WorldWideScience

Sample records for antiretroviral procurement prices

  1. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze g...

  2. Antiretroviral drug expenditure, pricing and judicial demand: an analysis of federal procurement data in Brazil from 2004–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Jing; Oliveira, Maria A; Ramos, Mariana BC; Maia, Aurélio; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia GS

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have described expenditures for antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in Brazil through 2005. While prior studies examined overall expenditures, they have not have analyzed drug procurement data in order to describe the role of court litigation on access and pricing. Methods ARV drug procurement from private sector sources for the years 2004–2011 was obtained through the general procurement database of the Brazilian Federal Government (SIASG). Procurement was measured in ...

  3. The pricing and procurement of antiretroviral drugs: an observational study of data from the Global Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Ashwin; Hoos, David; Mukherjee, Joia S; Farmer, Paul E; Rosenfield, Allan G; Perriëns, Joseph H

    2006-05-01

    The Purchase price report released in August 2004 by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund) was the first publication of a significant amount of real transaction purchase data for antiretrovirals (ARVs). We did an observational study of the ARV transaction data in the Purchase price report to examine the procurement behaviour of principal recipients of Global Fund grants in developing countries. We found that, with a few exceptions for specific products (e.g. lamivudine) and regions (e.g. eastern Europe), prices in low-income countries were broadly consistent or lower than the lowest differential prices quoted by the research and development sector of the pharmaceutical industry. In lower middle-income countries, prices were more varied and in several instances (lopinavir/ritonavir, didanosine, and zidovudine/lamivudine) were very high compared with the per capita income of the country. In all low- and lower middle-income countries, ARV prices were still significantly high given limited local purchasing power and economic strength, thus reaffirming the need for donor support to achieve rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy. However, the price of ARVs will have to decrease to render scale-up financially sustainable for donors and eventually for governments themselves. An important first step in reducing prices will be to make available in the public domain as much ARV transaction data as possible to provide a factual basis for discussions on pricing. The price of ARVs has considerable implications for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) treatment in the developing world. PMID:16710550

  4. Antiretroviral procurement and supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripin, David J; Jamieson, David; Meyers, Amy; Warty, Umesh; Dain, Mary; Khamsi, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Procurement, the country-level process of ordering antiretrovirals (ARVs), and supply chain management, the mechanism by which they are delivered to health-care facilities, are critical processes required to move ARVs from manufacturers to patients. To provide a glimpse into the ARV procurement and supply chain, the following pages provide an overview of the primary stakeholders, principal operating models, and policies and regulations involved in ARV procurement. Also presented are key challenges that need to be addressed to ensure that the supply chain is not a barrier to the goal of universal coverage. This article will cover the steps necessary to order and distribute ARVs, including different models of delivery, key stakeholders involved, strategic considerations that vary depending on context and policies affecting them. The single drug examples given illustrate the complications inherent in fragmented supply and demand-driven models of procurement and supply chain management, and suggest tools for navigating these hurdles that will ultimately result in more secure and reliable ARV provision. Understanding the dynamics of ARV supply chain is important for the global health community, both to ensure full and efficient treatment of persons living with HIV as well as to inform the supply chain decisions for other public health products. PMID:25310145

  5. Price competition in procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market's competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs

  6. Price competition in procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-07-01

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market`s competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs.

  7. Allocating scarce financial resources for HIV treatment: benchmarking prices of antiretroviral medicines in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Trout, Clinton H; Kaplan, Warren A

    2012-12-01

    Public sector price analyses of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines can provide relevant information to detect ARV procurement procedures that do not obtain competitive market prices. Price benchmarks provide a useful tool for programme managers and policy makers to support such planning and policy measures. The aim of the study was to develop regional and global price benchmarks which can be used to analyse public-sector price variability of ARVs in low- and middle-income countries using the procurement prices of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries in 2008 as an example. We used the Global Price Reporting Mechanism (GPRM) data base, provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), for 13 LAC countries' ARV procurements to analyse the procurement prices of four first-line and three second-line ARV combinations in 2008. First, a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to compare ARV combination prices. Second, four different price 'benchmarks' were created and we estimated the additional number of patients who could have been treated in each country if the ARV combinations studied were purchased at the various reference ('benchmark') prices. Large price variations exist for first- and second-line ARV combinations between countries in the LAC region. Most countries in the LAC region could be treating between 1.17 and 3.8 times more patients if procurement prices were closer to the lowest regional generic price. For all second-line combinations, a price closer to the lowest regional innovator prices or to the global median transaction price for lower-middle-income countries would also result in treating up to nearly five times more patients. Some rational allocation of financial resources due, in part, to price benchmarking and careful planning by policy makers and programme managers can assist a country in negotiating lower ARV procurement prices and should form part of a sustainable procurement policy. PMID:22367770

  8. Managing Procurement and Production Outsourcing under Dynamic Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-gang CAO; Chao YANG; Hui WEN; Huo-song XIA; Ji-zi LI

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a procurement and production outsourcing model subject to a dynamic prices environment.Using the optimal control theory we obtain the necessary conditions of the optimal procurement and production policy.From the study of optimal control conditions,we derive qualitative properties of the optimal procurement and production decisions for a few exemplifying cases.Through these results we are able to provide some managerial implications for managers to make real decisions.

  9. Reserve price: Lessons learned from Brazilian electricity procurement auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auctions have been used in several formats in the electric energy industry. In general, regulators may be uncomfortable initiating a reverse auction at a higher-than-expected final price, fearing that participants may sell their energy at an excess profitability. Nevertheless, evidence from electricity procurement auctions conducted in Brazil supports the findings that these types of auctions have the opposite effect. By attracting a larger number of agents, these auctions can trigger stronger competition and lead to lower settlement pricing. Accordingly, the Brazilian cases examined in this article present significant evidence to support this directional theory. In fact, there are some cases of electricity procurement auctions that show that inadequate auction reserve pricing leads to inefficient outcomes and may also cause the auction to fail. On the other hand, auctions with adequate price caps have led to lower final clearing prices, thus contributing to reasonable final energy pricing. - Highlights: • Outcomes from Brazilian electricity procurement auctions were analyzed. • Cases of success and frustration after adopting (in)adequate reserve prices. • Setting different price caps per source is inefficient. • Higher-than-normal price cap is more effective than fine-tuning reserve prices

  10. Forecasting beef prices for military subsistence procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Borza, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Defense Subsistence Region Pacific (DSRPAC) is responsible for the acquisition of food products (meat, fresh fruit and vegetables, etc.) for military personnel located west of the Rocky Mountains. In the author's review of current DSRPAC operations, it was observed that capitalizing on price movements was not a consideration during acquisition cf beef products. Using time-series analysis, it was shown that significant...

  11. The Price Impacts on the Canned Peach Industry by the Federal Commodity Procurement Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sceiford, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the effects on the price impacts of the Commodity Procurement Program when canned peaches are purchased. The main objective is to assess the effects of canned peaches purchases on the farm-level price of canning peaches. Interviews of the industries that participate in the Commodity Procurement Program are used to understand how the industry interacts with commodity procurements and to evaluate if the industry feels that commodity procurements have a significant effect ...

  12. Design the price signal mechanism of suppliers' cost in the commercial procurement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinming, Huang; Wenjing, Li; Huazhen, Zhu

    2016-06-01

    In the process of commercial procurement, there exists information asymmetry between purchasers and suppliers in terms of commodity cost. The strike price is what purchasers care about, while the focus of suppliers is only the sales revenue. In order to achieve the relatively lower strike price, purchasers need to design a price signal mechanism, explicating the commodity cost of suppliers. In this article, we have designed a mechanism that purchasers can explicit the commodity cost price based on suppliers' choices by providing a variety of purchase contracts to suppliers.

  13. The Joint Decision of Procurement and Pricing Interacted with Uncertain Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金实; 霍佳震; 段永瑞

    2013-01-01

    There are three decision variables including order quantity, pricing and advertising to retailer in a given sales for a certain product. Nowadays advertising is usually done by manufacturer.So the joint decision of procurement and pricing is important to retailer.The previous studies under uncertain demand usually assumed that demand functions fit a kind of probability distribution with certain parameters.But in practice the demand distribution function is affected by the decision variables.So we focus on this practical problem and build the demand distribution function including pricing,advertising and consumer characters.We design the decision model of procurement and pricing interacted with the demand distribution function and calculate the equilibrium solution for retailer.Finally we verify our model using numerical study.Our model is practical and can decrease the risk of demand change caused by decision adjustment.

  14. Prices of second-line antiretroviral treatment for middle-income countries inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony Simmons

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretrovirals are available at low prices in sub-Saharan Africa, but these prices may not be consistently available for middle-income countries in other regions with large HIV epidemics. Over 30% of HIV infected people live in countries outside sub-Saharan Africa. Several key antiretrovirals are still on patent, with generic production restricted. We assessed price variations for key antiretroviral drugs inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: HIV drug prices used in national programmes (2010–2014 were extracted from the WHO Global Price Reporting Mechanism database for all reporting middle-income countries as classified by the World Bank. Treatment costs (branded and generic were compared for countries inside sub-Saharan Africa versus those outside. Five key second-line antiretrovirals were analysed: abacavir, atazanavir, darunavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, raltegravir. Results: Prices of branded antiretrovirals were significantly higher outside sub-Saharan Africa (p<0.001, adjusted for year of purchase (see Table 1. For example, the median (interquartile range price of darunavir from Janssen was $732 (IQR $732-806 per person-year in sub-Saharan Africa versus $4689 (IQR $4075-5717 in non-African middle-income countries, an increase of 541%. However, when supplied by generic companies, most antiretrovirals were similarly priced between countries in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical companies are selling antiretrovirals to non-African middle-income countries at prices 74–541% higher than African countries with similar gross national incomes. However, generic companies are selling most of these drugs at similar prices across regions. Mechanisms to ensure fair pricing for patented antiretrovirals across both African and non-African middle-income countries need to be improved, to ensure sustainable treatment access.

  15. The Value of a Right of First Refusal Clause in a Procurement First-Price Auction

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Brisset; François Cochard; François Maréchal

    2012-01-01

    In a procurement first-price sealed-bid auction with risk-averse suppliers, we determine the conditions under which the buyer has an incentive to grant a supplier a right of first refusal. We show that this clause can lower the buyer’s expected cost when suppliers (the incumbent and new suppliers) are risk-neutral or slightly risk-averse. We also show that the incumbent’s expected utility is higher when he is granted a right of first refusal than when he competes under a first-price auction. ...

  16. Optimal selling price and energy procurement strategies for a retailer in an electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an electricity market, the retailer sets up contracts with the wholesale side for purchasing electricity and with the customers for its selling. This paper proposes a mathematical method based on mixed-integer stochastic programming to determine the optimal sale price of electricity to customers and the electricity procurement policy of a retailer for a specified period. The retailer has multiple choices for electricity procurement, such as spot market, forward contracts, call options and self-production. Risk is considered and modeled by conditional value-at-risk methodology. Also, the competition between retailers is modeled using a market share function. A case study is illustrated to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. (author)

  17. Parallel imports of hospital pharmaceuticals: An empirical analysis of price effects from parallel imports and the design of procurement procedures in the Danish hospital sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hostenkamp, Gisela; Kronborg, Christian; Arendt, Jacob Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    We analyse pharmaceutical imports in the Danish hospital sector. In this market medicines are publicly tendered using first-price sealed-bid procurement auctions. We analyse whether parallel imports have an effect on pharmaceutical prices and whether the way tenders were organised matters for the competitive effect of parallel imports on prices. Our theoretical analysis shows that the design of the procurement rules affects both market structure and pharmaceutical prices. Parallel imports may...

  18. Reality check on Ontario electricity price procurement: a report from the trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approaches taken to manage energy price risks from three different perspectives were presented. The first perspective presented was that of a law firm specializing in assisting a wide variety of clients constituting retailers and large industrial, institutional, and commercial users. The second perspective presented was that of Dofasco, the largest industrial electricity consumer in Ontario, followed by the perspective offered by Oakville Hydro, representing one of few municipally owned electricity retailers in Ontario. The first order of business, from the lawyer's viewpoint, is to identify relevant considerations for consumers and retailers, such as how do you intend to participate in the new market, what are the desired outcomes, the appetite for risk. The formulation of an approach should take the following into consideration: historical context versus new market reality, experience with electricity suppliers, and dilemma for consumers and retailers on how to level the playing field. The chosen approach was that of a request for proposals process for electricity price procurement. In the case of Dofasco, the introduction of the deregulated electricity market meant business risks, which it chose to address using an integrated risk management approach. Oakville Hydro explained its reasons for jumping into a trench: earn financial rewards and prevent brand equity erosion. Retail business must be kept simple through identifying, understanding and limiting the risks; and moving carefully but expeditiously. To mitigate the risks, it advocated getting the best legal and economics advice possible, looking for experienced partners, and not betting the shop.tabs., figs

  19. Procurement with specialized firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph; Boone, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes optimal procurement mechanisms when firms are specialized. The procurement agency has incomplete information concerning the firms’ cost functions and values high quality as well as low price. Lower type firms are cheaper (more expensive) than higher type firms when providing l...

  20. Procurement with specialized firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph; Boone, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes optimal procurement mechanisms when firms are specialized. The procurement agency has incomplete information concerning the firms’ cost functions and values high quality as well as low price. Lower type firms are cheaper (more expensive) than higher type firms when providing low...

  1. The impact of green public procurement decisions on international trade and prices of certified and conventional wood

    OpenAIRE

    Brusselaers, Jan; Buysse, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents the macro-economic analysis of the impact of Green Public Procurement of certified wood products in one continent on the wood markets of other continents. A Spatial Equilibrium Model is used to measure the global economic impact of both instruments. At present, certification is promoted as a useful tool for the sustainable management of (tropical) forests in countries with weak governments. This poster however demonstrates that the green public procurement of certificatio...

  2. Corruption and competition in procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Celentani, Marco; Ganuza, Juan J.

    2002-01-01

    We consider a procurement problem in which the procurement agent is supposed to allocate the realization of a project according to a competitive mechanism that values bids in terms of the proposed price and quality. Potential bidders have private information about their production costs. Since the procurement agent is also in charge of verifying delivered quality, in exchange for a bribe, he can allow an arbitrary firm to be awarded the realization of the project a...

  3. Data feature: Fuel procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a review of the effect of fuel costs on the procurement strategies of a utility and a conjecture that the same strategies may have an effect on the price of fuel. Factors affecting fuel costs are reviewed, and a number of procurement strategies taken to trim fuel costs are reviewed. The major trend is away from long-term enrichment contracts and into such strategies as: (1) Spot market purchases, (2) Inventory reduction, (3) Purchase of CIS material, and (4) Market-related contracts instead of base-escalated contracts

  4. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which......, which gives the book a challenging contribution to the existing body of knowledge....

  5. Binding Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of the binding procurement process in purchasing Aerospace Flight Battery Systems. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) requested NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to develop a set of guideline requirements document for Binding Procurement Contracts.

  6. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which...... evolves from a simple establishment of a contractual relationship to a central and strategic part of construction. The authors relate to cultural, ethical and social and behavioural sciences as the fundamental basis for analysis and understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the procurement system...

  7. Practising and thinking on online price competition for equipment procurement of Tianjin University%天津大学设备采购网上竞价工作的实践与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵岚; 施军; 孟峥

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of online price competition for equipment procurement of Tianjin University .Through the introduction of the equipment life cycle information management ,it describes the characteristics of implementation of online price competition in the university .The problems about online price competition are analyzed and the corresponding suggestions for improvement are proposed .%介绍了天津大学设备采购网上竞价工作的实施情况,通过对设备全寿命周期信息化管理的介绍,阐述了网上竞价在该校实施的特点,并对网上竞价工作中出现的问题进行了分析,提出了相应的改进建议。

  8. Analysis of variance of quantitative parameters bidders offers for public procurement in the chosen sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gavorníková, Katarína

    2012-01-01

    Goal of this work was to found out which determinants and in what direction influence variance of price biddings offered by bidders for public procurement, as well as their behavior during selection process. This work aimed on public procurement for construction works declared by municipal procurement authority. Regression analysis confirmed the variable estimated price and ratio of final and estimated price of public procurement as the strongest influences. Increasing estimated price raises ...

  9. The Price of Adherence: Qualitative Findings From HIV Positive Individuals Purchasing Fixed-Dose Combination Generic HIV Antiretroviral Therapy in Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, J. T.; Kawuma, A.; Oyugi, J. H.; Byakika, J. T.; A. Moss; Bourgois, P.; Bangsberg, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to early expectations, recent studies have shown near-perfect adherence to HIV antiretrovirals in sub-Saharan Africa We conducted qualitative interviews with patients purchasing low-cost, generic antiretroviral therapy to better understand the social dynamics underlying these findings. We found that concerns for family well-being motivate adherence, yet, the financial sacrifices necessary to secure therapy may paradoxically undermine family welfare. We suggest that missed doses may b...

  10. Antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2010-10-01

    In October 2010, it will be exactly 25 years ago that the first antiretroviral drug, AZT (zidovudine, 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine), was described. It was the first of 25 antiretroviral drugs that in the past 25 years have been formally licensed for clinical use. These antiretroviral drugs fall into seven categories [nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), fusion inhibitors (FIs), co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs) and integrase inhibitors (INIs). The INIs (i.e. raltegravir) represent the most recent advance in the search for effective and selective anti-HIV agents. Combination of several anti-HIV drugs [often referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)] has drastically altered AIDS from an almost uniformly fatal disease to a chronic manageable one. PMID:20471318

  11. Cost analysis of antiretroviral agents available in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar S. Panchal; Prasad R. Pandit; Abhishek M. Phatak; Komal M. Lohi

    2015-01-01

    Background: AIDS is one of the most prevalent causes of death due to infectious origin which requires a lifelong therapy. There is variation in prices of antiretroviral drugs available in Indian market. Thus, a study was planned to find out variation in prices of antiretroviral drugs either as a single drug or in combination and to evaluate the difference in cost of various brands of the same antiretroviral drugs by calculating percentage variation in cost in Indian rupees. Methods: Cost o...

  12. Public Procurement, Innovation and Policy: International Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, Danish policy interest in public procurement has mainly been driven by efficiency and cost-effectiveness concerns. Public-procurement policies have in general focused on the utilisation of economies of scale as a means of achieving lower prices on goods and services. Attempts to...... develop mandatory procurement systems have also been gradually developing, while the focus on innovation has been relatively modest in Danish procurement policies until recently. This picture is currently changing, as several initiatives emphasising public procurement as a means of stimulating innovation...... have been launched. Whether this gradual change of focus in Danish procurement policies will make a deep and lasting impact on the role of public procurement as a driver for innovation is, however, yet an open question....

  13. Utility procurement policies in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; market history (historical uranium demand and production in the USA); recent long-term contract activity (expected US reactor demand and uranium production; expected US reactor demand and contracted uranium supplies); utility procurement attitudes; impact of inventories on procurement; current regulatory environment (spot-market price vs average long-term contract price); embargo and imports; conclusion. (U.K.)

  14. Modeling HIV/AIDS drug price determinants in Brazil: is generic competition a myth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Meiners

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brazil became the first developing country to guarantee free and universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment, with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs being delivered to nearly 190,000 patients. The analysis of ARV price evolution and market dynamics in Brazil can help anticipate issues soon to afflict other developing countries, as the 2010 revision of the World Health Organization guidelines shifts demand towards more expensive treatments, and, at the same time, current evolution of international legislation and trade agreements on intellectual property rights may reduce availability of generic drugs for HIV care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our analyses are based on effective prices paid for ARV procurement in Brazil between 1996 and 2009. Data panel structure was exploited to gather ex-ante and ex-post information and address various sources of statistical bias. In-difference estimation offered in-depth information on ARV market characteristics which significantly influence prices. Although overall ARV prices follow a declining trend, changing characteristics in the generic segment help explain recent increase in generic ARV prices. Our results show that generic suppliers are more likely to respond to factors influencing demand size and market competition, while originator suppliers tend to set prices strategically to offset compulsory licensing threats and generic competition. SIGNIFICANCE: In order to guarantee the long term sustainability of access to antiretroviral treatment, our findings highlight the importance of preserving and stimulating generic market dynamics to sustain developing countries' bargaining power in price negotiations undertaken with originator companies.

  15. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  16. Bundled procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yongmin; Li, Jianpei

    2015-01-01

    When procuring multiple products from competing firms, a buyer may choose separate purchase, pure bundling, or mixed bundling. We show that pure bundling will generate higher buyer surplus than both separate purchase and mixed bundling, provided that trade for each good is likely to be efficient. Pure bundling is superior because it intensifies the competition between firms by reducing their cost asymmetry. Mixed bundling is inferior because it allows firms to coordinate to ...

  17. Public Procurement in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Jan ČERNÝ

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with public procurement system in Ukraine. The aim of this thesis is to analyze the system with a focus on the risks, which are facing foreign applicants in public procurement. The paper presents the various elements of the procurement system: Creating and implementation of public procurement policy, regulation of public procurement; authorization and approval of procurement; realization of public procurement; feedback. In the thesis, a case study with the company Kva...

  18. Tonga : Operational Procurement Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This procurement assessment in Tonga: (a) reviews existing policies, procedures and practices followed for procurement, with focus on Bank-financed projects and their impact on procurement performance of the Bank portfolio, and recommends measures to improve the procurement performance; and (b) identifies technical assistance (TA) required to introduce international procurement best practi...

  19. Supply Chain Shipment Pricing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set provides supply chain health commodity shipment and pricing data. Specifically, the data set identifies Antiretroviral (ARV) and HIV lab shipments to...

  20. Long-term costs and health impact of continued global fund support for antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stover

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: By the end of 2011 Global Fund investments will be supporting 3.5 million people on antiretroviral therapy (ART in 104 low- and middle-income countries. We estimated the cost and health impact of continuing treatment for these patients through 2020. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Survival on first-line and second-line ART regimens is estimated based on annual retention rates reported by national AIDS programs. Costs per patient-year were calculated from country-reported ARV procurement prices, and expenditures on laboratory tests, health care utilization and end-of-life care from in-depth costing studies. Of the 3.5 million ART patients in 2011, 2.3 million will still need treatment in 2020. The annual cost of maintaining ART falls from $1.9 billion in 2011 to $1.7 billion in 2020, as a result of a declining number of surviving patients partially offset by increasing costs as more patients migrate to second-line therapy. The Global Fund is expected to continue being a major contributor to meeting this financial need, alongside other international funders and domestic resources. Costs would be $150 million less in 2020 with an annual 5% decline in first-line ARV prices and $150-370 million less with a 5%-12% annual decline in second-line prices, but $200 million higher in 2020 with phase out of stavudine (d4T, or $200 million higher with increased migration to second-line regimens expected if all countries routinely adopted viral load monitoring. Deaths postponed by ART correspond to 830,000 life-years saved in 2011, increasing to around 2.3 million life-years every year between 2015 and 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Annual patient-level direct costs of supporting a patient cohort remain fairly stable over 2011-2020, if current antiretroviral prices and delivery costs are maintained. Second-line antiretroviral prices are a major cost driver, underscoring the importance of investing in treatment quality to improve retention on first-line regimens.

  1. OPTIMAL PROCUREMENT STRATEGY UNDER SUPPLY RISK

    OpenAIRE

    HARESH GURNANI; MEHMET GÜMÜŞ; SAIBAL RAY; TRIDIP RAY

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of global business, newer suppliers with cheaper but possibly unreliable technologies have entered the marketplace to win orders from buyer firms by beating the price of their perfectly reliable (but expensive) competitors. We model the procurement problem as a Nash game where the buyer has to allocate its purchases between an expensive but reliable supplier, and a cheaper but unreliable supplier. The suppliers specify prices for different proportions of the order awa...

  2. Transparency of public procurement

    OpenAIRE

    JANÁČIK, Rastislav

    2012-01-01

    In the theoretical part I tried describe most basic terms of the law of public procurement, because of easier understanding of this topic. In this part I also tried assess the condition of transparency of public procurement in Czech Republic. Then I desribed the basic principles, which relating to standards of transparency of public procurement. These principles were defined by the OECD. I also tried to explatin, how European legislation solves the issue of transparency in public procurement....

  3. Kosovo : Operational Procurement Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Operational Procurement Report (OPR) provides an assessment of the public-sector procurement system in Kosovo, including that on the legislative framework, the responsibilities and capacity of the institutions entrusted with regulatory and review powers, the efficacy of current procurement practices, and on the environment. The report makes recommendations to bring about legislative, ...

  4. 15 CFR 14.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 14.45 Section... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  5. 28 CFR 70.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 70.45 Section 70... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  6. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including...

  7. Procurement:case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Menteth, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The RIBA’s report ‘Building Ladders of Opportunity: How reforming construction procurement can drive growth in the UK economy’ contains background on the need for reform of public construction procurement, and the RIBA’s detailed recommendations on how to achieve this. These detailed recommendations fall under the heading of three main recommendations to Government: 1 Further examine the best ways to drive efficiencies and savings to ensure the public procurement system functions in the best ...

  8. Competition for procurement shares

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalde, Jose; Dahm, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new procurement procedure which allocates shares of the total amount to be procured depending on the bids of suppliers. Among the properties of the mechanism are: (i) Bidders have an incentive to participate in the procurement procedure, as equilibrium payoffs are strictly positive. (ii) The mechanism allows to vary the extent to which affirmative action objectives, like promoting local industries, are pursued. (iii) Surprisingly, even accomplishing affirmative action go...

  9. Public Procurement and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Max Rolfstam examines the increasing emphasis on public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation and the theoretical implications of this policy development. While ‘regular’ public procurement may be regarded as the outcome of anonymous market processes, public procurement of innovation must...... be understood as a special case of innovation, where social processes – and consequently the institutions governing these social processes – need to be considered. This book contributes to our understanding with a detailed institutional analysis of the public procurement of innovation....

  10. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, Procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model is...... presented and results of a first case study discussed. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on Procurement organization, understanding the internal and internal contingency factors. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be furthermore leveraged in...... future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...

  11. IEA Task 24 Solar procurement 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K.; Oestergaard, I. [Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup. SolEnergiCentret (Denmark); Gramkow, L. [Esbensen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the project is to develop and improve large procurements of solar heating systems in order to be able to place large orders with manufacturers and suppliers. The project work will be carried out as an international co-operation under IEA Task 24 with the title 'Solar Procurement'. By co-ordinating the effort between the 4-6 participating countries, the objective is to purchase at least 10,000 solar heating systems, of this amount 1,000-2,000 in Denmark. Such large orders make it possible for manufacturers and suppliers to deliver systems considerably cheaper, and it will be possible to develop systems for given specifications on output and efficiency. These co-ordinated large orders are expected to improve the price/efficiency conditions by up to 50%. The so called 'procurement process' (co-ordinated international procurement based on goal-oriented system development in co-operation between customers and suppliers/manufacturers) will in the project be followed up by information/marketing, education, financing schemes, service schemes, quality assurance and technical support. The project is divided into two main areas (IEA subtasks). 1: 'Procurement and Marketing' and 2: 'Creation of Tools'. Denmark has been requested to be the project manager of subtask 2, 'Creation of Tools'. (EHS)

  12. IEA Task 24 Solar procurement 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project is to develop and improve large procurements of solar heating systems in order to be able to place large orders with manufacturers and suppliers. The project work will be carried out as an international co-operation under IEA Task 24 with the title 'Solar Procurement'. By co-ordinating the effort between the 4-6 participating countries, the objective is to purchase at least 10,000 solar heating systems, of this amount 1,000-2,000 in Denmark. Such large orders make it possible for manufacturers and suppliers to deliver systems considerably cheaper, and it will be possible to develop systems for given specifications on output and efficiency. These co-ordinated large orders are expected to improve the price/efficiency conditions by up to 50%. The so called 'procurement process' (co-ordinated international procurement based on goal-oriented system development in co-operation between customers and suppliers/manufacturers) will in the project be followed up by information/marketing, education, financing schemes, service schemes, quality assurance and technical support. The project is divided into two main areas (IEA subtasks). 1: 'Procurement and Marketing' and 2: 'Creation of Tools'. Denmark has been requested to be the project manager of subtask 2, 'Creation of Tools'. (EHS)

  13. Main constraints in developing public organic procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Spigarolo, Roberto; Sarti, Valerio; Bocchi, Stefano; Giorgi, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates how to increase and improve school catering supply chains, to understand hindering factors and their perception in order to reveal drivers and constraints for POP. These include policy implementation instruments, changed values and attitudes, healthy nutrition policies, supply chain bottle necks, premium prices (to producers), successful procurement strategies and certification procedures. This work is based on a two-step survey concerning the Italian school ...

  14. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN PROCUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF MATERIAL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe CÂRSTEA; Oana P?UN; Sorin P?UN

    2014-01-01

    Due to a dynamic and competitive environment, in which prices are subject to ever-increasing pressure, quality becomes a determining factor in the competitive struggle.Among the key processes of the quality management system, the process of procurement and management of material resources directly affects the quality of the final products, and therefore the performance of the organization. An efficient process of procurement and management of material resources based on good relationships wit...

  15. Global Procurement Now It's Local Procurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Www.gasgoo.com held a global auto parts procurement summit during this year's Shanghai auto show.And the attendants were from more than 100 car makers and tier-Ⅰparts suppliers, 120 other suppliers and 150 of whom were of higher level in their busi-

  16. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    putting the structural elements in focus is derived from the analysis of two case companies, which extends the existing literature and opens new avenues for future research. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on procurement organization, understanding the internal......Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...

  17. Antiretroviral drug resistance testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Sourav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available While antiretroviral drugs, those approved for clinical use and others under evaluation, attempt in lowering viral load and boost the host immune system, antiretroviral drug resistance acts as a major impediment in the management of human immune deficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 infection. Antiretroviral drug resistance testing has become an important tool in the therapeutic management protocol of HIV-1 infection. The reliability and clinical utilities of genotypic and phenotypic assays have been demonstrated. Understanding of complexities of interpretation of genotyping assay, along with updating of lists of mutation and algorithms, and determination of clinically relevant cut-offs for phenotypic assays are of paramount importance. The assay results are to be interpreted and applied by experienced HIV practitioners, after taking into consideration the clinical profile of the patient. This review sums up the methods of assay currently available for measuring resistance to antiretroviral drugs and outlines the clinical utility and limitations of these assays.

  18. Education Funding Agency procurement issues

    OpenAIRE

    Menteth, Walter; Newman, Roger; Bogle, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The reports research highlights how the Education Funding Agency Regional Contractors Framework procurement has failed and how this could be improved to increase accessibility of contracts to SMEs. The issue seems to be due either to faulty procurement practices or to the procurement team not fully adhering to Cabinet Office Procurement Policy Notices and wider regulations.

  19. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In th

  20. Croatia : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Based on the CPAR's analysis of the legislative framework, procurement practices, institutional capacity and the opportunity for corruption, the assessment found that the environment for conducting public procurement in Croatia is average. This report makes a series of recommendations designed to strengthen the public procurement environment of Croatia, including legislative reform, improving procurement procedures and practices, institutional reform, capacity building, and the development of...

  1. Ukraine : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the country procurement assessment are to diagnose the public procurement system in Ukraine, assess compatibility of the country's laws, policies and procedures with international best practices, review compliance with the procurement laws and regulations and identify areas for improvement of the procurement system in Ukraine. With due recognition of the considerable...

  2. Health Services Procurement Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2000-01-01

    The Healthcare Materials Management Board (HMMB) was established following the report to the Materials Management Advisory Group on procurement and materials management in the health sector Download the Report here

  3. European utility fuel procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the major factors affecting the procurement strategies of European nuclear utilities for purchasing natural uranium, conversion services, and enrichment services. The role of the EURATOM Supply Agency in negotiating contracts for nuclear materials for the European Union is described. Bilateral agreements between the United States and EURATOM, and between the European Union and Russia are briefly outlined. National procurement strategies of Belgium, France, Germany, and Sweden are also discussed

  4. Evaluating Food Commodity Procurement Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kraig M.; Whipple, Judith M.; Raper, Kellie Curry; Mollenkopf, Diane A.

    2004-01-01

    We use a case study approach to determine the primary factors affecting food manufacturers' commodity procurement decisions, as well as to examine the strategic nature of commodity procurement departments. The research fills a gap in both the commodity and procurement literature. A large literature exists on commodity marketing; however, very little exists on the topic of commodity procurement. Existing procurement literature tends to focus on non-commodity products rather than commodity prod...

  5. Public Procurement of Local Selfgovernment

    OpenAIRE

    Najmanová, Alena

    2008-01-01

    This graduation thesis "Public Procurement of Local Selfgovernment" describes the problems of public procurement. The core subject is the difficulty to observe the law on public procurement. This work includes a case study that mainly evaluates the process of a specific public procurement carried out by a local selfgovernment and the method used to appraise the bids. In order to obtain further information on public procurement at the municipal level, the paper includes a survey addressed to t...

  6. Antimicrobial price variation: Conundrum of medical profession!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rataboli P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacoeconomics plays a pivotal role in clinical practice. High medicine prices can adversely affect a patient′s finances and compliance. The Indian pharmaceutical industry has become a cornucopia of medicines with wide variation in prices for the same medicine marketed under different brand names. Price list of available antimicrobial brands was procured from a commercial drug directory. Average price of widely prescribed oral antimicrobials was found and price variation between different brands was calculated. The variation in medicine prices was found to be from 95% lower to more than 350% higher than the average price. Implications of price variation in clinical practice are discussed and remedial measures suggested.

  7. Cost analysis of antiretroviral agents available in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar S. Panchal

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: There is wide variation in the prices of antiretroviral agents available in the market. Regulatory authorities, pharma companies, physicians should maximize their efforts to reduce the cost of drugs. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 479-482

  8. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Titus SUCIU

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  9. Perspectives Of Introduction Sustainable Procurement In Public Procurement In Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Romodina; Maxim Silin

    2015-01-01

    The paper is about sustainable public procurement as a new global trend in the development of a sustainable economy. The main question raised is the following: how sustainable public procurement could be implemented in Russia? The study aims to investigate the prospects of the implementation of sustainable public procurement in Russia. The author presents the findings of survey, covering public procurement practices of 51 contracting authorities and documentation analysis of 400 public tender...

  10. 40 CFR 35.6585 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determination of price reasonableness on a catalog or market price of a commercial product sold in substantial... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 35.6585... Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6585 Cost and price...

  11. Indonesia - Country Procurement Assessment Report : Reforming the Public Procurement System

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the Country Procurement Assessment Review (CPAR) are to diagnose the public procurement system in Indonesia, assess actual compliance with the country's procurement laws and regulations on the ground, and identify reforms to improve the existing system in line with internationally accepted principles. Section 1 gives an overview. Section 2 describes Indonesia's exist...

  12. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Organ Procurement Organizations and Organ Transplant Programs Locator tool is designed to help users find information about the Organ Procurement and...

  13. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... comment. View all news articles Organ Procurement & Transplantation Network U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health ... Privacy Policy Questions? Contact Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network United Network for Organ Sharing Post Office Box ...

  14. Philippines : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) is an analytical tool, intended to assess the public procurement system, in this case, in the Philippines, and, in the process, generate a dialogue with the Government on reforms needed. This CPAR assessment was conducted from October 2001 to June 2002, and part of an integrated comprehensive Public Expenditures, Procurement, and Financial M...

  15. Turkey : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    Public procurement legislation in Turkey has not kept pace with the sweeping reforms undertaken in the national procurement systems of many other countries during the same period nor with the development of internationally recognized bodies of procurement legislation, such as those of United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), the European Union (EU) and the World Tra...

  16. Multiple organ procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Milivoje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Liver transplantation is the most demanding of all solid organ transplantations. It requires perfect organization and motivation of health care professionals, patients and their families. This article deals with the procedure for multiple organ procurement, reviews criteria for organ donation and describes the surgical technique for multiple organ procurement. Discussion. Adequate selection and evaluation of cadaveric donors and of organs for transplantation should include early identification of potential donors, and early diagnosis of brain death. The procurement of the highest number of viable organs for transplantation requires excellence in each of the phases. Early and aggressive physiologic support in the maintenance of potential donors can reduce organ donor loss due to irreversible asystole or multiorgan failure (it is almost always possible to maintain organ perfusion pressure and increase the number of organs without increasing post-transplant morbidity or mortality. The ideal donor is a young, previously healthy, brain dead, victim of an accident. Conclusion. The surgical procedure for multiple organ procurement from brain death donors must be performed without intraopertive organ damage. .

  17. Benchmarking Public Procurement 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Benchmarking Public Procurement 2016 Report aims to develop actionable indicators which will help countries identify and monitor policies and regulations that impact how private sector companies do business with the government. The project builds on the Doing Business methodology and was initiated at the request of the G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group.

  18. CONTRACTING, CAPTIVE SUPPLIES, AND PRICE BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Ming-Chin; Weaver, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical and simulation results clarify the role of procurement contracting in determining spot price levels and volatility. A generic model determines market share across quality. Actual supply is specified as price dependent and stochastic. Simulation examines the sensitivity of price level and volatility to extent of forward contracting, risk aversion, and ability to adjust spot market demand (recontracting). The results show that as forward contracting increases mean spot price decreas...

  19. PROCUREMENT PHASES IN THE PROCESS OF PROCUREMENT IN KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drita KAA ANDOLLI-GJONBALAJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Critical studies of the procurement process in Kosova, and comparisons with the best European and worldwide experiences, are a good base for developing an efficient procurement system. I conducted a Survey in the Office of Procurement. A particular part of the work has been dedicated to procurement procedures. Comprehensive Study of Procurement in Kosovo based on facts and statistical indexes figured through statistical software SPSS, MINITAB, EXEL (highlights author of study, created easiness in compiling of this study. Evidences proceeded at the program created possibility for real reflection in the procurement field, experiences, difficulties and problems as well as Law deformation of Procurement Institution in Kosova. The objective of study was double: First, focusing on empirical studies and few pioneer experiences in the field of procurement, in the years 2000-2006 which showed the reality of the situation – personal experiences, failures and actions or events beyond their control. Second, based on research results and theorical/science achievements and positive experiences at the EU countries and worldwide in the procurement field, to suggest Kosova Institutions concrete models, practical and functional of Kosovo procurement. In order for the research to become much more resultant and conclusions more objective, theorical science model and research base are laid down first. Due to this aim, the study is based on the method of direct interview. In the research are included 43 units of Procurement in Kosova Questionary is followed by associated paper in regard to make it clear at interviewers for object of research and ensure confidentiality of answers. In order to avoid problems in the evaluation of answers given from canvasser, for any question one by one is defined the manner of reporting of results. Compiled work of study is based on primary and secondary data. Primary data are provided through data collection with survey from

  20. Woodfuel procurement strategies of district heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodfuel use in the Swedish district heating sector increased significantly from 1985 to 1999. This study analysed strategies and considerations concerning woodfuel procurement in district heating plants. Priorities and concerns in the industry involved an increased woodfuel share, ambitions to create an environmental image, cost minimisation, awareness about the role of energy policies for fuel choice, improvement of woodfuel quality and the ambition to maintain a competitive woodfuel market with several suppliers. Factor analysis yielded five dimensions in the woodfuel procurement strategies among the district heating companies: (1) increased woodfuel use; (2) import; (3) spot market woodfuel purchases; (4) focus on refined woodfuels; and (5) using price only when deciding whether to use woodfuels or other fuels. Five clusters were defined along the three strategy dimensions (1)-(3). The clusters differed concerning size, experiences from the introduction of woodfuels, perceptions about woodfuels and strategies employed to date. This paper describes different strategies that the district heating companies apply on the woodfuel market. The conclusion is that policies should consider this diversity in procurement strategies, mitigate their negative side-effects and assist to make them cost-effective. (author)

  1. Healthy Food Procurement Policies and Their Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Niebylski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed.

  2. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  3. Designing flexible procurement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Will

    1990-01-01

    The systems used for the procurement of buildings are organizational systems. They involve people in a series of strategic decisions, and a pattern of roles, responsibilities and relationships that combine to form the organizational structure of the project. To ensure effectiveness of the building team, this organizational structure needs to be contingent upon the environment within which the construction project takes place. In addition, a changing environment means that the organizational s...

  4. Procurement and participation opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elements which drive the Sable Offshore Energy Project and its procurement processes were described. The project is privately financed, hence business practices must adhere to strict principles to be able to compete with alternative energy sources and to ensure success for all stakeholders including owners, contractors, suppliers and the business community. One of the objectives of the project is to adhere to the requirements of applicable legislation and not to compromise health, safety and environmental standards. To ensure this compliance by all concerned, the regulatory requirements are embedded in the contracting and procurement procedures. Details of the procurement cycle are described. A list of some of the successes that Nova Scotian companies have had in getting work on the project was provided as an illustration of the ingenuity and foresight of these companies to develop appropriate quality assurance and health, safety and environmental procedures, and to bring in the needed capacity and technology through the formation of joint ventures and alliances. The list of contracts represents more than 100 million dollars worth of work to date. 3 figs

  5. Multicriteria analysis in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan T. Tošev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The public procurement is one of the most important processes in modern company daily business. The quality of that process and its realization affect the overall company success and reputation. For that purpose, the management is obliged to prepare and carry out the procurement process carefully. The process is based on multicriteria tendering and the purpose of this paper is to present the analytical and hierarchical procurement methods in order to minimize failing in the selection and decision making process.

  6. Exponential and power laws in public procurement markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Skuhrovec, Jiri

    2012-07-01

    We analyze for the first time a unique public procurement database, which includes information about a number of bidders for a contract, a final price, an identification of a winner and an identification of a contracting authority for each of more than 40000 public procurements in the Czech Republic between 2006 and 2011, focusing on the distributional properties of the variables of interest. We uncover several scaling laws —the exponential law for the number of bidders, and the power laws for the total revenues and total spendings of the participating companies, which even follows Zipf's law for the 100 most spending institutions. We propose an analogy between extensive and non-extensive systems in physics and the public procurement market situations. Through an entropy maximization, such analogy yields some interesting results and policy implications with respect to the Maxwell-Boltzmann and Pareto distributions in the analyzed quantities.

  7. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J PhillipsInstitute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has evolved considerably over the last three decades. From the early days of monotherapy with high toxicities and pill burdens, through to larger pill burdens and more potent combination therapies, and finally, from 2005 and beyond where we now have the choice of low pill burdens and once-daily therapies. More convenient and less toxic regimens are also becoming available, even in resource-poor settings. An understanding of the individual variation in response to ART, both efficacy and toxicity, has evolved over this time. The strong association of the major histocompatibility class I allele HLA-B*5701 and abacavir hypersensitivity, and its translation and use in routine HIV clinical practice as a predictive marker with 100% negative predictive value, has been a success story and a notable example of the challenges and triumphs in bringing pharmacogenetics to the clinic. In real clinical practice, however, it is going to be the exception rather than the rule that individual biomarkers will definitively guide patient therapy. The need for individualized approaches to ART has been further increased by the importance of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV clinical practice. In the future, the ideal utilization of the individualized approach to ART will likely consist of a combined approach using a combination of knowledge of drug, virus, and host (pharmacogenetic and pharmacoecologic [factors in the individual's environment that may be dynamic over time] information to guide the truly personalized prescription. This review will focus on our knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of the efficacy and toxicity of currently available antiretroviral agents and the current and potential utility of such information and approaches in present and future HIV clinical care.Keywords: HIV

  8. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made...

  9. 14 CFR 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1260.145 Section... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the...

  10. 22 CFR 145.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 145.45 Section 145.45... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 145.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in...

  11. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented...

  12. 7 CFR 3019.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 3019.45 Section 3019.45... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 3019.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made...

  13. 24 CFR 84.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 84.45... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in...

  14. 22 CFR 518.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cost and price analysis. 518.45 Section 518.45... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 518.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis...

  15. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and...

  16. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis...

  17. Brazil : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) intends to contribute to a dialogue with the government, on its procurement policy and management agenda, by surveying the existing situation, assessing the situation in light of appropriate standards, indicating a meaningful array of issues that could be incorporated into the government's agenda, and examining the desirability, and workabi...

  18. Cambodia : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2004-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR), prepared by the Bank in close cooperation with the Asian Development Bank (ADB), is a contribution to the Government's ongoing public sector reform program. It analyses strengths, and weaknesses in current practices, and outlines an action plan to bring public procurement further into line with internationally accepted, best practice. With...

  19. Nepal : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The ratio of projects at risk is 44 percent, which is much higher than a 20 percent Bank-wide average. The main problems seem to be an insufficient capacity to undertake procurement efficiently and an outdated system of procurement rules, many of which do not provide for transparent and competitive public purchasing of goods, works, and consultants' services. The report recommends the foll...

  20. Uzbekistan : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Uzbekistan inherited the Soviet system for the procurement of goods, works and services for State needs. This system was suitable for a command economy but lacks the essential elements of competitiveness, transparency and accountability, which are the hallmarks of a market-based approach to government contracting. This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) comes at a time when a num...

  1. Industry activities to resolve utility procurement issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several industry organizations which are active in assisting the utilities in their equipment procurement enhancement. They include the Nuclear Management Resources Council (NUMARC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Nuclear Procurement Issues Committee (NUPIC). The products include the NUMARC Procurement Initiatives, EPRI procurement related guidelines and databases, and NUPIC joint audits and commercial grade surveys. The industry procurement activities and products are reviewed, and their use by utilities to enhance their procurement process is related. 1 fig

  2. Pharmacogenomics of antiretrovirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Bernardino

    2008-06-01

    HIV infection is a serious but treatable disease, yet current treatment is limited by development of resistance and high rates of adverse drug reactions. Antiretroviral therapy is especially suitable for pharmacogenomic investigation as both drug exposure and treatment response can be reliably measured. Increasing knowledge about genes implicated in pharmacokinetics, mode of action, efficacy, and toxicity of drugs has already provided relevant results for clinical practice, for example: The strong association of the abacavir hypersensitivity reaction with HLA-B*5701 permits testing patients for the allele, and if present avoiding the drug and therefore preventing the reaction. Persons with the allele CYP2B6*6 present higher efavirenz "area under the curve" and have increased risk of neuropsychological toxicity. Additional gene variants are being discovered that influence the action of antiretroviral drugs. And, moreover, it is expected that larger-scale comprehensive genome approaches will profoundly improve the landscape of knowledge of HIV therapy in the future. The present article shows some recent patents related to the treatment of viral infections. PMID:18673126

  3. Electricity procurement for large consumers based on Information Gap Decision Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the competitive electricity market, consumers seek strategies to meet their electricity needs at minimum cost and risk. This paper provides a technique based on Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT) to assess different procurement strategies for large consumers. Supply sources include bilateral contracts, a limited self-generating facility, and the pool. It is considered that the pool price is uncertain and its volatility around the estimated value is modeled using an IGDT model. The proposed method does not minimize the procurement cost but assesses the risk aversion or risk-taking nature of some procurement strategies with regard to the minimum cost. Using this method, the robustness of experiencing costs higher than the expected one is optimized and the related strategy is determined. The proposed method deals with optimizing the opportunities to take advantage of low procurement costs or low pool prices. A case study is used to illustrate the proposed technique. (author)

  4. Electricity procurement for large consumers based on Information Gap Decision Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the competitive electricity market, consumers seek strategies to meet their electricity needs at minimum cost and risk. This paper provides a technique based on Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT) to assess different procurement strategies for large consumers. Supply sources include bilateral contracts, a limited self-generating facility, and the pool. It is considered that the pool price is uncertain and its volatility around the estimated value is modeled using an IGDT model. The proposed method does not minimize the procurement cost but assesses the risk aversion or risk-taking nature of some procurement strategies with regard to the minimum cost. Using this method, the robustness of experiencing costs higher than the expected one is optimized and the related strategy is determined. The proposed method deals with optimizing the opportunities to take advantage of low procurement costs or low pool prices. A case study is used to illustrate the proposed technique.

  5. Strategy for the procurement of electronics for the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    At its meeting on 14 March 2001 the Finance Committee requested the preparation of a document outlining the strategy for future procurement of electronics for the LHC experiments. The bulk of the electronics for the LHC experiments is based on custom-developed designs, the manufacturing of which will be contracted out to industry using the CERN purchasing procedures to ensure competitive prices. Analysis of on-going procurement activities for the electronics for the LHC experiments shows that in almost all cases the application of the CERN purchasing procedures has resulted in bids from a sufficient number of qualified companies to ensure competitive prices and a reasonable distribution of returns between CERN Member States. There is no reason to expect that this pattern will change significantly for the electronics that still remains to be purchased to complete the construction of the LHC experiments.

  6. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Nunn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term drug costs associated with treating AIDS in developing countries. Brazil's AIDS treatment program has been cited widely as the developing world's largest and most successful AIDS treatment program. The program guarantees free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for all people living with HIV/AIDS in need of treatment. Brazil produces non-patented generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs, procures many patented ARVs with negotiated price reductions, and recently issued a compulsory license to import one patented ARV. In this study, we investigate the drivers of recent ARV cost trends in Brazil through analysis of drug-specific prices and expenditures between 2001 and 2005. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase

  7. [Standard process of organ procurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Norihide

    2010-12-01

    As revised Japanese Organ Transplantation Law was issued on 17th July, 2010, standard process of organ procurement after brain death was changed as follows. After the patient is determined clinically brain dead, a doctor may tell his or her relatives the opportunity of organ donation and ask them whether they want to listen organ procurement by JOT coordinators. If they want to do so and to donate organs, brain death is determined by legally regulated method. Around this period, his or her organs are evaluated whether they are transplantable or not. After the patient was legally sentenced brain dead, transplant recipients are selected and procurement teams are sent from transplant centers. Organ function is evaluated again by procurement teams and then organs are procured and transplanted. PMID:21174688

  8. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Surajit Bag

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs) in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability.Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainabili...

  9. Incomplete Procurement Contracting with a Risk-Averse Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshi Nishimura

    2011-01-01

    In a two-stage procurement model, we compare two types of fixed-price contracting schemes, bundling and unbundling. The buyer's choice of scheme involves an intertemporal tradeoff: providing incentives for cost-reducing investment and sharing production-cost risk between the risk-neutral buyer and the risk-averse supplier. The main result shows that unbundling outperforms bundling when both the supplier and the entrant in ex post competitive bidding confront an aggregate risk, and the externa...

  10. Challenges of purchasing centralization : empirical evidence from public procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Karjalainen, Katri

    2009-01-01

    Centralization of purchasing activities is an escalating trend for both public and private organizations. Organizations are attempting to capture the economies of scale in purchasing prices and process costs by replacing individual purchases done throughout the organization with corporate-wide framework agreements. These benefits are achieved by the formalization of purchasing processes and channels, e.g. e-procurement, and the reduction in supplier base, developed by the central purchasing u...

  11. Did a local distribution company procure prudently during the California electricity crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To manage cost risk, prudent procurement of electric power requires that some portion of a buyer's energy demand be met through long-term contracting. Under cost-of-service regulation or performance-based regulation, a local distribution company (LDC) should be allowed to fully recover all prudently incurred power procurement costs. However, the regulatory test of prudence is an ex post review with the threat of disallowance. This paper presents an economic analysis of procurement prudence involving a small LDC, Bear Valley Electric Service (BVES), which serves a resort area in Southern California. The key findings are: (a) high and volatile prices and rolling blackouts characterized the market environment faced by the owner of BVES, Southern California Water Company (SCWC), at its signing of a 5-year fixed price contract; (b) SCWC was a price-taker with no incentive to act imprudently; (c) the contract was obtained via a competitive bidding process; (d) the contract price was comparable to the benchmark price of contemporaneous contracts; (e) the fixed price contract was economic when compared to available alternatives; and (f) despite (a)-(e), a negotiated settlement with the state regulator and a large user resulted in substantial disallowance. The policy implication is that a regulator should approve a prudent procurement plan proposed by an LDC to remove the unreasonable risk of an ex post review. If the LDC strictly adheres to the plan, the resulting electricity purchases are per se prudent and should entitle the LDC to full cost recovery

  12. Managing electricity procurement cost and risk by a local distribution company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A local electricity distribution company (LDC) can satisfy some of its future electricity requirements through self-generation and volatile spot markets, and the remainder through fixed-price forward contracts that will reduce its exposure to the inherent risk of spot-price volatility. A theoretical framework is developed for determining the forward-contract purchase that minimizes the LDCs expected procurement cost, subject to a cost-exposure constraint. The answers to the questions of ''What to buy?'' and ''How to buy?'' are illustrated using an example of a hypothetical LDC that is based on a municipal utility in Florida. It is shown that the LDCs procurement decision is consistent with least-cost procurement subject to a cost-exposure constraint, and that an internet-based multi-round auction can produce competitive price quotes for its desired forward purchase. (author)

  13. Managing electricity procurement cost and risk by a local distribution company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A local electricity distribution company (LDC) can satisfy some of its future electricity requirements through self-generation and volatile spot markets, and the remainder through fixed-price forward contracts that will reduce its exposure to the inherent risk of spot-price volatility. A theoretical framework is developed for determining the forward-contract purchase that minimizes the LDCs expected procurement cost, subject to a cost-exposure constraint. The answers to the questions of 'What to buy?' and 'How to buy?' are illustrated using an example of a hypothetical LDC that is based on a municipal utility in Florida. It is shown that the LDCs procurement decision is consistent with least-cost procurement subject to a cost-exposure constraint, and that an internet-based multi-round auction can produce competitive price quotes for its desired forward purchase

  14. 32 CFR 553.11 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement. 553.11 Section 553.11 National... CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.11 Procurement. Cemetery supplies and services will be procured in accordance with the provisions of the Armed Services Procurement Regulation (ASPR) and the Army...

  15. 40 CFR 30.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement records. 30.46 Section 30..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.46 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the small purchase...

  16. 15 CFR 14.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement records. 14.46 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.46 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the simplified acquisition threshold shall...

  17. 14 CFR 1260.146 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement records. 1260.146 Section 1260... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.146 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the small purchase...

  18. 28 CFR 70.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement records. 70.46 Section 70.46...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.46 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the small purchase threshold must include...

  19. 48 CFR 8.703 - Procurement list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement list. 8.703... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.703 Procurement list. The Committee maintains a Procurement List of all... Procurement List may be accessed at: http://www.abilityone.gov/index.html Questions concerning whether...

  20. 22 CFR 228.40 - Local procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local procurement. 228.40 Section 228.40... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Local Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.40 Local procurement. Local procurement in the cooperating...

  1. 14 CFR 1274.507 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement records. 1274.507 Section 1274.507 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.507 Procurement records. Procurement records and files...

  2. 22 CFR 145.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement records. 145.46 Section 145.46... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 145.46 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the small...

  3. 24 CFR 84.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement records. 84.46 Section... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.46 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the small...

  4. 22 CFR 226.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement records. 226.46 Section 226.46...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.46 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the small purchase threshold shall include...

  5. 38 CFR 49.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement records. 49..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.46 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the small purchase...

  6. 32 CFR 32.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement records. 32.46 Section 32.46..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.46 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the simplified...

  7. Republic of Kazakhstan : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) is the first such report carried out for the Republic of Kazakhstan. It is based on an extensive review, qualitative analysis and discussion on the procurement environment in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The report includes: (i) the compatibility or otherwise of the national public procurement regime with the Bank's Procurement Guidelines; (...

  8. 45 CFR 74.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement records. 74.46 Section 74.46 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.46 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the simplified acquisition threshold shall...

  9. Timor-Leste : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) focuses on four specific areas: a) the legal and regulatory framework within which public procurement currently operates, and recommendations for necessary modifications; b) the current procurement policies, procedures and institutions responsible for procurement, and identification of short- and medium-term changes needed to ensure that pr...

  10. Antiretroviral drug supply challenges in the era of scaling up ART in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Erik J; Jahn, Andreas; Ben-Smith, Anne; Makombe, Simon D; Harries, Anthony D; Aboagye-Nyame, Francis; Chimbwandira, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The number of people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) has increased considerably in recent years and is expected to continue to grow in the coming years. A major challenge is to maintain uninterrupted supplies of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and prevent stock outs. This article discusses issues around the management of ARVs and prevention of stock outs in Malawi, a low-income country with a high HIV/AIDS burden, and a weak procurement and supply chain management system. This system for ARVs, paid for by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and bypassing the government Central Medical Stores, is in place, using the United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF's) procurement services. The system, managed by a handful of people who spend limited time on supply management, is characterized by a centrally coordinated quantification based on verified data from all national ART clinics, parallel procurement through UNICEF, and direct distribution to ART clinics. The model worked well in the first years of the ART programme with a single first-line ARV regimen, but with more regimens becoming available (e.g., alternative first-line, second-line and paediatric regimens), it has become more difficult to administer. Managing supplies through a parallel system has the advantage that weaknesses in the national system have limited influence on the ARV procurement and supply chain management system. However, as the current system operates without a central warehouse and national buffer stock capacity, it diminishes the ability to prevent ARV stock outs. The process of ordering ARVs, from the time that estimates are made to the arrival of supplies in health facilities, takes approximately one year. Addressing the challenges involved in maintaining ARVs through an efficient procurement and supply chain management system that prevents ARV stock outs through the establishment of a dedicated procurement team, a central warehouse and/or national buffer stock is a

  11. PROMIS (Procurement Management Information System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The PROcurement Management Information System (PROMIS) provides both detailed and summary level information on all procurement actions performed within NASA's procurement offices at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It provides not only on-line access, but also schedules procurement actions, monitors their progress, and updates Forecast Award Dates. Except for a few computational routines coded in FORTRAN, the majority of the systems is coded in a high level language called NATURAL. A relational Data Base Management System called ADABAS is utilized. Certain fields, called descriptors, are set up on each file to allow the selection of records based on a specified value or range of values. The use of like descriptors on different files serves as the link between the falls, thus producing a relational data base. Twenty related files are currently being maintained on PROMIS.

  12. A simplified multiattribute procurement auction with postponed scoring by a double revelation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    This paper provides a multiattribute procurement auction that eases the principal’s articulation of preferences. The suggested procurement auction applies yardstick techniques to enhance the multi-dimensional competition and to postpone the Principal’s scoring (the weighting ofattributes). The...... price-dimension in the submitted bids are replaced by yardstick prices defined by a linear envelopment of the other bidders’ bids when applicable. The resulting yardstick bids are revealed to the Principal, who selects the most preferred among these. The Principal’s choice reveal a potential cone of...

  13. THE BARRIERS OF IMPLEMENTING E-PROCUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Pop Sitar

    2011-01-01

    The concept of e-procurement has many different meanings ranging from shopping on theinternet (through reverse auction) to collaborative initiatives taking place in virtualmeetings. There are many forms of e-procurement that can be found in the literature. In thispaper we define the most important forms of e-procurement. Next, we present the mainbarriers of implementing an e-procurement found in the literature. Furthermore, we presenta matrix with the main barriers of e-procurement classified...

  14. Procurement Leadership: From Means to Ends

    OpenAIRE

    Snider, Keith F

    2006-01-01

    Procurement is often perceived as a tactical rather than a strategic function. Such perceptions result from the way procurement is usually defined as beginning after a need has been identified. Procurement thus focuses on tactical decisions involving means rather than on strategic decisions involving ends. For procurement to become strategic, procurement professionals must be recognized as having legitimate leadership roles in determining organizational ends. The paper presents two conceptual...

  15. Process view on Law of Public Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Liška, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This study contains groups of tasks for public procurement contracts in reference model Management Business Informatics (MBI). The tasks are sorted in chronological order in regard of procedure of public procurement contracts. The tasks contain new law on public procurement contracts, elaborated in the procedural point of view, and are complemented with a best practice. Process view in the reference model is intended for public procurers. It enables for the public procurer that he can have be...

  16. The reasons for inefficiency of public procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Havlová, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the area of public procurement and to identify ways by which the inefficiency is caused. The work is based on the assumption that the procurement inefficiency exists and tries to uncover it by examining selected passages of the Law on Public Procurement. The first part deals with public procurement in general and the relevant legislation, the second part deals with the most problematic areas of the Law on Public Procurement which are demonstrated by practi...

  17. Procurement engineering - the productivity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industry is several years on the road to implementation of the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) initiatives on commercial-grade item dedication and procurement. Utilities have taken several approaches to involve engineering in the procurement process. A common result for the approaches is the additional operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost imposed by the added resource requirements. Procurement engineering productivity is a key element in controlling this business area. Experience shows that 400 to 500% improvements in productivity are possible with a 2-yr period. Improving the productivity of the procurement engineering function is important in today's competitive utility environment. Procurement engineering typically involves four distinct technical evaluation responsibilities along with several administrative areas. Technical evaluations include the functionally based safety classification of replacement components and parts (lacking a master parts list), the determination of dedication requirements for safety-related commercial-grade items, the preparation of a procurement specification to maintain the licensed design bases, and the equivalency evaluation of alternate items not requiring the design-change process. Administrative duties include obtaining technical review of vendor-supplied documentation, identifying obsolete parts and components, resolving material nonconformances, initiating the design-change process for replacement items (as needed), and providing technical support to O ampersand M. Although most utilities may not perform or require all the noted activities, a large percentage will apply to each utility station

  18. Antiretrovirals for low income countries: an analysis of the commercial viability of a highly competitive market

    OpenAIRE

    Nakakeeto Olive N; Elliott Brian V

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The price of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in low income countries declined steadily in recent years. This raises concerns about the commercial viability of the market of ARVs in low income countries. Methods Using 2 costing scenarios, we modeled the production cost of the most commonly used ARVs in low income countries in 2010 and 2012, and assessed whether, at the median price paid by low income countries, their manufacturers would still make profits. By interviews we cons...

  19. Antiretroviral therapy: Shifting sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashindran, V K; Chauhan, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has been an extremely difficult pandemic to control. However, with the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV has now been transformed into a chronic illness in patients who have continued treatment access and excellent long-term adherence. Existing indications for ART initiation in asymptomatic patients were based on CD4 levels; however, recent evidence has broken the shackles of CD4 levels. Early initiation of ART in HIV patients irrespective of CD4 counts can have profound positive impact on morbidity and mortality. Early initiation of ART has been found not only beneficial for patients but also to community as it reduces the risk of transmission. There have been few financial concerns about providing ART to all HIV-positive people but various studies have proven that early initiation of ART not only proves to be cost-effective but also contributes to economic and social growth of community. A novel multidisciplinary approach with early initiation and availability of ART at its heart can turn the tide in our favor in future. Effective preexposure prophylaxis and postexposure prophylaxis can also lower transmission risk of HIV in community. New understanding of HIV pathogenesis is opening new vistas to cure and prevention. Various promising candidate vaccines and drugs are undergoing aggressive clinical trials, raising optimism for an ever-elusive cure for HIV. This review describes various facets of tectonic shift in management of HIV. PMID:26900224

  20. Controlling fuel costs: Procurement strategies and regulatory standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the oil price shocks and inflation of the 1970s, regulatory authorities and utilities have devoted considerable attention to controlling energy costs while maintaining reliable service. Although much of this concern has been directed towards capital cost containment, increasing scrutiny has been applied to a broad range of variable costs, especially to fuel procurement expenditures. With some 40% to 65% of the electric utility industry's annual operation and maintenance expenses paid to secure fuel supplies, even a small difference in fuel costs could have a substantial impact on costs to ratepayers. This increased attention to fuel cost containment can be expected to intensify as implementation of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act affects fuel purchase decisions. To assure that fuel is purchased in a responsible and cost-effective manner, some state jurisdictions have initiated periodic reviews (audits) of the procurement practices that electric utilities follow when purchasing fuel. While a utility must demonstrate how it purchases fuel, there is wide variation in interest and scope of audits among jurisdictions. In this paper, the authors review: (1) the regulatory environment within which fuel procurement and audits occur, and (2) some particularly controversial issues that will receive increasing attention as the practice of conducting fuel procurement audits spreads

  1. THE BARRIERS OF IMPLEMENTING E-PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Pop Sitar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of e-procurement has many different meanings ranging from shopping on theinternet (through reverse auction to collaborative initiatives taking place in virtualmeetings. There are many forms of e-procurement that can be found in the literature. In thispaper we define the most important forms of e-procurement. Next, we present the mainbarriers of implementing an e-procurement found in the literature. Furthermore, we presenta matrix with the main barriers of e-procurement classified in four main categories. Finally,we elaborated for managers some guidelines in order to overcome the barriers ofimplementing e-procurement.

  2. NASA Procurement Career Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Procurement Career Development Program establishes an agency-wide framework for the management of career development activity in the procurement field. Within this framework, installations are encouraged to modify the various components to meet installation-specific mission and organization requirements. This program provides a systematic process for the assessment of and planning for the development, training, and education required to increase the employees' competence in the procurement work functions. It includes the agency-wide basic knowledge and skills by career field and level upon which individual and organizational development plans are developed. Also, it provides a system that is compatible with other human resource management and development systems, processes, and activities. The compatibility and linkage are important in fostering the dual responsibility of the individual and the organization in the career development process.

  3. Predatory Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Edlin, Aaron S.

    2010-01-01

    Judge Breyer famously worried that aggressive prohibitions of predatory pricing throw away a bird in hand (low prices during the alleged predatory period) for a speculative bird in the bush (preventing higher prices thereafter). Here, I argue that there is no bird in hand because entry cannot be presumed. Moreover, it is plausibly commonplace that post‐entry low prices or the threat of low prices has anticompetitive results by reducing entry and keeping prices high pre‐entry and post‐predat...

  4. Summary data on all NASA procurement actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents summary data on all NASA procurement actions and detailed information on contracts, grants, agreements, and other procurements over $25,000 awarded by NASA during Fiscal Year 1992 (FY-92). The dollar value on procurements over $25,000 amounted to 97 percent of the total dollar value of procurement actions completed during FY-92. However, these larger procurements accounted for only 28 percent of the total actions. Procurement action, as used in this report, means contractual actions to obtain supplies, services, or construction which increase or decrease funds. A procurement action thus may be a new procurement or modifications such as supplemental agreements, change orders, or terminations to an existing contract that change the total amount of funds obligated. An obligation is a contractual commitment to pay for supplies or services that are specified in the contract.

  5. Achieving quality in procurement through automation

    OpenAIRE

    Jacunski, Walter W.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Department of Defense has mandated that TQM be implemented in procurement. This research looks at achieving quality in procurement through the use of information systems. In doing so, it defines what quality in procurement means. The armed services; three automated systems: APADE, BCAS, and SAACONS are analyzed to see what tools they provide users to aid them in achieving procurement quality. It gives suggestions on how information sy...

  6. The Gambia : Country Procurement Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This Country Procurement Issues Paper (CPIP), is an interim assessment of the public procurement system of The Gambia based on the self-evaluation conducted by the Government in early 2005. The CPIP follows-up the Country Procurement Assessment Review (CPAR) undertaken in 1998, which led to the preparation and implementation of the public procurement reform program. Since the 1998's review, progress has been made especially in the legal, regulatory, and institutional framework. In 2001, Parli...

  7. Gas pricing in Europe. Pt. 1. Wholesale markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article investigates gas pricing in the European procurement market and the wholesale markets of the most important EU consumer markets. It demonstrates that value-oriented pricing principles override cost-oriented pricing principles. For one thing, and independently of pricing principles, two- or three-part demand price systems or basic price systems are common. For another, the frequently encountered opportunities for the differentiation of prices show that as long as there is merely substitution competition instead of direct competition, gas suppliers have a certain degree of freedom in fixing their prices. By contrast, the introduction of direct competition in Great Britain has reduced suppliers' individual price fixing margins, because short-term supply and demand variations in the now created spot market are decisive for gas pricing. (orig.)

  8. 7 CFR 1780.72 - Procurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement methods. 1780.72 Section 1780.72..., Constructing and Inspections § 1780.72 Procurement methods. Procurement shall be made by one of the following methods: Small purchase procedures; competitive sealed bids (formal advertising); competitive...

  9. 40 CFR 35.6565 - Procurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6565 Procurement methods. The recipient must comply with the requirements for payment to consultants described in 40 CFR 31.36(j). In... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement methods. 35.6565 Section...

  10. 10 CFR 436.43 - Procurement planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement planning. 436.43 Section 436.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.43 Procurement planning. (a) Agencies should consider...

  11. Public Procurement of Innovation in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Ågren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    public procurement Sweden dropped many policy initiatives within this field. This was in part due to neo-liberal movements during the 1980s which in interaction with a distributed institutional setup led to the removal of incentives for a procuring authority to engage in public procurement of innovation...

  12. 43 CFR 12.946 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement records. 12.946 Section 12.946 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.946 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the...

  13. 7 CFR 225.17 - Procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Procurement standards. (a) State agencies and sponsors shall comply with the requirements of 7 CFR part 3016 or 7 CFR part 3019, as applicable, concerning the procurement of supplies, food, equipment and other...) Procurements by public sponsors comply with applicable State or local laws and the standards set forth in 7...

  14. 21 CFR 1303.12 - Procurement quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1303.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement quotas. 1303.12 Section 1303.12 Food... Procurement Quotas § 1303.12 Procurement quotas. (a) In order to determine the estimated needs for, and...

  15. 75 FR 2510 - Procurement List: Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List: Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add to the Procurement List services to be provided by...

  16. 40 CFR 35.936 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement. 35.936 Section 35.936... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936 Procurement. (a) Sections 35.936 through 35.939 set forth policies and minimum standards for procurement of architectural...

  17. 78 FR 5423 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee... Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be... have other severe disabilities. The following products are proposed for addition to the...

  18. 40 CFR 35.935-2 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement. 35.935-2 Section 35.935-2... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-2 Procurement. The grantee and... respect to procurement for step 1, 2, or 3 work. The Regional Administrator will cause appropriate...

  19. 40 CFR 35.925-20 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement. 35.925-20 Section 35.925... Procurement. That the applicant has complied or will comply with the applicable provisions of §§ 35.935 through 35.939 with respect to procurement actions taken before the award of step 1, 2, or 3...

  20. 77 FR 2048 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be provided by...

  1. 50 CFR 82.17 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement. 82.17 Section 82.17 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.17 Procurement. Grantees may use their own procurement regulations which reflect applicable State and local laws, rules, and regulations, provided...

  2. 78 FR 7412 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be furnished by...

  3. 76 FR 5142 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Procurement List. Service Type/Location: Base Operations Support Service Directorate of Public Works (DPW... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement...

  4. 32 CFR 203.13 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement. 203.13 Section 203.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FOR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION (TAPP) IN DEFENSE ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION ACTIVITIES § 203.13 Procurement. Procurements will...

  5. 42 CFR 121.6 - Organ procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organ procurement. 121.6 Section 121.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ORGAN PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.6 Organ procurement. The suitability of organs donated...

  6. 42 CFR 457.940 - Procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... procurement requirements of 45 CFR 74.43 or 45 CFR 92.36, as applicable; or (2) Use payment rates based on... complete procurement contract, as required by 45 CFR part 74 or 45 CFR part 92, as applicable. (e) The... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement standards. 457.940 Section...

  7. 14 CFR 1274.505 - Procurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.505 Procurement procedures. (a) All recipients shall... circumstances, contracts with certain parties are restricted by 2 CFR part 180, the implementation of Executive... and women's business enterprises. (c) The type of procuring instruments used (e.g., fixed...

  8. Determining Price Reasonableness in Federal ESPCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2005-03-08

    This document reports the findings and implementation recommendations of the Price Reasonableness Working Group to the Federal ESPC Steering Committee. The working group was formed to address concerns of agencies and oversight organizations related to pricing and fair and reasonable price determination in federal energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs). This report comprises the working group's recommendations and is the proposed draft of a training curriculum on fair and reasonable price determination for users of federal ESPCs. The report includes: (1) A review of federal regulations applicable to determining price reasonableness of federal ESPCs (section 2), (2) Brief descriptions of the techniques described in Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) 15.404-1 and their applicability to ESPCs (section 3), and (3) Recommended strategies and procedures for cost-effectively completing price reasonableness determinations (sections 4). Agencies have struggled with fair and reasonable price determinations in their ESPCs primarily because this alternative financing vehicle is relatively new and relatively rare in the federal sector. The methods of determining price reasonableness most familiar to federal contracting officers (price competition based on the government's design and specifications, in particular) are generally not applicable to ESPCs. The regulatory requirements for determining price reasonableness in federal ESPCs have also been misunderstood, as federal procurement professionals who are inexperienced with ESPCs are further confused by multiple directives, including Executive Order 13123, which stresses life-cycle cost-effectiveness. Uncertainty about applicable regulations and inconsistent practice and documentation among agencies have fueled claims that price reasonableness determinations have not been sufficiently rigorous in federal ESPCs or that the prices paid in ESPCs are generally higher than the prices paid for similar goods and

  9. General and procurement by negotiation--DHHS. Proposed rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-17

    The Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, is proposing to amend 41 CFR 3-1.453, Establishment of cost rates, to identify officials delegated authority to approve indirect cost rates and special rates for commercial organizations. Part 3-3, Procurement by negotiation, is proposed to be amended by adding a new Subpart 3-3.7. Negotiated overhead rates, which sets forth policies and procedures concerning the approval of indirect cost rates and special rates for use in the pricing and administration of contracts. PMID:10261495

  10. Empirical methods for determining a reserve price in conservation auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Eigenraam, Mark; Chua, Joselito J.; Edwards, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Conservation auctions are increasingly being used to procure public environmental goods on private land. In the absence of demand-side price information, the majority of conservation auctions in Australia have been designed without a reserve price. In these instances bids have been accepted in order of cost-effectiveness until the budget constraint binds. It is widely recognised that in situations where auctions are run repeatedly a reserve price strategy could allow for a more efficient allo...

  11. Multi-market energy procurement for a large consumer using a risk-aversion procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Kazem [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, P.O. Box 14115-111 (Iran); Conejo, Antonio J. [Castilla-La Mancha University, Ciudad Real (Spain); Carrion, Miguel [Castilla-La Mancha University, Toledo (Spain); Moghaddam, Mohsen Parsa [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    This paper provides a technique to derive the bidding strategy in the day-ahead market of a large consumer that procures its electricity demand in both the day-ahead market and a subsequent adjustment market. Price uncertainty is modeled using concepts derived from information gap decision theory, which allows deriving robust decisions with respect to price volatility. Risk aversion is built implicitly within the proposed model. Correlations among prices in the day-ahead and the adjustment markets are properly modeled. The proposed technique is illustrated through a realistic case study. (author)

  12. Fixed-Prize Tournaments versus First-Price Auctions in Innovation Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Schöttner, Anja

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes a procurement setting with two identical firms and stochastic innovations. In contrast to the previous literature, I show that a procurer who cannot charge entry fees may prefer a fixed-prize tournament to a first-price auction since holding an auction may leave higher rents to firms when the innovation technology is subject to large random factors.

  13. A CASE STUDY ON ONLINE PADDY PROCUREMENT SYSTEM IN CHHATTISGARH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANIL KUMAR SONI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Chhattisgarh has initiated a set of reforms to improve its Purchase System of Paddy through marketing societies by adopting a unique ICTbased module to create a transparent and accountable delivery mechanism. As a part of these reforms, the Government of Chhattisgarh in association with the National Informatics Centre has computerized its whole food grain supply chain - from procurement of produce, to storage and transportation, to state warehousing and further transfer to fair priced shops (FPS. To address the leakages in Purchase System, the State of Chhattisgarh implemented an end-to-end information technology solution in 2007. There is continuous monitoring of operations at all levels via reports uploaded onto the web in real time. Web management has led to enhanced accountability of operations. The online platform provides an account of commodity stocks which helps decision makers in utilizing the inventory of commodities with greater efficiency. A unique feature of Paddy Procurement in Chhattisgarh is the innovative for food security of poor and needy, paddy procurement was computerized to bring in much needed transparency and efficiency. The ICT solution being used in Chhattisgarh is showing very encouraging results and states like Odisha, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh have showed interest in rolling out a similar procedure.

  14. Adult antiretroviral therapy guidelines 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meintjes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available These guidelines are intended as an update to those published in the Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine in 2012. Since the release of the previous guidelines, the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in southern Africa has continued. Cohort studies from the region show excellent clinical outcomes; however, ART is still being initiated late (in advanced disease in some patients, resulting in relatively high early mortality rates. New data on antiretroviral drugs have become available. Although currently few, there are patients in the region who are failing protease-inhibitor-based second-line regimens. To address this, guidelines on third-line therapy have been expanded.Please find a link to the update of this guideline: http://sajhivmed.org.za/index.php/hivmed/article/view/428

  15. Drug procurement, the Global Fund and misguided competition policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Kimberly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an effort to increase competition and decrease price, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria recently began asking some grant recipients to use international competitive bidding processes for certain drug purchases. Unfortunately, for countries like Kenya, this request has caused more harm than good. After awarding the tender for its annual supply of the anti-malarial artemether-lumefantrine to the lowest bidder, Ajanta Pharma, Kenya experienced wide stock-outs in part due to the company's inability to supply the order in full and on time. Similar problems could arise in Uganda. Despite Kenya's experience, Uganda has awarded its next tender for artemether-lumefantrine to Ajanta Pharma. Uganda is already facing wide stock-outs and risks exacerbating an already dire situation the longer it takes to fulfil the procurement contract. A tender process based primarily on price cannot account for a company's ability to consistently supply sufficient product in time.

  16. Improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nischal K; Khopkar Uday; Saple D

    2005-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV infection into a treatable, chronic condition. However, the need to continue treatment for decades rather than years, calls for a long-term perspective of ART. Adherence to the regimen is essential for successful treatment and sustained viral control. Studies have indicated that at least 95% adherence to ART regimens is optimal. It has been demonstrated that a 10% higher level of adherence results in a 21% reduction in dise...

  17. Antiretroviral Restriction Factors in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Smita; Rein, Alan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most exciting areas in contemporary retrovirus research is the discovery of “restriction factors”. These are cellular proteins that act after virus entry to inhibit infection by or replication of retroviruses (and other viruses and intracellular pathogens). We briefly discuss here three antiretroviral restriction factors in mice: Fv1, APOBEC3, and tetherin, touching on both biological and molecular aspects of these restriction systems.

  18. Selection of procurement systems in the South African construction industry: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Thwala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this paper: Procurement systems are vital in ensuring the successful implementation of construction projects precisely in all the phases of any particular project. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate in a systematic manner the factors that influence the selection of a procurement system in the South African construction industry. Research methodology: An extensive theory and literature review of procurement systems was conducted. The literature reviewed included a sample of case studies of procurement systems successfully implemented in completed building and civil engineering projects in South Africa. A questionnaire using a four-round Delphi survey method was used to conduct the empirical study in order to obtain participants' opinions about factors influencing the selection of procurement systems as well as the utility value of various procurement systems on each factor as identified. Finally, data analysis of both qualitative and quantitative techniques was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Findings: After qualitative analysis, findings of the literature reviewed suggest that factors that influence the selection of procurement systems cut across all the phases of the project as identified in this paper. Therefore, these factors are categorically classified into internal and external factors. Factors from the internal environment were further classified into client characteristics and project characteristics, with client characteristics comprising of variables such as clients' level of knowledge and control, political and social consideration, familiarity of procurement systems, competition, funding arrangement, government public/private sector projects and risk allocation whereas project characteristics comprise of factors (variables such as size and technical complexity of the project, influence of the project life cycle, expedited project delivery, time, quality and price certainty. Factors

  19. Antiretroviral Treatment 2010: Progress and Controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Gulick, Roy M.

    2010-01-01

    Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) changes the clinical course of HIV infection. There are 25 antiretroviral drugs approved for the treatment of HIV infection, and current antiretroviral drug regimens are highly effective, convenient, and relatively nontoxic. ART regimens should be chosen in consideration of a patient’s particular clinical situation. Successful treatment is associated with durable suppression of HIV viremia over years, and consequently, ART reduces the risk of clinical pr...

  20. Treatment-seeking behaviour and the willingness to pay for antiretroviral therapy of HIV positive patients in India

    OpenAIRE

    Indrani Gupta; Deepa Sankar

    2002-01-01

    With prices of antiretroviral drugs falling, especially in countries like India, there has been an increasing awareness that anti- retroviral therapy (ART) can be made available and accessible to a large number of individuals who are HIV positive. However, the prices still remain high enough to be out of reach of a majority of individuals in India. This study explores this issue for the first time using the contingent valuation approach. It analyses the willingness to pay for ART among a samp...

  1. Antiretroviral therapy: 'the state of the art'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaner, J S; Montessori, V; Harrigan, R; O'Shaughnessy, M; Hogg, R

    1999-03-01

    The field of antiretroviral therapy is evolving at a very rapid pace. At this time, the initiation and optimization of antiretroviral therapy is based on serial plasma viral load determinations which aim to suppress viral replication to as low as possible for as long as possible, thus preventing disease progression. Currently available antiretrovirals require combination therapy with at least three agents to achieve this goal. Increasing availability of newer and more potent antiretroviral regimens will continue to enhance and simplify the number of therapeutic options available in the not too distant future. PMID:10337460

  2. Active pharmaceutical ingredients for antiretroviral treatment in low- and middle-income countries: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunak, Joseph M; de Souza, Rodrigo O M A; Kulkarni, Amol A; King, Christopher L; Ellison, Tiffany; Miranda, Leandro S M

    2014-01-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are the molecular entities that exert the therapeutic effects of medicines. This article provides an overview of the major APIs that are entered into antiretroviral therapy (ART), outlines how APIs are manufactured, and examines the regulatory and cost frameworks of manufacturing ART APIs used in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Almost all APIs for ART are prepared by chemical synthesis. Roughly 15 APIs account for essentially all of the ARTs used in LMICs. Nearly all of the ART APIs purchased through the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFATM) or the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) are produced by generic companies. API costs are very important because they are the largest contribution to the overall cost of ART. Efficient API production requires substantial investment in chemical manufacturing technologies and the ready availability of raw materials and energy at competitive prices. Generic API production is practiced in only a limited number of countries; the API market for ART is dominated by Indian companies. The quality of these APIs is ensured by manufacturing under good manufacturing practice (GMP), including process validation, testing against previously established specifications and the demonstration of clinical bioequivalence. The investment and personnel costs of a quality management system for GMP contribute significantly to the cost of API production. Chinese companies are the major suppliers for many advanced intermediates in API production. Improved chemistry of manufacturing, economies of scale and optimization of procurement have enabled drastic cost reductions for many ART APIs. The available capacity for global production of quality-assured APIs is likely adequate to meet forecasted demand for 2015. The increased use of ART for paediatric treatment, for second-line and salvage therapy, and the introduction of new APIs and combinations are important factors

  3. Gold prices

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  4. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  5. The influence of the PFI on waste management pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyses the pricing mechanisms generated within the waste management sector under the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) and compares them with the cost-plus pricing mechanisms. The background to the research is traced, and the influence of the PFI on service procurement, the incentives to use PFI, the procurement process, and the allocation of contractual risk are discussed. The PFI pricing mechanisms are described, and a case study of a hypothetical local authority involved in the tender for integrated waste management services is created to illustrate the pricing mechanisms under the PFI, comparisons with traditional pricing, and a quantitative analysis. A non-PFI model, a PFI 20 year model, and PFI 25 year model are presented in the appendix

  6. UK Building Procurement System and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lei; Lowe, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Under the pressure of sustainable construction, research and development into sustainability and procurement is emerging. As the bridge between design and construction, the building procurement system, therefore, is critical to delivering sustainability in practice. It is the key for the successful implementation of sustainability to conventional construction process. However, there is a lack of research between UK building procurement system and sustainability. This paper reviews the concept...

  7. Outsourcing Procurement in the Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This publication explores the option of outsourcing the procurement function to specialized agencies. Through selected case studies, it discusses the various benefits and issues surrounding two major approaches, namely a market-based system and a centralized procurement agency model. In analyzing these approaches, the report also looks at the broader issue of linkage with development impacts, particularly on the potential of procurement agents to improve project outcomes and overall developme...

  8. Green Wood Public Procurement Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The green government(public) procurement system plays an important role in achieving the policy objective of energy saving and environmental protection,and promoting green technology progress in enterprises.The green government procurement starts comparatively late in China,and there are still a lot of problems in the legal system,procurement standards,organization and management system, information communication and monitoring evaluation mechanisms and so forth.With international experience as the refer...

  9. Information Technology Procurement Authorization (ITPA) Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Information Technology Procurement Authorization (ITPA) Tracking System is used for gathering consistent data from U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) program...

  10. Value-based procurement: Canada's healthcare imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    Value-based healthcare models are being adopted globally to maximize value for patients. Given that procurement is at the heart of purchasing value, value-based procurement goes hand in hand with value-based healthcare. Shifting procurement's traditional focus on short-term cost savings to a more holistic objective that includes health system performance and patient outcomes, giving preference to longer-term cost efficiencies, and working with suppliers to identify opportunities to develop more innovative products and services, is proving successful in leading jurisdictions. This article presents an overview of value within healthcare systems and how healthcare value-based procurement is being implemented across various jurisdictions. PMID:27278137

  11. Risk Management in Public Procurement Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Manea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement represents an important part of the current economy reality. Throughout the procurement process, due to the effect of the interaction among the components of the public procurement system, certain actions with significant negative effects on its optimal operation may occur. Risks may turn into certainty either because of a simple error in the development and administration of the procurement process, or because of a deliberate deviation from the existing legal provisions. Therefore, there is an imperative for the implementation of certain risk-avoiding measures, as well as of measures aiming to reduce their negative effects in case of their occurrence.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON TRADITIONAL PROCUREMENT AND E-PROCUREMENT STRATEGY OF SUPPLY CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangshu CHANG; Jichao XU; Jianfeng YANG; Jinfeng HE; Li ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    With increasingly intense competition between enterprises, the realization of advanced supply chain management has become an exquisite premise for the survival of firms. Procurement management is an important means to reduce costs and to enhance the competitive advantage. By exploiting the single period newsvendor model, this paper analyses and compares the benefit mechanisms of e-procurement and traditional procurement to quantify the effect of the Internet on supply chain procurement management in a neutral e-market.

  13. Opportunities in public sector procurement: the national procurement service annual survey 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Anthony; Davis, Paul; McKevitt, David; McEvoy, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The contribution that public procurement can make to expenditure reduction and the stimulation of economic growth is the focus of increasing policy attention. Driven by budgetary pressures the State has set about reducing its public procurement bill through more astute purchasing. Not just in cost cutting, however, has public procurement a role to play in Ireland’s economic recovery. By making itself more sensitive to the needs of micro and small enterprises, public procurement can inject dem...

  14. Managing Refurbishment Projects Through Selection of Procurement System: The Case of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Shah Ali

    2014-10-01

    client and consultants, client decision making, frequent change order by client, insufficient or discrepancies of contract documents, material price escalation and skill, expertise and experience tested were significantly correlated with at least one performance variable (dependent. The findings would be useful for future references, especially to those stakeholders who involved in refurbishment projects in Malaysia.Keywords: Malaysia, Procurement system, Performance, Refurbishment

  15. Auctions vs negotiations: a study of price differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerstad, Egil

    2005-12-01

    Recent contributions in auction and bargaining theory suggest that a procurer should place more faith in the power of competition among alternative suppliers than in his or her own negotiating skill. Based on data from 216 contracts between procurers and suppliers of medical and surgical articles, we test whether auctions and bargaining result in significantly different prices. The main results are that auctions give 'thicker' markets compared with negotiations, as expected, but that auctions do not result in significantly lower prices compared with negotiations. PMID:15945037

  16. Impact of future price increase on ordering policies for deteriorating items under quadratic demand

    OpenAIRE

    Nita H. Shah; Mrudul Y. Jani; Urmila Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    When a supplier announces a price increase at a certain time in the future, for each retailer it is important to choose whether to purchase supplementary stock to take benefit of the current lower price or procure at a new price. This article focuses on the possible effects of price increase on a retailer’s replenishment strategy for constant deterioration of items. Here, quadratic demand is debated; which is appropriate for the products for which demand increases initially and subsequently i...

  17. Antiretroviral Therapy in the Clinic▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tsibris, Athe M. N.; Hirsch, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy in the developed world has resulted in substantial reductions in HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, changing an HIV diagnosis from a likely death sentence into a manageable chronic infection (F. J. Palella, Jr., K. M. Delaney, A. C. Moorman, M. O. Loveless, J. Fuhrer, G. A. Satten, D. J. Aschman, and S. D. Holmberg, N. Engl. J. Med. 338:853-860, 1998). Several million years of life have been saved by effective anti-HIV treatment, although these successes should not...

  18. When to start antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred M;

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have traditionally focused on providing treatment to persons who stand to benefit immediately from initiating the therapy. There is global consensus that any HIV+ person with CD4 counts less than 350 cells/μl should initiate ART. However, it...... remains controversial whether ART is indicated in asymptomatic HIV-infected persons with CD4 counts above 350 cells/μl, or whether it is more advisable to defer initiation until the CD4 count has dropped to 350 cells/μl. The question of when the best time is to initiate ART during early HIV infection has...

  19. PRICE CATEGORIES AND PRICE STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA CECILIA ELENA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defining the pricing mechanism aims, primarily, the price system that works through the interconditionality with other systems of the national economy and, secondly, legalities of the formation process of prices which continuously act as a specific part within the whole social reproduction on prices. The multitude of phases of social reproduction, the diversification of national economy branches, the connections between the economic units, internal and external market, complex process of formation of the goods value, delineates existing prices as autonomous mechanism.

  20. Price Projections of Feedstocks for Biofuels and Biopower in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Hellwinckel, Chad [Agricultural Policy Analysis Center, University of Tennessee; De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel G [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The economic availability of biomass resources is a critical component in evaluating the commercial viability of biofuels. To evaluate projected farmgate prices and grower payments needed to procure 295 million dry Mg (325 million dry tons) of biomass in the U.S. by 2022, this research employs POLYSYS, an economic model of the U.S. agriculture sector. A price-run simulation suggests that a farmgate price of $58.42 Mg{sup -1} ($53.00 dry ton{sup -1}) is needed to procure this supply, while a demand-run simulation suggests that prices of $34.56 and $71.61 Mg{sup -1} ($30.00 and $62.00 dry ton{sup -1}) in are needed in 2012 and 2022, respectively, to procure the same supply, under baseline yield assumptions. Grower payments are reported as farmgate price minus resource-specific harvest costs.

  1. A control B for Material Procurement Control Points%甲控乙供材采购控制要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶子礼; 张胜峰

    2014-01-01

    The definition of methyl acetate for material control, advantages and disadvantages of existing and purchase from the set objectives, define the scope of procurement, procurement process control, strict inspection and acceptance elaborated four A control B for strengthening material procurement control measures to achieve reliable quality, reasonable price and timely supply of procurement requirements.%阐述了甲控乙供材的定义、优点和目前存在的不足,并从设定采购目标、界定采购范围、控制采购过程、严格检查验收等四个方面阐述了加强甲控乙供材采购的控制措施,以达到质量可靠、价格合理、供应及时的采购要求。

  2. 78 FR 34020 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Uniform Procurement Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... procurement transactions. A number of public comments received during the rulemaking process expressed... 9000-AM60 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Uniform Procurement Identification AGENCY: Department of... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement a uniform Procurement Instrument Identification (PIID)...

  3. DAMAGE FROM CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Ovsepyan S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a problem of identification and assessment of damage from corruption in public procurement. We have presented an analysis of the methodology for the calculation and assessment of accumulated financial and economic damage caused by corruption in public procurement. The conclusion about the need for further development of research on this issue has been made

  4. Republic of Chile : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Chile's public procurement system is considered generally free of corruption, supported by probity of the civil servants, decentralization, and good budgetary and control systems. However, it is affected by deficiencies that the government recognizes, and is taking action to overcome, particularly with respect to procurement of goods and services. There is no unified comprehensive, and pub...

  5. Multidimensional procurement auctions with unknown weights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Thomas

    This paper studies the consequences of holding a procurement auction when the principal chooses not to show its preferences. My paper extends the procurement auction model of Che (1993) to a situation where both the principal and the agents have private information. Thus, unknown parameters of both...

  6. 76 FR 60809 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/1/2011 (76 FR 38641-38642) and 8/5/2011 (76 FR 47565-47566), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  7. 78 FR 67129 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... 8/23/2013 (78 FR 52512-52513), 8/30/2013 (78 FR 53734), and 9/6/ 2013 (78 FR 54871), the Committee... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  8. 77 FR 41377 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/11/2012 (77 FR 27737-27738) and 5/18/2012 (77 FR 29596), the Committee... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  9. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/30/2012 (77 FR 71400-71401), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  10. 76 FR 22680 - Procurement List; Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... INFORMATION: Deletions On 2/25/2011 (76 FR 10571), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  11. 78 FR 56679 - Procurement List; Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... 8/2/2013 (78 FR 46927-46928), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  12. 78 FR 5423 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 11/27/2012 (77 FR 70737-70738), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  13. 77 FR 17034 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 1/13/2012 (77 FR 2048), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  14. 78 FR 48657 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/14/2013 (78 FR 35874-35875) and 6/21/2013 (78 FR 37524-37525), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  15. 78 FR 59658 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 7/26/2013 (78 FR 45183); 8/9/2013 (78 FR 48656-48657) and 8/16/ 2013 (78 FR 50040... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  16. 32 CFR 21.670 - Procurement contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... detailed definition for contract at 48 CFR 2.101. ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement contract. 21.670 Section 21.670... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-GENERAL MATTERS Definitions § 21.670 Procurement contract. A...

  17. 76 FR 40341 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 4/29/2011 (76 FR 23998); 5/6/2011 (76 FR 26279); and 5/13/2011 (76 FR... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  18. 78 FR 7413 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 11/20/2012 (77 FR 69598) and 12/7/2012 (77 FR 73025-73026), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  19. 75 FR 21246 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 2/26/2010 (75 FR 8927), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  20. 78 FR 63967 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... 8/9/2013 (78 FR 48656-48657), 8/16/2013 (78 FR 50040), and 8/23/ 2013 (78 FR 52512-52513), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  1. 77 FR 34025 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... INFORMATION: ] Addition On 4/132012 (77 FR 22289-22290), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  2. 77 FR 71400 - Procurement List, Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 8/24/2012 (77 FR 51522-51523) and 10/5/2012 (77 FR 60969), the Committee... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  3. 45 CFR 74.44 - Procurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement procedures. 74.44 Section 74.44 Public... Suspension.” (See 45 CFR part 76.) (e) Recipients shall, on request, make available for the HHS awarding..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.44...

  4. 45 CFR 95.613 - Procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are subject to the procurement standards prescribed by subpart P of 45 CFR part 74 regardless of any... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement standards. 95.613 Section 95.613 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL...

  5. 45 CFR 602.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement. 602.36 Section 602.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements § 602.36 Procurement. (a) States....

  6. Competitive Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Villar

    2007-01-01

    Competitive pricing is a pricing rule that combines two principles that are present in competitive markets. The profit principle (an action will be chosen only if it yields maximal payoffs), and the scarcity principle (markets make expensive those commodities that restrict production possibilities). It is shown that, under standard assumptions, these principles imply profit maximization at given prices. But also that they can be applied to economies with non-convex production sets (e.g. firms...

  7. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational...

  8. Greening Non-Product-Related Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Mette; Riisgaard, Henrik; Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2013-01-01

    well described in literature: Green supply chain management in the business-to-business area, green public procurement, and, finally green private consumption. The latest strategy with special emphasis on non-product-related procurement makes sense from a macro-level perspective: the small...... investigation of the drivers of and barriers to the greening of non-product-related procurement. The research shows that, as a main challenge, the clear benefits achieved at the macro-level are almost invisible at the micro-level, where the management priorities tend to focus on the primary, customer......Green procurement in Denmark is developing with a new strategy with special emphasis on non-product-related procurement; i.e., all products that are not directly transformed into the product produced by the company, for example cleaning detergents and office supplies. Three earlier strategies are...

  9. Public Procurement of Innovation as Endogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Public procurement used as an innovation policy instrument has attracted attention the last decade. It has been argued that public procurement can be used to stimulate innovation from the demand-side. This paper problematizes ‘demand’ understood as a problem defined by a public procurer given to...... potential suppliers to solve. By drawing on a cross-case analysis of two similar projects the paper attempts to explicate an understanding of the role of public procurement of innovation not primarily as a ‘demand-side innovation instrument’, as such thinking might run the risk of ignoring important...... underlying mechanisms critical for success. Instead the paper views public procurement of innovation as an instrument of endogenous- exogenous knowledge conversion....

  10. Measuring effects of public procurement of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Underway for quite some time now has been the discussion on using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. However - with some exceptions this has been mainly a conceptual discussion vastly surpassed a corresponding development of appropriate monitoring tools. Also, even if both...... qualitative and quantitative studies have been made, they tend to lack connection to the underlying mechanisms envisaged in the conceptual and/or case based literature. A challenge in this endeavour prevails in the nature of how public procurement of innovation works. Some of the effects rendered may not...... about the usefulness of public procurement of innovation are at all realistic and feasible in practice. After reviewing different currently available means to measure both public procurement of innovation measures, as well as public procurement of innovation, the paper outlines a case-based approach to...

  11. Improving Supply Chain Coordination by Linking Dynamic Procurement Decision to Multi-Agent System

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yee Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Internet has changed the way business is conducted in many ways. For example, in the field of procurement, the possibility to directly interact with a trading partner has given rise to new mechanisms in the supply chain management. One such interactive dynamic procurement, which lets both buyer and seller software agents bid by potential buyer agents instead of static procurement by vendors. Dynamic procurement decision could provide the buying and selling channel to buyer, to avoid occurring condition that seller could not deliver on the contract promise. Using NYOP(Name Your Own Price) to be the core of dynamic procurement negotiation algorithm sets up multi-agent dynamic supply chain system, to present the DSINs(Dynamic Supply Chain Information Networks) by JADE, and to present the dynamic supply chain logistic simulation by eM-Plant. Finally, evaluating supply chain performance with supply chain performance metrics (such as bullwhip, fill rate), to be the reference of enterprise making deciding in the...

  12. Economic theory and the application of incentive contracts to procure operating reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ancillary services market plays an important role in the operation of an electricity market, especially for achieving a high level of reliability. Among all ancillary services, operating reserve is an important research focus, with the attention mainly on the optional procurement and pricing methods. These methods differ in many aspects, including the objective, allocation of risks, and feasibility. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to analyze the users' reserve procurement problem and a novel reserve trade mechanism is developed between electricity users and the retailer of the market. First, the differences between the procurement of operating reserve in decentralized and centralized ways are analyzed. The comparison of the equilibrium solutions reveals that the centralized procurement that results in a systemic optimal solution is better than the decentralized procurement that results in a Nash equilibrium solution. Furthermore, an incentive contract based on a Principal-agent model, that is able to induce a systemic optimality as well as a Pareto equilibrium and manage risks at the same time is designed. The proposed model is equitable and beneficial to all participants. An example is served to illustrate the features of the model and the methodology. (author)

  13. Monitoring, Moral Hazard, Asymmetric Information, and Risk Sharing in Procurement Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, David P.; David Besanko

    1987-01-01

    This article characterizes the optimal procurement contract for a monopsonistic purchaser who contracts with a risk-averse supplier with private information about his costs and who contributes an unobservable effort. The costs incurred by the supplier may be uncertain, and the purchaser has access to a monitor of costs that may be subject to noise that complicates risk sharing. The purchaser prefers to respond to the observability problem with a fixed-price contract and to respond to the priv...

  14. Framework for Structuring Procurement Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Borg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a new framework for structuring contract types and payment methods. Concerning procurement contracts, the first important new feature of this framework is a stepwise structure with three main steps in the contract design: (1 what will be procured—should the contract only include construction, or should it include both construction and operation/maintenance (2 who will do the detailed design of the premise and (3 how many contractors will the client use? The second important new feature of this framework is that both step 2 and step 3 include a continuum of alternatives. Concerning payment methods, the new framework is primarily based on how the specific risks of the project are shared. These frameworks can be useful for policy formulation in that they can help to avoid some problematic ways of formulating policies.

  15. Traditional Procurement is too Slow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory interview survey of construction project participants aimed at identifying the reasons for the decrease in use of the traditional, lump-sum, procurement system in Malaysia. The results show that most people believe it is too slow. This appears to be in part due to the contiguous nature of the various phase and stages of the process and especially the separation of the design and construction phases. The delays caused by disputes between the various parties are also seen as a contributory factor - the most prominent cause being the frequency of variations, with design and scope changes being a particular source of discontent. It is concluded that an up scaling of the whole of the time related reward/penalty system may be the most appropriate measure for the practice in future.

  16. Price points and price rigidity

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Daniel; Lee, Dongwon; Chen, Haipeng (Allan); Kauffman, Robert,; Bergen, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We offer new evidence on the link between price points and price rigidity using two datasets. One is a large weekly transaction price dataset, covering 29 product categories over an eight-year period from a large U.S. supermarket chain. The other is from the Internet, and includes daily prices over a two-year period for 474 consumer electronic goods covering ten product categories, from 293 different Internet retailers. Across the two datasets, we find that (i) 9 is the most frequently used p...

  17. Pricing Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  18. Predicted savings to the UK National Health Service from switching to generic antiretrovirals, 2014–2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hill

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In other disease areas, generic drugs are normally used after patent expiry. Patents on zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine and efavirenz have already expired. Patents will expire for abacavir in late 2014, lopinavir/r in 2016, and tenofovir, darunavir and atazanavir in 2017. However, patents on single-tablet regimens do not expire until after 2026. Methods: The number of people taking each antiretroviral in the UK was estimated from 23,655 individuals in the UK CHIC cohort (2012 database. Costs of patented drugs were taken from the British National Formulary database, assuming a 30% discount. Costs of generic antiretrovirals were estimated using an 80% discount from patented prices, or actual costs where available. Two options were analysed: 1 – all patients use single-tablet regimens and patented versions of drugs; prices remain stable over time; 2 – all people switch from patented to generic drugs when available, after patent expiry (dates shown above. Results: There were an estimated 67,000 people taking antiretrovirals in the UK in 2014, estimated to rise by 8% per year until 2018 (in line with previous rises. The most widely used antiretrovirals in the CHIC cohort were tenofovir (TDF (75%, emtricitabine (FTC (69%, efavirenz (EFV (39%, lamivudine (3TC (23%, abacavir (ABC (18%, darunavir (DRV (21% and atazanavir (ATV (16%. The predicted annual UK cost of generic ABC/3TC/EFV (three generic tablets once daily was £1018 per person-year. Costs of patented single-tablet regimens ranged from £5000 to £7500 per person-year. Assuming continued use of patented antiretrovirals in the UK, the predicted total national costs of antiretroviral treatment were predicted to rise from £425 million in 2014 to £459 m in 2015, £495 m in 2016, £536 m in 2017 and £578 m in 2018. With a 100% switch to generics, total predicted costs were £337 m in 2014, £364 m in 2015, £382 m in 2016, £144 m in 2017 and £169 m in 2018. The total

  19. A Dynamic Welfare Analysis of Wheat Price Policy in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashfaq

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Government wheat price policy in Pakistan affects both the supply and demand of this staple food. The wheat market has been established in a particular idiosyncratic manner in Pakistan, and a thorough appraisal of policy needs to take this into account. This paper uses simulation experiments with an econometric model to quantify the producer loss, consumer gain, government budget cost and overall efficiency loss that occurred due to government pricing interventions in the wheat market of Pakistan over the period 1971-1996. In the simulation it was assumed that the domestic price would have been increased by 50 per cent of the difference between the procurement price and the import parity price. The results of the study show that the net welfare loss to the economy of Pakistan was more than 415 million Rupees per year. The means annual welfare losses were 1.58 percent of real GDP from the agricultural sector for the comparison of price policy that would have been increased by 50 per cent of the difference between the procurement price and the import parity price with the import parity price.

  20. Construction Procurement: Modelling Bidders’ Learning in Recurrent Bidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Lan Oo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Construction remains a significant area of public expenditure. An understanding of the process of changes in construction pricing, and how the process can be manipulated through the release of bidding feedback information is vital, in order to best design clients’ procurement policies. This paper aims to statistically model inexperienced individual bidders’ learning in recurrent bidding under partial and full information feedback conditions. Using an experimental dataset, the developed linear mixed model contains three predictor variables, namely: time factor, information feedback conditions, and bidding success rate in the preceding round. The results show nonlinearity and curvature in the bidders’ learning curves. They are generally less competitive in time periods after a winning bid with lower average bids submitted by those subjected to full information feedback condition. In addition, the model has captured the existence of heterogeneity across bidders with individual-specific parameter estimates that demonstrate the uniqueness of individual bidders’ learning curves in recurrent bidding. The findings advocate for adequate bidding feedback information in clients’ procurement design to facilitate learning among contractors, which may in turn lead to increased competitiveness in their bids.

  1. Gas prices and price process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a conference (Gas for Europe in the 1990's) during the Gasexpo '91 the author held a speech of which the Dutch text is presented here. Attention is paid to the current European pricing methods (prices based on the costs of buying, transporting and distributing the natural gas and prices based on the market value, which is deducted from the prices of alternative fuels), and the transparency of the prices (lack of information on the way the prices are determined). Also attention is paid to the market signal transparency and gas-gas competition, which means a more or less free market of gas distribution. The risks of gas-to-gas competition for a long term price stability, investment policies and security of supply are discussed. Opposition against the Third Party Access (TPA), which is the program to implement gas-to-gas competition, is caused by the fear of natural gas companies for lower gas prices and lower profits. Finally attention is paid to government regulation and the activities of the European Commission (EC) in this matter. 1 fig., 6 ills., 1 tab

  2. Procurement strategy for environmentally qualified material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of environmental qualification (EQ) is to demonstrate that essential safety-related equipment required to mitigate the consequences of a design basis accident will perform as intended when exposed to the harsh environmental conditions of the accident at any time during the station's life. Procurement is the cornerstone of a successful continuing EQ program. Invalidation of the equipment qualification already established, and costly re-work may result if an integrated procurement effort is not incorporated into the existing EQ programs. The in-service nuclear stations EQ program incorporates modifications to the normal procurement process, and places increased requirements on vendors

  3. Progress in antiretroviral drug delivery using nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Rama Mallipeddi; Lisa Cencia Rohan

    2010-01-01

    Rama Mallipeddi, Lisa Cencia RohanUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Magee Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: There are currently a number of antiretroviral drugs that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). More recently, antiretrovirals are being evaluated in the clinic for prevention of HIV infection. Due to the challenging nature of treatmen...

  4. Demand aggregation and credit risk effects in pooled procurement: evidence from the Brazilian public purchases of pharmaceuticals and medical supplies

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Klênio; Fiuza, Eduardo Pedral Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Pooled procurement has an important role in reducing acquisition prices of goods. A pool of buyers, which aggregates demand for its members, increases bargaining power and allows suppliers to achieve economies of scale and scope in the production. Such aggregation demand e ect lowers prices paid for buyers. However, when a buyer with a good reputation for paying suppliers in a timely manner is joined in the pool by a buyer with bad reputation may have its price paid increased due to the credi...

  5. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  6. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  7. Buying Green: Government Procurement as an Instrument of Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Donald B. Marron

    1997-01-01

    Governments often favor environmentally superior products in procurement, even if Abstract they cost more than alternatives. This article analyzes the effects of such green procurement policies. If marginal production costs are increasing, private market responses counteract changes in government purchasing (crowding out), thus reduc ing policy effectiveness. If significant scale economies exist, however, then private responses may reinforce changes in procurement. Procurement policies change...

  8. Innovation public procurement in Russia: problems of institutional arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Korytcev Maxim, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the problems of public procurement in innovation sphere in Russia, its institutional organization. In international practice, some strategies of innovation stimulation (by public procurement) are developing. There is necessity to use more elements of these strategies in Russian National Procurement System. The active National Public Procurement System has no enough effective methods and instruments for stimulating innovation development now.

  9. PUBLIC PROCUREMENT IN GHANA: THE IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES TO THE PUBLIC PROCUREMENT LAW 2003 (ACT 663)

    OpenAIRE

    Ameyaw, Collins; Mensah, Sarfo; Osei-tutu, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify various implementation bottlenecks to the Ghana Public Procurement Law 2003 (Act 663). The study adopted multiple research approaches, including; review of relevant literature, interviews and questionnaire survey of 49 District Assemblies and Metropolitan and Municipal Assemblies in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions of Ghana. The study identified low capacity of procurement professionals, low interaction between procurement entities and Public Procu...

  10. Federal Procurement Data System - FPDS API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Federal Procurement Data System (FPDS) Next Generation has been re-engineered as a real-time federal enterprise information system. Web services based on SOAP...

  11. Electronic Signatures for Public Procurement across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ølnes, Jon; Andresen, Anette; Arbia, Stefano; Ernst, Markus; Hagen, Martin; Klein, Stephan; Manca, Giovanni; Rossi, Adriano; Schipplick, Frank; Tatti, Daniele; Wessolowski, Gesa; Windheuser, Jan

    The PEPPOL (Pan-European Public Procurement On-Line) project is a large scale pilot under the CIP programme of the EU, exploring electronic public procurement in a unified European market. An important element is interoperability of electronic signatures across borders, identified today as a major obstacle to cross-border procurement. PEPPOL will address use of signatures in procurement processes, in particular tendering but also post-award processes like orders and invoices. Signature policies, i.e. quality requirements and requirements on information captured in the signing process, will be developed. This as well as technical interoperability of e-signatures across Europe will finally be piloted in demonstrators starting late 2009 or early 2010.

  12. 49 CFR 110.80 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 18.36. ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement. 110.80 Section 110.80 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PUBLIC...

  13. Turning the Kaleidoscope: Five Perspectives on Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkgaard Møller, Morten; Vammen, Søren

    Purpose of this paper The purpose of the paper is to provide a conceptual foundation to enhance the body of knowledge related to procurement and sourcing through a framework consisting of five perspectives. The perspectives are: (1) Strategic, (2) Organizational, (3) Capability, (4) Supplier, and a...... (5) Customer Perspectives. The aim is to develop a holistic perspective of procurement by applying these five essential, but very different perspectives in order to achieve a holistic picture of the function. Design/methodology/approach The foundation is derived from various well-established theories...... within the five perspectives. Specifically, procurement was viewed from the perspective of organizational theory, network theory, resource/knowledge based views of the firm, transaction cost theory and various theories within the strategic field of research Findings By viewing procurement through the...

  14. Innovative Procurement and Partnerships in Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    cases from the Nordic countries in Europe shows, that the most outstanding examples of innovation in FM are initiated from the demand side and involves new forms of procurement with long term contracts. This paper considers in-depth two differing examples of such innovative procurement approaches from...... strong requirements on the management style and company culture. Limitations of the research: The research is only based on two case studies, which obviously limits the possibility to generalize the results. Practical applications: The research presents two specific examples of innovative procurement in......Aim: The aim of the paper is to present, analyse and identify learning from two case studies of innovative procurement in Facilities Management (FM) concerning the establishments of partnerships between clients and providers. Approach and methodology: A major study of FM best practice covering 36...

  15. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil market is the most volatile of all markets, with the exception of the Nasdaq. It is also the biggest commodity market in the world. Therefore one cannot avoid forecasting oil prices, nor can one expect to avoid the forecasting errors that have been made in the past. In his report, Joel Maurice draws a distinction between the short term and the medium-long term in analysing the outlook for oil prices. (author)

  16. Pre-commercial procurement: regulatory effectiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Apostol, Anca Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Is public procurement of research and development (‘R&D’) services the key to European Union (‘EU’)’s sustainable welfare? Is it being regulated in accordance with economic prescripts for effectiveness? Is the regulatory and policy setting clear and comprehensive in order to stimulate a widespread use of this instrument by EU public authorities? In 2007, the EU released an Interpretative Communication, explaining how to purchase R&D services in compliance with the EU public procurement and St...

  17. Carbon footprint calculators for public procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Mattinen, Maija; Nissinen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in public organizations to take into account the climate impacts of the products and services they procure. Furthermore, in Finland a Government Resolution  exists that provides a framework and sets aims for sustainable public procurement. Several municipalities in the Helsinki region together with the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority and several expert organizations initiated an EU Life project, JULIA2030, to develop calculators for different sec...

  18. SMEs cooperate to meet social procurement conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Oden, Petra

    2015-01-01

    A growing amount of (semi) public organizations in the Netherlands write tenders with mandatory social conditions. It is important for SMEs to focus on social procurement in their business strategy. SMEs should be proactive and try to affect the conditions (semi) public organizations write in their tenders. On the other hand, (semi) public organizations should facilitate SMEs by developing transparent procurement processes and by organizing information meetings with SMEs. The most important f...

  19. Do electronic auctions improve public procurement?

    OpenAIRE

    Kopásková, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on problems of public procurement in Slovak Republic from point of view of using electronic auctions. It enables to gain complex insight to nowadays position of legislation, which includes electronic auctions. One of the goals is to explain the most crucial terms within framework of electronic auctions and afterwards those terms are used on real data from public procurement, what helps to understand the theme. Upon real data are hypothesis approved or disapproved....

  20. The World Bank Group and Public Procurement--An Independent Evaluation : Volume 1. Building Procurement Capacity and Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2014-01-01

    Good public procurement practices are a major determinant of the effectiveness of public expenditure. On behalf of their citizens, governments typically spend as much as 5-20 percent of their gross domestic product on procurement of goods and services, and effective procurement policies enable better use of government budgets. Good national procurement practices are therefore an essential ...

  1. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  2. Commodity-Procurement Strategies of Food Companies: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kraig M.; Raper, Kellie Curry; Whipple, Judith M.; Mollenkopf, Diane A.; Peterson, H. Christopher

    2007-01-01

    This research evaluates the main characteristics considered in commodity-procurement decisions made by food manufacturers. Procurement characteristics are examined and a framework is developed which classifies procurement characteristics into three categories: product constraints, company constraints, and service constraints. A case-study approach is used to determine the importance of various procurement characteristics and their impact on the buyer’s procurement-mechanism choice. The rese...

  3. Process technology implications of procurement process: some initial observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ellmer, E.; Emmerich, W.; Finkelstein, A.

    1998-01-01

    We report on a study of procurement processes in a large organization. The purpose of the study was to identify problems in the organization’s procurement processesand to suggestimprovement actions.Procurement processesdetermine the characteristics of software processes. Procurement processes are themselves complex and amenable to process technology. Cost and scheduling benefits can be realised if procurement and contracting organizations integrate their respective processes...

  4. Procurement risk management: a case in Turkish energy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Haksöz, Çağrı; Haksoz, Cagri; Arslan, Özgür; Arslan, Ozgur

    2010-01-01

    We present the current procurement risk management practice of Enerjisa, a major energy company in Turkey. We provide results of a managerial survey and interview conducted at Enerjisa, which illuminates the current perception of the critical procurement risks and how they are being managed effectively. Especially, we shed light on the procurement risk awareness and perception, critical drivers of procurement risks, risk assessment strategies, operational and financial hedging of procurement ...

  5. What Is the Status of Indonesian E-Procurement?

    OpenAIRE

    Achmad Nurmandi

    2013-01-01

    E-procurement is an important intrument to prevent corruption in goods and services procurement budget. Indonesia has been implementing the e-procurement project since 2008 based on Presidential Decree. President has stipulating annual order (presidential instruction) has to be obey by all ministries and local governments to procure their budget through r-procurement mechanism. However, untill 2012 fiscal year, this research found that only around 10.26% of central government institution proc...

  6. Procurement management in scientific research and production project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the requirement of development trend of scientific research and production, it is necessary to incorporate the modern procurement management theory in the whole procurement process for the items used in scientific research and production.This paper provided some suggestions to improve the procurement management by introducing the experiences in the application of the modern procurement management methods in the procurement of parts production. (author)

  7. International public procurement: From scant facts to hard data

    OpenAIRE

    Cernat, Lucian; Kutlina-Dimitrova, Zornitsa

    2015-01-01

    Public procurement is a negotiating area gaining in importance at multilateral and bilateral level, as evidenced by a brief review of procurement provisions in existing trade agreements. The size of procurement spending stands in most developed economies at double-digit percentage points of GDP. However, despite the size and importance of these markets, the factual information available to trade negotiators remains scarce. Although public procurement patterns (e.g. size of procurement markets...

  8. [Adhesion to the antiretroviral treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, M

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the therapy antiretroviral is to improve the quality of life and the survival of the persons affected by the VIH through the suppression of the viral replication. Nevertheless one of the present problems is the resistant apparition of stumps to the new medicines caused by an incorrect management of the therapeutic plan; by an incorrect adhesion of the personal processing. Since the therapeutic success will depend, among others factors, and of important form of the degree of implication and commitment of the person affected, is a matter of identifying prematurely the possible situations concomitants (personal factors and of addiction, psycho-social, related to the processing and its possible secondary effects, associated factors to the own illness or even to the relation professional-patient) that can interfere in a correct adhesion. For it is necessary of the interaction multidisciplinary of the welfare team, and fundamental the work of nursing at the moment of to detect the possible determinant factors and the intervention definition of strategies arrived at by consensus with the own person, that they promote it or it improve. The quantification of the degree of adhesion (measure in %) values through various direct and indirect methods and should keep in mind in it takes of therapeutic decisions being able to come to be advised the suspension of the processing until obtaining to conscience to the person affected of the importance of a correct therapeutic compliance. PMID:15672996

  9. Improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nischal K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has transformed HIV infection into a treatable, chronic condition. However, the need to continue treatment for decades rather than years, calls for a long-term perspective of ART. Adherence to the regimen is essential for successful treatment and sustained viral control. Studies have indicated that at least 95% adherence to ART regimens is optimal. It has been demonstrated that a 10% higher level of adherence results in a 21% reduction in disease progression. The various factors affecting success of ART are social aspects like motivation to begin therapy, ability to adhere to therapy, lifestyle pattern, financial support, family support, pros and cons of starting therapy and pharmacological aspects like tolerability of the regimen, availability of the drugs. Also, the regimen′s pill burden, dosing frequency, food requirements, convenience, toxicity and drug interaction profile compared with other regimens are to be considered before starting ART. The lack of trust between clinician and patient, active drug and alcohol use, active mental illness (e.g. depression, lack of patient education and inability of patients to identify their medications, lack of reliable access to primary medical care or medication are considered to be predictors of inadequate adherence. Interventions at various levels, viz. patient level, medication level, healthcare level and community level, boost adherence and overall outcome of ART.

  10. Cornea procurement, preservation and transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our experience on this subject is 40 years and we have seen the developments everywhere during this total period. Cornea procurement has been an unsurmountable problem in a large number of countries, mostly due to social and cultural reasons. The requirements for a simple eye bank to manage the supply for a local hospital are minimal. What is the most important is the donor base. In Sri Lanka nurtured in the traditions of Theravada Buddhism the donor base was easy to prepare. We had no difficulties with Christians and Hindus. For Muslims there are Fatwas in favour of donating eyes. But we always found them to be a reluctant group. But in predominantly Muslim countries, it is imperative that social workers should take up this issue, so those thousands may be helped. In all areas where attempts are made to procure comeas, it is important to have a day-and-night service available at short notice to collect any eyes offered. A trained technician with sterilised instruments to obtain eyes and blood sample must be available at a convenient location preferably in a large hospital. Even in places where the supply is infrequent, it is essential to have the readily-sterilised instruments to proceed to a donor site at short notice. To get eyes, general publicity in mass media alone is not sufficient. Such publicity makes people aware of the need for donor eyes and where a technician/doctor is available. What is more important is to canvass personally after a person has died For this purpose trained social workers may be employed, or the technician can do the motivation, as we do in Sri Lanka. Once eyes are removed, it is essential to pay careful attention to the appearance of the cadaver. It should not (and need not) cause any deformity as such event has a profound negative effect on the campaign. Many different preservation methods have been used over the years. Mc Carey-Kaufmann (MK) medium has been the standard for many years, and gives a life span of 4-5 days. The formula

  11. Developing trends in public procurement and auditing - a unique symposium for space and defence procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel de Westgaver, Eric; van Beekhuizen, Pieter; Fiorilli, Stefano M.

    2007-02-01

    Space projects are marked by their high technologies and their lengthy development and operations. The procurement process is a critical element that must adapt to a changing industrial landscape and new methods and tools, such as electronic procurement. ESA will host an international symposium in May [2007] to bring all the major players together.

  12. Progress in antiretroviral drug delivery using nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Mallipeddi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rama Mallipeddi, Lisa Cencia RohanUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Magee Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: There are currently a number of antiretroviral drugs that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. More recently, antiretrovirals are being evaluated in the clinic for prevention of HIV infection. Due to the challenging nature of treatment and prevention of this disease, the use of nanocarriers to achieve more efficient delivery of antiretroviral drugs has been studied. Various forms of nanocarriers, such as nanoparticles (polymeric, inorganic, and solid lipid, liposomes, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, cyclodextrins, and cell-based nanoformulations have been studied for delivery of drugs intended for HIV prevention or therapy. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the application of nanocarrier systems to the delivery of anti-HIV drugs, specifically antiretrovirals. For anti-HIV drugs to be effective, adequate distribution to specific sites in the body must be achieved, and effective drug concentrations must be maintained at those sites for the required period of time. Nanocarriers provide a means to overcome cellular and anatomical barriers to drug delivery. Their application in the area of HIV prevention and therapy may lead to the development of more effective drug products for combating this pandemic disease.Keywords: drug delivery, HIV, antiretrovirals, nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers

  13. Predicting Global Fund grant disbursements for procurement of artemisinin-based combination therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Megan E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate forecast of global demand is essential to stabilize the market for artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and to ensure access to high-quality, life-saving medications at the lowest sustainable prices by avoiding underproduction and excessive overproduction, each of which can have negative consequences for the availability of affordable drugs. A robust forecast requires an understanding of the resources available to support procurement of these relatively expensive antimalarials, in particular from the Global Fund, at present the single largest source of ACT funding. Methods Predictive regression models estimating the timing and rate of disbursements from the Global Fund to recipient countries for each malaria grant were derived using a repeated split-sample procedure intended to avoid over-fitting. Predictions were compared against actual disbursements in a group of validation grants, and forecasts of ACT procurement extrapolated from disbursement predictions were evaluated against actual procurement in two sub-Saharan countries. Results Quarterly forecasts were correlated highly with actual smoothed disbursement rates (r = 0.987, p Conclusion This analysis derived predictive regression models that successfully forecasted disbursement patterning for individual Global Fund malaria grants. These results indicate the utility of this approach for demand forecasting of ACT and, potentially, for other commodities procured using funding from the Global Fund. Further validation using data from other countries in different regions and environments will be necessary to confirm its generalizability.

  14. A COMPARISON OF A SIMPLE PROCUREMENT AUCTION AND GENERALIZED NASH BARGAINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He HUANG; Hongyan XU; Jian CHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison mechanism for a simple procurement auction and generalized Nash bargaining solution in a procurement circumstance. The buyer who hopes to fulfill a project has two options. First, she may award the project to the old provider with an efficient quality by bargaining. Second, she may give the project to the firm who submits the lowest bid through a simple procurement second-price sealed-bid auction with a pre-fixed quality. We compare the expected revenue in the uction with the deterministic profit of the bargaining. In different parameters cases, we find the borderline functions between the two options with respect to the buyer's bargaining power and the amount of bidders. We also compare our simple procurement auction (SPA) with the optimal multidimensional bid auction by Che (1993), and find our model protects the buyer's private valuation information by forfeiting some profits. Some properties of the difference between the two auctions are proposed, especially there is no revenue difference when the amount of bidders approaches infinity.

  15. Platelet count kinetics following interruption of antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Baker, Jason V;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of platelet kinetics in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study that demonstrated excess mortality with CD4 guided episodic antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug conservation compared with continuous treatment viral suppression. Follow...

  16. PUBLIC PROCUREMENT IN GHANA: THE IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES TO THE PUBLIC PROCUREMENT LAW 2003 (ACT 663

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameyaw, Collins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify various implementation bottlenecks to the Ghana Public Procurement Law 2003 (Act 663. The study adopted multiple research approaches, including; review of relevant literature, interviews and questionnaire survey of 49 District Assemblies and Metropolitan and Municipal Assemblies in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions of Ghana. The study identified low capacity of procurement professionals, low interaction between procurement entities and Public Procurement Authority (PPA, deliberate controlling of competition, non-compliance with provisions of the law, splitting of contracts into smaller lots, lack of funds and non-cooperativeness of suppliers, as the major challenges militating against the implementation of the Public Procurement Law.

  17. A robust internet-based auction to procure electricity forwards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Securing forward contracts to manage procurement-cost risk is an intuitively appealing and economically reasonable strategy for a load-serving local distribution company (LDC) in today's volatile electricity marketplace. However, knowing what to buy does not guarantee least-cost implementation. The forward-contract price quoted by a prospective seller may not be the 'best deal' that an LDC could have obtained, especially when the forward contract desired by the LDC is not actively traded. This paper reports the results from five internet-based auctions for electricity forward contracts with non-firm delivery and varying hourly quantities held monthly by a Florida municipal utility (MU) from September 2002 to January 2003. The results confirm that a multi-round auction design is robust in realizing competitive price offers made by credit-worthy sellers, time-efficient contracting, and consistent cost savings to the MU. Thus, the Anglo-Dutch auction described herein is a reasonable substitute for generation ownership by an LDC. (author)

  18. Launch of the "MICE Procurement" website for your future events

    CERN Multimedia

    The MICE Office team

    2014-01-01

    The number of MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference and Event) requests is on the increase and our hotel offer is constantly being developed.   The MICE Office has decided to create a dedicated website in order to offer the best possible service to its users. This site is accessible from the FP webpage (MICE Procurement) using your NICE login. It gives you access to the list of the establishments which have a contract with CERN, grouped by geographic area/star rating, and all related information. The establishments listed on this website can accommodate your local events, organised by CERN or in partnership with an institution. They were selected following a market survey and as a result of a price enquiry in accordance with CERN's Purchasing Rules. We offer a number of standard packages, but we will try to respond to any specific requirements. On the same site you can also access a longer list of hotels (also accessible via the GS website) for which prices and conditions have been nego...

  19. A win-win solution?: A critical analysis of tiered pricing to improve access to medicines in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Childs Michelle; Jambert Elodie; Moon Suerie; von Schoen-Angerer Tido

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Tiered pricing - the concept of selling drugs and vaccines in developing countries at prices systematically lower than in industrialized countries - has received widespread support from industry, policymakers, civil society, and academics as a way to improve access to medicines for the poor. We carried out case studies based on a review of international drug price developments for antiretrovirals, artemisinin combination therapies, drug-resistant tuberculosis medicines, li...

  20. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambert Elodie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been conducted but is needed to inform next steps towards improving child health. Methods We used information from the World Health Organization Prequalification Programme and the United States Food and Drug Administration to describe trends in quality-certification of pediatric formulations and used 7,989 donor-funded, pediatric ARV purchase transactions from 2002-2009 to measure uptake and dispersion of new pediatric ARV formulations across countries and programs. Prices for new pediatric ARV formulations were compared to alternative dosage forms. Results Fewer ARV options exist for HIV/AIDS treatment in children than adults. Before 2005, most pediatric ARVs were produced by innovator companies in single-component solid and liquid forms. Five 2-in1 and four 3-in-1 generic pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs in solid and dispersible forms have been quality-certified since 2005. Most (67% of these were produced by one quality-certified manufacturer. Uptake of new pediatric FDCs outside of UNITAID is low. UNITAID accounted for 97-100% of 2008-2009 market volume. In total, 33 and 34 countries reported solid or dispersible FDC purchases in 2008 and 2009, respectively, but most purchases were made through UNITAID. Only three Global Fund country recipients reported purchase of these FDCs in 2008. Prices for pediatric FDCs were considerably lower than liquids but typically higher than half of an adult FDC. Conclusion Pediatric ARV markets are more fragile than

  1. Strategies for price reduction of HIV medicines under a monopoly situation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Hasenclever, Lia; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze Government strategies for reducing prices of antiretroviral medicines for HIV in Brazil. METHODS Analysis of Ministry of Health purchases of antiretroviral medicines, from 2005 to 2013. Expenditures and costs of the treatment per year were analyzed and compared to international prices of atazanavir. Price reductions were estimated based on the terms of a voluntary license of patent rights and technology transfer in the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement for atazanavir. RESULTS Atazanavir, a patented medicine, represented a significant share of the expenditures on antiretrovirals purchased from the private sector. Prices in Brazil were higher than international references, and no evidence was found of a relationship between purchase volume and price paid by the Ministry of Health. Concerning the latest strategy to reduce prices, involving local production of the 200 mg capsule, the price reduction was greater than the estimated reduction. As for the 300 mg capsule, the amounts paid in the first two years after the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement were close to the estimated values. Prices in nominal values for both dosage forms remained virtually constant between 2011 (the signature of the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement), 2012 and 2013 (after the establishment of the Partnership). CONCLUSIONS Price reduction of medicines is complex in limited-competition environments. The use of a Partnership for Productive Development Agreement as a strategy to increase the capacity of local production and to reduce prices raises issues regarding its effectiveness in reducing prices and to overcome patent barriers. Investments in research and development that can stimulate technological accumulation should be considered by the Government to strengthen its bargaining power to negotiate medicines prices under a monopoly situation. PMID:26759969

  2. A survey of the syntheses of active pharmaceutical ingredients for antiretroviral drug combinations critical to access in emerging nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Eloan Dos Santos; Antunes, Octavio Augusto Ceva; Fortunak, Joseph M D

    2008-09-01

    irrelevant, except for "advanced salvage" drugs such as enfuvirtide. In resource-poor settings cost is a huge factor that limits drug access, resulting in high rates of new infection and subsequent mortality. IP coverage, where granted, can keep access prices for essential ARVs higher than would otherwise be the case. Large, innovator companies have made drugs available at prices very close to the cost of manufacturing for "lowest income" countries. Generic providers in India and elsewhere provide the largest supply of drugs for the developing world. The recent issuance of Voluntary and Compulsory Licenses (VLs, CLs) through the World Trade Organization's TRIP (Treaty Respecting Intellectual Property) provisions arguably contribute to bringing down access prices. The utilization of improved science, pooled purchasing and intelligent procurement practices all definitely contribute to access. This work surveys the production processes for several critical ARVs. These are discussed in terms of scale up, raw material/intermediates and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) costs. In some cases new routes to APIs or critical intermediates are needed. Based on potential new chemistries, there are significant opportunities to reduce cost for a number of critical ARVs. PMID:18571246

  3. A 1990s commissioner views the role of long-term contracts in utility gas procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term contracts for utility gas procurement avoid transactional costs when contrasted with the alternative of reconstructing every thirty days on the spot market. Some of the benefits, such as avoided transactional costs, work in favor of both the buyer and seller. Others confer an essentially unilateral advantage. From the buyer's perspective, the knowledge that a certain volume of gas is obligated under contract relieves a major uncertainty and provides price planning stability. If the purchaser is a utility, such an arrangement obviates the incurrence of storage costs which represent an alternative means of meeting the Commission's insistence that gas supplies for the core be secure. A proposed Commission policy on long-term gas procurement is outlined. General policy goals are discussed

  4. Organ procurement after euthanasia: Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysebaert, D; Van Beeumen, G; De Greef, K; Squifflet, J P; Detry, O; De Roover, A; Delbouille, M-H; Van Donink, W; Roeyen, G; Chapelle, T; Bosmans, J-L; Van Raemdonck, D; Faymonville, M E; Laureys, S; Lamy, M; Cras, P

    2009-03-01

    Euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002 for adults under strict conditions. The patient must be in a medically futile condition and of constant and unbearable physical or mental suffering that cannot be alleviated, resulting from a serious and incurable disorder caused by illness or accident. Between 2005 and 2007, 4 patients (3 in Antwerp and 1 in Liège) expressed their will for organ donation after their request for euthanasia was granted. Patients were aged 43 to 50 years and had a debilitating neurologic disease, either after severe cerebrovascular accident or primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Ethical boards requested complete written scenario with informed consent of donor and relatives, clear separation between euthanasia and organ procurement procedure, and all procedures to be performed by senior staff members and nursing staff on a voluntary basis. The euthanasia procedure was performed by three independent physicians in the operating room. After clinical diagnosis of cardiac death, organ procurement was performed by femoral vessel cannulation or quick laparotomy. In 2 patients, the liver, both kidneys, and pancreatic islets (one case) were procured and transplanted; in the other 2 patients, there was additional lung procurement and transplantation. Transplant centers were informed of the nature of the case and the elements of organ procurement. There was primary function of all organs. The involved physicians and transplant teams had the well-discussed opinion that this strong request for organ donation after euthanasia could not be waived. A clear separation between the euthanasia request, the euthanasia procedure, and the organ procurement procedure is necessary. PMID:19328932

  5. Price Variation Antagonism and Firm Pricing Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Courty, Pascal; Pagliero, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Pricing schemes that vary prices in response to demand shocks may antagonize consumers and reduce demand. At the same time, consumers may take advantage of the opportunities offered by price changes. Overall, the net impact of varying price on demand is ambiguous. We investigate this issue empirically, exploiting a unique dataset from a firm that has experimented with different pricing schemes. Each scheme is characterized by how much prices respond to fluctuations in dema...

  6. Price Variation Antagonism and Firm Pricing Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Courty; Mario Pagliero

    2010-01-01

    Pricing schemes that vary prices in response to demand shocks may antagonize consumers and reduce demand. At the same time, consumers may take advantage of the opportunities offered by price changes. Overall, the net impact of varying price on demand is ambiguous. We investigate this issue empirically, exploiting a unique dataset from a firm that has experimented with different pricing schemes. Each scheme is characterized by how much prices respond to fluctuations in demand and generates dif...

  7. Overview of the ITER Korea Procurement Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The ITER Korea has been established in 2007 as an entity of the Korean Domestic Agency (KODA) that is executing all responsible activities with respect to the ITER Project in Korea. Its main work is designing, manufacturing and delivering on time the ITER in-kind contributions to ITER Organization complying with technical specifications. Procurement activities are in progress on schedule, and some design and R and D activities are being performed to meet the technical specifications for procurement packages. This paper will describe the design and technical activities that currently being conducted in the KODA. (author)

  8. The Legal Regime of Public Procurement Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Negruţ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper we resume a topic widely debated in the specialized literature and always topical, by the implications that it has on the development of public administration and satisfying the general interests. The changes brought to the special legislation led, by identifying certain features, in determining the legal nature of the procurement contract, i.e. the administrative contract. In Romania, this notion is not fully established, although it is recognized by most of doctrinaires. In this paper we intend to identify by analyzing the legislation, the doctrine and jurisprudence, the elements that lead to the integration of public procurement contract in the category of administrative contract.

  9. Microeconomics of the Productivity, Price Indicators and Farm Incomes. Analytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Rembisz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a farm producer behavior type model to analyze the impact of a input productivity and price change on farm incomes. The theoretical analysis shows the consequences of the balance between the increase of production factor prices and their productivity improvement in the condition of stable procurement price for the farm producers income. The cost effect of the production factors price increment and its neutralization by productivity (TFP-type growth is examined as well as some aspects of the inputs shares (returns and costs in the produce value. The article argues that labor input productivity as an endogenous factor, is an essential for farm incomes growth assuming the specified type of the farm producer utility function (its equations and variables as well as no the compensative procurement price change conditions. Some empirical evidence is attached however more work in that respect is foreseen.

  10. New antiretrovirals and new combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlir, D V; Lange, J M

    1998-01-01

    The appearance in the clinic of two to three new antiretroviral agents yearly since 1995 has permitted unprecedented advances in HIV treatment. This remarkable pace of drug development is a testimony to an extraordinary international effort involving scientists, clinicians, governments, community activists and industry dedicated to the rapid and safe development of novel therapies. New drugs present the opportunity to improve HIV therapy. They also create an enormous challenge to the clinician, who must constantly assimilate data on new drugs and incorporate this information into practical management strategies. Combination therapy has proven the most effective approach to treat HIV disease. The profound and sustained viral suppression achievable with combinations such as indinavir (IDV), lamivudine (3TC) and zidovudine (ZDV) have resulted in a dramatic shift in HIV treatment paradigms over the last year. The full potential of combination therapy with available drugs has yet to be realized as only a limited number of the possible combinations incorporating new drugs have been fully tested. Even drugs available for many years may have untapped potential. Didanosine (ddI) and stavudine (d4T), once thought to be contraindicated in combination because of their overlapping peripheral neuropathy toxicity, have proven well tolerated and effective. Combination therapy can increase antiviral suppression, prevent drug resistance, optimize drug exposure and simplify dosing, but it can also result in pharmacologic antagonism, subtherapeutic drug concentrations and unexpected toxicities. Clinical studies have confirmed in vitro studies showing pharmacologic antagonism for the combination of ZDV and d4T. Combining protease inhibitors with each other or with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is complicated by effects both classes of drugs have on drug metabolism and clearance. These observations underline the importance of carefully conducted clinical studies to

  11. BIM-Based E-Procurement: An Innovative Approach to Construction E-Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar Costa, António; Grilo, António

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to e-procurement in construction, which uses building information models (BIM) to support the construction procurement process. The result is an integrated and electronic instrument connected to a rich knowledge base capable of advanced operations and able to strengthen transaction relationships and collaboration throughout the supply chain. The BIM-based e-procurement prototype has been developed using distinct existing electronic solutions and an IFC server and was tested in a pilot case study, which supported further discussions of the results of the research. PMID:26090518

  12. An approach for using personas and scenarios to procure user-requirements within a procuring organization

    OpenAIRE

    Anderljung, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to investigate how a procuring organization can use personas and scenarios to gather user-requirements in the procurement of software. To reach this understanding a case study is carried out to answer the questions of research; which is a definition that suits IKEA Components, which tools and how to use them; and what are the obstacles and enablers for working with personas and scenarios in procurement of software. The thesis consists of a theoretical study in...

  13. 76 FR 12016 - Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural...: Jamie Fisher, Chief, Local and Regional Procurement, Food Assistance Division, Foreign Agricultural...) directed the Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) to implement a local and regional food...

  14. 48 CFR 2401.601-70 - Senior Procurement Executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting... for the development of HUD's procurement system standards, evaluation of the system in accordance with approved criteria, enhancement of career management of the procurement workforce, and certification to...

  15. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability.Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainability.Method: Besides providing a brief conceptual review of FPSs, the study largely illustrates the use of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making approach called total interpretive structural modelling (TISM.Results: The total interpretive structural modelling–based model evaluates the causality and illustrates elements with interpretation of relations and suggests that bottom-level elements are vital for sustainability in FPSs and avert risks. Secondly, strategic sourcing is positively influencing supplier integration. Thirdly, supplier integration positively influences supplier responsiveness. Fourthly, skills of flexible procurement workforce positively influence supplier integration. Fifthly, it is found that supplier integration positively influences flexible transportation. The sixth finding suggests that supplier integration positively influences eco-friendly packaging. The seventh finding highlights that supplier integration positively influences ISO 14001 certifications. The eighth finding explains that supplier responsiveness positively influences customer satisfaction. It is also observed that flexible transport reduces operational cost and environmental costs. The second last finding explains eco-friendly packaging and reduction in environmental cost by careful selection of packing material and chemicals. Lastly, it is found that ISO 14001/environmental certifications reduce environmental costs by greening suppliers and pressurises them to

  16. Globalized Localism: Canada's Government Procurement Commitments under CETA

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, D A

    2015-01-01

    This article examines Canada’s commitments under the procurement chapter of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) currently awaiting ratification by Canada and the European Union (EU). While the CETA’s procurement rules are substantively and procedurally similar to those of the World Trade Organization (WTO)’s Revised Government Procurement Agreement (GPA), Canada’s obligations under CETA penetrate deeply into procurement decisions at all levels of government, including notabl...

  17. Public Procurement Policy: Implications for Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Snider, Keith F; Rendon, Rene G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for the study of public procurement policy. It reviews policy-related writings by public procurement scholars and assesses these works from the perspective of their contributions to generalized understandings of public procurement policy. Selected tools and concepts from the policy sciences are applied to propose a model to illuminate unique aspects of public procurement policy in ways that will facilitate its study. The paper concl...

  18. Innovation public procurement in Russia: problems of institutional arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korytcev Maxim, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the problems of public procurement in innovation sphere in Russia, its institutional organization. In international practice, some strategies of innovation stimulation (by public procurement are developing. There is necessity to use more elements of these strategies in Russian National Procurement System. The active National Public Procurement System has no enough effective methods and instruments for stimulating innovation development now.

  19. Challenges in information systems procurement in the Norwegian public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Carl Erik; Païvärinta, Tero

    2011-01-01

    Public procurement of information systems (IS) and IS services provides several challenges to the stakeholders involved in the procurement processes. This paper reports initial results from a Delphi study, which involved 46 experienced procurement managers, chief information officers, and vendor representatives in the Norwegian public sector. The participants identified altogether 98 challenges related to IS procurement, divided further into 13 categories: requirements specification, change m...

  20. Strategic Procurement and Financial Performance of Iranian Manufacturing Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Sobhani; C. A. Malarvizhi; Abdullah Al- Mamun; Sreenivasan Jeyashree

    2013-01-01

    Procurement has turned into the strategy for cutting cost and improving quality in order to increase the efficiency of the procurement function and reduce production costs. The objective of this study is to scrutinize the interrelation between the level of strategic procurement and financial performance of manufacturing companies in Iran. A cross-sectional explanatory study was designed to identify Iranian manufacturing company’s procurement management practices and performance outcome. Findi...

  1. Greening Operations Management: An Online Sustainable Procurement Course for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Helen L.; Gough, Stephen; Bakker, Elmer F.; Knight, Louise A.; McBain, Darian

    2009-01-01

    In the Operations Management field, sustainable procurement has emerged as a way to green the purchasing and supply process. This paper explores issues in sustainable procurement training. The authors formed an interdisciplinary team to design, deliver and evaluate a training programme to promote and develop sustainable procurement in the United…

  2. The quality assurance on nuclear power plant procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the HAF0400 > , the procurement for NPP was introduced. It includes the principles of procurement, the responsibility and the relationship between purchaser and supplier, the procurement control and documents, the selection of suppliers and qualification, the bid and contracts, the verification activities by purchaser and the acceptance of item. Some recommendations are given

  3. 48 CFR 752.225-71 - Local procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and nationality waivers as set forth in subpart F of 22 CFR part 228 except as provided for in 22 CFR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Local procurement. 752.225... Local procurement. For use in any USAID contract involving performance overseas. Local Procurement...

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.602-4 - Procurement of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of coal. 101-26.602-4 Section 101-26.602-4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES...

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.507-2 - Procurement time schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement time schedule. 101-26.507-2 Section 101-26.507-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES...

  6. Public procurement of Prague univiersity hospitals in 2008 - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoníčková, Petra

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to exploring the use of public procurement in Prague teaching hospitals. It describes the the functioning of teaching hospitals, their historical development, division of public procurement and each tender. The practical part explores the effectiveness of public procurement published by each teaching hospitals in Prague, using of several indicators.

  7. 22 CFR 201.22 - Procurement under public sector procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement under public sector procedures. 201... APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Procurement Procedures; Responsibilities of Importers § 201.22 Procurement under public sector procedures. (a) General requirements. When the importer is...

  8. Nepal : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The assessment focused on the degree of readiness of Government of Nepal's (GoN's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from a traditional paper-based, manual procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). Some 20 public and private sector organizations, involved in a wide range of functions that relate to public...

  9. Enhancing transparency through the use of standardised procurement templates

    OpenAIRE

    McEvoy, Emma

    2012-01-01

    In light of severe economic deterioration and dramatically reduced public financial budgets, a standardised suite of public procurement templates were introduced in Ireland to achieve administrative savings and to streamline procurement processes. This paper aims to provide a commentary on the ability or lack thereof to enhance transparency at each stage of a procurement procedure.

  10. Maldives : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2007-01-01

    The assessment focuses on the degree of readiness of Government of The Maldives's (GoTM's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from traditional paper-based, manual methods of procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). The e-GP Assessment was discussed individually with informed respondents in the public and p...

  11. Sustainable Procurement in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Costa, Nives

    2011-01-01

    highly contested among UN procurement officers and member states. However, so far the debate has mostly been based on assumptions about how the implementation of SP might affect developing country stakeholders. In fact, very few academic studies have been made of the economic, social and environmental...

  12. Decentralized Procurement in Light of Strategic Inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Anil; Frimor, Hans; Mittendorf, Brian

    2014-01-01

    and confirmed to be a multifaceted choice. This paper complements existing studies by detailing the trade-offs in the centralization versus decentralization decision in light of firm's decision to cede procurement choices to its individual devisions can help moderate inventory levels and provide a natural salve...

  13. 29 CFR 97.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conservation plan issued in compliance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Pub. L. 94-163, 89 Stat... or subgrantee unless the matter is primarily a Federal concern. Violations of law will be referred to... proposed procurement. Consideration will be given to such matters as contractor integrity, compliance...

  14. 24 CFR 85.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conservation plan issued in compliance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Pub. L. 94-163, 89 Stat... or subgrantee unless the matter is primarily a Federal concern. Violations of law will be referred to... proposed procurement. Consideration will be given to such matters as contractor integrity, compliance...

  15. 36 CFR 1207.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement. 1207.36 Section..., and as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (41 CFR chapter 60). (All construction... (29 CFR Part 3). (All contracts and subgrants for construction or repair) (5) Compliance with...

  16. 43 CFR 12.76 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement. 12.76 Section 12.76 Public..., and as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (41 CFR chapter 60). (All construction... (29 CFR part 3). (All contracts and subgrants for construction or repair) (5) Compliance with...

  17. 43 CFR 12.944 - Procurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement procedures. 12.944 Section 12.944 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT... Suspension.” See 43 CFR part 12. (e) Recipients shall, on request, make available for the Federal...

  18. Pre-commercial procurement : regulatory effectiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostol, Anca Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Is public procurement of research and development (‘R&D’) services the key to European Union (‘EU’)’s sustainable welfare? Is it being regulated in accordance with economic prescripts for effectiveness? Is the regulatory and policy setting clear and comprehensive in order to stimulate a widespread u

  19. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care. PMID:23607154

  20. 77 FR 62220 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/20/2012 (77 FR 42701-42702), 7/27/2012 (77 FR 44220), and 8/ 17/2012 (77 FR 49784), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase...

  1. 32 CFR 37.1330 - Procurement contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...” at 48 CFR 2.101. ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement contract. 37.1330 Section 37.1330... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1330...

  2. 20 CFR 627.420 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... opportunity as found in 29 CFR 34.20, Assurance required; duration of obligation; covenants. (3) In the case... appropriate; (ii) Notice of 29 CFR 97.34 requirements pertaining to copyrights (agreements which involve the... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement. 627.420 Section...

  3. On Integration of police and procurator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zonghui

    2006-01-01

    In order to reform and improve the relationship between the police and the procurator,it has been asserted for many years that the system of integrating the police and the procurator,under which the procuratorate leads the police,should be established in China.However,it still has not been resolved.For ages it has been ignored that integrating the police and procurator in foreign countries is essentially based on the separation of powers and the litigious idea on doctrine of function and power.This system is not conformed with the primary purpose of the criminal justice system reform in China,which will result in misunderstanding the idea and ignoring the specialty of the political and law systems.Therefore,if the abuse is discovered only in the system of integrating the police and procurator,the outlet will never be found.The point is that,the reform should depend upon the change and the discrimination of the ideology.By only cloning the system of other countries,the inner relations won't be seen.

  4. 77 FR 77037 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 10/12/2012 (77 FR 62219-62220), 10/19/2012 (77 FR 64326-64327) and 11/9/2012 (77 FR 67343-67344), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase...

  5. 7 CFR 210.21 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the requirements of this part and 7 CFR part 3016 or 7 CFR part 3019, as applicable, which implement... contained in this part and 7 CFR part 3015, 7 CFR part 3016 and 7 CFR part 3019, as applicable, do not... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement. 210.21 Section 210.21...

  6. 75 FR 2510 - Procurement List; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... services on January 11, 2010 (75 FR 1354-1355). The correct date that comments should be received is... FR 1355-1356). The correct effective date should be February 11, 2010. ADDRESSES: Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Corrections AGENCY: Committee for...

  7. Status of ITER procurement activities in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Korea is participating in the ITER project as a full member and procuring components for the ITER tokamak and its facility. This paper presents the current stage of preparation of the ITER components to be delivered by Korea including an overview of Korean activities related to the ITER project, as of October 2009.

  8. 77 FR 32592 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... . ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 12/2/2011 (76 FR 75536-75537), 1/13/2012 (77 FR 2048) and 4/6/ 2012 (77 FR 20795), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase...

  9. 76 FR 47564 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 4/22/2011 (76 FR 22680); 5/6/2011 (76 FR 26279); 6/3/2011 (76 FR 32146); and 6/10/2011 (76 FR 34064-34065), the Committee for Purchase From People ] Who Are Blind or Severely... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase...

  10. 49 CFR 18.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Assistance Act of 1987, and 49 CFR parts 660 and 661 impose Buy America provisions on the procurement of..., and as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (41 CFR chapter 60). (All construction... (29 CFR part 3). (All contracts and subgrants for construction or repair) (5) Compliance with...

  11. Online Reverse Auctions for Procurement of Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.L. Radkevitch (Uladzimir)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOnline reverse auctions, in which a buyer seeks to select a supplier and suppliers compete for contracts by bidding online, revolutionized corporate procurement early this century. Shortly after they had been pioneered by General Electric, many companies rushed to adopt reverse auctions

  12. 45 CFR 92.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement. 92.36 Section 92.36 Public Welfare..., and as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (41 CFR chapter 60). (All construction... (29 CFR Part 3). (All contracts and subgrants for construction or repair) (5) Compliance with...

  13. 45 CFR 1309.52 - Procurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement procedures. 1309.52 Section 1309.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START FACILITIES...

  14. 45 CFR 2541.360 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement. 2541.360 Section 2541.360 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Changes, Property and Subawards §...

  15. 45 CFR 1183.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement. 1183.36 Section 1183.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL...

  16. 45 CFR 1174.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement. 1174.36 Section 1174.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL...

  17. 36 CFR 1210.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement records. 1210.46 Section 1210.46 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...

  18. 36 CFR 1210.44 - Procurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement procedures. 1210.44 Section 1210.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...

  19. 45 CFR 2543.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement records. 2543.46 Section 2543.46 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements...

  20. 75 FR 6869 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    ...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 12/11/2009 (74 FR 65758) and 12/18/2009 (74 FR... rules that are applicable to the public. Notices of hearings #0;and investigations, committee meetings...; ] COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions...

  1. 45 CFR 2543.44 - Procurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement procedures. 2543.44 Section 2543.44 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements...

  2. 45 CFR 1157.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement. 1157.36 Section 1157.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL...

  3. 42 CFR 495.348 - Procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement standards. 495.348 Section 495.348 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...' implementation of Executive Orders 12549 and 12689, “Debarment and Suspension” as described in 2 CFR part...

  4. SMES cooperate to meet social procurement conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oden, Petra

    2015-01-01

    A growing amount of (semi) public organizations in the Netherlands write tenders with mandatory social conditions. It is important for SMEs to focus on social procurement in their business strategy. SMEs should be proactive and try to affect the conditions (semi) public organizations write in their

  5. The Impact of Electronic Commerce on Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, BPC; Ng, EOS

    2003-01-01

    Internet technology has been increasingly used to enhance the global competitiveness of various business applications through the widespread electronic commerce (EC) functions. Many Internet-based systems have been designed and developed for supply chain management (SCM) in various areas such as computer, garment, and publishing industries, which mainly center on communication infrastructure, coordination between production and distribution, and procurement functions with security mechanisms....

  6. Forward Commitment Procurement : A practical methodology that helps to manage risk in procuring innovative goods and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whyles, G.; Meerveld, H. van; Nauta, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Commitment Procurement (FCP) is a Public Procurement of Innovation (PPI) methodology. It was specifically designed to both provide a practical methodology for procurers to follow and to manage the perceived risk of the customer and supplier in innovation investments. The paper describes

  7. Asset Price Fluctuation and Price Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Shiratsuka, Shigenori

    1999-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, the Japanese economy has experienced tremendous rise and fall of asset prices and large fluctuations of real economic activity, while the general price level has remained relatively stable. Such developments have raised the question of whether monetary policy should target asset prices rather than conventional price indices. This paper focuses on how to make use of information inherent with asset price fluctuations in the monetary policy judgment. To this end, it investi...

  8. Guide for performance of DOE contractor procurement system reviews (CPSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this CPSR Guide is to establish uniform procedures for the performance of reviews of contractor procurement systems required by DOE Procurement Regulation 9-23, 9-50, and 9-51. These procedures will enable DOE to evaluate contractor procurement systems to determine if they are adequate to support a surveillance monitoring system rather than the existing system of prior approval of individual procurements at specific dollar levels, assist the contractor in optimizing its effectiveness and efficiency, and be assured of contractor compliance with applicable procurement policies and procedures by follow-up surveillance on a periodic basis. (RWR)

  9. The problems of accountable and analytical procuring of enterprise management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalova Tatiana Volodymyrivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigated main aspects of accountable and analytical procuring of enterprise management. It was found essence of accountable and analytical procuring of enterprise management, purpose, functions and tasks. It was determined main elements and essence of accountable and analytical information taking into consideration needs of modern management. In the article are exposed structural elements of accountable and analytical procuring. It was formed conceptual approaches of building accountable and analytical procuring of enterprise management. It was analyzed main problems of improving accountable and analytical informational procuring of taking managerial decisions with the aim of solving economic problems due to current situation of national economy.

  10. NRC assessment of improvements in licensee procurement and dedication programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) recently conducted a series of on-site assessments at selected nuclear plants to review improvements that the licenses had made to their procurement and dedication activities. The assessments included an evaluation of the progress made by licensees to strengthen their commercial-grade dedication programs to comply with 10CRF50, Appendix B, and to implement the comprehensive procurement improvements suggested in Nuclear Management and Resource Council (NUMARC) publication 901-3. This paper discusses the overall purpose of the assessments, procurement areas assessed, major strengths and weaknesses identified in licensee procurement programs, and the NRC's perspective of the industry's response to NUMARC procurement initiatives

  11. Energy prices and taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices at all market levels: import prices, industry prices and consumer prices. The statistics cover main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity, giving for imported products an average price both for importing country and country of origin. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country

  12. Pricing and Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2007-01-01

    We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non-competitive (monopolistic) markets. We then introduce a regulated intermediate price above the oligopoly price and below the monopoly price. The effect in monopolies is more or less in line with standard intuition...

  13. EIA and green procurement: Opportunities for strengthening their coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EIA plays an important role in enhancing the environmental performance of the construction sector. In recent years, the construction sector has been developing green procurement practices. Green procurement is a process that involves the incorporation of environmental requirements during the procurement of services and products. However, discussion on green procurement is rarely seen during the EIA phase. This paper addresses possible opportunities for improving the coordination between EIA and green procurement within the construction sector. The linking of EIA and green procurement has been postulated in the paper as an aid to strengthen the coordination between project planning and implementation. The paper is based on a literature review and is an outcome of an on-going research project concerning EIA and green procurement. This study indicated that it would be appropriate to introduce green procurement during the pre-decision phase of an EIA. In the present study, the opportunities for integrating green procurement at the stage of EIA are associated with the integration of project planning and EIA. Future research should investigate the mechanism through which the link can be established. - Highlights: ► This paper identifies opportunities to link EIA and green procurement. ► Pre-decision phase of EIA could be appropriate for planning green procurement. ► Future research should investigate the mechanism for establishing the link.

  14. An overview of European good practices in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada POPESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement has always been a major source of corruption in Europe, as acknowledged by national and European officials, by NGOs and by representatives of civil society. Too often, public procurement serves the personal interests of corrupt officials rather than the best interest of the community. During the last decade, anti-corruption efforts have increasingly focused on public procurement corruption. Most European countries, including European Union members, have tried to eliminate public procurement corruption by implementing new legal rules to ensure compliance with public procurement standards and by prosecuting offenders. After surveying a variety of good practices for eliminating corruption in public procurement in Europe, this paper concludes that the new rules have produced mixed results, with the most unfavourable outcomes occurring in Central and Eastern European countries where public procurement corruption is more virulent than elsewhere in Europe.

  15. Price Reversal Pattern of ARV Drugs: A Transaction-Cost Approach Digression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank LORNE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A price reversal pattern of ARV drugs was noted across lower and middle income countries in that the lower-income countries have higher prices relative to higher-income countries based on a 2008-2009 Summary Report by World Health Organization. The transaction costs affecting AVR drug pricing can be broadly classified into two kinds: One between the final users and the opinion/knowledge experts, and the other between the opinion/knowledge experts and the manufacturers. Economist’s version of price discrimination needs to be modified by including transaction costs. Transaction costs also point to institution creditability factors that will affect NGO procurement.

  16. Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Meintjes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available These guidelines are intended as an update to those published in the Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine in January 2008. Since the release of the previous guidelines, the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in Southern Africa has continued to grow. Cohort studies from the region show excellent clinical outcomes; however, ART is still being started late (in advanced disease, resulting in relatively high early mortality rates. New data on antiretroviral (ARV tolerability in the region and several new ARV drugs have become available. Although currently few in number, some patients in the region are failing protease inhibitor (PI-based second-line regimens. To address this, guidelines on third-line (or ‘salvage’ therapy have been expanded.

  17. Price controls and international petroleum product prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deacon, R.T.; Mead, W.J.; Agarwal, V.B.

    1980-02-01

    The effects of Federal refined-product price controls upon the price of motor gasoline in the United States through 1977 are examined. A comparison of domestic and foreign gasoline prices is made, based on the prices of products actually moving in international trade. There is also an effort to ascribe US/foreign market price differentials to identifiable cost factors. Primary emphasis is on price comparisons at the wholesale level, although some retail comparisons are presented. The study also examines the extent to which product price controls are binding, and attempts to estimate what the price of motor gasoline would have been in the absence of controls. The time period under consideration is from 1969 through 1977, with primary focus on price relationships in 1970-1971 (just before US controls) and 1976-1977. The foreign-domestic comparisons are made with respect to four major US cities, namely, Boston, New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles. 20 figures, 14 tables.

  18. Adherence and Readiness to Antiretroviral Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Södergård, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy places extraordinarily high demands on adherence, since non-adherence affects both individuals and society due to the spread of resistant viral strains. The aims of the thesis were to investigate the prevalence of adherence in Swedish HIV-infected patients, changes in adherence over time, and factors associated with adherence, including patients’ readiness to adhere. Further, to investigate the collaboration between nurses, doctors and pharmacists after the introduction...

  19. Persistent HIV-1 replication during antiretroviral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Picado, Javier; Deeks, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review will highlight some of the recent findings regarding the capacity of HIV-1 to replicate during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent findings Although ART is highly effective at inhibiting HIV replication, it is not curative. Several mechanisms contribute to HIV persistence during ART, including HIV latency, immune dysfunction, and perhaps persistent low-level spread of the virus to uninfected cells (replication). The success in curing HIV will depend on ef...

  20. The cost of antiretroviral therapy in Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald Daniel W; Atwood Sidney; Severe Patrice; Leger Paul; Riviere Cynthia; Koenig Serena P; Pape Jean W; Schackman Bruce R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We determined direct medical costs, overhead costs, societal costs, and personnel requirements for the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to patients with AIDS in Haiti. Methods We examined data from 218 treatment-naïve adults who were consecutively initiated on ART at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between December 23, 2003 and May 20, 2004 and calculated costs and personnel requirements for the first year of ART. Results The mean total cost of treatme...

  1. Optimal Power Procurement and Demand Response with Quality-of-Usage Guarantees

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Longbo; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a general operating scheme which allows the utility company to jointly perform power procurement and demand response so as to maximize the social welfare. Our model takes into consideration the effect of the renewable energy and the multi-stage feature of the power procurement process. It also enables the utility company to provide quality-of-usage (QoU) guarantee to the power consumers, which ensures that the average power usage level meets the target value for each user. To maximize the social welfare, we develop a low-complexity algorithm called the \\emph{welfare maximization algorithm} (WMA), which performs joint power procurement and dynamic pricing. WMA is constructed based on a two-timescale Lyapunov optimization technique. We prove that WMA achieves a close-to-optimal utility and ensures that the QoU requirement is met with bounded deficit. WMA can be implemented in a distributed manner and is robust with respect to system dynamics uncertainty.

  2. Managing EEE part standardisation and procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serieys, C.; Bensoussan, A.; Petitmangin, A.; Rigaud, M.; Barbaresco, P.; Lyan, C.

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents the development activities in space components selection and procurement dealing with a new data base tool implemented at Alcatel Space using TransForm softwaa re configurator developed by Techform S.A. Based on TransForm, Access Ingenierie has devv eloped a software product named OLG@DOS which facilitate the part nomenclatures analyses for new equipment design and manufacturing in term of ACCESS data base implementation. Hi-Rel EEE part type technical, production and quality information are collected and compiled usingproduction data base issued from production tools implemented for equipment definition, description and production based on Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II Control Open) and Parametric Design Manager (PDM Work Manager). The analysis of any new equipment nomenclature may be conducted through this means for standardisation purpose, cost containment program and management procurement activities as well as preparation of Component reviews as Part Approval Document and Declared Part List validation.

  3. Innovative Procurement and Partnerships in Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    A major study of facilities management best practice covering 36 cases from the Nordic countries in Europe shows, that the most outstanding examples of innovation in FM are initiated from the demand side and involves new forms of procurement with long term contracts. This paper considers in depth......-called operational partnerships with private providers concerning all municipal buildings and sports facilities in parts of a city. Each of the case studies has involved both the client and the provider side of the collaboration. The cases show that an essential element in a successful procurement and partnership is...... that the client allows the providers freedom to plan their activities. Thereby the providers can optimize the use of their productive capacity and utilize their competences with incentives to profit from such improvements. A major challenge is to balance the risks between the client and provider and to...

  4. The New EU Public Procurement Directives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    31 March 2004 the EU adopted two new public procurement directives: one for the public sector (2004/18/EC) and one for utilities (2004/17/EC). The new directives aim at simplification and modernisation of the previously existing directives including adaptation to electronic purchasing techniques....... On 4-5 November 2004 the Copenhagen Business School organised a European research conference on the new directives. The conference focused on a number of topics which are of particular interest within the field of procurement law in EU these years, including ECJ case law, utilities, electronic...... auctions, transparency requirements, competitive dialogue, framework agreements, use of social and environmental criteria, Partnering and Public Private Partnerships and concessions. This book contains contributions based on presentations given by a number of the international and Danish speakers at the...

  5. Collaborative procurement for developing a sustainable campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul; Rahim, Syukran Abdul; Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd; Ismail, Mohd. Noorizhar

    2016-08-01

    It is particularly challenging to achieve sustainability in campus universities, where a high volume of users and activities has made it more imperative to promote green buildings that reduce energy and water consumption while having a minimal carbon footprint. At present, the frameworks for sustainable campus have seldom focused on the project procurement method which would improve construction team integration in developing the physical aspect of campus development. Therefore, in response to that challenge, this paper investigates how the delivery team, responsible for the design and construction of a project, can be integrated to work together more efficiently and more using the collaborative procurement method known as partnering. This paper reports part of a previous research and sets the base for ongoing research on the critical factors in partnering for sustainable campus development. The outcome or result of this study will meet and support the requirement for construction, maintenance, and operation process for universities towards sustainable building/campus in the future.

  6. Particularities of the Public Procurement Contentious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Negruţ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The paper with the above mentioned title approaches an issue current not only for juridical research, but also for practical activities. This study resumes an issue approached by other authors as well, but highlighting some particulars of the contentious business of public acquisitions using analysis, observation and case study. Thus, based on the regulations prior to coming into force of the Emergency Ordinance no. 34/2006, I have performed a brief analysis of the means availab legality of a procedure of awarding the public procurement contract. At the same time, in this study we aim at clarifying the aspects related to the legal nature of the documents prior to concluding the publi contracts used by the contracting authority and also the legal conditions applicable to public procurement contracts concluded following the awarding procedure.

  7. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE FOR LIVER DONOR PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lupaşcu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of the liver is one of the most traumatic operations yet deviced and there is a tendency for it to be offered as a possible life-saving therapy to some of the sickest patients that are submitted to surgery. The concept of vascularized liver graft resulted from the pioneering work of Moore (1959 and Starzl (1960. In the last twenty years, the concept of multiorgan donor has been accepted in most European countries and USA, and, where possible, all organs that can be used are transplanted from a given donor, provided permission is forthcoming. Procurement of the whole liver graft from a heart-beating, but brain-dead, donor remains the standard method of liver procurement and is usually carried out as part af a multiple organ retrieval that also includes the kidneys, pancreas and thoracic organs, and occasionally intestinal grafts are being recovered. The author describes the standard approach for donor hepatectomy.

  8. Characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimen and treatment adherence

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimens and treatment adherence was studied in adolescent and adult patients who underwent antiretroviral therapy from January 1998 to September 2000, at the Service for Specialized Assistance in Pelotas. The patients were interviewed on two occasions, and the use of antiretrovirals during the previous 48 hours was investigated by a self-report. Adherence was defined as use of 95% or more of the prescribed medication. Social-demo...

  9. Online Reverse Auctions for Procurement of Services

    OpenAIRE

    Radkevitch, Uladzimir

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOnline reverse auctions, in which a buyer seeks to select a supplier and suppliers compete for contracts by bidding online, revolutionized corporate procurement early this century. Shortly after they had been pioneered by General Electric, many companies rushed to adopt reverse auctions but the adoption soon slowed down due to the negative effects of auction-induced competition. Today, as firms continue to experiment with the reverse auctions, it is important to understand how the...

  10. Socially Responsible Award of the Procurement Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hristina Blagoycehva

    2013-01-01

    With the Europe 2020 strategy the EU has set itself, under conditions of a changing world, the goal of becoming an intelligent, sustainable and inclusive economy. Under the current conditions of budget constraints and economic difficulties the conventional mechanisms for promoting social justice and social cohesion are insufficient. Through the inclusion of social criteria in the awarding of public procurement there can be guaranteed the compliance with social insurance legislation, furthered...

  11. Utility adaptation to a changing procurement environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By utilizing the new EPRI guidelines, it is possible to improve the procurement process while yielding a higher level of assurance of getting the right items, and while providing the utility with significant monetary savings. Such guidelines are: parts safety classification evaluations; commercial grade dedications plans; on-site testing facility; spare parts equivalency evaluations; supplier qualification and source verification. Specific programs within Niagara Mohawk and financial savings are reviewed. (1 tab.)

  12. Procurement and supply of CANDU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1955 a decision was made to proceed with construction of a Nuclear Power Demonstration Station (NPD) near Rolfton, Ontario. This project, headed by Atomic Energy of Canada with major involvement of private industry, was the genesis for the development of nuclear electric generation in Canada. This paper reviews one aspect of the Canadian program: the evolution of fuel procurement and supply, which in itself has been a remarkable Canadian achievement. (author)

  13. The Legal Regime of Public Procurement Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilica Negruţ

    2014-01-01

    Within this paper we resume a topic widely debated in the specialized literature and always topical, by the implications that it has on the development of public administration and satisfying the general interests. The changes brought to the special legislation led, by identifying certain features, in determining the legal nature of the procurement contract, i.e. the administrative contract. In Romania, this notion is not fully established, although it is recognized by most of doc...

  14. Innovation, Procurement and Construction Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geard de Valence

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The implications for analysis of innovation in construction of theoretical developments in industrial organisation are considered in this research, as an attempt to outline a new approach to construction innovation incorporating the ideas found in knowledge based, technology centred models. The paper firstly summarises characteristics of the construction industry, focusing on their effects on innovation, before surveying some of the ideas about the sources of innovation and the expansion and application of knowledge. Construction can be seen as an industry with limited scope for knowledge externalities, where the procurement methods used by the industry’s clients do not pay for innovation. The following discussion uses recent developments in the research on the economics of innovation and industrial organization theory, such as research intensity and the endogenous sunk costs in competitive, fragmented, low research intensity industries. The effects on R&D of procurement methods and on industry structure are discussed, with a focus on the appropriability of innovations and the role of the client on the Heathrow Terminal 5 project. The paper concludes that the procurement methods used for building and construction projects appears to be a determining factor in the level of innovation in the construction industry

  15. Dosing antiretroviral medication when crossing time zones: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joseph M; Volny-Anne, Alain; Waitt, Catriona; Boffito, Marta; Khoo, Saye

    2016-01-01

    International tourism continues to increase worldwide, and people living with HIV and their clinicians are increasingly confronted with the problem of how to dose antiretroviral therapy during transmeridian air travel across time zones. No guidance on this topic currently exists. This review is a response to requests from patient groups for clear, practical and evidence-based guidance for travelling on antiretroviral therapy; we present currently available data on the pharmacokinetic forgiveness and toxicity of various antiretroviral regimens, and synthesize this data to provide guidelines on how to safely dose antiretrovirals when travelling across time zones. PMID:26684823

  16. Application of Derivatives Market for Controlling Risks of Commodity Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuolė Drazdauskienė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of raw milk procurement cost level and fluctuation which inhibits strengthening negotiating positions of dairy product fabricants and probability of them staying competitive in the European Union, is examined. Scientific literature that analyzes risks of staple prices is overviewed in the article. The paper provides statistical data representing the situation of Lithuania in contrast with European Union rates. Global usage of prospective transactions and their possible influence on price regulation are analyzed. After examining statistical data and academic literature, conclusions are provided.

  17. Efektivitas Penerapan E-Procurement Dalam Meningkatkan Transparasi Pelayanan Publik Di Kota Pematangsiantar

    OpenAIRE

    Bundhari, Kalina Dwi

    2015-01-01

    The current government has implemented a system of procurement of goods and services electronically, known as e-Procurement. E-Procurement is the process of procurement of goods and services which are carried out electronically-based internet. All the activities of procurement of goods and services in e-Procurement is done through electronic media, namely through the website on the internet www.inaproc.go.id. E-Procurement Objectives include improving transparency and openness in the proce...

  18. Facing Price Risks in Internet-of-Services Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matros, Raimund; Streitberger, Werner; Koenig, Stefan; Eymann, Torsten

    Internet-of-Services markets allow companies to procure computational resources and application services externally and thus to save both internal capital expenditures and operational costs. Despite the advantages of this new paradigm only few work has been done in the field of risk management concerning Internet-of-Services markets. We simulate such a market using a Grid simulator. The results show that market participants are exposed to price risk. Based on our results we identify and assess technical failures which could lead to loss on service consumer's side. We also show that technical failures influence service prices which lead to volatile prices. Both, service provider and service consumer are exposed to this uncertainty and need a way to face it. Therefore we apply a financial option model to overcome price risk.

  19. The Weird Vegetable Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Government faces the task of stabilizing vegetable prices to avoid steep increases and dips Fluctuations of vegetable prices in China have recently caused near panic in the domestic market.Purchase prices for farm produce are decreasing dramatically

  20. Testing Affiliation in Private-values Models of First-price Auctions Using Grid Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Luciano I.; Paarsch, Harry J.

    2009-01-01

    Within the private-values paradigm, we construct a tractable empirical model of equilibrium behavior at first-price auctions when bidders’ valuations are potentially dependent, but not necessarily affiliated. We develop a test of affiliation and apply our framework to data from low-price, sealed-bid auctions held by the Department of Transportation in the State of Michigan to procure road-resurfacing services: we do not reject the hypothesis of affiliation in cost signals.

  1. A theoretical analysis of procurement auctions for tertiary control in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As far as energy policy is concerned, the design of the regulatory framework for energy transmission and distribution is a key issue. Consequently, also the embodiment of balancing power markets drives mainly the effectiveness of political implications for the energy sector. Initially, tertiary control in Germany was solely offered by transmission system operators of the respective power control areas and their associated power plant. The recast of the Energy Industry Act of 2005 led in last consequence to a common procurement auction for the supply of tertiary control, which starts on December 1, 2006. Admittedly, the reform has fallen short of expectations so far, first concerning the intensification of market entry of tertiary control providers as well as the desired decline of the price level. Hence, this article examines the effects of the changeover on observable demand charges. In order to identify attributes of the common procurement auction for tertiary control hampering market entry of providers, giving stimuli to collusion and strategic behavior, reducing intensity of competition and encouraging an upswing of prices, we analyze the design under an auction theoretical approach and deduce empirically whether structural components of the auction design have to be touched up again

  2. Government procurement of peak capacity in the New Zealand electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the impact of government procurement of reserve electricity generation capacity on the long-run equilibrium in the electricity market. The approach here is to model the electricity market in a context where the supply companies have market power. The model is then used to analyze the impact of government direct supply of peak capacity on the market. We find that the firms build less peak-generation capacity when the government procures peak generating capacity. The long-run equilibrium with N firms and government capacity of KG results in an increase of total peak generation capacity of KG/(N+1) compared to the long-run equilibrium with no government capacity. Supply disruptions of baseline capacity during the peak time period are also considered. It is found that peak prices do not go up any further with (anticipated) supply disruptions. Instead the entire cost of the extra peakers is borne by customers on traditional meters and off-peak customers who face real-time pricing. (author)

  3. Target Price Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown) 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio). However, target price accuracy is positive...

  4. Signalling Strength: Limit Pricing and Predatory Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Greg LeBlanc

    1992-01-01

    This article merges two areas of strategic pricing theory. A dynamic signalling game with two-sided uncertainty is presented in which an incumbent is confronted with potential entry and chooses between limit pricing and predatory pricing as a means of achieving or maintaining monopoly profit. Initial distributions across player types are pivotal to this decision. Results show that when the incumbent is likely to be strong relative to the entrant, predatory pricing is chosen. When the incumben...

  5. Pricing and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non......-competitive (monopolistic) markets. We then introduce a regulated intermediate price above the oligopoly price and below the monopoly price. The effect in monopolies is more or less in line with standard intuition. As price falls volume increases and so does quality, such that overall efficiency is raised by 50%. However...

  6. Procurement challenges in the South African public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intaher M. Ambe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an exploration of challenges experienced in the field of procurement within the South African public sector. To institute procurement best practices, a supply chain management system was adopted in South Africa in 2003. The procurement process was granted constitutional status and has been used to address past inequitable policies and practices. It promotes aims which are, arguably, secondary to the primary aim of procurement. For the exploration, a conceptual analytical approach was employed and some of the key guiding pillars of public procurement in South Africa divulged. The challenges restraining effective and efficient implementation of public procurement are also revealed. The article concludes by recommending the development of competency through customised (separate training materials and programmes, the involvement of stakeholders in the bidding process and the employment of good strategic sourcing practices.

  7. PROCUREMENT IN MANUFACTURING ORGANISATION: PORTFOLIO AND THE USE OF THE INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Pujawan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurement function in manufacturing organisations has played significantly more critical roles nowadays than in the past. The contribution of procurement function is much determined by how well the procurement management system is designed. A critical aspect of managing procurement function in order to optimise its contribution to the organisation is procurement portfolio, i.e., categorisation of items and then differentiation of procurement focus for different categories. This paper will discuss procurement portfolio as a basis for procurement manager to optimise the contribution of his/her function in supporting the organisation's objectives. The role of electronic procurement in each category of the portfolio will also be discussed.

  8. Sustainable Public Procurement : a new policy paradigm in France ?

    OpenAIRE

    Le Velly, Ronan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the “new paradigm” of sustainable public procurement in France, that is, its cognitive and normative frameworks. Firstly, the author shows that the newness of this paradigm has to do with the identification of sustainable procurement as a stake in its own right. Next, he shows that the good practices associated with sustainable procurement are also new (close relationships with suppliers, systematic thought about what is needed, innovative methods of co...

  9. Public Procurement Incentives for Sustainable Design Services: Swedish Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Josefin Sporrong; Jan Bröchner

    2009-01-01

    When procuring building design services, public clients may provide incentives for the development of design tools and management practices that lead to more sustainable buildings. Procedures for selecting design professionals, including the choice of contract award criteria, can be analysed as the outcome of external and internal factors that influence procuring units. This investigation studies how the selection procedures that Swedish municipal clients rely on when procuring services from ...

  10. Routines and Communities of Practice in Public Environmental Procurement Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Katarina; Svane, Örjan

    2005-01-01

    Environmental procurement has received increasing attention as a policy tool promoting change towards sustainable consumption and production. The successful implementation of public environmental procurement policy requires the establishment of new routines for user-producer-supplier relationships that enable the integration of environmental aspects. The aim of the study is to analyse the roles of different communities of practice and learning patterns in environmental procurement processes. ...

  11. Implementing Sustainable Public Procurement: an organisational change perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Grandia, Jolien

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractFor the execution of policies, as well as for its own operations, governments procure goods and services, ranging from paper and pencils to fighter planes, cleaning services and public road works. In the European Union public procurement represents 16% of the gross domestic product. The Dutch national government alone annually spends 10 billion euro on procurement. Governments are increasingly using their authority as a large buyer in the market to compel private organisations...

  12. Public Procurement and the Development of the Swedish Telecommunications Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lindskog, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes and analyses public procurement and its processes in general against the framework of industrial marketing and purchasing. In particular, it focuses on the public procurement of telecommunications (“telecom”) and its effects on the de-monopolization and development of the Swedish telecom market based on empirical material from three case studies, interviews and publicly available written sources. Public procurement is a significant part of any country’s economy. There is...

  13. Appraisal of Construction Project Procurement Policies in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bima Abubakar Muhammad; Tafida Adamu; Baba Dorothy Ladi

    2015-01-01

    The success of performance of public sector projects in Nigeria is tied to the impact of procurement strategy or policy used in providing the building. Procurement policies significantly influence the success of construction projects since they are designed to provide solutions to specific project needs or conditions. The Nigerian construction industry was analyzed with particular emphasis on public sector procurement. The general performance of public sector projects in Nigeria was broadly a...

  14. e-Reverse Auction Guidelines for MDB Financed Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank; Inter-American Development Bank (IDB); World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Borrowing countries are increasingly inclined to use electronic procurement systems and means for processing and managing MDB funded activities. This guide is intended to be used for the application of e-reverse auctions during the procurement process. Not all procurement is suitable for e-reverse auction. Some governments consider e-reverse auction to be a special case of e-bidding while ...

  15. E-PROCUREMENT: THE FUTURE OF PURCHASING MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    CORINA POP SITAR

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, IT has a major influence on commercial activities, accelerating the adoption of e-procurement and e-marketplace participation in many industries. E-procurement is becoming popular in business practice and its benefits encourage its adoption. This article aims to outline the important role of the E-procurement for the future of purchasing management. In the first part of the paper we made a literature review about the impact of the new discoveries on purchasing. Next, we present the ...

  16. Will Electronic Procurement Change the Public Sector's Purchasing Behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindskog, Helena; Brege, Staffan; Brehmer, Per-Olof

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the findings from the KNUT project (Electronic Procurement ofTelecommunications Services for the Swedish Public Sector). The project creates a service to make the whole public procurement process electronically from analysis of needs, through development of request for proposal (RfP), contract administration and feed back, as well as a model for public procurement of telecommunications services outgoing from end-users’ and organisational needs. The study includes a detai...

  17. Procurement challenges in the Zimbabwean public sector: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Dzuke; Micheline J.A. Naude

    2015-01-01

    Background: State Procurement Board procedures and the public procurement process have been blamed for the lagging behind of government projects that impact on public service delivery in Zimbabwe.Objectives: This article provides insight into challenges resulting from the legal framework for public procurement in Zimbabwe that detract from service delivery.Method: Empirical data was collected through in-depth interviews with five participants at five public entities, using a semi-structur...

  18. Public Procurement: Public Administration and Public Service Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Snider, Keith F; Rendon, Rene G.

    2012-01-01

    Why is public procurement not a major topic in public administration education programs? While many scholars and practitioners acknowledge its importance, most master’s degree programs in public administration do not. In this paper we document this discrepancy, investigate its causes, and provide two remedies to place public procurement more squarely in the educational mainstream. The first entails a description of public procurement from wellestablished public administratio...

  19. Public Procurement and Rent-Seeking: The Case of Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Auriol, Emmanuelle; Flochel, Thomas; Straub, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    A model of entrepreneurial choices in an economy with a corrupt public procurement sector is built, providing predictions along two main dimensions. First, corruption is more frequent in sectors where public institutions are large buyers. Second, firms favoured with corrupt contracts enjoy extra returns, so that procurement related activities attract the best entrepreneurs. A large scale microeconomic database, including all public procurement operations over a 4 year period in Paraguay, amou...

  20. Public procurement: a case study of the Indian Railways

    OpenAIRE

    Nag, Bodhibrata

    2012-01-01

    Indian Railways is one of the world’s largest public sector organizations. Its network, traffic, organization and extent of vertical integration are gigantic. This paper undertakes a critical examination of its procurement process to understand the procedures and institutional mechanisms which have evolved over time for safeguarding institutional interests. The paper examines issues such as organizational structure, procurement organization, source selection methodology, procurement oversight...

  1. Management of Procurement Cost in Commercial (Trading) and Manufacturing Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodan Stojanovic; Sandra Mrvica Madarac

    2011-01-01

    Purchasing function is, along with a sale, one of the most important functions of every commercial (trading) company. Management of procurement is related to selection and number of suppliers, policy relations with them, setting of purchasing (procurement) quotas as well as to methods and types of payments. The role of procurement in relations between suppliers and buyers has been changing with market developments. Purchasing is no longer just a passive function for selecting the best supplie...

  2. Nigeria : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 1. Summary of Findings and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) for Nigeria reviews the procurement system in terms of: legal framework, public sector procurement of goods/works/consultants, procurement performance in Bank-financed projects, private sector procurement, trade practices, financial framework, and electronic commerce. The report consists of two volumes. The first volume contains a summary o...

  3. Nigeria : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 2. Main Text and Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) for Nigeria reviews the procurement system in terms of: legal framework, public sector procurement of goods/works/consultants, procurement performance in Bank-financed projects, private sector procurement, trade practices, financial framework, and electronic commerce. The report consists of two volumes. The first volume contains a summary o...

  4. The role of specification in public procurement of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    A taken for granted assertion in the literature discussing how public procurement can be used as a way of stimulating innovation is that functional specification should be applied. Unlike technical specification, where the exact details of the item to be procured is defined, it is assumed that, by...... specifying only the function or envisaged performance of the item to be procured, this would allow the submission of bids involving innovative technology and solutions previously unknown to the procurer. The starting point for the article is the perception that these views are commonly held assertions which...

  5. Economic risks of the system of state and municipal procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokrylova Olga, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the audit of economic risks at all stages of procurement for state and municipal needs from both customers and bidders is carried out on the basis of the implementation of the integrated approach . Stages in the procurement under a single contract system, which is characterized by the high economic risks are planning, supplier selection, conclusion and execution of the contract. A number of the measures according to the localization of economic risks are offered, in particular the implementation of compliance programs, which institutionalize the compliance by the organization, anti-corruption legislation; increasing qualification of specialists in public procurement and increased control through centralization of procurement.

  6. Class of Antiretroviral Drugs and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated an association between combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. It is not clear whether this association differs according to the class of antiretroviral drugs. We conducted a study to investigate the association of...

  7. A Procurement Performance Model for Construction Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Y M Lam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative construction frameworks have been developed in the United Kingdom (UK to create longer term relationships between clients and suppliers in order to improve project outcomes. Research undertaken into highways maintenance set within a major county council has confirmed that such collaborative procurement methods can improve time, cost and quality of construction projects. Building upon this and examining the same single case, this research aims to develop a performance model through identification of performance drivers in the whole project delivery process including pre and post contract phases. A priori performance model based on operational and sociological constructs was proposed and then checked by a pilot study. Factor analysis and central tendency statistics from the questionnaires as well as content analysis from the interview transcripts were conducted. It was confirmed that long term relationships, financial and non-financial incentives and stronger communication are the sociological behaviour factors driving performance. The interviews also established that key performance indicators (KPIs can be used as an operational measure to improve performance. With the posteriori performance model, client project managers can effectively collaboratively manage contractor performance through procurement measures including use of longer term and KPIs for the contract so that the expected project outcomes can be achieved. The findings also make significant contribution to construction framework procurement theory by identifying the interrelated sociological and operational performance drivers. This study is set predominantly in the field of highways civil engineering. It is suggested that building based projects or other projects that share characteristics are grouped together and used for further research of the phenomena discovered.

  8. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ahmadinejad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART, despite a reduced viral load and improved immune responses, may experience clinical deterioration. This so called "immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS" is caused by inflammatory response to both intact subclinical pathogens and residual antigens. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is common in HIV-infected patients on ART with a cluster differentiation 4 (CD4+ counts less than 50 cells/mm3. We reported a patient with blurred vision while receiving ART. She had an unmasking classic CMV retinitis after ART.

  9. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  10. Managing inventory costs through joint procurement programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given current economic and regulatory challenges, utilities are facing the need to manage inventories more efficiently, lower spare parts costs, and reduce the downtime associated with equipment failure. Two programs helping utilities achieve these goals are the Joint Procurement Corporation (JPC) for multicompany purchase of common equipment and services and the pooled inventory management (PIM) program for joint purchase and storage of nuclear generating unit spare parts. Both of these are cooperative programs that decrease the probability of extended plant outages and reduce duplication of effort and/or inventory among participating utilities

  11. South Africa - Country Procurement Assessment Report : Refining the Public Procurement System, Volume 2. Main Text

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This reports examines the importance of efficient public procurement for the national economy for South Africa. The country faces a unique task of merging a dual economy consisting of the exiting "main stream economy" and, an "emerging economy". To provide a national environment for optimal economic development; the government planned to mold the two economies into a sustainable unified gr...

  12. The influence of public procurement policies on the implementation of procurement best practices in South African universities

    OpenAIRE

    Winnie Dlamini; Intaher M. Ambe

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between public procurement policies and procurement best practices (PBPs) in higher education institutions is inevitable. Higher education institutions (HEIs) in South Africa play a crucial role in contributing to the economic, social and environmental development of the country. Hence the implementation of PBPs has a key role in creating a competitive advantage for higher education. The purpose of this article is to determine the influence of public procurement policies on t...

  13. Development of modified rational buyer auction for procurement of ancillary services utilizing participation matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rational buyer auction is based on a simultaneous auction that is the redesigned auction mechanism for ancillary services by the California independent system operator (CAISO). The incentive for the rational buyer auction is CAISO's intent to adopt a common sense rule of substituting higher-quality lower-cost services for lower-quality higher-cost services, when it results in reduced total procurement cost. For the purposes of designing a desirable auction where the minimum cost for the objective function as well as prevention of price reversal are achieved, either the payment cost in marginal pricing auction must be lowered or price reversal in rational buyer auction must be avoided. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop a newly proposed 'modified rational buyer' auction that does not allow price reversal and (b) to propose and validate a solution procedure that is based on participation matrix and discrete programming. The validation of the proposed solution procedure is accomplished through examination of two case studies available in the literature. Based on the first case study data, it is shown that the newly developed modified rational buyer auction avoids price reversal occurrence, while the total payment of ISO is increased by 5.8%, as compared with rational buyer auction. Also in comparison with marginal pricing auction, the ISO payment is lowered by 38.8%, when the newly developed modified rational buyer auction is utilized. For future work, it is recommended that the application of the modified rational buyer auction to joint dispatch of energy and ancillary services is investigated. (author)

  14. Optimal combined purchasing strategies for a risk-averse manufacturer under price uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our paper is to analyze optimal purchasing strategies when a manufacturer can buy raw materials from a long-term contract supplier and a spot market under spot price uncertainty. Design/methodology/approach: This procurement model can be solved by using dynamic programming. First, we maximize the DM’s utility of the second period, obtaining the optimal contract quantity and spot quantity for the second period. Then, maximize the DM’s utility of both periods, obtaining the optimal purchasing strategy for the first period. We use a numerical method to compare the performance level of a pure spot sourcing strategy with that of a mixed strategy. Findings: Our results show that optimal purchasing strategies vary with the trend of contract prices. If the contract price falls, the total quantity purchased in period 1 will decrease in the degree of risk aversion. If the contract price increases, the total quantity purchased in period 1 will increase in the degree of risk aversion. The relationship between the optimal contract quantity and the degree of risk aversion depends on whether the expected spot price or the contract price is larger in period 2. Finally, we compare the performance levels between a combined strategy and a spot sourcing strategy. It shows that a combined strategy is optimal for a risk-averse buyer. Originality/value: It’s challenging to deal with a two-period procurement problem with risk consideration. We have obtained results of a two-period procurement problem with two sourcing options, namely contract procurement and spot purchases. Our model incorporates the buyer’s risk aversion factor and the change of contract prices, which are not addressed in early studies.

  15. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    On April 1, 2005, Denmark changed the way references prices, a main determinant of reimbursements for pharmaceutical purchases, are calculated. The previous reference prices, which were based on average EU prices, were substituted to minimum domestic prices. Novel to the literature, we estimate the...

  16. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula. Impli

  17. Progress of the National Pediatric Free Antiretroviral Therapy program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Xin; He, Yun; Tang, Zhirong; Peng, Guoping; Liu, Aiwen; Qiao, Xiaochun; Li, Huiqin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Dou, Zhihui; Ma, Ye; Liu, Zhongfu; Zhang, Fujie

    2010-10-01

    In 2003, the Chinese Government initiated a free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program focusing on adult AIDS patients. Pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations were yet unavailable. It was not until July 2005, with the initiation of a two-stage program implemented by the Chinese Ministry of Health, that pediatric formulations became accessible in China. Initially, the pediatric ART program was piloted in six provinces with the highest incidences of pediatric HIV/AIDS. The pilot stage allowed the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) to finalize entry criteria, treatment regimen, and patient monitoring and follow-up procedures. The second stage commenced at the end of 2006 when the program was scaled-up nationally. In order to guarantee treatment of pediatric patients, extensive training in the selection of appropriate ARV drug regimen and dosage was provided to doctors, often through on-site collaboration with domestic and international experts. The CCDC simultaneously established a pediatric ARV management system and a pediatric ART information system. CD4 count and other laboratory tests are being routinely performed on these pediatric patients. By the end of June 2009, 1529 pediatric patients had received ARV under the national program. However, challenges remain. Firstly, many children infected with HIV/AIDS live in rural areas where the treatment quality is hindered by the limited number of medical facilities and skilled medical workers. Secondly, much of the pediatric ARV drug supply depends on donation. An effort needs to be made by the Chinese Government to establish China's own drug procurement and supply system. PMID:20665285

  18. Pricing structures in US coal supply contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacker, Kanishka

    The subject of my dissertation is the study of coal procurement by electric utilities in the US over 2 decades, from 1979 to 2000. Energy markets are typically characterized by severe contracting problems. Buyers and sellers therefore employ various instruments, such as contract length or complex pricing arrangements, to restrict these problems. Relationship specific investment, wherein buyers make investments specific to their suppliers, has been advanced as a prominent explanation for contractual length. Investment decisions are however endogenous in length or pricing, making causal identification of the role of investment specificity difficult. In my first chapter, I attempt a resolution. I use the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment as an exogenous shifter of the extent of relationship specific investment. A key feature of the Amendment's design helps me define a difference-in-difference model arguably free of the endogeneity issues discussed above. I find that the plants forced into switching - Phase I plants located in the US Midwest - are more likely to choose fixed price contracts than those that were not. Further they also write contracts of shorter terms, with the reduction being approximately 30%. Considerably little is known about the performance implications of contractual choices. These form the basis for Chapter 2. Here I find prices to be lower, by between 5% to 20% of the total transaction price, but the probability of renegotiation higher, under fixed price contracts than under escalator or cost-plus contracts. Contract choices appear consistent with a trade-off between establishing incentives ex-ante and lowering negotiation costs ex-post, with relationship specific investments in particular making such a trade-off compelling. Chapter 3 considers the regulatory environment these utilities were subject to. Both incentive based regulation as well as the restructuring of electricity generation are smaller in comparison to relationship specific investment

  19. Green Component Procurement Collaboration for Improving Supply Chain Management in the High Technology Industries: A Case Study from the Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of high technology industries have been growing increasingly to technological innovations and global economic developments, while the concerns in sustainability are calling for facilitating green materials and cleaner production in the industrial value chains. Today’s manufacturing companies are not striving for individual capacities but for the effective working with green supply chains. However, in addition to environmental and social objectives, cost and economic feasibility has become one of the most critical success factors for improving supply chain management with green component procurement collaboration, especially for the electronics OEM (original equipment manufacturing companies whose procurement costs often make up a very high proportion of final product prices. This paper presents a case study from the systems perspective by using System Dynamics simulation analysis and statistical validations with empirical data. Empirical data were collected from Taiwanese manufacturing chains—among the world’s largest manufacturing clusters of high technology components and products—and their global green suppliers to examine the benefits of green component procurement collaborations in terms of shared costs and improved shipping time performance. Two different supply chain collaboration models, from multi-layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC and universal serial bus 3.0 (USB 3.0 cable procurements, were benchmarked and statistically validated. The results suggest that the practices of collaborative planning for procurement quantity and accurate fulfillment by suppliers are significantly related to cost effectiveness and shipping time efficiency. Although the price negotiation of upstream raw materials for the collaborative suppliers has no statistically significant benefit to the shipping time efficiency, the shared cost reduction of component procurement is significantly positive for supply chain collaboration among green

  20. The World Bank Group and Public Procurement--An Independent Evaluation : Volume 2: Achieving Development Effectiveness through Procurement in Bank Financial Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2014-01-01

    Good public procurement practices are a major determinant of the effectiveness of public expenditure. On behalf of their citizens, governments typically spend as much as 5-20 percent of their gross domestic product on procurement of goods and services, and effective procurement policies enable better use of government budgets. Good national procurement practices are therefore an essential ...

  1. Price level targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Shukayev, Malik; Ueberfeldt, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Various papers have suggested that Price-Level targeting is a welfare improving policy relative to Inflation targeting. From a practical standpoint, this raises an important yet unanswered question: What is the optimal price index to target? This paper derives the optimal price level targeting index defined over the eight main components of the Consumer Price Index. It finds that such an index places a heavier weight, relative to the expenditure weight, on sectors with slow price adjustments....

  2. The Pricing of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Malte

    2009-01-01

    The pricing of payments has received increasing attention of regulators. In many cases, regulators are concerned that consumers do not face cost based prices. They argue that without cost based prices consumers will make inefficient choices. In this paper, it is argued that both, economics of scale and the particular laws governing pricing in two-sided markets provide a case against cost based pricing.

  3. Pricing of payments

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Malte

    2009-01-01

    The pricing of payments has received increasing attention of regulators. In many cases, regulators are concerned that consumers do not face cost based prices. They argue that without cost based prices consumers will make inefficient choices. In this paper, it is argued that both, economics of scale and the particular laws governing pricing in two-sided markets provide a case against cost based pricing.

  4. Road pricing: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rouhani, Omid

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a general overview of the road pricing concept. It first examines the common objectives used in road pricing, namely (a) congestion reduction; (b) raising profits; (c) social welfare maximization; etc. Then, it explores various types of road pricing, including two major ones: (1) road tolls and (2) congestion pricing charges. Next, general modeling approaches used for estimating the impacts of road pricing are discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with a checklist explaini...

  5. Testing Price Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Ray C. Fair

    2007-01-01

    How inflation and unemployment are related in both the short run and long run is perhaps the key question in macroeconomics. This paper tests various price equations using quarterly U.S. data from 1952 to the present. Issues treated are the following. 1) Estimating price and wage equations in which wages affect prices and vice versa versus estimating "reduced form" price equations with no wage explanatory variables. 2) Estimating price equations in (log) level terms, first difference (i.e., i...

  6. Asset Pricing Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Rothschild

    1985-01-01

    This article compares two leading models of asset pricing: the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and the arbitrage pricing theory (APT): I argue that while the APT is compatible with the data available for testing theories of asset pricing, the CAPM is not. In reaching this conclusion emphasis is placed on the distinction between the unconditional (relatively incomplete) information which econometricians must use to estimate asset pricing models and the conditional (complete) information whi...

  7. Payday loan pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Robert DeYoung; Phillips, Ronnie J.

    2009-01-01

    We estimate the pricing determinants for 35,098 payday loans originated in Colorado between 2000 and 2006, and generate a number of results with implications for public policy. We find evidence consistent with classical price competition early in the sample, but as time passed these competitive effects faded and the data become more consistent with a variety of strategic pricing practices. On average, loan prices moved upward toward the legislated price ceiling over time, consistent with impl...

  8. Share Prices and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Andersen; Robert Subbaraman

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we examine two related propositions: the efficiency of pricing of Australian shares and the influences of share prices on business investment. In line with similar studies overseas, we find that the Australian share market may deviate from efficient pricing over short time horizons but that there is little evidence of inefficiency over longer time horizons. To investigate the influence of share prices on investment decisions we use a simple model of real share prices to identify...

  9. One TV, One Price?

    OpenAIRE

    Imbs, J.; Mumtaz, H.; Ravn, M. O.; Rey, H.

    2009-01-01

    We use a unique dataset on television prices across European countries and regions to investigate the sources of differences in price levels. Our findings are as follows: (i) Quality is a crucial determinant of price differences. Even in an integrated economic zone as Europe, rich economies tend to consume higher quality goods. This effect accounts for the lion’s share of international price dispersion. (ii) Sizable international price differentials subsist even for the same television sets. ...

  10. The role of procurement in liabilities management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has as its primary purpose the management of the liabilities left from the nuclear R and D programme. When it was set up in its present form in 1994 (as UKAEA Government Division) it had as its core functions programme management and procurement. It aimed to be involved in project implementation and operations only in so far as it needed to be for purposes of control as nuclear site licensee, or where otherwise this represented best value for money for the taxpayer. This paper describes how the clear definition and split of client and contractor roles has enabled UKAEA to promote the development of a competitive market in decommissioning, to the benefit of the taxpayer and industry. The importance of procurement at the various stages of planning and implementation are explained, along with some of the initiatives UKAEA has taken to improve client-contractor relationships. It is argued that UKAEA's approach has helped to define the boundaries of what is permissible in contractorization within the terms of a nuclear site licence. (author)

  11. US utility uranium procurement: goals and tactics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes and attempts to explain the results of a survey sent to 37 US utilities asking them two questions: What are the goals of your uranium procurement strategy? and what are the tactics you use in achieving those goals? The results are presented in a summary fashion to protect individual company proprietary information. This paper is directed particularly to non-US uranium market participants as an aid to gain further insight into ''the US market'' and to understand how the potential cumulative market responses of US utilities may influence their procurement plans. Out of 37 utilities surveyed, 25 responded. Some utilities were interviewed over the telephone. Some responses were as short as one paragraph, while others were 1 to 5 pages in length. The format was chosen to encourage original responses. The range of responses could be used in the future as a basis for a multiple-choice type survey to form a more statistically representative sample. The responses are summarized for each of the two questions. (author)

  12. Stochastic energy procurement of large electricity consumer considering photovoltaic, wind-turbine, micro-turbines, energy storage system in the presence of demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A stochastic energy procurement cost function in presence of DRP is proposed. • The load, price and output power of PV and wind uncertainties are modeled. • Four case studies are used to assess the effects of ESS and DRP on SEPP. • Case 4 is considered the effects of ESS and DRP simultaneously. • The expected energy procurement cost of case 4 is lower than cases 1, 2 and 3. - Abstract: This paper proposes a stochastic energy procurement problem (SEPP) for large electricity consumer (LEC) with multiple energy procurement sources (EPSs) considering the effects of demand response program (DRP) and energy storage system (ESS). The EPSs contain power market (PM), bilateral contracts (BCs), micro-turbines (MTs), and renewable energy sources (RESs). Moreover, the RESs include photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind-turbines (WT). The ESS and DRP are incorporated in the SEPP by the LEC’s decision-maker to reduce the expected energy procurement cost (EEPC). Meanwhile, the uncertainty models of market price, load and RES output power are considered in the SEPP formulation. The error of forecasting of market price, load, temperature and radiation of PV systems are modeled using the normal distribution for generating the related scenarios. Also, the weibull distribution is used to generate variable wind speed scenarios for WT output power uncertainty modeling. Furthermore, the fast forward selection based on Kantorovich distance approach is used for the scenarios reduction. Finally, the influences of ESS and DRP on EEPC are investigated, and four case studies are used to illustrate the capability of the proposed SEPP. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed stochastic program

  13. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    OpenAIRE

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  14. Public-Private Partnership in the EU Public Procurement Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    , poses legal challenges for the procurement of PPP contracts. The overall research objective of my doctoral thesis is to analyse, clarify and discuss potential legal challenges resulting from European Union public procurement law - provided in Directive 2004/18/EC – which a public authority is obliged to...

  15. Nuclear fuel procurement management at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market situation of nuclear fuel cycles is highlighted. It also summarises the possible contract models and the elements of effective management for nuclear fuel procurement at nuclear power station based upon the nuclear fuel procurement practice of Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS)

  16. The fuel procurement strategy in CEZ a.s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper describes the CEZ, a.s. approach to fuel procurement for Czech nuclear power plants, as well as experience acquired over the years. It also summarizes strategic goals for the CEZ, a.s. nuclear fuel cycle related activities, especially for the nearest future, aimed to fuel procurement. (orig.)

  17. The Political Economy of Military Manpower Procurement in Peacetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Glenn Alexander

    The study examines military manpower procurement for peacetime. It considers the broad alternative systems of conscription and voluntarism and develops models of demand and supply for military labor to show how these are affected by the choice of procurement system. Empirical applications are made using evidence from Australia, Canada, Great…

  18. 45 CFR 74.40 - Purpose of procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose of procurement standards. 74.40 Section 74.40 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM... NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards §...

  19. Implementing Sustainable Public Procurement : an organisational change perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grandia (Jolien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractFor the execution of policies, as well as for its own operations, governments procure goods and services, ranging from paper and pencils to fighter planes, cleaning services and public road works. In the European Union public procurement represents 16% of the gross domestic product.

  20. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 6-PROCUREMENT...

  1. The Dutch system of legal protection in public procurement procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijck, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The legal protection of entrepreneurs in public procurement procedures has been a point of concern to the European Union legislator, leading to the adoption of well-known the Remedies Directives. This article examines the conformity of the Dutch system of judicial protection in the procurement field

  2. 41 CFR 105-72.500 - Purpose of procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of procurement standards. 105-72.500 Section 105-72.500 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement...

  3. 44 CFR 150.6 - Design and procurement of awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and procurement of awards. 150.6 Section 150.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL PUBLIC SAFETY AWARDS TO PUBLIC SAFETY OFFICERS § 150.6 Design and procurement of awards....

  4. The EU Public Procurement regime - Does It Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Lars Gottlieb

    2001-01-01

    Has the Single Market for public procurement had the expected effects after six years in progress? The following article attempts to answer this question by first presenting alternative theoretical approaches to analysing the EU liberalisation of the public procurement market and then confronting...

  5. 41 CFR 105-72.506 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement records. 105-72.506 Section 105-72.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement...

  6. Malawi : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 3. Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The Malawi Country Procurement Assessment Report is a joint undertaking between the Malawi Government and the World Bank to analyze the country procurement system and recommend appropriate actions to improve the efficiency, economy and transparency of the system. This report is divided into (a) an Executive Summary, (b) Main Report on Findings and Recommendations, and (c) Annexes. Since th...

  7. Organic and conventional public food procurement for youth in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bocchi, Stefano; Spigarolo, Roberto; Marcomini, Natale; Sarti, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    Political organisation and policies about school catering and public organic procurement in Italy. The report is produced within the project “innovative Public Organic food Procurement for Youth”, iPOPY, and will be updated and revised during the project period (2007-2010).

  8. 41 CFR 51-2.8 - Procurement list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement list. 51-2.8 Section 51-2.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.8 Procurement list. (a) The Committee maintains...

  9. Procurement of intermediary services: Interpreters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Felsö

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the procurement of intermediary services in interpreters to approximately one third of all public clients in The Netherlands. The procurement has lead to a smooth transition from public to a private organization and the new intermediary performs to the satisfaction of its clien

  10. 41 CFR 101-26.501-5 - Procurement time schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement time schedules. 101-26.501-5 Section 101-26.501-5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT...

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.102-3 - Procurement leadtime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement leadtime. 101-26.102-3 Section 101-26.102-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... procurement leadtime table illustrated in the FEDSTRIP Operating Guide does not apply to public exigency...

  12. 42 CFR 482.100 - Condition of participation: Organ procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Organ procurement. 482.100 Section 482.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... participation: Organ procurement. The transplant center must ensure that the hospital in which it operates has...

  13. Malawi : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 2. Details and Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The Malawi Country Procurement Assessment Report is a joint undertaking between the Malawi Government and the World Bank to analyze the country procurement system and recommend appropriate actions to improve the efficiency, economy and transparency of the system. This report is divided into (a) an Executive Summary, (b) Main Report on Findings and Recommendations, and (c) Annexes. Since th...

  14. 5 CFR 300.506 - Requirements of procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Vietnam era veterans as provided in 41 CFR part 60-250, and with public policy programs including... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements of procurement. 300.506... EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.506 Requirements of procurement. (a)...

  15. 41 CFR 105-72.504 - Procurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement procedures. 105-72.504 Section 105-72.504 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement...

  16. Ghana : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 1. Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights a broad array of poor procedures and practices throughout the tendering and contract management process, which have been the cause of many of Ghana's public procurement problems, and where most of the leakages in public procurement funding occur and substantial savings could be realized. Most of the procedural anomalies are now being corrected by the Public Procureme...

  17. Ghana : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 2. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights a broad array of poor procedures and practices throughout the tendering and contract management process, which have been the cause of many of Ghana's public procurement problems, and where most of the leakages in public procurement funding occur and substantial savings could be realized. Most of the procedural anomalies are now being corrected by the Public Procureme...

  18. Ghana : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 4. Annex 8

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights a broad array of poor procedures and practices throughout the tendering and contract management process, which have been the cause of many of Ghana's public procurement problems, and where most of the leakages in public procurement funding occur and substantial savings could be realized. Most of the procedural anomalies are now being corrected by the Public Procureme...

  19. Ghana : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 5. Annex 9

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights a broad array of poor procedures and practices throughout the tendering and contract management process, which have been the cause of many of Ghana's public procurement problems, and where most of the leakages in public procurement funding occur and substantial savings could be realized. Most of the procedural anomalies are now being corrected by the Public Procureme...

  20. 76 FR 78216 - Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... 301 of NOTA. (73 FR 11420.) HRSA also sought feedback on the optimal way to define VCA if either... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 121 RIN 0906-AA73 Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network AGENCY... the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. The Secretary further proposes a...

  1. 7 CFR 215.14a - Procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement standards. 215.14a Section 215.14a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.14a Procurement standards. (a) General. State agencies and...

  2. G-PROJECT PROCUREMENT FOR INDUSTRY IN HONG KONG, GREATER CHINA AND WORLDWIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Shuk Yi (S.Y.) WONG

    2014-01-01

    G-Project Procurement for Industry means Building Practice made perfect. Reviewing the Green Project Procurement and Development globally, Green Project Procurement has been one of the fastest growths in Industry during the last decade. It is hard to format from 'Green Project Procurement for Industry' into work and the present Green Project Procurement of Industry, in particular. It is grave on Green Project Procurement for Industry presently. This research, through statistic...

  3. G-PROJECT PROCUREMENT FOR EDUCATION IN HONG KONG, GREATER CHINA AND WORLDWIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Shuk Yi (S.Y.) WONG

    2014-01-01

    G-Project Procurement for Education means Building Practice made perfect. Reviewing the Green Project Procurement and Development globally, Green Project Procurement has been one of the fastest growths in Education during the last decade. It is problematic to implant 'Green Project Procurement for Education' into work and future Green Project Procurement of Education, in particular. Green Project Procurement is the way forward for Education, but faces many obstacles. Mostly fo...

  4. PROCUREMENT IN MANUFACTURING ORGANISATION: PORTFOLIO AND THE USE OF THE INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    I Nyoman Pujawan

    2003-01-01

    Procurement function in manufacturing organisations has played significantly more critical roles nowadays than in the past. The contribution of procurement function is much determined by how well the procurement management system is designed. A critical aspect of managing procurement function in order to optimise its contribution to the organisation is procurement portfolio, i.e., categorisation of items and then differentiation of procurement focus for different categories. This paper will d...

  5. Comparison of open and restricted procedures concerning the public procurement process

    OpenAIRE

    Siřínková, Nela

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the analysis of the open and restricted procedures concerning the process of public procurements. Public procurement is regulated by Act No. 137/2006 Coll., On Public Procurement. The thesis is divided into several chapters. First, the basic concepts of public procurement, then description of open and restricted procurement procedure. The last chapter contains practical analysis regarding to the question of reducing the estimated value of a public procurement, depending...

  6. Accounting Aspects of Pricing and Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from m...

  7. Volatile behaviour of enrichment uranium in the total nuclear fuel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the historical high volatile behaviour of the total nuclear fuel price is evaluated quantitatively and it is concluded that it has been due mainly to the fluctuations of the price of the principal components of enriched uranium (concentrates and enrichment). In order to avoid the negative effects of this volatiles behaviour as far as possible, a basic strategy in the uranium procurement activities is recommended (union of buyers, diversification of supplier, stock management, optimisation of contract portfolio and suitable currency management that guarantees a reliable uranium supply at reasonable prices. These guidelines are those that ENUSA has been following on behalf of the Spanish Utilities in the Commission of Uranium Procurement (CAU in Spanish). (Author) 11 refs

  8. Playing the game of public procurement of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Given the emergence and diffusion of policies aiming at promoting the utilisation of public procurement as an innovation policy instrument, it is remarkable that very little scholarly attention has been given to the teaching of public procurement of innovation. This paper sets out to contribute...... towards mending this gap, by discussing some considerations made in the context of the development and set up of a university course in public procurement of innovation. A major challenge for such an endeavour is how to bring the complexities of real-life public procurement into a university class......-room setting in a way that makes sense to students with relatively modest experiences from professional contexts. This challenge was taken on by introducing three different public procurement of innovation games in the curriculum, as presented in the paper....

  9. Employees Adoption of E-Procurement System: An Empirical Study

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Inder

    2011-01-01

    Today, organizations are investing a lot in their IT infrastructure and reengineering their business processes by digitizing firms. If organizational employees will not optimum utilize its IT infrastructure, the productivity gain reduced enormously. In Uttarakhand e-procurement system implemented by public sector under e-governance integrated mission mode projects. So, there is need to find the determinants which influence employee's adoption and uses of e-procurement systems. This research study assesses the organizational and individual determinants that influence the use of e-procurement system in Uttarakhand public sector. This study provides managers with the valuable information to take intervention programs to achieve greater acceptance and usage of e-procurement system. Data collected for this study by the means of a survey conducted in Uttarakhand state in 2011. A total 1200 questionnaire forms were distributed personally and online to employees using e-procurement system in Uttarakhand.

  10. Negotiating commodity price risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the negotiations that led to PrimeWest's acquisition of Northstar's Grand Forks property at the end of 1997 was presented as an example of dealing with commodity price risk in an asset purchase. The paper described the pricing environment at the time of negotiations, the oil price collar, and the closing results. In 1998 PrimeWest drilled nine out of ten successful wells which are currently producing at an average production rate of 2776 bpd. In the event, PrimeWest has been able to maintain good value in its Grand Forks property acquisition, despite low oil prices. It is believed that the oil price collar was the main component of value retention. The oil price collar was the mechanism to protect PrimeWest, should oil prices remain below the field price. It is believed that this transaction would not have occurred without the price collar. 5 tabs., 12 figs

  11. Public College and University Procurement: A Survey of the State Regulatory Environment, Institutional Procurement Practices and Efforts toward Cost Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This study contends that one area rich for reform and cost-saving opportunities is college and university procurement--the billions of dollars public institutions spend annually to purchase goods and services. While considerable cost savings may be realized in the reform of current procurement practices, these practices are largely shaped by state…

  12. Modelling Brewing Industry Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the price behaviour of the second to eleventh strongest brewers on the Czech market on the basis of the price behaviour of the price leader, this being Plzeňskı Prazdroj (a member of SABMiller). Using monthly prices (the number of observations is generally 108 periods), is modelled the length of delay between the price leader and the other breweries making a price change. A linear regressive analysis is used to produce the model. The beer brands are...

  13. Diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy, and emergence of resistance to antiretroviral agents in HIV-2 infection: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Hightower

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and type 2 (HIV-2 are the causative agents of AIDS. HIV-2 is prevalent at moderate to high rates in West African countries, such as Senegal, Guinea, Gambia, and Cape Verde. Diagnosis of HIV-2 is made with a positive HIV-1/HIV-2 ELISA or simple/rapid assay, followed by one or two confirmatory tests specific for HIV-2. Following CD4+ T cell counts, HIV-2 viral burden and clinical signs and symptoms of immunodeficiency are beneficial in monitoring HIV-2 disease progression. Although non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are ineffective in treating HIV-2, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors can be effective in dual and triple antiretroviral regimens. Their use can decrease HIV-2 viral load, increase CD4+ T cell counts and improve AIDS-related symptoms. HIV-2 resistance to various nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, including zidovudine, lamivudine, ritonavir and indinavir, has been identified in some HIV-2 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. The knowledge of HIV-2 peculiarities, when compared to HIV-1, is crucial to helping diagnose and guide the clinician in the choice of the initial antiretroviral regimen and for monitoring therapy success.

  14. Southern African HIV Clinicians Society adult antiretroviral therapy guidelines: Update on when to initiate antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Meintjes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The most recent version of the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society’s adult antiretroviral therapy (ART guidelines was published in December 2014. In the 27 August 2015 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine, two seminal randomised controlled trials that addressed the optimal timing of ART in HIV-infected patients with high CD4 counts were published: Strategic timing of antiretroviral therapy (START and TEMPRANO ANRS 12136 (Early antiretroviral treatment and/or early isoniazid prophylaxis against tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults. The findings of these two trials were consistent: there was significant individual clinical benefit from starting ART immediately in patients with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells/μL rather than deferring until a certain lower CD4 threshold or clinical indication was met. The findings add to prior evidence showing that ART reduces the risk of onward HIV transmission. Therefore, early ART initiation has the public health benefits of potentially reducing both HIV incidence and morbidity. Given this new and important evidence, the Society took the decision to provide a specific update on the section of the adult ART guidelines relating to when ART should be initiated.

  15. Antiretrovirals for low income countries: an analysis of the commercial viability of a highly competitive market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakakeeto Olive N

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The price of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs in low income countries declined steadily in recent years. This raises concerns about the commercial viability of the market of ARVs in low income countries. Methods Using 2 costing scenarios, we modeled the production cost of the most commonly used ARVs in low income countries in 2010 and 2012, and assessed whether, at the median price paid by low income countries, their manufacturers would still make profits. By interviews we consulted 11 generic manufacturers on the current state of the ARV market, and on what would be required to ensure their continued commitment to supply ARVs to low income countries. Results Using the lowest prices for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API quoted to WHO, and applying published assumptions about the production cost of ARVs, our baseline estimate was that Indian generic manufacturers would have made profits on only 1 out of 13 formulations of ARVs in both 2010 and 2012, and publicly owned manufacturers would have made profits on 5 and 3 out of 13 formulations in 2010 and 2012, respectively. We needed to assume a 20% and a 40% lower API cost for our model to predict that publicly owned and Indian manufacturers, respectively, would make profits on the sale of the majority of their ARVs. Between 2010 and 2012, we estimate that - across the ARV portfolio - the gross profit on sales of ARVs to low income countries decreased with between 6% and 7% of their sales price. Generic manufacturers consider that current prices are unsustainable. They suggested amendments to the tender procedures, simplified regulatory procedures, improved forecasting, and simplification of the ARV guidelines as critical improvements to maintain a viable ARV market. Conclusions While recent price decreases indicate that there is still space for price reduction, our estimate that gross profit margin on sales decreased by 6 to 7% between 2010 and 2012 lends credibility to

  16. Enhancing Environmental Performance by Green Procurement : A study of environmental procurement preferences in the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Varnäs, Annika

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the general awareness of the environmental impacts that industrial production gives rise to has radically increased throughout the world. Finding ways to minimise these impacts has become a major concern of the authorities in many countries. In order to promote a more sustainable industrial production, different incentives can be used. Among these incentives, the consideration of environmental issues in public procurement is increasingly being emphasised. While much attention...

  17. Integration of Antiretroviral Therapy with Tuberculosis Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Grobler, Anneke; Padayatchi, Nesri; Baxter, Cheryl; Gray, Andrew L.; Gengiah, Tanuja; Gengiah, Santhanalakshmi; Naidoo, Anushka; Jithoo, Niraksha; Nair, Gonasagrie; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.; Friedland, Gerald; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2011-01-01

    Background We previously reported that integrating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with tuberculosis treatment reduces mortality. However, optimal time to initiate ART during tuberculosis treatment remains contentious. Methods To address this, we conducted a 3-arm, open-label randomized controlled trial in South Africa in acid-fast bacilli smear positive patients (n=642) with HIV and CD4+ counts IRIS) incidence rates were 20.2 (early) and 7.7 (late) per 100 person-years (IRR=2.62; 95%CI: 1.48,4.82; PIRIS and ART-related adverse events, support early ART initiation in patients with CD4+ counts <50 cells/mm3 and deferred ART initiation to the continuation phase of tuberculosis treatment when CD4+ counts are higher. PMID:22010915

  18. Procurement and production of biofuels - a Finnish example of private entrepreneurship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conference paper. In Finland, heating entrepreneurship, i.e. supplying customers with heat energy from wood raw material, is a new form of rural enterprise. The entrepreneur is mainly responsible for supplying heat energy to municipal real estates in the form of chipped wood. He procures the fuel and supervises the heating plant and is paid on the basis of the amount of heat generated. The price of the supplied heat is usually bound to the price of light fuel oil, but agreements based on the price development of district heat and chips are also used. At the end of 1996 there were 36 examples of heating enterprises in Finland and about 20 new ones are planned to start in 1997. Twenty-nine of the operational targets supplied by heating-energy entrepreneurs were single-building heating plants and seven were district heating plants, all using oil for additional or reserve energy. Heating entrepreneurship provides extra income, especially for farmers, who have otherwise unmarketable potential fuelwood in their wood lot, underutilized timber harvesting equipment, experience of using fuel chips, and lack of supplementary income opportunities. 1 figure, 6 tabs

  19. The cost of antiretroviral therapy in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzgerald Daniel W

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We determined direct medical costs, overhead costs, societal costs, and personnel requirements for the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART to patients with AIDS in Haiti. Methods We examined data from 218 treatment-naïve adults who were consecutively initiated on ART at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between December 23, 2003 and May 20, 2004 and calculated costs and personnel requirements for the first year of ART. Results The mean total cost of treatment per patient was $US 982 including $US 846 in direct costs, $US 114 for overhead, and $US 22 for societal costs. The direct cost per patient included generic ART medications $US 355, lab tests $US 130, nutrition $US 117, hospitalizations $US 62, pre-ART evaluation $US 58, labor $US 51, non-ART medications $US 39, outside referrals $US 31, and telephone cards for patient retention $US 3. Higher treatment costs were associated with hospitalization, change in ART regimen, TB treatment, and survival for one year. We estimate that 1.5 doctors and 2.5 nurses are required to treat 1000 patients in the first year after initiating ART. Conclusion Initial ART treatment in Haiti costs approximately $US 1,000 per patient per year. With generic first-line antiretroviral drugs, only 36% of the cost is for medications. Patients who change regimens are significantly more expensive to treat, highlighting the need for less-expensive second-line drugs. There may be sufficient health care personnel to treat all HIV-infected patients in urban areas of Haiti, but not in rural areas. New models of HIV care are needed for rural areas using assistant medical officers and community health workers.

  20. Expansion of China's free antiretroviral treatment program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-cai; ZHANG Fu-jie; WEN Yi; MA Ye; ZHAO Yan; ZHANG Yao; WU Ya-song; LIU Xia; Elizabeth Au; LIU Zhong-fu

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003,China's National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program (NFATP) was initiated as a pilot,which covered only 100 HIV/AIDS patients.By 2011,the pilot had evolved into a nationwide program and had provided free treatment for over 150 000 patients.The objective of this study was to report and evaluate the progress of China's free antiretroviral treatment program.Methods The NFATP Database was systematically reviewed and a total of 150 692 HIV/AIDS patients were included in this study.Program progress indicators including the number of treated HIV/AIDS patients,follow-up visit rate,CD4 test rate,and viral load test rate were summarized and examined over a calendar year to evaluate the progress of NFATP quantitatively and qualitatively.Results By the end of 2011,a total of 150 692 HIV/AIDS patients had been treated through the NFATP and 122 613 of them were still on treatment.Of all patients,about 72% were enrolled during the past four years.The dominant transmission route was blood related in the early phase of the NFATP,but gradually changed to sexual contact.Besides quantitative improvements,progress indicators also demonstrated significant qualitative improvements that the program had made during the past 9 years.Conclusions Great achievement has been made by China's NFATP.China's experience indicates the importance of a comprehensive response to the success of its treatment program.However,to ensure the quality and sustainability of treatment in the long term,more attention and resources should be paid towards program management.Chin Med J 2012; 125(19):3514-3521

  1. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  2. Appraisal of Construction Project Procurement Policies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bima Abubakar Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The success of performance of public sector projects in Nigeria is tied to the impact of procurement strategy or policy used in providing the building. Procurement policies significantly influence the success of construction projects since they are designed to provide solutions to specific project needs or conditions. The Nigerian construction industry was analyzed with particular emphasis on public sector procurement. The general performance of public sector projects in Nigeria was broadly assessed and quite unfortunately the literature review has criticized public sector procurement in Nigeria of been inefficient for efficient project delivery. Equally the respondents to the survey data obtained from the questionnaire distributed and oral interview conducted suggest that projects are affected by the procurement strategy adopted for project delivery. A significant number of the questionnaire respondents believe that performance of projects could be improved using alternative or hybrid procurement strategies. Recommendations were proffered in order to mitigate or reduce completely the challenges and complexities faced by public project procurement schemes in Nigeria.

  3. An investigation into the effectiveness of public entities’ procurement practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moitswadi Mofokeng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The delivery of services through the procurement of goods and services requires proper strategic leadership and management processes. Inappropriate planning, under-spending of budgets and ineffective procurement form part of the root causes of poor service delivery, as this restricts the movement of resources to the right places. This study identified the leading procurement practices as: procurement strategy and leadership, the procurement process, human resource management, procurement information systems, supplier management and procurement performance management. These practices were then tested in public entities, mainly in Gauteng Province, South Africa, to determine the extent to which they are applied. The study found that there is a major divide between the perception of the level of application of the leading practices and actual implementation. Processes, skills, performance management, information technology (IT systems and supplier management are applied inadequately or inappropriately. Most entities thus show a poor understanding of customer needs and there seems to be a general lack of customer focus. The study highlighted the best practice areas in which public entities are able to focus their efforts to better achieve excellent customer service and thus service delivery.

  4. Logit price dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Costain, James; Nakov, Anton

    2014-01-01

    We propose a near-rational model of retail price adjustment consistent with microeconomic and macroeconomic evidence on price dynamics. Our framework is based on the idea that avoiding errors in decision making is costly. Given our assumed cost function for error avoidance, the timing of firms’ price adjustments is determined by a weighted binary logit, and the prices they choose are determined by a multinomial logit. We build this behavior into a DSGE model, estimate the decision cost functi...

  5. Precautionary price stickiness

    OpenAIRE

    Costain, James; Nakov, Anton

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a model in which retail prices are sticky even though firms can always change their prices at zero cost. Instead of imposing a "menu cost", we assume that more precise decisions are more costly. In equilibrium, firms optimally make some errors in price-setting, thus economizing on managerial time. Both the time cost of choice, and the resulting risk of errors, give firms an incentive to leave their prices unchanged until they perceive a sufficiently large deviation from th...

  6. Price Stickiness and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Richard De Abreu Lourenco; David Gruen

    1995-01-01

    A recent model of firms’ pricing behaviour by Laurence Ball and Gregory Mankiw has novel implications for the effect of relative price shocks on inflation. This paper examines these implications and establishes the importance of expected inflation for this story. We derive the model relationship between expected inflation, the economy-wide distribution of industry price changes and actual inflation, and show that both Australian and US industry-price data strongly support this derived relatio...

  7. NUKEM adjusts price definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is the October-November 1994 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. During this period, there were five deals in the spot concentrates market, five deals in the medium and long-term market, one deal in the conversion market, and two deals in the enrichment market. Restricted prices strengthened while unrestricted prices held steady. Price re-definitions were also announced

  8. International house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Australian Treasury

    2003-01-01

    This article examines developments in house prices in a number of countries over recent years. It shows that while the magnitude of house price movements have differed across countries, the recent trend of rising prices in Australia has also been experienced in some other developed countries. This article also examines changes in housing affordability arising from changes in house prices, interest rates, housing debt and disposable income in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States...

  9. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `loss averse', e.g. consumers' disappointment from higher than suggested retail prices is sufficiently high, the producer can force the retailer to take the suggested price in equilibrium and thus capt...

  10. Airline Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Price discrimination enjoys a long history in the airline industry. Borenstein (1989) discusses price discrimination through frequent flyer programs from 1985 as related to the Piedmont-US Air merger, price discrimination strategies have grown in size and scope since then. From Saturday stay over requirements to varying costs based on time of purchase, the airline industry is uniquely situated to enjoy the fruits of price discrimination.

  11. The Share Price Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Edward A. Dyl

    2006-01-01

    We document substantial variation in the prices of common stocks in U.S. markets due to firms selecting particular price ranges for their shares. Cross-sectional evidence indicates that variables consistent with Merton's model of capital market equilibrium explain roughly two-thirds of this variation in share prices. In addition, measures of trading range and share price appreciation predict stock splits, and the "investor base" of firms that split their stock increases compared to other firm...

  12. International Trade Price Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Gaulier; Julien Martin; Isabelle Méjean; Soledad Zignago

    2008-01-01

    Export and import price indices are useful instruments in international economics. We document here TradePrices, our database of aggregated and sectoral trade price indices for all countries, computed using unit values given by BACI, the CEPII’s database of international trade at the product-level covering the period 1995-2004. Its rich country dimension allow an international comparison of prices evolutions. We compute “common” Laspeyres and Paasche indices but also “superlative” Fisher and ...

  13. Modeling HIV/AIDS Drug Price Determinants in Brazil: Is Generic Competition a Myth?

    OpenAIRE

    Constance Meiners; Luis Sagaon-Teyssier; Lia Hasenclever; Jean-Paul Moatti

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brazil became the first developing country to guarantee free and universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment, with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) being delivered to nearly 190,000 patients. The analysis of ARV price evolution and market dynamics in Brazil can help anticipate issues soon to afflict other developing countries, as the 2010 revision of the World Health Organization guidelines shifts demand towards more expensive treatments, and, at the same time, current evolution of internat...

  14. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas;

    Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find that...

  15. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price b

  16. Pricing the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    MacKie-Mason, Jeffrey K.; Hal R. Varian

    1994-01-01

    This paper was prepared for the conference ``Public Access to the Internet,'' JFK School of Government, May 26--27 , 1993. We describe some of the technology and costs relevant to pricing access to and usage of the Internet, and discuss the components of an efficient pricing structure. We suggest a possible smart-market mechanism for pricing traffic on the Internet.

  17. Deal with price raise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The price raise in natural resources is inevitable. At present, building ceramic industry is facing the pressure brought by price raise in raw material. Marketing directors still hesitate whether the price of ceramic tiles should be raised. The crisis brought by social environment made the employees care-laden.

  18. Options Procurement Policy for Option Contracts with Supply and Spot Market Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Xue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier’s reliability is a major issue in procurement management. In this paper, we establish a decision making model from the perspective of the firm who will procure from the multiple suppliers and the spot markets. The suppliers are unreliable and provide different types of option-type supply contracts which should be made before demand realization, while the spot market can only be used after demand realization and has both the price and liquidity risks. We establish the optimal portfolio policies for the firm with conditions to find the qualified suppliers. By defining a new function which contains the demand risk, the supplier’s risk, and the liquidity risk, we find that the optimal policy is to allocate different curves of this function to different suppliers. We also study some special cases to derive some managerial insights. At last, we numerically study how the various risks affect the choice of suppliers and the value of the option contract.

  19. Activity of antiretroviral drugs in human infections by opportunistic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Izabel Galhardo Demarchi; Daniela Maira Cardozo; Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides; Ricardo Alberto Moliterno; Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira; Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso; Dennis Armando Bertolini; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira; Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni

    2012-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is used in patients infected with HIV. This treatment has been shown to significantly decrease opportunist infections such as those caused by viruses, fungi and particularly, protozoa. The use of HAART in HIV-positive persons is associated with immune reconstitution as well as decreased prevalence of oral candidiasis and candidal carriage. Antiretroviral therapy benefits patients who are co-infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human ...

  20. Current Perspectives on HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Iyidogan; Anderson, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    Current advancements in antiretroviral therapy (ART) have turned HIV-1 infection into a chronic and manageable disease. However, treatment is only effective until HIV-1 develops resistance against the administered drugs. The most recent antiretroviral drugs have become superior at delaying the evolution of acquired drug resistance. In this review, the viral fitness and its correlation to HIV-1 mutation rates and drug resistance are discussed while emphasizing the concept of lethal mutagenesis...