthani, 12120 (Thailand); Henry, Charles S. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523 (United States); Vilaivan, Tirayut [Organic Synthesis Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Chailapakul, Orawon, E-mail: corawon@chula.ac.th [Electrochemistry and Optical Spectroscopy Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Nanotec-CU Center of Excellence on Food and Agriculture, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-02-01

    A novel paper-based electrochemical biosensor was developed using an anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA) probe (AQ-PNA) and graphene-polyaniline (G-PANI) modified electrode to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). An inkjet printing technique was employed to prepare the paper-based G-PANI-modified working electrode. The AQ-PNA probe baring a negatively charged amino acid at the N-terminus was immobilized onto the electrode surface through electrostatic attraction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to verify the AQ-PNA immobilization. The paper-based electrochemical DNA biosensor was used to detect a synthetic 14-base oligonucleotide target with a sequence corresponding to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA by measuring the electrochemical signal response of the AQ label using square-wave voltammetry before and after hybridization. It was determined that the current signal significantly decreased after the addition of target DNA. This phenomenon is explained by the rigidity of PNA-DNA duplexes, which obstructs the accessibility of electron transfer from the AQ label to the electrode surface. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit of HPV type 16 DNA was found to be 2.3 nM with a linear range of 10–200 nM. The performance of this biosensor on real DNA samples was tested with the detection of PCR-amplified DNA samples from the SiHa cell line. The new method employs an inexpensive and disposable device, which easily incinerated after use and is promising for the screening and monitoring of the amount of HPV-DNA type 16 to identify the primary stages of cervical cancer. - Highlights: • A paper-based DNA biosensor using AQ-PNA probe and G-PANI modified electrode was first developed. • This developed DNA biosensor was highly specific over the non-complementary DNA. • This sensor was successfully applied to detect the HPV-DNA type 16 obtained from cancer cell lines. • This sensor is inexpensive and

  6. Nanoparticle for delivery of antisense γPNA oligomers targeting CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahal, Raman; McNeer, Nicole Ali; Ly, Danith H; Saltzman, W Mark; Glazer, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    The development of a new class of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), i.e., gamma PNAs (γPNAs), creates the need for a general and effective method for its delivery into cells for regulating gene expression in mammalian cells. Here we report the antisense activity of a recently developed hydrophilic and biocompatible diethylene glycol (miniPEG)-based gamma peptide nucleic acid called MPγPNAs via its delivery by poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanoparticle system. We show that MPγPNA oligomers designed to bind to the selective region of chemokine receptor 5 (CC R5) transcript, induce potent and sequence-specific antisense effects as compared with regular PNA oligomers. In addition, PLGA nanoparticle delivery of MPγPNAs is not toxic to the cells. The findings reported in this study provide a combination of γPNA technology and PLGA-based nanoparticle delivery method for regulating gene expression in live cells via the antisense mechanism.

  7. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction assay and peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid clamp method for RHOA mutation detection in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzima Nuhat, Sharna; Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Komori, Daisuke; Hattori, Keiichiro; Suehara, Yasuhito; Fukumoto, Kota; Fujisawa, Manabu; Kusakabe, Manabu; Matsue, Kosei; Wakamatsu, Hirotake; Shimadzu, Mitsunobu; Chiba, Shigeru

    2018-03-01

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a subtype of nodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). Somatic RHOA mutations, most frequently found at the hotspot site c.50G > T, p.Gly17Val (G17V RHOA mutation) are a genetic hallmark of AITL. Detection of the G17V RHOA mutations assists prompt and appropriate diagnosis of AITL. However, an optimal detection method for the G17V RHOA mutation remains to be elucidated. We compared the sensitivity and concordance of next-generation sequencing (NGS), droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid (PNA-LNA) clamp method for detecting the G17V RHOA mutation. G17V RHOA mutations were identified in 27 of 67 (40.3%) PTCL samples using NGS. ddPCR and PNA-LNA clamp method both detected G17V mutations in 4 samples in addition to those detected with NGS (31 of 67, 46.3%). Additionally, variant allele frequencies with ddPCR and those with NGS showed high concordance (P  T;50G > T], p.Gly17Leu in PTCL198; c.[50G > T;51A > C], p.Gly17Val in PTCL216; and c.50G > A, p.Gly17Glu in PTCL223) were detected using NGS. These sequence changes could not appropriately be detected using the ddPCR assay and the PNA-LNA clamp method although both indicated that the samples might have mutations. In total, 34 out of 67 PTCL samples (50.7%) had RHOA mutations at the p.Gly17 position. In conclusion, our results suggested that a combination of ddPCR/PNA-LNA clamp methods and NGS are best method to assist the diagnosis of AITL by detecting RHOA mutations at the p.Gly17 position. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  8. Why bacteria derived R-M nucleic enzymatic peptides are likely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... defense peptides. (2) HIV genome is encapsulated in nuclear capsid and viral envelope, making access impossible. (3) Human genome contains several palindromes recognizable by R-M peptides, making safety delineation critical. This paper serves to provide succinct responses to these issues, and.

  9. Efficient in vitro inhibition of HIV-1 gag reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) at minimal ratios of PNA/RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Zachar, Vladimir; Nielsen, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    We have tested the inhibitory potential of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) on in vitro reverse transcription of the HIV-1 gag gene. PNA was designed to target different regions of the HIV-1 gag gene and the effect on reverse transcription by HIV-1, MMLV and AMV reverse transcriptases (RTs...

  10. Fischer carbene mediated covalent grafting of a peptide nucleic acid on gold surfaces and IR optical detection of DNA hybridization with a transition metalcarbonyl label

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Srivastava, P.; Ghasemi, M.; Ray, N.; Sarkar, A.; Kocábová, Jana; Lachmanová, Štěpánka; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Boujday, S.; Cauteruccio, S.; Thakare, P.; Licandro, E.; Fosse, C.; Salmain, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 385, NOV 2016 (2016), s. 47-55 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05180S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : peptide nucleic acid * self-assembled monolayer * genosensor Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  11. Targeted correction of a thalassemia-associated beta-globin mutation induced by pseudo-complementary peptide nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonkar, Pallavi; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kuan, Jean Y

    2009-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the beta-globin gene. Triplex-forming oligonucleotides and triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been shown to stimulate recombination in mammalian cells via site-specific binding and creation of altered helical structures...... hindrance, pcPNAs are unable to form pcPNA-pcPNA duplexes but can bind to complementary DNA sequences via double duplex-invasion complexes. We demonstrate here that pcPNAs, when co-transfected with donor DNA fragments, can promote single base pair modification at the start of the second intron of the beta......-globin gene. This was detected by the restoration of proper splicing of transcripts produced from a green fluorescent protein-beta globin fusion gene. We also demonstrate that pcPNAs are effective in stimulating recombination in human fibroblast cells in a manner dependent on the nucleotide excision repair...

  12. Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in-situ hybridization for identification of Vibrio spp. in aquatic products and environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Ke; Wu, Shan; Shuai, Jiangbing; Fang, Weihuan

    2015-08-03

    A peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) method was developed for specific detection of the Vibrio genus. In silico analysis by BLAST and ProbeCheck showed that the designed PNA probe targeting the 16S rRNAs was suitable for specific identification of Vibrio. Specificity and sensitivity of the probe Vib-16S-1 were experimentally verified by its reactivity against 18 strains of 9 Vibrio species and 14 non-Vibrio strains of 14 representative species. The PNA-FISH assay was able to identify 47 Vibrio positive samples from selectively enriched cultures of 510 samples of aquatic products and environments, comparable with the results obtained by biochemical identification and real-time PCR. We conclude that PNA-FISH can be an alternative method for rapid identification of Vibrio species in a broad spectrum of seafood or related samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  14. Radionuclide antisense therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xiaohong

    2002-01-01

    Radionuclide antisense therapy achieves the joint goals of antisense therapy and internal radiation therapy. There have been a small number of investigations on the radionuclide antisense therapy in tissue culture and in animal studies. Considerable research is required before this novel technique can become a working practice. The authors reviewed some question and development on the radionuclide antisense therapy, such as selection of the target gene sequence, labelling the antisense oligonucleotide, improvement of the uptake and target of radionuclide antisense oligonucleotides and evaluation of the toxicity of the radionuclide antisense therapy

  15. Why bacteria derived R-M nucleic enzymatic peptides are likely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... within the invading viral DNA and cleave within it, or near to it. Protection to the bacteria genome is provided by .... gration of R-M peptides cleaving proviral DNA into a proteolytic substrate of specifity to viral ..... immunodeficiency virus isolated from a chimpanzee by transactivators. Virology. 189(1): 354-8.

  16. Development of a peptide nucleic acid array platform for the detection of genetically modified organisms in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germini, Andrea; Rossi, Stefano; Zanetti, Alessandro; Corradini, Roberto; Fogher, Corrado; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2005-05-18

    Two previously developed platforms, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) array, the former allowing for the simultaneous detection of five transgenes and two endogenous controls in food and feed matrices and the latter for the assessment of the identity of amplified PCR products, were combined in order to develop a PNA array device for the screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food. PNA probes were opportunely designed, synthesized, and deposited on commercial slides. The length of the probes as well as the distance of the probes from the surface were evaluated and found to be critical points. The most suitable probes were found to be 15-mer PNAs linked to the slide surface by means of two 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxyacetic acids as spacers. The device was tested on a model system constituted by flour samples containing a mixture of standards at known concentrations of transgenic material, in particular Roundup Ready soybean and Bt11, Bt176, Mon810, and GA21 maize: The DNA was amplified using the specific multiplex PCR method and tested on the PNA array. The method proposed was found to be able to correctly identify every GMO present in the tested samples.

  17. An antisense peptide nucleic acid against Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibiting bacterial-induced inflammatory responses in the cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cellular model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagner, Giulia; Bezzerri, Valentino; Cabrini, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    of the essential acpP gene of P. aeruginosa, and previously shown to inhibit bacterial growth, concomitantly also strongly inhibits induced up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory markers IL-8, IL-6, G-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1 and TNF-α in IB3-1 cystic fibrosis cells infected by P. aeruginosa PAO1. Remarkably...... are significant considering the key role of this protein in the cystic fibrosis inflammatory process exacerbated by P. aeruginosa infection....

  18. Discriminating Multi-Species Populations in Biofilms with Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (PNA FISH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carina; Azevedo, Nuno F.; Santos, Sílvio; Keevil, Charles W.; Vieira, Maria J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Our current understanding of biofilms indicates that these structures are typically composed of many different microbial species. However, the lack of reliable techniques for the discrimination of each population has meant that studies focusing on multi-species biofilms are scarce and typically generate qualitative rather than quantitative data. Methodology/Principal Findings We employ peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) methods to quantify and visualize mixed biofilm populations. As a case study, we present the characterization of Salmonella enterica/Listeria monocytogenes/Escherichia coli single, dual and tri-species biofilms in seven different support materials. Ex-situ, we were able to monitor quantitatively the populations of ∼56 mixed species biofilms up to 48 h, regardless of the support material. In situ, a correct quantification remained more elusive, but a qualitative understanding of biofilm structure and composition is clearly possible by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at least up to 192 h. Combining the data obtained from PNA FISH/CLSM with data from other established techniques and from calculated microbial parameters, we were able to develop a model for this tri-species biofilm. The higher growth rate and exopolymer production ability of E. coli probably led this microorganism to outcompete the other two [average cell numbers (cells/cm2) for 48 h biofilm: E. coli 2,1×108 (±2,4×107); L. monocytogenes 6,8×107 (±9,4×106); and S. enterica 1,4×106 (±4,1×105)]. This overgrowth was confirmed by CSLM, with two well-defined layers being easily identified: the top one with E. coli, and the bottom one with mixed regions of L. monocytogenes and S. enterica. Significance While PNA FISH has been described previously for the qualitative study of biofilm populations, the present investigation demonstrates that it can also be used for the accurate quantification and spatial distribution of species in

  19. Exploitation of a Very Small Peptide Nucleic Acid as a New Inhibitor of miR-509-3p Involved in the Regulation of Cystic Fibrosis Disease-Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Felice; Tomaiuolo, Rossella; Nici, Fabrizia; Borbone, Nicola; Elce, Ausilia; Catalanotti, Bruno; D'Errico, Stefano; Morgillo, Carmine Marco; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Mayol, Laura; Piccialli, Gennaro; Oliviero, Giorgia; Castaldo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Computational techniques, and in particular molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, have been successfully used as a complementary technique to predict and analyse the structural behaviour of nucleic acids, including peptide nucleic acid- (PNA-) RNA hybrids. This study shows that a 7-base long PNA complementary to the seed region of miR-509-3p, one of the miRNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of the CFTR disease-gene of Cystic Fibrosis, and bearing suitable functionalization at i...

  20. Highly expressed genes are associated with inverse antisense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nucleic Acids Res. 25, 4513–4522. Thakur N., Tiwari V. K., Thomassin H., Pandey R. R., Kanduri M.,. Gondor A. et al. 2004 An antisense RNA regulates the bidirec- tional silencing property of the Kcnq1 imprinting control region. Mol. Cell. Biol. 24, 7855–7862. Trinklein N. D., Aldred S. F., Hartman S. J., Schroeder D. I., Otil-.

  1. Correction of a splice-site mutation in the beta-globin gene stimulated by triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chin, Joanna Y; Kuan, Jean Y; Lonkar, Pallavi S

    2008-01-01

    Splice-site mutations in the beta-globin gene can lead to aberrant transcripts and decreased functional beta-globin, causing beta-thalassemia. Triplex-forming DNA oligonucleotides (TFOs) and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been shown to stimulate recombination in reporter gene loci in mammalian...... DNA fragments, can promote single base-pair modification at the start of the second intron of the beta-globin gene, the site of a common thalassemia-associated mutation. This single base pair change was detected by the restoration of proper splicing of transcripts produced from a green fluorescent...... cells via site-specific binding and creation of altered helical structures that provoke DNA repair. We have designed a series of triplex-forming PNAs that can specifically bind to sequences in the human beta-globin gene. We demonstrate here that these PNAs, when cotransfected with recombinatory donor...

  2. Inhibition of Growth and Gene Expression by PNA-peptide Conjugates in Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Patenge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While Streptococcus pyogenes is consistently susceptible toward penicillin, therapeutic failure of penicillin treatment has been reported repeatedly and a considerable number of patients exhibit allergic reactions to this substance. At the same time, streptococcal resistance to alternative antibiotics, e.g., macrolides, has increased. Taken together, these facts demand the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In this study, S. pyogenes growth was inhibited by application of peptide-conjugated antisense-peptide nucleic acids (PNAs specific for the essential gyrase A gene (gyrA. Thereby, HIV-1 Tat peptide-coupled PNAs were more efficient inhibitors of streptococcal growth as compared with (KFF3K-coupled PNAs. Peptide-anti-gyrA PNAs decreased the abundance of gyrA transcripts in S. pyogenes. Growth inhibition by antisense interference was enhanced by combination of peptide-coupled PNAs with protein-level inhibitors. Antimicrobial synergy could be detected with levofloxacin and novobiocin, targeting the gyrase enzyme, and with spectinomycin, impeding ribosomal function. The prospective application of carrier peptide-coupled antisense PNAs in S. pyogenes covers the use as an antimicrobial agent and the employment as a knock-down strategy for the investigation of virulence factor function.

  3. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs): From delivery of nucleic acids and antigens to transduction of engineered nucleases for application in transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Campelo, Iana S; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne R L; Melo, Luciana M; Freitas, Vicente J F

    2017-06-20

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been studied for their capacity to translocate across the lipid membrane of several cell types. In membrane translocation, these peptides can remarkably transport biologically active hydrophilic molecules, such as pharmaceuticals, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and even high-molecular-weight proteins, Fig. 3 into the cell cytoplasm and organelles. The development of CPPs as transduction agents includes the modification of gene and protein expression, the reprogramming and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells and the preparation of cellular vaccines. A relatively recent field of CPP application is the transduction of plasmid DNA vectors and CPP-fusion proteins to modify genomes and introduce new traits in cells and organisms. CPP-mediated transduction of components for genome editing is an advantageous alternative to viral DNA vectors. Engineered site-specific nucleases, such as Cre recombinase, ZFN, TALENs and CRISPR associated protein (Cas), have been coupled to CPPs, and the fused proteins have been used to permeate targeted cells and tissues. The functionally active fusion CPP-nucleases subsequently home to the nucleus, incise genomic DNA at specific sites and induce repair and recombination. This review has the objective of discussing CPPs and elucidating the prospective use of CPP-mediated transduction technology, particularly in genome modification and transgenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antisense Oligonucleotide-Based Therapy for Neuromuscular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sardone

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular disorders such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Spinal Muscular Atrophy are neurodegenerative genetic diseases characterized primarily by muscle weakness and wasting. Until recently there were no effective therapies for these conditions, but antisense oligonucleotides, a new class of synthetic single stranded molecules of nucleic acids, have demonstrated promising experimental results and are at different stages of regulatory approval. The antisense oligonucleotides can modulate the protein expression via targeting hnRNAs or mRNAs and inducing interference with splicing, mRNA degradation, or arrest of translation, finally, resulting in rescue or reduction of the target protein expression. Different classes of antisense oligonucleotides are being tested in several clinical trials, and limitations of their clinical efficacy and toxicity have been reported for some of these compounds, while more encouraging results have supported the development of others. New generation antisense oligonucleotides are also being tested in preclinical models together with specific delivery systems that could allow some of the limitations of current antisense oligonucleotides to be overcome, to improve the cell penetration, to achieve more robust target engagement, and hopefully also be associated with acceptable toxicity. This review article describes the chemical properties and molecular mechanisms of action of the antisense oligonucleotides and the therapeutic implications these compounds have in neuromuscular diseases. Current strategies and carrier systems available for the oligonucleotides delivery will be also described to provide an overview on the past, present and future of these appealing molecules.

  5. Antimelanoma CTL recognizes peptides derived from an ORF transcribed from the antisense strand of the 3′ untranslated region of TRIT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf K Swoboda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncoding regions of the genome play an important role in tumorigenesis of cancer. Using expression cloning, we have identified a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL–defined antigen that recognizes a protein sequence derived from an open reading frame transcribed from the reverse strand in the 3′ untranslated region of tRNA isopentenyltransferase 1 (TRIT1. A peptide derived from this open reading frame (ORF sequence and predicted to bind to HLA-B57, sensitized HLA-B57+ tumor cells to lysis by CTL793. The peptide also induced a CTL response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of patient 793 and in two other melanoma patients. The CTL lysed peptide-pulsed HLA-B57+ target cells and melanoma cells with endogenous antigen expression. The recognition of this antigen is not limited to HLA-B57-restricted CTLs. An HLA-A2 peptide derived from the ORF was able to induce CTLs in PBMC of 2 HLA-A2+ patients. This study describes for the first time a CTL-defined melanoma antigen that is derived from an ORF on the reverse strand of the putative tumor suppressor gene TRIT1. This antigen has potential use as a vaccine or its ability to induce CTLs in vitro could be used as a predictive biomarker.

  6. Fischer carbene mediated covalent grafting of a peptide nucleic acid on gold surfaces and IR optical detection of DNA hybridization with a transition metalcarbonyl label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pratima; Ghasemi, Mahsa; Ray, Namrata; Sarkar, Amitabha; Kocabova, Jana; Lachmanova, Stepanka; Hromadova, Magdalena; Boujday, Souhir; Cauteruccio, Silvia; Thakare, Pramod; Licandro, Emanuela; Fosse, Céline; Salmain, Michèle

    2016-11-01

    Amine-reactive surfaces comprising N-hydroxysuccinimide ester groups as well as much more unusual Fischer alkoxymetallocarbene groups were generated on gold-coated surfaces via self-assembled monolayers of carboxy- and azido-terminated thiolates, respectively. These functions were further used to immobilize homothymine peptide nucleic acid (PNA) decamer in a covalent fashion involving the primary amine located at its N-terminus. These stepwise processes were monitored by polarization modulation reflection - absorption infrared spectroscopy (PM-RAIRS) that gave useful information on the molecular composition of the organic layers. PNA grafting and hybridization with complementary DNA strand were successfully transduced by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. Unfortunately, attempts to transduce the hybridization optically by IR in a label-free fashion were inconclusive. Therefore we undertook to introduce an IR reporter group, namely a transition metalcarbonyl (TMC) entity at the 5‧ terminus of complementary DNA. Evidence for the formation of PNA-DNA heteroduplex was brought by the presence of ν(Ctbnd O) bands in the 2000 cm-1 region of the IR spectrum of the gold surface owing to the metalcarbonyl label.

  7. Development of a peptide nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction clamping assay for semiquantitative evaluation of genetically modified organism content in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peano, C; Lesignoli, F; Gulli, M; Corradini, R; Samson, M C; Marchelli, R; Marmiroli, N

    2005-09-15

    In the present study a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clamping method was developed and applied to the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO), to test PCR products for band identity and to obtain a semiquantitative evaluation of GMO content. The minimal concentration of PNA necessary to block the PCR was determined by comparing PCRs containing a constant amount of DNA in the presence of increasing concentration of target-specific PNA. The lowest PNA concentration at which specific inhibition took place, by the inhibition of primer extension and/or steric hindrance, was the most efficient condition. Optimization of PCR clamping by PNA was observed by testing five different PNAs with a minimum of 13 bp to a maximum of 15 bp, designed on the target sequence of Roundup Ready soybean. The results obtained on the DNA extracted from Roundup Ready soybean standard flour were verified also on DNA extracted from standard flours of maize GA21, Bt176, Bt11, and MON810. A correlation between the PNA concentration necessary for inducing PCR clamping and the percentage of the GMO target sequence in the sample was found.

  8. Synthesis and properties of peptide nucleic acid labeled at the N-terminus with HiLyte Fluor 488 fluorescent dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnedzko, Dziyana; McGee, Dennis W; Rozners, Eriks

    2016-09-15

    Fluorescently labeled peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are important tools in fundamental research and biomedical applications. However, synthesis of labeled PNAs, especially using modern and expensive dyes, is less explored than similar preparations of oligonucleotide dye conjugates. Herein, we present a simple procedure for labeling of the PNA N-terminus with HiLyte Fluor 488 as the last step of solid phase PNA synthesis. A minimum excess of 1.25equiv of activated carboxylic acid achieved labeling yields close to 90% providing a good compromise between the price of dye and the yield of product and significant improvement over previous literature procedures. The HiLyte Fluor 488-labeled PNAs retained the RNA binding ability and in live cell fluorescence microscopy experiments were brighter and significantly more photostable than PNA labeled with carboxyfluorescein. In contrast to fluorescein-labeled PNA, the fluorescence of PNAs labeled with HiLyte Fluor 488 was independent of pH in the biologically relevant range of 5-8. The potential of HiLyte Fluor 488-labeling for studies of PNA cellular uptake and distribution was demonstrated in several cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental study on imaging of 99Tcm labeled c-myc mRNA antisense PNA in colorectal cancer tumor-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaoqi; Zhao Xinpeng; Wang Jianfang; Zhang Jingmian; Wang Yincheng; Sun Li; Dai Chunnuan; Li Dezhi; Jiang Zhihua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: C-myc mRNA may become active before cancer development. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility by using 99 Tc m labeled c-myc mRNA antisense peptide nucleic acid PNA) to early diagnose colorectal cancer. Methods: Four amino acid [G (D)-A-G-G] and an Aba aminobutyric acid) were linked to the 5' end of c-myc mRNA antisense PNA by chemical synthesize, then it was labeled with 99Tcm in ligands exchange method. 99 Tc m labeled c-myc mRNA mismatch PNA was pre- pared in the same way as control. 99 Tc m labeled c-myc mRNA antisense or mismatch PNA (37 MBq) was intravenously injected into nude mice bearing human colorectal LS174-T cell through tail vein. Radionuclide imaging was performed at 1, 2 and 4 h postinjection. Statistical analysis was performed with SAS 6.12. Results: The in vitro study showed that the labeling efficiency of 99 Tc m labeled c-myc mRNA antisense PNA fragment was high (>95% at 6 h). The in vivo study showed that the tumor uptake of 99 Tc m labeled c-myc mRNA antisense PNA was high from 1 h [the radioactivity ratios of tumor to non-tumor (T/N) were 5.06 ± 1.35 and 1.53 ± 0.30 in 99 Tc m labeled c-myc mRNA antisense PNA group and 99 Tc m labeled mRNA mis-match PNA group, respectively; t=4.47, P=0.04] to 4 h after injection. In contrast, there was little 99 Tc m labeled mRNA mismatch PNA accumulated in tumor within 4 h. Conclusions: 99 Tc m labeled c-myc mRNA antisense PNA exhibited high sensitivity and high specificity in binding with the colorectal LS174-T tumor tissue. The optimal imaging time for in vivo in the future may be at 4 h after injection. (authors)

  10. Pharmacokinetic Profiling of Conjugated Therapeutic Oligonucleotides: A High-Throughput Method Based Upon Serial Blood Microsampling Coupled to Peptide Nucleic Acid Hybridization Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Bruno M D C; Gilbert, James W; Haraszti, Reka A; Coles, Andrew H; Biscans, Annabelle; Roux, Loic; Nikan, Mehran; Echeverria, Dimas; Hassler, Matthew; Khvorova, Anastasia

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic oligonucleotides, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), hold great promise for the treatment of incurable genetically defined disorders by targeting cognate toxic gene products for degradation. To achieve meaningful tissue distribution and efficacy in vivo, siRNAs must be conjugated or formulated. Clear understanding of the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic behavior of these compounds is necessary to optimize and characterize the performance of therapeutic oligonucleotides in vivo. In this study, we describe a simple and reproducible methodology for the evaluation of in vivo blood/plasma PK profiles and tissue distribution of oligonucleotides. The method is based on serial blood microsampling from the saphenous vein, coupled to peptide nucleic acid hybridization assay for quantification of guide strands. Performed with minimal number of animals, this method allowed unequivocal detection and sensitive quantification without the need for amplification, or further modification of the oligonucleotides. Using this methodology, we compared plasma clearances and tissue distribution profiles of two different hydrophobically modified siRNAs (hsiRNAs). Notably, cholesterol-hsiRNA presented slow plasma clearances and mainly accumulated in the liver, whereas, phosphocholine-docosahexaenoic acid-hsiRNA was rapidly cleared from the plasma and preferably accumulated in the kidney. These data suggest that the PK/biodistribution profiles of modified hsiRNAs are determined by the chemical nature of the conjugate. Importantly, the method described in this study constitutes a simple platform to conduct pilot assessments of the basic clearance and tissue distribution profiles, which can be broadly applied for evaluation of new chemical variants of siRNAs and micro-RNAs.

  11. Electrochemical detection of human papillomavirus DNA type 16 using a pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid probe immobilized on screen-printed carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampasa, Sakda; Wonsawat, Wanida; Rodthongkum, Nadnudda; Siangproh, Weena; Yanatatsaneejit, Pattamawadee; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2014-04-15

    An electrochemical biosensor based on an immobilized anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA) probe was successfully developed for the selective detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA. A 14-mer acpcPNA capture probe was designed to recognize a specific 14 nucleotide region of HPV type 16 L1 gene. The redox-active label anthraquinone (AQ) was covalently attached to the N-terminus of the acpcPNA probe through an amide bond. The probe was immobilized onto a chitosan-modified disposable screen-printed carbon electrode via a C-terminal lysine residue using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Hybridization with the target DNA was studied by measuring the electrochemical signal response of the AQ label using square-wave voltammetric analysis. The calibration curve exhibited a linear range between 0.02 and 12.0 µM with a limit of detection and limit of quantitation of 4 and 14 nM, respectively. This DNA sensing platform was successfully applied to detect the HPV type 16 DNA from a PCR amplified (240 bp fragment of the L1 gene) sample derived from the HPV type 16 positive human cancer cell line (SiHa), and failed to detect the HPV-negative c33a cell line. The sensor probe exhibited very high selectivity for the complementary 14 base oligonucleotide over the non-complementary oligonucleotides with sequences derived from HPV types 18, 31 and 33. The proposed sensor provides an inexpensive tool for the early stage detection of HPV type 16, which is an important biomarker for cervical cancer. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antisense Treatments for Biothreat Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warfield, Kelly L; Panchal, Rekha G; Aman, M J; Bavari, Sina

    2006-01-01

    ... a variety of pathogens in cell culture studies and nonhuman primate models of infection. For these reasons, antisense technologies are being pursued as treatments against biothreat agents such as Ebola virus, dengue virus and Bacillus anthracis...

  13. Antisense oligonucleotides: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Fadl, T

    2005-01-01

    The use of antisense oligonucleotides as therapeutic agents has generated considerable enthusiasm in the research and medical community. Antisense oligonucleotides as therapeutic agents were proposed as far back as in the 1970s when the antisense strategy was initially developed. Nonetheless, it has taken almost a quarter of a century for this potential to be realized. The principle of antisense technology is the sequence-specific binding of an antisense oligonucleotide to target mRNA, resulting in the prevention of gene translation. The specificity of hybridization by Watson-Crick base pairing make antisense oligonucleotides attractive as tools for targeted validation and functionalization, and as therapeutics to selectively modulate the expression of genes involved in the pathogenesis of diseases. The last few years have seen a rapid increase in the number of antisense molecules progressing past Phase I, II and III clinical trials. This review outlines the basic concept of the antisense technology, its development and recent potential therapeutic applications.

  14. Exploitation of a Very Small Peptide Nucleic Acid as a New Inhibitor of miR-509-3p Involved in the Regulation of Cystic Fibrosis Disease-Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Amato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational techniques, and in particular molecular dynamics (MD simulations, have been successfully used as a complementary technique to predict and analyse the structural behaviour of nucleic acids, including peptide nucleic acid- (PNA- RNA hybrids. This study shows that a 7-base long PNA complementary to the seed region of miR-509-3p, one of the miRNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of the CFTR disease-gene of Cystic Fibrosis, and bearing suitable functionalization at its N- and C-ends aimed at improving its resistance to nucleases and cellular uptake, is able to revert the expression of the luciferase gene containing the 3′UTR of the gene in A549 human lung cancer cells, in agreement with the MD results that pointed at the formation of a stable RNA/PNA heteroduplex notwithstanding the short sequence of the latter. The here reported results widen the interest towards the use of small PNAs as effective anti-miRNA agents.

  15. Dyslipidemia, sense, antisense or nonsense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Maartje Visser onderzocht het remmen van de synthese van apoB met behulp van antisense - een nieuwe farmacologische techniek. Dit blijkt het slechte LDL-cholesterol op een effectieve manier te verlagen. Bij sommige proefpersonen resulteerde dit in leververvetting. Of dit op de lange termijn

  16. Biomimetic High Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles For Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kaylin M.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Tripathy, Sushant; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bobeica, Mariana; Shumaker, Dale K.; Luthi, Andrea J.; Helfand, Brian T.; Ardehali, Hossein; Mirkin, Chad A.; Volpert, Olga; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    We report a gold nanoparticle-templated high density lipoprotein (HDL AuNP) platform for gene therapy which combines lipid-based nucleic acid transfection strategies with HDL biomimicry. For proof-of-concept, HDL AuNPs are shown to adsorb antisense cholesterylated DNA. The conjugates are internalized by human cells, can be tracked within cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and regulate target gene expression. Overall, the ability to directly image the AuNP core within cells, the chemical tailorability of the HDL AuNP platform, and the potential for cell-specific targeting afforded by HDL biomimicry make this platform appealing for nucleic acid delivery. PMID:21319839

  17. A Tat-conjugated Peptide Nucleic Acid Tat-PNA-DR Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication In Vitro and In Vivo by Targeting LTR Direct Repeats of HBV RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhengyang; Han, Shisong; Hong, Wei; Lang, Yange; Li, Fangfang; Liu, Yongxiang; Li, Zeyong; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin; Zhang, Xianzheng; Cao, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma, all of which are severe threats to human health. However, current clinical therapies for HBV are limited by potential side effects, toxicity, and drug-resistance. In this study, a cell-penetrating peptide-conjugated peptide nucleic acid (PNA), Tat-PNA-DR, was designed to target the direct repeat (DR) sequences of HBV. Tat-PNA-DR effectively inhibited HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells. Its anti-HBV effect relied on the binding of Tat-PNA-DR to the DR, whereby it suppressed the translation of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBsAg, HBV core, hepatitis B virus x protein, and HBV reverse transcriptase (RT) and the reverse transcription of the HBV genome. Furthermore, Tat-PNA-DR administered by intravenous injection efficiently cleared HBeAg and HBsAg in an acute hepatitis B mouse model. Importantly, it induced an 80% decline in HBV DNA in mouse serum, which was similar to the effect of the widely used clinical drug Lamivudine (3TC). Additionally, a long-term hydrodynamics HBV mouse model also demonstrated Tat-PNA-DR's antiviral effect. Interestingly, Tat-PNA-DR displayed low cytotoxicity, low mouse acute toxicity, low immunogenicity, and high serum stability. These data indicate that Tat-PNA-DR is a unique PNA and a promising drug candidate against HBV. PMID:26978579

  18. A cautionary tale of sense-antisense gene pairs: independent regulation despite inverse correlation of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ashish; Fiškin, Evgenij; Gutschner, Tony; Polycarpou-Schwarz, Maria; Groß, Matthias; Neugebauer, Julia; Gandhi, Minakshi; Caudron-Herger, Maiwen; Benes, Vladimir; Diederichs, Sven

    2017-12-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proven to play important roles in diverse cellular processes including the DNA damage response. Nearly 40% of annotated lncRNAs are transcribed in antisense direction to other genes and have often been implicated in their regulation via transcript- or transcription-dependent mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether inverse correlation of gene expression would generally point toward a regulatory interaction between the genes. Here, we profiled lncRNA and mRNA expression in lung and liver cancer cells after exposure to DNA damage. Our analysis revealed two pairs of mRNA-lncRNA sense-antisense transcripts being inversely expressed upon DNA damage. The lncRNA NOP14-AS1 was strongly upregulated upon DNA damage, while the mRNA for NOP14 was downregulated, both in a p53-dependent manner. For another pair, the lncRNA LIPE-AS1 was downregulated, while its antisense mRNA CEACAM1 was upregulated. To test whether as expected the antisense genes would regulate each other resulting in this highly significant inverse correlation, we employed antisense oligonucleotides and RNAi to study transcript-dependent effects as well as dCas9-based transcriptional modulation by CRISPRi/CRISPRa for transcription-dependent effects. Surprisingly, despite the strong stimulus-dependent inverse correlation, our data indicate that neither transcript- nor transcription-dependent mechanisms explain the inverse regulation of NOP14-AS1:NOP14 or LIPE-AS1:CEACAM1 expression. Hence, sense-antisense pairs whose expression is strongly-positively or negatively-correlated can be nonetheless regulated independently. This highlights the requirement of individual experimental studies for each antisense pair and prohibits drawing conclusions on regulatory mechanisms from expression correlations. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Nucleic acids-based therapeutics in the battle against pathogenic viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, Joost; Berkhout, Ben

    2009-01-01

    For almost three decades, researchers have studied the possibility to use nucleic acids as antiviral therapeutics. In theory, compounds such as antisense oligonucleotides, ribozymes, DNAzymes, and aptamers can be designed to trigger the sequence-specific inhibition of particular mRNA transcripts,

  20. Enhanced anti-tumor effects with microencapsulated c-myc antisense oligonucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putney, S D; Brown, J; Cucco, C; Lee, R; Skorski, T; Leonetti, C; Geiser, T; Calabretta, B; Zupi, G; Zon, G

    1999-10-01

    A phosphorothioate c-myc antisense oligonucleotide was complexed with zinc and encapsulated into injectable biodegradable microspheres. The efficacy of this novel formulation was compared with intravenous administration of the unencapsulated drug in human melanoma and leukemia xenografts in immunocompromised mice. The microencapsulated formulation was more effective as shown by reduced tumor growth, a decreased number of metastases, reduced c-myc expression, and increased survival in the melanoma model, and decreased metastatic potential and increased survival in the leukemia model. These results show that, as has been demonstrated previously with protein and peptide drugs, greater therapeutic efficacy can be obtained when antisense oligonucleotides are delivered from sustained-release formulations.

  1. A Peptide Nucleic Acid against MicroRNA miR-145-5p Enhances the Expression of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR in Calu-3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Fabbri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs are very useful tools for gene regulation at different levels, but in particular in the last years their use for targeting microRNA (anti-miR PNAs has provided impressive advancements. In this respect, microRNAs related to the repression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene, which is defective in cystic fibrosis, are of great importance in the development of new type of treatments. In this paper we propose the use of an anti-miR PNA for targeting miR-145, a microRNA reported to suppress CFTR expression. Octaarginine-anti-miR PNA conjugates were delivered to Calu-3 cells, exerting sequence dependent targeting of miR-145-5p. This allowed to enhance expression of the miR-145 regulated CFTR gene, analyzed at mRNA (RT-qPCR, Reverse Transcription quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction and CFTR protein (Western blotting level.

  2. Photodynamic antisense regulation of mRNA having a point mutation with psoralen-conjugated oligonucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Maiko; Yamayoshi, Asako; Kobori, Akio; Murakami, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based drugs, such as antisense oligonucleotide, ribozyme, and small interfering RNA, are specific compounds that inhibit gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. To develop more effective nucleic acid-based drugs, we focused on photo-reactive antisense oligonucleotides. We have optimized the structure of psoralen-conjugated oligonucleotide to improve their sequence selectivity and photo-crosslinking efficiency. Previously, we reported that photo reactive oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-psoralenyl-methoxyethyl adenosine (2'-Ps-eom) showed drastic photo-reactivity with a strictly sequence specific manner in vitro. In this report, we evaluated the binding ability toward intracellular target mRNA. The 2'-Ps-eom selectively photo-cross-linked to the target mRNA extracted from cells. The 2'-Ps-eom also cross-linked to target mRNA in cells. Furthermore, 2'-Ps-eom did not cross-link to mRNA having a mismatch base. These results suggest that 2'-Ps-eom is a powerful antisense molecule to inhibit the expression of mRNA having a point mutation.

  3. Development of Antisense Therapeutic and Imaging Agents to Detect and Suppress Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) Expression in Acute Lung Injury (ALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuefei

    This dissertation focuses on the development and investigation of antisense imaging and therapeutic agents, combined with nanotechnology, to detect and suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression for the diagnosis and treatment of acute lung injury (ALI). To achieve this goal, several efforts were made. The first effort was the identification and characterization of high binding affinity antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and shell-crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticle (SCK)-PNA conjugates to the iNOS mRNA. Antisense binding sites on the iNOS mRNA were first mapped by a procedure for rapidly generating a library of antisense accessible sites on native mRNAs (MASL) which involves reverse transcription of whole cell mRNA extracts with a random oligodeoxynucleotide primer followed by mRNA-specific PCR. Antisense PNAs against the antisense accessible sites were accordingly synthesized and characterized. The second effort was the investigation of cationic shell crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticle (cSCK)-mediated siRNA delivery to suppress iNOS expression for the treatment of ALI. siRNA with its unique gene-specific properties could serve as a promising therapeutic agent, however success in this area has been challenged by a lack of efficient biocompatible transfection agents. cSCK with its nanometer size and positive charge previously showed efficient cellular delivery of phosphorothioate ODNs (oligodeoxynucleotides), plasmid DNA and PNA. Herein, cSCK showed good siRNA binding and facilitated efficient siRNA transfection in HeLa, a mouse macrophage cell line and other human cell lines. cSCK led to greater silencing efficiency than Lipofectamine 2000 in HeLa cells as determined by the viability following transfection with cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic siRNAs, as well in 293T and HEK cells, and was comparable in BEAS-2B and MCF10a cells. The third effort was the preparation of an iNOS imaging probe through electrostatic complexation between a radiolabeled

  4. The application of strand invasion phenomenon, directed by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) for the recognition of specific sequences of human endogenous retroviral HERV-W family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnik, Grzegorz; Bułdak, Łukasz; Ruczyński, Jarosław; Gąsior, Tomasz; Huzarska, Małgorzata; Belowski, Dariusz; Alenowicz, Magdalena; Mucha, Piotr; Rekowski, Piotr; Okopień, Bogusław

    2017-05-01

    The HERV-W family of human endogenous retroviruses represents a group of numerous sequences that show close similarity in genetic composition. It has been documented that some members of HERV-W-derived expression products are supposed to play significant role in humans' pathology, such as multiple sclerosis or schizophrenia. Other members of the family are necessary to orchestrate physiological processes (eg, ERVWE1 coding syncytin-1 that is engaged in syncytiotrophoblast formation). Therefore, an assay that would allow the recognition of particular form of HERV-W members is highly desirable. A peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated technique for the discrimination between multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus and ERVWE1 sequence has been developed. The assay uses a PNA probe that, being fully complementary to the ERVWE1 but not to multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) template, shows high selective potential. Single-stranded DNA binding protein facilitates the PNA-mediated, sequence-specific formation of strand invasion complex and, consequently, local DNA unwinding. The target DNA may be then excluded from further analysis in any downstream process such as single-stranded DNA-specific exonuclease action. Finally, the reaction conditions have been optimized, and several PNA probes that are targeted toward distinct loci along whole HERV-W env sequences have been evaluated. We believe that PNA/single-stranded DNA binding protein-based application has the potential to selectively discriminate particular HERV-W molecules as they are at least suspected to play pathogenic role in a broad range of medical conditions, from psycho-neurologic disorders (multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia) and cancers (breast cancer) to that of an auto-immunologic background (psoriasis and lupus erythematosus). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Ex vivo gene editing of the dystrophin gene in muscle stem cells mediated by peptide nucleic acid single stranded oligodeoxynucleotides induces stable expression of dystrophin in a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik-Ahd, Farnoosh; Bertoni, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which result in the complete absence of dystrophin protein throughout the body. Gene correction strategies hold promise to treating DMD. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated the ability of peptide nucleic acid single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (PNA-ssODNs) to permanently correct single-point mutations at the genomic level. In this study, we show that PNA-ssODNs can target and correct muscle satellite cells (SCs), a population of stem cells capable of self-renewing and differentiating into muscle fibers. When transplanted into skeletal muscles, SCs transfected with correcting PNA-ssODNs were able to engraft and to restore dystrophin expression. The number of dystrophin-positive fibers was shown to significantly increase over time. Expression was confirmed to be the result of the activation of a subpopulation of SCs that had undergone repair as demonstrated by immunofluorescence analyses of engrafted muscles using antibodies specific to full-length dystrophin transcripts and by genomic DNA analysis of dystrophin-positive fibers. Furthermore, the increase in dystrophin expression detected over time resulted in a significant improvement in muscle morphology. The ability of transplanted cells to return into quiescence and to activate upon demand was confirmed in all engrafted muscles following injury. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using gene editing strategies to target and correct SCs and further establish the therapeutic potential of this approach to permanently restore dystrophin expression into muscle of DMD patients. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Comprehensive expressional analyses of antisense transcripts in colon cancer tissues using artificial antisense probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanai Akio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have identified thousands of sense-antisense gene pairs across different genomes by computational mapping of cDNA sequences. These studies have shown that approximately 25% of all transcriptional units in the human and mouse genomes are involved in cis-sense-antisense pairs. However, the number of known sense-antisense pairs remains limited because currently available cDNA sequences represent only a fraction of the total number of transcripts comprising the transcriptome of each cell type. Methods To discover novel antisense transcripts encoded in the antisense strand of important genes, such as cancer-related genes, we conducted expression analyses of antisense transcripts using our custom microarray platform along with 2376 probes designed specifically to detect the potential antisense transcripts of 501 well-known genes suitable for cancer research. Results Using colon cancer tissue and normal tissue surrounding the cancer tissue obtained from 6 patients, we found that antisense transcripts without poly(A tails are expressed from approximately 80% of these well-known genes. This observation is consistent with our previous finding that many antisense transcripts expressed in a cell are poly(A-. We also identified 101 and 71 antisense probes displaying a high level of expression specifically in normal and cancer tissues respectively. Conclusion Our microarray analysis identified novel antisense transcripts with expression profiles specific to cancer tissue, some of which might play a role in the regulatory networks underlying oncogenesis and thus are potential targets for further experimental validation. Our microarray data are available at http://www.brc.riken.go.jp/ncrna2007/viewer-Saito-01/index.html.

  7. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  8. Re-sensitizing drug-resistant bacteria to antibiotics by designing Antisense Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Colleen; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2014-03-01

    ``Super-bugs'' or ``multi-drug resistant organisms'' are a serious international health problem, with devastating consequences to patient health care. The Center for Disease Control has identified antibiotic resistance as one of the world's most pressing public health problems as a significant fraction of bacterial infections contracted are drug resistant. Typically, antibiotic resistance is encoded by ``resistance-genes'' which express proteins that carryout the resistance causing functions inside the bacterium. We present a RNA based therapeutic strategy for designing antimicrobials capable of re-sensitizing resistant bacteria to antibiotics by targeting labile regions of messenger RNAs encoding for resistance-causing proteins. We perform in silico RNA secondary structure modeling to identify labile target regions in an mRNA of interest. A synthetic biology approach is then used to administer antisense nucleic acids to our model system of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli. Our results show a prolonged lag phase and decrease in viability of drug-resistant E. colitreated with antisense molecules. The antisense strategy can be applied to alter expression of other genes in antibiotic resistance pathways or other pathways of interest.

  9. Regulation of anti-sense transcription by Mot1p and NC2 via removal of TATA-binding protein (TBP) from the 3'-end of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Maria J E; Timmers, H Th Marc

    2015-01-01

    The activity and dynamic nature of TATA-binding protein (TBP) crucial to RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription is under control of the Mot1p and NC2 complexes. Here we show that both TBP regulatory factors play 'hidden' roles in ensuring transcription fidelity by restricting anti-sense non-coding RNA (ncRNA) synthesis. Production of anti-sense ncRNA transcripts is suppressed by Mot1p- and NC2-mediated release of TBP from binding sites at the 3'-end of genes. In this, Mot1p and NC2 collaborate with the Nrd1p-Nab3p-Sen1p (NNS) complex that terminates the synthesis of anti-sense ncRNAs. In several cases anti-sense ncRNA expression interferes with expression of the cognate sense transcript. Our data reveal a novel regulatory mechanism to suppress anti-sense ncRNA expression and pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation at spurious sites. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Electrochemistry of nucleic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Emil; Bartošík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 3427-3481 ISSN 0009-2665 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA MŠk(CZ) ME09038; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : nucleic acids electrochemistry * DNA biosensors * DNA damage Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 41.298, year: 2012

  11. Transcriptional control of the endogenous MYC protooncogene by antisense RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, K.; Imamoto, F.

    1987-01-01

    A plasmid carrying antisense human MYC DNA and the gene encoding Esherichia coli xanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (Ecogpt) was introduced into human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 by protoplast fusion. High-level expression of antisense MYC RNA was obtained by selecting cells resistant to progressively higher levels of mycophenolic acid over a period of > 6 months. The constitutive production of MYC protein in clones producing high levels of antisense MYC RNA was reduced by 70% compared to parental HL-60 cells. Inhibition of MYC expression was observed not only at the translational but also at the transcriptional level, implying the antisense RNA can regulate transcription of the MYC gene. The Pst I-Pvu II fragment (920 base pairs) of the MYC leader sequence is the primary transcriptional target of the antisense RNA. The suppression of endogenous MYC gene expression by antisense RNA decreases cell proliferation and triggers monocytic differentiation

  12. Unlocked nucleic acids with a pyrene-modified uracil: Synthesis, hybridization studies, fluorescent properties and i-motif stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perlíková, P.; Karlsen, K.K.; Pedersen, E.B.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of two new phosphoramidite building blocks for the incorporation of 5-(pyren-1-yl)uracilyl unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) monomers into oligonucleotides has been developed. Monomers containing a pyrene-modified nucleobase component were found to destabilize an i-motif structure at pH 5...... intensities upon hybridization to DNA or RNA. Efficient quenching of fluorescence of pyrene-modified UNA monomers was observed after formation of i-motif structures at pH 5.2. The stabilizing/destabilizing effect of pyrene-modified nucleic acids might be useful for designing antisense oligonucleotides...

  13. Nanoparticle delivery of antisense oligonucleotides and their application in the exon skipping strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzarano, Maria Sofia; Passarelli, Chiara; Ferlini, Alessandra

    2014-02-01

    Antisense therapy is a powerful tool for inducing post-transcriptional modifications and thereby regulating target genes associated with disease. There are several classes of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) with therapeutic use, such as double-stranded RNAs (interfering RNAs, utilized for gene silencing, and single-stranded AONs with various chemistries, which are useful for antisense targeting of micro-RNAs and mRNAs. In particular, the use of AONs for exon skipping, by targeting pre-mRNA, is proving to be a highly promising therapy for some genetic disorders like Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy. However, AONs are unable to cross the plasma membrane unaided, and several other obstacles still remain to be overcome, in particular their instability due to their nuclease sensitivity and their lack of tissue specificity. Various drug delivery systems have been explored to improve the bioavailability of nucleic acids, and nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested as potential vectors for DNA/RNA. This review describes the recent progress in AON conjugation with natural and synthetic delivery systems, and provides an overview of the efficacy of NP-AON complexes as an exon-skipping treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  14. Antisense-induced suppression of taxoid 14β- hydroxylase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the construction of an antisense RNA expression vector of 14OH from Taxus chinensis, the antisense 14OH cDNA (as14OH) was introduced into TM3 cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Southern blot analysis of hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (HYG) revealed that this selection ...

  15. Antisense transcription-dependent chromatin signature modulates sense transcript dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas; Howe, Françoise S; Murray, Struan C; Wouters, Meredith; Lorenz, Philipp; Seward, Emily; Rata, Scott; Angel, Andrew; Mellor, Jane

    2018-02-12

    Antisense transcription is widespread in genomes. Despite large differences in gene size and architecture, we find that yeast and human genes share a unique, antisense transcription-associated chromatin signature. We asked whether this signature is related to a biological function for antisense transcription. Using quantitative RNA-FISH, we observed changes in sense transcript distributions in nuclei and cytoplasm as antisense transcript levels were altered. To determine the mechanistic differences underlying these distributions, we developed a mathematical framework describing transcription from initiation to transcript degradation. At GAL1 , high levels of antisense transcription alter sense transcription dynamics, reducing rates of transcript production and processing, while increasing transcript stability. This relationship with transcript stability is also observed as a genome-wide association. Establishing the antisense transcription-associated chromatin signature through disruption of the Set3C histone deacetylase activity is sufficient to similarly change these rates even in the absence of antisense transcription. Thus, antisense transcription alters sense transcription dynamics in a chromatin-dependent manner. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. Thiolated carboxymethyl dextran as a nanocarrier for colon delivery of hSET1 antisense: In vitro stability and efficiency study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani, Melika; Mirzazadeh Tekie, Farnaz Sadat; Dinarvand, Meshkat; Soleimani, Masoud; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy is an optimistic approach in cancer treatment. However, for efficient delivery of gene materials, designing an appropriate vector is necessary. Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) of chitosan and dextran could be considered a proper nanoparticulate carrier for sensitive biomaterials. In this study, PECs of chitosan and thiolated dextran were used as either an injectable or oral gene delivery system. hSET1 antisense was loaded into the PECs to suppress proliferation of colon cancer cell line. The prepared nanoparticles have ~ 115 nm diameter size and positive zeta potential with high mucoadhesion properties. They are able to protect antisense from degradation in serum and biorelevant fluids (FaSSIF and FaSSGF). Furthermore, prepared nanoparticles demonstrated superior cellular penetration and inhibitory effect on SW480 colon cancer cell proliferation. All nanoparticles significantly down regulated hSET1 in comparison with naked antisense. It can be concluded that thiolated PECs have potential use for injectable or oral delivery of nucleic acids such as antisense. - Highlights: • Formation of stable nanoparticle with dextran and chitosan derivatives for oral and intravenous gene delivery. • Satifactory cellular uptake of nanoparticles and approximately complete suppression of hSET1 expression in SW480 cell lines • Prolonged stability of nanoparticles against biorelevent media with desirable release rate.

  17. Thiolated carboxymethyl dextran as a nanocarrier for colon delivery of hSET1 antisense: In vitro stability and efficiency study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, Melika, E-mail: Melika.kiani@gmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzazadeh Tekie, Farnaz Sadat, E-mail: mirzazadehf@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Meshkat, E-mail: mdinarvand@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soleimani, Masoud, E-mail: soleim_m@modares.ac.ir [Stem Cell Technology Research Centre, P.O. Box 14155-3174, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Hematology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Rassoul, E-mail: dinarvand@tums.ac.ir [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atyabi, Fatemeh, E-mail: atyabifa@tums.ac.ir [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-01

    Gene therapy is an optimistic approach in cancer treatment. However, for efficient delivery of gene materials, designing an appropriate vector is necessary. Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) of chitosan and dextran could be considered a proper nanoparticulate carrier for sensitive biomaterials. In this study, PECs of chitosan and thiolated dextran were used as either an injectable or oral gene delivery system. hSET1 antisense was loaded into the PECs to suppress proliferation of colon cancer cell line. The prepared nanoparticles have ~ 115 nm diameter size and positive zeta potential with high mucoadhesion properties. They are able to protect antisense from degradation in serum and biorelevant fluids (FaSSIF and FaSSGF). Furthermore, prepared nanoparticles demonstrated superior cellular penetration and inhibitory effect on SW480 colon cancer cell proliferation. All nanoparticles significantly down regulated hSET1 in comparison with naked antisense. It can be concluded that thiolated PECs have potential use for injectable or oral delivery of nucleic acids such as antisense. - Highlights: • Formation of stable nanoparticle with dextran and chitosan derivatives for oral and intravenous gene delivery. • Satifactory cellular uptake of nanoparticles and approximately complete suppression of hSET1 expression in SW480 cell lines • Prolonged stability of nanoparticles against biorelevent media with desirable release rate.

  18. Post-transcriptional gene silencing triggered by sense transgenes involves uncapped antisense RNA and differs from silencing intentionally triggered by antisense transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Jean-Sébastien; Jauvion, Vincent; Bouché, Nicolas; Béclin, Christophe; Hachet, Mélanie; Zytnicki, Matthias; Vaucheret, Hervé

    2015-09-30

    Although post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) has been studied for more than a decade, there is still a gap in our understanding of how de novo silencing is initiated against genetic elements that are not supposed to produce double-stranded (ds)RNA. Given the pervasive transcription occurring throughout eukaryote genomes, we tested the hypothesis that unintended transcription could produce antisense (as)RNA molecules that participate to the initiation of PTGS triggered by sense transgenes (S-PTGS). Our results reveal a higher level of asRNA in Arabidopsis thaliana lines that spontaneously trigger S-PTGS than in lines that do not. However, PTGS triggered by antisense transgenes (AS-PTGS) differs from S-PTGS. In particular, a hypomorphic ago1 mutation that suppresses S-PTGS prevents the degradation of asRNA but not sense RNA during AS-PTGS, suggesting a different treatment of coding and non-coding RNA by AGO1, likely because of AGO1 association to polysomes. Moreover, the intended asRNA produced during AS-PTGS is capped whereas the asRNA produced during S-PTGS derives from 3' maturation of a read-through transcript and is uncapped. Thus, we propose that uncapped asRNA corresponds to the aberrant RNA molecule that is converted to dsRNA by RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 in siRNA-bodies to initiate S-PTGS, whereas capped asRNA must anneal with sense RNA to produce dsRNA that initiate AS-PTGS. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Gene isoform specificity through enhancer-associated antisense transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney S Onodera

    Full Text Available Enhancers and antisense RNAs play key roles in transcriptional regulation through differing mechanisms. Recent studies have demonstrated that enhancers are often associated with non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, yet the functional role of these enhancer:ncRNA associations is unclear. Using RNA-Sequencing to interrogate the transcriptomes of undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs and their derived neural precursor cells (NPs, we identified two novel enhancer-associated antisense transcripts that appear to control isoform-specific expression of their overlapping protein-coding genes. In each case, an enhancer internal to a protein-coding gene drives an antisense RNA in mESCs but not in NPs. Expression of the antisense RNA is correlated with expression of a shorter isoform of the associated sense gene that is not present when the antisense RNA is not expressed. We demonstrate that expression of the antisense transcripts as well as expression of the short sense isoforms correlates with enhancer activity at these two loci. Further, overexpression and knockdown experiments suggest the antisense transcripts regulate expression of their associated sense genes via cis-acting mechanisms. Interestingly, the protein-coding genes involved in these two examples, Zmynd8 and Brd1, share many functional domains, yet their antisense ncRNAs show no homology to each other and are not present in non-murine mammalian lineages, such as the primate lineage. The lack of homology in the antisense ncRNAs indicates they have evolved independently of each other and suggests that this mode of lineage-specific transcriptional regulation may be more widespread in other cell types and organisms. Our findings present a new view of enhancer action wherein enhancers may direct isoform-specific expression of genes through ncRNA intermediates.

  20. Gene Isoform Specificity through Enhancer-Associated Antisense Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Courtney S.; Underwood, Jason G.; Katzman, Sol; Jacobs, Frank; Greenberg, David; Salama, Sofie R.; Haussler, David

    2012-01-01

    Enhancers and antisense RNAs play key roles in transcriptional regulation through differing mechanisms. Recent studies have demonstrated that enhancers are often associated with non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), yet the functional role of these enhancer:ncRNA associations is unclear. Using RNA-Sequencing to interrogate the transcriptomes of undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and their derived neural precursor cells (NPs), we identified two novel enhancer-associated antisense transcripts that appear to control isoform-specific expression of their overlapping protein-coding genes. In each case, an enhancer internal to a protein-coding gene drives an antisense RNA in mESCs but not in NPs. Expression of the antisense RNA is correlated with expression of a shorter isoform of the associated sense gene that is not present when the antisense RNA is not expressed. We demonstrate that expression of the antisense transcripts as well as expression of the short sense isoforms correlates with enhancer activity at these two loci. Further, overexpression and knockdown experiments suggest the antisense transcripts regulate expression of their associated sense genes via cis-acting mechanisms. Interestingly, the protein-coding genes involved in these two examples, Zmynd8 and Brd1, share many functional domains, yet their antisense ncRNAs show no homology to each other and are not present in non-murine mammalian lineages, such as the primate lineage. The lack of homology in the antisense ncRNAs indicates they have evolved independently of each other and suggests that this mode of lineage-specific transcriptional regulation may be more widespread in other cell types and organisms. Our findings present a new view of enhancer action wherein enhancers may direct isoform-specific expression of genes through ncRNA intermediates. PMID:22937057

  1. Origin of nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of nucleic acids is the first event after the birth of membranes which made it possible to assure the perenniality of information. The complexity of these molecules has led some scientists to propose that they were not prebiotic but rather derived a more simple and achiral primitive ancestor. This hypothesis suggests that ribose possesses properties that allowed the formation of certain polysaccharides which evolved to RNA. The first step of the hypothesis is the selection and concentration of ribofuranose. This sugar has chelating properties and its alpha-ribofuranose is favoured in the chelating position. The density of the sugar with a heavy cation is greater than water and thus the complex can escape the UV radiation at the surface of the ocean. The particularity of ribose is to be able to form a homochiral regular array of these basic chelating structures with pyrophosphite. These arrays evolve towards the formation of polysaccharides (poly ribose phosphate) which have a very organized structure. These polysaccharides in turn evolve to RNA by binding of adenine and deoxyguanine which are HCN derivatives that can react with the polysaccharides. The primitive RNA is methylated and oxidized to form prebiotic RNA with adenosine, cytidine, 7methyl-guanosine and ribothymidine as nucleic bases. The pathway of biosynthesis of DNA form RNA will be studied. I suggest that the appearance of DNA results form the interaction between prebiotic double stranded RNA and proteins. DNA could be a product of RNA degradation by proteins. The catabolism of RNA to DNA requires a source of free radicals, protons and hydrides. RNA cannot produce free radicals, which are provided by the phenol group of the amino acid tyrosien. Protons are provided by the medium and hydrides are provided by 7-methyl-guanosine which can fix hydrides coming from hydrogen gas and donate them for the transformation of a riboside to a deoxyriboside. This pathway suggests that DNA appeared at

  2. Ribonucleases, antisense RNAs and the control of bacterial plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramago, Margarida; Bárria, Cátia; Arraiano, Cecília M; Domingues, Susana

    2015-03-01

    In the last decade regulatory RNAs have emerged as powerful tools to regulate the expression of genes both in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. RNases, by degrading these RNA molecules, control the right amount of regulatory RNAs, which is fundamental for an accurate regulation of gene expression in the cell. Remarkably the first antisense RNAs identified were plasmid-encoded and their detailed study was crucial for the understanding of prokaryotic antisense RNAs. In this review we highlight the role of RNases in the precise modulation of antisense RNAs that control plasmid replication, maintenance and transfer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of protein-nucleic acid interactions by photochemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Hanno; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2002-01-01

    Photochemical cross-linking is a commonly used method for studying the molecular details of protein-nucleic acid interactions. Photochemical cross-linking aids in defining nucleic acid binding sites of proteins via subsequent identification of cross-linked protein domains and amino acid residues...... and for sequencing of peptide-nucleic acid heteroconjugates. The combination of photochemical cross-linking and MS provides a fast screening method to gain insights into the overall structure and formation of protein-oligonucleotide complexes. Because the analytical methods are continuously refined and protein...

  4. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoconstructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focuses on the design, synthesis, characterization, and development of spherical nucleic acid constructs as effective nanotherapeutic, single-entity agents for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and prostate cancers.

  5. Locked vs. unlocked nucleic acids (LNA vs. UNA): contrasting structures work towards common therapeutic goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Meghan A; Wengel, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Oligonucleotide chemistry has been developed greatly over the past three decades, with many advances in increasing nuclease resistance, enhancing duplex stability and assisting with cellular uptake. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a structurally rigid modification that increases the binding affinity...... of a modified-oligonucleotide. In contrast, unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) is a highly flexible modification, which can be used to modulate duplex characteristics. In this tutorial review, we will compare the synthetic routes to both of these modifications, contrast the structural features, examine...... the hybridization properties of LNA and UNA modified duplexes, and discuss how they have been applied within biotechnology and drug research. LNA has found widespread use in antisense oligonucleotide technology, where it can stabilize interactions with target RNA and protect from cellular nucleases. The newly...

  6. Detection, characterization and regulation of antisense transcripts in HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesnard Jean-Michel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We and others have recently demonstrated that the human retrovirus HTLV-I was producing a spliced antisense transcript, which led to the synthesis of the HBZ protein. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the existence of antisense transcription in HIV-1 and to provide a better characterization of the transcript and its regulation. Results Initial experiments conducted by standard RT-PCR analysis in latently infected J1.1 cell line and pNL4.3-transfected 293T cells confirmed the existence of antisense transcription in HIV-1. A more adapted RT-PCR protocol with limited RT-PCR artefacts also led to a successful detection of antisense transcripts in several infected cell lines. RACE analyses demonstrated the existence of several transcription initiation sites mapping near the 5' border of the 3'LTR (in the antisense strand. Interestingly, a new polyA signal was identified on the antisense strand and harboured the polyA signal consensus sequence. Transfection experiments in 293T and Jurkat cells with an antisense luciferase-expressing NL4.3 proviral DNA showed luciferase reporter gene expression, which was further induced by various T-cell activators. In addition, the viral Tat protein was found to be a positive modulator of antisense transcription by transient and stable transfections of this proviral DNA construct. RT-PCR analyses in 293T cells stably transfected with a pNL4.3-derived construct further confirmed these results. Infection of 293T, Jurkat, SupT1, U937 and CEMT4 cells with pseudotyped virions produced from the antisense luciferase-expressing NL4.3 DNA clone led to the production of an AZT-sensitive luciferase signal, which was however less pronounced than the signal from NL4.3Luc-infected cells. Conclusion These results demonstrate for the first time that antisense transcription exists in HIV-1 in the context of infection. Possible translation of the predicted antisense ORF in this transcript should

  7. Labeling of phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides with yttrium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Sawai, Hiroaki; Endo, Keigo; Shinozuka, Kazuo; Ozaki, Hiroaki; Tanada, Shuji; Murata, Hajime; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    1999-01-01

    Novel yttrium-90 ( 90 Y)-labeled phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides were designed as a potential targeted radionuclide method for the purification of IQNP for use imer phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide, which was complementary to the translation start region of the N-myc oncogene mRNA, was conjugated with isothiocyanobenzyl ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (SCN-Bn-EDTA), via a C-5-substituted deoxyuridine that had replaced a thymine in the oligonucleotide, and was then labeled with 90 Y-acetate. Following purification, the radiochemical purity of the 90 Y-Bn-EDTA-phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides was estimated by 2.0% agarose gel electrophoresis, and the specific hybridization of 90 Y-Bn-EDTA-phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide to a phosphorodiester sense oligonucleotide was investigated by 20% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a cell-free system. Radiochemical purity was 98.7±0.4% at 72 h after labeling and 90.3±0.9% after 72-h incubation with human normal serum. The 90 Y-Bn-EDTA-phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide hybridized specifically to a complementary phosphorodiester sense oligonucleotide. In conclusion, phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides can be labeled stably with 90 Y using SCN-Bn-EDTA without loss of hybridization properties

  8. Dual Myostatin and Dystrophin Exon Skipping by Morpholino Nucleic Acid Oligomers Conjugated to a Cell-penetrating Peptide Is a Promising Therapeutic Strategy for the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Malerba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The knockdown of myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass may have important implications in disease conditions accompanied by muscle mass loss like cancer, HIV/AIDS, sarcopenia, muscle atrophy, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. In DMD patients, where major muscle loss has occurred due to a lack of dystrophin, the therapeutic restoration of dystrophin expression alone in older patients may not be sufficient to restore the functionality of the muscles. We recently demonstrated that phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs can be used to re-direct myostatin splicing and promote the expression of an out-of-frame transcript so reducing the amount of the synthesized myostatin protein. Furthermore, the systemic administration of the same PMO conjugated to an octaguanidine moiety (Vivo-PMO led to a significant increase in the mass of soleus muscle of treated mice. Here, we have further optimized the use of Vivo-PMO in normal mice and also tested the efficacy of the same PMO conjugated to an arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide (B-PMO. Similar experiments conducted in mdx dystrophic mice showed that B-PMO targeting myostatin is able to significantly increase the tibialis anterior (TA muscle weight and when coadministered with a B-PMO targeting the dystrophin exon 23, it does not have a detrimental interaction. This study confirms that myostatin knockdown by exon skipping is a potential therapeutic strategy to counteract muscle wasting conditions and dual myostatin and dystrophin skipping has potential as a therapy for DMD.

  9. Rapid blockade of telomerase activity and tumor cell growth by the DPL lipofection of ribbon antisense to hTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Arun K; Park, Jeong-Hoh; Moon, Ik-Jae; Kang, Hyungu; Lee, Yun-Han; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Suh, Seong-Il; Chang, Byeong-Churl; Park, Jong-Gu

    2005-09-29

    Ribbon antisense (RiAS) to the hTR RNA, a component of the telomerase complex, was employed to inhibit telomerase activity and cancer cell growth. The antisense molecule, hTR-RiAS, combined with enhanced cellular uptake was shown to effectively inhibit telomerase activity and cause rapid cell death in various cancer cell lines. When cancer cells were treated with hTR-RiAS, the level of hTR RNA was reduced by more than 90% accompanied with reduction in telomerase activity. When checked for cancer cell viability, cancer cell lines treated with hTR-RiAS using DNA+Peptide+Lipid complex showed 70-80% growth inhibition in 3 days. The reduced cell viability was due to apoptosis as the percentage of cells exhibiting the sub-G0 arrest and DNA fragmentation increased after antisense treatment. Further, when subcutaneous tumors of a colon cancer cell line (SW480) were treated intratumorally with hTR-RiAS, tumor growth was markedly suppressed with almost total ablation of hTR RNA in the tumor tissue. Cells in the tumor tissue were also found to undergo apoptosis after hTR-RiAS treatment. These results suggest that hTR-RiAS is an effective anticancer reagent, with a potential for broad efficacy to diverse malignant tumors.

  10. Spherical Nucleic Acids as Intracellular Agents for Nucleic Acid Based Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liangliang

    Recent functional discoveries on the noncoding sequences of human genome and transcriptome could lead to revolutionary treatment modalities because the noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can be applied as therapeutic agents to manipulate disease-causing genes. To date few nucleic acid-based therapeutics have been translated into the clinic due to challenges in the delivery of the oligonucleotide agents in an effective, cell specific, and non-toxic fashion. Unmodified oligonucleotide agents are destroyed rapidly in biological fluids by enzymatic degradation and have difficulty crossing the plasma membrane without the aid of transfection reagents, which often cause inflammatory, cytotoxic, or immunogenic side effects. Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), nanoparticles consisting of densely organized and highly oriented oligonucleotides, pose one possible solution to circumventing these problems in both the antisense and RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. The unique three dimensional architecture of SNAs protects the bioactive oligonucleotides from unspecific degradation during delivery and supports their targeting of class A scavenger receptors and endocytosis via a lipid-raft-dependent, caveolae-mediated pathway. Owing to their unique structure, SNAs are able to cross cell membranes and regulate target genes expression as a single entity, without triggering the cellular innate immune response. Herein, my thesis has focused on understanding the interactions between SNAs and cellular components and developing SNA-based nanostructures to improve therapeutic capabilities. Specifically, I developed a novel SNA-based, nanoscale agent for delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides to manipulate microRNAs (miRNAs), the endogenous post-transcriptional gene regulators. I investigated the role of SNAs involving miRNAs in anti-cancer or anti-inflammation responses in cells and in in vivo murine disease models via systemic injection. Furthermore, I explored using different strategies to construct

  11. Electroporation increases antitumoral efficacy of the bcl-2 antisense G3139 and chemotherapy in a human melanoma xenograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldi Alfonso

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleic acids designed to modulate the expression of target proteins remain a promising therapeutic strategy in several diseases, including cancer. However, clinical success is limited by the lack of efficient intracellular delivery. In this study we evaluated whether electroporation could increase the delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides against bcl-2 (G3139 as well as the efficacy of combination chemotherapy in human melanoma xenografts. Methods Melanoma-bearing nude mice were treated i.v. with G3139 and/or cisplatin (DDP followed by the application of trains of electric pulses to tumors. Western blot, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were performed to analyze protein and mRNA expression. The effect of electroporation on muscles was determined by histology, while tumor apoptosis and the proliferation index were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides tumor accumulation was measured by FACS and confocal microscopy. Results The G3139/Electroporation combined therapy produced a significant inhibition of tumor growth (TWI, more than 50% accompanied by a marked tumor re-growth delay (TRD, about 20 days. The efficacy of this treatment was due to the higher G3139 uptake in tumor cells which led to a marked down-regulation of bcl-2 protein expression. Moreover, the G3139/EP combination treatment resulted in an enhanced apoptotic index and a decreased proliferation rate of tumors. Finally, an increased tumor response was observed after treatment with the triple combination G3139/DDP/EP, showing a TWI of about 75% and TRD of 30 days. Conclusions These results demonstrate that electroporation is an effective strategy to improve the delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides within tumor cells in vivo and it may be instrumental in optimizing the response of melanoma to chemotherapy. The high response rate observed in this study suggest to apply this strategy for the treatment of melanoma patients.

  12. Inhibition of EGF Uptake by Nephrotoxic Antisense Drugs In Vitro and Implications for Preclinical Safety Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Moisan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotide (AON therapeutics offer new avenues to pursue clinically relevant targets inaccessible with other technologies. Advances in improving AON affinity and stability by incorporation of high affinity nucleotides, such as locked nucleic acids (LNA, have sometimes been stifled by safety liabilities related to their accumulation in the kidney tubule. In an attempt to predict and understand the mechanisms of LNA-AON-induced renal tubular toxicity, we established human cell models that recapitulate in vivo behavior of pre-clinically and clinically unfavorable LNA-AON drug candidates. We identified elevation of extracellular epidermal growth factor (EGF as a robust and sensitive in vitro biomarker of LNA-AON-induced cytotoxicity in human kidney tubule epithelial cells. We report the time-dependent negative regulation of EGF uptake and EGF receptor (EGFR signaling by toxic but not innocuous LNA-AONs and revealed the importance of EGFR signaling in LNA-AON-mediated decrease in cellular activity. The robust EGF-based in vitro safety profiling of LNA-AON drug candidates presented here, together with a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, constitutes a significant step toward developing safer antisense therapeutics.

  13. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A structure for nucleic acid has already been proposed by Pauling and Corey [1]. They kindly made'their manuscript available to us in advance of publication. Their model consists of three inter-twined chains, with the phosphates near the fibre axis, and the bases on the outside. In our opinion, this structure is unsatisfactory ...

  14. The zebrafish progranulin gene family and antisense transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progranulin is an epithelial tissue growth factor (also known as proepithelin, acrogranin and PC-cell-derived growth factor that has been implicated in development, wound healing and in the progression of many cancers. The single mammalian progranulin gene encodes a glycoprotein precursor consisting of seven and one half tandemly repeated non-identical copies of the cystine-rich granulin motif. A genome-wide duplication event hypothesized to have occurred at the base of the teleost radiation predicts that mammalian progranulin may be represented by two co-orthologues in zebrafish. Results The cDNAs encoding two zebrafish granulin precursors, progranulins-A and -B, were characterized and found to contain 10 and 9 copies of the granulin motif respectively. The cDNAs and genes encoding the two forms of granulin, progranulins-1 and -2, were also cloned and sequenced. Both latter peptides were found to be encoded by precursors with a simplified architecture consisting of one and one half copies of the granulin motif. A cDNA encoding a chimeric progranulin which likely arises through the mechanism of trans-splicing between grn1 and grn2 was also characterized. A non-coding RNA gene with antisense complementarity to both grn1 and grn2 was identified which may have functional implications with respect to gene dosage, as well as in restricting the formation of the chimeric form of progranulin. Chromosomal localization of the four progranulin (grn genes reveals syntenic conservation for grna only, suggesting that it is the true orthologue of mammalian grn. RT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis of zebrafish grns during development reveals that combined expression of grna and grnb, but not grn1 and grn2, recapitulate many of the expression patterns observed for the murine counterpart. This includes maternal deposition, widespread central nervous system distribution and specific localization within the epithelial

  15. [The sorption of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides by Mycoplasma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, O V; Panchenko, L P; Skripal', I G

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with kinetics of binding of antisense oligodesoxyribonucleotides, complementary to certain sequences 16 S RNA of mollicutes, by the cells of three representatives of class Mollicutes: Acholeplasma laidlawii PG-8. Mycoplasma pneumoniae FH and M. fermentans PG-18. It is shown that binding of antisense oligonucleotides by the mollicute cells depends on temperature and age of cultures. The highest level of sorption of labelled antisense oligodesoxyribonucleotides by the cells of mycoplasmas corresponded to the phase of logarithmic growth of each of the studied mollicute strains. The lengthening of nucleotide chain from 5 to 15 nucleotide bases did not result in the decrease of sorption of the studied oligodesoxyribonucleotides by the mollicute cells.

  16. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication by Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, John; Agrawal, Sudhir; Civeira, Maria P.; Sarin, Prem S.; Sun, Daisy; Zamecnik, Paul C.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty different target sites within human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA were selected for studies of inhibition of HIV replication by antisense oligonucleotides. Target sites were selected based on their potential capacity to block recognition functions during viral replication. Antisense oligomers complementary to sites within or near the sequence repeated at the ends of retrovirus RNA (R region) and to certain splice sites were most effective. The effect of antisense oligomer length on inhibiting virus replication was also investigated, and preliminary toxicity studies in mice show that these compounds are toxic only at high levels. The results indicate potential usefulness for these oligomers in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex either alone or in combination with other drugs.

  17. Epitope-tagged yeast strains reveal promoter driven changes to 3'-end formation and convergent antisense-transcription from common 3' UTRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Angavai; Beilharz, Traude H

    2016-01-08

    Epitope-tagging by homologous recombination is ubiquitously used to study gene expression, protein localization and function in yeast. This is generally thought to insulate the regulation of gene expression to that mediated by the promoter and coding regions because native 3' UTR are replaced. Here we show that the 3' UTRs, CYC1 and ADH1, contain cryptic promoters that generate abundant convergent antisense-transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover we show that aberrant, truncating 3' -end formation is often associated with regulated transcription in TAP-tagged strains. Importantly, the steady-state level of both 3' -truncated and antisense transcription products is locus dependent. Using TAP and GFP-tagged strains we show that the transcriptional state of the gene-of-interest induces changes to 3' -end formation by alternative polyadenylation and antisense transcription from a universal 3' UTR. This means that these 3' UTRs contains plastic features that can be molded to reflect the regulatory architecture of the locus rather than bringing their own regulatory paradigm to the gene-fusions as would be expected. Our work holds a cautionary note for studies utilizing tagged strains for quantitative biology, but also provides a new model for the study of promoter driven rewiring of 3' -end formation and regulatory non-coding transcription. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs can selectively increase protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Sun, Hong; Shen, Wen; Wang, Shiyu; Yao, Joyee; Migawa, Michael T; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Damle, Sagar S; Riney, Stan; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-09-19

    A variety of diseases are caused by deficiencies in amounts or activity of key proteins. An approach that increases the amount of a specific protein might be of therapeutic benefit. We reasoned that translation could be specifically enhanced using trans-acting agents that counter the function of negative regulatory elements present in the 5' UTRs of some mRNAs. We recently showed that translation can be enhanced by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that target upstream open reading frames. Here we report the amount of a protein can also be selectively increased using ASOs designed to hybridize to other translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs. Levels of human RNASEH1, LDLR, and ACP1 and of mouse ACP1 and ARF1 were increased up to 2.7-fold in different cell types and species upon treatment with chemically modified ASOs targeting 5' UTR inhibitory regions in the mRNAs encoding these proteins. The activities of ASOs in enhancing translation were sequence and position dependent and required helicase activity. The ASOs appear to improve the recruitment of translation initiation factors to the target mRNA. Importantly, ASOs targeting ACP1 mRNA significantly increased the level of ACP1 protein in mice, suggesting that this approach has therapeutic and research potentials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Highly expressed genes are associated with inverse antisense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from inverted sequences on the MGU74A chip. Therefore we were not able to draw conclusion for their results. How- ever, we have investigated the inverse sense/antisense ratio in the investigated/control cell lines (table 1). Four of the tran- scripts were RIKEN genes without a complete gene annota- tion. Two known genes ...

  20. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  1. LNA-antisense rivals siRNA for gene silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Wengel, Jesper; Stenvang, Jan

    2004-01-01

    applied. LNA oligonucleotides are commercially available, can be transfected using standard techniques, are non-toxic, lead to increased target accessibility, can be designed to activate RNase H, and function in steric block approaches. LNA-Antisense, including gapmer LNA containing a central DNA...

  2. Antisense mediated exon skipping therapy for duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolin, Camilla; Shiraishi, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD) that result in the absence of essential muscle protein dystrophin. Among many different approaches for DMD treatment, exon skipping, mediated by antisense oligonucleotides, is one of the most...

  3. Local dystrophin restoration with antisense oligonucleotide PRO051

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deutekom, Judith C.; Janson, Anneke A.; Ginjaar, Ieke B.; Frankhuizen, Wendy S.; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Bremmer-Bout, Mattie; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Koop, Klaas; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; Goemans, Nathalie M.; de Kimpe, Sjef J.; Ekhart, Peter F.; Venneker, Edna H.; Platenburg, Gerard J.; Verschuuren, Jan J.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Duchenne's muscular dystrophy is associated with severe, progressive muscle weakness and typically leads to death between the ages of 20 and 35 years. By inducing specific exon skipping during messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, antisense compounds were recently shown to correct the open

  4. Coiled coil interactions for the targeting of liposomes for nucleic acid delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Blenke, Erik E; van den Dikkenberg, Joep; van Kolck, Bartjan; Kros, Alexander; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2016-04-28

    Coiled coil interactions are strong protein-protein interactions that are involved in many biological processes, including intracellular trafficking and membrane fusion. A synthetic heterodimeric coiled-coil forming peptide pair, known as E3 (EIAALEK)3 and K3 (KIAALKE)3 was used to functionalize liposomes encapsulating a splice correcting oligonucleotide or siRNA. These peptide-functionalized vesicles are highly stable in solution but start to cluster when vesicles modified with complementary peptides are mixed together, demonstrating that the peptides quickly coil and crosslink the vesicles. When one of the peptides was anchored to the cell membrane using a hydrophobic cholesterol anchor, vesicles functionalized with the complementary peptide could be docked to these cells, whereas non-functionalized cells did not show any vesicle tethering. Although the anchored peptides do not have a downstream signaling pathway, microscopy pictures revealed that after four hours, the majority of the docked vesicles were internalized by endocytosis. Finally, for the first time, it was shown that the coiled coil assembly at the interface between the vesicles and the cell membrane induces active uptake and leads to cytosolic delivery of the nucleic acid cargo. Both the siRNA and the splice correcting oligonucleotide were functionally delivered, resulting respectively in the silencing or recovery of luciferase expression in the appropriate cell lines. These results demonstrate that the docking to the cell by coiled coil interaction can induce active uptake and achieve the successful intracellular delivery of otherwise membrane impermeable nucleic acids in a highly specific manner.

  5. DNA-like double helix formed by peptide nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittung, P; Nielsen, Peter E.; Buchardt, O

    1994-01-01

    another to form a helical duplex. There is a seeding of preferred chirality which is induced by the presence of an L- (or D-) lysine residue attached at the carboxy terminus of the PNA strand. These results indicate that a (deoxy)ribose phosphate backbone is not an essential requirement for the formation...

  6. Understanding nucleic acid-ion interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, Jan; Doniach, Sebastian; Das, Rhiju; Herschlag, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Ions surround nucleic acids in what is referred to as an ion atmosphere. As a result, the folding and dynamics of RNA and DNA and their complexes with proteins and with each other cannot be understood without a reasonably sophisticated appreciation of these ions' electrostatic interactions. However, the underlying behavior of the ion atmosphere follows physical rules that are distinct from the rules of site binding that biochemists are most familiar and comfortable with. The main goal of this review is to familiarize nucleic acid experimentalists with the physical concepts that underlie nucleic acid-ion interactions. Throughout, we provide practical strategies for interpreting and analyzing nucleic acid experiments that avoid pitfalls from oversimplified or incorrect models. We briefly review the status of theories that predict or simulate nucleic acid-ion interactions and experiments that test these theories. Finally, we describe opportunities for going beyond phenomenological fits to a next-generation, truly predictive understanding of nucleic acid-ion interactions.

  7. Nucleic Acids in Human Glioma Treatment: Innovative Approaches and Recent Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Catuogno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors with a dismal prognosis. Despite recent advances in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, current treatment regimens have a modest survival benefit. A crucial challenge is to deliver drugs effectively to invasive glioma cells residing in a sanctuary within the central nervous system. New therapies are essential, and oligonucleotide-based approaches, including antisense, microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, and nucleic acid aptamers, may provide a viable strategy. Thanks to their unique characteristics (low size, good affinity for the target, no immunogenicity, chemical structures that can be easily modified to improve their in vivo applications, these molecules may represent a valid alternative to antibodies particularly to overcome challenges presented by the blood-brain barrier. Here we will discuss recent results on the use of oligonucleotides that will hopefully provide new effective treatment for gliomas.

  8. Nucleic Acids in Human Glioma Treatment: Innovative Approaches and Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catuogno, S.; Esposito, C. L.; Quintavalle, C.; Condorelli, G.; de Franciscis, V.; Cerchia, L.

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors with a dismal prognosis. Despite recent advances in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, current treatment regimens have a modest survival benefit. A crucial challenge is to deliver drugs effectively to invasive glioma cells residing in a sanctuary within the central nervous system. New therapies are essential, and oligonucleotide-based approaches, including antisense, microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, and nucleic acid aptamers, may provide a viable strategy. Thanks to their unique characteristics (low size, good affinity for the target, no immunogenicity, chemical structures that can be easily modified to improve their in vivo applications), these molecules may represent a valid alternative to antibodies particularly to overcome challenges presented by the blood-brain barrier. Here we will discuss recent results on the use of oligonucleotides that will hopefully provide new effective treatment for gliomas. PMID:22685651

  9. Uses of Nucleic Acid Analogues in the Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to the use of nucleic acid analogues in blocking nucleic acid ampli?cation procedures and to diagnostic and analytical techniques based thereon. Also included are kits for use in the conduct of nucleic acid ampli?cation reactions....

  10. Cathepsin B-sensitive polymers for compartment-specific degradation and nucleic acid release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, David S H; Johnson, Russell N; Pun, Suzie H

    2012-02-10

    Degradable cationic polymers are desirable for in vivo nucleic acid delivery because they offer significantly decreased toxicity over non-degradable counterparts. Peptide linkers provide chemical stability and high specificity for particular endopeptidases but have not been extensively studied for nucleic acid delivery applications. In this work, enzymatically degradable peptide-HPMA copolymers were synthesized by RAFT polymerization of HPMA with methacrylamido-terminated peptide macromonomers, resulting in polymers with low polydispersity and near quantitative incorporation of peptides. Three peptide-HPMA copolymers were evaluated: (i) pHCathK(10), containing peptides composed of the linker phe-lys-phe-leu (FKFL), a substrate of the endosomal/lysosomal endopeptidase cathepsin B, connected to oligo-(L)-lysine for nucleic acid binding, (ii) pHCath(D)K(10), containing the FKFL linker with oligo-(D)-lysine, and (iii) pH(D)Cath(D)K(10), containing all (D) amino acids. Cathepsin B degraded copolymers pHCathK(10) and pHCath(D)K(10) within 1 h while no degradation of pH(D)Cath(D)K(10) was observed. Polyplexes formed with pHCathK(10) copolymers show DNA release by 4 h of treatment with cathepsin B; comparatively, polyplexes formed with pHCath(D)K(10) and pH(D)Cath(D)K(10) show no DNA release within 8 h. Transfection efficiency in HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells were comparable between the copolymers but pHCathK(10) was less toxic. This work demonstrates the successful application of peptide linkers for degradable cationic polymers and DNA release. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Contribution of the Activation Entropy to the Gas-Phase Stability of Modified Nucleic Acid Duplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Yvonne; Dugovič, Branislav; Istrate, Alena; Fignolé, Annabel; Leumann, Christian J.; Schürch, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Tricyclo-DNA (tcDNA) is a sugar-modified analogue of DNA currently tested for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in an antisense approach. Tandem mass spectrometry plays a key role in modern medical diagnostics and has become a widespread technique for the structure elucidation and quantification of antisense oligonucleotides. Herein, mechanistic aspects of the fragmentation of tcDNA are discussed, which lay the basis for reliable sequencing and quantification of the antisense oligonucleotide. Excellent selectivity of tcDNA for complementary RNA is demonstrated in direct competition experiments. Moreover, the kinetic stability and fragmentation pattern of matched and mismatched tcDNA heteroduplexes were investigated and compared with non-modified DNA and RNA duplexes. Although the separation of the constituting strands is the entropy-favored fragmentation pathway of all nucleic acid duplexes, it was found to be only a minor pathway of tcDNA duplexes. The modified hybrid duplexes preferentially undergo neutral base loss and backbone cleavage. This difference is due to the low activation entropy for the strand dissociation of modified duplexes that arises from the conformational constraint of the tc-sugar-moiety. The low activation entropy results in a relatively high free activation enthalpy for the dissociation comparable to the free activation enthalpy of the alternative reaction pathway, the release of a nucleobase. The gas-phase behavior of tcDNA duplexes illustrates the impact of the activation entropy on the fragmentation kinetics and suggests that tandem mass spectrometric experiments are not suited to determine the relative stability of different types of nucleic acid duplexes.

  12. Antisense downregulation of mutant huntingtin in a cell model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, L.; Abell, K.; Norremolle, A.

    2003-01-01

    or by addition to the culture medium. Results Expression of the fusion protein containing the mutant huntingtin fragment resulted in diffuse green fluorescence in the cytoplasm and formation of aggregates in some of the NT2 cells and NT2-N neurons. We obtained antisense sequence-specific inhibition of expression......Background Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder which is caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene. The repeat encodes an expanded polyglutamine tract in the protein huntingtin. The still unknown pathological mechanisms leading to death...... transfected with plasmid constructs containing exon 1 of the HD gene with expanded CAG repeats in frame with the reporter protein EGFP. The transfected cell cultures were treated with a phosphorothioated antisense oligonucleotide (PS-ASHD/20+) or a control oligonucleotide either by cotransfection...

  13. Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy Using Lipid Nanoparticle for Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    DD, Novakovic KR, Lillard JW Jr. CXCL10 blockade protects mice from cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. J. Immune Based Ther. Vaccines 2008; 6: 6. 85...functionality of a truncated dystrophin protein in dog model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy [60]. Nevertheless, applied research for bladder diseases has...Takeda, “Antisense oligo- mediated multiple exon skipping in a dog model of duchenne muscular dystrophy,”Methods inMolecular Biology, vol. 709, pp. 299

  14. Oligonucleotide N3'-->P5' phosphoramidates as antisense agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryaznov, S; Skorski, T; Cucco, C; Nieborowska-Skorska, M; Chiu, C Y; Lloyd, D; Chen, J K; Koziolkiewicz, M; Calabretta, B

    1996-01-01

    Uniformly modified oligonucleotide N3'-->P5' phosphoramidates, where every 3'-oxygen is replaced by a 3'-amino group, were synthesized. These compounds have very high affinity to single-stranded RNAs and thus have potential utility as antisense agents. As was shown in this study, the oligonucleotide phosphoramidates are resistant to digestion with snake venom phosphodiesterase, to nuclease activity in a HeLa cell nuclear extract, or to nuclease activity in 50% human plasma, where no significant hydrolysis was observed after 8 h. These compounds were used in various in vitro cellular systems as antisense compounds addressed to different targeted regions of c-myb, c-myc and bcr-abl mRNAs. C-myb antisense phosphoramidates at 5 microM caused sequence and dose-dependent inhibition of HL-60 cell proliferation and a 75% reduction in c-myb protein and RNA levels, as determined by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. Analogous results were observed for anti-c-myc phosphoramidates, where a complete cytostatic effect for HL-60 cells was observed at 1 microM concentration for fully complementary, but not for mismatched compounds, which were indistinguishable from untreated controls. This was correlated with a 93% reduction in c-myc protein level. Moreover, colony formation by the primary CML cells was also inhibited 75-95% and up to 99% by anti-c-myc and anti-bcr-abl phosphoramidate oligonucleotides, respectively, in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner within a 0.5 nM-5 microM dose range. At these concentrations the colony-forming ability of normal bone marrow cells was not affected. The presented in vitro data indicate that oligonucleotide N3'-->P5' phosphoramidates could be used as specific and efficient antisense agents. PMID:8628685

  15. Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy Using Lipid Nanoparticle for Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1): (1) behavioral modification 160 with patient education, (2) physical therapies , oral agents and/or intravesical medications, (3) bladder...human monoclonal D2E7 light chain, dimer Rheumatoid arthritis , Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colites Phase III, not recruiting TNF alpha antagonist Calcium...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0565 TITLE: Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy Using Lipid Nanoparticle For Interstitial Cystitis PRINCIPAL

  16. Nucleic acid drugs: a novel approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    These nucleic acids act as drugs by different mechanisms, they may bind with the synthesized proteins, and they can hybridize to a messenger RNA leading to translation arrest or may induce degradation to target RNA. In this way the nucleic acids act as drug for inhibiting gene expression or protein synthesis. This article ...

  17. Combination Antisense Treatment for Destructive Exon Skipping of Myostatin and Open Reading Frame Rescue of Dystrophin in Neonatal mdx Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu-Nguyen, Ngoc B; Jarmin, Susan A; Saleh, Amer F; Popplewell, Linda; Gait, Michael J; Dickson, George

    2015-08-01

    The fatal X-linked Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), characterized by progressive muscle wasting and muscle weakness, is caused by mutations within the DMD gene. The use of antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) modulating pre-mRNA splicing to restore the disrupted dystrophin reading frame, subsequently generating a shortened but functional protein has emerged as a potential strategy in DMD treatment. AO therapy has recently been applied to induce out-of-frame exon skipping of myostatin pre-mRNA, knocking-down expression of myostatin protein, and such an approach is suggested to enhance muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia and to reduce muscle necrosis. Within this study, we investigated dual exon skipping of dystrophin and myostatin pre-mRNAs using phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers conjugated with an arginine-rich peptide (B-PMOs). Intraperitoneal administration of B-PMOs was performed in neonatal mdx males on the day of birth, and at weeks 3 and 6. At week 9, we observed in treated mice (as compared to age-matched, saline-injected controls) normalization of muscle mass, a recovery in dystrophin expression, and a decrease in muscle necrosis, particularly in the diaphragm. Our data provide a proof of concept for antisense therapy combining dystrophin restoration and myostatin inhibition for the treatment of DMD.

  18. Cellular localization of long non-coding RNAs affects silencing by RNAi more than by antisense oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Kim A; Behlke, Mark A

    2016-01-29

    Thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in mammalian cells. Some have important functions and their dysregulation can contribute to a variety of disease states. However, most lncRNAs have not been functionally characterized. Complicating their study, lncRNAs have widely varying subcellular distributions: some reside predominantly in the nucleus, the cytoplasm or in both compartments. One method to query function is to suppress expression and examine the resulting phenotype. Methods to suppress expression of mRNAs include antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and RNA interference (RNAi). Antisense and RNAi-based gene-knockdown methods vary in efficacy between different cellular compartments. It is not known if this affects their ability to suppress lncRNAs. To address whether localization of the lncRNA influences susceptibility to degradation by either ASOs or RNAi, nuclear lncRNAs (MALAT1 and NEAT1), cytoplasmic lncRNAs (DANCR and OIP5-AS1) and dual-localized lncRNAs (TUG1, CasC7 and HOTAIR) were compared for knockdown efficiency. We found that nuclear lncRNAs were more effectively suppressed using ASOs, cytoplasmic lncRNAs were more effectively suppressed using RNAi and dual-localized lncRNAs were suppressed using both methods. A mixed-modality approach combining ASOs and RNAi reagents improved knockdown efficacy, particularly for those lncRNAs that localize to both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. The HIV-1 transcriptional activator Tat has potent nucleic acid chaperoning activities in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuciak, Monika; Gabus, Caroline; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Semrad, Katharina; Storchak, Roman; Chaloin, Olivier; Muller, Sylviane; Mély, Yves; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a primate lentivirus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In addition to the virion structural proteins and enzyme precursors, that are Gag, Env and Pol, HIV-1 encodes several regulatory proteins, notably a small nuclear transcriptional activator named Tat. The Tat protein is absolutely required for virus replication since it controls proviral DNA transcription to generate the full-length viral mRNA. Tat can also regulate mRNA capping and splicing and was recently found to interfere with the cellular mi- and siRNA machinery. Because of its extensive interplay with nucleic acids, and its basic and disordered nature we speculated that Tat had nucleic acid-chaperoning properties. This prompted us to examine in vitro the nucleic acid-chaperoning activities of Tat and Tat peptides made by chemical synthesis. Here we report that Tat has potent nucleic acid-chaperoning activities according to the standard DNA annealing, DNA and RNA strand exchange, RNA ribozyme cleavage and trans-splicing assays. The active Tat(44–61) peptide identified here corresponds to the smallest known sequence with DNA/RNA chaperoning properties. PMID:18442994

  20. Antisense inhibition of cyclin D1 expression is equivalent to flavopiridol for radiosensitization of zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Flavopiridol, a small molecule pan-cyclin inhibitor, has been shown to enhance Radiation response of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. The clinical utility of flavopiridol, however, is limited by toxicity, previously attributed to pleiotropic inhibitory effects on several targets affecting multiple signal transduction pathways. Here we used zebrafish embryos to investigate radiosensitizing effects of flavopiridol in normal tissues. Methods and Materials: Zebrafish embryos at the 1- to 4-cell stage were treated with 500 nM flavopiridol or injected with 0.5 pmol antisense hydroxylprolyl-phosphono nucleic acid oligomers to reduce cyclin D1 expression, then subjected to ionizing radiation (IR) or no radiation. Results: Flavopiridol-treated embryos demonstrated a twofold increase in mortality after exposure to 40 Gy by 96 hpf and developed distinct radiation-induced defects in midline development (designated as the 'curly up' phenotype) at higher rates when compared with embryos receiving IR only. Cyclin D1-deficient embryos had virtually identical IR sensitivity profiles when compared with embryos treated with flavopiridol. This was particularly evident for the IR-induced curly up phenotype, which was greatly exacerbated by both flavopriridol and cyclin D1 downregulation. Conclusions: Treatment of zebrafish embryos with flavopiridol enhanced radiation sensitivity of zebrafish embryos to a degree that was very similar to that associated with downregulation of cyclin D1 expression. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition of cyclin D1 is sufficient to account for the radiosensitizing action of flavopiridol in the zebrafish embryo vertebrate model

  1. Nucleic acid binding and other biomedical properties of artificial oligolysines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roviello GN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni N Roviello,1 Caterina Vicidomini,1 Vincenzo Costanzo,1 Valentina Roviello2 1CNR Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Via Mezzocannone site and Headquarters, 2Centro Regionale di Competenza (CRdC Tecnologie, Via Nuova Agnano, Napoli, Italy Abstract: In the present study, we report the interaction of an artificial oligolysine (referred to as AOL realized in our laboratory with targets of biomedical importance. These included polyinosinic acid (poly rI and its complex with polycytidylic acid (poly I:C, RNAs with well-known interferon-inducing ability, and double-stranded (ds DNA. The ability of the peptide to bind both single-stranded poly rI and ds poly I:C RNAs emerged from our circular dichroism (CD and ultraviolet (UV studies. In addition, we found that AOL forms complexes with dsDNA, as shown by spectroscopic binding assays and UV thermal denaturation experiments. These findings are encouraging for the possible use of AOL in biomedicine for nucleic acid targeting and oligonucleotide condensation, with the latter being a key step preceding their clinical application. Moreover, we tested the ability of AOL to bind to proteins, using serum albumin as a model protein. We demonstrated the oligolysine–protein binding by CD experiments which suggested that AOL, positively charged under physiological conditions, binds to the protein regions rich in anionic residues. Finally, the morphology characterization of the solid oligolysine, performed by scanning electron microscopy, showed different crystal forms including cubic-shaped crystals confirming the high purity of AOL. Keywords: nucleic acid binding, polyinosinic acid, double-stranded nucleic acids, oligolysine, circular dichroism

  2. Chip-based sequencing nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2014-08-26

    A system for fast DNA sequencing by amplification of genetic material within microreactors, denaturing, demulsifying, and then sequencing the material, while retaining it in a PCR/sequencing zone by a magnetic field. One embodiment includes sequencing nucleic acids on a microchip that includes a microchannel flow channel in the microchip. The nucleic acids are isolated and hybridized to magnetic nanoparticles or to magnetic polystyrene-coated beads. Microreactor droplets are formed in the microchannel flow channel. The microreactor droplets containing the nucleic acids and the magnetic nanoparticles are retained in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel and sequenced.

  3. Nucleic acid diagnostic approaches in parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerttula, Anne-Marie; Lavikainen, Antti

    Nucleic acid diagnostic technologies are partly replacing traditional microscopy and antigen detection methods in parasitological diagnostics. In particular, the diagnostics of parasitic diarrhea is undergoing a transformation due to the application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Diagnostics of malaria is still based on microscopy, but rapid nucleic acid tests are emerging. Laboratories of clinical microbiology in Finland currently provide PCR tests e.g. for intestinal protozoa, Toxoplasma and Trichomonas. Nucleic acid diagnostic methods are superior in specificity and sensitivity, but may give false positive results after a treated infection.

  4. Characterization of a crosslinked nucleic acid - helix destabilizing protein complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpel, R.L.; Levin, V.Y.; Haley, B.E.

    1986-05-01

    They have enzymatically synthesized /sup 3/H- and /sup 32/P-poly(A,8N/sub 3/A) from 8-N/sub 3/ADP and radiolabeled ADP, and have used this polynucleotide to photoaffinity label T4 gene 32 protein, as well as several other helix-destabilizing proteins (HDPs). Irradiation of /sup 32/P-/sup 3/H-poly(A,N/sub 3/A) mixtures for short durations produces a covalent complex, seen as a high molecular weight, radioactive band on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Preliminary experiments on other HDPs, from prokaryotic, eukaryotic and animal viral sources, show analogous results. Several successful control experiments indicate that this system is suitable for binding site localization on /sup 32/P. Single-stranded nucleic acids competitively inhibit photolabeling. The effect of NaCl on photolabeling parallels the salt-dependence of /sup 32/P-poly(A,N/sub 3/A) binding. Photolabeling reaches a plateau after approx.1 min, and the formation of the high molecular weight complex parallels the reduction of free /sup 32/P on SDS gels. Staph. nuclease digestion of crosslinked complexes produces a diffuse, radioactive band on SDS gels, migrating just behind free /sup 32/P. When these digested complexes are subjected to reverse-phase HPLC on a C3 Ultrapore column, the nucleic acid /sup 32/P-label is seen to coelute with protein. They are currently employing RP-HPLC methods to locate the label on tryptic peptides of nuclease-digested complexes.

  5. Intra-Amygdala Injections of CREB Antisense Impair Inhibitory Avoidance Memory: Role of Norepinephrine and Acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E.; Chang, Qing; Gold, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Infusions of CREB antisense into the amygdala prior to training impair memory for aversive tasks, suggesting that the antisense may interfere with CRE-mediated gene transcription and protein synthesis important for the formation of new memories within the amygdala. However, the amygdala also appears to modulate memory formation in distributed…

  6. Macromolecular mimicry of nucleic acid and protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup Pedersen, Gitte; Nyborg, Jens; Clark, Brian F

    1999-01-01

    Although proteins and nucleic acids consist of different chemical components, proteins can mimic structures and possibly also functions of nucleic acids. Recently, structural mimicry was observed between two elongation factors in bacterial protein biosynthesis leading to the introduction of the c......Although proteins and nucleic acids consist of different chemical components, proteins can mimic structures and possibly also functions of nucleic acids. Recently, structural mimicry was observed between two elongation factors in bacterial protein biosynthesis leading to the introduction...... of the concept of macromolecular mimicry. Macromolecular mimicry has further been proposed among initiation and release factors, thereby adding a new element to the description of protein synthesis in bacteria. Such mimicry has also been observed in other biological processes such as autoimmunity, DNA repair...

  7. Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M.; Mitra, Robi D.

    2010-08-31

    Disclosed are improved methods of making and using immobilized arrays of nucleic acids, particularly methods for producing replicas of such arrays. Included are methods for producing high density arrays of nucleic acids and replicas of such arrays, as well as methods for preserving the resolution of arrays through rounds of replication. Also included are methods which take advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays for increased sensitivity in detection of sequences on arrays. Improved methods of sequencing nucleic acids immobilized on arrays utilizing single copies of arrays and methods taking further advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays are disclosed. The improvements lead to higher fidelity and longer read lengths of sequences immobilized on arrays. Methods are also disclosed which improve the efficiency of multiplex PCR using arrays of immobilized nucleic acids.

  8. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M [Brookline, MA; Zhang, Kun [Brighton, MA

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  9. Developmental transitions in Arabidopsis are regulated by antisense RNAs resulting from bidirectionally transcribed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyczmonik, Katarzyna; Wroblewska-Swiniarska, Agata; Swiezewski, Szymon

    2017-07-03

    Transcription terminators are DNA elements located at the 3' end of genes that ensure efficient cleavage of nascent RNA generating the 3' end of mRNA, as well as facilitating disengagement of elongating DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II. Surprisingly, terminators are also a potent source of antisense transcription. We have recently described an Arabidopsis antisense transcript originating from the 3' end of a master regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana seed dormancy DOG1. In this review, we discuss the broader implications of our discovery in light of recent developments in yeast and Arabidopsis. We show that, surprisingly, the key features of terminators that give rise to antisense transcription are preserved between Arabidopsis and yeast, suggesting a conserved mechanism. We also compare our discovery to known antisense-based regulatory mechanisms, highlighting the link between antisense-based gene expression regulation and major developmental transitions in plants.

  10. Silencing MIG1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effects of antisense MIG1 expression and MIG1 gene disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Lisbeth; Larsen, M.E.; Rønnow, B.

    1997-01-01

    , However, silencing of MIG1 expression was not achieved by expressing antisense MIG1, even though antisense MIG1 RNA was sufficiently stable to be detected. In the wild-type and Delta mig1 strains, the specific growth rate was 0.32 to 0.33 h(-1), whereas it was lower in the antisense strains, 0.25 to 0...

  11. Extensive polycistronism and antisense transcription in the mammalian Hox clusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëll Mainguy

    Full Text Available The Hox clusters play a crucial role in body patterning during animal development. They encode both Hox transcription factor and micro-RNA genes that are activated in a precise temporal and spatial sequence that follows their chromosomal order. These remarkable collinear properties confer functional unit status for Hox clusters. We developed the TranscriptView platform to establish high resolution transcriptional profiling and report here that transcription in the Hox clusters is far more complex than previously described in both human and mouse. Unannotated transcripts can represent up to 60% of the total transcriptional output of a cluster. In particular, we identified 14 non-coding Transcriptional Units antisense to Hox genes, 10 of which (70% have a detectable mouse homolog. Most of these Transcriptional Units in both human and mouse present conserved sizeable sequences (>40 bp overlapping Hox transcripts, suggesting that these Hox antisense transcripts are functional. Hox clusters also display at least seven polycistronic clusters, i.e., different genes being co-transcribed on long isoforms (up to 30 kb. This work provides a reevaluated framework for understanding Hox gene function and dys-function. Such extensive transcriptions may provide a structural explanation for Hox clustering.

  12. Specific regulation of point-mutated K-ras-immortalized cell proliferation by a photodynamic antisense strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Maiko; Yamayoshi, Asako; Kato, Kiyoko; Kobori, Akio; Wake, Norio; Murakami, Akira

    2010-02-01

    It has been reported that point mutations in genes are responsible for various cancers, and the selective regulation of gene expression is an important factor in developing new types of anticancer drugs. To develop effective drugs for the regulation of point-mutated genes, we focused on photoreactive antisense oligonucleotides. Previously, we reported that photoreactive oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-psoralenylmethoxyethyl adenosine (2'-Ps-eom) showed drastic photoreactivity in a strictly sequence-specific manner. Here, we demonstrated the specific gene regulatory effects of 2'-Ps-eom on [(12)Val]K-ras mutant (GGT --> GTT). Photo-cross-linking between target mRNAs and 2'-Ps-eom was sequence-specific, and the effect was UVA irradiation-dependent. Furthermore, 2'-Ps-eom was able to inhibit K-ras-immortalized cell proliferation (K12V) but not Vco cells that have the wild-type K-ras gene. These results suggest that the 2'-Ps-eom will be a powerful nucleic acid drug to inhibit the expression of disease-causing point mutation genes, and has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of cancer.

  13. Peptide dendrimers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Ježek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), 757-788 ISSN 1075-2617 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : multiple antigen peptides * peptide dendrimers * synthetic vaccine * multipleantigenic peptides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.803, year: 2005

  14. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Difficult Purine-Rich PNAs through Selective Hmb Incorporation: Application to the Total Synthesis of Cell Penetrating Peptide-PNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Tailhades

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO-based drug development is gaining significant momentum following the recent FDA approval of Eteplirsen (an ASO based on phosphorodiamidate morpholino and Spinraza (2′-O-methoxyethyl-phosphorothioate in late 2016. Their attractiveness is mainly due to the backbone modifications which have improved the in vivo characteristics of oligonucleotide drugs. Another class of ASO, based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA chemistry, is also gaining popularity as a platform for development of gene-specific therapy for various disorders. However, the chemical synthesis of long PNAs, which are more target-specific, remains an ongoing challenge. Most of the reported methodology for the solid-phase synthesis of PNA suffer from poor coupling efficiency which limits production to short PNA sequences of less than 15 residues. Here, we have studied the effect of backbone modifications with Hmb (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl and Dmb (2,4-dimethoxybenzyl to ameliorate difficult couplings and reduce “on-resin” aggregation. We firstly synthesized a library of PNA dimers incorporating either Hmb or Dmb and identified that Hmb is superior to Dmb in terms of its ease of removal. Subsequently, we used Hmb backbone modification to synthesize a 22-mer purine-rich PNA, targeting dystrophin RNA splicing, which could not be synthesized by standard coupling methodology. Hmb backbone modification allowed this difficult PNA to be synthesized as well as to be continued to include a cell-penetrating peptide on the same solid support. This approach provides a novel and straightforward strategy for facile solid-phase synthesis of difficult purine-rich PNA sequences.

  15. Identification of differentially expressed sense and antisense transcript pairs in breast epithelial tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendrick Howard

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 20% of human transcripts have naturally occurring antisense products (or natural antisense transcripts – NATs, some of which may play a key role in a range of human diseases. To date, several databases of in silico defined human sense-antisense (SAS pairs have appeared, however no study has focused on differential expression of SAS pairs in breast tissue. We therefore investigated the expression levels of sense and antisense transcripts in normal and malignant human breast epithelia using the Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 and Almac Diagnostics Breast Cancer DSA microarray technologies as well as massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS data. Results The expression of more than 2500 antisense transcripts were detected in normal breast duct luminal cells and in primary breast tumors substantially enriched for their epithelial cell content by DSA microarray. Expression of 431 NATs were confirmed by either of the other two technologies. A corresponding sense transcript could be identified on DSA for 257 antisense transcripts. Of these SAS pairs, 163 have not been previously reported. A positive correlation of differential expression between normal and malignant breast samples was observed for most SAS pairs. Orientation specific RT-QPCR of selected SAS pairs validated their expression in several breast cancer cell lines and solid breast tumours. Conclusion Disease-focused and antisense enriched microarray platforms (such as Breast Cancer DSA confirm the assumption that antisense transcription in the human breast is more prevalent than previously anticipated. Expression of a proportion of these NATs has already been confirmed by other technologies while the true existence of the remaining ones has to be validated. Nevertheless, future studies will reveal whether the relative abundances of antisense and sense transcripts have regulatory influences on the translation of these mRNAs.

  16. A monodisperse transmembrane α-helical peptide barrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R.; Niitsu, Ai; Kong, Lingbing; Thomson, Andrew R.; Sessions, Richard B.; Woolfson, Derek N.; Bayley, Hagan

    2017-05-01

    The fabrication of monodisperse transmembrane barrels formed from short synthetic peptides has not been demonstrated previously. This is in part because of the complexity of the interactions between peptides and lipids within the hydrophobic environment of a membrane. Here we report the formation of a transmembrane pore through the self-assembly of 35 amino acid α-helical peptides. The design of the peptides is based on the C-terminal D4 domain of the Escherichia coli polysaccharide transporter Wza. By using single-channel current recording, we define discrete assembly intermediates and show that the pore is most probably a helix barrel that contains eight D4 peptides arranged in parallel. We also show that the peptide pore is functional and capable of conducting ions and binding blockers. Such α-helix barrels engineered from peptides could find applications in nanopore technologies such as single-molecule sensing and nucleic-acid sequencing.

  17. Highly stable triple helix formation by homopyrimidine (l)-acyclic threoninol nucleic acids with single stranded DNA and RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Vipin; Kesavan, Venkitasamy; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2015-01-01

    Acyclic (l)-threoninol nucleic acid (aTNA) containing thymine, cytosine and adenine nucleobases were synthesized and shown to form surprisingly stable triplexes with complementary single stranded homopurine DNA or RNA targets. The triplex structures consist of two (l)-aTNA strands and one DNA...... or RNA, and these triplexes are significantly stronger than the corresponding DNA or RNA duplexes as shown in competition experiments. As a unique property the (l)-aTNAs exclusively form triplex structures with DNA and RNA and no duplex structures are observed by gel electrophoresis. The results were...... compared to the known enantiomer (d)-aTNA, which forms much weaker triplexes depending upon temperature and time. It was demonstrated that (l)-aTNA triplexes are able to stop primer extension on a DNA template, showing the potential of (l)-aTNA for antisense applications....

  18. Antisense oligonucleotide for tissue factor inhibits hepatic ischemic reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kadotani, Yayoi; Ushigome, Hidetaka; Akioka, Kiyokazu; Okamoto, Masahiko; Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji; Yoshimura, Rikio; Yoshimura, Norio

    2002-09-27

    Tissue factor (TF) is an initiation factor for blood coagulation and its expression is induced on endothelial cells during inflammatory or immune responses. We designed an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-1/TF) for rat TF and studied its effect on hepatic ischemic reperfusion injury. AS-1/TF was delivered intravenously to Lewis rats. After 10 h, hepatic artery and portal vein were partially clamped. Livers were reperfused after 180 min and harvested. TF expression was studied using immunohistochemical staining. One of 10 rats survived in a 5-day survival rate and TF was strongly stained on endothelial cells in non-treatment group. However, by treatment with AS-1/TF, six of seven survived and TF staining was significantly reduced. Furthermore, we observed that fluorescein-labeled AS-1/TF was absorbed into endothelial cells. These results suggest that AS-1/TF can strongly suppress the expression of TF and thereby inhibit ischemic reperfusion injury to the rat liver.

  19. Intracerebral Infusion of Antisense Oligonucleotides Into Prion-infected Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karah Nazor Friberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mice deficient for the cellular prion protein (PrPC do not develop prion disease; accordingly, gene-based strategies to diminish PrPC expression are of interest. We synthesized a series of chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs targeted against mouse Prnp messenger RNA (mRNA and identified those that were most effective in decreasing PrPC expression. Those ASOs were also evaluated in scrapie-infected cultured cells (ScN2a for their efficacy in diminishing the levels of the disease-causing prion protein (PrPSc. When the optimal ASO was infused intracerebrally into FVB mice over a 14-day period beginning 1 day after infection with the Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML strain of mouse prions, a prolongation of the incubation period of almost 2 months was observed. Whether ASOs can be used to develop an effective therapy for patients dying of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease remains to be established.

  20. Toward Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) Directed Peptide Translation Using Ester Based Aminoacyl Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singhal, Abhishek; Bagnacani, Valentina; Corradini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    intermolecular aminoacyl transfer using simple ester aminolysis chemistry primitively analogous to the ribosomal peptidyl transferase reaction in the absence of anchimeric assistance from ribose and ribosome catalysis. These results help define the minimum chemical boundary conditions for the translation process...

  1. Novel Biochip Platform for Nucleic Acid Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Diaz-Mochon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the use of a novel biochip platform for the rapid analysis/identification of nucleic acids, including DNA and microRNAs, with very high specificity. This approach combines a unique dynamic chemistry approach for nucleic acid testing and analysis developed by DestiNA Genomics with the STMicroelectronics In-Check platform, which comprises two microfluidic optimized and independent PCR reaction chambers, and a sequential microarray area for nucleic acid capture and identification by fluorescence. With its compact bench-top “footprint” requiring only a single technician to operate, the biochip system promises to transform and expand routine clinical diagnostic testing and screening for genetic diseases, cancers, drug toxicology and heart disease, as well as employment in the emerging companion diagnostics market.

  2. Advances in Synthetic Peptides Reagent Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    spectrophotometry technologies. The commercially engineered red fluorescent protein , dsRed, is used in the current advanced library development...sensor technologies utilize antibodies, which have high affinity and specificity to a given target, but are very costly, difficult to mass -produce...include various types of biological molecules, such as nucleic acids, peptides, and proteins , and have been extensively reviewed[2, 3]. Our work has

  3. Cell-Type Specific Penetrating Peptides: Therapeutic Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliha Zahid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell penetrating peptides (CPP, also known as protein transduction domains (PTD, are small peptides able to carry peptides, proteins, nucleic acid, and nanoparticles, including viral particles, across the cellular membranes into cells, resulting in internalization of the intact cargo. In general, CPPs can be broadly classified into tissue-specific and non-tissue specific peptides, with the latter further sub-divided into three types: (1 cationic peptides of 6–12 amino acids in length comprised predominantly of arginine, lysine and/or ornithine residues; (2 hydrophobic peptides such as leader sequences of secreted growth factors or cytokines; and (3 amphipathic peptides obtained by linking hydrophobic peptides to nuclear localizing signals. Tissue-specific peptides are usually identified by screening of large peptide phage display libraries. These transduction peptides have the potential for a myriad of diagnostic as well as therapeutic applications, ranging from delivery of fluorescent or radioactive compounds for imaging, to delivery of peptides and proteins of therapeutic potential, and improving uptake of DNA, RNA, siRNA and even viral particles. Here we review the potential applications as well as hurdles to the tremendous potential of these CPPs, in particular the cell-type specific peptides.

  4. SDS-PAGE procedure: Application for characterization of new entirely uncharged nucleic acids analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Anna S; Dyudeeva, Evgeniya S; Kupryushkin, Maxim S; Amirkhanov, Nariman V; Pyshnyi, Dmitrii V; Pyshnaya, Inna A

    2018-02-01

    SDS-PAGE is considered to be a universal method for size-based separation and analysis of proteins. In this study, we applied the principle of SDS-PAGE to the analysis of new entirely uncharged nucleic acid (NA) analogues, - phosphoryl guanidine oligonucleotides (PGOs). The procedure was also shown to be suitable for morpholino oligonucleotides (PMOs) and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs). It was demonstrated that SDS can establish hydrophobic interactions with these types of synthetic NAs, giving them a net negative charge and thus making these molecules mobile in polyacrylamide slab gels under the influence of an electric field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. JAWS: Just Add Water System - A device for detection of nucleic acids in Martian ice caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders J.; Willerslev, Eske; Mørk, Søren

    2002-01-01

    with a regulation of pH and salt concentrations e.g. the MOD systems and could be installed on a planetary probe melting its way down the Martian ice caps e.g. the NASA Cryobot. JAWS can be used for detection of remains of ancient life preserved in the Martian ice as well as for detection of contamination brought......The design of a device for nucleic acid detection in the Martian ice caps is presented; the Just Add Water System (JAWS). It is based on fiber-optic PNA (peptide nucleic acid) light up probe random microsphere universal array technology. JAWS is designed to be part of a larger system...

  6. Antisense silencing of the creA gene in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bautista, L. F.; Aleksenko, Alexei Y.; Hentzer, Morten

    2000-01-01

    Antisense expression of a portion of the gene encoding the major carbon catabolite repressor CREA in Aspergillus nidulans resulted in a substantial increase in the levels of glucose-repressible enzymes, both endogenous and heterologous, in the presence of glucose. The derepression effect was appr...... was approximately one-half of that achieved in a null creA mutant. Unlike results for that mutant, however, growth parameters and colony morphology in the antisense transformants were not affected....

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of Nylon Nucleic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Risheng; Ding, Liang; Sha, Ruojie; Lukeman, Philip S.

    2010-01-01

    The stability and structure of nylon nucleic acid duplexes with complementary DNA and RNA strands was examined. Thermal denaturing studies of a series of oligonucleotides containing nylon nucleic acids (1 to 5 amide linkages) revealed that the amide linkage enhanced significantly the binding affinity of nylon nucleic acids towards both complementary DNA (up to 26°C increase in the thermal transition temperature (Tm) for 5 linkages) and RNA (around 15°C increase in Tm for 5 linkages) when compared with non-amide linked precursor strands. For both DNA and RNA complements, increasing derivatization decreased the melting temperatures of uncoupled molecules relative to unmodified strands; by contrast, increasing lengths of coupled copolymer raised Tm from less to slightly greater than Tm of unmodified strands. Thermodynamic data extracted from melting curves and CD spectra of nylon nucleic acid duplexes were consistent with loss of stability due to incorporation of pendent groups on the 2′ position of ribose, and recovery of stability upon linkage of the side chains. PMID:18543259

  8. Nucleic acid secondary structure prediction and display.

    OpenAIRE

    Stüber, K

    1986-01-01

    A set of programs has been developed for the prediction and display of nucleic acid secondary structures. Information from experimental data can be used to restrict or enforce secondary structural elements. The predictions can be displayed either on normal line printers or on graphic devices like plotters or graphic terminals.

  9. Multifunctional Nucleic Acids for Tumor Cell Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pofahl, Monika; Wengel, Jesper; Mayer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    -proliferative and antimiR function in one 37-nucleotide nucleic acid molecule. It inhibits cancer cell growth and induces gene expression that is pathologically damped by an oncomir. These findings will have a strong impact on future developments regarding aptamer- and antimiR-related applications for tumor targeting...

  10. Recent progress in nucleic acids isotachophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Datinská, Vladimíra; Voráčová, Ivona; Schlecht, U.; Berka, J.; Foret, František

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2018), s. 236-247 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : isotachophoresis * nucleic acid s * sample preparation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  11. End-joining long nucleic acid polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Hout, M.; Hage, S.; Dekker, C.; Dekker, N.H.

    2008-01-01

    Many experiments involving nucleic acids require the hybridization and ligation of multiple DNA or RNA molecules to form a compound molecule. When one of the constituents is single stranded, however, the efficiency of ligation can be very low and requires significant individually tailored

  12. Chemical consequences of irradiating nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of literature data, a discussion is presented of the DNA damage which would be produced in a cellular environment and an attempt is made to place this damage in perspective as a potential hazard in food irradiation. The topics discussed are radiation damage mechanisms, OH reactions with DNA, base products, sugar products, and evaluation of damage from irradiated nucleic acids

  13. Recent progress in nucleic acids isotachophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Datinská, Vladimíra; Voráčová, Ivona; Schlecht, U.; Berka, J.; Foret, František

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2018), s. 236-247 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : isotachophoresis * nucleic acids * sample preparation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  14. A locked nucleic Acid-based nanocrawler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Pasternak, Karol; Campbell, Meghan A

    2013-01-01

    Herein we introduce a novel fluorescent LNA/DNA machine, a nanocrawler, which reversibly moves along a directionally polar complementary road controlled by affinity-enhancing locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomers and additional regulatory strands. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dyes attached to 2...

  15. Nucleic Acid Therapy: from humble beginnings a dynamic technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Millroy, L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available namely: antisense, ribozymes, RNA/DNA decoys, triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFO), RNA interference (RNAi) and most recently aptamers. These therapies work by modulating gene expression of either endogenous or invading genes. This review will provide a...

  16. Study of nucleic acid-gold nanorod interactions and detecting nucleic acid hybridization using gold nanorod solutions in the presence of sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanawarut, Roejarek; Su, Xiaodi

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the authors report that sodium citrate can aggregate hexadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium ion(+)-coated gold nanorods (AuNRs), and nucleic acids of different charge and structure properties, i.e., single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), single-stranded peptide nucleic acid (PNA), and PNA-DNA complex, can bind to the AuNRs and therefore retard the sodium citrate-induced aggregation to different extents. The discovery that hybridized dsDNA (and the PNA-DNA complex) has a more pronounced protection effect than ssDNA (and PNA) allows the authors to develop a homogeneous phase AuNRs-based UV-visible (UV-vis) spectral assay for detecting specific sequences of oligonucleotides (20 mer) with a single-base-mismatch selectivity and a limit of detection of 5 nM. This assay involves no tedious bioconjugation and on-particle hybridization. The simple "set and test" format allows for a highly efficient hybridization in a homogeneous phase and a rapid display of the results in less than a minute. By measuring the degree of reduction in AuNR aggregation in the presence of different nucleic acid samples, one can assess how different nucleic acids interact with the AuNRs to complement the knowledge of spherical gold nanoparticles. Besides UV-vis characterization, transmission electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements were conduced to provide visual evidence of the particle aggregation and to support the discussion of the assay principle.

  17. In Situ Localization of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus-PAV 17-kDa Protein and Nucleic Acids in Oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, P H; Domier, L L; Jakstys, B P; D'Arcy, C J

    1998-10-01

    ABSTRACT Barley yellow dwarf virus strain PAV (BYDV-PAV) RNA and the 17-kDa protein were localized in BYDV-PAV-infected oat cells using in situ hybridization and in situ immunolocalization assays, respectively. The in situ hybridization assay showed labeling of filamentous material in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and virus-induced vesicles with both sense and antisense nucleic acid probes, suggesting that the filamentous material found in BYDV-PAV-infected cells contains viral RNA. BYDV-PAV negative-strand RNA was detected before virus particles were observed, which indicates that RNA replication is initiated before synthesis of viral coat protein in the cytoplasm. The 17-kDa protein was associated with filamentous material in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and virus-induced vesicles. The labeling densities observed using antibodies against the 17-kDa protein were similar in the nucleus and cytoplasm. No labeling of the 17-kDa protein was observed in plasmodesmata, but filaments in the nuclear pores occasionally were labeled. Since BYDV-PAV RNA and 17-kDa protein colocalized within infected cells, it is possible that single-stranded viral RNA is always associated with the 17-kDa protein in vivo. The 17-kDa protein may be required for viral nucleic acid filaments to traverse the nuclear membrane or other membrane systems.

  18. Short (16-mer) locked nucleic acid splice-switching oligonucleotides restore dystrophin production in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Vanessa Borges; Simões, Ricardo; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Carvalho, Célia; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides (SSOs) offer great potential for RNA-targeting therapies, and two SSO drugs have been recently approved for treating Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). Despite promising results, new developments are still needed for more efficient chemistries and delivery systems. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a chemically modified nucleic acid that presents several attractive properties, such as high melting temperature when bound to RNA, potent biological activity, high stability and low toxicity in vivo. Here, we designed a series of LNA-based SSOs complementary to two sequences of the human dystrophin exon 51 that are most evolutionary conserved and evaluated their ability to induce exon skipping upon transfection into myoblasts derived from a DMD patient. We show that 16-mers with 60% of LNA modification efficiently induce exon skipping and restore synthesis of a truncated dystrophin isoform that localizes to the plasma membrane of patient-derived myotubes differentiated in culture. In sum, this study underscores the value of short LNA-modified SSOs for therapeutic applications.

  19. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeff G; Lyamichev, Victor I; Mast, Andrea L; Brow, Mary Ann D

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  20. Nucleic acid protocols: Extraction and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed El-Ashram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield and quality are fundamental features for any researchers during nucleic acid extraction. Here, we describe a simplified, semi-unified, effective, and toxic material free protocol for extracting DNA and RNA from different prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources exploiting the physical and chemical properties of nucleic acids. Furthermore, this protocol showed that DNA and RNA are under triple protection (i.e. EDTA, SDS and NaCl during lysis step, and this environment is improper for RNase to have DNA liberated of RNA and even for DNase to degrade the DNA. Therefore, the complete removal of RNA under RNase influence is achieved when RNase is added after DNA extraction, which gives optimal quality with any protocols. Similarly, DNA contamination in an isolated RNA is degraded by DNase to obtain high-quality RNA. Our protocol is the protocol of choice in terms of simplicity, recovery time, environmental safety, amount, purity, PCR and RT-PCR applicability.

  1. Rapid hybridization of nucleic acids using isotachophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Moran; Han, Crystal M.; Liao, Joseph C.; Santiago, Juan G.

    2012-01-01

    We use isotachophoresis (ITP) to control and increase the rate of nucleic acid hybridization reactions in free solution. We present a new physical model, validation experiments, and demonstrations of this assay. We studied the coupled physicochemical processes of preconcentration, mixing, and chemical reaction kinetics under ITP. Our experimentally validated model enables a closed form solution for ITP-aided reaction kinetics, and reveals a new characteristic time scale which correctly predicts order 10,000-fold speed-up of chemical reaction rate for order 100 pM reactants, and greater enhancement at lower concentrations. At 500 pM concentration, we measured a reaction time which is 14,000-fold lower than that predicted for standard second-order hybridization. The model and method are generally applicable to acceleration of reactions involving nucleic acids, and may be applicable to a wide range of reactions involving ionic reactants. PMID:22733732

  2. Digital Microfluidics for Nucleic Acid Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Microfluidics (DMF has emerged as a disruptive methodology for the control and manipulation of low volume droplets. In DMF, each droplet acts as a single reactor, which allows for extensive multiparallelization of biological and chemical reactions at a much smaller scale. DMF devices open entirely new and promising pathways for multiplex analysis and reaction occurring in a miniaturized format, thus allowing for healthcare decentralization from major laboratories to point-of-care with accurate, robust and inexpensive molecular diagnostics. Here, we shall focus on DMF platforms specifically designed for nucleic acid amplification, which is key for molecular diagnostics of several diseases and conditions, from pathogen identification to cancer mutations detection. Particular attention will be given to the device architecture, materials and nucleic acid amplification applications in validated settings.

  3. Digital Microfluidics for Nucleic Acid Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Beatriz; Veigas, Bruno; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Águas, Hugo; Igreja, Rui; Baptista, Pedro V

    2017-06-25

    Digital Microfluidics (DMF) has emerged as a disruptive methodology for the control and manipulation of low volume droplets. In DMF, each droplet acts as a single reactor, which allows for extensive multiparallelization of biological and chemical reactions at a much smaller scale. DMF devices open entirely new and promising pathways for multiplex analysis and reaction occurring in a miniaturized format, thus allowing for healthcare decentralization from major laboratories to point-of-care with accurate, robust and inexpensive molecular diagnostics. Here, we shall focus on DMF platforms specifically designed for nucleic acid amplification, which is key for molecular diagnostics of several diseases and conditions, from pathogen identification to cancer mutations detection. Particular attention will be given to the device architecture, materials and nucleic acid amplification applications in validated settings.

  4. Nucleic Acid Templated Reactions for Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pisa, Margherita; Seitz, Oliver

    2017-06-21

    Nucleic acid directed bioorthogonal reactions offer the fascinating opportunity to unveil and redirect a plethora of intracellular mechanisms. Nano- to picomolar amounts of specific RNA molecules serve as templates and catalyze the selective formation of molecules that 1) exert biological effects, or 2) provide measurable signals for RNA detection. Turnover of reactants on the template is a valuable asset when concentrations of RNA templates are low. The idea is to use RNA-templated reactions to fully control the biodistribution of drugs and to push the detection limits of DNA or RNA analytes to extraordinary sensitivities. Herein we review recent and instructive examples of conditional synthesis or release of compounds for in cellulo protein interference and intracellular nucleic acid imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  6. Interactions of nucleic acids at charged interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetterl, Vladimír; Jelen, František; Hasoň, Stanislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2003), s. 228 ISSN 0175-7571. [European Biophysics Congress /4./. 05.07.2003-09.07.2003, Alicante] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5004901; GA AV ČR IBS5004107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : single - and double- stranded DNA * nucleic acid * mercury film electrodes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  7. Optimizing the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Yu; Chen, Sherry Xi; Yin, Peng

    2012-01-22

    The specific hybridization of complementary sequences is an essential property of nucleic acids, enabling diverse biological and biotechnological reactions and functions. However, the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization is compromised for long strands, except near the melting temperature. Here, we analytically derived the thermodynamic properties of a hybridization probe that would enable near-optimal single-base discrimination and perform robustly across diverse temperature, salt and concentration conditions. We rationally designed 'toehold exchange' probes that approximate these properties, and comprehensively tested them against five different DNA targets and 55 spurious analogues with energetically representative single-base changes (replacements, deletions and insertions). These probes produced discrimination factors between 3 and 100+ (median, 26). Without retuning, our probes function robustly from 10 °C to 37 °C, from 1 mM Mg(2+) to 47 mM Mg(2+), and with nucleic acid concentrations from 1 nM to 5 µM. Experiments with RNA also showed effective single-base change discrimination.

  8. Use of carbonyl group addition--elimination reactions for synthesis of nucleic acid conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsepin, Timofei S; Stetsenko, Dmitry A; Gait, Michael J; Oretskaya, Tatiana S

    2005-01-01

    This review outlines the synthesis of covalent conjugates of oligonucleotides and their analogues that are obtained by reactions of carbonyl compounds with various nucleophiles such as primary amines, N-alkoxyamines, hydrazines, and hydrazides. The products linked by imino, oxime, hydrazone, or thiazolidine groups are shown to be useful intermediates for a wide range of chemical biology applications. Methods for their preparation, isolation, purification, and analysis are highlighted, and the comparative stabilities of the respective linkages are evaluated. The relative merits of incorporation of a carbonyl group, particularly an aldehyde group, into either the oligonucleotide or the ligand parts are considered. Examples of harnessing of aldehyde-nucleophile coupling for the labeling of nucleic acids are given, as well as their conjugation to various biomolecules (e.g. peptides and small molecule ligands), site-specific cross-linking of oligonucleotides to nucleic acid-binding proteins, assembly of multibranched supramolecular structures, and immobilization on functionalized surfaces. Future perspectives of bioconjugation and complex molecular engineering via carbonyl group addition-elimination reactions in nucleic acids chemistry are discussed.

  9. Mongersen, an oral SMAD7 antisense oligonucleotide, and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Giovanni; Neurath, Markus F; Ardizzone, Sandro; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Fantini, Massimo C; Castiglione, Fabiana; Scribano, Maria L; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Caprioli, Flavio; Sturniolo, Giacomo C; Rogai, Francesca; Vecchi, Maurizio; Atreya, Raja; Bossa, Fabrizio; Onali, Sara; Fichera, Maria; Corazza, Gino R; Biancone, Livia; Savarino, Vincenzo; Pica, Roberta; Orlando, Ambrogio; Pallone, Francesco

    2015-03-19

    Crohn's disease-related inflammation is characterized by reduced activity of the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) due to high levels of SMAD7, an inhibitor of TGF-β1 signaling. Preclinical studies and a phase 1 study have shown that an oral SMAD7 antisense oligonucleotide, mongersen, targets ileal and colonic SMAD7. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, we evaluated the efficacy of mongersen for the treatment of persons with active Crohn's disease. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 10, 40, or 160 mg of mongersen or placebo per day for 2 weeks. The primary outcomes were clinical remission at day 15, defined as a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) score of less than 150, with maintenance of remission for at least 2 weeks, and the safety of mongersen treatment. A secondary outcome was clinical response (defined as a reduction of 100 points or more in the CDAI score) at day 28. The proportions of patients who reached the primary end point were 55% and 65% for the 40-mg and 160-mg mongersen groups, respectively, as compared with 10% for the placebo group (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the percentage of participants reaching clinical remission between the 10-mg group (12%) and the placebo group. The rate of clinical response was significantly greater among patients receiving 10 mg (37%), 40 mg (58%), or 160 mg (72%) of mongersen than among those receiving placebo (17%) (P=0.04, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively). Most adverse events were related to complications and symptoms of Crohn's disease. We found that study participants with Crohn's disease who received mongersen had significantly higher rates of remission and clinical response than those who received placebo. (Funded by Giuliani; EudraCT number, 2011-002640-27.).

  10. A dystrophic Duchenne mouse model for testing human antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Veltrop

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a severe muscle-wasting disease generally caused by reading frame disrupting mutations in the DMD gene resulting in loss of functional dystrophin protein. The reading frame can be restored by antisense oligonucleotide (AON-mediated exon skipping, allowing production of internally deleted, but partially functional dystrophin proteins as found in the less severe Becker muscular dystrophy. Due to genetic variation between species, mouse models with mutations in the murine genes are of limited use to test and further optimize human specific AONs in vivo. To address this we have generated the del52hDMD/mdx mouse. This model carries both murine and human DMD genes. However, mouse dystrophin expression is abolished due to a stop mutation in exon 23, while the expression of human dystrophin is abolished due to a deletion of exon 52. The del52hDMD/mdx model, like mdx, shows signs of muscle dystrophy on a histological level and phenotypically mild functional impairment. Local administration of human specific vivo morpholinos induces exon skipping and dystrophin restoration in these mice. Depending on the number of mismatches, occasional skipping of the murine Dmd gene, albeit at low levels, could be observed. Unlike previous models, the del52hDMD/mdx model enables the in vivo analysis of human specific AONs targeting exon 51 or exon 53 on RNA and protein level and muscle quality and function. Therefore, it will be a valuable tool for optimizing human specific AONs and genome editing approaches for DMD.

  11. Profiled support vector machines for antisense oligonucleotide efficacy prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Guerrero José D

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the use of Support Vector Machines (SVMs for prediction and analysis of antisense oligonucleotide (AO efficacy. The collected database comprises 315 AO molecules including 68 features each, inducing a problem well-suited to SVMs. The task of feature selection is crucial given the presence of noisy or redundant features, and the well-known problem of the curse of dimensionality. We propose a two-stage strategy to develop an optimal model: (1 feature selection using correlation analysis, mutual information, and SVM-based recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE, and (2 AO prediction using standard and profiled SVM formulations. A profiled SVM gives different weights to different parts of the training data to focus the training on the most important regions. Results In the first stage, the SVM-RFE technique was most efficient and robust in the presence of low number of samples and high input space dimension. This method yielded an optimal subset of 14 representative features, which were all related to energy and sequence motifs. The second stage evaluated the performance of the predictors (overall correlation coefficient between observed and predicted efficacy, r; mean error, ME; and root-mean-square-error, RMSE using 8-fold and minus-one-RNA cross-validation methods. The profiled SVM produced the best results (r = 0.44, ME = 0.022, and RMSE= 0.278 and predicted high (>75% inhibition of gene expression and low efficacy (http://aosvm.cgb.ki.se/. Conclusions The SVM approach is well suited to the AO prediction problem, and yields a prediction accuracy superior to previous methods. The profiled SVM was found to perform better than the standard SVM, suggesting that it could lead to improvements in other prediction problems as well.

  12. Sense and antisense transcripts in the histone H1 (HIS-1) locus of Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Sabina I; Monnerat, Séverine; Schaff, Cédric; Masina, Slavica; Noll, Tanja; Myler, Peter J; Stuart, Kenneth; Fasel, Nicolas

    2003-08-01

    Histone H1 in the parasitic protozoan Leishmania is a developmentally regulated protein encoded by two genes, HIS-1.1 and HIS-1.2. These genes are separated by approximately 20 kb of sequence and are located on the same DNA strand of chromosome 27. When Northern blots of parasite RNA were probed with HIS-1 strand-specific riboprobes, we detected sense and antisense transcripts that were polyadenylated and developmentally regulated. When the HIS-1.2 coding region was replaced with the coding region of the neomycin phosphotransferase gene, antisense transcription of this gene was unaffected, indicating that the regulatory elements controlling antisense transcription were located outside of the HIS-1.2 gene, and that transcription in Leishmania can occur from both DNA strands even in the presence of transcription of a selectable marker in the complementary strand. A search for other antisense transcripts within the HIS-1 locus identified an additional transcript (SC-1) within the intervening HIS-1 sequence, downstream of adenine and thymine-rich sequences. These results show that gene expression in Leishmania is not only regulated polycistronically from the sense strand of genomic DNA, but that the complementary strand of DNA also contains sequences that could drive expression of open reading frames from the antisense strand of DNA. These findings suggest that the parasite has evolved in such a way as to maximise the transcription of its genome, a mechanism that might be important for it to maintain virulence.

  13. Transfection of mouse cytotoxic T lymphocyte with an antisense granzyme A vector reduces lytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento, A; Nguyen, M; Law, S; Wu, J K; Poe, M; Blake, J T; Patel, M; Wu, T J; Manyak, C L; Silberklang, M

    1992-12-15

    Murine CTL have seven serine proteases, known as granzymes, in their lytic granules. Despite considerable effort, convincing evidence that these enzymes play an obligatory role in the lytic process has not been presented. To investigate the function of one of these proteases, granzyme A (GA), we utilized an antisense expression vector to lower the level of the enzyme in the cells. An expression vector containing antisense cDNA for GA and the gene for hygromycin B resistance was constructed and electroporated into the murine CTL line, AR1. Transfectants were selected based on resistance to hygromycin B, and a number of stable lines were developed. One of the antisense lines had greatly reduced levels of GA mRNA, when compared to the parental cells or to control lines transfected with the vector lacking the antisense DNA. The message levels for two other CTL granule proteins, granzyme B and perforin, were unaffected by the antisense vector. The amount of GA, as measured by enzymatic activity, was 3- to 10-fold lower in the transfectant. Most significantly, this line also consistently showed 50 to 70% lower ability to lyse nucleated target cells and to degrade their DNA. Furthermore, it exhibited 90 to 95% lower lytic activity to anti-CD3-coated SRBC. Conjugate formation with target cells, however, was normal. These data provide strong evidence that GA plays an important role in the cytolytic cycle, and that the quantity of enzyme is a limiting factor in these cytolytic cells.

  14. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by synthetic peptides derived CCR5 fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Masaki; Baranyi, Lajos; Okada, Noriko; Okada, Hidechika

    2007-01-01

    HIV-1 infection requires interaction of viral envelope protein gp160 with CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4 as entry coreceptor. We designed HIV-inhibitory peptides targeted to CCR5 using a novel computer program (ANTIS), which searched all possible sense-antisense amino acid pairs between proteins. Seven AHBs were found in CCR5 receptor. All AHB peptides were synthesized and tested for their ability to prevent HIV-1 infection to human T cells. A peptide fragment (LC5) which is a part of the CCR5 receptor corresponding to the loop between the fifth and sixth transmembrane regions (amino acids 222-240) proved to inhibit HIV-1 IIIB infection of MT-4 cells. Interaction of these antisense peptides could be involved in sustaining HIV-1 infectivity. LC5 effectively indicated dose-dependent manner, and the suppression was enhanced additively by T20 peptide, which inhibits infection in vitro by disrupting the gp41 conformational changes necessary for membrane fusion. Thus, these results indicate that CCR5-derived AHB peptides could provide a useful tool to define the mechanism(s) of HIV infection, and may provide insight which will contribute to the development of an anti-HIV-1 reagent

  15. Deep Ultraviolet Mapping of Intracellular Protein and Nucleic Acid in Femtograms per Pixel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Man C.; Evans, James G.; McKenna, Brian; Ehrlich, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    By using imaging spectrophotometry with paired images in the 200- to 280-nm wavelength range, we have directly mapped intracellular nucleic acid and protein distributions across a population of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. A broadband 100× objective with a numerical aperture of 1.2NA (glycerin immersion) and a novel laser-induced-plasma point source generated high-contrast images with short (~100 ms) exposures and a lateral resolution nearing 200 nm that easily resolves internal organelles. In a population of 420 CHO-K1 cells and 477 nuclei, we found a G1 whole-cell nucleic acid peak at 26.6 pg, a nuclear-isolated total nucleic acid peak at 11.4 pg, and, as inferred by RNase treatment, a G1 total DNA mass of 7.4 pg. At the G1 peak we found a whole-cell protein mass of 95.6 pg, and a nuclear-isolated protein mass of 39.3 pg. An algorithm for protein quantification that senses peptide-bond (220-nm) absorbance was found to have a higher signal-to-noise ratio and to provide more reliable nucleic acid and protein determinations when compared to more classical 280-nm/260-nm algorithms when used for intracellular mass mapping. Using simultaneous imaging with common nuclear stains (Hoechst 33342, Syto-14, and Sytox Orange), we have compared staining patterns to deep-UV images of condensed chromatin and have confirmed bias of these common nuclear stains related to nuclear packaging. The approach allows absolute mass measurements with no special sample preparation or staining. It can be used in conjunction with normal fluorescence microscopy and with relatively modest modification of the microscope. PMID:21796773

  16. The 2016 database issue of Nucleic Acids Research and an updated molecular biology database collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigden, Daniel J.; Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M.; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research starts with overviews of the resources provided by three major bioinformatics centers, the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) and Swiss Institute for Bioinformatics (SIB). Also included are descriptions of 62 new databases and updates on 95 databases that have been previously featured in NAR plus 17 previously described elsewhere. A number of papers in this issue deal with resources on nucleic acids, including various kinds of non-coding RNAs and their interactions, molecular dynamics simulations of nucleic acid structure, and two databases of super-enhancers. The protein database section features important updates on the EBI's Pfam, PDBe and PRIDE databases, as well as a variety of resources on pathways, metabolomics and metabolic modeling. This issue also includes updates on popular metagenomics resources, such as MG-RAST, EBI Metagenomics, and probeBASE, as well as a newly compiled Human Pan-Microbe Communities database. A significant fraction of the new and updated databases are dedicated to the genetic basis of disease, primarily cancer, and various aspects of drug research, including resources for patented drugs, their side effects, withdrawn drugs, and potential drug targets. A further six papers present updated databases of various antimicrobial and anticancer peptides. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/). The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/, has been updated with the addition of 88 new resources and removal of 23 obsolete websites, which brought the current listing to 1685 databases. PMID:26740669

  17. Stabilized lipid coated lipoplexes for the delivery of antisense oligonucleotides to liver endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartsch, M; Weeke-Klimp, AH; Hoenselaar, EPD; Stuart, MCA; Meijer, DKF; Scherphof, GL; Kamps, JAAM

    2004-01-01

    We report on the preparation and in vivo / in vitro disposition of antisense ODN encapsulating coated cationic lipoplexes (CCLs), prepared by a procedure essentially developed by Stuart and Allen (Stuart, D.D. and Allen, T.M. (2000) "A new liposomal formulation for antisense oligodeoxynucleotides

  18. Antisense long non-coding RNAs in rainbow trout: Discovery and potential role in muscle growth and quality traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endogenous mRNA-antisense transcripts are involved in regulation of a wide range of biological processes including muscle development and quality traits of farm animals. Standard RNA-Seq can be used to identify sense-antisense transcripts. However, strand-specific RNA-Seq is required to resolve ambi...

  19. Large-scale analysis of antisense transcription in wheat using the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settles Matthew L

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural antisense transcripts (NATs are transcripts of the opposite DNA strand to the sense-strand either at the same locus (cis-encoded or a different locus (trans-encoded. They can affect gene expression at multiple stages including transcription, RNA processing and transport, and translation. NATs give rise to sense-antisense transcript pairs and the number of these identified has escalated greatly with the availability of DNA sequencing resources and public databases. Traditionally, NATs were identified by the alignment of full-length cDNAs or expressed sequence tags to genome sequences, but an alternative method for large-scale detection of sense-antisense transcript pairs involves the use of microarrays. In this study we developed a novel protocol to assay sense- and antisense-strand transcription on the 55 K Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array, which is a 3' in vitro transcription (3'IVT expression array. We selected five different tissue types for assay to enable maximum discovery, and used the 'Chinese Spring' wheat genotype because most of the wheat GeneChip probe sequences were based on its genomic sequence. This study is the first report of using a 3'IVT expression array to discover the expression of natural sense-antisense transcript pairs, and may be considered as proof-of-concept. Results By using alternative target preparation schemes, both the sense- and antisense-strand derived transcripts were labeled and hybridized to the Wheat GeneChip. Quality assurance verified that successful hybridization did occur in the antisense-strand assay. A stringent threshold for positive hybridization was applied, which resulted in the identification of 110 sense-antisense transcript pairs, as well as 80 potentially antisense-specific transcripts. Strand-specific RT-PCR validated the microarray observations, and showed that antisense transcription is likely to be tissue specific. For the annotated sense-antisense

  20. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce [Pullman, WA; Burke, Charles Cullen [Moscow, ID

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  1. Role of natural antisense transcripts pertaining to tumor suppressor genes in human carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelicci, G.; Pierotti, M.

    2009-01-01

    Overlapping transcripts in opposite orientations can potentially form perfect sense-antisense duplex RNA. Recently, several studies have revealed the extent of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) and their role in important biological phenomena also in higher organisms. In order to test the hypothesis that the function of NATs in man might represent an essential element in the regulation of gene expression, especially at transcriptional level, in this study we planned to look for, systematically examine, and characterize NATs belonging in the human genome to the tumour suppressor class of genes, so to identify physiological (and potentially pathological) modulators in this gene class

  2. Extrachromosomal nucleic acids in bovine babesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Hotzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of small extrachromosomal nucleic acid elements were found in the bovine babesias, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. One element with an apparent size of 5.5 kilobase pairs (kbp is a double stranded RNA related to virus like particles. Another molecule is a double stranded DNA with a molecular size of about 6.2 kbp. Southern blot comparison of restriction DNA fragments of the latter molecule, which is present in both B. bovis and B. bigemina is described.

  3. A specific scenario for the origin of life and the genetic code based on peptide/oligonucleotide interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Among various scenarios that attempt to explain how life arose, the RNA world is currently the most widely accepted scientific hypothesis among biologists. However, the RNA world is logistically implausible and doesn't explain how translation arose and DNA became incorporated into living systems. Here I propose an alternative hypothesis for life's origin based on cooperation between simple nucleic acids, peptides and lipids. Organic matter that accumulated on the prebiotic Earth segregated into phases in the ocean based on density and solubility. Synthesis of complex organic monomers and polymerization reactions occurred within a surface hydrophilic layer and at its aqueous and atmospheric interfaces. Replication of nucleic acids and translation of peptides began at the emulsified interface between hydrophobic and aqueous layers. At the core of the protobiont was a family of short nucleic acids bearing arginine's codon and anticodon that added this amino acid to pre-formed peptides. In turn, the survival and replication of nucleic acid was aided by the peptides. The arginine-enriched peptides served to sequester and transfer phosphate bond energy and acted as cohesive agents, aggregating nucleic acids and keeping them at the interface.

  4. Conformational analysis of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV derived cell penetrating peptide (CPP analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay G. Joshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to develop peptide analogs of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD virus VP5 protein segment having cell penetrating ability to improve their interaction with cargo molecule (Nucleic acid without affecting the backbone conformation. Materials and Methods: IBDV VP5 protein segment designated as RATH peptide were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and their solution conformation was elucidated using CD spectroscopy in polar (water and apolar (TFE solvents. Cell penetrating ability of RATH-CONH2 was observed using FITC labeled peptide internalization in to HeLa cells under fluorescent microscopy. The efficacy of RATH analog interactions with nucleic acids was evaluated using FITC labeled oligonucleotides by fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay. Results: CD spectra of RATH analogs in water and apolar trifluroethanol (TFE helped to compare their secondary structures which were almost similar with dominant beta conformations suggesting successful induction of positive charge in the analogs without affecting back bone conformation of CPP designed. Cell penetrating ability of RATH CONH2 in HeLa cell was more than 90%. The fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay demonstrated successful interaction of amide analogs with nucleic acid. Conclusion: Intentional changes made in IBDV derived peptide RATH COOH to RATH CONH2 did not showed major changes in backbone conformation and such modifications may help to improve the cationic charge in most CPPs to interact with nucleic acid. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 307-312

  5. Nanopore sensors for nucleic acid analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Jonathan J; Akeson, Mark; Marziali, Andre

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade, nanometre-scale pores have been explored as the basis for technologies to analyse and sequence single nucleic acid molecules. Most approaches involve using such a pore to localize single macromolecules and interact with them to garner some information on their composition. Though nanopore sensors cannot yet claim success at deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing, nanopore-based technologies offer one of the most promising approaches to single molecule detection and analysis. The majority of experimental work with nanopore detection of nucleic acids has involved the α-haemolysin (alpha-HL) ion channel a heptameric protein with a ∼2 nm diameter inner pore which allows translocation of single-stranded DNA. Analysis of externally induced ion current through the pore during its interaction with DNA can provide information about the DNA molecule, including length and base composition. This review focuses on alpha-HL and its applications to single-molecule detection. Modified alpha-HL and other biological and synthetic pores for macromolecule detection are also discussed, along with a brief summary of relevant theoretical work and numerical modelling of polymer-pore interaction. (topical review)

  6. 5′-O-Methylphosphonate nucleic acids—new modified DNAs that increase the Escherichia coli RNase H cleavage rate of hybrid duplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šípová, Hana; Špringer, Tomáš; Rejman, Dominik; Šimák, Ondřej; Petrová, Magdalena; Novák, Pavel; Rosenbergová, Šárka; Páv, Ondřej; Liboska, Radek; Barvík, Ivan; Štěpánek, Josef; Rosenberg, Ivan; Homola, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Several oligothymidylates containing various ratios of phosphodiester and isopolar 5′-hydroxyphosphonate, 5′-O-methylphosphonate and 3′-O-methylphosphonate internucleotide linkages were examined with respect to their hybridization properties with oligoriboadenylates and their ability to induce RNA cleavage by ribonuclease H (RNase H). The results demonstrated that the increasing number of 5′-hydroxyphosphonate or 5′-O-methylphosphonate units in antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) significantly stabilizes the heteroduplexes, whereas 3′-O-methylphosphonate AOs cause strong destabilization of the heteroduplexes. Only the heteroduplexes with 5′-O-methylphosphonate units in the antisense strand exhibited a significant increase in Escherichia coli RNase H cleavage activity by up to 3-fold (depending on the ratio of phosphodiester and phosphonate linkages) in comparison with the natural heteroduplex. A similar increase in RNase H cleavage activity was also observed for heteroduplexes composed of miRNA191 and complementary AOs containing 5′-O-methylphosphonate units. We propose for this type of AOs, working via the RNase H mechanism, the abbreviation MEPNA (MEthylPhosphonate Nucleic Acid). PMID:24523351

  7. 5'-O-Methylphosphonate nucleic acids--new modified DNAs that increase the Escherichia coli RNase H cleavage rate of hybrid duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šipova, Hana; Špringer, Tomaš; Rejman, Dominik; Šimak, Ondřej; Petrová, Magdalena; Novák, Pavel; Rosenbergová, Šarka; Páv, Ondřej; Liboska, Radek; Barvík, Ivan; Štěpanek, Josef; Rosenberg, Ivan; Homola, Jiři

    2014-04-01

    Several oligothymidylates containing various ratios of phosphodiester and isopolar 5'-hydroxyphosphonate, 5'-O-methylphosphonate and 3'-O-methylphosphonate internucleotide linkages were examined with respect to their hybridization properties with oligoriboadenylates and their ability to induce RNA cleavage by ribonuclease H (RNase H). The results demonstrated that the increasing number of 5'-hydroxyphosphonate or 5'-O-methylphosphonate units in antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) significantly stabilizes the heteroduplexes, whereas 3'-O-methylphosphonate AOs cause strong destabilization of the heteroduplexes. Only the heteroduplexes with 5'-O-methylphosphonate units in the antisense strand exhibited a significant increase in Escherichia coli RNase H cleavage activity by up to 3-fold (depending on the ratio of phosphodiester and phosphonate linkages) in comparison with the natural heteroduplex. A similar increase in RNase H cleavage activity was also observed for heteroduplexes composed of miRNA191 and complementary AOs containing 5'-O-methylphosphonate units. We propose for this type of AOs, working via the RNase H mechanism, the abbreviation MEPNA (MEthylPhosphonate Nucleic Acid).

  8. Drug evaluation: ISIS-301012, an antisense oligonucleotide for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, John R

    2006-10-01

    ISIS-301012 is an antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of apolipoprotein B-100, which is being developed by Isis Pharmaceuticals Inc for the potential treatment of hypercholesterolemia. A subcutaneous injectable formulation is currently undergoing phase 11 clinical trials, while phase I trials are underway with an oral formulation of the drug.

  9. Metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) plants transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gall, G.; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Pedersen, Jan W.

    2005-01-01

    A metabolite profiling study has been carried out on Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotype Wassilewskija and a series of transgenic lines of the ecotype transformed with a CHS (chalcone synthase) antisense construct. Compound identifications by LC/MS and H-1 NMR are discussed. The glucosinolate...

  10. Molecular characterization of a stable antisense chalcone synthase phenotype in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunkenbein, S.; Coiner, H.; Vos, de C.H.; Schaart, J.G.; Boone, M.J.; Krens, F.A.; Schwab, W.; Salentijn, E.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    An octaploid (Fragaria × ananassa cv. Calypso) genotype of strawberry was transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase (CHS) gene construct using a ripening related CHS cDNA from Fragaria × ananassa cv. Elsanta under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

  11. Antisense to the glucocorticoid receptor in hippocampal dentate gyrus reduces immobility in forced swim test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S.M.; de Kloet, E.R.; Buwalda, B; Bouman, S.D.; Bohus, B

    1996-01-01

    Immobility time of rats in the forced swim test was reduced after bilateral infusion of an 18-mer antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide targeted to the glucocorticoid receptor mRNA into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Vehicle-, sense- and scrambled sequence-treated animals spent

  12. Inhibition of leukemia cell proliferation by receptor-mediated uptake of c-myb antisense oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citro, G; Perrotti, D; Cucco, C; D'Agnano, I; Sacchi, A; Zupi, G; Calabretta, B

    1992-01-01

    Exposure of human leukemia HL-60 cells to an oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to an 18-base sequence (codons 2-7) of c-myb-encoded mRNA has previously been shown to result in inhibition of cell proliferation. Because HL-60 cells express high levels of transferrin receptor we adapted a DNA delivery system based on receptor-mediated endocytosis to introduce myb oligomers complexed with a transferrin-polylysine conjugate into those cells. A DNA.RNA duplex resistant to S1 nuclease digestion was detected as early as 12 hr after culture of HL-60 cells in the presence of the myb antisense/transferrin-polylysine complex. Exposure of HL-60 cells to the myb antisense/transferrin-polylysine complex resulted in rapid and profound inhibition of proliferation and loss of cell viability much more pronounced than that occurring in cells exposed to free myb antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. The transferrin-polylysine/myb sense complex or the transferrin-polylysine conjugate alone had no effect on HL-60 cell proliferation and viability. These findings indicate that myb synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides enter efficiently into HL-60 by transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis and exert a profound biological effect. Such a delivery system could exploit other ligand-receptor interactions for the selective delivery of oncogene-targeted antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Images PMID:1495997

  13. Therapeutic antisense-induced exon skipping in cultured muscle cells from six different DMD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Janson, Anneke A. M.; Kaman, Wendy E.; Bremmer-Bout, Mattie; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Baas, Frank; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; van Deutekom, Judith C. T.

    2003-01-01

    The dystrophin deficiency leading to the severely progressing muscle degeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients is caused by frame-shifting mutations in the DMD gene. We are developing a reading frame correction therapy aimed at the antisense-induced skipping of targeted exons from

  14. Mismatched single stranded antisense oligonucleotides can induce efficient dystrophin splice switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kole Ryszard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense oligomer induced exon skipping aims to reduce the severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by redirecting splicing during pre-RNA processing such that the causative mutation is by-passed and a shorter but partially functional Becker muscular dystrophy-like dystrophin isoform is produced. Normal exons are generally targeted to restore the dystrophin reading frame however, an appreciable subset of dystrophin mutations are intra-exonic and therefore have the potential to compromise oligomer efficiency, necessitating personalised oligomer design for some patients. Although antisense oligomers are easily personalised, it remains unclear whether all patient polymorphisms within antisense oligomer target sequences will require the costly process of producing and validating patient specific compounds. Methods Here we report preclinical testing of a panel of splice switching antisense oligomers, designed to excise exon 25 from the dystrophin transcript, in normal and dystrophic patient cells. These patient cells harbour a single base insertion in exon 25 that lies within the target sequence of an oligomer shown to be effective at removing exon 25. Results It was anticipated that such a mutation would compromise oligomer binding and efficiency. However, we show that, despite the mismatch an oligomer, designed and optimised to excise exon 25 from the normal dystrophin mRNA, removes the mutated exon 25 more efficiently than the mutation-specific oligomer. Conclusion This raises the possibility that mismatched AOs could still be therapeutically applicable in some cases, negating the necessity to produce patient-specific compounds.

  15. Scintigraphic imaging of oncogenes with antisense probes: does it make sense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.C.; Shore, S.K.; Vekemans, M.C.; Cosenza, S.C.; DeRiel, K.; Patel, G.V.; Charkes, N.D.; Malmud, L.S.; Reddy, E.P.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that cells which are expressing a particular mRNA transcript do preferentially and specifically retain the antisense probe targeting that mRNA. Using a mouse plasmacytoma cell line (MOPC315) which produces high levels of IgA heavy chain mRNA, a control mouse pre B cell line (7OZ/3B), a human mammary cell line (MCF7) which expresses the erbB2 or neu oncogene, MOPC315 cells as neu-negative controls, and antisense DNA oligonucleotides complementary to the 5' region of the mRNAs and the sense sequence, we have shown that there is a preferential, specific retention of the IgA and neu antisense sequence in MOPC315 and MCF7 cells, respectively. We have further demonstrated that this retention is time and concentration dependent with a maximum at 24 h. We conclude that cancer cells which express a particular oncogene are suitable targets for radiolabeled antisense deoxyoligonucleotides directed toward the oncogene transcript. (orig.)

  16. Photoactivatable antisense DNA: suppression of ampicillin resistance in normally resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparro, F P; Edelson, R L; O'Malley, M E; Ugent, S J; Wong, H H

    1991-01-01

    Antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides complementary to a segment of the beta-lactamase gene and containing psoralen monoadducts at specific sites were examined for their ability to make normally resistant bacteria sensitive to ampicillin. Irradiation of oligonucleotides and psoralens with long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (380-400 nm) produced monoadducted antisense molecules. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to purify microgram quantities of photoactivatable antisense DNA. Escherichia coli transformed with a plasmid containing the gene for beta-lactamase were used to test a series of oligonucleotides containing psoralen monoadducts after additional exposure to the photoactivating effects of long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (320-400 nm). Normally resistant bacteria treated with this photoactivatable form of antisense DNA (0.4 microM) were specifically sensitized to ampicillin. The reduction in colony formation ranged from 31 to 79% in comparison to control oligonucleotides which did not contain photoactivatable monoadduct moieties. Bacteria treated in a similar manner but in the presence of tetracycline instead of ampicillin were not affected. The activity of beta-galactosidase, whose gene is located on the same plasmid as beta-lactamase, was not affected.

  17. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian [Sunnyvale, CA

    2012-02-14

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  18. Circulating nucleic acids damage DNA of healthy cells by integrating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Whether nucleic acids that circulate in blood have any patho-physiological functions in the host have not been explored. We report here that far from being inert molecules, circulating nucleic acids have significant biological activities of their own that are deleterious to healthy cells of the body. Fragmented DNA and ...

  19. Biological activity and biotechnological aspects of locked nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Karin E; Højland, Torben; Hansen, Bo R.

    2013-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is one of the most promising new nucleic acid analogues that has been produced under the past two decades. In this chapter, we have tried to cover many of the different areas, where this molecule has been used to improve the function of synthetic oligonucleotides (ONs). ...

  20. MEANS AND METHODS FOR CLONING NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma, Eric Robin; Poolman, Berend

    2008-01-01

    The invention provides means and methods for efficiently cloning nucleic acid sequences of interest in micro-organisms that are less amenable to conventional nucleic acid manipulations, as compared to, for instance, E.coli. The present invention enables high-throughput cloning (and, preferably,

  1. EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian [Sunnyvale, CA

    2008-04-01

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  2. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian [Sunnyvale, CA

    2009-05-05

    The present invention provides an endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  3. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2013-07-16

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  4. EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-06-06

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  5. EGVIII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-05-23

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl8, and the corresponding EGVIII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVIII, recombinant EGVIII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  6. Nucleic acid drugs: a novel approach | Jarald | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nucleic acid base sequence of proteins plays a crucial role in the expression of gene. The gene is responsible for the synthesis of proteins and these proteins, which are synthesized, are responsible for the biological process and also for dreadful diseases as well. Once if the nucleic acid sequence is altered, we would be ...

  7. Antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of Heat Shock Protein (HSP 47 improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguchi Takayuki

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common pathologic form of pulmonary fibrosis arises from excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen. The 47 kDa heat shock protein 47 (HSP47 is a collagen-specific molecular chaperone that has been shown to play a major role during the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. Objectives To determine whether inhibition of HSP47 could have beneficial effects in mitigating bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Methods All experiments were performed with 250–300 g male Wistar rats. Animals were randomly divided into five experimental groups that were administered: 1 saline alone, 2 bleomycin alone, 3 antisense HSP47 oligonucleotides alone, 4 bleomycin + antisense HSP47 oligonucleotides, and 5 bleomycin + sense control oligonucleotides. We investigated lung histopathology and performed immunoblot and immunohistochemistry analyses. Results In rats treated with HSP47 antisense oligonucleotides, pulmonary fibrosis was significantly reduced. In addition, treatment with HSP47 antisense oligonucleotides significantly improved bleomycin-induced morphological changes. Treatment with HSP47 antisense oligonucleotides alone did not produce any significant changes to lung morphology. Immunoblot analyses of lung homogenates confirmed the inhibition of HSP47 protein by antisense oligonucleotides. The bleo + sense group, however, did not exhibit any improvement in lung pathology compared to bleomycin alone groups, and also had no effect on HSP47 expression. Conclusion These findings suggest that HSP47 antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of HSP47 improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis pathology in rats.

  8. Locked and unlocked nucleosides in functional nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doessing, Holger; Vester, Birte

    2011-01-01

    Nucleic acids are able to adopt a plethora of structures, many of which are of interest in therapeutics, bio- or nanotechnology. However, structural and biochemical stability is a major concern which has been addressed by incorporating a range of modifications and nucleoside derivatives. This rev......Nucleic acids are able to adopt a plethora of structures, many of which are of interest in therapeutics, bio- or nanotechnology. However, structural and biochemical stability is a major concern which has been addressed by incorporating a range of modifications and nucleoside derivatives....... This review summarizes the use of locked nucleic acid (LNA) and un-locked nucleic acid (UNA) monomers in functional nucleic acids such as aptamers, ribozymes, and DNAzymes....

  9. Cytosolic nucleic acid sensors and innate immune regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Daisuke; Murase, Motoya; Kawai, Taro

    2017-03-04

    During viral and bacterial infections, pathogen-derived cytosolic nucleic acids are recognized by the intracellular RNA sensors retinoic acid-inducible gene I and melanoma-differentiated gene 5 and intracellular DNA sensors, including cyclic-di-GMP-AMP synthase, absent in melanoma 2, interferon (IFN)-gamma inducible protein 16, polymerase III, and so on. Binding of intracellular nucleic acids to these sensors activates downstream signaling cascades, resulting in the production of type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines to induce appropriate systematic immune responses. While these sensors also recognize endogenous nucleic acids and activate immune responses, they can discriminate between self- and non-self-nucleic acids. However, dysfunction of these sensors or failure of regulatory mechanisms causes aberrant activation of immune response and autoimmune disorders. In this review, we focus on how intracellular immune sensors recognize exogenous nucleic acids and activate the innate immune system, and furthermore, how autoimmune diseases result from dysfunction of these sensors.

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Adem Bahar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics.

  11. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen

  12. Nucleic Acid Aptamers for Living Cell Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiangling; Lv, Yifan; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong

    2014-06-01

    Cells as the building blocks of life determine the basic functions and properties of a living organism. Understanding the structure and components of a cell aids in the elucidation of its biological functions. Moreover, knowledge of the similarities and differences between diseased and healthy cells is essential to understanding pathological mechanisms, identifying diagnostic markers, and designing therapeutic molecules. However, monitoring the structures and activities of a living cell remains a challenging task in bioanalytical and life science research. To meet the requirements of this task, aptamers, as “chemical antibodies,” have become increasingly powerful tools for cellular analysis. This article reviews recent advances in the development of nucleic acid aptamers in the areas of cell membrane analysis, cell detection and isolation, real-time monitoring of cell secretion, and intracellular delivery and analysis with living cell models. Limitations of aptamers and possible solutions are also discussed.

  13. Quantitative thermodynamic predication of interactions between nucleic acid and non-nucleic acid species using Microsoft excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jiaqi; Li, Na

    2013-09-01

    Proper design of nucleic acid sequences is crucial for many applications. We have previously established a thermodynamics-based quantitative model to help design aptamer-based nucleic acid probes by predicting equilibrium concentrations of all interacting species. To facilitate customization of this thermodynamic model for different applications, here we present a generic and easy-to-use platform to implement the algorithm of the model with Microsoft(®) Excel formulas and VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) macros. Two Excel spreadsheets have been developed: one for the applications involving only nucleic acid species, the other for the applications involving both nucleic acid and non-nucleic acid species. The spreadsheets take the nucleic acid sequences and the initial concentrations of all species as input, guide the user to retrieve the necessary thermodynamic constants, and finally calculate equilibrium concentrations for all species in various bound and unbound conformations. The validity of both spreadsheets has been verified by comparing the modeling results with the experimental results on nucleic acid sequences reported in the literature. This Excel-based platform described here will allow biomedical researchers to rationalize the sequence design of nucleic acid probes using the thermodynamics-based modeling even without relevant theoretical and computational skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on T-cell receptors involved in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis using the complementary peptide recognition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, C J; Simmons, R D; Willenborg, D O; Vandenbark, A A; Hashim, G A; Carnegie, P R

    1995-08-01

    Based upon Blalock's complementary recognition approach, a complementary or antisense peptide (CP) was designed to the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) epitope peptide, rat myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide 72-82. This peptide (EAE CP) was shown to have some sequence similarities to T-cell receptors (TCR) and MHC II molecules in a sequence homology search. Solid-phase binding assays demonstrated specific and high affinity binding (3 and 4 microM) between the EAE CP and the rat and guinea pig EAE epitope peptides (Rt72-82 and Gp69-82), respectively. This EAE CP was also found to be immunogenic in rats in an ear swelling test for delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions and an ELISA for antibody responses. However, a rabbit antibody generated to EAE CP was shown to be unable to stain the V beta 8+ EAE susceptible T-cells in immunofluorescence analyses. This EAE CP was also used in attempts to down-regulate EAE and the results showed that prior immunization with EAE CP in complete Freund's adjuvant could not prevent the Lewis rats from developing EAE. Although the data on sense-antisense peptide interaction were positive and the EAE CP was immunogenic, the inability of EAE CP to regulate EAE indicates that the CP approach may not be generally applicable.

  15. Applications of synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques in studying nucleic acids and nucleic acid-functionalized nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peiwen; Yu, Yang; McGhee, Claire E; Tan, Li Huey; Lu, Yi

    2014-12-10

    In this review, we summarize recent progress in the application of synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques for nucleic acid research that takes advantage of high-flux and high-brilliance electromagnetic radiation from synchrotron sources. The first section of the review focuses on the characterization of the structure and folding processes of nucleic acids using different types of synchrotron-based spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation circular dichroism, X-ray footprinting and small-angle X-ray scattering. In the second section, the characterization of nucleic acid-based nanostructures, nucleic acid-functionalized nanomaterials and nucleic acid-lipid interactions using these spectroscopic techniques is summarized. Insights gained from these studies are described and future directions of this field are also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. PNA-Peptide Assembly in a 3D DNA Nanocage at Room Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, Justin D. [Center; Shinde, Sandip [Center; Lin, Su [Center; Liu, Yan [Center; Yan, Hao [Center; Ghirlanda, Giovanna [Center; Fromme, Petra [Center

    2013-04-12

    Proteins and peptides fold into dynamic structures that access a broad functional landscape; however, designing artificial polypeptide systems is still a great challenge. Conversely, DNA engineering is now routinely used to build a wide variety of 2D and 3D nanostructures from hybridization based rules, and their functional diversity can be significantly expanded through site specific incorporation of the appropriate guest molecules. Here we demonstrate a new approach to rationally design 3D nucleic acid–amino acid complexes using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) to assemble peptides inside a 3D DNA nanocage. The PNA-peptides were found to bind to the preassembled DNA nanocage in 5–10 min at room temperature, and assembly could be performed in a stepwise fashion. Biophysical characterization of the DNA-PNA-peptide complex was performed using gel electrophoresis as well as steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Based on these results we have developed a model for the arrangement of the PNA-peptides inside the DNA nanocage. This work demonstrates a flexible new approach to leverage rationally designed nucleic acid (DNA-PNA) nanoscaffolds to guide polypeptide engineering.

  17. Nucleic acid-binding polymers as anti-inflammatory agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewoo; Sohn, Jang Wook; Zhang, Ying; Leong, Kam W.; Pisetsky, David; Sullenger, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Dead and dying cells release nucleic acids. These extracellular RNAs and DNAs can be taken up by inflammatory cells and activate multiple nucleic acid-sensing toll-like receptors (TLR3, 7, 8, and 9). The inappropriate activation of these TLRs can engender a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The redundancy of the TLR family encouraged us to seek materials that can neutralize the proinflammatory effects of any nucleic acid regardless of its sequence, structure or chemistry. Herein we demonstrate that certain nucleic acid-binding polymers can inhibit activation of all nucleic acid-sensing TLRs irrespective of whether they recognize ssRNA, dsRNA or hypomethylated DNA. Furthermore, systemic administration of such polymers can prevent fatal liver injury engendered by proinflammatory nucleic acids in an acute toxic shock model in mice. Therefore these polymers represent a novel class of anti-inflammatory agent that can act as molecular scavengers to neutralize the proinflammatory effects of various nucleic acids. PMID:21844380

  18. Nucleobase-modified antisense oligonucleotides containing 5-(phenyltriazol)-2′-deoxyuridine nucleotides induce exon-skipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Bao T.; Hornum, Mick; Sharma, Pawan K.

    2017-01-01

    Chemically-modified antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon-skipping has been validated as a therapeutic strategy for tackling several disease pathologies, particularly duchenne muscular dystrophy. To date, only sugar-modified and internucleotide linkage-modified oligonucleotide chemistries have...

  19. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  20. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  1. Towards Accurate Prediction of Protonation Equilibrium of Nucleic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Garrett B.; Knight, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The role of protonated nucleotides in modulating the pH-dependent properties of nucleic acids is one of the emerging frontiers in the field of nucleic acid biology. The recent development of a constant pH molecular dynamics simulation (CPHMDMSλD) framework for simulating nucleic acids has provided a tool for realistic simulations of pH-dependent dynamics. We enhanced the CPHMDMSλD framework with pH-based replica exchange (pH-REX), which significantly improves the sampling of both titration an...

  2. Sensitive detection of nucleic acids by PNA hybridization directed co-localization of fluorescent beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Büscher, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a pair of biotinylated peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes targeting two sequences in 18S rRNA (from the parasite Trypanosoma brucei) at a distance of 191 nt (corresponding to maximum distance of ca. 60 nm) from each other. The PNA probes were individually bound to (strept)avidin-c...... this method may provide a new tool for a diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and it may more generally have applications within diagnostics for (neglected) infectious diseases........ The assay detected the parasite 18S rRNA down to 1.6 fmol while there was no such co-localization visible with human 18S rRNA not containing the PNA targets. Furthermore, the assay showed positive detection with 1.6 ng of total RNA (corresponding to RNA from ca. 300 parasites). Upon further optimization...

  3. Proposal for new European pharmaceutical legislation to permit access to custom-made anti-sense oligonucleotide medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John D; Feldschreiber, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Current European pharmaceutical legislation is not adequate to meet advances in science and technologies that will lead to rapid development of custom-made medicines. Using existing legislation for custom-made medical devices as a template and anti-sense oligonucleotides as model medicinal products, we propose new European pharmaceutical legislation to permit timely access to custom-made anti-sense oligonucleotide medicinal products. The proposals may be more widely applicable to other medicinal products. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Tye7 regulates yeast Ty1 retrotransposon sense and antisense transcription in response to adenylic nucleotides stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Géraldine; Pinson, Benoit; Tchalikian-Cosson, Aurélie; Coulpier, Fanny; Lemoine, Sophie; Pennetier, Carole; Bridier-Nahmias, Antoine; Todeschini, Anne Laure; Fayol, Hélène; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand; Lesage, Pascale

    2012-07-01

    Transposable elements play a fundamental role in genome evolution. It is proposed that their mobility, activated under stress, induces mutations that could confer advantages to the host organism. Transcription of the Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated in response to a severe deficiency in adenylic nucleotides. Here, we show that Ty2 and Ty3 are also stimulated under these stress conditions, revealing the simultaneous activation of three active Ty retrotransposon families. We demonstrate that Ty1 activation in response to adenylic nucleotide depletion requires the DNA-binding transcription factor Tye7. Ty1 is transcribed in both sense and antisense directions. We identify three Tye7 potential binding sites in the region of Ty1 DNA sequence where antisense transcription starts. We show that Tye7 binds to Ty1 DNA and regulates Ty1 antisense transcription. Altogether, our data suggest that, in response to adenylic nucleotide reduction, TYE7 is induced and activates Ty1 mRNA transcription, possibly by controlling Ty1 antisense transcription. We also provide the first evidence that Ty1 antisense transcription can be regulated by environmental stress conditions, pointing to a new level of control of Ty1 activity by stress, as Ty1 antisense RNAs play an important role in regulating Ty1 mobility at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages.

  5. Study of HIV-2 primer-template initiation complex using antisense oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulmé, F; Freund, F; Gryaznov, S

    2000-01-01

    HIV-2 reverse transcription is initiated by the retroviral DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase) from a cellular tRNALys3 partially annealed to the primer binding site in the 5'-region of viral RNA. The HIV-2 genome has two A-rich regions upstream of the primer binding site. In contrast to HIV-1...... RNA, no direct evidence of interactions with the U-rich anticodon loop of tRNALys3 has been described to date. Here we address the question of the potential role of the interactions between these highly structured regions in the initiation of viral DNA synthesis. To evaluate this we used an antisense...... approach, first validated in our in vitro HIV-1 reverse transcription system. Annealing of the antisense oligonucleotides to the pre-primer binding site (the upstream region contiguous to the HIV-2 primer binding site) was determined in the presence of native tRNALys3 or synthetic primers. Using natural...

  6. Effects of overexpression and antisense RNA expression of Orf17, a MutT-type enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Mika; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Inanami, Osamu; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kamiya, Hiroyuki

    2006-06-01

    The Escherichia coli Orf17 (NtpA, NudB) protein, a MutT-type enzyme, hydrolyzes oxidized deoxyribonucleotides, including 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate, in vitro. To examine its in vivo role(s) in bacteria, plasmid DNAs containing the orf17 gene in the sense and antisense orientations were introduced. When the Orf17 protein was overexpressed in mutT cells, the rpoB mutant frequency was decreased. On the other hand, similar effects were not observed when Orf17 was overexpressed in wild type and orf135 cells. Expression of the antisense RNA of the orf17 gene did not produce an obvious phenotype, such as increased mutant frequency and resistance to ionizing radiation. These results suggest that the role of the Orf17 protein is to back up the MutT function, and to assist in the elimination of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine nucleotides.

  7. Synthetic antifreeze peptide

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    A synthetic antifreeze peptide and a synthetic gene coding for the antifreeze peptide have been produced. The antifreeze peptide has a greater number of repeating amino acid sequences than is present in the native antifreeze peptides from winter flounder upon which the synthetic antifreeze peptide was modeled. Each repeating amino acid sequence has two polar amino acid residues which are spaced a controlled distance apart so that the antifreeze peptide may inhibit ice formation. The synthetic...

  8. Continuously tunable nucleic acid hybridization probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lucia R; Wang, Juexiao Sherry; Fang, John Z; Evans, Emily R; Pinto, Alessandro; Pekker, Irena; Boykin, Richard; Ngouenet, Celine; Webster, Philippa J; Beechem, Joseph; Zhang, David Yu

    2015-12-01

    In silico-designed nucleic acid probes and primers often do not achieve favorable specificity and sensitivity tradeoffs on the first try, and iterative empirical sequence-based optimization is needed, particularly in multiplexed assays. We present a novel, on-the-fly method of tuning probe affinity and selectivity by adjusting the stoichiometry of auxiliary species, which allows for independent and decoupled adjustment of the hybridization yield for different probes in multiplexed assays. Using this method, we achieved near-continuous tuning of probe effective free energy. To demonstrate our approach, we enforced uniform capture efficiency of 31 DNA molecules (GC content, 0-100%), maximized the signal difference for 11 pairs of single-nucleotide variants and performed tunable hybrid capture of mRNA from total RNA. Using the Nanostring nCounter platform, we applied stoichiometric tuning to simultaneously adjust yields for a 24-plex assay, and we show multiplexed quantitation of RNA sequences and variants from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.

  9. Computational Approaches to Nucleic Acid Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Hosna; Aminpour, Maral; Montemagno, Carlo

    2015-10-12

    Recent advances in experimental DNA origami have dramatically expanded the horizon of DNA nanotechnology. Complex 3D suprastructures have been designed and developed using DNA origami with applications in biomaterial science, nanomedicine, nanorobotics, and molecular computation. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) origami has recently been realized as a new approach. Similar to DNA, RNA molecules can be designed to form complex 3D structures through complementary base pairings. RNA origami structures are, however, more compact and more thermodynamically stable due to RNA's non-canonical base pairing and tertiary interactions. With all these advantages, the development of RNA origami lags behind DNA origami by a large gap. Furthermore, although computational methods have proven to be effective in designing DNA and RNA origami structures and in their evaluation, advances in computational nucleic acid origami is even more limited. In this paper, we review major milestones in experimental and computational DNA and RNA origami and present current challenges in these fields. We believe collaboration between experimental nanotechnologists and computer scientists are critical for advancing these new research paradigms.

  10. Conserved alternative and antisense transcripts at the programmed cell death 2 locus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihola, Ondřej; Forejt, Jiří; Trachtulec, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2007), s. 20 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/01/0997; GA ČR GA301/05/0738; GA AV ČR IAA5052406; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Pdcd2 * antisense * alternative transcript * imprinting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.180, year: 2007

  11. Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.

  12. Nanopore biosensors for detection of proteins and nucleic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maglia, Giovanni; Soskine, Mikhael

    2014-01-01

    Described herein are nanopore biosensors based on a modified cytolysin protein. The nanopore biosensors accommodate macromoiecules including proteins and nucleic acids, and may additionally comprise ligands with selective binding properties.

  13. Dioxaphosphorinane-Constrained Nucleic Acid Dinucleotides as Tools for Structural Tuning of Nucleic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Dan-Andrei; Renard, Brice-Loïc; Maturano, Marie; Payrastre, Corinne; Tarrat, Nathalie; Escudier, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    We describe a rational approach devoted to modulate the sugar-phosphate backbone geometry of nucleic acids. Constraints were generated by connecting one oxygen of the phosphate group to a carbon of the sugar moiety. The so-called dioxaphosphorinane rings were introduced at key positions along the sugar-phosphate backbone allowing the control of the six-torsion angles α to ζ defining the polymer structure. The syntheses of all the members of the D-CNA family are described, and we emphasize the effect on secondary structure stabilization of a couple of diastereoisomers of α,β-D-CNA exhibiting wether B-type canonical values or not. PMID:23150809

  14. Genome-wide prediction and identification of cis-natural antisense transcripts in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Jie; Gaasterland, Terry; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2005-01-01

    Natural antisense transcripts (NAT) are a class of endogenous coding or non-protein-coding RNAs with sequence complementarity to other transcripts. Several lines of evidence have shown that cis- and trans-NATs may participate in a broad range of gene regulatory events. Genome-wide identification of cis-NATs in human, mouse and rice has revealed their widespread occurrence in eukaryotes. However, little is known about cis-NATs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We developed a new computational method to predict and identify cis-encoded NATs in Arabidopsis and found 1,340 potential NAT pairs. The expression of both sense and antisense transcripts of 957 NAT pairs was confirmed using Arabidopsis full-length cDNAs and public massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) data. Three known or putative Arabidopsis imprinted genes have cis-antisense transcripts. Sequences and the genomic arrangement of two Arabidopsis NAT pairs are conserved in rice. We combined information from full-length cDNAs and Arabidopsis genome annotation in our NAT prediction work and reported cis-NAT pairs that could not otherwise be identified by using one of the two datasets only. Analysis of MPSS data suggested that for most Arabidopsis cis-NAT pairs, there is predominant expression of one of the two transcripts in a tissue-specific manner.

  15. Polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR for large-scale enzymatic production of antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Wang

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides targeting microRNAs or their mRNA targets prove to be powerful tools for molecular biology research and may eventually emerge as new therapeutic agents. Synthetic oligonucleotides are often contaminated with highly homologous failure sequences. Synthesis of a certain oligonucleotide is difficult to scale up because it requires expensive equipment, hazardous chemicals and a tedious purification process. Here we report a novel thermocyclic reaction, polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR, for the amplification of oligonucleotides. A target oligonucleotide and a tandem repeated antisense probe are subjected to repeated cycles of denaturing, annealing, elongation and cleaving, in which thermostable DNA polymerase elongation and strand slipping generate duplex tandem repeats, and thermostable endonuclease (PspGI cleavage releases monomeric duplex oligonucleotides. Each round of PEAR achieves over 100-fold amplification. The product can be used in one more round of PEAR directly, and the process can be further repeated. In addition to avoiding dangerous materials and improved product purity, this reaction is easy to scale up and amenable to full automation. PEAR has the potential to be a useful tool for large-scale production of antisense oligonucleotide drugs.

  16. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hongmei; Ma, Leyuan; Zhao, Cong; Hao, Hui; Gong, Biao; Yu, Xiyan; Wang, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.

  17. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuitries in the Human Pathogen Candida albicans Involving Sense–Antisense Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ausaf; Kravets, Anatoliy; Rustchenko, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans, a major human fungal pathogen, usually contains a diploid genome, but controls adaptation to a toxic alternative carbon source L-sorbose, by the reversible loss of one chromosome 5 (Ch5). We have previously identified multiple unique regions on Ch5 that repress the growth on sorbose. In one of the regions, the CSU51 gene determining the repressive property of the region was identified. We report here the identification of the CSU53 gene from a different region on Ch5. Most importantly, we find that CSU51 and CSU53 are associated with novel regulatory elements, ASUs, which are embedded within CSUs in an antisense configuration. ASUs act opposite to CSUs by enhancing the growth on sorbose. In respect to the CSU transcripts, the ASU long antisense transcripts are in lesser amounts, are completely overlapped, and are inversely related. ASUs interact with CSUs in natural CSU/ASU cis configurations, as well as when extra copies of ASUs are placed in trans to the CSU/ASU configurations. We suggest that ASU long embedded antisense transcripts modulate CSU sense transcripts. PMID:22135347

  18. Transcriptional regulatory circuitries in the human pathogen Candida albicans involving sense--antisense interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ausaf; Kravets, Anatoliy; Rustchenko, Elena

    2012-02-01

    Candida albicans, a major human fungal pathogen, usually contains a diploid genome, but controls adaptation to a toxic alternative carbon source L-sorbose, by the reversible loss of one chromosome 5 (Ch5). We have previously identified multiple unique regions on Ch5 that repress the growth on sorbose. In one of the regions, the CSU51 gene determining the repressive property of the region was identified. We report here the identification of the CSU53 gene from a different region on Ch5. Most importantly, we find that CSU51 and CSU53 are associated with novel regulatory elements, ASUs, which are embedded within CSUs in an antisense configuration. ASUs act opposite to CSUs by enhancing the growth on sorbose. In respect to the CSU transcripts, the ASU long antisense transcripts are in lesser amounts, are completely overlapped, and are inversely related. ASUs interact with CSUs in natural CSU/ASU cis configurations, as well as when extra copies of ASUs are placed in trans to the CSU/ASU configurations. We suggest that ASU long embedded antisense transcripts modulate CSU sense transcripts.

  19. Analyzing and Building Nucleic Acid Structures with 3DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Colasanti, Andrew V.; Lu, Xiang-Jun; Olson, Wilma K.

    2013-01-01

    The 3DNA software package is a popular and versatile bioinformatics tool with capabilities to analyze, construct, and visualize three-dimensional nucleic acid structures. This article presents detailed protocols for a subset of new and popular features available in 3DNA, applicable to both individual structures and ensembles of related structures. Protocol 1 lists the set of instructions needed to download and install the software. This is followed, in Protocol 2, by the analysis of a nucleic...

  20. Nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheets for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Liuting; Li, Juan; Liu, Qiaoling; Qiu, Liping; Tan, Weihong

    2017-03-15

    In clinical diagnostics, as well as food and environmental safety practices, biosensors are powerful tools for monitoring biological or biochemical processes. Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal nanomaterials, including transition metal chalcogenides (TMCs) and transition metal oxides (TMOs), are receiving growing interest for their use in biosensing applications based on such unique properties as high surface area and fluorescence quenching abilities. Meanwhile, nucleic acid probes based on Watson-Crick base-pairing rules are also being widely applied in biosensing based on their excellent recognition capability. In particular, the emergence of functional nucleic acids in the 1980s, especially aptamers, has substantially extended the recognition capability of nucleic acids to various targets, ranging from small organic molecules and metal ions to proteins and cells. Based on π-π stacking interaction between transition metal nanosheets and nucleic acids, biosensing systems can be easily assembled. Therefore, the combination of 2D transition metal nanomaterials and nucleic acids brings intriguing opportunities in bioanalysis and biomedicine. In this review, we summarize recent advances of nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheets in biosensing applications. The structure and properties of 2D transition metal nanomaterials are first discussed, emphasizing the interaction between transition metal nanosheets and nucleic acids. Then, the applications of nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheet-based biosensors are discussed in the context of different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical and electrochemical approaches. Finally, we provide our perspectives on the current challenges and opportunities in this promising field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluorogenic, catalytic, photochemical reaction for amplified detection of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Subrata; Fülöp, Annabelle; Mokhir, Andriy

    2013-09-18

    Photochemical, nucleic acid-induced reactions, which are controlled by nontoxic red light, are well-suited for detection of nucleic acids in live cells, since they do not require any additives and can be spatially and temporally regulated. We have recently described the first reaction of this type, in which a phenylselenyl derivative of thymidine (5'-PhSeT-ODNa) is cleaved in the presence of singlet oxygen (Fülöp, A., Peng, X., Greenberg, M. M., Mokhir, A. (2010) A nucleic acid directed, red light-induced chemical reaction. Chem. Commun. 46, 5659-5661). The latter reagent is produced upon exposure of a photosensitizer 3'-PS-ODNb (PS = Indium(III)-pyropheophorbide-a-chloride: InPPa) to >630 nm light. In 2012 we reported on a fluorogenic version of this reaction (Dutta, S., Flottmann, B., Heilemann, M., Mokhir, A. (2012) Hybridization and reaction-based, fluorogenic nucleic acid probes. Chem. Commun. 47, 9664-9666), which is potentially applicable for the detection of nucleic acids in cells. Unfortunately, its yield does not exceed 25% and no catalytic turnover could be observed in the presence of substrate excess. This problem occurs due to the efficient, competing oxidation of the substrate containing an electron rich carbon-carbon double bonds (SCH═CHS) in the presence of singlet oxygen with formation of a noncleavable product (SCH═CHSO). Herein we describe a related, but substantially improved photochemical, catalytic transformation of a fluorogenic, organic substrate, which consists of 9,10-dialkoxyanthracene linked to fluorescein, with formation of a bright fluorescent dye. In highly dilute solution this reaction occurs only in the presence of a nucleic acid template. We developed three types of such a reaction and demonstrated that they are high yielding and generate over 7.7 catalytic turnovers, are sensitive to single mismatches in nucleic acid targets, and can be applied for determination of both the amount of nucleic acids and potentially their

  2. Targeted in vivo delivery of nucleic acids by lipid-based carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartsch, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of targeted liposomal carriers for the delivery of antisense ODN and DNA in vivo to various cell types in the liver. The power of the antisense approach as well as of DNA transfection has been thoroughly characterized in numerous in vitro studies. However,

  3. Scavenging nucleic acid debris to combat autoimmunity and infectious disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Eda K.; Shumansky, Kara L.; Borst, Luke B.; Burnette, Angela D.; Sample, Christopher J.; Ramsburg, Elizabeth A.; Sullenger, Bruce A.

    2016-08-01

    Nucleic acid-containing debris released from dead and dying cells can be recognized as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or pattern-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by the innate immune system. Inappropriate activation of the innate immune response can engender pathological inflammation and autoimmune disease. To combat such diseases, major efforts have been made to therapeutically target the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize such DAMPs and PAMPs, or the downstream effector molecules they engender, to limit inflammation. Unfortunately, such strategies can limit the ability of the immune system to combat infection. Previously, we demonstrated that nucleic acid-binding polymers can act as molecular scavengers and limit the ability of artificial nucleic acid ligands to activate PRRs. Herein, we demonstrate that nucleic acid scavengers (NASs) can limit pathological inflammation and nucleic acid-associated autoimmunity in lupus-prone mice. Moreover, we observe that such NASs do not limit an animal’s ability to combat viral infection, but rather their administration improves survival when animals are challenged with lethal doses of influenza. These results indicate that molecules that scavenge extracellular nucleic acid debris represent potentially safer agents to control pathological inflammation associated with a wide range of autoimmune and infectious diseases.

  4. Nucleic acid in-situ hybridization detection of infectious agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Curtis T.

    2000-04-01

    Limitations of traditional culture methods and newer polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detection and speciation of infectious agents demonstrate the need for more rapid and better diagnostics. Nucleic acid hybridization is a detection technology that has gained wide acceptance in cancer and prenatal cytogenetics. Using a modification of the nucleic acid hybridization technique known as fluorescence in-situ hybridization, infectious agents can be detected in a variety of specimens with high sensitivity and specificity. The specimens derive from all types of human and animal sources including body fluids, tissue aspirates and biopsy material. Nucleic acid hybridization can be performed in less than one hour. The result can be interpreted either using traditional fluorescence microscopy or automated platforms such as micro arrays. This paper demonstrates proof of concept for nucleic acid hybridization detection of different infectious agents. Interpretation within a cytologic and histologic context is possible with fluorescence microscopic analysis, thereby providing confirmatory evidence of hybridization. With careful probe selection, nucleic acid hybridization promises to be a highly sensitive and specific practical diagnostic alternative to culture, traditional staining methods, immunohistochemistry and complicated nucleic acid amplification tests.

  5. Small RNAs and the regulation of cis-natural antisense transcripts in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonardi Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of large intergenic spaces in plant and animal genomes, 7% to 30% of genes in the genomes encode overlapping cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs. The widespread occurrence of cis-NATs suggests an evolutionary advantage for this type of genomic arrangement. Experimental evidence for the regulation of two cis-NAT gene pairs by natural antisense transcripts-generated small interfering RNAs (nat-siRNAs via the RNA interference (RNAi pathway has been reported in Arabidopsis. However, the extent of siRNA-mediated regulation of cis-NAT genes is still unclear in any genome. Results The hallmarks of RNAi regulation of NATs are 1 inverse regulation of two genes in a cis-NAT pair by environmental and developmental cues and 2 generation of siRNAs by cis-NAT genes. We examined Arabidopsis transcript profiling data from public microarray databases to identify cis-NAT pairs whose sense and antisense transcripts show opposite expression changes. A subset of the cis-NAT genes displayed negatively correlated expression profiles as well as inverse differential expression changes under at least one of the examined developmental stages or treatment conditions. By searching the Arabidopsis Small RNA Project (ASRP and Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS small RNA databases as well as our stress-treated small RNA dataset, we found small RNAs that matched at least one gene in 646 pairs out of 1008 (64% protein-coding cis-NAT pairs, which suggests that siRNAs may regulate the expression of many cis-NAT genes. 209 putative siRNAs have the potential to target more than one gene and half of these small RNAs could target multiple members of a gene family. Furthermore, the majority of the putative siRNAs within the overlapping regions tend to target only one transcript of a given NAT pair, which is consistent with our previous finding on salt- and bacteria-induced nat-siRNAs. In addition, we found that genes encoding plastid- or

  6. Antisense PMO found in dystrophic dog model was effective in cells from exon 7-deleted DMD patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takashi; Nakamura, Akinori; Aoki, Yoshitsugu; Yokota, Toshifumi; Okada, Takashi; Osawa, Makiko; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2010-08-18

    Antisense oligonucleotide-induced exon skipping is a promising approach for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We have systemically administered an antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) targeting dystrophin exons 6 and 8 to a dog with canine X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan (CXMD(J)) lacking exon 7 and achieved recovery of dystrophin in skeletal muscle. To date, however, antisense chemical compounds used in DMD animal models have not been directly applied to a DMD patient having the same type of exon deletion. We recently identified a DMD patient with an exon 7 deletion and tried direct translation of the antisense PMO used in dog models to the DMD patient's cells. We converted fibroblasts of CXMD(J) and the DMD patient to myotubes by FACS-aided MyoD transduction. Antisense PMOs targeting identical regions of dog and human dystrophin exons 6 and 8 were designed. These antisense PMOs were mixed and administered as a cocktail to either dog or human cells in vitro. In the CXMD(J) and human DMD cells, we observed a similar efficacy of skipping of exons 6 and 8 and a similar extent of dystrophin protein recovery. The accompanying skipping of exon 9, which did not alter the reading frame, was different between cells of these two species. Antisense PMOs, the effectiveness of which has been demonstrated in a dog model, achieved multi-exon skipping of dystrophin gene on the FACS-aided MyoD-transduced fibroblasts from an exon 7-deleted DMD patient, suggesting the feasibility of systemic multi-exon skipping in humans.

  7. Antisense PMO found in dystrophic dog model was effective in cells from exon 7-deleted DMD patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antisense oligonucleotide-induced exon skipping is a promising approach for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. We have systemically administered an antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO targeting dystrophin exons 6 and 8 to a dog with canine X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan (CXMD(J lacking exon 7 and achieved recovery of dystrophin in skeletal muscle. To date, however, antisense chemical compounds used in DMD animal models have not been directly applied to a DMD patient having the same type of exon deletion. We recently identified a DMD patient with an exon 7 deletion and tried direct translation of the antisense PMO used in dog models to the DMD patient's cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We converted fibroblasts of CXMD(J and the DMD patient to myotubes by FACS-aided MyoD transduction. Antisense PMOs targeting identical regions of dog and human dystrophin exons 6 and 8 were designed. These antisense PMOs were mixed and administered as a cocktail to either dog or human cells in vitro. In the CXMD(J and human DMD cells, we observed a similar efficacy of skipping of exons 6 and 8 and a similar extent of dystrophin protein recovery. The accompanying skipping of exon 9, which did not alter the reading frame, was different between cells of these two species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Antisense PMOs, the effectiveness of which has been demonstrated in a dog model, achieved multi-exon skipping of dystrophin gene on the FACS-aided MyoD-transduced fibroblasts from an exon 7-deleted DMD patient, suggesting the feasibility of systemic multi-exon skipping in humans.

  8. Human peptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2002-01-01

    Peptide transporters are epithelial solute carriers. Their functional role has been characterised in the small intestine and proximal tubules, where they are involved in absorption of dietary peptides and peptide reabsorption, respectively. Currently, two peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2, wh...

  9. [SYNTHETIC PEPTIDE VACCINES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, O V; Barinsky, I F

    2016-01-01

    An update on the development and trials of synthetic peptide vaccines is reviewed. The review considers the successful examples of specific protection as a result of immunization with synthetic peptides using various protocols. The importance of conformation for the immunogenicity of the peptide is pointed out. An alternative strategy of the protection of the organism against the infection using synthetic peptides is suggested.

  10. Prediction of molecular alignment of nucleic acids in aligned media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bin; Petersen, Michael; Girard, Frederic; Tessari, Marco; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate - using the data base of all deposited DNA and RNA structures aligned in Pf1-medium and RDC refined - that for nucleic acids in a Pf1-medium the electrostatic alignment tensor can be predicted reliably and accurately via a simple and fast calculation based on the gyration tensor spanned out by the phosphodiester atoms. The rhombicity is well predicted over its full range from 0 to 0.66, while the alignment tensor orientation is predicted correctly for rhombicities up to ca. 0.4, for larger rhombicities it appears to deviate somewhat more than expected based on structural noise and measurement error. This simple analytical approach is based on the Debye-Huckel approximation for the electrostatic interaction potential, valid at distances sufficiently far away from a poly-ionic charged surface, a condition naturally enforced when the charge of alignment medium and solute are of equal sign, as for nucleic acids in a Pf1-phage medium. For the usual salt strengths and nucleic acid sizes, the Debye-Huckel screening length is smaller than the nucleic acid size, but large enough for the collective of Debye-Huckel spheres to encompass the whole molecule. The molecular alignment is then purely electrostatic, but it's functional form is under these conditions similar to that for steric alignment. The proposed analytical expression allows for very fast calculation of the alignment tensor and hence RDCs from the conformation of the nucleic acid molecule. This information provides opportunities for improved structure determination of nucleic acids, including better assessment of dynamics in (multi-domain) nucleic acids and the possibility to incorporate alignment tensor prediction from shape directly into the structure calculation process. The procedures are incorporated into MATLAB scripts, which are available on request

  11. Induction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 envelope specific cell-mediated immunity by a non-homologous synthetic peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Achour

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell mediated immunity, including efficient CTL response, is required to prevent HIV-1 from cell-to-cell transmission. In previous investigations, we have shown that B1 peptide derived by Fourier transformation of HIV-1 primary structures and sharing no sequence homology with the parent proteins was able to generate antiserum which recognizes envelope and Tat proteins. Here we have investigated cellular immune response towards a novel non-homologous peptide, referred to as cA1 peptide.The 20 amino acid sequence of cA1 peptide was predicted using the notion of peptide hydropathic properties; the peptide is encoded by the complementary anti-sense DNA strand to the sense strand of previously described non-homologous A1 peptide. In this report we demonstrate that the cA1 peptide can be a target for major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes in HIV-1-infected or envelope-immunized individuals. The cA1 peptide is recognized in association with different MHC class I allotypes and could prime in vitro CTLs, derived from gp160-immunized individuals capable to recognize virus variants.For the first time a theoretically designed immunogen involved in broad-based cell-immune memory activation is described. Our findings may thus contribute to the advance in vaccine research by describing a novel strategy to develop a synthetic AIDS vaccine.

  12. Scaffolding along Nucleic Acid Duplexes Using 2'-Amino-Locked Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Wengel, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    depends on the chemical nature of the modification, its price, its availability, and applications of the product. One of the most useful applications of the product LNA/DNA scaffolds containing 2'-amino-LNA is to detect complementary DNA and RNA targets. Examples of these applications include sensing...... of clinically important single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imaging of nucleic acids in vitro, in cell culture, and in vivo. According to our studies, 2'-amino-LNA scaffolds are efficient within diagnostic probes for DNA and RNA targets and as therapeutics, whereas both 2'-amino- and isomeric 2'-α......-l-amino-LNA scaffolds have promising properties for stabilization and detection of DNA nanostructures. Attachment of fluorescent groups to the 2'-amino group results in very high fluorescent quantum yields of the duplexes and remarkable sensitivity of the fluorescence signal to target binding. Notably, fluorescent LNA...

  13. Antisense RNA: a genetic approach to cell resistance against Parvovirus; RNA antisentido: una aproximacion de resistencia genetica a Parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Martinez, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    The Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp), an autonomous Parvovirus that replicates cytolytically in the A9 mouse fibroblast cell line, was interfered by constitutive expression of an antisense RNA targeted against the major non-structural NS-1 protein. Permanently transfected A9 clones expressing NS-1 antisense, showed increased proliferative capacity upon virus infection, and likewise cultures infected at low multiplicity by MVMp reached confluence overcoming virus growth. Correspondingly, an inhibition in virus multiplication was demonstrated by a significant lower virus production and plaque forming ability in clones expressing antisense RNa. At the molecular level, several fold reduction in viral DNA, RNA and proteins was quantitated by respective analysis of Southern, RNase protection and bidimensional gels. Remarkably, the accumulation of all three viral messengers(R1,R2,R3) was decreased both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, suggesting that antisense-mediated inhibition is primarily exerted at the level of viral transcription or nuclear post-transcriptional events. Thus, this system illustrates the possibility to create an antisense-mediated protective stage to highly cytotoxic viruses in permissive cells, by down-modulation the expression of a transactivator of virus genes. (author)180 refs., 25 figs.

  14. Antisense RNA: a genetic approach to cell resistance against Parvovirus. RNA antisentido: una aproximacion de resistencia genetica a Parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Martinez, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp), an autonomous Parvovirus that replicates cytolytically in the A9 mouse fibroblast cell line, was interfered by constitutive expression of an antisense RNA targeted against the major non-structural NS-1 protein. Permanently transfected A9 clones expressing NS-1 antisense, showed increased proliferative capacity upon virus infection, and likewise cultures infected at low multiplicity by MVMp reached confluence overcoming virus growth. Correspondingly, an inhibition in virus multiplication was demonstrated by a significant lower virus production and plaque forming ability in clones expressing antisense RNa. At the molecular level, several fold reduction in viral DNA, RNA and proteins was quantitated by respective analysis of Southern, RNase protection and bidimensional gels. Remarkably, the accumulation of all three viral messengers(R1,R2,R3) was decreased both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, suggesting that antisense-mediated inhibition is primarily exerted at the level of viral transcription or nuclear post-transcriptional events. Thus, this system illustrates the possibility to create an antisense-mediated protective stage to highly cytotoxic viruses in permissive cells, by down-modulation the expression of a transactivator of virus genes. (author)180 refs., 25 figs.

  15. Antileukemia effect of c-myc N3′→P5′ phosphoramidate antisense oligonucleotides in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorski, Tomasz; Perrotti, Danilo; Nieborowska-Skorska, Malgorzata; Gryaznov, Sergei; Calabretta, Bruno

    1997-01-01

    In vitro, uniformly modified oligonucleotide N3′→P5′ phosphoramidates are apparently more potent antisense agents than phosphorothioate derivatives. To determine whether such compounds are also effective in vivo, severe combined immunodeficiency mice injected with HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells were treated systemically with equal doses of either phosphoramidate or phosphorothioate c-myc antisense or mismatched oligonucleotides. Compared with mice treated with mismatched oligodeoxynucleotides, the peripheral blood leukemic load of mice treated with the antisense sequences was markedly reduced, and such effects were associated with significantly prolonged survival of the antisense-treated mice. Moreover, with each of three different treatment schedules (100, 300, or 900 μg/day for 6 consecutive days), survival of the phosphoramidate-treated mice was significantly longer than that of the phosphorothioate-treated mice. Both phosphoramidate and phosphorothioate oligonucleotides were efficiently taken up by leukemic cells in vivo and were capable of specifically down-regulating c-Myc expression. Moreover, tissue distribution of the phosphoramidate derivatives was undistinguishable from that of the phosphorothioate derivatives. Collectively, these studies suggest that phosphoramidate oligonucleotides can serve as potent and specific antisense agents in the treatment of human leukemia and probably of other malignancies. PMID:9108088

  16. Identification and characterization of a cis-encoded antisense RNA associated with the replication process of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Dadzie

    Full Text Available Antisense RNAs that originate from the complementary strand of protein coding genes are involved in the regulation of gene expression in all domains of life. In bacteria, some of these antisense RNAs are transcriptional noise while others play a vital role to adapt the cell to changing environmental conditions. By deep sequencing analysis of transcriptome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, a partial RNA sequence encoded in-cis to the dnaA gene was revealed. Northern blot and RACE analysis confirmed the transcription of this antisense RNA which was expressed mostly in the stationary phase of the bacterial growth and also under iron limitation and osmotic stress. Pulse expression analysis showed that overexpression of the antisense RNA resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA levels of dnaA, which will ultimately enhance their translation. Our findings have revealed that antisense RNA of dnaA is indeed transcribed not merely as a by-product of the cell's transcription machinery but plays a vital role as far as stability of dnaA mRNA is concerned.

  17. Identification and characterization of a cis-encoded antisense RNA associated with the replication process of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadzie, Isaac; Xu, Shungao; Ni, Bin; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haifang; Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Huaxi; Huang, Xinxiang

    2013-01-01

    Antisense RNAs that originate from the complementary strand of protein coding genes are involved in the regulation of gene expression in all domains of life. In bacteria, some of these antisense RNAs are transcriptional noise while others play a vital role to adapt the cell to changing environmental conditions. By deep sequencing analysis of transcriptome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, a partial RNA sequence encoded in-cis to the dnaA gene was revealed. Northern blot and RACE analysis confirmed the transcription of this antisense RNA which was expressed mostly in the stationary phase of the bacterial growth and also under iron limitation and osmotic stress. Pulse expression analysis showed that overexpression of the antisense RNA resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA levels of dnaA, which will ultimately enhance their translation. Our findings have revealed that antisense RNA of dnaA is indeed transcribed not merely as a by-product of the cell's transcription machinery but plays a vital role as far as stability of dnaA mRNA is concerned.

  18. Technetium-99m labeled antisense oligonucleotide-noninvasive tumor imaging in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, G.M.; Zhang, Y.X.; An, R.; Gao, Z.R.; Cao, W.; Cao, G.X.; Hnatowich, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Single-stranded RNA and DNA oligonucleotides may be useful as radiopharmaceuticals for antisense and other in vivo applications if convenient methods for stably attaching radionuclides such as 99m Tc can be developed. The c-myc oncogene works in cooperation with other oncogenes in a variety of malignant tumors. The concentration of c-myc messenger RNA increases rapidly 30 to 50 fold during DNA synthesis, thus making it a suitable target for following the progression of malignancy by noninvasive imaging with radiolabeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Methods: 1 Oligonucleotide Conjugation: A solution of single stranded amine-derivatized DNA (100-1000μg) was prepared at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in 0.25M sodium bicarbonate, 1 M sodium chloride, 1mM EDTA, pH8.5. 2 Oligonucleotide Labeling: A fresh 50mg/ml solution of sodium tartrate was prepared in sterile 0.5 M ammonium The ability of the labeled DNA to hybridize to its complement was analyzed by Sep-Pak column chromatography before and after the addition of the complementary DNA. 3 Biodistribution and Tumor Imaging Studies: A colony of KM mice (15-20g) were inoculated with 1x10 6 Ehrlich carcinoma tumor cells in the right thigh, and the tumors were allowed to grow for 6-7 days to a size of 1.0-1.5 cm in diameter. Biodistribution studies were performed in 32 KM mice after 50 μCi per mouse of 99m Tc-labeled oncogene probes were injected intravenously. A total of 8 mice were injected intravenously in the tail vein with 1-2 mCi of 99m Tc-labeled sense or antisense probes, immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and imaged periodically from 0.5hr to 24hr with a gamma camera. Results: Essentially complete conjugation was achieved by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis. The labeled antisense DNA still remained the ability to hybridize with its complementary DNA. The highest accumulation of label was in the liver first, with the kidney and small bowel next. The injected activity localized in the lesion

  19. Natural antisense transcripts are significantly involved in regulation of drought stress in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Wang, Qi; Freeling, Micheal; Zhang, Xuecai; Xu, Yunbi; Mao, Yan; Tang, Xin; Wu, Fengkai; Lan, Hai; Cao, Moju; Rong, Tingzhao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are a prominent and complex class of regulatory RNAs. Using strand-specific RNA sequencing, we identified 1769 sense and antisense transcript pairs (NAT pairs) in two maize inbreds with different sensitivity to drought, as well as in two derivative recombination inbred lines (RILs). A significantly higher proportion of NATs relative to non-NATs are specifically expressed under water stress (WS). Surprisingly, expression of sense and antisense transcripts produced by NAT pairs is significantly correlated, particularly under WS. We found an unexpected large proportion of NATs with protein coding potential, as estimated by ribosome release scores. Small RNAs significantly accumulate within NAT pairs, with 21 nt smRNA particularly enriched in overlapping regions of these pairs of genes. The abundance of these smRNAs is significantly altered in the leafbladeless1 mutant, suggesting that these genes may be regulated by the tasiRNA pathway. Further, NATs are significantly hypomethylated and include fewer transposable element sequences relative to non-NAT genes. NAT gene regions also exhibit higher levels of H3K36me3, H3K9ac, and H3K4me3, but lower levels of H3K27me3, indicating that NAT gene pairs generally exhibit an open chromatin configuration. Finally, NAT pairs in 368 diverse maize inbreds and 19 segregating populations were specifically enriched for polymorphisms associated with drought tolerance. Taken together, the data highlight the potential impact of that small RNAs and histone modifications have in regulation of NAT expression, and the significance of NATs in response to WS. PMID:28175341

  20. Antisense-mediated RNA targeting: versatile and expedient genetic manipulation in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis eZalachoras

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A limiting factor in brain research still is the difficulty to evaluate in vivo the role of the increasing number of proteins implicated in neuronal processes. We discuss here the potential of antisense-mediated RNA targeting approaches. We mainly focus on those that manipulate splicing (exon skipping and exon inclusion, but will also briefly discuss mRNA targeting. Classic knockdown of expression by mRNA targeting is only one possible application of antisense oligonucleotides (AON in the control of gene function. Exon skipping and inclusion are based on the interference of AONs with splicing of pre-mRNAs. These are powerful, specific and particularly versatile techniques, which can be used to circumvent pathogenic mutations, shift splice variant expression, knock down proteins, or to create molecular models using in-frame deletions. Pre-mRNA targeting is currently used both as a research tool, e.g. in models for motor neuron disease, and in clinical trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.AONs are particularly promising in relation to brain research, as the modified AONs are taken up extremely fast in neurons and glial cells with a long residence, and without the need for viral vectors or other delivery tools, once inside the blood brain barrier. In this review we cover 1. The principles of antisense-mediated techniques, chemistry and efficacy.2. The pros and cons of AON approaches in the brain compared to other techniques of interfering with gene function, such as transgenesis and short hairpin RNAs, in terms of specificity of the manipulation, spatial and temporal control over gene expression, toxicity and delivery issues.3. The potential applications for Neuroscience. We conclude that there is good evidence from animal studies that the CNS can be successfully targeted, but the potential of the diverse AON-based approaches appears to be under-recognized.

  1. High-affinity triplex targeting of double stranded DNA using chemically modified peptide nucleic acid oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads E; Bentin, Thomas; Nielsen, Peter E

    2009-01-01

    length, PNA net charge and/or by substitution of pseudoisocytosine for cytosine, and conjugation of the DNA intercalator 9-aminoacridine. Furthermore, 9-aminoacridine conjugation also strongly enhanced triplex invasion. Specificity for the fully matched target versus one containing single centrally......While sequence-selective dsDNA targeting by triplex forming oligonucleotides has been studied extensively, only very little is known about the properties of PNA-dsDNA triplexes-mainly due to the competing invasion process. Here we show that when appropriately modified using pseudoisocytosine...... substitution, in combination with (oligo)lysine or 9-aminoacridine conjugation, homopyrimidine PNA oligomers bind complementary dsDNA targets via triplex formation with (sub)nanomolar affinities (at pH 7.2, 150 mM Na(+)). Binding affinity can be modulated more than 1000-fold by changes in pH, PNA oligomer...

  2. Tethered particle analysis of supercoiled circular DNA using peptide nucleic acid handles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norregaard, Kamilla; Andersson, Magnus; Nielsen, Peter Eigil

    2014-01-01

    -digoxigenin-coated glass cover slide, and one conjugated with biotin for attachment to a submicron-sized streptavidin-coated polystyrene bead. Plasmids are constructed, purified and incubated with the PNA handles. The dynamics of the construct is analyzed by tracking the tethered bead using video microscopy: less...

  3. Cross-catalytic peptide nucleic acid (PNA) replication based on templated ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singhal, Abhishek; Nielsen, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    We report the first PNA self-replicating system based on template directed cross-catalytic ligation, a process analogous to biological replication. Using two template PNAs and four pentameric precursor PNAs, all four possible carbodiimide assisted amide ligation products were detected...

  4. Self-assembled multicompartment liquid crystalline lipid carriers for protein, peptide, and nucleic acid drug delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angelova, A.; Angelov, Borislav; Mutafchieva, R.; Lesieur, S.; Couvreur, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2011), s. 147-156 ISSN 0001-4842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/2078; GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : lipid-water phases * liquid crystals * multicompartment lipid nanostructures Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 21.640, year: 2011

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of peptide and nucleic acid based Toll-like receptor ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weterings, Josephus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are receptors that continuously scour their direct surroundings for pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of bacterial, viral or fungal origin. TLRs can be found at cells that play a role in the immune system. Binding of the TLR with its corresponding ligand

  6. Soni-removal of nucleic acids from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Mysore, Sumukh; Gandham, Sai Hari A

    2014-05-23

    Inclusion bodies (IBs) are commonly formed in Escherichia coli due to over expression of recombinant proteins in non-native state. Isolation, denaturation and refolding of these IBs is generally performed to obtain functional protein. However, during this process IBs tend to form non-specific interactions with sheared nucleic acids from the genome, thus getting carried over into downstream processes. This may hinder the refolding of IBs into their native state. To circumvent this, we demonstrate a methodology termed soni-removal which involves disruption of nucleic acid-inclusion body interaction using sonication; followed by solvent based separation. As opposed to conventional techniques that use enzymes and column-based separations, soni-removal is a cost effective alternative for complete elimination of buried and/or strongly bound short nucleic acid contaminants from IBs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inorganic nanoparticles as nucleic acid transporters into eukaryotic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhanov, R. N.; Zarytova, V. F.; Zenkova, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    The review is concerned with inorganic nanoparticles (gold, titanium dioxide, silica, iron oxides, calcium phosphate) used as nucleic acid transporters into mammalian cells. Methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles and approaches to surface modification through covalent or noncovalent attachment of low- or high-molecular-weight compounds are considered. The data available from the literature on biological action of nucleic acids delivered into the cells by nanoparticles and on the effect of nanoparticles and their conjugates and complexes on the cell survival are summarized. Pathways of cellular internalization of nanoparticles and the mechanism of their excretion, as well as the ways of release of nucleic acids from their complexes with nanoparticles after the cellular uptake are described. The bibliography includes 161 references.

  8. Nucleic acid detection technologies and marker molecules in bacterial diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Ott; Glynn, Barry; Kurg, Ants

    2014-05-01

    There is a growing need for quick and reliable methods for microorganism detection and identification worldwide. Although traditional culture-based technologies are trustworthy and accurate at a relatively low cost, they are also time- and labor-consuming and are limited to culturable bacteria. Those weaknesses have created a necessity for alternative technologies that are capable for faster and more precise bacterial identification from medical, food or environmental samples. The most common current approach is to analyze the nucleic acid component of analyte solution and determine the bacterial composition according to the specific nucleic acid profiles that are present. This review aims to give an up-to-date overview of different nucleic acid target sequences and respective analytical technologies.

  9. Enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity of G-quadruplexes comprising locked nucleic acids and intercalating nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Nielsen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Two G-quadruplex forming sequences, 50-TGGGAG and the 17-mer sequence T30177, which exhibit anti-HIV-1 activity on cell lines, were modified using either locked nucleic acids (LNA) or via insertions of (R)-1-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)glycerol (intercalating nucleic acid, INA) or (R)-1-O-[4-(1-pyrenylet......Two G-quadruplex forming sequences, 50-TGGGAG and the 17-mer sequence T30177, which exhibit anti-HIV-1 activity on cell lines, were modified using either locked nucleic acids (LNA) or via insertions of (R)-1-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)glycerol (intercalating nucleic acid, INA) or (R)-1-O-[4......-(1-pyrenylethynyl)phenylmethyl]glycerol (twisted intercalating nucleic acid, TINA). Incorporation of LNA or INA/TINA monomers provide as much as 8-fold improvement of anti-HIV-1 activity. We demonstrate for the first time a detailed analysis of the effect the incorporation of INA/TINA monomers in quadruplex forming...... of the antiviral QFOs in the present study formed more thermally stable G-quadruplexes and also high-order G-quadruplex structures which might be responsible for the increased antiviral activity observed....

  10. Complex organisation and structure of the ghrelin antisense strand gene GHRLOS, a candidate non-coding RNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herington Adrian C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide hormone ghrelin has many important physiological and pathophysiological roles, including the stimulation of growth hormone (GH release, appetite regulation, gut motility and proliferation of cancer cells. We previously identified a gene on the opposite strand of the ghrelin gene, ghrelinOS (GHRLOS, which spans the promoter and untranslated regions of the ghrelin gene (GHRL. Here we further characterise GHRLOS. Results We have described GHRLOS mRNA isoforms that extend over 1.4 kb of the promoter region and 106 nucleotides of exon 4 of the ghrelin gene, GHRL. These GHRLOS transcripts initiate 4.8 kb downstream of the terminal exon 4 of GHRL and are present in the 3' untranslated exon of the adjacent gene TATDN2 (TatD DNase domain containing 2. Interestingly, we have also identified a putative non-coding TATDN2-GHRLOS chimaeric transcript, indicating that GHRLOS RNA biogenesis is extremely complex. Moreover, we have discovered that the 3' region of GHRLOS is also antisense, in a tail-to-tail fashion to a novel terminal exon of the neighbouring SEC13 gene, which is important in protein transport. Sequence analyses revealed that GHRLOS is riddled with stop codons, and that there is little nucleotide and amino-acid sequence conservation of the GHRLOS gene between vertebrates. The gene spans 44 kb on 3p25.3, is extensively spliced and harbours multiple variable exons. We have also investigated the expression of GHRLOS and found evidence of differential tissue expression. It is highly expressed in tissues which are emerging as major sites of non-coding RNA expression (the thymus, brain, and testis, as well as in the ovary and uterus. In contrast, very low levels were found in the stomach where sense, GHRL derived RNAs are highly expressed. Conclusion GHRLOS RNA transcripts display several distinctive features of non-coding (ncRNA genes, including 5' capping, polyadenylation, extensive splicing and short open reading

  11. Methods of introducing nucleic acids into cellular DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, Marc J.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Mosberg, Joshua A.; Church, George M.

    2017-06-27

    A method of introducing a nucleic acid sequence into a cell is provided where the cell has impaired or inhibited or disrupted DnaG primase activity or impaired or inhibited or disrupted DnaB helicase activity, or larger or increased gaps or distance between Okazaki fragments or lowered or reduced frequency of Okazaki fragment initiation, or the cell has increased single stranded DNA (ssDNA) on the lagging strand of the replication fork including transforming the cell through recombination with a nucleic acid oligomer.

  12. Distinct features of post-transcriptional gene silencing by antisense transgenes in single copy and inverted T-DNA repeat loci.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, M.; de Bruin, R.A.M.; van Blokland, H.J.M.; van der Hoorn, R.; Mol, J.N.M.; Kooter, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The application of antisense transgenes in plants is a powerful tool to inhibit gene expression. The underlying mechanism of this inhibition is still poorly understood. High levels of antisense RNA (as-RNA) are expected to result in strong silencing but often there is no clear correlation between

  13. Selection of effective antisense oligodeoxynucleotides with a green fluorescent protein-based assay. Discovery of selective and potent inhibitors of glutathione S-transferase Mu expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, P.A.; Rosema, B.S.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.; Manoharan, M.; van Berkel, T.J.; Biessen, E.A.; Bijsterbosch, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) are frequently used for the down-regulation of protein expression. Because the majority of potential antisense sequences lacks effectiveness, fast screening methods for the selection of effective AS-ODNs are needed. We describe a new cellular screening assay

  14. Selection of effective antisense oligodeoxynucleotides with a green fluorescent protein-based assay. Discovery of selective and potent inhibitors of glutathione S-transferase Mu expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, P.A.; Rosema, B.S.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.; Manoharan, M.; van Berkel, T.J.; Biessen, E.A.; Bijsterbosch, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) are frequently used for the down-regulation of protein expression. Because the majority of potential antisense sequences lacks effectiveness, fast screening methods for the selection of effective AS-ODNs are needed. We describe a new cellular screening assay

  15. Selection of effective antisense oligodeoxynucleotides with a green fluorescent protein-based assay. Discovery of selective and potent inhibitors of glutathione S-transferase Mu expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’t Hoen, Peter a.C; Rosema, Bram-Sieben; Commandeur, Jan N M; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Manoharan, Muthiah; van Berkel, Theo J C; Biessen, Eric A L; Bijsterbosch, Martin K

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) are frequently used for the down-regulation of protein expression. Because the majority of potential antisense sequences lacks effectiveness, fast screening methods for the selection of effective AS-ODNs are needed. We describe a new cellular screening assay

  16. Nucleic acid-binding glycoproteins which solubilize nucleic acids in dilute acid: re-examination of the Ustilago maydis glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.; Champ, D.R.; Young, J.L.; Grant, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Holloman reported the isolation from Ustilago maydis of a glycoprotein which prevented the precipitation of nucleic acids in cold 5% trichloroacetic acid. Two glycoprotein fractions from U. maydis with this nucleic acid-solubilizing activity were isolated in our laboratory using improved purification procedures. The activity was not due to nuclease contamination. The glycoproteins are distinguished by: their ability to bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose; their differential binding to double- and single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and to ribonucleic acid; their molecular weights (46,000 and 69,000); and the relative amounts present in growing versus nongrowing cells. Both fractions required sulfhydryl-reducing conditions for optimal yields, specific activity, and stability. Nucleic acid binding was cooperative, the minimum number of glycoproteins required to make a native T7 DNA molecule soluble in dilute acid being estimated at 2 and 15, respectively.

  17. PeptideAtlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PeptideAtlas is a multi-organism, publicly accessible compendium of peptides identified in a large set of tandem mass spectrometry proteomics experiments. Mass...

  18. A study on the transfection of antisense oligonucletide into kidney mediated by lipid microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiling; Chen, Jinwen; Xu, Xuan; Yang, Ruhao; Xiang, Xudong; Zhang, Dongshan

    2016-02-01

    To study the safety and efficiency of the transfection of antisense oligonucletide into kidney mediated by lipid microbubbles, and to evaluate its potential clinical application. The potential and conditions regarding the transfection self-made lipid microbubbles (CY5)-labeled-oligonucleotide (ODN) or CY5-labeled-ODN connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) into the rat kidney were evaluated. Th e safety was evaluated by HE staining, liver and renal function tests. The transfection efficiency was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Th e expression of CTGF was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Self-made lipid microbubble and/or ultrasound significantly enhanced the efficiency of gene transfer and expression in the kidney. Especially, 85%-90% of total glomerular could be transfected. CY5-labeled-ODN expression could be observed in glomerular, tubular and interstitial area. Th ere was no significant change in blood tests aft er gene transfer. Levels of LDH in 7 days were decreased compared with that at the fi rst day aft er the transfection (Ptransfection of CTGF-antisense-ODN into kidney. The ultrasound-mediated gene transfer by self-made lipid microbubble could enhance the efficiency of ODN and expression in the rat kidney. Th is self-made lipid microbubbles supplement may be use for transfection of target genes.

  19. Topical delivery of anti-sense oligonucleotides using low-frequency sonophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Ahmet; Dokka, Sujatha; Kelly, Susan; Hardee, Gregory E; Mitragotri, Samir

    2004-12-01

    Topical delivery of oligonucleotides, though attractive for the treatment of skin disorders, is limited by the low permeability of the stratum corneum. Herein, we assessed the potential of low-frequency ultrasound (20 kHz, 2.4 W/cm2) in delivering therapeutically significant quantities of anti-sense oligonucleotides into skin. Dermal penetration of oligonucleotides penetration was quantified in vitro using radiolabeled oligonucleotides. Estimated concentrations of oligonucleotides (ODNs) in the superficial layers of the skin ranged from approximately 0.5% to 5% of the donor concentration after a 10-min application of ultrasound and ODN. Microscopic evaluations using fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides and sulforhodamine B revealed heterogeneous penetration into the skin. Heterogenous penetration led to the formation of localized transport pathways (LTPs), which occupied about 5% of the total exposed skin area. Immuno-histochemical studies using an oligonucleotide that reacts specifically with an antibody also confirmed penetration of ODNs into LTPs. Histologic studies revealed that no gross structural changes were induced in the skin due to ultrasound application. These results show successful delivery of anti-sense oligonucleotides using low-frequency ultrasound.

  20. Antisense acid invertase (TIV1) gene alters soluble sugar composition and size in transgenic tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, E M; Hall, B; Bennett, A B

    1996-11-01

    Invertase (beta-fructosidase, EC 3.2.1.26) hydrolyzes sucrose to hexose sugars and thus plays a fundamental role in the energy requirements for plant growth and maintenance. Transgenic plants with altered extracellular acid invertase have highly disturbed growth habits. We investigated the role of intracellular soluble acid invertase in plant and fruit development. Transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants expressing a constitutive antisense invertase transgene grew identically to wild-type plants. Several lines of transgenic fruit expressing a constitutive antisense invertase gene had increased sucrose and decreased hexose sugar concentrations. Each transgenic line with fruit that had increased sucrose concentrations also had greatly reduced levels of acid invertase in ripe fruit. Sucrose-accumulating fruit were approximately 30% smaller than control fruit, and this differential growth correlated with high rates of sugar accumulation during the last stage of development. These data suggest that soluble acid invertase controls sugar composition in tomato fruit and that this change in composition contributes to alterations in fruit size. In addition, sucrose-accumulating fruit have elevated rates of ethylene evolution relative to control fruit, perhaps as a result of the smaller fruit size of the sucrose-accumulating transgenic lines.

  1. A novel Drosophila antisense scaRNA with a predicted guide function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortoriello, Giuseppe; Accardo, Maria Carmela; Scialò, Filippo; Angrisani, Alberto; Turano, Mimmo; Furia, Maria

    2009-05-01

    A significant portion of eukaryotic small ncRNA transcriptome is composed by small nucleolar RNAs. From archaeal to mammalian cells, these molecules act as guides in the site-specific pseudouridylation or methylation of target RNAs. We used a bioinformatics search program to detect Drosophila putative orthologues of U79, one out of ten snoRNAs produced by GAS5, a human ncRNA involved in apoptosis, susceptibility to cancer and autoimmune diseases. This search led to the definition of a list of U79-related fly snoRNAs whose genomic organization, evolution and expression strategy are discussed here. We report that an intriguing novel specimen, named Dm46E3, is transcribed as a longer, unspliced precursor from the reverse strand of eiger, a fly regulatory gene that plays a key role in cell differentiation, apoptosis and immune response. Expression of Dm46E3 was found significantly up-regulated in a mutant strain in which eiger transcription is greatly reduced, suggesting that these two sense-antisense genes may be mutually regulated. Relevant to its function, Dm46E3 concentrated specifically in the Cajal bodies, followed a dynamic spatial expression profile during embryogenesis and displayed a degenerate antisense element that enables it to target U1b, a developmentally regulated isoform of the U1 spliceosomal snRNA that is particularly abundant in embryos.

  2. Small regulatory RNAs in lambdoid bacteriophages and phage-derived plasmids: Not only antisense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejman-Faleńczyk, Bożena; Bloch, Sylwia; Licznerska, Katarzyna; Felczykowska, Agnieszka; Dydecka, Aleksandra; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    Until recently, only two small regulatory RNAs encoded by lambdoid bacteriophages were known. These transcripts are derived from paQ and pO promoters. The former one is supposed to act as an antisense RNA for expression of the Q gene, encoding a transcription antitermination protein. The latter transcript, called oop RNA, was initially proposed to have a double role, in establishing expression of the cI gene and in providing a primer for DNA replication. Although the initially proposed mechanisms by which oop RNA could influence the choice between two alternative developmental pathways of the phage and the initiation of phage DNA replication were found not true, the pO promoter has been demonstrated to be important for both regulation of phage development and control of DNA replication. Namely, the pO-derived transcript is an antisense RNA for expression of the cII gene, and pO is a part of a dual promoter system responsible for regulation of initiation of DNA synthesis from the oriλ region. Very recent studies identified a battery of small RNAs encoded by lambdoid bacteriophages existing as prophages in chromosomes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains. Some of them have very interesting functions, like anti-small RNAs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Search for antisense copies of beta-globin mRNA in anemic mouse spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor John M

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies by Volloch and coworkers have reported that during the expression of high levels of β-globin mRNA in the spleen of anemic mice, they could also detect small but significant levels of an antisense (AS globin RNA species, which they postulated might have somehow arisen by RNA-directed RNA synthesis. For two reasons we undertook to confirm and possibly extend these studies. First, previous studies in our lab have focussed on what is an unequivocal example of host RNA-directed RNA polymerase activity on the RNA genome of human hepatitis delta virus. Second, if AS globin species do exist they could in turn form double-stranded RNA species which might induce post-transcriptional gene silencing, a phenomenon somehow provoked in eukaryotic cells by AS RNA sequences. Results We reexamined critical aspects of the previous globin studies. We used intraperitoneal injections of phenylhydrazine to induce anemia in mice, as demonstrated by the appearance and ultimate disappearance of splenomegaly. While a 30-fold increase in globin mRNA was detected in the spleen, the relative amount of putative AS RNA could be no more than 0.004%. Conclusions Contrary to earlier reports, induction of a major increase in globin transcripts in the mouse spleen was not associated with a detectable level of antisense RNA to globin mRNA.

  4. RNA sequencing uncovers antisense RNAs and novel small RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rhun, Anaïs; Beer, Yan Yan; Reimegård, Johan; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild to life-threatening infections. During the infectious process, the temporal and spatial expression of pathogenicity factors is tightly controlled by a complex network of protein and RNA regulators acting in response to various environmental signals. Here, we focus on the class of small RNA regulators (sRNAs) and present the first complete analysis of sRNA sequencing data in S. pyogenes. In the SF370 clinical isolate (M1 serotype), we identified 197 and 428 putative regulatory RNAs by visual inspection and bioinformatics screening of the sequencing data, respectively. Only 35 from the 197 candidates identified by visual screening were assigned a predicted function (T-boxes, ribosomal protein leaders, characterized riboswitches or sRNAs), indicating how little is known about sRNA regulation in S. pyogenes. By comparing our list of predicted sRNAs with previous S. pyogenes sRNA screens using bioinformatics or microarrays, 92 novel sRNAs were revealed, including antisense RNAs that are for the first time shown to be expressed in this pathogen. We experimentally validated the expression of 30 novel sRNAs and antisense RNAs. We show that the expression profile of 9 sRNAs including 2 predicted regulatory elements is affected by the endoribonucleases RNase III and/or RNase Y, highlighting the critical role of these enzymes in sRNA regulation.

  5. Efficacy and Safety Profile of Tricyclo-DNA Antisense Oligonucleotides in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Relizani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs hold promise for therapeutic splice-switching correction in many genetic diseases. However, despite advances in AON chemistry and design, systemic use of AONs is limited due to poor tissue uptake and sufficient therapeutic efficacy is still difficult to achieve. A novel class of AONs made of tricyclo-DNA (tcDNA is considered very promising for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, a neuromuscular disease typically caused by frameshifting deletions or nonsense mutations in the gene-encoding dystrophin and characterized by progressive muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure in addition to cognitive impairment. Herein, we report the efficacy and toxicology profile of a 13-mer tcDNA in mdx mice. We show that systemic delivery of 13-mer tcDNA allows restoration of dystrophin in skeletal muscles and to a lower extent in the brain, leading to muscle function improvement and correction of behavioral features linked to the emotional/cognitive deficiency. More importantly, tcDNA treatment was generally limited to minimal glomerular changes and few cell necroses in proximal tubules, with only slight variation in serum and urinary kidney toxicity biomarker levels. These results demonstrate an encouraging safety profile for tcDNA, albeit typical of phosphorothiate AONs, and confirm its therapeutic potential for the systemic treatment of DMD patients. Keywords: antisense oligonucleotides, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, preclinical, splice switching, tcDNA-AONs

  6. [High expression of p15 antisense RNA is a frequent event in acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yufeng; Le, Donghai; Zhu, Zhankun

    2016-04-01

    To detect the presence of p15 antisense RNA(p15AS) in acute myeloid leukemia(AML). p15AS and p15 mRNA in two leukemia cell lines was detected with strand-specific primer RT-qPCR. To explore the connection between p15AS and AML, 43 patients with newly diagnosed AML and 21 patients with benign diseases (Iron deficiency anemia) as controls were enrolled. The expression level of p15AS in bone marrow cells derived from the patients and the controls were determined by strand-specific primer RT-qPCR, and its relationship with clinical features was analyzed. The two AML lines displayed high p15AS and low p15 expression. Samples derived from the AML patients showed relatively increased expression of p15AS and down-regulated p15 expression in their bone cells. In contrast, the 21 controls showed high expression of p15 but relatively low expression of the p15AS. Compared with the normal controls, the expression levels of p15 protein were significantly lower among the AML patients (PFAB subtype, total white blood cell count, platelet count, proliferative degree of bone marrow cell and karyotype classification (P>0.05 for all comparisons). High expression of p15 antisense RNA was frequently found among AML patients, and may play an important role in epigenetic silencing of p15.

  7. FGF-2 antisense RNA encodes a nuclear protein with MutT-like antimutator activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A W; Too, C K; Knee, R; Wilkinson, M; Murphy, P R

    1997-10-20

    Bidirectional transcription of the basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) gene gives rise to multiple polyadenylated sense mRNAs and a unique 1.5 kb antisense transcript (FGF-AS) which is complementary to the 3'-untranslated region of the FGF-2 mRNA. The rat FGF-AS cDNA encodes a novel 35 kDa nuclear protein (GFG) with homology to the MutT family of antimutator NTPases. Antibodies against the deduced amino acid sequence of GFG detected intense immunoreactivity in the nuclei of adult rat hepatocytes. Subcellular fractionation and Western blotting confirmed the presence of a 35 kDa immunoreactive protein in the nuclear fraction and, to a lesser extent, in the mitochondrial fractions of rat liver homogenates. Recombinant GFG suppressed the spontaneous mutation rate of MutT-deficient E. coli in a complementation assay. In-frame deletion of the 53 amino acids encompassing the MutT domain eliminated this activity, confirming the catalytic function of this region in the FGF antisense gene product. These findings demonstrate for the first time that the FGF-AS transcript encodes a functional nuclear protein with MutT-related enzymatic activity.

  8. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz [Livermore, CA

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  9. The association between low-grade inflammation, iron status and nucleic acid oxidation in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broedbaek, Kasper; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Andersen, Jon T

    2011-01-01

    markers of nucleic acid oxidation between cases and controls were found and multivariable linear regression analysis showed no association between urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and inflammatory markers. Post-hoc multivariable linear regression analysis showed significant associations between...

  10. Designer Natriuretic Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Candace Y. W.; Lieu, Hsiao; Burnett, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Designer natriuretic peptides (NPs) are novel hybrid peptides that are engineered from the native NPs through addition, deletion, or substitution of amino acid(s) with a goal toward optimization of pharmacological actions while minimizing undesirable effects. In this article, selected peptides that were designed in our laboratory are reviewed, and future directions for research and development of designer NPs are discussed. PMID:19158603

  11. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms.

  13. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  14. Karyotype and nucleic acid content in Zantedeschia aethiopica Spr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of karyotype, nucleic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were performed in Zantedeschia aethiopica and Zantedeschia elliottiana. Mitotic metaphase in both species showed 2n=32. The chromosomes of both species were quite similar ...

  15. A nucleic acid dependent chemical photocatalysis in live human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arian, Dumitru; Cló, Emiliano; Gothelf, Kurt V

    2010-01-01

    Only two nucleic acid directed chemical reactions that are compatible with live cells have been reported to date. Neither of these processes generate toxic species from nontoxic starting materials. Reactions of the latter type could be applied as gene-specific drugs, for example, in the treatment...

  16. Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding of unlocked nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Niels; Wengel, Jesper; Pasternak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We herein describe the synthesis of two new unlocked nucleic acid building blocks containing hypoxanthine and 2,6-diaminopurine as nucleobase moieties and their incorporation into oligonucleotides. The modified oligonucleotides were used to examine the thermodynamic properties of UNA against...

  17. A DNA origami nanorobot controlled by nucleic acid hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Emanuela; Marini, Monica; Palmano, Sabrina; Piantanida, Luca; Polano, Cesare; Scarpellini, Alice; Lazzarino, Marco; Firrao, Giuseppe

    2014-07-23

    A prototype for a DNA origami nanorobot is designed, produced, and tested. The cylindrical nanorobot (diameter of 14 nm and length of 48 nm) with a switchable flap, is able to respond to an external stimulus and reacts by a physical switch from a disarmed to an armed configuration able to deliver a cellular compatible message. In the tested design the robot weapon is a nucleic acid fully contained in the inner of the tube and linked to a single point of the internal face of the flap. Upon actuation the nanorobot moves the flap extracting the nucleic acid that assembles into a hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme catalyzing a colorimetric reaction or chemiluminescence generation. The actuation switch is triggered by an external nucleic acid (target) that interacts with a complementary nucleic acid that is beard externally by the nanorobot (probe). Hybridization of probe and target produces a localized structural change that results in flap opening. The flap movement is studied on a two-dimensional prototype origami using Förster resonance energy transfer and is shown to be triggered by a variety of targets, including natural RNAs. The nanorobot has potential for in vivo biosensing and intelligent delivery of biological activators. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Nucleic acid amplification: Alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Fakruddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid amplification is a valuable molecular tool not only in basic research but also in application oriented fields, such as clinical medicine development, infectious diseases diagnosis, gene cloning and industrial quality control. A comperehensive review of the literature on the principles, applications, challenges and prospects of different alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed. PCR was the first nucleic acid amplification method. With the advancement of research, a no of alternative nucleic acid amplification methods has been developed such as loop mediated isothermal amplification, nucleic acid sequence based amplification, strand displacement amplification, multiple displacement amplification. Most of the alternative methods are isothermal obviating the need for thermal cyclers. Though principles of most of the alternate methods are relatively complex than that of PCR, they offer better applicability and sensitivity in cases where PCR has limitations. Most of the alternate methods still have to prove themselves through extensive validation studies and are not available in commercial form; they pose the potentiality to be used as replacements of PCR. Continuous research is going on in different parts of the world to make these methods viable technically and economically.

  19. Mosaic protein and nucleic acid vaccines against hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusim, Karina; Korber, Bette T. M.; Kuiken, Carla L.; Fischer, William M.

    2013-06-11

    The invention relates to immunogenic compositions useful as HCV vaccines. Provided are HCV mosaic polypeptide and nucleic acid compositions which provide higher levels of T-cell epitope coverage while minimizing the occurrence of unnatural and rare epitopes compared to natural HCV polypeptides and consensus HCV sequences.

  20. Circulating nucleic acids as a new diagnostic tool

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Markéta; Plzák, J.; Strnad, Hynek; Betka, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2010), s. 242-259 ISSN 1425-8153 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : circulating nucleic acids * diagnostics * cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2010

  1. Nucleic acid therapy for lifespan prolongation: Present and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This was demonstrated by a database search on PubMed and Web of Science, from which only seven studies published between 2000 and 2010 were found to directly touch on the development of nucleic acid therapy for anti-aging and/or longevity enhancing purposes. In light of this, the objective of this article is to ...

  2. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  3. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  4. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2017-09-05

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  5. Karyotype and nucleic acid content in Zantedeschia aethiopica Spr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-07-03

    Jul 3, 2012 ... Analysis of karyotype, nucleic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide ... base pairs) for Z. aethiopica and 1144.26 ± 0.05 picograms (equivalent to 1144.26 mega base pairs) for Z. elliottiana. ... ml ice-cold nuclei-isolation buffer A of the Partec high resolution. DNA kit ...

  6. Nucleic acid detection with surface plasmon resonance using cationic latex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.F.A.; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.; van der Plas, J.; Greve, Jan

    1994-01-01

    An affinity sensor based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) was used to detect nucleic acids. SPR is an optical technique that is able to detect small changes in the refractive index of the immediate vicinity of a metal surface. After a specific amplification of DNA, achieved using the polymerase

  7. A DNA origami nanorobot controlled by nucleic acid hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Torelli, Emanuela

    2014-03-20

    A prototype for a DNA origami nanorobot is designed, produced, and tested. The cylindrical nanorobot (diameter of 14 nm and length of 48 nm) with a switchable flap, is able to respond to an external stimulus and reacts by a physical switch from a disarmed to an armed configuration able to deliver a cellular compatible message. In the tested design the robot weapon is a nucleic acid fully contained in the inner of the tube and linked to a single point of the internal face of the flap. Upon actuation the nanorobot moves the flap extracting the nucleic acid that assembles into a hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme catalyzing a colorimetric reaction or chemiluminescence generation. The actuation switch is triggered by an external nucleic acid (target) that interacts with a complementary nucleic acid that is beard externally by the nanorobot (probe). Hybridization of probe and target produces a localized structural change that results in flap opening. The flap movement is studied on a two-dimensional prototype origami using Förster resonance energy transfer and is shown to be triggered by a variety of targets, including natural RNAs. The nanorobot has potential for in vivo biosensing and intelligent delivery of biological activators. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Assessment for Melting Temperature Measurement of Nucleic Acid by HRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution melting (HRM, with a high sensitivity to distinguish the nucleic acid species with small variations, has been widely applied in the mutation scanning, methylation analysis, and genotyping. For the aim of extending HRM for the evaluation of thermal stability of nucleic acid secondary structures on sequence dependence, we investigated effects of the dye of EvaGreen, metal ions, and impurities (such as dNTPs on melting temperature (Tm measurement by HRM. The accuracy of HRM was assessed as compared with UV melting method, and little difference between the two methods was found when the DNA Tm was higher than 40°C. Both insufficiency and excessiveness of EvaGreen were found to give rise to a little bit higher Tm, showing that the proportion of dye should be considered for precise Tm measurement of nucleic acids. Finally, HRM method was also successfully used to measure Tms of DNA triplex, hairpin, and RNA duplex. In conclusion, HRM can be applied in the evaluation of thermal stability of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA or secondary structural elements (even when dNTPs are present.

  9. Circulating nucleic acids as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elevated levels of circulating nucleic acids have been found in a variety of benign and malignant pathological conditions. The ability to detect and quantitate specific DNA, RNA and micro-RNA sequences in serum/ plasma has opened up the possibilities of non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of diseases. Circulating ...

  10. Surface plasmon resonance sensing of nucleic acids: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípová, Hana; Homola, Jiří

    -, č. 773 (2013), s. 9-23 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11102 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Surface plasmon resonance * Nucleic acid * Biosensor Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 4.517, year: 2013

  11. Web-based bioinformatic resources for protein and nucleic acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advent of the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) has substantially increased the availability of information and computational resources available to experimental biologists. This review will describe the current on-line resources available, including protein and nucleic acids sequence alignment. Key words: ...

  12. Predicting nucleic acid binding interfaces from structural models of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Iris; Shazman, Shula; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Zhang, Yang; Glaser, Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2012-02-01

    The function of DNA- and RNA-binding proteins can be inferred from the characterization and accurate prediction of their binding interfaces. However, the main pitfall of various structure-based methods for predicting nucleic acid binding function is that they are all limited to a relatively small number of proteins for which high-resolution three-dimensional structures are available. In this study, we developed a pipeline for extracting functional electrostatic patches from surfaces of protein structural models, obtained using the I-TASSER protein structure predictor. The largest positive patches are extracted from the protein surface using the patchfinder algorithm. We show that functional electrostatic patches extracted from an ensemble of structural models highly overlap the patches extracted from high-resolution structures. Furthermore, by testing our pipeline on a set of 55 known nucleic acid binding proteins for which I-TASSER produces high-quality models, we show that the method accurately identifies the nucleic acids binding interface on structural models of proteins. Employing a combined patch approach we show that patches extracted from an ensemble of models better predicts the real nucleic acid binding interfaces compared with patches extracted from independent models. Overall, these results suggest that combining information from a collection of low-resolution structural models could be a valuable approach for functional annotation. We suggest that our method will be further applicable for predicting other functional surfaces of proteins with unknown structure. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Delivery Systems for In Vivo use of Nucleic Acid Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende R.R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The notorious biotechnological advance of the last few decades has allowed the development of experimental methods for understanding molecular mechanisms of genes and new therapeutic approaches. Gene therapy is maturing into a viable, practical method with the potential to cure a variety of human illnesses. Some nucleic-acid-based drugs are now available for controlling the progression of genetic diseases by inhibiting gene expression or the activity of their gene products. New therapeutic strategies employ a wide range of molecular tools such as bacterial plasmids containing transgenic inserts, RNA interference aptamers. A nucleic-acid based constitution confers a lower immunogenic potential and as result of the high stringency selection of large molecular variety, these drugs have high affi nity and selectivity for their targets. However, nucleic acids have poor biostability thus requiring chemical modifications and delivery systems to maintain their activity and ease their cellular internalization. This review discusses some of the mechanisms of action and the application of therapies based on nucleic acids such as aptamers and RNA interference as well as platforms for cellular uptake and intracellular delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides and their trade-offs.

  14. A simple and rapid nucleic acid preparation method for reverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... In order to shorten and facilitate the preparation of nucleic acid (without using tuber slicer, santurugation, vacuum devices and nanocalorimeter (NCM)) for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), pieces of tuber were placed directly into eppendorf tubes containing 30 µl of detergent (0.5% ...

  15. "Clickable" LNA/DNA probes for fluorescence sensing of nucleic acids and autoimmune antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna S; Gupta, Pankaj; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Herein we describe fluorescent oligonucleotides prepared by click chemistry between novel alkyne-modified locked nucleic acid (LNA) strands and a series of fluorescent azides for homogeneous (all-in-solution) detection of nucleic acids and autoimmune antibodies.......Herein we describe fluorescent oligonucleotides prepared by click chemistry between novel alkyne-modified locked nucleic acid (LNA) strands and a series of fluorescent azides for homogeneous (all-in-solution) detection of nucleic acids and autoimmune antibodies....

  16. Jumping Hurdles: Peptides Able To Overcome Biological Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Macarena; Teixidó, Meritxell; Giralt, Ernest

    2017-08-15

    The cell membrane, the gastrointestinal tract, and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are good examples of biological barriers that define and protect cells and organs. They impose different levels of restriction, but they also share common features. For instance, they all display a high lipophilic character. For this reason, hydrophilic compounds, like peptides, proteins, or nucleic acids have long been considered as unable to bypass them. However, the discovery of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) opened a vast field of research. Nowadays, CPPs, homing peptides, and blood-brain barrier peptide shuttles (BBB-shuttles) are good examples of peptides able to target and to cross various biological barriers. CPPs are a group of peptides able to interact with the plasma membrane and enter the cell. They display some common characteristics like positively charged residues, mainly arginines, and amphipathicity. In this field, our group has been focused on the development of proline rich CPPs and in the analysis of the importance of secondary amphipathicity in the internalization process. Proline has a privileged structure being the only amino acid with a secondary amine and a cyclic side chain. These features constrain its structure and hamper the formation of H-bonds. Taking advantage of this privileged structure, three different families of proline-rich peptides have been developed, namely, a proline-rich dendrimer, the sweet arrow peptide (SAP), and a group of foldamers based on γ-peptides. The structure and the mechanism of internalization of all of them has been evaluated and analyzed. BBB-shuttles are peptides able to cross the BBB and to carry with them compounds that cannot reach the brain parenchyma unaided. These peptides take advantage of the natural transport mechanisms present at the BBB, which are divided in active and passive transport mechanisms. On the one hand, we have developed BBB-shuttles that cross the BBB by a passive transport mechanism, like

  17. DMPD: Nucleic acid-sensing TLRs as modifiers of autoimmunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17082566 Nucleic acid-sensing TLRs as modifiers of autoimmunity. Deane JA, Bolland ...S. J Immunol. 2006 Nov 15;177(10):6573-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Nucleic acid-sensing TLRs as modifiers of auto...immunity. PubmedID 17082566 Title Nucleic acid-sensing TLRs as modifiers of autoimmunity. Aut

  18. Translocation of cell-penetrating peptides into Candida fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zifan; Karlsson, Amy J

    2017-09-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small peptides capable of crossing cellular membranes while carrying molecular cargo. Although they have been widely studied for their ability to translocate nucleic acids, small molecules, and proteins into mammalian cells, studies of their interaction with fungal cells are limited. In this work, we evaluated the translocation of eleven fluorescently labeled peptides into the important human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata and explored the mechanisms of translocation. Seven of these peptides (cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, MAP, SynB, (KFF) 3 K, and MPG) exhibited substantial translocation (>80% of cells) into both species in a concentration-dependent manner, and an additional peptide (TP-10) exhibiting strong translocation into only C. glabrata. Vacuoles were involved in translocation and intracellular trafficking of the peptides in the fungal cells and, for some peptides, escape from the vacuoles and localization in the cytosol were correlated to toxicity toward the fungal cells. Endocytosis was involved in the translocation of cecropin B, MAP, SynB, MPG, (KFF) 3 K, and TP-10, and cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, and MAP caused membrane permeabilization during translocation. These results indicate the involvement of multiple translocation mechanisms for some CPPs. Although high levels of translocation were typically associated with toxicity of the peptides toward the fungal cells, SynB was translocated efficiently into Candida cells at concentrations that led to minimal toxicity. Our work highlights the potential of CPPs in delivering antifungal molecules and other bioactive cargo to Candida pathogens. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  19. CD49d antisense drug ATL1102 reduces disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limmroth, V.; Barkhof, F.; Desem, N.; Diamond, M.P.; Tachas, G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of ATL1102, an antisense oligonucleotide that selectively targets the RNA for human CD49d, the a subunit of very late antigen 4, in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: In a multicenter, double-blind,

  20. Intracellular Distribution and Nuclear Activity of Antisense Oligonucleotides After Unassisted Uptake in Myoblasts and Differentiated Myotubes In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.M.; Nillessen, B.; Kranzen, J.; Kessel, I.D.G. van; Croes, H.J.E.; Aguilera, B.; Visser, P.C. de; Datson, N.A.; Mulders, S.A.; Deutekom, J.C. van; Wieringa, B.; Wansink, D.G.

    2017-01-01

    Clinical efficacy of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) for the treatment of neuromuscular disorders depends on efficient cellular uptake and proper intracellular routing to the target. Selection of AONs with highest in vitro efficiencies is usually based on chemical or physical methods for forced

  1. Reduced wood stiffness and strength, and altered stem form, in young antisense 4CL transgenic poplars with reduced lignin contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Peter Kitin; Steven H. Strauss

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lignin content in perennial crops has been sought as a means to improve biomass processability for paper and biofuels production, but it is unclear how this could affect wood properties and tree form. Here, we studied a nontransgenic control and 14 transgenic events containing an antisense 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) to discern the...

  2. Acylation of Therapeutic Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Sofie; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Jensen, Simon Bjerregaard

    to the harsh and selective gastrointestinal system, and development has lacked far behind injection therapy. Peptide acylation is a powerful tool to alter the pharmacokinetics, biophysical properties and chemical stability of injectable peptide drugs, primarily used to prolong blood circulation....... This work aims to characterize acylated analogues of two therapeutic peptides by systematically increasing acyl chain length in order to elucidate its influence on membrane interaction and intestinal cell translocation in vitro. The studied peptides are the 33 amino acid Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2...... peptides can increase in vitro intestinal permeability, modestly for GLP-2 and drastically for sCT, and might benefit oral delivery. GLP-2 results provide a well-founded predictive power for future peptide analogues, whereas sCT results hold great promise for future analogues, albeit with a larger...

  3. Expression of RNA-interference/antisense transgenes by the cognate promoters of target genes is a better gene-silencing strategy to study gene functions in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Dagang; Zhou, Hai; Li, Feng; Yang, Jiawei; Hong, Laifa; Fu, Xiao; Li, Zhibin; Liu, Zhenlan; Li, Jianming; Zhuang, Chuxiong

    2011-03-03

    Antisense and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing systems are powerful reverse genetic methods for studying gene function. Most RNAi and antisense experiments used constitutive promoters to drive the expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes; however, several reports showed that constitutive promoters were not expressed in all cell types in cereal plants, suggesting that the constitutive promoter systems are not effective for silencing gene expression in certain tissues/organs. To develop an alternative method that complements the constitutive promoter systems, we constructed RNAi and/or antisense transgenes for four rice genes using a constitutive promoter or a cognate promoter of a selected rice target gene and generated many independent transgenic lines. Genetic, molecular, and phenotypic analyses of these RNAi/antisense transgenic rice plants, in comparison to previously-reported transgenic lines that silenced similar genes, revealed that expression of the cognate promoter-driven RNAi/antisense transgenes resulted in novel growth/developmental defects that were not observed in transgenic lines expressing constitutive promoter-driven gene-silencing transgenes of the same target genes. Our results strongly suggested that expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes by cognate promoters of target genes is a better gene-silencing approach to discovery gene function in rice.

  4. BC047440 antisense eukaryotic expression vectors inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation and suppressed xenograft tumorigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zheng; Ping, Liang; JianBo, Zhou; XiaoBing, Huang; Yu, Wen; Zheng, Wang; Jing, Li

    2012-01-01

    The biological functions of the BC047440 gene highly expressed by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unknown. The objective of this study was to reconstruct antisense eukaryotic expression vectors of the gene for inhibiting HepG 2 cell proliferation and suppressing their xenograft tumorigenicity. The full-length BC047440 cDNA was cloned from human primary HCC by RT-PCR. BC047440 gene fragments were ligated with pMD18-T simple vectors and subsequent pcDNA3.1(+) plasmids to construct the recombinant antisense eukaryotic vector pcDNA3.1(+)BC047440AS. The endogenous BC047440 mRNA abundance in target gene-transfected, vector-transfected and naive HepG 2 cells was semiquantitatively analyzed by RT-PCR and cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were profiled by flow cytometry. The in vivo xenograft experiment was performed on nude mice to examine the effects of antisense vector on tumorigenicity. BC047440 cDNA fragments were reversely inserted into pcDNA3.1(+) plasmids. The antisense vector significantly reduced the endogenous BC047440 mRNA abundance by 41% in HepG 2 cells and inhibited their proliferation in vitro (P < 0.01). More cells were arrested by the antisense vector at the G 1 phase in an apoptosis-independent manner (P = 0.014). Additionally, transfection with pcDNA3.1(+) BC047440AS significantly reduced the xenograft tumorigenicity in nude mice. As a novel cell cycle regulator associated with HCC, the BC047440 gene was involved in cell proliferation in vitro and xenograft tumorigenicity in vivo through apoptosis-independent mechanisms

  5. Cell Penetrating Peptides and Cationic Antibacterial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Plaza, Jonathan G.; Morales-Nava, Rosmarbel; Diener, Christian; Schreiber, Gabriele; Gonzalez, Zyanya D.; Lara Ortiz, Maria Teresa; Ortega Blake, Ivan; Pantoja, Omar; Volkmer, Rudolf; Klipp, Edda; Herrmann, Andreas; Del Rio, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPP) and cationic antibacterial peptides (CAP) have similar physicochemical properties and yet it is not understood how such similar peptides display different activities. To address this question, we used Iztli peptide 1 (IP-1) because it has both CPP and CAP activities. Combining experimental and computational modeling of the internalization of IP-1, we show it is not internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis, yet it permeates into many different cell types, including fungi and human cells. We also show that IP-1 makes pores in the presence of high electrical potential at the membrane, such as those found in bacteria and mitochondria. These results provide the basis to understand the functional redundancy of CPPs and CAPs. PMID:24706763

  6. Selected topics in photochemistry of nucleic acids. Recent results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeber, G.; Kittler, L.

    1977-01-01

    Recent results on the following photoreactions of nucleic acids are reported: photochemistry of aza-bases and minor bases, formation of photoproducts of the non-cyclobutane type, formations of furocoumarin-pyrimidine photoadducts, fluorescence of dye-nucleic acid complexes and their role in chromosomal fluorescence staining, and mechanisms of the photochemical reaction. Results are discussed with respect to: (i) photobiological relevance of light-induced defects in nucleic acids; (ii) possibilities of achieving higher selectivity of light-induced defects in nucleic acids; (iii) the use of nucleic acid photochemistry to analyze genetic material. An extensive bibliography is included. (author)

  7. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. Os DNA sintéticos anti-sentido Antisense Synthtetic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cravador

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available One old dream of the chemist in the field of the drug research is to create molecules capable of reaching their target with the precision of a missile. To accomplish it these molecules must have the propriety of distinguishing qualitative differences between healthy and diseased cells. A therapy based on this principle, able of eradicating specifically defective cells, or cells affected by a pathogen has an enormous advantage with the regard to the classical approach in which the cytotoxic drugs merely exploit quantitative biochemical and kinetic differences between abnormal and normal cells. We present in this article a review on the chemical synthesis of analogues of desoxyribonucleotides and on results obtained on the specific and irreversible inhibition of undesired genetic expression using the antisense principle.

  9. Rescue of peripheral vestibular function in Usher syndrome mice using a splice-switching antisense oligonucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Sarath; Depreux, Frederic F; Jodelka, Francine M; Lentz, Jennifer J; Rigo, Frank; Jones, Timothy A; Hastings, Michelle L

    2017-09-15

    Usher syndrome type 1C (USH1C/harmonin) is associated with profound retinal, auditory and vestibular dysfunction. We have previously reported on an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO-29) that dramatically improves auditory function and balance behavior in mice homozygous for the harmonin mutation Ush1c c.216G > A following a single systemic administration. The findings were suggestive of improved vestibular function; however, no direct vestibular assessment was made. Here, we measured vestibular sensory evoked potentials (VsEPs) to directly assess vestibular function in Usher mice. We report that VsEPs are absent or abnormal in Usher mice, indicating profound loss of vestibular function. Strikingly, Usher mice receiving ASO-29 treatment have normal or elevated vestibular response thresholds when treated during a critical period between postnatal day 1 and 5, respectively. In contrast, treatment of mice with ASO-29 treatment at P15 was minimally effective at rescuing vestibular function. Interestingly, ASO-29 treatment at P1, P5 or P15 resulted in sufficient vestibular recovery to support normal balance behaviors, suggesting a therapeutic benefit to balance with ASO-29 treatment at P15 despite the profound vestibular functional deficits that persist with treatment at this later time. These findings provide the first direct evidence of an effective treatment of peripheral vestibular function in a mouse model of USH1C and reveal the potential for using antisense technology to treat vestibular dysfunction. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Antisense suppression of LOX3 gene expression in rice endosperm enhances seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huibin; Wei, Yidong; Zhu, Yongsheng; Lian, Ling; Xie, Hongguang; Cai, Qiuhua; Chen, Qiushi; Lin, Zhongping; Wang, Zonghua; Xie, Huaan; Zhang, Jianfu

    2015-05-01

    Lipid peroxidation plays a major role in seed longevity and viability. In rice grains, lipid peroxidation is catalyzed by the enzyme lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3). Previous reports showed that grain from the rice variety DawDam in which the LOX3 gene was deleted had less stale flavour after grain storage than normal rice. The molecular mechanism by which LOX3 expression is regulated during endosperm development remains unclear. In this study, we expressed a LOX3 antisense construct in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants to down-regulate LOX3 expression in rice endosperm. The transgenic plants exhibited a marked decrease in LOX mRNA levels, normal phenotypes and a normal life cycle. We showed that LOX3 activity and its ability to produce 9-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HPOD) from linoleic acid were significantly lower in transgenic seeds than in wild-type seeds by measuring the ultraviolet absorption of 9-HPOD at 234 nm and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The suppression of LOX3 expression in rice endosperm increased grain storability. The germination rate of TS-91 (antisense LOX3 transgenic line) was much higher than the WT (29% higher after artificial ageing for 21 days, and 40% higher after natural ageing for 12 months). To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that decreased LOX3 expression can preserve rice grain quality during storage with no impact on grain yield, suggesting potential applications in agricultural production. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Antisense-induced exon skipping for duplications in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ommen Gert-Jan B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense-mediated exon skipping is currently one of the most promising therapeutic approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs targeting specific exons the DMD reading frame is restored and partially functional dystrophins are produced. Following proof of concept in cultured muscle cells from patients with various deletions and point mutations, we now focus on single and multiple exon duplications. These mutations are in principle ideal targets for this approach since the specific skipping of duplicated exons would generate original, full-length transcripts. Methods Cultured muscle cells from DMD patients carrying duplications were transfected with AONs targeting the duplicated exons, and the dystrophin RNA and protein were analyzed. Results For two brothers with an exon 44 duplication, skipping was, even at suboptimal transfection conditions, so efficient that both exons 44 were skipped, thus generating, once more, an out-of-frame transcript. In such cases, one may resort to multi-exon skipping to restore the reading frame, as is shown here by inducing skipping of exon 43 and both exons 44. By contrast, in cells from a patient with an exon 45 duplication we were able to induce single exon 45 skipping, which allowed restoration of wild type dystrophin. The correction of a larger duplication (involving exons 52 to 62, by combinations of AONs targeting the outer exons, appeared problematic due to inefficient skipping and mistargeting of original instead of duplicated exons. Conclusion The correction of DMD duplications by exon skipping depends on the specific exons targeted. Its options vary from the ideal one, restoring for the first time the true, wild type dystrophin, to requiring more 'classical' skipping strategies, while the correction of multi-exon deletions may need the design of tailored approaches.

  12. Development of a rapid and inexpensive method to reveal natural antisense transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collani Silvio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural antisense transcripts (NATs are a group of RNAs encoded within a cell that have transcript complementarity to other RNA transcripts. NATs have been identified in multiple eukaryotes, including humans, mice, yeast and several plants, and are known to play crucial roles in gene regulation and modification via RNA interference, alternative splicing and genomic imprinting. NATs are also involved in several human diseases. Results We describe a novel method to detect the occurrence of target NATs in specific plant tissues. This method differs from the others currently used in molecular biology laboratories for a number of reasons, particularly the simplicity and versatility of application, low cost and lower material requirement. We demonstrate that NATs can be detected by using diluted cDNA, avoiding the need for a large amount of RNA, thus differing from basic techniques, such as Northern blot hybridisation and reverse-transcription PCR amplification. Furthermore, our method also allows the precise detection of long NATs and their cloning into plasmid vectors for downstream applications. We also reported the first case of a tissue-specific NAT occurring in Oleaceae family and, the antisense orientation of this transcript, allows the splicing of two introns otherwise impossible in the sense orientation. Conclusions This method is the first that combines the polymerisation and cleavage activity of DNA polymerase and exonuclease enzymes, respectively, to discover NATs in living organisms. It may simplify the discovery of NATs in plants providing a new strategy for an easy identification and characterization of this group of RNA molecules. Furthermore, since NATs are found in multiple eukaryotes, our method can be easily applied to a wide range of organisms, including human, mice and yeast.

  13. Universal nucleic acids sample preparation method for cells, spores and their mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavykin, Sergei [Darien, IL

    2011-01-18

    The present invention relates to a method for extracting nucleic acids from biological samples. More specifically the invention relates to a universal method for extracting nucleic acids from unidentified biological samples. An advantage of the presently invented method is its ability to effectively and efficiently extract nucleic acids from a variety of different cell types including but not limited to prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells and/or recalcitrant organisms (i.e. spores). Unlike prior art methods which are focused on extracting nucleic acids from vegetative cell or spores, the present invention effectively extracts nucleic acids from spores, multiple cell types or mixtures thereof using a single method. Important that the invented method has demonstrated an ability to extract nucleic acids from spores and vegetative bacterial cells with similar levels effectiveness. The invented method employs a multi-step protocol which erodes the cell structure of the biological sample, isolates, labels, fragments nucleic acids and purifies labeled samples from the excess of dye.

  14. Long noncoding nature brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense is associated with poor prognosis and functional regulation in non-small cell lung caner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, MingJing; Xu, Zhonghua; Jiang, Kanqiu; Xu, Weihua; Chen, Yongbin; Xu, ZhongHeng

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the prognostic potential and functional regulation of human nature antisense, brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense, in non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer carcinoma and adjacent non-carcinoma lung tissues were extracted from 151 patients. Their endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense expression levels were compared by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical relevance between endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense expression level and patients' clinicopathological variances or overall survival was analyzed. The potential of brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense being an independent prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer was also evaluated. In in vitro non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense was upregulated through forced overexpression. The effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense upregulation on non-small cell lung cancer in vitro survival, proliferation, and migration were evaluated by viability, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, and transwell assays. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense is lowly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer carcinoma tissues and further downregulated in late-stage carcinomas. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense downregulation was closely associated with non-small cell lung cancer patients' advanced tumor, lymph node, metastasis stage, and positive status of lymph node metastasis, and confirmed to be an independent prognostic factor for patients' poor overall survival. In non-small cell lung cancer A549 and H226 cell lines, forced overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense did not alter cancer cell viability but had significantly tumor suppressive effect in inhibiting in vitro non-small cell lung cancer proliferation and migration. Endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense in

  15. Archetypal tryptophan-rich antimicrobial peptides: properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagaghi, Nadin; Palombo, Enzo A; Clayton, Andrew H A; Bhave, Mrinal

    2016-02-01

    Drug-resistant microorganisms ('superbugs') present a serious challenge to the success of antimicrobial treatments. Subsequently, there is a crucial need for novel bio-control agents. Many antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) show a broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi or viruses and are strong candidates to complement or substitute current antimicrobial agents. Some AMPs are also effective against protozoa or cancer cells. The tryptophan (Trp)-rich peptides (TRPs) are a subset of AMPs that display potent antimicrobial activity, credited to the unique biochemical properties of tryptophan that allow it to insert into biological membranes. Further, many Trp-rich AMPs cross bacterial membranes without compromising their integrity and act intracellularly, suggesting interactions with nucleic acids and enzymes. In this work, we overview some archetypal TRPs derived from natural sources, i.e., indolicidin, tritrpticin and lactoferricin, summarising their biochemical properties, structures, antimicrobial activities, mechanistic studies and potential applications.

  16. Basic peptides as functional components of non-viral gene transfer vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Mahito; Eguchi, Akiko; Akuta, Teruo; Nagoshi, Emi; Fujita, Shigeo; Okabe, Jun; Senda, Takao; Hasegawa, Mamoru

    2003-04-01

    Improving the performance of non-viral gene-delivery vehicles that consist of synthetic compounds and nucleic acids is a key to successful gene therapy. Supplementing synthetic vehicles with various biological functions by using natural or artificial peptides is a promising approach with which to achieve this goal. One of the obstacles hindering this effort is that some of the potentially useful peptides, especially those with many basic amino acid residues, interfere with the formation of the complex owing to strong electrostatic interactions with the nucleic acid. In this review, we describe our recent work in examining the potential of these peptides in gene delivery, using a recombinant lambda phage particle as the model for the gene-delivery complex. Lambda phage encapsulates large duplex DNA in a rigid polyplex-like shell with a diameter of 55 nm, and can display various peptides on this capsid, independently of particle formation. By examining the expression of marker genes encapsulated in the phage capsid, we have demonstrated that the protein transduction domain of HIV Tat protein and the nuclear localization signal derived from SV40 T antigen can remarkably facilitate the delivery of these marker genes across the two major barriers, the cell membrane and the nuclear membrane, respectively. Our results indicate that these basic peptides can constitute effective components of synthetic gene-transfer complexes, as long as sufficient copies are displayed on the outer surface of the complex.

  17. Immune Activation in the Liver by Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Wang, Qingde; Scott, Melanie J; Billiar, Timothy R

    2016-06-28

    Viral infection in the liver, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, is a major health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. The infection triggers a pro-inflammatory response in patients that is crucial for host defense. Recent studies have identified multiple transmembrane and cytosolic receptors that recognize pathogen-derived nucleic acids, and these receptors are essential for driving immune activation in the liver. In addition to sensing DNA/RNA from pathogens, these intracellular receptors can be activated by nucleic acids of host origin in response to sterile injuries. In this review, we discuss the expanding roles of these receptors in both immune and nonimmune cells in the liver.

  18. Devices, systems, and methods for detecting nucleic acids using sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory J.

    2017-10-24

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, systems, and method for conducting nucleic acid purification and quantification using sedimentation. In one example, a method includes generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample, individual ones of the complexes comprising a nucleic acid molecule such as DNA or RNA and a labeling agent. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a density lower than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  19. Surface plasmon resonance sensing of nucleic acids: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šípová, Hana [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Chaberská 57, Prague (Czech Republic); Homola, Jiří, E-mail: homola@ufe.cz [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Chaberská 57, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► Advances of nucleic acid (NA) surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are presented. ► Bioanalytical applications of NA SPR biosensors are reviewed. ► Applications for study of molecular interactions involving NAs are also discussed. -- Abstract: Biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a central tool for the investigation and quantification of biomolecules and their interactions. Nucleic acids (NAs) play a vital role in numerous biological processes and therefore have been one of the major groups of biomolecules targeted by the SPR biosensors. This paper discusses the advances of NA SPR biosensor technology and reviews its applications both in the research of molecular interactions involving NAs (NA–NA, NA–protein, NA–small molecule), as well as for the field of bioanalytics in the areas of food safety, medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring.

  20. Microwave-Assisted Rapid Enzymatic Synthesis of Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari Das, Rakha; Ahirwar, Rajesh; Kumar, Saroj; Nahar, Pradip

    2016-07-02

    Herein we report microwave-induced enhancement of the reactions catalyzed by Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and avian myeloblastosis virus-reverse transcriptase. The reactions induced by microwaves result in a highly selective synthesis of nucleic acids in 10-50 seconds. In contrast, same reactions failed to give desired reaction products when carried out in the same time periods, but without microwave irradiation. Each of the reactions was carried out for different duration of microwave exposure time to find the optimum reaction time. The products produced by the respective enzyme upon microwave irradiation of the reaction mixtures were identical to that produced by the conventional procedures. As the microwave-assisted reactions are rapid, microwave could be a useful alternative to the conventional and time consuming procedures of enzymatic synthesis of nucleic acids.

  1. Nucleic Acid Engineering: RNA Following the Trail of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejin; Park, Yongkuk; Kim, Jieun; Jeong, Jaepil; Han, Sangwoo; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Jong Bum

    2016-02-08

    The self-assembly feature of the naturally occurring biopolymer, DNA, has fascinated researchers in the fields of materials science and bioengineering. With the improved understanding of the chemical and structural nature of DNA, DNA-based constructs have been designed and fabricated from two-dimensional arbitrary shapes to reconfigurable three-dimensional nanodevices. Although DNA has been used successfully as a building block in a finely organized and controlled manner, its applications need to be explored. Hence, with the myriad of biological functions, RNA has recently attracted considerable attention to further the application of nucleic acid-based structures. This Review categorizes different approaches of engineering nucleic acid-based structures and introduces the concepts, principles, and applications of each technique, focusing on how DNA engineering is applied as a guide to RNA engineering.

  2. Metabolism of microbial nitrogen in ruminants with special reference to nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Tsutomu; Shem, Martin N

    2011-04-01

    Characteristically the metabolism of microbial nitrogen (N) compounds in ruminants involves the degradation of dietary N and synthesis of microbial protein (MP), compounds including a small amount of peptides and free amino acids, which may account for 75-85% of total N and the remainder are nucleic acids (NA: DNA and RNA). Generally rumen microbes contain 10-25% NA-N of the total N while 70-80% is in the form of RNA. This paper describes the degradation and synthesis of NA in the rumen and their fate in the lower digestive tracts. Their physiological and nutritional significance in different types of ruminant animals is also discussed. The research works on NA metabolism in ruminants has been mainly on metabolism of purines after rumen microbial digestion and absorption in the lower gut. Subsequently, the fate of absorbed purines has been intensively investigated to assess the extent of MP synthesis in the rumen. The method for predicting ruminal synthesized MP and subsequently digested MP has been proposed using urinary purine derivative (PD) excretion in sheep and cattle fed on ordinary feed. The latter approach has now been adopted for calculation of protein supply in some feeding standards, although there are still difficulties in predicting representative samples of rumen microbes, and also uncertainties in variations of non-renal and endogenous purine losses. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Chemical Modifications of Nucleic Acid Aptamers for Therapeutic Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaijian Ni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid aptamers have minimal immunogenicity, high chemical synthesis production, low cost and high chemical stability when compared with antibodies. However, the susceptibility to nuclease degradation, rapid excretion through renal filtration and insufficient binding affinity hindered their development as drug candidates for therapeutic applications. In this review, we will discuss methods to conquer these challenges and highlight recent developments of chemical modifications and technological advances that may enable early aptamers to be translated into clinical therapeutics.

  4. Developing nucleic acid-based electrical detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabig-Ciminska Magdalena

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of nucleic acid-based detection systems is the main focus of many research groups and high technology companies. The enormous work done in this field is particularly due to the broad versatility and variety of these sensing devices. From optical to electrical systems, from label-dependent to label-free approaches, from single to multi-analyte and array formats, this wide range of possibilities makes the research field very diversified and competitive. New challenges and requirements for an ideal detector suitable for nucleic acid analysis include high sensitivity and high specificity protocol that can be completed in a relatively short time offering at the same time low detection limit. Moreover, systems that can be miniaturized and automated present a significant advantage over conventional technology, especially if detection is needed in the field. Electrical system technology for nucleic acid-based detection is an enabling mode for making miniaturized to micro- and nanometer scale bio-monitoring devices via the fusion of modern micro- and nanofabrication technology and molecular biotechnology. The electrical biosensors that rely on the conversion of the Watson-Crick base-pair recognition event into a useful electrical signal are advancing rapidly, and recently are receiving much attention as a valuable tool for microbial pathogen detection. Pathogens may pose a serious threat to humans, animal and plants, thus their detection and analysis is a significant element of public health. Although different conventional methods for detection of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins exist and are currently being applied, improvements of molecular-based detection methodologies have changed these traditional detection techniques and introduced a new era of rapid, miniaturized and automated electrical chip detection technologies into pathogen identification sector. In this review some developments and current directions in

  5. System for portable nucleic acid testing in low resource settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Roskos, Kristina; Hickerson, Anna I.; Carey, Thomas; Niemz, Angelika

    2013-03-01

    Our overall goal is to enable timely diagnosis of infectious diseases through nucleic acid testing at the point-of-care and in low resource settings, via a compact system that integrates nucleic acid sample preparation, isothermal DNA amplification, and nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF) detection. We herein present an interim milestone, the design of the amplification and detection subsystem, and the characterization of thermal and fluidic control and assay execution within this system. Using an earlier prototype of the amplification and detection unit, comprised of a disposable cartridge containing flexible pouches, passive valves, and electrolysis-driven pumps, in conjunction with a small heater, we have demonstrated successful execution of an established and clinically validated isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) reaction targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) DNA, coupled to NALF detection. The refined design presented herein incorporates miniaturized and integrated electrolytic pumps, novel passive valves, overall design changes to facilitate integration with an upstream sample preparation unit, and a refined instrument design that automates pumping, heating, and timing. Nucleic acid amplification occurs in a two-layer pouch that facilitates fluid handling and appropriate thermal control. The disposable cartridge is manufactured using low-cost and scalable techniques and forms a closed system to prevent workplace contamination by amplicons. In a parallel effort, we are developing a sample preparation unit based on similar design principles, which performs mechanical lysis of mycobacteria and DNA extraction from liquefied and disinfected sputum. Our next step is to combine sample preparation, amplification, and detection in a final integrated cartridge and device, to enable fully automated sample-in to answer-out diagnosis of active tuberculosis in primary care facilities of low-resource and high-burden countries.

  6. Solid-state NMR studies of nucleic acid components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Hodgkinson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 16 (2015), s. 12300-12310 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR spectroscopy * nucleic acids * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/ra/c4ra14404j

  7. Preparative concentration of nucleic acids fragments by capillary isotachophoretic analyzer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Datinská, Vladimíra; Voráčová, Ivona; Berka, J.; Foret, František

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1548 (2018), s. 100-103 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014; GA MŠk(CZ) 8F17003 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : DNA * isotachophoresis * nucleic acids * sample preparation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  8. Caged molecular beacons: controlling nucleic acid hybridization with light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunming; Zhu, Zhi; Song, Yanling; Lin, Hui; Yang, Chaoyong James; Tan, Weihong

    2011-05-28

    We have constructed a novel class of light-activatable caged molecular beacons (cMBs) that are caged by locking two stems with a photo-labile biomolecular interaction or covalent bond. With the cMBs, the nucleic acid hybridization process can be easily controlled with light, which offers the possibility for a high spatiotemporal resolution study of intracellular mRNAs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  9. Assays for urinary biomarkers of oxidatively damaged nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weimann, Allan; Broedbaek, Kasper; Henriksen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The analysis of oxidized nucleic acid metabolites can be performed by a variety of methodologies: liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical or mass-spectrometry detection, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis and ELISA (Enzyme......-linked immunosorbent assay). The major analytical challenge is specificity. The best combination of selectivity and speed of analysis can be obtained by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection. This, however, is also the most demanding technique with regard to price, complexity...

  10. Silicon Dioxide Thin Film Mediated Single Cell Nucleic Acid Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Evgeny; Dominova, Irina; Shusharina, Natalia; Botman, Stepan; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Patrushev, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    A limited amount of DNA extracted from single cells, and the development of single cell diagnostics make it necessary to create a new highly effective method for the single cells nucleic acids isolation. In this paper, we propose the DNA isolation method from biomaterials with limited DNA quantity in sample, and from samples with degradable DNA based on the use of solid-phase adsorbent silicon dioxide nanofilm deposited on the inner surface of PCR tube. PMID:23874571

  11. Development of Sorbents for Extraction and Stabilization of Nucleic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    Unlimited 40 Brandy J. White 202-404-6100 Organosilicate RNA Capacity Transport DNA Stability Field sampling...biological, environmental, forensics, and food safety, drive the need for preservation of nucleic acid integrity during sample collection, transportation ...169 0.26 63 CF2M2B Alkylammonium groups on mesostructured cellular foam (TMOS) 143 0.18 93 CF-BT BSA and trehalose adsorbed on mesostructured

  12. Nucleic acid-based fluorescent probes and their analytical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juskowiak, Bernard

    2011-03-01

    It is well known that nucleic acids play an essential role in living organisms because they store and transmit genetic information and use that information to direct the synthesis of proteins. However, less is known about the ability of nucleic acids to bind specific ligands and the application of oligonucleotides as molecular probes or biosensors. Oligonucleotide probes are single-stranded nucleic acid fragments that can be tailored to have high specificity and affinity for different targets including nucleic acids, proteins, small molecules, and ions. One can divide oligonucleotide-based probes into two main categories: hybridization probes that are based on the formation of complementary base-pairs, and aptamer probes that exploit selective recognition of nonnucleic acid analytes and may be compared with immunosensors. Design and construction of hybridization and aptamer probes are similar. Typically, oligonucleotide (DNA, RNA) with predefined base sequence and length is modified by covalent attachment of reporter groups (one or more fluorophores in fluorescence-based probes). The fluorescent labels act as transducers that transform biorecognition (hybridization, ligand binding) into a fluorescence signal. Fluorescent labels have several advantages, for example high sensitivity and multiple transduction approaches (fluorescence quenching or enhancement, fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetime, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and excimer-monomer light switching). These multiple signaling options combined with the design flexibility of the recognition element (DNA, RNA, PNA, LNA) and various labeling strategies contribute to development of numerous selective and sensitive bioassays. This review covers fundamentals of the design and engineering of oligonucleotide probes, describes typical construction approaches, and discusses examples of probes used both in hybridization studies and in aptamer-based assays.

  13. Locked nucleic acid: modality, diversity, and drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Peter H.; Persson, Robert; Funder, Erik D.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the field of RNA-targeted therapeutics has advanced based on discoveries of modified oligonucleotide chemistries, and an ever-increasing understanding of how to apply cellular assays to identify oligonucleotides with pharmacological properties in vivo. Locked nucleic acid ...... structural differences between oligonucleotides can often lead to substantial differences in their pharmacological properties. Here, we outline new principles for drug discovery exploiting oligonucleotide diversity to identify rare molecules with unique pharmacological properties....

  14. Development of Sorbents for Extraction and Stabilization of Nucleic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    Storage of Environmental Samples for Guaranteeing Nucleic Acid Yields for Molecular Microbiological Studies,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology...Detection of mRNA by RT-PCR from Preserved Prokaryotic Samples,” FEMS Microbiology Letters 201, 127–132 (2001). 25. S.D. Blacksell, S. Khounsy, and H.A...anhydrobiosis could be applied to RNA preservation [20]. While in the dry state, the matrix components form a thermo-stable barrier around the DNA

  15. Interaction of nucleic acids with carbon nanotubes and dendrimers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-25

    Jun 25, 2012 ... mechanism of the adsorption of single- and double-strand DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA) on CNT and graphene. The nucleic acid–CNT ..... weaken the binding between the DNA and dendrimer. As mentioned earlier, excessive penetration of DNA inside the. (a). G5. 0 ns. 12 ns. 24 ns. (b). G4. 0 ns. 14 ns. 24 ns.

  16. Immune activation by nucleic acids: A role in pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, B; Lauková, L; Vlková, B

    2018-04-01

    Cell-free self-DNA or RNA may induce an immune response by activating specific sensing receptors. During pregnancy, placental nucleic acids present in the maternal circulation further activate these receptors due to the presence of unmethylated CpG islands. A higher concentration of cell-free foetal DNA is associated with pregnancy complications and a higher risk for foetal rejection. Cell-free foetal DNA originates from placental trophoblasts. It appears in different forms: free, bound to histones in nucleosomes, in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and in extracellular vesicles (EVs). In several pregnancy complications, cell-free foetal DNA triggers the production of proinflammatory cytokines, and this production results in a cellular and humoral immune response. This review discusses preeclampsia, systemic lupus erythematosus, foetal growth restriction, gestational diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and obesity in pregnancy from an immunological point of view and closely examines the different pathways that result in maternal inflammation. Understanding the role of cell-free nucleic acids, as well as the biogenesis of NETs and EVs, will help us to specify their functions or targets, which seem to be important in pregnancy complications. It is still not clear whether higher concentrations of cell-free nucleic acids in the maternal circulation are the cause or consequence of various complications. Therefore, further clinical studies and, even more importantly, animal experiments that focus on the involved immunological pathways are needed. © 2018 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  17. Molecular modeling of nucleic Acid structure: electrostatics and solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonzo, Christina; Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; Cheatham, Thomas E

    2014-12-19

    This unit presents an overview of computer simulation techniques as applied to nucleic acid systems, ranging from simple in vacuo molecular modeling techniques to more complete all-atom molecular dynamics treatments that include an explicit representation of the environment. The third in a series of four units, this unit focuses on critical issues in solvation and the treatment of electrostatics. UNITS 7.5 & 7.8 introduced the modeling of nucleic acid structure at the molecular level. This included a discussion of how to generate an initial model, how to evaluate the utility or reliability of a given model, and ultimately how to manipulate this model to better understand its structure, dynamics, and interactions. Subject to an appropriate representation of the energy, such as a specifically parameterized empirical force field, the techniques of minimization and Monte Carlo simulation, as well as molecular dynamics (MD) methods, were introduced as a way of sampling conformational space for a better understanding of the relevance of a given model. This discussion highlighted the major limitations with modeling in general. When sampling conformational space effectively, difficult issues are encountered, such as multiple minima or conformational sampling problems, and accurately representing the underlying energy of interaction. In order to provide a realistic model of the underlying energetics for nucleic acids in their native environments, it is crucial to include some representation of solvation (by water) and also to properly treat the electrostatic interactions. These subjects are discussed in detail in this unit. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Ion-pair chromatography of nucleic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrone, P.A.; Brown, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Little work has been done on the ion-pair chromatography of nucleic acid constituents, although there is a great potential for the use of this technique in the field. Since the classic work in 1949, nucleotides, as well as nucleosides and bases, have been separated by ion-exchange chromatography. However, ion exchange is a difficult mode and most researchers prefer the use of reversed-phase whenever possible. Although reversed-phase is now the method of choice, ionic compounds like nucleotides and some of the more polar bases are not adequately retained by many systems of this type. In addition, it is difficult to analyze simultaneously members of all three classes of nucleic acid compounds (bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides) using a reversed-phase system, even with gradient elution. Ion pairing can be a useful technique because, theoretically, the separation of nonionic bases and nucleosides along with the ionic nucleotides can be achieved. Additionally, each group of compounds may be separated isocratically. In this chapter, they will discuss ion-pair chromatography as applied to nucleic acid constituents. The current theories, advantages and disadvantages, a limited number of applications, and potential for future work are presented

  19. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, Monique L.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development. PMID:24918867

  20. Selenium Derivatization of Nucleic Acids for Phase and Structure Determination in Nucleic Acid X-ray Crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Huang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium derivatization (via selenomethionine of proteins for crystal structure determination via MAD phasing has revolutionized protein X-ray crystallography. It is estimated that over two thirds of all new crystal structures of proteins have been determined via Se-Met derivatization. Similarly, selenium functionalities have also been successfully incorporated into nucleic acids to facilitate their structure studies and it has been proved that this Se-derivatization has advantages over halogen strategy, which was usually used as a traditional method in this field. This review reports the development of site-specific selenium derivatization of nucleic acids for phase determination since the year of 2001 (mainly focus on the 2’-position of the ribose. All the synthesis of 2’-SeMe modified phosphoramidite building blocks (U, C, T, A, G and the according oligonucleotides are included. In addition, several structures of selenium contained nucleic acid are also described in this paper.

  1. Antisense-mediated suppression of C-hordein biosynthesis in the barley grain results in correlated changes in the transcriptome, protein profile, and amino acid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Lange, Marianne; Friis, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Antisense- or RNAi-mediated suppression of the biosynthesis of nutritionally inferior storage proteins is a promising strategy for improving the amino acid profile of seeds. However, the potential pleiotropic effects of this on interconnected pathways and the agronomic quality traits need...... to be addressed. In the current study, a transcriptomic analysis of an antisense C-hordein line of barley was performed, using a grain-specific cDNA array. The C-hordein antisense line is characterized by marked changes in storage protein and amino acid profiles, while the seed weight is within the normal range...... and no external morphological irregularities were observed. The results of the transcriptome analysis showed excellent correlation with data on changes in the relative proportions of storage proteins and amino acid composition. The antisense line had a lower C-hordein level and down-regulated transcript encoding...

  2. Antisense experiments demonstrate an exon 4 minus splice variant mRNA as the basis for expression of tNOX, a cancer-specific cell surface protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Morré, D James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2007-01-01

    A novel hydroquinone and NADH oxidase with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity (designated ENOX2 or tNOX), associated exclusively with the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane at the surface of cancer cells and in sera of cancer patients, is absent from the surface of noncancer cells and from sera from healthy individuals. Transfection of HeLa (human cervical carcinoma) cells with antisense oligonucleotides and measurement of mRNA levels by real-time quantitative PCR and growth and drug response by in vitro cytotoxicity assays were combined to demonstrate encoding of a cancer-specific and growth-related cell surface protein, tNOX, via an exon 4 minus splice variant. tNOX mRNA levels of HeLa cells were determined following transfection with antisense relative to control cells transfected with Lipofectamine using the cycle threshold method normalized for GAPDH mRNA. Antisense to tNOX exon 4 mRNA blocked generation of full-length tNOX mRNA but not of exon 4 minus mRNA. Antisense to exon 5 mRNA inhibited the production of exon 4 minus mRNA and full-length tNOX mRNA. Scrambled antisense to exon 5 mRNA was without effect. Antisense to exon 5 mRNA decreased the amount of tNOX protein on the surface of cancer cells. As a control, antisense-mediated downregulation of exon 5 minus mRNA of tNOX also was demonstrated as detected using exon 4/exon 6 primers. Exon 5 antisense blocked the cell surface expression of tNOX whereas exon 4 antisense was without effect. In contrast to nontransfected HeLa cells, cells transfected with exon 5 antisense were not inhibited by the green tea catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. A relationship of tNOX to unregulated growth of cancer cells was provided by data where growth of HeLa cells was inhibited by transfection with the exon 5 antisense oligonucleotides. Growth inhibition was followed by apoptosis in greater than 70% of the transfected cells.

  3. Insulin C-peptide test

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-peptide ... the test depends on the reason for the C-peptide measurement. Ask your health care provider if ... C-peptide is measured to tell the difference between insulin the body produces and insulin someone injects ...

  4. Antisense oligonucleotide mediated knockdown of HOXC13 affects cell growth and induces apoptosis in tumor cells and over expression of HOXC13 induces 3D-colony formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kasiri, Sahba; Ansari, Khairul I.; Hussain, Imran; Bhan, Arunoday; Mandal, Subhrangsu S.

    2012-01-01

    HOXC13 is a homeobox containing gene that plays crucial roles in hair development and origin of replication. Herein, we investigated the biochemical functions of HOXC13 and explored its potential roles in tumor cell viability. We have designed a phosphorothioate based antisense-oligonucleotide that specifically knockdown HOXC13 in cultured cells. Cell viability and cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that HOXC13 is essential for cell growth and viability. Antisense-mediated knockdown of HOXC13 a...

  5. Analysis of 14-3-3 Family Member Function in Xenopus Embryos by Microinjection of Antisense Morpholino Oligos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jeffrey M. C.; Muslin, Anthony J.

    The 14-3-3 intracellular phosphoserine/threonine-binding proteins are adapter molecules that regulate signal transduction, cell cycle, nutrient sensing, apoptotic, and cytoskeletal pathways. There are seven 14-3-3 family members, encoded by separate genes, in vertebrate organisms. To evaluate the role of individual 14-3-3 proteins in vertebrate embryonic development, we utilized an antisense morpholino oligo microinjection technique in Xenopus laevis embryos. By use of this method, we showed that embryos lacking specific 14-3-3 proteins displayed unique phenotypic abnormalities. Specifically, embryos lacking 14-3-3 τ exhibited gastrulation and axial patterning defects, but embryos lacking 14-3-3 γ exhibited eye defects without other abnormalities, and embryos lacking 14-3-3 ζ appeared completely normal. These and other results demonstrate the power and specificity of the morpholino antisense oligo microinjection technique.

  6. [The creation of transgenic tobacco plants expressing fragments of the ARGOS and NtEXPA4 genes in antisense orientation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, B R; Kniazev, A V; Postrigan', B N; Chemeris, A V

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the fragments of the ARGOS and NtEXPA4 genes in antisense orientation have been created. Eleven lines of transgenic plants were investigated and five of them were characterized by a decrease in the sizes of the leaves and flowers as compared to control. Stalk sizes decreased when only the NtEXPA4 gene fragment was used. The organ size of the experimental plants decreased because of a reduction in the level of both cell division and cell expansion. Two lines of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the part of the ARGOS gene in antisense orientation were characterized by a reduction in the level of the NtEXPA1 and NtEXPA4 gene expression.

  7. [Antiviral effects of dual-target antisense rna: an experimental study with hepatitis B virus transgenic mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Hong; Peng, Zhao-yuan; Li, Wen-gang; Xi, Hong-li; Xu, Xiao-yuan

    2005-12-28

    To investigate the curative effects of dual-target antisense RNA targeting the X and P regions in the genome of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Retrovirus vector pLXSN was used to construct 4 kinds of recombinant vector plasmids expressing dual-target antisense RNA complementary to the X and P regions in the genome of HBV, namely, pLXSN-asX, pLXSN-asP, pLXSN-asXP, and pLXSN-seX. 48 HBV transgenic mice were randomly divided into 6 equal groups: pLXSN-asX group, pLXSN-asX group, pLXSN-asX group, pLXSN-asX group, and blank plasmid blank (pLXSN) group, to be injected into the caudal vein with corresponding plasmids thrice for every other day, and blank control group. Venous blood samples were collected before, 1 day and 3 days, and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the injection to undergo detection of serum HBV DNA and HBsAg. Eight weeks later the mice were killed and immunohistochemistry was used t examine the HBsAg and HBcAg in the tissues. Pathological examination of the tissues was performed. The serum HBsAg concentrations 4 and 8 weeks after injection were significantly lower than that before injection in the.pLXSN-asX and pLXSN-asXP groups (all P asX group (P asX, pLXSN-asP, and pLXSN-asXP groups than in other groups (P < 0.05). No significant abnormality was found in the tissues in all groups. Dual-target antisense RNA targeting the X and P regions in the genome of HBV inhibits the replication and expression of HBV, significantly stronger than single-target antisense-RNA.

  8. Antisense repression of vacuolar and cell wall invertase in transgenic carrot alters early plant development and sucrose partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G Q; Lüscher, M; Sturm, A

    1999-02-01

    To unravel the functions of cell wall and vacuolar invertases in carrot, we used an antisense technique to generate transgenic carrot plants with reduced enzyme activity. Phenotypic alterations appeared at very early stages of development; indeed, the morphology of cotyledon-stage embryos was markedly changed. At the stage at which control plantlets had two to three leaves and one primary root, shoots of transgenic plantlets did not separate into individual leaves but consisted of stunted, interconnected green structures. When transgenic plantlets were grown on media containing a mixture of sucrose, glucose, and fructose rather than sucrose alone, the malformation was alleviated, and plantlets looked normal. Plantlets from hexose-containing media produced mature plants when transferred to soil. Plants expressing antisense mRNA for cell wall invertase had a bushy appearance due to the development of extra leaves, which accumulated elevated levels of sucrose and starch. Simultaneously, tap root development was markedly reduced, and the resulting smaller organs contained lower levels of carbohydrates. Compared with control plants, the dry weight leaf-to-root ratio of cell wall invertase antisense plants was shifted from 1:3 to 17:1. Plants expressing antisense mRNA for vacuolar invertase also had more leaves than did control plants, but tap roots developed normally, although they were smaller, and the leaf-to-root ratio was 1.5:1. Again, the carbohydrate content of leaves was elevated, and that of roots was reduced. Our data suggest that acid invertases play an important role in early plant development, most likely via control of sugar composition and metabolic fluxes. Later in plant development, both isoenzymes seem to have important functions in sucrose partitioning.

  9. In depth analysis of the Sox4 gene locus that consists of sense and natural antisense transcripts

    OpenAIRE

    King-Hwa Ling; Peter J. Brautigan; Sarah Moore; Rachel Fraser; Melody Pui-Yee Leong; Jia-Wen Leong; Shahidee Zainal Abidin; Han-Chung Lee; Pike-See Cheah; Joy M. Raison; Milena Babic; Young Kyung Lee; Tasman Daish; Deidre M. Mattiske; Jeffrey R. Mann

    2016-01-01

    SRY (Sex Determining Region Y)-Box 4 or Sox4 is an important regulator of the pan-neuronal gene expression during post-mitotic cell differentiation within the mammalian brain. Sox4 gene locus has been previously characterized with multiple sense and overlapping natural antisense transcripts [1], [2]. Here we provide accompanying data on various analyses performed and described in Ling et al. [2]. The data include a detail description of various features found at Sox4 gene locus, additional ex...

  10. Inositol-1-phosphate synthetase mRNA as a new target for antisense inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zhifei; Li, Xiaobo; Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Shunqing

    2007-03-10

    The need for novel antimicrobial agents to combat the emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a worldwide urgency. This study has investigated the effects on phosphorothioate-modified antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides (PS-ODNs) against the mRNA of inositol-1-phosphate synthase, the key enzyme in the first step in inositol synthesis. Inositol is utilized by M. tuberculosis in the production of its major thiol, which is an antioxidant that helps M. tuberculosis to get rid of reactive oxygen species and electrophilic toxins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of inositol-1-phosphate (I-1-P) synthase was significantly reduced upon addition of 20 microM PS-ODNs. Treatment with antisense PS-ODNs also reduced the level of mycothiol and the proliferation of M. tuberculosis and enhanced susceptibility to antibiotics. The experiments indicated that the antisense PS-ODNs could enter the cytoplasm of M. tuberculosis and inhibit the expression of I-1-P synthase. This study demonstrates that the M. tuberculosis I-1-P synthase is a target for the development of novel antibiotics and PS-ODN to I-1-P synthase is a promising antimycobaterial candidate.

  11. Targeting antisense mitochondrial ncRNAs inhibits murine melanoma tumor growth and metastasis through reduction in survival and invasion factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos-González, Lorena; Silva, Verónica; Araya, Mariela; Restovic, Franko; Echenique, Javiera; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Briones, Macarena; Villegas, Jaime; Villota, Claudio; Vidaurre, Soledad; Borgna, Vincenzo; Socias, Miguel; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Lopez, Constanza; Socias, Teresa; Varas, Manuel; Díaz, Jorge; Burzio, Luis O; Burzio, Verónica A

    2016-09-06

    We reported that knockdown of the antisense noncoding mitochondrial RNAs (ASncmtRNAs) induces apoptotic death of several human tumor cell lines, but not normal cells, suggesting this approach for selective therapy against different types of cancer. In order to translate these results to a preclinical scenario, we characterized the murine noncoding mitochondrial RNAs (ncmtRNAs) and performed in vivo knockdown in syngeneic murine melanoma models. Mouse ncmtRNAs display structures similar to the human counterparts, including long double-stranded regions arising from the presence of inverted repeats. Knockdown of ASncmtRNAs with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) reduces murine melanoma B16F10 cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in vitro through downregulation of pro-survival and metastasis markers, particularly survivin. For in vivo studies, subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors in C57BL/6 mice were treated systemically with specific and control antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). For metastasis studies, tumors were resected, followed by systemic administration of ASOs and the presence of metastatic nodules in lungs and liver was assessed. Treatment with specific ASO inhibited tumor growth and metastasis after primary tumor resection. In a metastasis-only assay, mice inoculated intravenously with cells and treated with the same ASO displayed reduced number and size of melanoma nodules in the lungs, compared to controls. Our results suggest that ASncmtRNAs could be potent targets for melanoma therapy. To our knowledge, the ASncmtRNAs are the first potential non-nuclear targets for melanoma therapy.

  12. Reversion of antibiotic resistance by inhibiting mecA in clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococci by antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingru; He, Gonghao; Wang, Hui; Jia, Min; Ma, Xue; Da, Fei; Wang, Ning; Hou, Zheng; Xue, Xiaoyan; Li, Mingkai; Zhou, Ying; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2015-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci (MRS), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) have become a challenging problem in nosocomial infections and are connected with high morbidity and mortality rates. This is due to the increasing incidence of resistance to virtually all β-lactams and a wide variety of antimicrobials. The spread of MRS severely limits therapeutic options and generates the need for novel antibiotics that are able to combat MRS infections. One method of inhibiting bacterial growth is by blocking the expression of conserved bacterial genes and provides potential new avenues for generating a new generation of antimicrobials. The mecA gene is highly conserved among Staphylococcal species, and this makes it an ideal target for antisense inhibition. We had identified a target sequence (854-871 nt) within the mecA mRNA coding region that is particularly sensitive to antisense inhibition. The anti-mecA PS-ODN04 oligonucleotide was encapsulated into an anionic liposome. MRSA01 and MRSE01 clinical strains treated with this antisense sequence became susceptible to existing β-lactam antibiotics, and their growth was inhibited by oxacillin in vitro and in vivo. PS-ODN04 reduced the bacterial titers in the blood of mice infected with MRSA01 and MRSE01 and significantly improved their survival rate. Our data offer a possible new strategy for treating MRS infections.

  13. The endogenous retroviral insertion in the human complement C4 gene modulates the expression of homologous genes by antisense inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P M; Witzel-Schlömp, K; Rittner, C; Zhang, L

    2001-02-01

    Intron 9 contains the complete endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(C4) as a 6.4-kb insertion in 60% of human C4 genes. The retroviral insertion is in reverse orientation to the C4 coding sequence. Therefore, expression of C4 could lead to the transcription of an antisense RNA, which might protect against exogenous retroviral infections. To test this hypothesis, open reading frames from the HERV sequence were subcloned in sense orientiation into a vector allowing expression of a beta-galactosidase fusion protein. Mouse L cells which had been stably transfected with either the human C4A or C4B gene both carrying the HERV insertion (LC4 cells), and L(Tk-) cells without the C4 gene were transiently transfected either with a retroviral construct or with the wild-type vector. Expression was monitored using an enzymatic assay. We demonstrated that (1) HERV-K(C4) antisense mRNA transcripts are present in cells constitutively expressing C4, (2) expression of retroviral-like constructs is significantly downregulated in cells expressing C4, and (3) this downregulation is further modulated in a dose-dependent fashion following interferon-gamma stimulation of C4 expression. These results support the hypothesis of a genomic antisense strategy mediated by the HERV-K(C4) insertion as a possible defense mechanism against exogenous retroviral infections.

  14. The Dynamics of Compound, Transcript, and Protein Effects After Treatment With 2OMePS Antisense Oligonucleotides in mdx Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid E C Verhaart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense-mediated exon skipping is currently in clinical development for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD to amend the consequences of the underlying genetic defect and restore dystrophin expression. Due to turnover of compound, transcript, and protein, chronic treatment with effector molecules (antisense oligonucleotides will be required. To investigate the dynamics and persistence of antisense 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate oligonucleotides, exon skipping, and dystrophin expression after dosing was concluded, mdx mice were treated subcutaneously for 8 weeks with 100 mg/kg oligonucleotides twice weekly. Thereafter, mice were sacrificed at different time points after the final injection (36 hours–24 weeks. Oligonucleotide half-life was longer in heart (~65 days compared with that in skeletal muscle, liver, and kidney (~35 days. Exon skipping half-lives varied between 33 and 53 days, whereas dystrophin protein showed a long half-life (>100 days. Oligonucleotide and exon-skipping levels peaked in the first week and declined thereafter. By contrast, dystrophin expression peaked after 3–8 weeks and then slowly declined, remaining detectable after 24 weeks. Concordance between levels of oligonucleotides, exon skipping, and proteins was observed, except in heart, wherein high oligonucleotide levels but low exon skipping and dystrophin expression were seen. Overall, these results enhance our understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate oligos used for the treatment of DMD.

  15. Photochemical reactions of nucleic acids and their constituents of photobiological relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, I.; Sugiyama, H.; Matsuura, T.

    1983-01-01

    A review is given of the papers published from 1977 to May 1983 on the UV-induced photochemical reactions of nucleic acids and their constituents of photobiological relevance where the structures of photoproducts have been fully characterized. Among the topics discussed are photoadditions relevant to nucleic acid-protein photocrosslinking, photoreactions with psoralens and nucleic acids and photochemical reactions of polynucleotides. (U.K.)

  16. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Robert B.

    2018-04-17

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  17. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Robert E.

    2015-12-08

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  18. Phytoagents for Cancer Management: Regulation of Nucleic Acid Oxidation, ROS, and Related Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wai-Leng; Huang, Jing-Ying; Shyur, Lie-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidized nucleic acids causes genomic instability leading to senescence, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Phytoagents are known to reduce the risk of cancer development; whether such effects are through regulating the extent of nucleic acid oxidation remains unclear. Here, we outlined the role of reactive oxygen species in nucleic acid oxidation as a driving force in cancer progression. The consequential relationship between genome instability and cancer progression highlights th...

  19. Spectrofluorometric study on photochemical interaction between chlorpromazine and nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Hayashi, H.; Suzuki, K.

    1981-01-01

    Near-UV irradiation of a mixture of chlorpromazine and single-stranded nucleic acids produced a non-dialyzable photoproduct which emitted characteristic fluorescence at around 520 nm. The same fluorescent species was also formed by the photoreaction with purine nucleotides but not with pyrimidine nucleotide. The highest photoreactivity was observed with GMP. Smaller amounts of the species were formed in a solution with a high salt concentration than in that with a low salt concentration. A higher rate was observed under anaerobic conditions than under aerobic conditions. (author)

  20. Efficient liposome fusion mediated by lipid-nucleic acid conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ries, O; Löffler, P M G; Rabe, A

    2017-01-01

    The fusion of biomembranes with release of encapsulated content in a controlled way is crucial for cell signaling, endo- and exocytosis and intracellular trafficking. Programmable fusion of liposomes and an efficient mixing of their contents have the potential to enable the study of chemical...... and enzymatic processes in a confined environment and under crowded conditions outside biological systems. We report on DNA-controlled fusion of lipid bilayer membranes using lipid-nucleic acid conjugates (LiNAs) to mediate lipid and content mixing of liposomes. Screening of different membrane anchor and linker...

  1. Nucleic acid constructs containing orthogonal site selective recombinases (OSSRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Joshua M.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Dueber, John E.

    2017-08-29

    The present invention provides for a recombinant nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence comprising a plurality of constructs, wherein each construct independently comprises a nucleotide sequence of interest flanked by a pair of recombinase recognition sequences. Each pair of recombinase recognition sequences is recognized by a distinct recombinase. Optionally, each construct can, independently, further comprise one or more genes encoding a recombinase capable of recognizing the pair of recombinase recognition sequences of the construct. The recombinase can be an orthogonal (non-cross reacting), site-selective recombinase (OSSR).

  2. Structure and function analysis of protein-nucleic acid complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, S. A.; Oretskaya, T. S.

    2016-05-01

    The review summarizes published data on the results and achievements in the field of structure and function analysis of protein-nucleic acid complexes by means of main physical and biochemical methods, including X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electron and atomic force microscopy, small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering, footprinting and cross-linking. Special attention is given to combined approaches. The advantages and limitations of each method are considered, and the prospects of their application for wide-scale structural studies in vivo are discussed. The bibliography includes 145 references.

  3. Advances in nucleic acid-based diagnostics of bacterial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Kim Bundvig; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Methods for rapid detection of infectious bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have evolved significantly over the last decade. Many of the new procedures are nucleic acid-based and replace conventional diagnostic methods like culturing which is time consuming especially with fastidious...... of these pathogens is important to isolate patients and prevent further spreading of the diseases. Newly developed diagnostic procedures are superior with respect to turnaround time, sensitivity and specificity. Methods like multiplex real time PCR and different array-based technologies offer the possibility...

  4. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible...... boronate internucleosidic linkages. The DNA- or RNA-templated system comprises a 5′-ended boronic acid probe connecting a 3′-ended ribonucleosidic oligonucleotide partner. To explore the dominant factors that control the reversible linkage, we synthesized a series of 3′-end modified ribonucleotidic strands...

  5. Nucleic Acid-based approaches for detection of viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Ranjbar, Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-01-01

    To determining suitable nucleic acid diagnostics for individual viral hepatitis agent, an extensive search using related keywords was done in major medical library and data were collected, categorized, and summarized in different sections. Various types of molecular biology tools can be used to detect and quantify viral genomic elements and analyze the sequences. These molecular assays are proper technologies for rapidly detecting viral agents with high accuracy, high sensitivity, and high specificity. Nonetheless, the application of each diagnostic method is completely dependent on viral agent. Despite rapidity, automation, accuracy, cost-effectiveness, high sensitivity, and high specificity of molecular techniques, each type of molecular technology has its own advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Ionizing radiation induced attachment reactions of nucleic acids and their components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.S. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive bibliographic review is given of experimental and theoretical data on radiation-induced attachment reactions of nucleic acids and their components. Mechanisms of these reactions are reviewed. The reactions with water, formate, and alcohols, with amines and other small molecules, and with radiation sensitizers and nucleic acid-nucleic acid reactions are discussed. Studies of the reaction mechanisms show that many of the reactions occur by radical-molecule reactions, but radical-radical reactions also occur. Radiation modifiers become attached to nucleic acids in vitro and in vivo and there are indications that attachment may be necessary for the action of some sensitizers. (U.S.)

  7. Nisin-induced expression of a recombinant antihypertensive peptide in dairy lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renye, John A; Somkuti, George A

    2015-07-01

    To improve the process for the production of milk-derived antihypertensive peptides, including a 12-residue peptide (FFVAPFPECVGK) from αS1-casein. A synthetic gene encoding this peptide was cloned within the pediocin operon, replacing the nucleic acid sequence encoding the mature pediocin peptide (papA) and resulting in a translational fusion between the pediocin leader peptide and the 12-residue hypotensive (C-12) peptide. The recombinant operon was subsequently cloned immediately downstream of the nisA promoter to allow for inducible gene expression within Streptococcus thermophilus ST128, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ML3 and Lactobacillus casei C2. RT-PCR was used to confirm recombinant gene expression in complex medium; and SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the pediocin secretion machinery, encoded by papC and papD, allowed for secretion of the recombinant peptide from both L. lactis ML3 and L. casei C2 in a chemically defined medium. The use of a nisin as a "food-grade" inducer molecule, and generally-regarded-as-safe LAB species suggests that this system could be used for the production of functional food ingredients.

  8. Factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yingzheng; Lu Cuitao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide(AS-ODNs) transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles. Methods: Lipid microbubbles filled with two types of gases-air and C 3 F 8 , were prepared respectively. An AS-ODNs sequence HA824 and a breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 were used to define the various operating variables determining the transfection efficiency of insonated microbubbles. Two mixing methods, three levels of mixing speed, different mixing durations and various ultrasound initiation time after mixing were examined respectively. Transfection efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Results: C 3 F 8 microbubbles gave higher levels of AS-ODNs transfection efficiency than air microbubbles in all test conditions. Transfection efficiency resulted from mixing method A (incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells) did not show significant difference with that of mixing method B (without incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells). Mixing speed, duration of mixing and ultrasound initiation time after mixing were central to determining HA824 transfection efficiency in vitro. The optimum parameters for SK-BR-3 cells were found at a mixing speed of 40-50 rpm for 30-60 s with less than 60 s delay before ultrasound. Conclusion: Ultrasound-mediated AS-ODNs transfection enhanced by C 3 F 8 -filled lipid microbubbles represents an effective avenue for AS-ODNs transfer

  9. Autolysis of cell walls from polygalacturonase-antisense tomato fruit in simulated apoplastic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Domingos P F; Huber, Donald J

    2011-06-01

    Autolysis of cell walls from polygalacturonase (PG)-antisense tomato fruit was studied in a conventional buffer designed to maximize the catalytic activity of PG (30 mM sodium acetate, 150 mM NaCl, pH 4.5), and in solutions mimicking the pH and mineral composition of the fruit apoplast at the mature-green and ripe stages. Autolytic release of uronic acids was very limited under simulated apoplastic conditions compared with the conventional buffer, but minimal differences in the release of reducing groups were observed among the incubation conditions. Autolytic release of uronic acids from active walls was lower than solubilization from enzymically inactive walls. Uronic acids that remained ionically bound to the cell walls during autolysis were subsequently extracted and analyzed by size exclusion chromatography. The elution profiles of ionically bound uronic acids from cell walls incubated under optimal conditions were similar for all ripening stages. In solutions mimicking the pH and mineral composition of the apoplast of mature-green and ripe fruit, uronic acids extracted from pink and ripe fruit cell walls showed a decrease in average molecular mass compared with polymers from mature-green cell walls. The results suggest that the composition of the incubation solution exert strong influence on PG-independent cell wall autolysis and that enzymically active walls restrain PG-independent pectin solubilization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular imaging of atherosclerotic plaques with technetium-99m-labelled antisense oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guangming; Zhang Yongxue; Cao Wei; An Rui; Gao Zairong; Xu Wendai; Zhang Kaijun; Li Guiling; Li Shuren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to visualise experimental atherosclerotic lesions using radiolabelled antisense oligonucleotides (ASONs). Atherosclerosis was induced in New Zealand White rabbits fed 1% cholesterol for approximately 60 days. In vivo and ex vivo imaging was performed in atherosclerotic rabbits and normal control rabbits after i.v. injection of 92.5±18.5 MBq 99m Tc-labelled ASON or 99m Tc-labelled sense oligonucleotides. Immediately after the in vivo imaging, the animals were sacrificed and ex vivo imaging of the aortic specimens was performed. Biodistribution of radiolabelled c-mycASON was evaluated in vivo in atherosclerotic rabbits. Planar imaging revealed accumulation of 99m Tc-labelled c-mycASON in atherosclerotic lesions along the artery wall. Ex vivo imaging further demonstrated that the area of activity accumulation matched the area of atherosclerotic lesions. In contrast, no atherosclerotic lesions were found in the vessel wall and no positive imaging results were obtained in animals of the control group. This molecular imaging approach has potential for non-invasive imaging of atherosclerotic plaques at an early stage. (orig.)

  11. RNA synthetic biology inspired from bacteria: construction of transcription attenuators under antisense regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawid, Alexandre; Cayrol, Bastien; Isambert, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Among all biopolymers, ribonucleic acids or RNA have unique functional versatility, which led to the early suggestion that RNA alone (or a closely related biopolymer) might have once sustained a primitive form of life based on a single type of biopolymer. This has been supported by the demonstration of processive RNA-based replication and the discovery of 'riboswitches' or RNA switches, which directly sense their metabolic environment. In this paper, we further explore the plausibility of this 'RNA world' scenario and show, through synthetic molecular design guided by advanced RNA simulations, that RNA can also perform elementary regulation tasks on its own. We demonstrate that RNA synthetic regulatory modules directly inspired from bacterial transcription attenuators can efficiently activate or repress the expression of other RNA by merely controlling their folding paths 'on the fly' during transcription through simple RNA–RNA antisense interaction. Factors, such as NTP concentration and RNA synthesis rate, affecting the efficiency of this kinetic regulation mechanism are also studied and discussed in the light of evolutionary constraints. Overall, this suggests that direct coupling among synthesis, folding and regulation of RNAs may have enabled the early emergence of autonomous RNA-based regulation networks in absence of both DNA and protein partners

  12. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1, which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71% and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3% in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts.

  13. Anti-sense expression of a metallopeptidase gene enhances nuclear entry of HBV-DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.-T.; Lai, H.-Y.; Chu, S.-P.; Tseng, I-Chu

    2004-01-01

    Although several putative hepatitis B virus (HBV) receptors have been identified, none of them is capable of initiating HBV replication in a non-permissive human cell line. Using an Epstein-Barr virus-based extrachromosomal replication system, we have screened through a human liver cDNA library and successfully identified a clone capable of facilitating nuclear transport of HBV-DNA during the early phase of HBV infection. This clone contained a cDNA encoding a metallopeptidase-like protein in anti-sense orientation. Pretreatment of naive HepG2 cells with 1,10-phenanthroline, an inhibitor for liver metallopeptidases, led to nuclear entry of HBV-DNA after HBV infection. However, cccDNA was still undetectable in the nuclei, indicating other cellular factors required to complete the replication cycle were still missing. Our present data suggest that in the initial stage of HBV infection, liver metallopeptidase constitutes a barrier for effective nuclear entry of HBV genomic DNA. Attenuation of metallopeptidase activity may facilitate HBV infection

  14. Control of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis by a cis-acting noncoding antisense transcript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedak, Halina; Palusinska, Malgorzata; Krzyczmonik, Katarzyna; Brzezniak, Lien; Yatusevich, Ruslan; Pietras, Zbigniew; Kaczanowski, Szymon; Swiezewski, Szymon

    2016-11-29

    Seed dormancy is one of the most crucial process transitions in a plant's life cycle. Its timing is tightly controlled by the expression level of the Delay of Germination 1 gene (DOG1). DOG1 is the major quantitative trait locus for seed dormancy in Arabidopsis and has been shown to control dormancy in many other plant species. This is reflected by the evolutionary conservation of the functional short alternatively polyadenylated form of the DOG1 mRNA. Notably, the 3' region of DOG1, including the last exon that is not included in this transcript isoform, shows a high level of conservation at the DNA level, but the encoded polypeptide is poorly conserved. Here, we demonstrate that this region of DOG1 contains a promoter for the transcription of a noncoding antisense RNA, asDOG1, that is 5' capped, polyadenylated, and relatively stable. This promoter is autonomous and asDOG1 has an expression profile that is different from known DOG1 transcripts. Using several approaches we show that asDOG1 strongly suppresses DOG1 expression during seed maturation in cis, but is unable to do so in trans Therefore, the negative regulation of seed dormancy by asDOG1 in cis results in allele-specific suppression of DOG1 expression and promotes germination. Given the evolutionary conservation of the asDOG1 promoter, we propose that this cis-constrained noncoding RNA-mediated mechanism limiting the duration of seed dormancy functions across the Brassicaceae.

  15. Intravesical Liposome and Antisense Treatment for Detrusor Overactivity and Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Mahendra P.; Kawamorita, Naoki; Yoshizawa, Tsuyoshi; Chancellor, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The following review focuses on the recent advancements in intravesical drug delivery, which brings added benefit to the therapy of detrusor overactivity and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). Results. Intravesical route is a preferred route of administration for restricting the action of extremely potent drugs like DMSO for patients of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and botulinum toxin for detrusor overactivity. Patients who are either refractory to oral treatment or need to mitigate the adverse effects encountered with conventional routes of administration also chose this route. Its usefulness in some cases can be limited by vehicle (carrier) toxicity or short duration of action. Efforts have been underway to overcome these limitations by developing liposome platform for intravesical delivery of biotechnological products including antisense oligonucleotides. Conclusions. Adoption of forward-thinking approaches can achieve advancements in drug delivery systems targeted to future improvement in pharmacotherapy of bladder diseases. Latest developments in the field of nanotechnology can bring this mode of therapy from second line of treatment for refractory cases to the forefront of disease management. PMID:24527221

  16. Efficient SMN Rescue following Subcutaneous Tricyclo-DNA Antisense Oligonucleotide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Robin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a recessive disease caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene, which encodes the protein survival motor neuron (SMN, whose absence dramatically affects the survival of motor neurons. In humans, the severity of the disease is lessened by the presence of a gene copy, SMN2. SMN2 differs from SMN1 by a C-to-T transition in exon 7, which modifies pre-mRNA splicing and prevents successful SMN synthesis. Splice-switching approaches using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs have already been shown to correct this SMN2 gene transition, providing a therapeutic avenue for SMA. However, AON administration to the CNS presents additional hurdles. In this study, we show that systemic delivery of tricyclo-DNA (tcDNA AONs in a type III SMA mouse augments retention of exon 7 in SMN2 mRNA both in peripheral organs and the CNS. Mild type III SMA mice were selected as opposed to the severe type I model in order to test tcDNA efficacy and their ability to enter the CNS after maturation of the blood brain barrier (BBB. Furthermore, subcutaneous treatment significantly improved the necrosis phenotype and respiratory function. In summary, our data support that tcDNA oligomers effectively cross the blood-brain barrier and offer a promising systemic alternative for treating SMA.

  17. Development of Multiexon Skipping Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitsugu Aoki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an incurable, X-linked progressive muscle degenerative disorder that results from the absence of dystrophin protein and leads to premature death in affected individuals due to respiratory and/or cardiac failure typically by age of 30. Very recently the exciting prospect of an effective oligonucleotide therapy has emerged which restores dystrophin protein expression to affected tissues in DMD patients with highly promising data from a series of clinical trials. This therapeutic approach is highly mutation specific and thus is personalised. Therefore DMD has emerged as a model genetic disorder for understanding and overcoming of the challenges of developing personalised genetic medicines. One of the greatest weaknesses of the current oligonucleotide approach is that it is a mutation-specific therapy. To address this limitation, we have recently demonstrated that exons 45–55 skipping therapy has the potential to treat clusters of mutations that cause DMD, which could significantly reduce the number of compounds that would need to be developed in order to successfully treat all DMD patients. Here we discuss and review the latest preclinical work in this area as well as a variety of accompanying issues, including efficacy and potential toxicity of antisense oligonucleotides, prior to human clinical trials.

  18. Tuning growth cycles of Brassica crops via natural antisense transcripts of BrFLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shaofeng; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2016-03-01

    Several oilseed and vegetable crops of Brassica are biennials that require a prolonged winter cold for flowering, a process called vernalization. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a central repressor of flowering. Here, we report that the overexpression of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) of Brassica rapa FLC (BrFLC) greatly shortens plant growth cycles. In rapid-, medium- and slow-cycling crop types, there are four copies of the BrFLC genes, which show extensive variation in sequences and expression levels. In Bre, a biennial crop type that requires vernalization, five NATs derived from the BrFLC2 locus are rapidly induced under cold conditions, while all four BrFLC genes are gradually down-regulated. The transgenic Bre lines overexpressing a long NAT of BrFLC2 do not require vernalization, resulting in a gradient of shortened growth cycles. Among them, a subset of lines both flower and set seeds as early as Yellow sarson, an annual crop type in which all four BrFLC genes have non-sense mutations and are nonfunctional in flowering repression. Our results demonstrate that the growth cycles of biennial crops of Brassica can be altered by changing the expression levels of BrFLC2 NATs. Thus, BrFLC2 NATs and their transgenic lines are useful for the genetic manipulation of crop growth cycles. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Antisense inhibition of hyaluronan synthase-2 in human osteosarcoma cells inhibits hyaluronan retention and tumorigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Yoshihiro; Knudson, Warren; Knudson, Cheryl B.; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor associated with childhood and adolescence. The results of numerous studies have suggested that hyaluronan plays an important role in regulating the aggressive behavior of various types of cancer cells. However, no studies have addressed hyaluronan with respect to osteosarcomas. In this investigation, the mRNA expression copy number of three mammalian hyaluronan synthases (HAS) was determined using competitive RT-PCR in the osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line, MG-63. MG-63 are highly malignant osteosarcoma cells with an abundant hyaluronan-rich matrix. The results demonstrated that HAS-2 is the predominant HAS in MG-63. Accumulation of intracellular hyaluronan increased in association with the proliferative phase of these cells. The selective inhibition of HAS-2 mRNA in MG-63 cells by antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides resulted in reduced hyaluronan accumulation by these cells. As expected, the reduction in hyaluronan disrupted the assembly of cell-associated matrices. However, of most interest, coincident with the reduction in hyaluronan, there was a substantial decrease in cell proliferation, a decrease in cell motility and a decrease in cell invasiveness. These data suggest that hyaluronan synthesized by HAS-2 in MG-63 plays a crucial role in osteosarcoma cell proliferation, motility, and invasion

  20. Multilevel Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression with the Combined STAR and Antisense RNA System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Je; Kim, Soo-Jung; Moon, Tae Seok

    2018-02-16

    Synthetic small RNA regulators have emerged as a versatile tool to predictably control bacterial gene expression. Owing to their simple design principles, small size, and highly orthogonal behavior, these engineered genetic parts have been incorporated into genetic circuits. However, efforts to achieve more sophisticated cellular functions using RNA regulators have been hindered by our limited ability to integrate different RNA regulators into complex circuits. Here, we present a combined RNA regulatory system in Escherichia coli that uses small transcription activating RNA (STAR) and antisense RNA (asRNA) to activate or deactivate target gene expression in a programmable manner. Specifically, we demonstrated that the activated target output by the STAR system can be deactivated by expressing two different types of asRNAs: one binds to and sequesters the STAR regulator, affecting the transcription process, while the other binds to the target mRNA, affecting the translation process. We improved deactivation efficiencies (up to 96%) by optimizing each type of asRNA and then integrating the two optimized asRNAs into a single circuit. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the combined STAR and asRNA system can control gene expression in a reversible way and can regulate expression of a gene in the genome. Lastly, we constructed and simultaneously tested two A AND NOT B logic gates in the same cell to show sophisticated multigene regulation by the combined system. Our approach establishes a methodology for integrating multiple RNA regulators to rationally control multiple genes.

  1. Development of Multiexon Skipping Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Toshifumi; Wood, Matthew J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an incurable, X-linked progressive muscle degenerative disorder that results from the absence of dystrophin protein and leads to premature death in affected individuals due to respiratory and/or cardiac failure typically by age of 30. Very recently the exciting prospect of an effective oligonucleotide therapy has emerged which restores dystrophin protein expression to affected tissues in DMD patients with highly promising data from a series of clinical trials. This therapeutic approach is highly mutation specific and thus is personalised. Therefore DMD has emerged as a model genetic disorder for understanding and overcoming of the challenges of developing personalised genetic medicines. One of the greatest weaknesses of the current oligonucleotide approach is that it is a mutation-specific therapy. To address this limitation, we have recently demonstrated that exons 45–55 skipping therapy has the potential to treat clusters of mutations that cause DMD, which could significantly reduce the number of compounds that would need to be developed in order to successfully treat all DMD patients. Here we discuss and review the latest preclinical work in this area as well as a variety of accompanying issues, including efficacy and potential toxicity of antisense oligonucleotides, prior to human clinical trials. PMID:23984357

  2. RNA synthetic biology inspired from bacteria: construction of transcription attenuators under antisense regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Alexandre; Cayrol, Bastien; Isambert, Hervé

    2009-07-01

    Among all biopolymers, ribonucleic acids or RNA have unique functional versatility, which led to the early suggestion that RNA alone (or a closely related biopolymer) might have once sustained a primitive form of life based on a single type of biopolymer. This has been supported by the demonstration of processive RNA-based replication and the discovery of 'riboswitches' or RNA switches, which directly sense their metabolic environment. In this paper, we further explore the plausibility of this 'RNA world' scenario and show, through synthetic molecular design guided by advanced RNA simulations, that RNA can also perform elementary regulation tasks on its own. We demonstrate that RNA synthetic regulatory modules directly inspired from bacterial transcription attenuators can efficiently activate or repress the expression of other RNA by merely controlling their folding paths 'on the fly' during transcription through simple RNA-RNA antisense interaction. Factors, such as NTP concentration and RNA synthesis rate, affecting the efficiency of this kinetic regulation mechanism are also studied and discussed in the light of evolutionary constraints. Overall, this suggests that direct coupling among synthesis, folding and regulation of RNAs may have enabled the early emergence of autonomous RNA-based regulation networks in absence of both DNA and protein partners.

  3. Trans-Splicing Improvement by the Combined Application of Antisense Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Koller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing has become an emergent tool for the repair of mutated pre-mRNAs in the treatment of genetic diseases. RNA trans-splicing molecules (RTMs are designed to induce a specific trans-splicing reaction via a binding domain for a respective target pre-mRNA region. A previously established reporter-based screening system allows us to analyze the impact of various factors on the RTM trans-splicing efficiency in vitro. Using this system, we are further able to investigate the potential of antisense RNAs (AS RNAs, presuming to improve the trans-splicing efficiency of a selected RTM, specific for intron 102 of COL7A1. Mutations in the COL7A1 gene underlie the dystrophic subtype of the skin blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa (DEB. We have shown that co-transfections of the RTM and a selected AS RNA, interfering with competitive splicing elements on a COL7A1-minigene (COL7A1-MG, lead to a significant increase of the RNA trans-splicing efficiency. Thereby, accurate trans-splicing between the RTM and the COL7A1-MG is represented by the restoration of full-length green fluorescent protein GFP on mRNA and protein level. This mechanism can be crucial for the improvement of an RTM-mediated correction, especially in cases where a high trans-splicing efficiency is required.

  4. Prospects in the use of aptamers for characterizing the structure and stability of bioactive proteins and peptides in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei, Dominic; Acquah, Caleb; Tan, Kei Xian; Hii, Hieng Kok; Rajendran, Subin R C K; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Danquah, Michael K

    2018-01-01

    Food-derived bioactive proteins and peptides have gained acceptance among researchers, food manufacturers and consumers as health-enhancing functional food components that also serve as natural alternatives for disease prevention and/or management. Bioactivity in food proteins and peptides is determined by their conformations and binding characteristics, which in turn depend on their primary and secondary structures. To maintain their bioactivities, the molecular integrity of bioactive peptides must remain intact, and this warrants the study of peptide form and structure, ideally with robust, highly specific and sensitive techniques. Short single-stranded nucleic acids (i.e. aptamers) are known to have high affinity for cognate targets such as proteins and peptides. Aptamers can be produced cost-effectively and chemically derivatized to increase their stability and shelf life. Their improved binding characteristics and minimal modification of the target molecular signature suggests their suitability for real-time detection of conformational changes in both proteins and peptides. This review discusses the developmental progress of systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), an iterative technology for generating cost-effective aptamers with low dissociation constants (K d ) for monitoring the form and structure of bioactive proteins and peptides. The review also presents case studies of this technique in monitoring the structural stability of bioactive peptide formulations to encourage applications in functional foods. The challenges and potential of aptamers in this research field are also discussed. Graphical abstract Advancing bioactive proteins and peptide functionality via aptameric ligands.

  5. The action of mimetic peptides on connexins protects fibroblasts from the negative effects of ischemia reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Beverley J; Hu, Rebecca G; Phillips, Anthony R J; Becker, David L

    2015-10-15

    Connexins have been proposed as a target for therapeutic treatment of a variety of conditions. The main approaches have been by antisense or small peptides specific against connexins. Some of these peptides enhance communication while others interfere with connexin binding partners or bind to the intracellular and extracellular loops of connexins. Here, we explored the mechanism of action of a connexin mimetic peptide by evaluating its effect on gap junction channels, connexin protein levels and hemichannel activity in fibroblast cells under normal conditions and following ischemia reperfusion injury which elevates Cx43 levels, increases hemichannel activity and causes cell death. Our results showed that the effects of the mimetic peptide were concentration-dependent. High concentrations (100-300 μM) significantly reduced Cx43 protein levels and GJIC within 2 h, while these effects did not appear until 6 h when using lower concentrations (10-30 μM). Cell death can be reduced when hemichannel opening and GJIC were minimised. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Descriptors for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A frightening increase in the number of isolated multidrug resistant bacterial strains linked to the decline in novel antimicrobial drugs entering the market is a great cause for concern. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have lately been introduced as a potential new class...... of antimicrobial drugs, and computational methods utilizing molecular descriptors can significantly accelerate the development of new peptide drug candidates. Areas covered: This paper gives a broad overview of peptide and amino-acid scale descriptors available for AMP modeling and highlights which...

  7. Nucleic acid helix structure determination from NMR proton chemical shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werf, Ramon M. van der; Tessari, Marco; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for de novo derivation of the three-dimensional helix structure of nucleic acids using non-exchangeable proton chemical shifts as sole source of experimental restraints. The method is called chemical shift de novo structure derivation protocol employing singular value decomposition (CHEOPS) and uses iterative singular value decomposition to optimize the structure in helix parameter space. The correct performance of CHEOPS and its range of application are established via an extensive set of structure derivations using either simulated or experimental chemical shifts as input. The simulated input data are used to assess in a defined manner the effect of errors or limitations in the input data on the derived structures. We find that the RNA helix parameters can be determined with high accuracy. We finally demonstrate via three deposited RNA structures that experimental proton chemical shifts suffice to derive RNA helix structures with high precision and accuracy. CHEOPS provides, subject to further development, new directions for high-resolution NMR structure determination of nucleic acids.

  8. Molecular polarization potential maps of the nucleic acid bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkorta, I.; Perez, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ab initio calculations at the SCF level were carried out to compute the polarization potential map NM of the nucleic acid bases: cytosine, thymine, uracil, adedine, and guanine. For this purpose, the Dunning's 9s5p basis set contracted to a split-valence, was selected to perform the calculations. The molecular polarization potential (MPP) at each point was evaluated by the difference between the interaction energy of the molecule with a unit point charge and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) at that point. MEPS and MPPS for the different molecules were computed with a density of 5 points/Angstrom 2 on the van der Waals surface of each molecule, defined using the van der Waals radii. Due to the symmetry of the molecules, only half the points were computed. The total number of points calculated was 558 for cytosine, 621 for thymine, 526 for uracil, 666 for adenine, and 699 for guanine. The results of these calculations are analyzed in terms of their implications on the molecular interactions between pairs of nucleic acid bases. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Functional nucleic acids as in vivo metabolite and ion biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaafin, Alaa; McKeague, Maureen

    2017-08-15

    Characterizing the role of metabolites, metals, and proteins is required to understand normal cell function, and ultimately, elucidate the mechanism of disease. Metabolite concentration and transformation results collected from cell lysates or fixed-cells conceal important dynamic information and differences between individual cells that often have profound functional consequences. Functional nucleic acid-based biosensors are emerging tools that are capable of monitoring ions and metabolites in cell populations or whole animals. Functional nucleic acids (FNAs) are a class of biomolecules that can exhibit either ligand binding or enzymatic activity. Unlike their protein analogues or the use of instrument-based analysis, FNA-based biosensors are capable of entering cells without disruption to the cellular environment and can report on the concentration, dynamics, and spatial localization of molecules in cells. Here, we review the types of FNAs that have been used as in vivo biosensors, and how FNAs can be coupled to transduction systems and delivered inside cells. We also provide examples from the literature that demonstrate their impact in practical applications. Finally, we comment on the critical limitations that need to be addressed to enable their use for single-cell dynamic tracking of metabolites and ions in vivo. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Co-delivery of VP-16 and Bcl-2-targeted antisense on PEG-grafted oMWCNTs for synergistic in vitro anti-cancer effects in non-small and small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Zbynek; Polanska, Hana; Krizkova, Sona; Balvan, Jan; Raudenska, Martina; Dostalova, Simona; Moulick, Amitava; Masarik, Michal; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-02-01

    Present study describes the preparation of a polyethylene glycol-grafted oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs-PEG) hybrid nanosystem as a carrier of etoposide (VP-16) and Bcl-2 phosphorothioate antisense deoxyoligonucleotides (Aso) to achieve a superior cytostastic efficacy in non-small and small cell lung cancer in vitro. We have demonstrated that the adsorption of hydrophobic VP-16 and Bcl-2 Aso results in a stable nanotransporter exhibiting good dispersion with excellent release profiles (both, in pH 7.4 and 4.8) and negligible hemolytic activity (up to 6.5%). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out in in vitro using small cell (SCLC; DMS53) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; NCIH2135) cell lines. It was found that Bcl-2 interference significantly increased the anti-cancer efficiency of VP-16 in the chemoresistant NSCLC cells. This was further supported using a flow-cytometry (Annexin V/propidium iodide assay), which revealed a significant increase in apoptotic cells in both the cell lines after the co-administration of VP-16 and Bcl-2 Aso using oMWCNTs-PEG hybrid, and fluorescence microscopy, which showed an increase in reactive oxygen species identified after Bcl-2 knock-down. Overall, oMWCNTs-PEG provided an exceptional biocompatible vehicle enabling the internalization of negatively charged nucleic acids and pH-sensitive release of cargoes in a hypoxic environment of the most of solid tumors. Moreover, Aso specifically binding to the first six codons of the Bcl-2 mRNA gave a satisfactorily decrease in Bcl-2 translation and an increase in NCIH2135 chemosensitivity towards VP-16. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  12. Tumor-Penetrating Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the

  13. Novel Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Nordahl, Emma

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides serve as a first line of defence against invading microorganisms and are an essential part of our fast innate immune system. They are ancient molecules found in all classes of life. Antimicrobial peptides rapidly kill a broad spectrum of microbes and are immunomodulatory, i.e. having additional actions influencing inflammation and other innate immune responses. Results presented in this thesis demonstrate that proteases of common human pathogens degrade and inactivate t...

  14. Peptide aldehyde inhibitors of bacterial peptide deformylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, D J; Gordon Green, B; O'Connell, J F; Grant, S K

    1999-07-15

    Bacterial peptide deformylases (PDF, EC 3.5.1.27) are metalloenzymes that cleave the N-formyl groups from N-blocked methionine polypeptides. Peptide aldehydes containing a methional or norleucinal inhibited recombinant peptide deformylase from gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. The most potent inhibitor was calpeptin, N-CBZ-Leu-norleucinal, which was a competitive inhibitor of the zinc-containing metalloenzymes, E. coli and B. subtilis PDF with Ki values of 26.0 and 55.6 microM, respectively. Cobalt-substituted E. coli and B. subtilis deformylases were also inhibited by these aldehydes with Ki values for calpeptin of 9.5 and 12.4 microM, respectively. Distinct spectral changes were observed upon binding of calpeptin to the Co(II)-deformylases, consistent with the noncovalent binding of the inhibitor rather than the formation of a covalent complex. In contrast, the chelator 1,10-phenanthroline caused the time-dependent inhibition of B. subtilis Co(II)-PDF activity with the loss of the active site metal. The fact that calpeptin was nearly equipotent against deformylases from both gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial sources lends further support to the idea that a single deformylase inhibitor might have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. BGL4 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian [Sunnyvale, CA

    2011-12-06

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl4, and the corresponding BGL4 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL4, recombinant BGL4 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  16. BGL3 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian [Sunnyvale, CA

    2011-06-14

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  17. Bis-Pyrene-Modified Unlocked Nucleic Acids: Synthesis, Hybridization Studies, and Fluorescent Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perlíková, Pavla; Ejlersen, M.; Langkjaer, N.; Wengel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2014), s. 2120-2127 ISSN 1860-7179 Grant - others:European Research Council(XE) FP7-268776 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorescence * nucleic acid hybridization * oligonucleotides * pyrenes * unlocked nucleic acids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.968, year: 2014

  18. Nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope immunogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Letvin, Norman; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2015-04-21

    The present invention relates to nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions and vectors comprising same. The nucleic acids of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  19. BGL6 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA

    2009-09-01

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl6, and the corresponding BGL6 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL6, recombinant BGL6 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  20. BGL3 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian [Sunnyvale, CA

    2008-04-01

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  1. Archive of Samples for Long-Term Preservation of RNA and Other Nucleic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-15

    policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. - 1- Table of Contents 1. Introduction...the development of a scalable all ambient temperature biological sample workflow preserving nucleic acids for molecular analysis. This ambient ...achieved the final Phase II milestone of processing 500 samples n a week. 1S. SUBJECT TERMS Nucleic Acid Preservation , Cost Reduction , Ambient

  2. BGL5 .beta.-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian [Sunnyvale, CA

    2008-03-18

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl5, and the corresponding BGL5 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL5, recombinant BGL5 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  3. BGL3 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2012-10-30

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  4. BGL5 .beta.-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-02-28

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl5, and the corresponding BGL5 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL5, recombinant BGL5 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  5. BGL4 .beta.-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-05-16

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl4, and the corresponding BGL4 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL4, recombinant BGL4 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  6. Locked nucleic acid (LNA): High affinity targeting of RNA for diagnostics and therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauppinen, S.; Vester, Birte; Wengel, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a nucleic acid analogue containing one or more LNA nucleotide monomers with a bicyclic furanose unit locked in an RNA mimicking sugar conformation. This conformational restriction results in unprecedented hybridization affinity towards complementary single stranded RN...

  7. Covering all the bases : Coarse-grained model design and application for nucleic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uusitalo, Jaakko Juhani

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acids play a crucial role in the storage, transportation and expression of our genetic information. They have also become an interesting tool for many applications in nanotechnology. Studying biomolecular systems containing nucleic acids using experimental and imaging techniques has its

  8. S-phase reduction in T47D human breast cancer epithelial cells induced by an S100P antisense-retroviral construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissel, Bettina; Silva, Ismael D C G; Pesquero, João B; Russo, Jose; Schor, Nestor; Bellini, Maria Helena

    2007-03-01

    S100P is expressed in several malignant neoplasms. It was previously demonstrated that S100P is involved in the very early stages of breast carcinogenesis. In the present study we used a retrovirus-mediated transfer of antisense-S100P in order to check whether the decrease in expression of this protein could lead to alterations in the cell cycle of epithelial cells of human breast cancer. The T47D breast carcinoma cell line, a human breast epithelial cell that expresses high levels of S100P, was a tool used in this study to investigate the alteration in cell cycle induced by a retrovirus-mediated transfer of antisense-S100P. First we used the real-time PCR technique to quantify the gene expression. The results showed a reduction of 63% of expression within the T47D-S100P-A/S infected population compared with control T47D-LXSN clones. To determine the impact of the S100P antisense technique on protein expression in T47D cells, we performed immunofluorescence staining and analyzed the resulting images using a confocal microscope. The images showed much less pronounced antibody marking of the S100P protein in the T47D-S100P-A/S compared with control cells. To evaluate whether the antisense approach caused any alteration in the cell cycle, we concluded the study with flow cytometric analysis of the cell distribution. Our findings indicated that, in our model, S100P-antisense cells showed a 23% reduction of cells at the S-phase. Using transduction techniques with an S100P antisense-retroviral construct we were able to demonstrate a significant reduction in S-phase of the T47D cell cycle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an antisense approach has been used against S100P mRNA in breast cancer epithelial cells. The results showed here seem to further classify S100P as a protein that might be involved in the cell cycle imbalance observed during breast carcinogenesis.

  9. The concept of multiple-target anti-miRNA antisense oligonucleotide technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo

    2011-01-01

    The multiple-target AMO technology or MT-AMO technology is an innovative strategy, which confers on a single AMO fragment the capability of targeting multiple miRNAs. This modified AMO is single-stranded 2'-O-methyl-modified oligoribonucleotides carrying multiple AMO units, which are engineered into a single unit and are able to simultaneously silence multiple-target miRNAs or multiple miRNA seed families. Studies suggest that the MT-AMO is an improved approach for miRNA target finding and miRNA function validation; it not only enhances the effectiveness of targeting miRNAs but also confers diversity of actions. It has been successfully used to identify target genes and cellular function of several oncogenic miRNAs and of the muscle-specific miRNAs (Lu et al., Nucleic Acids Res 37:e24-e33, 2009). This novel strategy may find its broad application as a useful tool in miRNA research for exploring biological processes involving multiple miRNAs and multiple genes, and the potential as an miRNA therapy for human disease such as cancer and cardiac disorders. This technology was developed by my research laboratory in collaboration with Yang's group (Lu et al., Nucleic Acids Res 37:e24-e33, 2009), and it is similar but distinct from the miRNA Sponge technology developed by Sharp's laboratory in 2007 (Ebert et al., Nat Methods 4:721-726, 2007) and modified by Gentner et al. (Nat Methods 6:63-66, 2009).

  10. Oligonucleic Acid Drug List: monrd0035 [Nucleic Acid Drug Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s III Antisense Hypertriglyceridemia ApoC-III Volanesorsen reduces the amount of blood triglycerides, a serious risk factor for pancr...eatitis by binding to ApoC-III in the blood. A phase III study of the efficacy and

  11. Defining the factors that contribute to on-target specificity of antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt F Lima

    Full Text Available To better understand the factors that influence the activity and specificity of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs, we designed a minigene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1 and cloned the minigene into vectors for T7 transcription of pre-mRNA and splicing in a nuclear extract or for stable integration in cells. We designed a series of ASOs that covered the entire mRNA and determined the binding affinities and activities of the ASOs in a cell-free system and in cells. The mRNA bound known RNA-binding proteins on predicted binding sites in the mRNA. The higher order structure of the mRNA had a significantly greater effect than the RNA-binding proteins on ASO binding affinities as the ASO activities in cells and in the cell-free systems were consistent. We identified several ASOs that exhibited off-target hybridization to the SOD-1 minigene mRNA in the cell-free system. Off-target hybridization occurred only at highly accessible unstructured sites in the mRNA and these interactions were inhibited by both the higher order structure of the mRNA and by RNA-binding proteins. The same off-target hybridization interactions were identified in cells that overexpress E. coli RNase H1. No off-target activity was observed for cells expressing only endogenous human RNase H1. Neither were these off-target heteroduplexes substrates for recombinant human RNase H1 under multiple-turnover kinetics suggesting that the endogenous enzyme functions under similar kinetic parameters in cells and in the cell-free system. These results provide a blueprint for design of more potent and more specific ASOs.

  12. Contributions of Japanese patients to development of antisense therapy for DMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Masafumi; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Hisahide

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal progressive muscle wasting disease considered untreatable since its first description in 1868. In 1987, the dystrophin gene responsible for DMD was cloned. This paved the way for the development of therapies. Antisense oligonucleotide (AO)-mediated exon skipping therapy is now reaching the stage of marketing authorization. On the 20th anniversary of the proposal of AO-mediated exon skipping therapy for DMD, this review explores the contributions of Japanese patients. In 1990, a Japanese DMD patient was reported as having a small deletion within dystrophin exon 19 and complicating exon 19 skipping in the absence of any mutation at the consensus splice sites. This led to identification of a splicing enhancer sequence within exon 19. Remarkably, AOs against this sequence were shown to induce exon skipping. This encouraged us to propose AO-mediated exon skipping therapy for DMD in 1995. The therapy's effectiveness was verified in a Japanese patient with a nonsense dystrophin mutation manifesting as Becker muscular dystrophy. The patient showed skipping of the nonsense mutation-encoding exon. Finally, a DMD patient carrying a deletion of exon 20 volunteered to undergo intravenous AO infusion, enabling us to obtain proof of concept. The findings from these three patients greatly facilitated studies on exon skipping therapy. As a result, more than 300 reports on AO-mediated exon skipping therapy for DMD have been published, including at least two a month during the last few years. We greatly appreciate the important contributions of Japanese patients to development of the exon skipping therapy for DMD. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective Neuromuscular Denervation in Taiwanese Severe SMA Mouse Can Be Reversed by Morpholino Antisense Oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Lin Lin

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease caused by deficiency of the survival of motor neuron (SMN protein, which leads to synaptic defects and spinal motor neuron death. Neuromuscular junction (NMJ abnormalities have been found to be involved in SMA pathogenesis in the SMNΔ7 SMA mouse model. However, whether similar NMJ pathological findings present in another commonly used mouse model, the Taiwanese SMA mouse, has not been fully investigated. To examine the NMJs of the Taiwanese severe SMA mouse model (Smn-/-; SMN2tg/0, which is characterized by severe phenotype and death before postnatal day (P 9, we investigated 25 axial and appendicular muscles from P1 to P9. We labelled the muscles with anti-neurofilament and anti-synaptophysin antibodies for nerve terminals and α-bungarotoxin for acetylcholine receptors (AChRs. We found that severe NMJ denervation (<50% fully innervated endplates selectively occurred in the flexor digitorum brevis 2 and 3 (FDB-2/3 muscles from P5, and an increased percentage of fully denervated endplates correlated with SMA progression. Furthermore, synaptophysin signals were absent at the endplate compared to control littermate mice, suggesting that vesicle transport might only be affected at the end stage. Subsequently, we treated the Taiwanese severe SMA mice with morpholino (MO antisense oligonucleotides (80 μg/g via subcutaneous injection at P0. We found that MO significantly reversed the NMJ denervation in FDB-2/3 muscles and extended the survival of Taiwanese severe SMA mice. We conclude that early NMJ denervation in the FDB-2/3 muscles of Taiwanese severe SMA mice can be reversed by MO treatment. The FDB-2/3 muscles of Taiwanese severe SMA mice provide a very sensitive platform for assessing the effectiveness of drug treatments in SMA preclinical studies.

  14. Elucidation of the Biotransformation Pathways of a Galnac3-conjugated Antisense Oligonucleotide in Rats and Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby S Shemesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triantennary N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc3 is a high-affinity ligand for hepatocyte-specific asialoglycoprotein receptors. Conjugation with GalNAc3 via a trishexylamino (THA-C6 cluster significantly enhances antisense oligonucleotide (ASO potency. Herein, the biotransformation, disposition, and elimination of the THA cluster of ION-681257, a GalNAc3-conjugated ASO currently in clinical development, are investigated in rats and monkey. Rats were administered a single subcutaneous dose of 3H-radiolabeled (3H placed in THA or nonradiolabeled ION-681257. Mass balance included radiometric profiling and metabolite fractionation with characterization by mass spectrometry. GalNAc3-conjugated ASOs were extensively distributed into liver. The THA-C6 triantenerrary GalNAc3 conjugate at the 5′-end of the ASO was rapidly metabolized and excreted with 25.67 ± 1.635% and 71.66 ± 4.17% of radioactivity recovered in urine and feces within 48 hours postdose. Unchanged drug, short-mer ASOs, and linker metabolites were detected in urine. Collectively, 14 novel linker associated metabolites were discovered including oxidation at each branching arm, initially by monooxidation at the β-position followed by dioxidation at the α-arm, and lastly, tri and tetra oxidations on the two remaining β-arms. Metabolites in bile and feces were identical to urine except for oxidized linear and cyclic linker metabolites. Enzymatic reaction phenotyping confirmed involvement of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, deoxyribonuclease II, alkaline phosphatase, and alcohol + aldehyde dehydrogenases on the complex metabolism pathway for THA supplementing in vivo findings. Lastly, excreta from monkeys treated with ION-681257 revealed the identical series as observed in rat. In summary, our findings provide an improved understanding of GalNAc3-conjugated-ASO metabolism pathways which facilitate similar development programs.

  15. Nucleic Acids Research annual Database Issue and the NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Michael Y; Cochrane, Guy R

    2009-01-01

    The current issue of Nucleic Acids Research includes descriptions of 179 databases, of which 95 are new. These databases (along with several molecular biology databases described in other journals) have been included in the Nucleic Acids Research online Molecular Biology Database Collection, bringing the total number of databases in the collection to 1170. In this introductory comment, we briefly describe some of these new databases and review the principles guiding the selection of databases for inclusion in the Nucleic Acids Research annual Database Issue and the Nucleic Acids Research online Molecular Biology Database Collection. The complete database list and summaries are available online at the Nucleic Acids Research web site (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  16. Extracellular Nucleic Acids in Blood of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa E. Muravlyova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of extracellular nucleic acids and acid-soluble precursors of nucleic acids in blood of patients with different forms and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD were evaluated. The significant increase of the content of extracellular RNA and acid-soluble precursors of nucleic acids in plasma of patients with COPD was detected. The decrease of extracellular RNA in plasma of patients with COPD worsening was diagnosed. Extracellular DNA in plasma and red blood cells of patients didn’t change significantly. The article examines the mechanisms of extracellular nucleic acids increase in blood of COPD patients, studies the possible role of extracellular RNA in development of coagulation disorders in COPD patients. The further research of the role of extracellular nucleic acids and their precursors in COPD progression is required

  17. RIG-I detects infection with live Listeria by sensing secreted bacterial nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Zeinab; Schlee, Martin; Roth, Susanne; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Barchet, Winfried; Böttcher, Jan; Hain, Torsten; Geiger, Sergej; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Fritz, Jörg H; Civril, Filiz; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Kurts, Christian; Ruland, Jürgen; Hartmann, Gunther; Chakraborty, Trinad; Knolle, Percy A

    2012-01-01

    Immunity against infection with Listeria monocytogenes is not achieved from innate immune stimulation by contact with killed but requires viable Listeria gaining access to the cytosol of infected cells. It has remained ill-defined how such immune sensing of live Listeria occurs. Here, we report that efficient cytosolic immune sensing requires access of nucleic acids derived from live Listeria to the cytoplasm of infected cells. We found that Listeria released nucleic acids and that such secreted bacterial RNA/DNA was recognized by the cytosolic sensors RIG-I, MDA5 and STING thereby triggering interferon β production. Secreted Listeria nucleic acids also caused RIG-I-dependent IL-1β-production and inflammasome activation. The signalling molecule CARD9 contributed to IL-1β production in response to secreted nucleic acids. In conclusion, cytosolic recognition of secreted bacterial nucleic acids by RIG-I provides a mechanistic explanation for efficient induction of immunity by live bacteria. PMID:23064150

  18. Revealing Nucleic Acid Mutations Using Förster Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina P. L. Junager

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid mutations are of tremendous importance in modern clinical work, biotechnology and in fundamental studies of nucleic acids. Therefore, rapid, cost-effective and reliable detection of mutations is an object of extensive research. Today, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET probes are among the most often used tools for the detection of nucleic acids and in particular, for the detection of mutations. However, multiple parameters must be taken into account in order to create efficient FRET probes that are sensitive to nucleic acid mutations. In this review; we focus on the design principles for such probes and available computational methods that allow for their rational design. Applications of advanced, rationally designed FRET probes range from new insights into cellular heterogeneity to gaining new knowledge of nucleic acid structures directly in living cells.

  19. Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

  20. Granin-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troger, Josef; Theurl, Markus; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Pasqua, Teresa; Tota, Bruno; Angelone, Tommaso; Cerra, Maria C; Nowosielski, Yvonne; Mätzler, Raphaela; Troger, Jasmin; Gayen, Jaur R; Trudeau, Vance; Corti, Angelo; Helle, Karen B

    2017-07-01

    The granin family comprises altogether 7 different proteins originating from the diffuse neuroendocrine system and elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The family is dominated by three uniquely acidic members, namely chromogranin A (CgA), chromogranin B (CgB) and secretogranin II (SgII). Since the late 1980s it has become evident that these proteins are proteolytically processed, intragranularly and/or extracellularly into a range of biologically active peptides; a number of them with regulatory properties of physiological and/or pathophysiological significance. The aim of this comprehensive overview is to provide an up-to-date insight into the distribution and properties of the well established granin-derived peptides and their putative roles in homeostatic regulations. Hence, focus is directed to peptides derived from the three main granins, e.g. to the chromogranin A derived vasostatins, betagranins, pancreastatin and catestatins, the chromogranin B-derived secretolytin and the secretogranin II-derived secretoneurin (SN). In addition, the distribution and properties of the chromogranin A-derived peptides prochromacin, chromofungin, WE14, parastatin, GE-25 and serpinins, the CgB-peptide PE-11 and the SgII-peptides EM66 and manserin will also be commented on. Finally, the opposing effects of the CgA-derived vasostatin-I and catestatin and the SgII-derived peptide SN on the integrity of the vasculature, myocardial contractility, angiogenesis in wound healing, inflammatory conditions and tumors will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.