WorldWideScience

Sample records for antireflection coatings

  1. Investigation of sol-gel antireflective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, A.; Guardalben, M.; Chipp, T.

    1984-03-01

    Very high power laser systems present material design challenges which often approach the inherent optical survival strength of components. Optical coatings in the UV region suffer from anomalously high absorption and scattering in the deposited layers. The losses caused by these effects are often unacceptable or, in the case of absorption, usually fatal to the absorbing coatings. Unfortunately, no metals exist that have high enough reflectivities in the UV to serve as uncoated mirrors as they normally do in the CO 2 region of the infrared. Adequate multilayer dielectric coatings are therefore critically important for the development and utilization of UV lasers. The same could be said for relfection suppressing antireflective coatings in that wavelength range. Antireflective properties of gradientindex designs have been rediscovered and their potential for resolving UV laser design difficulties has been vigorously tested. These antireflective properties have been attained on glass or fused silica surfaces by chemical surface treatments

  2. ANTIREFLECTION MULTILAYER COATINGS WITH THIN METAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of anti-reflective coatings for metal surfaces of Al, Ti, N,i Cr is proposed. The coatings have the form of alternating layers of dielectric/metal/dielectric with the number of cells up to15. The method of calculation of such coatings is proposed. We have calculated the coatings of the type [HfO2/Cr/HfO2]15, [ZrO2/Ti/Al2O3]15, [ZrO2/Cr/ZrO2]15. It is shown that the proposed interference coatings provide reduction of the residual reflectance of the metal several times (from 3.5 to 6.0 in a wide spectral range (300-1000 nm. The proposed coatings can be recommended as anti-reflective coatings for energy saving solar systems and batteries, and photovoltaic cells.

  3. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikova, K V; Petrov, M I; Babicheva, V E; Belov, P A

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes.

  4. Optical enhancing durable anti-reflective coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Varadarajan, Aravamuthan; Movassat, Meisam

    2016-07-05

    Disclosed herein are polysilsesquioxane based anti-reflective coating (ARC) compositions, methods of preparation, and methods of deposition on a substrate. In embodiments, the polysilsesquioxane of this disclosure is prepared in a two-step process of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of organoalkoxysilane followed by addition of tetralkoxysilane that generates silicone polymers with >40 mol % silanol based on Si-NMR. These high silanol siloxane polymers are stable and have a long shelf-life in the polar organic solvents at room temperature. Also disclosed are low refractive index ARC made from these compositions with and without additives such as porogens, templates, Si--OH condensation catalyst and/or nanofillers. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for applying coatings to flat substrates including substrate pre-treatment processes, coating processes including flow coating and roll coating, and coating curing processes including skin-curing using hot-air knives. Also disclosed are coating compositions and formulations for highly tunable, durable, highly abrasion-resistant functionalized anti-reflective coatings.

  5. AntiReflection Coating D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIKEN, DANIEL J.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J(sub sc)) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices

  6. High gain durable anti-reflective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Colson, Thomas E.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2016-07-26

    Disclosed herein are polysilsesquioxane-based anti-reflective coating (ARC) compositions, methods of preparation, and methods of deposition on a substrate. In one embodiment, the polysilsesquioxane of this disclosure is prepared in a two-step process of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of organoalkoxysilane followed by addition of tetralkoxysilane that generates silicone polymers with >40 mol % silanol based on Si-NMR. These high silanol siloxane polymers are stable and have a long shelf-life in polar organic solvents at room temperature. Also disclosed are low refractive index ARC made from these compositions with and without additives such as porogens, templates, thermal radical initiator, photo radical initiators, crosslinkers, Si--OH condensation catalyst and nano-fillers. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for applying coatings to flat substrates including substrate pre-treatment processes, coating processes and coating curing processes including skin-curing using hot-air knives. Also disclosed are coating compositions and formulations for highly tunable, durable, highly abrasion-resistant functionalized anti-reflective coatings.

  7. High gain durable anti-reflective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Colson, Thomas E.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2017-06-27

    Disclosed herein are polysilsesquioxane-based anti-reflective coating (ARC) compositions, methods of preparation, and methods of deposition on a substrate. In one embodiment, the polysilsesquioxane of this disclosure is prepared in a two-step process of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of organoalkoxysilane followed by addition of tetralkoxysilane that generates silicone polymers with >40 mol % silanol based on Si-NMR. These high silanol siloxane polymers are stable and have a long shelf-life in polar organic solvents at room temperature. Also disclosed are low refractive index ARC made from these compositions with and without additives such as porogens, templates, thermal radical initiator, photo radical initiators, crosslinkers, Si--OH condensation catalyst and nano-fillers. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for applying coatings to flat substrates including substrate pre-treatment processes, coating processes and coating curing processes including skin-curing using hot-air knives. Also disclosed are coating compositions and formulations for highly tunable, durable, highly abrasion-resistant functionalized anti-reflective coatings.

  8. Witness sample preparation for measuring antireflection coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Ronald R

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of antireflection coating of witness samples from across the worldwide industry has been shown to have excess variability from a sampling taken for the OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings: Measurement Problem. Various sample preparation techniques have been discussed with their limitations, and a preferred technique is recommended with its justification, calibration procedures, and limitations. The common practice of grinding the second side to reduce its reflection is less than satisfactory. One recommended practice is to paint the polished second side, which reduces its reflection to almost zero. A method to evaluate the suitability of given paints is also described.

  9. Self-Cleaning Antireflective Optical Coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, Stefan

    2013-11-13

    Low-cost antireflection coatings (ARCs) on large optical surfaces are an ingredient-technology for high-performance solar cells. While nanoporous thin films that meet the zero-reflectance conditions on transparent substrates can be cheaply manufactured, their suitability for outdoor applications is limited by the lack of robustness and cleanability. Here, we present a simple method for the manufacture of robust self-cleaning ARCs. Our strategy relies on the self-assembly of a block-copolymer in combination with silica-based sol-gel chemistry and preformed TiO2 nanocrystals. The spontaneous dense packing of copolymer micelles followed by a condensation reaction results in an inverse opal-type silica morphology that is loaded with TiO2 photocatalytic hot-spots. The very low volume fraction of the inorganic network allows the optimization of the antireflecting properties of the porous ARC despite the high refractive index of the embedded photocatalytic TiO2 nanocrystals. The resulting ARCs combine high optical and self-cleaning performance and can be deposited onto flexible plastic substrates. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Adhesion of Antireflective Coatings in Multijunction Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Ryan; Miller, David C.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2016-11-21

    The development of a new composite dual cantilever beam (cDCB) thin-film adhesion testing method is reported, which allows the measurement of adhesion on the fragile thin substrates used in multijunction photovoltaics. We address the adhesion of several antireflective coating systems on multijunction cells. By varying interface chemistry and morphology, we demonstrate the ensuing effects on adhesion and help to develop an understanding of how high adhesion can be achieved, as adhesion values ranging from 0.5 J/m2 to 10 J/m2 were measured. Damp Heat (85 degrees C/85% RH) was used to invoke degradation of interfacial adhesion. We show that even with germanium substrates that fracture easily, quantitative measurements of adhesion can still be made at high test yield. The cDCB test is discussed as an important new methodology, which can be broadly applied to any system that makes use of thin, brittle, or otherwise fragile substrates.

  11. Advanced Antireflection Coatings for High-Performance Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Noren

    2015-01-01

    Phase II objectives: Develop and refine antireflection coatings incorporating lanthanum titanate as an intermediate refractive index material; Investigate wet/dry thermal oxidation of aluminum containing semiconductor compounds as a means of forming a more transparent window layer with equal or better optical properties than its unoxidized form; Develop a fabrication process that allows integration of the oxidized window layer and maintains the necessary electrical properties for contacting the solar cell; Conduct an experimental demonstration of the best candidates for improved antireflection coatings.

  12. Silicon solar cells with Al2O3 antireflection coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzański, Leszek A.; Szindler, Marek; Drygała, Aleksandra; Szindler, Magdalena M.

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents the possibility of using Al2O3 antireflection coatings deposited by atomic layer deposition ALD. The ALD method is based on alternate pulsing of the precursor gases and vapors onto the substrate surface and then chemisorption or surface reaction of the precursors. The reactor is purged with an inert gas between the precursor pulses. The Al2O3 thin film in structure of the finished solar cells can play the role of both antireflection and passivation layer which will simplify the process. For this research 50×50 mm monocrystalline silicon solar cells with one bus bar have been used. The metallic contacts were prepared by screen printing method and Al2O3 antireflection coating by ALD method. Results and their analysis allow to conclude that the Al2O3 antireflection coating deposited by ALD has a significant impact on the optoelectronic properties of the silicon solar cell. For about 80 nm of Al2O3 the best results were obtained in the wavelength range of 400 to 800 nm reducing the reflection to less than 1%. The difference in the solar cells efficiency between with and without antireflection coating was 5.28%. The LBIC scan measurements may indicate a positive influence of the thin film Al2O3 on the bulk passivation of the silicon.

  13. Standing Wave Field Distribution in Graded-Index Antireflection Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Standing wave field distributions in three classic types of graded-index antireflection coatings are studied. These graded-index antireflection coatings are designed at wavelengths from 200 nm to 1200 nm, which is the working wavelength range of high energy laser system for inertial-fusion research. The standing wave field distributions in these coatings are obtained by the numerical calculation of electromagnetic wave equation. We find that standing wave field distributions in these three graded-index anti-reflection coatings are quite different. For the coating with linear index distribution, intensity of standing wave field decreases periodically from surface to substrate with narrow oscillation range and the period is proportional to the incident wavelength. For the coating with exponential index distribution, intensity of standing wave field decreases periodically from surface to substrate with large oscillation range and the period is also proportional to the incident wavelength. Finally, for the coating with polynomial index, intensity of standing wave field is quickly falling down from surface to substrate without an obvious oscillation. We find that the intensity of standing wave field in the interface between coating and substrate for linear index, exponential index and polynomial index are about 0.7, 0.9 and 0.7, respectively. Our results indicate that the distributions of standing wave field in linear index coating and polynomial index coating are better than that in exponential index coating for the application in high energy laser system. Moreover, we find that the transmittance of linear index coating and polynomial index coating are also better than exponential index coating at the designed wavelength range. Present simulation results are useful for the design and application of graded-index antireflection coating in high energy laser system.

  14. Wide spectrum antireflective coating for fused silica and other glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldas, B. E.; Partlow, D. P.

    1984-05-01

    A method of forming a laser damage resistant wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica and other glasses has been developed. The single-layer graded-index coating is deposited from a specific polymer solution which is converted to a porous SiO2 film. The size of the pores in the film is first reduced by heat treatment to prevent eventual UV scattering. Refractive-index gradation is achieved by grading this nonscattering porosity using a mild etching agent to a depth which is sufficient to smooth the density transition from air to the substrate glass. The resultant coating provides antireflectivity over the entire transmission range of silica extending to wavelengths as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 J/sq cm at 350 nm have been demonstrated for this coating on fused silica substrates, which makes it particularly suitable for the optics of high-power lasers.

  15. Antireflection coating on InP for semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantehzadeh, M.R.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Sari, A.H.; Sahlani, F.; Shokuhi, A.; Shariati, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum nitride thin film by RF magnetron sputtering is used to produce antireflection coating on InP. The index of refection variation of aluminum nitride for different thickness at different wavelength in the range of 400 to 1500 nm is investigated using reflection spectroscopy. Subsequent Ar+ ion implantation at 30 keV with different doses on these coated layers has been performed. The morphology of aluminum nitride after ion implantation is characterized using atomic force microscopy AFM

  16. Wide spectrum antireflective coating for laser fusion systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoldas, B.E; Partlow, D.P.; Smith, H.D.; Mattox, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of depositing a laser damage resistant, wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica has been developed. This work was sponsored under a subcontract with the University of California, with technical direction from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The coating is applied from a specific silanol polymer solution and converted to a porous SiO 2 film. The pore size of the film is first reduced by a heat treatment to prevent uv scattering. Then gradation of the pore volume is achieved by a mild etching to a sufficient depth to prevent a smoother index transition from air to the substrate glass. The resulting antireflectivity covers the entire transmission range of silica and may be extended to a wavelength as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 j/cm 2 have been demonstrated on processed samples

  17. Thermally stable antireflective coatings based on nanoporous organosilicate thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhan; Cho, Jinhan; Char, Kookheon

    2007-06-05

    Thermally stable nanoporous organosilicate thin films were realized by the microphase separation of pore-generating polymers mixed with an organosilicate matrix to be antireflective coatings (ARCs), for which a thin film with a refractive index (n) of 1.23 for zero reflection is required. The refractive index of such nanoporous organosilicate films can be tuned from 1.39 down to 1.23 by incorporating nanopores within the films. With a nanoporous single layer with n approximately 1.23, the light transmittance of the glass above 99.8% was achieved in the visible range (lambda approximately 550 nm). To overcome the limitation on the narrow wavelength for high transmittance imposed by a single antireflective nanoporous thin film, bilayer thin films with different refractive indices were prepared by placing a high refractive index layer with a refractive index of 1.45 below the nanoporous thin film. UV-vis transmittance of a glass coated with the bilayer films was compared with nanoporous single-layer films and it is demonstrated that the novel broadband antireflection coatings in a wide range of visible wavelength can be easily obtained by the organosilicate bilayer thin films described in this study. Also, ARCs developed in this study demonstrate excellent AR durability owing to the hydrophobic nature of the organosilicate matrix.

  18. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    exposure to energetic radiations, followed by deposition of a carbonyl hard coating by spin or dip coating processes, UV curing, etc. However, this .... trodes in a cylindrical glass deposition chamber, has been designed, fabricated and assembled in-house. RF power can be applied across the electrodes with a RF generator.

  19. Sub-wavelength antireflection coatings from nanostructure sculptured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E.

    2007-01-01

    Nanostructure sculptured thin films from SiO 2 are grown on quartz substrates by ion beam sputter deposition using rotating substrate motion accommodated to an oblique angle of incidence for the particle flux. Structural peculiarities of sculptured thin films have an intriguing impact on the optical response upon reflection of light with different wavelengths. The reflectivity of quartz substrates coated with SiO 2 sub-wavelength nanostructures is simulated by means of effective medium theory and antireflection is predicted for the deep ultraviolet spectral region. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectivity measurements are performed on SiO 2 sculptured thin films and antireflection near λ = 193 nm is found. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Gradient SiNO anti-reflective layers in solar selective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Cao, Feng; Sun, Tianyi; Chen, Gang

    2017-08-01

    A solar selective coating includes a substrate, a cermet layer having nanoparticles therein deposited on the substrate, and an anti-reflection layer deposited on the cermet layer. The cermet layer and the anti-reflection layer may each be formed of intermediate layers. A method for constructing a solar-selective coating is disclosed and includes preparing a substrate, depositing a cermet layer on the substrate, and depositing an anti-reflection layer on the cermet layer.

  1. Ellipsometry of single-layer antireflection coatings on transparent substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R. M. A.

    2017-11-01

    The complex reflection coefficients of p- and s-polarized light and ellipsometric parameters of a transparent substrate of refractive index n2, which is coated by a transparent thin film whose refractive index n1 =√{n2 } satisfies the anti-reflection condition at normal incidence, are considered as functions of film thickness d and angle of incidence ϕ. A unique coated surface, with n1 =√{n2 } and film thickness d equal to half of the film-thickness period Dϕ at angle ϕ and wavelength λ, reflects light of the same wavelength without change of polarization for all incident polarization states. (The reflection Jones matrix of such coated surface is the 2 × 2 identity matrix pre-multiplied by a scalar, hence tanΨ = 1,Δ = 0.) To monitor the deposition of an antireflection coating, the normalized Stokes parameters of obliquely reflected light (e.g. at ϕ =70∘) are measured until predetermined target values of those parameters are detected. This provides a more accurate means of film thickness control than is possible using a micro-balance technique or an intensity reflectance method.

  2. Design of multi-layer anti-reflection coating for terrestrial solar panel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. To date, there is no ideal anti-reflection (AR) coating available on solar glass which can effectively trans- mit the incident light within the visible wavelength range. However, there is a need to develop multifunctional coating with superior anti-reflection properties and self-cleaning ability meant to be used for solar ...

  3. Technical and historical overview of the study at Livermore of porous antireflection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milam, D.

    1985-01-01

    The testing program leading to selection of antireflection coatings for the NOVA laser is reviewed. Limiting problems that prevented use of some coating technologies are described, and estimates are made of the current value of pursuing solutions to those problems

  4. Broad Bandwidth Meta-Material Antireflection Coatings for Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop broad-band metamaterial antireflection (AR) coatings for the far-infrared and millimeter wave bands. The proposed coating technology could...

  5. Wide-band antireflection coatings; Breitbandige Antireflexbeschichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, A.; Rommel, M. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    In most cases, solar receivers - from solar collectors to buildings - have a transparent cover. In order to minimize the losses due to reflection, the aim is to find an AR coating which can be used for the broad bandwidth of the solar spectrum. Conventional solutions like multilayer systems with high and low refractive index layers are not suitable. The main problem is to produce layers with very low refractive indices. One solution which was investigated in the past is to synthesize layers with a low effective refractive index due to porosity; i.e. by mixing the bulk material with air on a subwavelength scale. Another possibility to achieve this mixture is given by subwave length surface-relief structures. Porous sol-gel coatings are suited for glass, subwavelength surface-relief structures can be replicated mainly in polymer materials by cheap embossing processes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nahezu alle solaren Empfaenger sind transparent abgedeckt, z.B. durch Glascheiben. An diesen Abdeckungen wird ein Teil der einfallenden Solarstrahlung reflektiert. Diese Verluste koennen durch reflexionsmindernde Oberflaechen reduziert werden. Antireflexbeschichtungen, die z.B. fuer Brillenglaeser eingesetzt werden, eignen sich nicht fuer solare Entspiegelungen, da ihre spektrale Bandbreite nicht ausreicht. Das Hauptproblem liegt darin, dass Materialien mit sehr niedrigen Brechungsindices, wie sie fuer spektral breitbandige Antireflexbeschichtungen benoetigt werden, nicht verfuegbar sind. Der Ausweg besteht in poroesen Beschichtungen bzw. in einer Oberflaechenstrukturierung. Aufgrund des Luftanteils in der Mischung lassen sich sehr niedrige `effektive` Brechungsindices synthetisieren. Poroese Sol-Gel-Schichten eignen sich insbesondere zur Erhoehung der solaren Transmission von anorganischem Glas. Oberflaechenstrukturen sind aufgrund der Herstellbarkeit durch preisguenstige Praegeprozesse vielversprechend, finden aber derzeit ihre Anwendung ueberwiegend bei polymeren Materialien. (orig.)

  6. Protective infrared antireflection coating based on sputtered germanium carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Des; Waddell, Ewan; Placido, Frank

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes optical, durablility and environmental performance of a germanium carbide based durable antireflection coating. The coating has been demonstrated on germanium and zinc selenide infra-red material however is applicable to other materials such as zinc sulphide. The material is deposited using a novel reactive closed field magnetron sputtering technique, offering significant advantages over conventional evaporation processes for germanium carbide such as plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. The sputtering process is "cold", making it suitable for use on a wide range of substrates. Moreover, the drum format provide more efficient loading for high throughput production. The use of the closed field and unbalanced magnetrons creates a magnetic confinement that extends the electron mean free path leading to high ion current densities. The combination of high current densities with ion energies in the range ~30eV creates optimum thin film growth conditions. As a result the films are dense, spectrally stable, supersmooth and low stress. Films incorporate low hydrogen content resulting in minimal C-H absorption bands within critical infra-red passbands such as 3 to 5um and 8 to 12um. Tuning of germanium carbide (Ge(1-x)Cx) film refractive index from pure germanium (refractive index 4) to pure germanium carbide (refractive index 1.8) will be demonstrated. Use of film grading to achieve single and dual band anti-reflection performance will be shown. Environmental and durability levels are shown to be suitable for use in harsh external environments.

  7. Nanowire-based multifunctional antireflection coatings for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiralal, Pritesh; Chien, Chihtao; Lal, Niraj N.; Abeygunasekara, Waranatha; Kumar, Abhishek; Butt, Haider; Zhou, Hang; Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.

    2014-11-01

    Organic (P3HT/PCBM) solar cells are coated with ZnO nanowires as antireflection coatings and show up to 36% enhancement in efficiency. The improvement is ascribed to an effective refractive index which results in Fabry-Perot absorption bands which match the polymer band-gap. The effect is particularly pronounced at high light incidence angles. Simultaneously, the coating is used as a UV-barrier, demonstrating a 50% reduction in the rate of degradation of the polymers under accelerated lifetime testing. The coating also allows the surface of the solar cell to self-clean via two distinct routes. On one hand, photocatalytic degradation of organic material on ZnO is enhanced by the high surface area of the nanowires and quantified by dye degradation measurements. On the other, the surface of the nanowires can be functionalized to tune the water contact angle from superhydrophilic (16°) to superhydrophobic (152°), resulting in self-cleaning via the Lotus effect. The multifunctional ZnO nanowires are grown by a low cost, low temperature hydrothermal method, compatible with process limitations of organic solar cells.Organic (P3HT/PCBM) solar cells are coated with ZnO nanowires as antireflection coatings and show up to 36% enhancement in efficiency. The improvement is ascribed to an effective refractive index which results in Fabry-Perot absorption bands which match the polymer band-gap. The effect is particularly pronounced at high light incidence angles. Simultaneously, the coating is used as a UV-barrier, demonstrating a 50% reduction in the rate of degradation of the polymers under accelerated lifetime testing. The coating also allows the surface of the solar cell to self-clean via two distinct routes. On one hand, photocatalytic degradation of organic material on ZnO is enhanced by the high surface area of the nanowires and quantified by dye degradation measurements. On the other, the surface of the nanowires can be functionalized to tune the water contact angle

  8. Design of multi-layer anti-reflection coating for terrestrial solar panel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To date, there is no ideal anti-reflection (AR) coating available on solar glass which can effectively transmit the incident light within the visible wavelength range. However, there is a need to develop multifunctional coatingwith superior anti-reflection properties and self-cleaning ability meant to be used for solar glass panels.

  9. Improved antireflection coated microspheres for biological applications of optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Valentina; Sonnberger, Aaron; Abdosamadi, Mohammad K.; McDonald, Craig; Schäffer, Erik; McGloin, David

    2016-09-01

    The success of optical tweezers in cellular biology1 is in part due to the wide range of forces that can be applied, from femto- to hundreds of pico-Newtons; nevertheless extending the range of applicable forces to the nanoNewton regime opens access to a new set of phenomena that currently lie beyond optical manipulation. A successful approach to overcome the conventional limits on trapping forces involves the optimization of the trapped probes. Jannasch et al.2 demonstrated that an anti-reflective shell of nanoporous titanium dioxide (aTiO2, nshell = 1.75) on a core particle made out of titanium dioxide in the anatase phase (cTiO2, ncore = 2.3) results in trappable microspheres capable to reach forces above 1 nN. Here we present how the technique can be further improved by coating the high refractive index microspheres with an additional anti-reflective shell made out of silica (SiO2). This external shell not only improves the trap stability for microspheres of different sizes, but also enables the use of functionalization techniques already established for commercial silica beads in biological experiments. We are also investigating the use of these new microspheres as probes to measure adhesion forces between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) in effector T-Cells and will present preliminary results comparing standard and high-index beads.

  10. Design Multilayer Antireflection Coatings for Terrestrial Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the influence of methods to design antireflection coatings (ARCs on reflectivity of broadband solar cells, we provide detailed analyses about the ARC coupled with a window layer and the refractive index dispersion effect of each layer. By multidimensional matrix data simulation, two methods were employed to measure the composite reflection of a SiO2/ZnS double-layer ARC within the spectral ranges of 300–870 nm (dual junction and 300–1850 nm (triple junction under AM1.5 solar radiation. A comparison study, between the results obtained from the commonly used weighted average reflectance method (WAR and that from the introduced effective average reflectance method (EAR, shows that the optimization of ARC by EAR method is convenient and feasible.

  11. Adhesion of Antireflective Coatings in Multijunction Photovoltaics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Ryan; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Miller, David C.

    2016-06-16

    The development of a new composite dual cantilever beam (cDCB) thin-film adhesion testing method is reported, which allows the measurement of adhesion on the fragile thin substrates used in multijunction photovoltaics. We address the adhesion of several antireflective coating systems on multijunction cells. By varying interface chemistry and morphology, we demonstrate the ensuing effects on adhesion and help to develop an understanding of how high adhesion can be achieved, as adhesion values ranging from 0.5 J/m2 to 10 J/m2 were measured. Damp Heat (85 degrees C/85% RH) was used to invoke degradation of interfacial adhesion. We show that even with germanium substrates that fracture easily, quantitative measurements of adhesion can still be made at high test yield. The cDCB test is discussed as an important new methodology, which can be broadly applied to any system that makes use of thin, brittle, or otherwise fragile substrates.

  12. Development of Advanced Anti-Reflection Coatings for High Performance Solar Energy Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MicroLink Devices will increase the efficiency of multi-junction solar cells by designing and demonstrating advanced anti-reflection coatings (ARCs) that will...

  13. Development of Advanced Anti-Reflection Coatings for High Performance Solar Energy Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MicroLink and its subcontractor Magnolia Solar will develop and demonstrate advanced anti-reflection coating (ARC) designs that will provide a better broadband and...

  14. Nano-Enabled Low-Cost High-Performance UV Anti-Reflection Coatings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this program, Agiltron and the groups of Professors Rubner and Cohen at MIT propose a novel nano-porous coating for next generation NASA UV anti-reflection (AR)...

  15. Development of Advanced Anti-Reflection Coatings for High Performance Solar Energy Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MicroLink Devices will increase the efficiency of multi-junction solar cells by designing and demonstrating advanced anti-reflection coatings (ARCs) that will...

  16. Development of Advanced Anti-Reflection Coatings for High Performance Solar Energy Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MicroLink and its subcontractor Magnolia Solar will develop and demonstrate advanced anti-reflection coating (ARC) designs that will provide a better broadband and...

  17. Structured Antireflective Coating for Silicon at Submillimeter Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Estefania

    2018-01-01

    Observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths are useful for many astronomical studies, such as the polarization of the cosmic microwave background or the formation and evolution of galaxy clusters. In order to allow observations over a broad spectral bandwidth (approximatively from 70 to 420 GHz), innovative broadband anti-reflective (AR) optics must be utilized in submillimeter telescopes. Due to its low loss and high refractive index, silicon is a fine optical material at these frequencies, but an AR coating with multiple layers is required to maximize its transmission over a wide bandwidth. Structured multilayer AR coatings for silicon are currently being developed at Caltech and JPL. The development process includes the design of the structured layers with commercial electromagnetic simulation software, the fabrication by using deep reactive ion etching, and the test of the transmission and reflection of the patterned wafers. Geometrical 3D patterns have successfully been etched at the surface of the silicon wafers creating up to 2 layers with different effective refractive indices. The transmission and reflection of single AR layer wafers, measured between 75 and 330 GHz, are close to the simulation predictions. These results allow the development of new designs with 5 or 6 AR layers in order to improve the bandwidth and transmission of the silicon AR coatings.

  18. Applications of antireflection coatings in sonic crystal-based acoustic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun; Deng Ke; Xu Shengjun; Qiu Chunyin; Yang Hai; Liu Zhengyou

    2011-01-01

    The unwanted reflection seriously baffles the practical applications of sonic crystals, such as for various acoustic lenses designed by utilizing the in-band properties of sonic crystals. Herein we introduce the concept of the antireflection coating into the sonic crystal-based devices. The efficiency of such accessorial structures is demonstrated well by an originally high reflection system. Promising perspectives can be anticipated in extending the antireflection coating layers into more general acoustic applications through a flexible design process.

  19. INKJET PRINTING OF ALUMOOXIDE SOL FOR DEPOSITION OF ANTIREFLECTING COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Eremeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. This work describes for the first time the formation of antireflective coating on the base of boehmite phase of AlOOH with low refractive index (1.35 by inkjet printing on the nonporous substrate. This method gives the possibility to increase the contrast of colorful interfering images by 32% obtaining by inkjet printing of titanium dioxide sol. The usage of this technology enables to obtain patterns with wide viewing angle and makes them highly stable. Methods. Traditional sol-gel method with peptizing agents and heating for 90oC was applied for sol synthesis. Then the mixture was under sonic treatment for the obtaining of viscous sol. The viscosity was determined by Brookfield HA/HB viscometer, and the surface tension by Kyowa DY-700 tensiometer. Aluminum oxide ink was deposited on polished slides (26×76 mm2, Paul Marienfeld, Germany, over titanium oxide layer. To print titania ink, we use a desktop office printer Canon Pixma IP 2840 and Dimatix DMP-2831. The thickness of an inkjet AlOOH layer after drying in the air and removal of the solvents did not exceed 150 nm with an RI not less than 1.35 in the entire visible range. Results. The stable colloidal ink was obtained for the first time on the base of aluminum oxide matrix with neutral pH. The rheology was regulated by controlling parameters of sol-gel method in the system of aqueous titanium dioxide sol and by adding ethanol that affects the charge of double electrical layer of disperse phase. The controllable coalesce of drops enables to apply antireflection coating within the thickness accuracy of 10 nm. The morphology of particles and the topology of printed structures were analyzed by optical, scanning electron and atomic-force microscopes. Practical Relevance. We have proposed the approach to obtain colorful, interference patterns using two types of high refractive inks with different refractive indexes. The inkjet printing method opens new opportunities for

  20. Ultra-Broadband THz Antireflective Coating with Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving an ultra-broadband range is an essential development direction in terahertz techniques; however, a method to cover the full terahertz band by using a highly efficient antireflection (AR coating that could greatly increase the efficiency of terahertz radiation is still lacking. It is known that structures possessing a graded-index profile can offer a broadband AR effect, and such structures have been widely used, especially in the visible range. In this paper, first, we tuned the refractive index of a cyclo-olefin polymer (COP by using a TiO2 dopant, and a polymer–TiO2 composite with a refractive index of 3.1 was achieved. We then fabricated a surface-relief structure with a graded-index profile by using a hot-embossing method. The structure on the silicon substrate can provide an excellent AR effect, but the working band is still limited by its scale of sag and swell. To obtain an ultra-broadband AR effect, we then proposed a flat six-layer structure; a graded-index profile was obtained by casting epoxy–TiO2 composites in the order of a high index to lower indices. With a very well controlled refractive index and thickness of each layer, we achieved an AR effect of <2% in the ultra-broadband of 0.2–20 THz.

  1. Sprayed and Spin-Coated Multilayer Antireflection Coating Films for Nonvacuum Processed Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Uzum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the simple and cost-effective methods, spin-coated ZrO2-polymer composite/spray-deposited TiO2-compact multilayer antireflection coating film was introduced. With a single TiO2-compact film on the surface of a crystalline silicon wafer, 5.3% average reflectance (the reflectance average between the wavelengths of 300 nm and 1100 nm was observed. Reflectance decreased further down to 3.3% after forming spin-coated ZrO2 on the spray-deposited TiO2-compact film. Silicon solar cells were fabricated using CZ-Si p-type wafers in three sets: (1 without antireflection coating (ARC layer, (2 with TiO2-compact ARC film, and (3 with ZrO2-polymer composite/TiO2-compact multilayer ARC film. Conversion efficiency of the cells improved by a factor of 0.8% (from 15.19% to 15.88% owing to the multilayer ARC. Jsc was improved further by 2 mA cm−2 (from 35.3 mA cm−2 to 37.2 mA cm−2 when compared with a single TiO2-compact ARC.

  2. Solar cells based upon multicrystalline Si with DLC antireflection and passivating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyui, N.; Litovchenko, V.; Neselevska, L.; Kostylyov, V.; Sarikov, A.; Taraschenko, N.; Kittler, M.; Seifert, W.

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of multicrystalline Si solar cells covered by diamond-like carbon (DLC) antireflection coatings been experimentally studied. It has been shown that this kind of coating provides a significant increase of the efficiency of solar cells mainly due to the increase of the short-circuit current density. The effects of antireflection and of the surface and bulk passivation on the SC current-voltage characteristics due to the DLC deposition have been investigated theoretically. Physical mechanisms underlying the observed effects have been proposed

  3. The hydrophobic and omnidirectional antireflection coating of SiO2 nanospheres with C18-TEOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Lan, Wen-Lin; Chen, Nien-Po; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-06-01

    This paper demonstrates the antireflection coating of SiO2 nanospheres applied to cover glass by using the optimal spin-coating method. Because of the hydrolysis and condensation reactions between the SiO2 nanosphere antireflection (AR) coating and n-octadecyltriethoxysilane solution (C18-TEOS), the contact angle of the AR coating with hydrophobic treatment is improved approximately 38%, and the moisture-resistance remains unchanged, which preserved similar transmittance for six weeks. Furthermore, the AR coating with hydrophobic treatment exhibits approximately 3% and 7% improvement in the transmittance at normal and oblique incidence, respectively. The hydrophobic and omnidirectional AR coating with nanoscale SiO2 particles can be fabricated using the proposed simple and economical method.

  4. Anti-reflective and anti-soiling coatings for self-cleaning properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Nair, Vinod; Dave, Bakul Champaklal

    2016-05-31

    The disclosure discloses abrasion resistant, persistently hydrophobic and oleophobic, anti-reflective and anti-soiling coatings for glass. The coatings described herein have wide application, including for example the front cover glass of solar modules. Methods of applying the coatings using various apparatus are disclosed. Methods for using the coatings in solar energy generation plants to achieve greater energy yield and reduced operations costs are disclosed. Coating materials are formed by combinations of hydrolyzed silane-base precursors through sol-gel processes. Several methods of synthesis and formulation of coating materials are disclosed.

  5. Robust antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates by hydrochloric acid vapor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; He, Junhui; Yao, Lin; Geng, Zhi

    2015-04-15

    Antireflective coatings on polymer substrates have received significant attention for their potential applications. In this paper, robust microporous antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates were prepared from acid-catalyzed silica sol followed by hydrochloric acid vapor solidification at mild temperature below glass transition temperatures of common polymers. The coatings passed 3H pencil hardness test, sand flow test and water-drop test. They had excellent antireflective and antifogging properties. The maximum transmittance of coatings on PMMA substrates reached 100.0% (the maximum transmittance wavelength could be regulated) and average transmittance reached 99.0% in 400-800 nm. The advantage and mechanism of hydrochloric acid vapor solidification and mechanical strength enhancement of coatings are discussed in contrast to ammonia vapor treatment and air vapor treatment. The hydrochloric acid vapor treatment results in a dense integrated microporous film structure. Optical properties were characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system. Surface morphologies and structures of coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Luminescent antireflective coatings with disordered surface nanostructures fabricated by liquid processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sota; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2011-03-15

    Antireflective phosphor coatings having disordered surface nanostructures were fabricated by a sol-gel dip coating method and a subsequent hot water treatment. Thin films of a Bi(3+),Eu(3+)-codoped YVO4 red phosphor were first prepared and effects of the addition of an aluminum source to precursor solutions on their microstructure and optical properties were examined. Optical transmittance of the YVO4:Bi(3+),Eu(3+) film was lower than that of a bare quartz glass substrate due to a higher refractive index of YVO4. The addition of the aluminum source and the hot water treatment resulted in a considerable increase of transmittance and its smaller angular dependence, which could generate an antireflective effect by the phosphor thin films. Observation of the microstructure revealed that the hot water treatment brought a remarkable change in the surface as well as the cross-section structure in the aluminum-added YVO4:Bi(3+),Eu(3+) film. The film density and hence the refractive index were gradually changed like a pseudo moth-eye structure, which explained the occurrence of the antireflective effect. The microstructural change was attributed to the dissolution of alumina present in the film and the reprecipitation of boehmite on the film surface during the hot water treatment. Photoluminescence of the YVO4:Bi(3+),Eu(3+) film could also be enhanced by the antireflective effect due to the suppression of surface Fresnel reflection of incident light and total internal reflection of emitted light.

  7. Scale-up of Nano-Engineered Anti-Reflection Coating Process for Large Plastic Optics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a recently completed NASA SBIR program, Agiltron and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a novel nanoporous UV anti-reflection coating technology...

  8. Effect of sol aging time on the anti-reflective properties of silica coatings templated with phosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wen

    Full Text Available Silica anti-reflective coatings have been prepared by a sol–gel dip-coating process using the sol containing phosphoric acid as a pore-forming template. The effect of the aging time of the sol on the anti-reflective properties has been investigated. The surface topography of the silica AR coatings has been characterized. With increasing sol aging time, more over-sized pores larger than 100 nm are formed in the silica coatings. These could act as scattering centers, scattering visible light and thereby lowering transmittance. The optimal aging time was identified as 1 day, and the corresponding silica coatings showed a maximum transmittance of 99.2%, representing an 8% increase compared to the bare glass substrate. Keywords: Thin films, Anti-reflective coatings, Aging, Dip-coating, Sol–gel preparation

  9. Preparation of antireflective films on small square KH2PO4/KD2PO4 crystals by spin coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Li, Haiyuan; Zhao, Liyi; Tang, Yongxing

    2016-03-01

    Modified antireflective thin films for optical crystals are developed by sol gel chemistry. Hexamethyldisilazane is added to silica sol to prepare modified sol by the Stöber method. The particle size distribution of the modified sol is found to have good uniformity, with an average particle diameter of about 42.14 nm. This sol can be used to prepare antireflective films with low refractive index of about 1.2. Homogeneous double layered films of antireflective and moisture resistant properties are demonstrated to coat small square sized KH2PO4/KD2PO4 crystals through a combination of dip and spin coating. The modified antireflective films display residual reflectivity close to zero, and laser induced damage threshold of 10.9 J/cm2 (pulse wavelength: 355nm, pulse width: 3ns) measured by raster scan method.

  10. High-damage-threshold antireflection coatings on diamond for CW and pulsed CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlenok, M. S.; Pivovarov, P. A.; Volodkin, B. O.; Pavelyev, V. S.; Anisimov, V. I.; Butuzov, V. V.; Sorochenko, V. R.; Nefedov, S. M.; Mineev, A. P.; Soifer, V. A.; Konov, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    A multilayer antireflection coating for diamond optics that allows work in the infrared spectral range of 8 –12 µm with minimal optical losses is developed. The optical transmittance of a chemical vapour deposition diamond plate coated with this film on both sides exceeds 94% over the whole specified wavelength range. The coatings deposited on the diamond plate were damage-tested by coherent-wave and pulsed (τ  =  90 ns) CO2 lasers. Results of the tests demonstrated that the coating can withstand prolonged radiation loads with intensity above 3 MW cm‑2 in a continuous-mode laser exposure. In the case of a nanosecond pulsed action, destruction of the coating begins at intensities greater than 50 MW cm‑2.

  11. Stress compensation with antireflection coatings for ultrafast laser applications: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amotchkina, Tatiana; Trubetskov, Michael K; Pervak, Yurij; Veisz, Laszlo; Pervak, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Each complicated coating, in particular, a dispersive mirror consists of dozens of layers. Thin films layers have mechanical stresses. After summing up stresses from all layers, the resulting stress is high enough to bend even a relatively thick substrate. To avoid this effect we suggest depositing an antireflection coating (AR) at the back-side of the substrate which together with suppression of unwanted reflections from the back side will also compensate this stress. We demonstrate unique, extremely thick and sophisticated AR coating consisting of 71 layers with the total physical thickness of 7.5 µm. This AR coating completely compensates stress from the dispersive mirror coated on the front side and minimizes unwanted reflections.

  12. Anti-reflective polymer-nanocomposite coatings fabricated by RIR-MAPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravalu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Haglund, R. F.

    2013-02-01

    There is increasing demand for functional polymeric optical coatings for plastic substrates. In the case of anti-reflective (AR) coatings, this is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. We synthesized a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer:nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrixassisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE). An Er:YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and PMMA, alternating with a low-index solution of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with relative transmission over 94%, scattering less than 5% and a reflection coefficient below 0.8% across the visible range.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Antireflective ZnO Nanoparticles Coatings Used for Energy Improving Efficiency of Silicone Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîslaru-Dǎnescu, Lucian; Chitanu, Elena; El-Leathey, Lucia-Andreea; Marinescu, Virgil; Marin, Dorian; Sbârcea, Beatrice-Gabriela

    2018-03-01

    The paper proposes a new and complex process for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for antireflective coating corresponding to silicone solar cells applications. The process consists of two major steps: preparation of seed layer and hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanoparticles. Due to the fact that the seed layer morphology influences the ZnO nanoparticles proprieties, the process optimization of the seed layer preparation is necessary. Following the hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanoparticles, antireflective coating of silicone solar cells is achieved. After determining the functional parameters of the solar cells provided either with glass or with ZnO, it is concluded that all the parameters values are superior in the case of solar cells with ZnO antireflection coating and are increasing along with the solar irradiance.

  14. Performance of "Moth Eye" Anti-Reflective Coatings for Solar Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.; Kane, M.; Jiang, P.

    2011-03-14

    An inexpensive, effective anti-reflective coating (ARC) has been developed at the University of Florida to significantly enhance the absorption of light by silicon in solar cells. This coating has nano-scale features, and its microstructure mimics that of various night active insects (e.g. a moth's eye). It is a square array of pillars, each about 700 nm high and having a diameter of about 300 nm. Samples of silicon having this coating were exposed either to various combinations of either elevated temperature and humidity or to gamma irradiation ({sup 60}Co) at the Savannah River National Laboratory, or to a broad spectrum ultraviolet light and to a 532 nm laser light at the University of Florida. The anti-reflective properties of the coatings were unaffected by any of these environmental stresses, and the microstructure of the coating was also unaffected. In fact, the reflectivity of the gamma irradiated ARC became lower (advantageous for solar cell applications) at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm. These results show that this coating is robust and should be tested in actual systems exposed to either weather or a space environment. Structural details of the ARCs were studied to optimize their performance. Square arrays performed better than hexagonal arrays - the natural moth-eye coating is indeed a square array. The optimal depth of the templated nanopillars in the ARC was investigated. A wet etching technology for ARC formation was developed that would be less expensive and much faster than dry etching. Theoretical modeling revealed that dimple arrays should perform better than nipple arrays. A method of fabricating both dimple and nipple arrays having the same length was developed, and the dimple arrays performed better than the nipple arrays, in agreement with the modeling. The commercial viability of the technology is quite feasible, since the technology is scalable and inexpensive. This technology is also compatible with current industrial

  15. Antireflective bilayer coatings based on Al2O3 film for UV region

    OpenAIRE

    Marszałek Konstanty; Winkowski Paweł; Marszałek Marta

    2015-01-01

    Bilayer antireflective coatings consisting of aluminium oxide Al2O3/MgF2 and Al2O3/SiO2 are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5 × 10-3 Pa in the presence of oxygen, and magnesium fluoride was prepared by thermal evaporation on heated optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS). Substrate temperature was maintained at 250 _C during the deposition. Thickness and deposition rate were controlled with a thickness measuring syste...

  16. STUDY OF REFLECTION COEFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION FOR ANTI-REFLECTION COATINGS ON SMALL-RADIUS OPTICAL PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with findings for the energy reflection coefficient distribution of anti- reflection coating along the surface of optical elements with a very small radius (2-12 mm. The factors influencing the magnitude of the surface area of the optical element, in which the energy reflection coefficient is constant, were detected. The main principles for theoretical models that describe the spectral characteristics of the multilayer interference coatings were used to achieve these objectives. The relative size of the enlightenment area is defined as the ratio of the radius for the optical element surface, where the reflection is less than a certain value, to its radius (ρ/r. The result of research is the following: this size is constant for a different value of the curvature radius for the optical element made of the same material. Its value is determined by the refractive index of material (nm, from which the optical element was made, and the design of antireflection coatings. For single-layer coatings this value is ρ/r = 0.5 when nm = 1.51; and ρ/r = 0.73 when nm = 1.75; for two-layer coatings ρ/r = 0.35 when nm = 1.51 and ρ/r = 0.41 when nm = 1.75. It is shown that with increasing of the material refractive index for the substrate size, the area of minimum reflection coefficient is increased. The paper considers a single-layer, two-layer, three-layer and five-layer structures of antireflection coatings. The findings give the possibility to conclude that equal thickness coverings formed on the optical element surface with a small radius make no equal reflection from the entire surface, and distribution of the layer thickness needs to be looked for, providing a uniform radiation reflection at all points of the spherical surface.

  17. Development of Nanostructured Antireflection Coatings for Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal G. Pethuraja

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-optic infrared technologies and systems operating from ultraviolet (UV to long-wave infrared (LWIR spectra are being developed for a variety of defense and commercial systems applications. Loss of a significant portion of the incident signal due to reflection limits the performance of electro-optic infrared (IR sensing systems. A critical technology being developed to overcome this limitation and enhance the performance of sensing systems is advanced antireflection (AR coatings. Magnolia is actively involved in the development and advancement of nanostructured AR coatings for a wide variety of defense and commercial applications. Ultrahigh AR performance has been demonstrated for UV to LWIR spectral bands on various substrates. The AR coatings enhance the optical transmission through optical components and devices by significantly minimizing reflection losses, a substantial improvement over conventional thin-film AR coating technologies. Nanostructured AR coatings have been fabricated using a nanomanufacturable self-assembly process on substrates that are transparent for a given spectrum of interest ranging from UV to LWIR. The nanostructured multilayer structures have been designed, developed and optimized for various optoelectronic applications. The optical properties of optical components and sensor substrates coated with AR structures have been measured and the process parameters fine-tuned to achieve a predicted high level of performance. In this paper, we review our latest work on high quality nanostructure-based AR coatings, including recent efforts on the development of nanostructured AR coatings on IR substrates.

  18. Novel conformal organic antireflective coatings for advanced I-line lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Shreeram V.; Nowak, Kelly A.; Fowler, Shelly; Williams, Paul; Arjona, Mikko

    2001-08-01

    Flash memory chips are playing a critical role in semiconductor devices due to increased popularity of hand held electronic communication devices such as cell phones and PDAs (personal Digital Assistants). Flash memory offers two primary advantages in semiconductor devices. First, it offers flexibility of in-circuit programming capability to reduce the loss from programming errors and to significantly reduce commercialization time to market for new devices. Second, flash memory has a double density memory capability through stacked gate structures which increases the memory capability and thus saves significantly on chip real estate. However, due to stacked gate structures the requirements for manufacturing of flash memory devices are significantly different from traditional memory devices. Stacked gate structures also offer unique challenges to lithographic patterning materials such as Bottom Anti-Reflective Coating (BARC) compositions used to achieve CD control and to minimize standing wave effect in photolithography. To be applicable in flash memory manufacturing a BARC should form a conformal coating on high topography of stacked gate features as well as provide the normal anti-reflection properties for CD control. In this paper we report on a new highly conformal advanced i-line BARC for use in design and manufacture of flash memory devices. Conformal BARCs being significantly thinner in trenches than the planarizing BARCs offer the advantage of reducing BARC overetch and thus minimizing resist thickness loss.

  19. Layer-by-Layer-Assembled High-Performance Broadband Antireflection Coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Shimomura, Hiroomi

    2010-03-24

    Nanoparticles are indispensable ingredients of solution-processed optical, dielectric, and catalytic thin films. Although solution-based methods are promising low-cost alternatives to vacuum methods, they can have significant limitations. Coating uniformity, thickness control, roughness control, mechanical durability, and incorporation of a diverse set of functional organic molecules into nanoparticle thin films are major challenges. We have used the electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly technique to make uniform, conformal multistack nanoparticle thin films for optical applications with precise thickness control over each stack. Two particularly sought-after optical applications are broadband antireflection and structural color. The effects of interstack and surface roughness on optical properties of these constructs (e.g., haze and spectral response) have been studied quantitatively using a combination of Fourier-transform methods and atomic force microscopy measurements. Deconvoluting root-mean-square roughness into its large-, intermediate-, and small-scale components enables enhanced optical simulations. A 4-stack broadband antireflection coating (<0.5% average reflectance in the visible range, and 0.2% haze) composed of alternating high-index (n ≈ 1.96) and low-index (n ≈ 1.28) stacks has been made on glass substrate. Films calcinated at 550 °C endure a one-hour-long cloth cleaning test under 100 kPa normal stress. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. Anti-reflection coating design for metallic terahertz meta-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaldi, Matteo; Freeman, Ryan; Hudl, Matthias; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Urazhdin, Sergei; Vavassori, Paolo; Bonetti, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a silicon-based, single-layer anti-reflection coating that suppresses the reflectivity of metals at near-infrared frequencies, enabling optical probing of nano-scale structures embedded in highly reflective surroundings. Our design does not affect the interaction of terahertz radiation with metallic structures that can be used to achieve terahertz near-field enhancement. We have verified the functionality of the design by calculating and measuring the reflectivity of both infrared and terahertz radiation from a silicon/gold double layer as a function of the silicon thickness. We have also fabricated the unit cell of a terahertz meta-material, a dipole antenna comprising two 20-nm thick extended gold plates separated by a 2 $\\mu$m gap, where the terahertz field is locally enhanced. We used the time-domain finite element method to demonstrate that such near-field enhancement is preserved in the presence of the anti-reflection coating. Finally, we performed magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements on a single 3-nm thick, 1-$\\mu$m wide magnetic wire placed in the gap of such a dipole antenna. The wire only occupies 2\\% of the area probed by the laser beam, but its magneto-optical response can be clearly detected. Our design paves the way for ultrafast time-resolved studies, using table-top femtosecond near-infrared lasers, of dynamics in nano-structures driven by strong terahertz radiation.

  1. Anti-reflection coating design for metallic terahertz meta-materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaldi, Matteo; Freeman, Ryan; Hudl, Matthias; Hoffmann, Matthias C; Urazhdin, Sergei; Vavassori, Paolo; Bonetti, Stefano

    2018-02-05

    We demonstrate a silicon-based, single-layer anti-reflection coating that suppresses the reflectivity of metals at near-infrared frequencies, enabling optical probing of nano-scale structures embedded in highly reflective surroundings. Our design does not affect the interaction of terahertz radiation with metallic structures that can be used to achieve terahertz near-field enhancement. We have verified the functionality of the design by calculating and measuring the reflectivity of both infrared and terahertz radiation from a silicon/gold double layer as a function of the silicon thickness. We have also fabricated the unit cell of a terahertz meta-material, a dipole antenna comprising two 20-nm thick extended gold plates separated by a 2 μm gap, where the terahertz field is locally enhanced. We used the time-domain finite element method to demonstrate that such near-field enhancement is preserved in the presence of the anti-reflection coating. Finally, we performed magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements on a single 3-nm thick, 1-μm wide magnetic wire placed in the gap of such a dipole antenna. The wire only occupies 2% of the area probed by the laser beam, but its magneto-optical response can be clearly detected. Our design paves the way for ultrafast time-resolved studies, using table-top femtosecond near-infrared lasers, of dynamics in nano-structures driven by strong terahertz radiation.

  2. Multifunctional antireflection coatings based on novel hollow silica-silica nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianpeng; Lan, Pinjun; Lu, Yuehui; Li, Jia; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Jing; Lee, YoungPak; Rhee, Joo Yull; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Song, Weijie

    2014-02-12

    Antireflection (AR) coatings that exhibit multifunctional characteristics, including high transparency, robust resistance to moisture, high hardness, and antifogging properties, were developed based on hollow silica-silica nanocomposites. These novel nanocomposite coatings with a closed-pore structure, consisting of hollow silica nanospheres (HSNs) infiltrated with an acid-catalyzed silica sol (ACSS), were fabricated using a low-cost sol-gel dip-coating method. The refractive index of the nanocomposite coatings was tailored by controlling the amount of ACSS infiltrated into the HSNs during synthesis. Photovoltaic transmittance (TPV) values of 96.86-97.34% were obtained over a broad range of wavelengths, from 300 to 1200 nm; these values were close to the theoretical limit for a lossy single-layered AR coating (97.72%). The nanocomposite coatings displayed a stable TPV, with degradation values of less than 4% and 0.1% after highly accelerated temperature and humidity stress tests, and abrasion tests, respectively. In addition, the nanocomposite coatings had a hardness of approximately 1.6 GPa, while the porous silica coatings with an open-pore structure showed more severe degradation and had a lower hardness. The void fraction and surface roughness of the nanocomposite coatings could be controlled, which gave rise to near-superhydrophilic and antifogging characteristics. The promising results obtained in this study suggest that the nanocomposite coatings have the potential to be of benefit for the design, fabrication, and development of multifunctional AR coatings with both omnidirectional broadband transmission and long-term durability that are required for demanding outdoor applications in energy harvesting and optical instrumentation in extreme climates or humid conditions.

  3. Broadband and wide-angle hybrid antireflection coatings prepared by combining interference multilayers with subwavelength structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruynooghe, Stéphane; Schulze, Marcel; Helgert, Michael; Challier, Michel; Tonova, Diana; Sundermann, Michael; Koch, Thomas; Gatto, Alexandre; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    To reduce the intensity of the Fresnel reflections of optical components, subwavelength structures prepared by reactive ion etching of SiO2 thin films were combined as the outermost layer with a multilayer system made of conventional thin-film materials. A hybrid coating was thus realized, with the nanoscaled structured outermost layer expected to further improve the antireflection properties of common interference stacks. The microscopic and optical spectroscopic analysis of the subwavelength structures revealed that pillar-shaped nanostructures formed during etching exhibit low-refractive-index properties and have a depth-dependent refractive index. To take into account the refractive-index gradient in the coating design, the optical properties of the nanostructures were modeled using the effective-medium approximation. The calculated average effective refractive index turned out to be 1.11 at 500-nm wavelength. A hybrid coating was designed to minimize the residual reflectance in the 400-nm to 900-nm spectral range for BK7 glass substrate. Experimental results demonstrated that the hybrid-coating approach yields a low residual reflectance with very good omnidirectional properties, owing to the properties of the nanostructured surface.

  4. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Giuliani, A.; Dumoulin, L.; Olivieri, E.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.; Tenconi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers) consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% - 35%) and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  5. Fabrication of Antireflection Nanodiamond Particle Film by the Spin Coating Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Ruey Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-based antireflective (AR coatings were fabricated using a spin coating of diamond suspension at room temperature as nucleation enhancement procedure and microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Various working pressures were used to investigate their effect on the optical characterization of the as-deposited diamond films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic forced microscopy (AFM were employed to analyze the surface properties of the diamond films. Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM also were used for analysis of the microstructure of the films. The results showed that working pressure had a significant effect on thickness, surface roughness, and wettability of the as-deposited diamond films. Deposited under 35 Torr or working pressure, the film possessed a low surface roughness of 13.8 nm and fine diamond grain sizes of 35 nm. Reflectance measurements of the films also were carried out using UV-Vis spectrometer and revealed a low reflectance value of the diamond films. The achievement demonstrated feasibility of the proposed spin-coating procedure for large scale production and thus opens up a prospect application of diamond film as an AR coating in industrial optoelectronic device.

  6. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancuso M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% – 35% and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  7. Highly transparent triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting water-related energy reinforced by antireflection coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Gu, Yousong; Zhang, Kui; Liang, Mengyuan; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-03-01

    Water-related energy is an inexhaustible and renewable energy resource in our environment, which has huge amount of energy and is not largely dictated by daytime and sunlight. The transparent characteristic plays a key role in practical applications for some devices designed for harvesting water-related energy. In this paper, a highly transparent triboelectric nanogenerator (T-TENG) was designed to harvest the electrostatic energy from flowing water. The instantaneous output power density of the T-TENG is 11.56 mW/m2. Moreover, with the PTFE film acting as an antireflection coating, the maximum transmittance of the fabricated T-TENG is 87.4%, which is larger than that of individual glass substrate. The T-TENG can be integrated with silicon-based solar cell, building glass and car glass, which demonstrates its potential applications for harvesting waste water energy in our living environment and on smart home system and smart car system.

  8. Characterization and simulation on antireflective coating of amorphous silicon oxide thin films with gradient refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Jin, Qi; Qu, Xingling; Jin, Jing; Jiang, Chaochao; Yang, Weiguang; Wang, Linjun; Shi, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    The optical reflective properties of silicon oxide (SixOy) thin films with gradient refractive index are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The thin films are widely used in photovoltaic as antireflective coatings (ARCs). An effective finite difference time domain (FDTD) model is built to find the optimized reflection spectra corresponding to structure of SixOy ARCs with gradient refractive index. Based on the simulation analysis, it shows the variation of reflection spectra with gradient refractive index distribution. The gradient refractive index of SixOy ARCs can be obtained in adjustment of SiH4 to N2O ratio by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The optimized reflection spectra measured by UV-visible spectroscopy confirms to agree well with that simulated by FDTD method.

  9. MULTI-ZONE ANTIREFLECTION COATING ON A SUBSTRATE MADE OF OPTICAL ZINC SULPHIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation technique for a multi-zone antireflection coating on a substrate made of the optical zinc sulphide ZnS. The coating effectively operates simultaneously in the following spectral ranges: visible region of 450 - 700 nm, in the near infrared region of 1000 - 1100 nm, at the wavelength of 1.55 μm, and in the mid-infrared (IR spectrum of 3 - 5 microns. Reflection coefficient in the range of 450 - 700 nm is not more than 2%, in the range of 1000 - 1100 nm is less than 0.5%, in the range of 1500 - 1700 nm is close to 1.5% and in the range of 3 - 5 μm is equal to 0.6%. Analysis results of the deviation impact in the thickness of layers on the value changing of the energy reflection coefficient in the considered areas are given. Deviation in the thickness of the layer, contiguous with the air, is shown to have the greatest effect on the spectral characteristics of the obtained coating. Refractive index deviation for this layer influences the magnitude of the residual reflection.

  10. Antireflection Coatings for Strongly Curved Glass Lenses by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Pfeiffer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antireflection (AR coatings are indispensable in numerous optical applications and are increasingly demanded on highly curved optical components. In this work, optical thin films of SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2 and Ta2O5 were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD, which is based on self-limiting surface reactions leading to a uniform film thickness on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Al2O3/TiO2/SiO2 and Al2O3/Ta2O5/SiO2 AR coatings were successfully applied in the 400–750 nm and 400–700 nm spectral range, respectively. Less than 0.6% reflectance with an average of 0.3% has been measured on a fused silica hemispherical (half-ball lens with 4 mm diameter along the entire lens surface at 0° angle of incidence. The reflectance on a large B270 aspherical lens with height of 25 mm and diameter of 50 mm decreased to less than 1% with an average reflectance < 0.3%. The results demonstrate that ALD is a promising technology for deposition of uniform optical layers on strongly curved lenses without complex in situ thickness monitoring.

  11. Development of a Multi-layer Anti-reflective Coating for Gallium Arsenide/Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells by Kimberley A Olver Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Development of a Multi-layer Anti-reflective Coating for Gallium Arsenide / Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells by Kimberley A Olver... Aluminum Gallium Arsenide (AlGaAs) Solar Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kimberley A Olver

  12. Application of CBD-Zinc Sulfide Film as an Antireflection Coating on Very Large Area Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The low-cost chemical bath deposition (CBD technique is used to prepare CBD-ZnS films as antireflective (AR coating for multicrystalline silicon solar cells. The uniformity of CBD-ZnS film on large area of textured multicrystalline silicon surface is the major challenge of CBD technique. In the present work, attempts have been made for the first time to improve the rate of deposition and uniformity of deposited film by controlling film stoichiometry and refractive index and also to minimize reflection loss by proper optimization of molar percentage of different chemical constituents and deposition conditions. Reasonable values of film deposition rate (12.13 Å′/min., good film uniformity (standard deviation <1, and refractive index (2.35 along with a low percentage of average reflection (6-7% on a textured mc-Si surface are achieved with proper optimization of ZnS bath. 12.24% efficiency on large area (125 mm × 125 mm multicrystalline silicon solar cells with CBD-ZnS antireflection coating has been successfully fabricated. The viability of low-cost CBD-ZnS antireflection coating on large area multicrystalline silicon solar cell in the industrial production level is emphasized.

  13. Non-Vacuum Processed Polymer Composite Antireflection Coating Films for Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Uzum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A non-vacuum processing method for preparing polymer-based ZrO2/TiO2 multilayer structure antireflection coating (ARC films for crystalline silicon solar cells by spin coating is introduced. Initially, ZrO2, TiO2 and surface deactivated-TiO2 (SD-TiO2 based films were examined separately and the effect of photocatalytic properties of TiO2 film on the reflectivity on silicon surface was investigated. Degradation of the reflectance performance with increasing reflectivity of up to 2% in the ultraviolet region was confirmed. No significant change of the reflectance was observed when utilizing SD-TiO2 and ZrO2 films. Average reflectance (between 300 nm–1100 nm of the silicon surface coated with optimized polymer-based ZrO2 single or ZrO2/SD-TiO2 multilayer composite films was decreased down to 6.5% and 5.5%, respectively. Improvement of photocurrent density (Jsc and conversion efficiency (η of fabricated silicon solar cells owing to the ZrO2/SD-TiO2 multilayer ARC could be confirmed. The photovoltaic properties of Jsc, the open-circuit photo voltage (VOC, the fill factor (FF, and the η were 31.42 mA cm−2, 575 mV, 71.5% and 12.91%. Efficiency of the solar cells was improved by the ZrO2-polymer/SD-TiO2 polymer ARC composite layer by a factor of 0.8% with an increase of Jsc (2.07 mA cm−2 compared to those of fabricated without the ARC.

  14. Robust antireflection coatings By UV cross-linking of silica nanoparticles and diazo-resin polycation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Jason I.; Heflin, James R.; Ritter, Alfred L.

    2007-09-01

    Antireflection coatings have been fabricated by self-assembly using silica nanoparticles. The ionic self-assembled multilayer (ISAM) films are tightly packed and homogeneous. While the geometric properties of a matrix of spherical particles with corresponding void interstices are highly suitable to meet the conditions for minimal reflectivity, it is also a cause for the lack of cohesion within the constituent body, as well as to the substrate surface. This study investigates methods for improving the interconnectivity of the nanoparticle structure. One such method involves UV curing of diazo-resin (DAR)/silica nanoparticle films, thereby converting the ionic interaction into a stronger covalent bond. Factorial analysis and response surface methods are incorporated to determine factors that affect film properties, and to optimize their optical and adhesive capabilities. The second study looks at the adhesive strength of composite multilayer films. Films are fabricated with silica nanoparticles and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), and dipped into aqueous solutions of PAH and poly(methacrylic acid, sodium salt) (PMA) to improve cohesion of silica nanoparticles in the matrix, as well as binding strength to the substrate surface. The results of the two studies are discussed.

  15. Anti-reflection coatings for silicon solar cells from hydrogenated diamond like carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debajyoti; Banerjee, Amit

    2015-08-01

    Aiming towards a specific application as antireflection coatings (ARC) in Si solar cells, the growth of hydrogenated diamond like carbon (HDLC) films, by RF magnetron sputtering, has been optimized through comprehensive optical and structural studies. Various physical properties of the films e.g., (ID/IG) ratio in the Raman spectra, percentage of sp3 hybridization in XPS spectra, H-content in the network, etc., have been correlated with different ARC application properties e.g., transmittance, reflectance, optical band gap, refractive index, surface roughness, etc. The ARC properties have been optimized on unheated substrates, through systematic variations of RF power, gas flow rate, gas pressure and finally controlled introduction of hydrogen to the DLC network at its most favorable plasma parameters. The optimum HDLC films possess (T700)max ∼ 95.8%, (R700)min ∼ 3.87%, (n700)min ∼ 1.62 along with simultaneous (Eg)max ∼ 2.53 eV and ∼75.6% of sp3 hybridization in the C-network, corresponding to a bonded H-content of ∼23 at.%. Encouraging improvements in the ARC properties over the optimized DLC film were obtained with the controlled addition of hydrogen, and the optimum HDLC films appear quite promising for applications in Si solar cells. Systematic materials development has been performed through comprehensive understanding of the parameter space and its optimization, as elaborately discussed.

  16. Antireflective bilayer coatings based on Al2O3 film for UV region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marszałek Konstanty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilayer antireflective coatings consisting of aluminium oxide Al2O3/MgF2 and Al2O3/SiO2 are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5 × 10-3 Pa in the presence of oxygen, and magnesium fluoride was prepared by thermal evaporation on heated optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS. Substrate temperature was maintained at 250 _C during the deposition. Thickness and deposition rate were controlled with a thickness measuring system Inficon XTC/2. The experimental results of the optical measurements carried out during and after the deposition process have been presented. Physical thickness measurements were made during the deposition process and resulted in 44 nm/52 nm for Al2O3/MgF2 and 44 nm/50 nm for Al2O3/SiO2 system. Optimization was carried out for ultraviolet region with minimum of reflectance at 300 nm. The influence of post deposition annealing on the crystal structure was determined by X-ray measurements. In the range from ultraviolet to the beginning of visible region, the reflectance of both systems decreased and reached minimum at 290 nm. The value of reflectance at this point, for the coating Al2O3/MgF2 was equal to R290nm = 0.6 % and for Al2O3/SiO2R290nm = 1.1 %. Despite the difference between these values both are sufficient for applications in the UV optical systems for medicine and UV laser technology.

  17. Design and fabrication of anti-reflection coating on Gallium Phosphide, Zinc Selenide and Zinc Sulfide substrates for visible and infrared application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrý P.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of design and fabrication of a dual-band anti-reflection coating on a gallium phosphide (GaP, zinc selenide (ZnSe and zinc sulfide (ZnS substrates are presented. A multilayer stack structure of antireflection coatings made of zinc sulfide and yttrium fluoride (YF3 was theoretically designed for optical bands between 0.8 and 0.9 μm and between 9.5 and 10.5 μm. This stack was designed as efficient for these materials (GaP, ZnS, ZnSe together. Multilayer stack structure was deposited using thermal evaporation method. Theoretically predicted transmittance spectra were compared with transmitted spectra measured on coated substrates. Efficiency of anti-reflection coating is estimated and discrepancies are analyzed and discussed.

  18. Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghoorn, M.M.A.; Roosen-Melsen, D.A.; Riet, J.F.J. de; Sabik, S.; Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Yakimets, I.; Buskens, P.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) are used to lower the reflection of light on the surface of a substrate. Here, we demonstrate that the two main drawbacks of moth eye-structured ARCs-i.e., the lack of suitable coating materials and a process for large area, high volume applications-can be largely

  19. Argon plasma treatment of silicon nitride (SiN) for improved antireflection coating on c-Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Hemanta; Mitra, Suchismita; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan Kumar; Banerjee, Chandan, E-mail: chandanbanerjee74@gmail.com

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Antireflection properties of argon plasma treated silicon nitride layer and its effect on crystalline silicon solar cell. • The reduction in reflection due to the formation of a silicon oxynitride/silicon nitride double layer. • EQE reveals a relative increase of 2.72% in J{sub sc} and 4.46% in conversion efficiency. - Abstract: Antireflection properties of argon plasma treated silicon nitride layer and its effect on crystalline silicon solar cell is presented here. Hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiN:H) layer has been deposited on a silicon substrate by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) using a mixture of silane (SiH{sub 4}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gases followed by a argon plasma treatment. Optical analysis reveals a significant reduction in reflectance after argon plasma treatment of silicon nitride layer. While FESEM shows nanostructures on the surface of the silicon nitride film, FTIR reveals a change in Si−N, Si−O and N−H bonds. On the other hand, ellipsometry shows the variation of refractive index and formation of double layer. Finally, a c-Si solar cell has been fabricated with the said anti-reflection coating. External quantum efficiency reveals a relative increase of 2.72% in the short circuit current density and 4.46% in conversion efficiency over a baseline efficiency of 16.58%.

  20. Reflective and antireflective coatings for the optical chain of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Stringhetti, Luca

    2013-09-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. One of the main aims of the ASTRI Project is the design, construction and on-field verification of a dual mirror (2M) end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype is designed according to the Schwarzschild-Couder optical scheme, and adopts a camera based on Silicon Photo Multipliers (SiPM); it will be assembled at the INAF astronomical site of Serra La Nave on mount Etna (Catania, Italy) in the second half of 2014, and will start scientific validation phase soon after. With its 4m wide primary dish, the telescope will be sensitive to multi-TeV Very High Energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV and above, with a point spread function of ~2 arcminutes and a wide (semiaperture 4.8°) corrected field of view. The peculiarities of the optical design and of the SiPM bandpass pushed towards specifically optimized choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. Fully dielectric multi-layer coatings have been developed and tested as an option for the primary mirror, aiming to filter out the large Night Sky Background contamination at wavelengths λ>~700 nm. On the other hand, for the large monolithic secondary mirror a simpler design with quartz-overcoated aluminium has been optimized for incidences far from normality. The conformation of the ASTRI camera in turn pushed towards the design of a reimaging system based on thin pyramidal light guides, that could be optionally integrated in the focal surface, aiming to increase the fill factor. An anti-reflective coating optimized for a wide range of incident angles faraway from normality was specifically developed to enhance the UV-optical transparency of these elements. The issues, strategy, simulations and experimental results are thoroughly

  1. Substrate-Versatile Approach to Robust Antireflective and Superhydrophobic Coatings with Excellent Self-Cleaning Property in Varied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tingting; He, Junhui

    2017-10-04

    Robust antireflective and superhydrophobic coatings are highly desired in wide applications, such as optical devices, solar cell panels, architectural and automotive glasses, lab-on chip systems, and windows for electronic devices. Meanwhile, simple, low-cost, and substrate-versatile fabrication is also essential toward real applications of such coatings. Herein, we developed a substrate-versatile strategy to fabricate robust antireflective and superhydrophobic coatings with excellent self-cleaning property in varied environments, including air and oil and after oil contamination. A mixed ethanol suspension, which consists of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane modified dual-sized silica nanoparticles and acid-catalyzed silica precursor, was first synthesized. The acid-catalyzed silica precursor could help to form a highly cross-linked silica network by connecting the silica nanoparticles, thus significantly enhancing the robustness of coatings. The as-prepared coatings were able to withstand a water drop impact test, sand abrasion test, tape adhesion test, and knife and pencil scratching tests. More importantly, it was also found that the wettability and self-cleaning property of coatings after oil contamination were surprisingly different from those in air and oil. These observations are explainable by the alteration of interface; i.e., the alteration of interface has significant effects on the functional properties of coatings. Additionally, the mixed suspension could be sprayed onto various hard and soft substrates including glass, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polycarbonate (PC), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), opening up a feasible route toward varied practical applications in solar cell panels, optical devices, architectural and automotive glasses, droplet manipulators, and fluid control.

  2. Fabrication of Large Area Broadband and Omnidirectional Antireflective Transparent Foils by Roll-to-Roll Extrusion Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Swathi; Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the fabrication and performance of broadband and omnidirectional antireflective polymer foils, in the visible spectrum (400–800 nm), consisting of subwavelength inverted moth-eye structures. The foils are fabricated by a high throughput roll-to-roll extrusion coating process...... incidence and incidence up to at least 60°. The foil performance is also investigated for different depths (Dp) and shapes of structures. The transmittance initially increases with Dp and reaches a maximum at Dp ≈ 120 nm. For process parameters yielding greater depths, other shape factors also play...

  3. All-oxide broadband antireflection coatings by plasma ion assisted deposition: design, simulation, manufacturing and re-optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrandt, Steffen; Stenzel, Olaf; Kaiser, Norbert

    2010-09-13

    A new all-oxide design for broadband antireflection coatings with significantly reduced impact of deposition errors to the final reflectance is presented. Computational manufacturing including re-optimization during deposition has been used in the design work to account for maximum insensibility of the design with respect to deposition errors typical for plasma ion assisted deposition PIAD. Repeated deposition runs with the deducted monitoring and re-optimization strategy verify the validity of the simulations and the stability of the derived design solution.

  4. Wide band antireflective coatings Al2O3 / HfO2 / MgF2 for UV region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkowski, P.; Marszałek, Konstanty W.

    2013-07-01

    Deposition technology of the three layers antireflective coatings consists of hafnium compound are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5x10-5 mbar in presence of oxygen and fluoride films by thermal evaporation. Substrate temperature was 250°C. Coatings were deposited onto optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS). Thickness and deposition rate were controlled by thickness measuring system Inficon XTC/2. Simulations leading to optimization of thickness and experimental results of optical measurements carried during and after deposition process were presented. Physical thickness measurements were made during deposition process and were equal to 43 nm/74 nm/51 nm for Al2O3 / HfO2 / MgF2 respectively. Optimization was carried out for ultraviolet region from 230nm to the beginning of visible region 400 nm. In this region the average reflectance of the antireflective coating was less than 0.5% in the whole range of application.

  5. Anti-Reflective Fluoride Coatings for Widely Tunable Deep-Ultraviolet Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin-Cheng, Li; Da-Wei, Lin; Yan-Ling, Han; Chun, Guo; Yun-Dong, Zhang; Hong-Xiang, Liu

    2010-01-01

    An anti-reflective (AR) fluoride coating in the 170–230 nm spectral range is prepared by the thermal evaporation method for the applications of widely tunable deep-ultraviolet diode-pumped solid-state lasers. The transmittance of an AR coated calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) window in thickness 3 mm is measured to be in the range of 95.8% at 170 nm to 97.1% at 230 nm, with the maximum transmittance 99.2% and the minimum residual reflectance 0.04% appeared at 195 nm. The experimental results indicate that treating the AR coated window and the bare substrate with ultraviolet irradiation can significantly improve their optical performance

  6. Anti-reflective coating for visible light using a silver nanodisc metasurface with a refractive index of less than 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hideki; Matsuno, Ryo; Koito, Naoki; Hosoda, Hidemasa; Tani, Takeharu; Naya, Masayuki

    2017-12-01

    Suppression of visible-light reflection from material surfaces is an important technology for many applications such as flat-panel displays, camera lenses, and solar panels. In this study, we developed an anti-reflective coating design based on a silver nanodisc metasurface. The effective refractive index of a 10-nm-thick monolayer of silver nanodiscs was less than 1.0, which enabled strong suppression of reflection from the underlying substrate. The nanodisc structure was easy to fabricate using a conventional roll-to-roll wet-coating method. The anti-reflective structure was fabricated over a large area.

  7. Dual functional porous anti-reflective coatings with a photocatalytic effect based on a single layer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilavi, M. H.; Mousavi, S. H.; Müller, T. S.; de Oliveira, P. W.

    2018-05-01

    Anti-reflection and photocatalytic properties are desirable for improving the optical properties of electronic devices. We describe a method of fabrication a single-layer, anti-reflective (AR) thin film with an additional photocatalytic property. The layer is deposited on glass substrates by means of a low-cost dip-coating method using a SiO2-TiO2 solution. A comparative study was undertaken to investigate the effects of TiO2 concentrations on the photocatalytic properties of the film and to determine the optimal balance between transmittance and photocatalysis. The average transmittance increases from T = 90.51% to T = 95.46 ± 0.07% for the wavelengths between 380 and 1200 nm. The structural characterization indicated the formation of thin, porous SiO2-TiO2 films with a roughness of less than 7.5 nm. The quality of the samples was evaluated by a complete test program of the mechanical, chemical and accelerated weathering stability. This results open up new possibilities for cost-effective AR coatings for the glass and solar cell industries.

  8. Superior Antireflection Coating for a Silicon Cell with a Micronanohybrid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Chien Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to develop a high antireflection silicon solar cell. A novel two-stage metal-assisted etching (MAE method is proposed for the fabrication of an antireflective layer of a micronanohybrid structure array. The processing time for the etching on an N-type high-resistance (NH silicon wafer can be controlled to around 5 min. The resulting micronanohybrid structure array can achieve an average reflectivity of 1.21% for a light spectrum of 200–1000 nm. A P-N junction on the fabricated micronanohybrid structure array is formed using a low-cost liquid diffusion source. A high antireflection silicon solar cell with an average efficiency of 13.1% can be achieved. Compared with a conventional pyramid structure solar cell, the shorted circuit current of the proposed solar cell is increased by 73%. The major advantage of the two-stage MAE process is that a high antireflective silicon substrate can be fabricated cost-effectively in a relatively short time. The proposed method is feasible for the mass production of low-cost solar cells.

  9. Broadband near-infrared antireflection coatings fabricated by three-dimensional direct laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Fullager, D. B.; Angelbello, E.; Childers, D.; Boreman, G.; Hofmann, T.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional direct laser writing via two photon polymerization is used to fabricate anti-reflective structured surfaces composed of sub-wavelength conicoid features optimized to operate over a wide bandwidth in the near-infrared range from 3700 cm$^{-1}$ to 6600 cm$^{-1}$ (2.7 to 1.52 $\\mu$m). Analytic Bruggemann effective medium calculations are used to predict nominal geometric parameters such as the fill factor of the constitutive conicoid features of the anti-reflective structured surfaces presented here. The performance of the anti-reflective structured surfaces was investigated experimentally using infrared transmission measurements. An enhancement of the transmittance by 1.35\\% to 2.14\\% over a broadband spectral range from 3700 cm$ ^{-1} $ to 6600 cm$^{-1}$ (2.7 to 1.52 $\\mu$m) was achieved. We further report on finite-element-based reflection and transmission data using three-dimensional model geometries for comparison. A good agreement between experimental results and the finite-element-based numerical analysis is observed once as-fabricated deviations from the nominal conicoid forms are included in the model. Three-dimensional direct laser writing is demonstrated here as an efficient method for the fabrication and optimization of anti-reflective structured surfaces designed for the infrared spectral range.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF PLASMONIC AND DIELECTRIC INCLUSIONS ON ANTIREFLECTIVE PROPERTIES OF HOMOGENEOUS COATINGS FOR SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Baryshnikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. Theoretical analysis of the efficiency for the antireflective coatings based on plasmonic silver (Ag and dielectric silicon (Si nanoparticles is presented. We observe the increase of light absorption in the active layer, which is related to the optical resonant properties of considered nanoparticles. Characteristic property of the studied composite layer is its ability to combine the functions of electric contacts and anti-reflective coating. Method. Numerical calculations were performed in CST Microwave Studio with FDFD method (Finite Difference in Frequency Domain. The optical parameters of materials were extracted from the experimentally measured data available in literature. Geometrical parameters of composite layer – size and location of particles – were varied. Comparison of light absorption efficiency for different coatings on top of the active layer is presented: the homogeneous Indium Tin Oxide (ITO layer, ITO layer with the spherical nanoparticle inclusions on the ITO surface, ITO layer with spherical nanoparticle bulk inclusions. Periodical lattices of particles with sizes of range between 15 and 80 nm were considered. Nanoparticles of this size have dominant dipole response. Main Results. Numerical calculations have shown that nanoparticle inclusions cause significant deformation of the absorption spectra with appearing of resonant pecularities in the wavelength range equal to 300-800 nm. It originates from the nanoparticle resonant features, which are similar to the resonant features of isolated nanoparticles. Absorption in the active layer decreases sharply at the resonant wavelength. Resonant response of nanoparticles placed on the ITO surface differs significally from the isolated ones: the resonant frequency and Q-factor decrease. It was shown that absorption in the active layer decreases by 25 % when the size of Ag and Si particles increases. Ag nanoparticles, placed in ITO layer on top of the active layer

  11. Influence of double- and triple-layer antireflection coatings on the formation of photocurrents in multijunction III–V solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musalinov, S. B.; Anzulevich, A. P.; Bychkov, I. V. [Chelyabinsk State University (Russian Federation); Gudovskikh, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University (Russian Federation); Shvarts, M. Z., E-mail: shvarts@scell.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The results of simulation by the transfer-matrix method of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} double-layer and TiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} triple-layer antireflection coatings for multijunction InGaP/GaAs/Ge heterostructure solar cells are presented. The TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} double-layer antireflection coating is experimentally developed and optimized. The experimental spectral dependences of the external quantum yield of the InGaP/GaAs/Ge heterostructure solar cell and optical characteristics of antireflection coatings, obtained in the simulation, are used to determine the photogenerated current densities of each subcell in the InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell under AM1.5D irradiation conditions (1000 W/m{sup 2}) and for the case of zero reflection loss. It is shown in the simulation that the optimized TiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} triple-layer antireflection coating provides a 2.3 mA/cm{sup 2} gain in the photocurrent density for the Ge subcell under AM1.5D conditions in comparison with the TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} double-layer antireflection coating under consideration. This thereby provides an increase in the fill factor of the current–voltage curve and in the output electric power of the multijunction solar cell.

  12. Influence of coating thickness on laser-induced damage characteristics of anti-reflection coatings irradiated by 1064  nm nanosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhi; Cheng, Xinbin; Ma, Hongping; Zhang, Jinlong; Ma, Bin; Jiao, Hongfei; Wang, Zhanshan

    2017-02-01

    The influence of coating thickness on laser-induced damage (LID) characteristics of anti-reflection (AR) coatings irradiated by 1064 nm nanosecond laser pulses was investigated. Two HfO2/SiO2 AR coatings with different physical thicknesses, 0.7 and 2.7 μm, were prepared and tested. To study the effect of coating thickness on a laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) in isolation, electric field intensities (EFIs) at the substrate-coating interface were kept the same by using proper AR designs. Moreover, 2 nm artificial gold particles with a density of 10  mm-2 were implanted into the substrate-coating interface to achieve reliable experimental results. An optical microscope (OM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for an online LIDT test and offline LID morphology observation, respectively. The typical LID morphology of thicker AR coatings was flat bottom craters with diameters of 20-50 μm, which can be easily observed by an online OM. For thinner AR coatings, hemispherical craters with diameters down to 1 μm were found as typical LID morphology by a SEM. However, these tiny craters could not be observed by an online OM. Moreover, such tiny craters did not grow with subsequent pulses, so they did not degrade the functional laser damage resistance of the thin AR coatings. When identified with an online OM, the LIDT of thinner AR coatings is found to be about two times higher than the thicker ones, and large delamination was mainly found as the LID morphology of AR coatings with high fluence. When observed with a SEM, the LIDT of thin AR coatings with tiny craters was over 60% lower than the LIDT of thick AR coatings, which agrees with the model that less energy is required to form smaller LID craters of thinner coatings.

  13. Double-layer anti-reflection coating containing a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer for GaAs solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianshu; Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Wen; Shi, Yanpeng; Yang, Fuhua

    2013-07-29

    Multilayer anti-reflection (AR) coatings can be used to improve the efficiency of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) solar cells. We propose an alternate method to obtain optical thin films with specified refractive indices, which is using a self-assembled nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template as an optical thin film whose effective refractive index can be tuned by pore-widening. Different kinds of double-layer AR coatings each containing an AAO layer were designed and investigated by finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We demonstrate that a λ /4n - λ /4n AR coating consisting of a TiO(2) layer and an AAO layer whose effective refractive index is 1.32 realizes a 96.8% light absorption efficiency of the GaAs solar cell under AM1.5 solar spectrum (400 nm-860 nm). We also have concluded some design principles of the double-layer AR coating containing an AAO layer for GaAs solar cells.

  14. Optical properties of nanostructured TiO2 thin films and their application as antireflection coatings on infrared detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, R C; Perera, A G U; Zhu, H; Zhao, Y

    2012-10-15

    Oblique-angle deposited titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanorods have attracted much attention as good antireflection (AR) coating material due to their low n profile. Therefore, it is necessary to better understand the optical properties of these nanorods. TiO(2) nanorods grown on glass and Si substrates were characterized in the visible (0.4-0.8 μm) and infrared (2-12 μm) regions to extract their complex n profiles empirically. Application of these nanorods in multilayer AR coatings on infrared detectors is also discussed. Optimization of graded index profile of these AR coatings in the broad infrared region (2-12 μm) even at oblique angles of incidence is discussed. The effective coupling between the incoming light and multiple nanorod layers for reducing the reflection is obtained by optimizing the effect from Fabry-Perot oscillations. An optimized five-layer AR coating on GaN shows the reflectance less than 3.3% for normal incidence and 10.5% at 60° across the whole 2-8 μm spectral range.

  15. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...... in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  16. Improvement in power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices by using excimer ultraviolet-radiation induced mesoporous silica anti-reflection coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yi-Ming; Su, Yu-Yang; Leu, Chi-Yi

    2013-01-01

    An anti-reflection thin film with a mesoporous structure is demonstrated to improve the light-collection and photocurrent-generation abilities of organic photovoltaic cells. The mesoporous film was prepared by sol–gel-derived silica with an excimer ultraviolet-radiation removable self-assembling triblock copolymer as the nanostructured template. The method for fabricating this film was much easier than conventional processes used to prepare anti-reflection materials as they involve vacuum or high-temperature conditions. By using this mesoporous film as an anti-reflection coating on the glass side of an indium tin oxide-coated glass substrate, an enhancement of about 6% in the photocurrent generation could be achieved in a device with a poly(3-hexylthiophene):(6,6)-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester bulk-heterojunction layer. A glass substrate with a coating of the mesoporous anti-reflection film showed an obvious improvement in transmittance for wavelengths extending from the visible-light region to the near-infrared region. The result also indicates that the prepared anti-reflection material is not only compatible with the photoactive materials with wide band gaps but works very well with semiconductors with small band gaps as well, e.g. thieno(3,4-b)-thiophene/benzodithiophene copolymer (PTB7). In this work, ∼ 3.6% photocurrent enhancement can also be obtained in PTB7-based solar cells, indicating the wide compatibility of thus-prepared mesoporous film. - Highlights: • A mesoporous film is demonstrated to improve light collection of organic photovoltaic cells. • The film was prepared by sol–gel silica with a light removable copolymer template. • An enhancement of 6% in photocurrent could be achieved in the devices

  17. Broadband near-infrared antireflection coatings fabricated by three-dimensional direct laser writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Fullager, D B; Angelbello, E; Childers, D; Boreman, G; Hofmann, T

    2018-01-15

    Three-dimensional direct laser writing via two-photon polymerization is used to fabricate anti-reflective structured surfaces (ARSSs) composed of subwavelength conicoid features optimized to operate over a wide bandwidth in the near-infrared range from 3700  cm -1 to 6600  cm -1 (2.7-1.52 μm). Analytic Bruggemann effective medium calculations are used to predict nominal geometric parameters such as the fill factor of the constitutive conicoid features of the anti-reflective structured surfaces (ARSSs) presented here. The performance of the ARSSs was investigated experimentally using infrared reflection and transmission measurements. An enhancement of the transmittance by 1.35%-2.14% over a broadband spectral range from 3700  cm -1 to 6600  cm -1 (2.7-1.52 μm) was achieved. We further report on finite-element-based reflection and transmission data using three-dimensional (3D) model geometries for comparison. A good agreement between experimental results and the finite-element-based numerical analysis is observed once as-fabricated deviations from the nominal conicoid forms are included in the model. 3D direct laser writing is demonstrated here as an efficient method for the fabrication and optimization of ARSSs designed for the infrared spectral range.

  18. Optimal design and fabrication method for antireflection coatings for P-polarized 193 nm laser beam at large angles of incidence (68°-74°).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingcheng; Jin, Chunshui; Li, Chun; Deng, Wenyuan; Chang, Yanhe

    2013-09-01

    Most of the optical axes in modern systems are bent for optomechanical considerations. Antireflection (AR) coatings for polarized light at oblique incidence are widely used in optical surfaces like prisms or multiform lenses to suppress undesirable reflections. The optimal design and fabrication method for AR coatings with large-angle range (68°-74°) for a P-polarized 193 nm laser beam is discussed in detail. Experimental results showed that after coating, the reflection loss of a P-polarized laser beam at large angles of incidence on the optical surfaces is reduced dramatically, which could greatly improve the output efficiency of the optical components in the deep ultraviolet vacuum range.

  19. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Sputtered Silicon Dioxide, Indium Tin Oxide, and Silicon Dioxide/Indium Tin Oxide Antireflection Coating on Single-Junction GaAs Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jeng Ho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the electrical and optical properties of single-junction GaAs solar cells coated with antireflective layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2, indium tin oxide (ITO, and a hybrid layer of SiO2/ITO applied using Radio frequency (RF sputtering. The conductivity and transparency of the ITO film were characterized prior to application on GaAs cells. Reverse saturation-current and ideality factor were used to evaluate the passivation performance of the various coatings on GaAs solar cells. Optical reflectance and external quantum efficiency response were used to evaluate the antireflective performance of the coatings. Photovoltaic current-voltage measurements were used to confirm the efficiency enhancement obtained by the presence of the anti-reflective coatings. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs cells with an ITO antireflective coating (23.52% exceeded that of cells with a SiO2 antireflective coating (21.92%. Due to lower series resistance and higher short-circuit current-density, the carrier collection of the GaAs cell with ITO coating exceeded that of the cell with a SiO2/ITO coating.

  20. Antireflection coating design for series interconnected multi-junction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiken, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    AR coating design for multi-junction solar cells can be more challenging than in the single junction case. Reasons for this are discussed. Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J(sub SC)) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design can be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices

  1. Design and fabrication of multi-layers infrared antireflection coating consisting of ZnS and Ge on ZnS substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei Moghadam, R.; Ahmadvand, H.; Jannesari, M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized a multi-layers antireflection coating on multispectral ZnS substrate, suitable for the infrared range of 8-12 μm. The 4-layers coating (Ge/ZnS/Ge/ZnS) with optimized thicknesses was fabricated by PVD technique and studied by FTIR, nanoindentation and AFM. From FTIR spectroscopy it was found that, in the wavelength range of 8-12 μm, the average transmittance of the double-side coated sample increases by about 26% and its maximum reaches about 98%. To improve the mechanical hardness, a bilayer of Y2O3/carbon was deposited on the coating. Nanoindentation test shows that the coating enhances the mechanical properties. The final coating have successfully passed durability and environmental tests.

  2. Films Consisting of Innumerable Tapered Nanopillars of Mesoporous Silica for Universal Antireflection Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hirokatsu; Kitamura, Shin; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Masahiko

    2016-05-20

    Films with a fine structure consisting of innumerable nanopillars of mesoporous silica (MPS) are formed by a reactive ion etching process with a fluorine-containing gas. Each nanopillar has a tapered shape with a uniform height, which effectively suppresses reflection by the formation of an ideal graded refractive index structure. The nanopillars are spontaneously formed under low-pressure conditions, wherein locally deposited Al-F compounds, originating from an alumina plate in the etching chamber, work as a fine etching mask. The high etching rate of the MPS film allows a very high aspect ratio of the nanopillars. The refractive index of the MPS nanopillars can be universally tuned by a controlled incorporation of TiO2 into the mesopores, which results in effective reduction of reflectance on a given substrate. The outstanding antireflection performance is experimentally demonstrated for glass substrates with a wide refractive index range. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Ultraporous nanocrystalline TiO2-based films: synthesis, patterning and application as anti-reflective, self-cleaning, superhydrophilic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, Marco; Grenier, Antonin; Naudin, Guillaume; Li, Ronghua; Grosso, David

    2015-12-14

    Crack-free, anatase-based optical coatings with a refractive index down to 1.27, a porosity up to 80 vol%, and a tunable thickness up to 1.5 μm were fabricated. The extraordinary stability of the porosity upon thermally induced crystallisation and template removal was attributed to the combined effects of the presence of 10% molar silica in the inorganic phase, a flash treatment at 500 °C, and the use of templates with different dimensions ranging from a few nanometers to 50 nm. The hierarchical porous system was directly patterned by UV lithography and used as multifunctional anti-reflective, self-cleaning coatings.

  4. Diamond-like nanocomposite: a novel promising carbon based thin film as antireflection and passivation coating for silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sukhendu; Das, Sayan; De, Debasish; Mondal, Anup; Gangopadhyay, Utpal

    2018-02-01

    Presently, silicon nitride (SiN x ) is widely used as antireflection coating (ARC) on p-type silicon solar cell. But, two highly toxic gasses ammonia and silane are used. In the present study, the ARC and passivation properties of diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin film on silicon solar cell have been investigated. The DLN thin film has been deposited by rf-PACVD process using liquid precursor HMDSO in argon plasma. The film has been characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties have been estimated by UV–vis–NIR spectroscopy. The minimum reflection has been achieved to 0.75% at 630 nm. Both the short circuit current density and open circuit voltage has been increased significantly from 28.6 mA cm‑2 to 35.5 mA cm‑2 and 0.551 V to 0.613 V respectively. The field effect passivation has been confirmed by dark IV characterization of c-Si /DLN heterojunction structure. All these lead to enhancement of efficiency by almost 4% absolute, which is comparable to SiN x . The ammonia and silane free deposited DLN thin film has a great potential to use as ARC for silicon based solar cell.

  5. Nanocrystalline ZnO film deposited by ultrasonic spray on textured silicon substrate as an anti-reflection coating layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sali, S.; Boumaour, M.; Kechouane, M.; Kermadi, S.; Aitamar, F.

    2012-01-01

    A ZnO thin film was successfully synthesized on glass, flat surface and textured silicon substrates by chemical spray deposition. The textured silicon substrate was carried out using two solutions (NaOH/IPA and Na 2 CO 3 ). Textured with Na 2 CO 3 solution, the sample surface exhibits uniform pyramids with an average height of 5 μm. The properties and morphology of ZnO films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed a preferred orientation of the ZnO nanocrystalline film along the c-axis where the low value of the tensile strain 0.26% was obtained. SEM images show that all films display a granular, polycrystalline morphology. The morphology of the ZnO layers depends dramatically on the substrate used and follows the contours of the pyramids on the substrate surface. The average reflectance of the textured surface was found to be around 13% and it decreases dramatically to 2.57% after deposition of a ZnO antireflection coating. FT-IR peaks arising from the bonding between Zn-O are clearly represented using a silicon textured surface. A very intense photoluminescence (PL) emission peak is observed for ZnO/textured Si, revealing the good quality of the layer. The PL peak at 380.5 nm (UV emission) and the high-intensity PL peak at 427.5 nm are observed and a high luminescence occurs when using a textured Si substrate.

  6. Nano-Enabled Low-Cost High-Performance UV Anti-Reflection Coatings, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Agiltron together with Prof. Michael Rubner's group at MIT is developing a new family of nanoporous, low refractive index coatings for next generation NASA UV...

  7. Design of multi-layer anti-reflection coating for terrestrial solar panel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Nanotech Research Innovation & Incubation Centre, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies,. Peelamedu, Coimbatore ... produce destructive interference between reflected waves and constructive interference between transmitted waves. Keywords. ... ference of the reflected light waves from coated surface and substrate.

  8. An Evaluation of Atmospheric-pressure Plasma for the Cost-Effective Deposition of Antireflection Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rob Sailer; Guruvenket Srinivasan; Kyle W. Johnson; Douglas L. Schulz

    2010-04-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma deposition (APPD) has previously been used to deposit various functional materials including polymeric surface modification layers, transparent conducting oxides, and photo catalytic materials. For many plasma polymerized coatings, reaction occurs via free radical mechanism where the high energy electrons from the plasma activate the olefinic carbon-carbon double bonds - a typical functional group in such precursors. The precursors for such systems are typically inexpensive and readily available and have been used in vacuum PECVD previously. The objectives are to investigate: (1) the effect of plasma power, gas composition and substrate temperature on the Si-based film properties using triethylsilane(TES) as the precursor; and (2) the chemical, mechanical, and optical properties of several experimental matrices based on Design of Experiment (DOE) principals. A simple APPD route has been utilized to deposit Si based films from an inexpensive precursor - Triethylsilane (TES). Preliminary results indicates formation of Si-C & Si-O and Si-O, Si-C & Si-N bonds with oxygen and nitrogen plasmas respectively. N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasma showed mixed trend; however oxygen remains a significant portion of all films, despite attempts to minimize exposure to atmosphere. SiN, SiC, and SiO ratios can be modified by the reaction conditions resulting in differing film properties. SE studies revealed that films with SiN bond possess refractive index higher than coatings with Si-O/Si-C bonds. Variable angle reflectance studies showed that SiOCN coatings offer AR properties; however thickness and refractive index optimization of these coatings remains necessary for application as potential AR coatings.

  9. Study of High Etch Rate Bottom Antireflective Coating and Gap Fill Materials Using Dextrin Derivatives in ArF Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Shinjo, Tetsuya; Sakaida, Yasushi

    2007-11-01

    In the present paper, we describe a novel class of bottom antireflective coating (BARC) and gap fill materials using dextrin with a-glycoside bonds in a polysaccharide. ArF resist underlayer materials containing a dextrin ester polymer for lithography were studied. Dextrin is a high molecular weight compound with several hydroxyl groups and a low solubility in resist and BARC solvents. Therefore, it is difficult to use dextrin polymers in resist underlayer materials such as BARC and gap fill materials. The main polymer needs to be soluble in propylene glycol monomethylether, propylene glycol monomethylether acetate, and ethyl lactate as common solvents to avoid the issue of defects in the coater cup due to incompatability. The dextrin ester polymer in this study was obtained by the esterification of the hydroxyl groups of dextrin resulting in improved solubility of these organic solvents. The etch rate of the new BARC and gap fill materials of the dextrin ester polymers was more than twofold faster than the etch rate of the ArF resists evaluated under a CF4 gas condition using reactive ion etching. The improved etch performance was also verified by comparison with poly(4-hydroxystyrene) and poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) as references. In addition to the superior etch performance, these materials showed good resist profiles and via filling performance without voids in via holes. On the basis of our findings, this technology of using the novel dextrin derivatives as sacrificial materials under a resist can be applied in devices of 45 nm node and higher.

  10. Preparation and stress evolution of sol–gel SiO2 antireflective coatings for small-size anisotropic lithium triborate crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtao Tian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium triborate (LiB3O5, LBO crystal is now one of the most useful nonlinear optical materials for frequency conversion of high power lasers. The use of the crystal, however, has been hampered by the unavailability of antireflective (AR coatings with high laser damage resistance. In this work, a “point contact” dip-coating method is developed to prepare sol–gel SiO2 AR coatings on small-size LBO crystals. Using this approach, we obtain a homogenous coating surface on an 8 mm×8 mm×3 mm LBO crystal. The stress measurements show that the stresses in sol–gel SiO2 coatings vary with the time of natural drying, which is beyond our expectation. The anisotropic Young’s modulus of the LBO crystal and the different evolution tendency of the stress in the different SiO2 coating layers are found to be responsible for the crack of the double-layer AR coatings on anisotropic LBO crystal. Meanwhile, the resulting coatings on LBO crystal achieve a LIDT of over 15 J/cm2 (532 nm, 3ns and the coated LBO is expected to have a transmittance of over 99% at 800 nm.

  11. Composite films prepared by plasma ion-assisted deposition (IAD) for design and fabrication of antireflection coatings in visible and near-infrared spectral regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Ho, Fang C.

    1994-11-01

    Ion-assisted deposition (IAD) processes configured with a well-controlled plasma source at the center base of a vacuum chamber, which accommodates two independent e-gun sources, is used to deposition TiO2MgF2 and TiO2-SiO2 composite films of selected component ratios. Films prepared by this technology are found durable, uniform, and nonabsorbing in visible and near-IR regions. Single- and multilayer antireflection coatings with refractive index from 1.38 to 2.36 at (lambda) equals 550 nm are presented. Methods of enhancement in optical performance of these coatings are studied. The advantages of AR coatings formed by TiO2-MgF2 composite films over those similar systems consisting of TiO2-SiO2 composite films in both visible and near-IR regions are also presented.

  12. Functional photocatalytically active and scratch resistant antireflective coating based on TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, M., E-mail: michal.mazur@pwr.edu.pl [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Wojcieszak, D.; Kaczmarek, D.; Domaradzki, J. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Song, S.; Gibson, D.; Placido, F. [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, University of the West of Scotland, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, High Street, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Mazur, P. [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Max Born 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Kalisz, M. [Motor Transport Institute, Centre for Material Testing and Mechatronics, Jagiellonska 80, 03-301 Warsaw (Poland); Poniedzialek, A. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Designed multilayer was deposited by microwave assisted magnetron sputtering method. • AR coating in designed wavelength range had transmittance higher than 97%. • The AR multilayer was hydrophobic and photocatalytically active. • AR coating was scratch resistant. • Deposited multilayer had higher hardness than the glass substrate. - Abstract: Antireflection (AR) multilayer coating, based on combination of five TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} thin films, was deposited by microwave assisted reactive magnetron sputtering process on microscope glass substrates. In this work X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and wettability measurements were used to characterize the structural and surface properties of the deposited coating. These studies revealed that prepared coating was amorphous with low surface roughness. Photocatalytic properties were determined based on phenol decomposition reaction. Measurements of optical properties showed that transmittance in the visible wavelength range was increased after the deposition of AR coating as-compared to bare glass substrate. The mechanical properties were determined on the basis of nano-indentation and scratch resistance tests. Performed research has shown that deposition of an additional thin 10 nm thick TiO{sub 2} thin film top layer, the prepared AR coating was photocatalytically active, hydrophobic, scratch resistant and had increased hardness as-compared to bare glass substrate. These results indicate that prepared AR multilayer could be used also as a self-cleaning and protective coating.

  13. Effect of diffuse roof cover with anti-reflection coating for roses; Effect van diffuus kasdek met Anti Reflectie coating bij Roos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Kempkes, F.

    2012-10-15

    The rose Red Naomi was cultivated in two greenhouses at Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture in Bleiswijk, Netherlands (August 2010 - September 2011). One greenhouse covered with normal float glass; the other with AR coated diffuse glass (70% haze). This Anti-Reflection coating on both glass sides compensated for the loss in light transmission caused by the diffusing structure in the glass. The diffuse AR glass lead to a 5.2% higher production (>6.1% fresh weight). Sunscreens were necessary in spring and summer to avoid high light levels on the flower buds, as they cause very high bud temperatures leading to quality problems (blue petal edges and burnt leaf tips). The diffuse greenhouse cover allowed a 100 W/m{sup 2} higher screening threshold than the reference glass. This caused a 2.7% higher daily light integral, able to explain part of the extra production obtained. Part of the extra production achieved can not be explained by the measured factors as no differences were found in the amount of light intercepted by the crop or in leaf photosynthesis under both cover types. The light under the diffuse AR cover was nevertheless much smoother, so the crop seemed to suffer less (lower bud temperatures and less burned leaf tips), and this should provide an explanation for the rest of the extra production. The cover properties did not influence disease development (powdery mildew). The obtained extra production makes the tempered, diffuse glass with Anti Reflection coating on both sides economically feasible [Dutch] Tussen augustus 2010 en september 2011 is bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw het effect van diffuus glas, met dubbelzijdige AR coating, op de productie en energiegebruik van roos 'Red Naomi' onderzocht. Onder het diffuse glas werden 5,2% meer bloemtakken geproduceerd, deze rozen waren ook iets langer en zwaarder (6,1% meer versgewicht). Dit verschil kan deels verklaard worden doordat er onder het diffuse glas pas bij hogere stralingsniveau

  14. Nanocrystalline proprieties of TiO2 thin film deposited by ultrasonic spray pulverization as an anti-reflection coating for solar cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sali, Samira; Kermadi, Salim; Zougar, Lyes; Benzaoui, Bouthina; Saoula, Nadia; Mahdid, Khadija; Aitameur, Fatiha; Boumaour, Messaoud

    2017-12-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) films have been synthesized on quartz, silicon and textured silicon substrates by chemical ultrasonic spray deposition. The textured silicon substrate was carried out using Na2CO3 solution. The sample surface exhibits uniform pyramids with an average height of 5 µm. In this paper, particular attention is given to the TiO2 films prepared by spray ultrasonic system using Tetra iso-Propoxide Orthotitanate Titanium (TPOT) as a precursor. The solutions were sprayed onto substrates heated at various temperatures 350 - 550 °C. The properties of films as a function of temperature parameter were investigated using structural and optical analysis. According to XRD, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopies, the anatase phase was found and exhibits nanograins of 9 to 15 nm in size. The indirect and direct bad gap were found to increase by increasing substrate temperature due to the decreasing of nanograins size and were estimated to be around 3.28 and 3.38 eV. A transmittance higher than 80% was found. This paper reports on anti-reflection coating application of TiO2 layers due to its good transparency and appropriate refractive index varies between 2.19 - 2.40 at λ = 632.8 nm as a function of temperature determined by UVVisNIR spectrophotometer and Ellipsometry. To achieve optimum anti-reflection characteristics different anti-reflection designs were experimentally examined with polished and textured substrates. The average reflectance of the polished silicon used in this study is 39%, with TiO2 it decreases to 9%. The textured surface reduces the average reflectance of silicon to be around 14% and it decreases dramatically to 5% after deposition of a single layer of TiO2 as an anti-reflection coating. The gain in density of the short-circuit photocurrent assigned to the reduction of reflection losses up to 44% and 58% were predicted with TiO2 single-coating in polished and textured silicon substrates respectively.

  15. Anti-reflecting and passivating coatings for silicon solar cells on a basis of SO2 and TiO2 layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taurbaev, T.I.; Nikulin, V.Eh.; Shorin, V.F.; Topanov, B.G.; Dikhanbaev, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of influence of passivating layer on performance of anti-reflection coating of solar cells is carried out. The introduction of passivating SiO 2 layer between a frontal surface of the solar cell and TiO 2 +SiO 2 anti-reflection coating increase total reflection. If a thickness of a passivating layer no more than 20 Angstrom an increase of reflection does not exceed 0.5 %. However, for effective passivation the thickness of the passivating layer has to be within 100-1000 Angstrom region, thus the interference contribution of the passivating layer becomes essential and the AC is necessary to calculate as triple system SiO 2 -TiO 2 -SiO 2 . Such the three layers system ensuring average coefficient of reflection less of 3.5 % in a range 0.4-1.1 μm if the thickness of passivating SiO 2 layer no more 200 Angstrom. For solar cells with passivating SiO 2 layer thickness of 100 Angstrom and protective glass of non-interference thickness the single layer AC from TiO 2 allows to receive average value of reflection coefficient for a spectral range 0.4-1.1 μm no more than 9.5 %. The introduction of two additional layers SiO 2 and TiO 2 allows to reduce this value on 2.0-3.0 %. The comparison of calculation and experimental results is given. (author)

  16. Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yuanan; Wang Tao; Zhang Dawei; Shao Jianda; Fan Zhengxiu

    2005-01-01

    Laser conditioning effects of the HfO 2 /SiO 2 antireflective (AR) coatings at 1064 nm and the accumulation effects of multi-shot laser radiation were investigated. The HfO 2 /SiO 2 AR coatings were prepared by E-beam evaporation (EBE). The single-shot and multi-shot laser induced damage threshold was detected following ISO standard 11254-1.2, and the laser conditioning was conducted by three-step raster scanning method. It was found that the single-shot LIDT and multi-shot LIDT was almost the same. The damage mostly >80% occurred in the first shot under multi-shot laser radiation, and after that the damage occurring probability plummeted to <5%. There was no obvious enhancement of the laser damage resistance for both the single-shot and multi-shot laser radiation of the AR coatings after laser conditioning. A Nomarski microscope was employed to map the damage morphology, and it found that the damage behavior is defect-initiated for both unconditioned and conditioned samples

  17. Improvement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells with a doped porous silicon layer with rare earth (Ce, La) as antireflection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atyaoui, Malek; Dimassi, Wissem; Atyaoui, Atef; Elyagoubi, Jalel; Ouertani, Rachid; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    The performance improvement of solar cells due to the formation of a porous silicon layer treated with rare earth (Ce, La) in the n + emitter of silicon n + /p junctions has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties of the cells with and without treatment of the porous silicon layer are compared. From the reflection measurements, it was shown that the cells with treated PS layers have lower reflectivity value compared to cell with untreated PS layer. The main result is that the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of solar cells can be enhanced by using the treated porous silicon layers with the rare earth (Ce, La) as anti-reflection coatings. -- Highlights: • The reduction of optical loss in silicon (c-Si) solar cells attracts the attention of many researches to achieve high efficiencies. • To attain this aim, the treated PS layers with rare earth (La, Ce) are suggested to be used as an (ARC) of c-Si solar cell. • The result showed a decrease in the optical losses which can explain the improved photovoltaic properties

  18. Fabrication and characterization of silicon wire solar cells having ZnO nanorod antireflection coating on Al-doped ZnO seed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Noh, Bum-Young; Park, Il-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated and characterized the silicon [Si] wire solar cells with conformal ZnO nanorod antireflection coating [ARC] grown on a Al-doped ZnO [AZO] seed layer. Vertically aligned Si wire arrays were fabricated by electrochemical etching and, the p-n junction was prepared by spin-on dopant diffusion method. Hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanorods was followed by AZO film deposition on high aspect ratio Si microwire arrays by atomic layer deposition [ALD]. The introduction of an ALD-deposited AZO film on Si wire arrays not only helps to create the ZnO nanorod arrays, but also has a strong impact on the reduction of surface recombination. The reflectance spectra show that ZnO nanorods were used as an efficient ARC to enhance light absorption by multiple scattering. Also, from the current-voltage results, we found that the combination of the AZO film and ZnO nanorods on Si wire solar cells leads to an increased power conversion efficiency by more than 27% compared to the cells without it.

  19. High-etch-rate bottom-antireflective coating and gap-fill materials using dextrin derivatives in via first dual-Damascene lithography process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Sakaida, Yasushi; Shinjo, Tetsuya; Hashimoto, Keisuke; Nakajima, Yasuyuki

    2008-03-01

    The present paper describes a novel class of bottom antireflective coating (BARC) and gap fill materials using dextrin derivatives. The general trend of interconnect fabrication for such a high performance LSI is to apply cupper (Cu)/ low-dielectric-constant (low-k) interconnect to reduce RC delay. A via-first dual damascene process is one of the most promising processes to fabricate Cu/ low-k interconnect due to its wide miss-alignment margin. The sacrificial materials containing dextrin derivatives under resist for lithography were developed in via-first dual damascene process. The dextrin derivatives in this study was obtained by the esterification of the hydroxyl groups of dextrin resulting in improved solubility in the resist solvents such as propylene glycol monomethylether, propylene glycol monomethylether acetate, and ethyl lactate due to avoid the issue of defects that were caused by incompatability. The etch rate of our developed BARC and gap fill materials using dextrin derivatives was more than two times faster than one of the ArF resists evaluated in a CF4 gas condition using reactive ion etching. The improved etch performance was also verified by comparison with poly(hydroxystyrene), acrylate-type materials and latest low-k materials as a reference. In addition to superior etch performance, these materials showed good resist profiles and via filling performance without voids in via holes.

  20. Organic films deposited on Si p-n junctions: Accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, D. Z.; Forrest, S. R.; Tsekoun, A. G.; Burrows, P. E.; Bulović, V.; Thompson, M. E.

    1996-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) optical pumping followed by fluorescence wavelength downconversion of thin film organic light emitting materials deposited directly on the surface of Si p-n junction diodes is found to be an accurate and rapid means to determine the film internal fluorescence efficiency. By measuring the photoresponse of the Si detectors in the UV, we find that the organic light emitting films of aluminum tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3), N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis-(3-methylphenyl)- 1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine, and bis-(8-hydroxyquinaldine)-chlorogallium (Gaq2'Cl), have internal fluorescence efficiencies of 0.30±0.05, 0.35±0.03, and 0.36±0.03, respectively. It has also been found that the organic films can be grown to a thickness which optimizes UV light conversion and can, at the same time, serve as antireflection coatings in the visible spectral region, thereby resulting in enhanced Si photodiode sensitivity extending from the UV to the infrared.

  1. Improvement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells with a doped porous silicon layer with rare earth (Ce, La) as antireflection coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atyaoui, Malek, E-mail: atyaoui.malek@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95, Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Dimassi, Wissem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95,Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Atyaoui, Atef [Laboratoire de traitement des eaux usées, Centre de recherches et des technologies des eaux, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB: 273, Soliman 8020 (Tunisia); Elyagoubi, Jalel; Ouertani, Rachid; Ezzaouia, Hatem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95,Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2013-09-15

    The performance improvement of solar cells due to the formation of a porous silicon layer treated with rare earth (Ce, La) in the n{sup +} emitter of silicon n{sup +}/p junctions has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties of the cells with and without treatment of the porous silicon layer are compared. From the reflection measurements, it was shown that the cells with treated PS layers have lower reflectivity value compared to cell with untreated PS layer. The main result is that the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of solar cells can be enhanced by using the treated porous silicon layers with the rare earth (Ce, La) as anti-reflection coatings. -- Highlights: • The reduction of optical loss in silicon (c-Si) solar cells attracts the attention of many researches to achieve high efficiencies. • To attain this aim, the treated PS layers with rare earth (La, Ce) are suggested to be used as an (ARC) of c-Si solar cell. • The result showed a decrease in the optical losses which can explain the improved photovoltaic properties.

  2. Improved antireflection based on biomimetic nanostructures at material interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingyu; Song, Gang

    2018-02-01

    Reducing light reflections on the surface of materials has important applications in many fields, such as solar cells, photodetectors, and optical sensors, etc. An effective method of decreasing reflection is using the anti-reflective coating with a gradient refractive index. In this study, we designed a nanostructure composed of optimized cone arrays on the flat thin film surface. The tapered nanostructure forms an anti-reflection layer. The effective refractive index of the anti-reflection layer changes smoothly with the depth so that the surface can efficiently reduce the reflection in a wide visible light range. Moreover, the reflection can also be modulated by adjusting the height and the period of the nanocones. Furthermore, there is an optimal wavelength at which the highest anti-reflection efficiency is achieved. The results here provide a theoretical guidance for the practical design of broadband anti-reflection nanostructures at the device surface.

  3. Photo-Electrical Characterization of Silicon Micropillar Arrays with Radial p/n Junctions Containing Passivation and Anti-Reflection Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijselaar, Wouter; Elbersen, R.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-01-01

    In order to assess the contributions of anti-reflective and passivation effects in microstructured silicon-based solar light harvesting devices, thin layers of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicon-rich silicon nitride (SiNx), and indium tin oxide (ITO), with a thickness ranging

  4. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  5. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  6. Review of 1064-nm damage tests of electron-beam deposited Ta2O5/SiO2 antireflection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milam, D.; Rainer, F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Swain, J.E.; Carniglia, C.K.; Hart, T.T.

    1981-01-01

    Damage tests of Ta 2 O 5 /SiO 2 antireflection films deposited under a variety of conditions showed that thresholds of films deposited at 175 0 C were greater than thresholds of films deposited at either 250 0 C or 325 0 C. Deposition at high rate and low oxygen pressure produced highly absorptive films with low thresholds. Thresholds did not correlate with film reflectivity or net stress in the films, and correlated with film absorption only when the film absorption was greater than 10 4 ppM. Baking the films for four hours at 400 0 C reduced film absorption, altered net film stress, and produced an increase in the average damage threshold

  7. Sol-gel preparation of self-cleaning SiO2-TiO2/SiO2-TiO2 double-layer antireflective coating for solar glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wensheng; Zheng, Jiaxian; Yan, Lianghong; Zhang, Xinxiang

    2018-03-01

    Self-cleaning SiO2-TiO2/SiO2-TiO2 double-layer antireflective (AR) coating is prepared by sol-gel process. SiO2 sol is prepared by using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and ammonia as catalyst, while TiO2 sol was prepared by using tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT) as precursor and hydrochloric acid as catalyst. The effect of TiO2 content on refractive index, abrasion-resistance and photo-catalytic activity of SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin films or powders is systematically investigated. It is found that the refractive index of SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin films increases gradually from 1.18 to 1.53 as the weight ratio of TiO2 to SiO2 increased from 0 to 1.0. The SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin film and powder possesses good abrasion-resistance and photo-catalytic activity, respectively, as the weight ratio of TiO2 to SiO2 is 0.4. The degradation degree of Rhodamine B by SiO2-TiO2 hybrid powder is 88.3%. Finally, SiO2-TiO2/SiO2-TiO2 double-layer AR coating with high transmittance, abrasion-resistance and self-cleaning property is realized.

  8. Application of anti-reflection structures on curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Takaoka, Toshimitsu; Seigo, Masafumi; Kitagawa, Seiichiro

    2012-02-01

    Conventional lens manufacturing is accomplished by injection molding followed by application of a thin film anti-reflection coating. This requires several production steps, each with the associated constraints. Here we report a technique for production of injection molded lenses with conical sub-wavelength grating anti-reflection structures. While similar structures have been made in the past, our technique allows the sub-wavelength structure to be created on curved surfaces during the injection molding process, reducing the number of steps in the manufacturing process. The advantage of this new technology is that anti-reflection function is created without any additional process(es) conventionally required but by a single injection molding process to make lens normally, through which substantial cost saving will be achieved.

  9. Superhydrophobic and anti-reflective ZnO nanorod-coated FTO transparent conductive thin films prepared by a three-step method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bao-jia, E-mail: li_bjia@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Kong, Xia; Cai, Yun-long; Zhang, Jie-lu [Jiangsu Tailong Reduction Box Co. Ltd., Taixing, 225400 (China)

    2016-07-25

    A ZnO nanorod-coated FTO film was prepared by sputtering an AZO layer on FTO glass, thermal annealing of the AZO/FTO film, and hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods at 70 °C on the annealed AZO/FTO film using zinc foils as zinc source. Two other ZnO nanorod-coated FTO films were also prepared by hydrothermal growths of ZnO nanorods on the FTO glass and the unannealed AZO/FTO film respectively for comparison purpose. The results were observed in detail using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, water contact/sliding angle measurement, spectrophotometry and four-point probe measurement. The ZnO nanorods on the annealed AZO/FTO film were found to exhibit denser distribution and better orientation than those on the FTO glass and the unannealed AZO/FTO film. As a result, the ZnO nanorod-coated annealed AZO/FTO film demonstrated superhydrophobicity, high transparency and low reflectance in the visible range. Also this film had the lowest sheet resistance of 4.0 Ω/sq, implying its good electrical conductivity. This investigation provides a valuable reference for developing multifunctional transparent conductive films. - Highlights: • ZnO nanorod-coated annealed AZO/FTO film was obtained by a three-step method. • FTO and unannealed AZO/FTO films were also used as substrates for comparison. • ZnO nanorods on the annealed AZO/FTO film were denser and more vertically-oriented. • The ZnO nanorod-coated annealed AZO/FTO film (Z/TA-FTO) had superhydrophobicity. • The Z/TA-FTO exhibited high transparency, low reflectance and good conductivity.

  10. Fluorine-containing composition for forming anti-reflection film on resist surface and pattern formation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Mineo; Makishima, Hideo

    1996-01-01

    A composition for forming anti-reflection film on resist surface which comprises an aqueous solution of a water soluble fluorine compound, and a pattern formation method which comprises the steps of coating a photoresist composition on a substrate; coating the above-mentioned composition for forming anti-reflection film; exposing the coated film to form a specific pattern; and developing the photoresist, are provided. Since the composition for forming anti-reflection film can be coated on the photoresist in the form of an aqueous solution, not only the anti-reflection film can be formed easily, but also, the film can be removed easily by rinsing with water or alkali development. Therefore, by the pattern formation method according to the present invention, it is possible to form a pattern easily with a high dimensional accuracy.

  11. Sol-Gel Deposited Double Layer TiO₂ and Al₂O₃ Anti-Reflection Coating for Silicon Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jinsu; Jannat, Azmira; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Yang, O-Bong

    2018-02-01

    In this work, the deposition of double layer ARC on p-type Si solar cells was carried out by simple spin coating using sol-gel derived Al2O3 and TiO2 precursors for the fabrication of crystalline Si solar cells. The first ARC layer was created by freshly prepared sol-gel derived Al2O3 precursor using spin coating technique and then second ARC layer of TiO2 was deposited with sol-gel derived TiO2 precursor, which was finally annealed at 400 °C. The double layer Al2O3/TiO2 ARC on Si wafer exhibited the low average reflectance of 4.74% in the wavelength range of 400 and 1000 nm. The fabricated solar cells based on double TiO2/Al2O3 ARC attained the conversion efficiency of ~13.95% with short circuit current (JSC) of 35.27 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (VOC) of 593.35 mV and fill factor (FF) of 66.67%. Moreover, the fabricated solar cells presented relatively low series resistance (Rs) as compared to single layer ARCs, resulting in the high VOC and FF.

  12. Development of antireflection coatings with a sup 6 LiF/ sup 6 sup 2 Ni multilayer converter for ultracold neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Maier-Komor, P; Bergmaier, A; Dollinger, G; Paul, S; Schott, W

    2002-01-01

    High efficiency detectors for ultracold neutrons (UCN) are needed at the new high flux neutron source, Forschungsreaktor Muenchen II. In the development described, silicon PIN diodes were chosen to detect the alpha-particles or the tritons created in the reaction sup 6 Li(n,alpha)t. The high reflectance of UCN on sup 6 Li with its positive optical potential must be compensated by a material with negative optical potential. The isotope sup 6 sup 2 Ni was chosen for this. To avoid problems due to chemical reactions of Li with humidity, the compound sup 6 LiF was chosen. One hundred and fifty double layers of sup 6 LiF/ sup 6 sup 2 Ni had to be deposited by physical vapor deposition on silicon PIN diodes which had already been coated with 88 nm approx 77 mu g/cm sup 2 of sup 5 sup 8 Ni for reflection of the UCN. The theoretical optimal thickness of the sup 6 sup 2 Ni layers is 3 nm, and that of sup 6 LiF is 6 nm. Since expensive isotopes were involved, a small source-to-substrate distance had to be used, but wit...

  13. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    advantageous material for spectacle lenses. CR39 is also resistant to most solvents and other chemicals, to gamma radiation, to aging and to material fatigue. Polycarbonate (PC), specifically polycarbonate of bisphenol-A, is an example of a thermoplastic material— it softens when heated, hardens when cooled, and PC.

  14. Biomimetic Moth-eye Nanofabrication: Enhanced Antireflection with Superior Self-cleaning Characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingyao; Wang, Xiaobing; Wu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chong; Shen, Jingjing; Cooper, Merideth A; Zheng, Xiuting; Liu, Ying; Yang, Zhaogang; Wu, Daming

    2018-04-03

    Sub-wavelength antireflection moth-eye structures were fabricated with Nickel mold using Roll-to-Plate (R2P) ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) on transparent polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Samples with well replicated patterns established an average reflection of 1.21% in the visible light range, 380 to 760 nm, at normal incidence. An excellent antireflection property of a wide range of incidence angles was shown with the average reflection below 4% at 50°. Compared with the unpatterned ultraviolet-curable resin coating, the resulting sub-wavelength moth-eye structure also exhibited increased hydrophobicity in addition to antireflection. This R2P method is especially suitable for large-area product preparation and the biomimetic moth-eye structure with multiple performances can be applied to optical devices such as display screens, solar cells, or light emitting diodes.

  15. Development of new maskless manufacturing method for anti-reflection structure and application to large-area lens with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuya; Takaoka, Toshimitsu; Fukui, Hidetoshi; Haruta, Yasuyuki; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kitagawa, Seiichiro

    2016-03-01

    In general, thin-film coating process is widely applied on optical lens surface as anti-reflection function. In normal production process, at first lens is manufactured by molding, then anti-reflection is added by thin-film coating. In recent years, instead of thin-film coating, sub-wavelength structures adding on surface of molding die are widely studied and development to keep anti-reflection performance. As merits, applying sub-wavelength structure, coating process becomes unnecessary and it is possible to reduce man-hour costs. In addition to cost merit, these are some technical advantages on this study. Adhesion of coating depends on material of plastic, and it is impossible to apply anti-reflection function on arbitrary surface. Sub-wavelength structure can solve both problems. Manufacturing method of anti-reflection structure can be divided into two types mainly. One method is with the resist patterning, and the other is mask-less method that does not require patterning. What we have developed is new mask-less method which is no need for resist patterning and possible to impart an anti-reflection structure to large area and curved lens surface, and can be expected to apply to various market segments. We report developed technique and characteristics of production lens.

  16. Antireflective surface inspired from biology: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.W. Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical anti-reflection means the decrease of reflection as much as possible, which has been used in many fields such as solar cells, diodes, optical and optoelectronic devices, screens, sensors, anti-glare glasses and so on. Over millions of years, natural creatures have been uninterruptedly combating with extreme environmental conditions. In particular, some biology has evolved a diversity of antireflective functional surfaces gradually. More importantly, as a result of the same order of magnitude in the ingenious structures and the wavelength of visible light, these structures can interact strongly and present excellent antireflective performance. It is worth to be mentioned that these wonderful architectures lead to a perfect performance on antireflection. This review mainly covers recent progress on the bionic antireflective structures. Then, the mechanism of the structure-based antireflective properties of some biology is analyzed. Besides, some typical models and the basic theory of these bionic structures for antireflection have been reported to facilitate mechanism analysis. At last, the prospects and the challenge researchers may faced with are also addressed. It is hoped that this review could be beneficial to provide some innovative inspirations and new ideas to the researchers in the fields of engineering, and materials science.

  17. Tailored antireflective biomimetic nanostructures for UV applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhard, Christoph; Pacholski, Claudia; Spatz, Joachim P [Department of New Materials and Biosystems, Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Lehr, Dennis; Brunner, Robert; Helgert, Michael [Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH, Technology Center, Carl-Zeiss-Promenade 10, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Sundermann, Michael, E-mail: Pacholski@mf.mpg.de [Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH, Technology Center, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 56, D-73447 Oberkochen (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    Antireflective surfaces composed of biomimetic sub-wavelength structures that employ the 'moth eye principle' for reflectance reduction are highly desirable in many optical applications such as solar cells, photodetectors and laser optics. We report an efficient approach for the fabrication of antireflective surfaces based on a two-step process consisting of gold nanoparticle mask generation by micellar block copolymer nanolithography and a multi-step reactive ion etching process. Depending on the RIE process parameters nanostructured surfaces with tailored antireflective properties can easily be fabricated that show optimum performance for specific applications.

  18. Study on sodium water glass-based anti-reflective film and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Q.Z. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shi, J.F., E-mail: shijf@ms.giec.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Wang, L.L.; Li, Y.J.; Zhong, L.W. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Xu, G., E-mail: xugang@ms.giec.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China)

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, anti-reflective (AR) films are prepared from sodium water glass with a simple dip-coating method. The effects of SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration of water glass, and withdrawal speed on the anti-reflection performance of the AR films are systematically studied. The optimized AR film is further applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The optical properties and surface morphology of AR films are analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. Transmittance of the glass coated with sodium water glass-based AR film is increased by 3.2% when the SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration, and withdrawal speed equal to 3.8, 5 wt%, and 80 mm/min, respectively. Under this condition, the thickness of the AR film is 127 nm and the AR film has obvious porous structure. In addition, the power conversion efficiency of DSC coated by AR film is increased from 7.92% to 8.24%, compared with the DSC without AR film. - Highlights: • Anti-reflective films are prepared from sodium water glass. • Transmittance of anti-reflective film is increased by 3.2%. • Efficiency of dye-sensitized cell is improved by anti-reflective film.

  19. Synthesis of Neutral SiO/TiO Hydrosol and Its Application as Antireflective Self-Cleaning Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiahung Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A neutral SiO2/TiO2 composite hydrosol was prepared by a coprecipitation-peptization method using titanium tetrachloride and silicon dioxide hydrosol as precursors. It is not only an antireflective self-cleaning coating material but also an environmental-benign material. Even heated at 700°C for 5 minutes in the tempering process, the as-prepared SiO2/TiO2 thin film still demonstrated antireflection and photocatalytic self-cleaning effect. The SiO2/TiO2 thin film increased near 2% of transmittance; however, the TiO2 thin film decreased 5% of transmittance at least. In addition to antireflection, the SiO2/TiO2 thin film decomposed the surface coated oleic acid under ultraviolet light and showed superhydrophilicity under dark for two days. The SiO2/TiO2 thin film also showed good photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. With these antireflection, persistent superhydrophilicity, and photocatalytic self-cleaning effects, this prepared neutral SiO2/TiO2 hydrosol would be a good coating material for tempered glass and other building materials.

  20. Study of an antireflection surface constructed of controlled ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ren-Jei, E-mail: rjchung@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology (Taipei Tech), Taipei 10608, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Zih-Cian [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology (Taipei Tech), Taipei 10608, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chin-An; Lai, Kun-Yu [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-11-03

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were fabricated on Si wafers using a hydrothermal method. By adjusting the spin-coating speed and annealing time for the zinc acetate thin films used as a seed layer, the density of ZnO nanorods (NRs) was controlled. In addition, it was found that the morphology of the NRs evolved from a wire-like geometry to a tower-like geometry with an increasing concentration of ascorbic acid. The surface reflectance of the ZnO NR layers with various textures was investigated. The results indicated that NRs effectively enhanced light trapping and further reduced Fresnel reflection due to the significant grading in the refractive index, avoiding the abrupt transition at the air/Si interface. The total reflectance on the coated surface can be as low as 11%, which is 3 times lower than that of polished Si. The optimized design of nanostructured ZnO surfaces for antireflection coatings will greatly improve the performance of optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Nanotructured ZnO was prepared to serve as an anti-reflection coating. • The geometries of sol–gel prepared ZnO were controlled. • ZnO nanorod, nanoneedle and nanotower arrays were fabricated. • The light reflectance of the nanostructures was much lower than that of bare Si.

  1. Triple Layer Antireflection Design Concept for the Front Side of c-Si Heterojunction Solar Cell Based on the Antireflective Effect of nc-3C-SiC:H Emitter Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Omondi Ateto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antireflective (AR effect of hydrogenated nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide (nc-3C-SiC:H emitter and its application in the triple layer AR design for the front side of silicon heterojunction (SHJ solar cell. We found that the nc-3C-SiC:H emitter can serve both as an emitter and antireflective coating for SHJ solar cell, which enables us to realize the triple AR design by adding one additional dielectric layer to normally used SHJ structure with a transparent conductive oxide (TCO and an emitter layer. The optimized SHJ structure with the triple layer AR coating (LiF/ITO/nc-3C-SiC:H exhibit a short circuit current density (Jsc of 38.65 mA/cm2 and lower reflectivity of about 3.42% at wavelength range of 300 nm–1000 nm.

  2. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, J. M.; Kelley, M. J.; Haglund, R. F.

    2014-07-01

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer:nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er:YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering nanocomposite.

  3. Infrared wire-grid polarizer with sol-gel antireflection films on both sides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Itsunari; Ishihara, Yoshiro

    2017-12-01

    We fabricated an infrared wire-grid polarizer with the high transverse magnetic (TM) polarization transmittance and high extinction ratio by soft imprint lithography, sol-gel method, and Al shadow coating processes. A zilconia film was coated on Si substrate by using sol-gel method and spin coating method. Then, sol-gel zirconia grating was formed on the back side using imprinting using a silicone mold. The polarizer was produced by depositing Al obliquely on the grating. The TM transmittance of the fabricated element was greater than 80% at a wavelength of 4.8 μm. The sol-gel zilconia films acted as antireflection films. The extinction ratio exceeded 26 dB at its wavelength.

  4. A novel self-cleaning and anti-reflective multi-layer for thin-film solar PV module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.L.; Shiue, J.D. [Kun-Shan Univ., Yung-Kung City, Taiwan (China). Clean Energy Center; Li, M.; Huang, M.C. [NanoWinTechnology Co., Ltd., Taiwan (China); Fu, Y.S.; Wei, S.S. [National Univ. of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2007-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) acts as a photocatalyst, and can accelerate the decomposition of organic particulates and airborne pollutants that gather on solar arrays. In this study, a TiO{sub 2} film was coated on the outside surface of sodium glass in order to increase the self-cleaning ability of solar cells. DC magnetic sputtering was used to coat multi-layer thin films of silicon nitrides in order to increase their antireflective capabilities. The TiO{sub 2} thin film was fabricated using the sol-gel method. Optical properties of the microstructure and composition of the films were characterized using UV-V spectroscopy. Results showed that the best anti-reflection spectrum of the TiO{sub 2} was between 700 and 800 nm. Average transmission rates were 3.54 per cent higher than those observed in slide glass samples. It was concluded that overlapped titanium dioxide/silicon nitride thin films can achieve a very good anti-reflective effect as well as self-cleaning ability in the range of 400-800 nm. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  5. A simple and fast fabrication of a both self-cleanable and deep-UV antireflective quartz nanostructured surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Suk; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Lee, Wonbae; Park, Bo Gi; Kim, Beop Min; Lee, Kyu Back

    2012-08-01

    Both self-cleanability and antireflectivity were achieved on quartz surfaces by forming heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer after fabrication of nanostructures with a mask-free method. By exposing polymethylmethacrylate spin-coated quartz plates to O2 reactive ion etching (RIE) and CF4 RIE successively, three well-defined types of nanopillar arrays were generated: A2, A8, and A11 patterns with average pillar widths of 33 ± 4 nm, 55 ± 5 nm, and 73 ± 14 nm, respectively, were formed. All the fabrication processes including the final cleaning can be finished within 4 h. All nanostructured quartz surfaces exhibited contact angles higher than 155° with minimal water droplet adhesiveness and enhanced transparency (due to antireflectivity) over a broad spectral range from 350 to 900 nm. Furthermore, A2 pattern showed an enhanced antireflective effect that extends to the deep-UV range near 190 nm, which is a drawback region in conventional thin-film-coating approaches as a result of thermal damage. Because, by changing the conditions of successive RIE, the geometrical configurations of nanostructure arrays can be easily modified to meet specific needs, the newly developed fabrication method is expected to be applied in various optic and opto-electrical areas. PACS codes: 06.60.Ei; 81.65.Cf; 81.40.Vw.

  6. Questionable effects of antireflective coatings on inefficiently cooled solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Galster, Georg; Larsen, Esben

    1998-01-01

    A model for temperature effects in p-n junction solar cells is introduced. The temperature of solar cells and the losses in the solar cell junction region caused by elevating temperature are discussed. The model developed is examined for low-cost silicon solar cells. In order to improve the shape...... of the output power and efficiency curves throughout the day the coherence between technical parameters of the solar cells and the climate in the operation region is observed and examined. It is shown how the drop in output power around noon can be avoided by fitting technical parameters of the solar cells...

  7. Material Parameter Measurements for Microwave Antireflection Coating Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Nagy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main steps for characterization and measurement of microwave absorbent materials in the 1–10 GHz range are introduced. The coaxial reflection-transmission type of material parameter measurement is analyzed in detail and the main measurement error is corrected. The microscopic material particle parameter measurement concept is also presented using different mixing rule laws to determine the material parameters of the single particles from the macroscopic parameters. Two-dimensional FDTD simulations have been used to model the behavior of mixed electric and magnetic type of material.

  8. Bioinspired Broadband Antireflection Coatings at Long Wavelengths for Space Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observation is the primary tool for determining the global properties, content, and history of the universe. One...

  9. Broadband antireflection nanodome structures on SiC substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Zhu, Xiaolong; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2013-01-01

    Nanodome structures are demonstrated on the SiC substrate by using nanosphere lithography and dry etching. Significant surface antireflection has been observed over a broad spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm.......Nanodome structures are demonstrated on the SiC substrate by using nanosphere lithography and dry etching. Significant surface antireflection has been observed over a broad spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm....

  10. Porous Nanomaterials for Ultrabroadband Omnidirectional Anti-Reflection Surfaces with Applications in High Concentration Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yuan

    2016-12-06

    Materials for nanoporous coatings that exploit optimized chemistries and self-assembly processes offer capabilities to reach ≈98% transmission efficiency and negligible scattering losses over the broad wavelength range of the solar spectrum from 350 nm to 1.5 μm, on both flat and curved glass substrates. These nanomaterial anti-reflection coatings also offer wide acceptance angles, up to ±40°, for both s- and p-polarization states of incident light. Carefully controlled bilayer films have allowed for the fabrication of dual-sided, gradient index profiles on plano-convex lens elements. In concentration photovoltaics platforms, the resultant enhancements in the photovoltaics efficiencies are ≈8%, as defined by experimental measurements on systems that use microscale triple-junction solar cells. These materials and their applications in technologies that require control over interface reflections have the potential for broad utility in imaging systems, photolithography, light-emitting diodes, and display technologies.

  11. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  12. Simple, Fast, and Cost-Effective Fabrication of Wafer-Scale Nanohole Arrays on Silicon for Antireflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast, and cost-effective method was developed in this paper for the high-throughput fabrication of nanohole arrays on silicon (Si, which is utilized for antireflection. Wafer-scale polystyrene (PS monolayer colloidal crystal was developed as templates by spin-coating method. Metallic shadow mask was prepared by lifting off the oxygen etched PS beads from the deposited chromium film. Nanohole arrays were fabricated by Si dry etching. A series of nanohole arrays were fabricated with the similar diameter but with different depth. It is found that the maximum depth of the Si-hole was determined by the diameter of the Cr-mask. The antireflection ability of these Si-hole arrays was investigated. The results show that the reflection decreases with the depth of the Si-hole. The deepest Si-hole arrays show the best antireflection ability (reflection 600 nm, which was about 28 percent of the nonpatterned silicon wafer’s reflection. The proposed method has the potential for high-throughput fabrication of patterned Si wafer, and the low reflectivity allows the application of these wafers in crystalline silicon solar cells.

  13. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  14. Fabrication of Antireflective Sub-Wavelength Structures on Silicon Nitride Using Nano Cluster Mask for Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Men-Ku

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have developed a simple and scalable approach for fabricating sub-wavelength structures (SWS on silicon nitride by means of self-assembled nickel nanoparticle masks and inductively coupled plasma (ICP ion etching. Silicon nitride SWS surfaces with diameter of 160–200 nm and a height of 140–150 nm were obtained. A low reflectivity below 1% was observed over wavelength from 590 to 680 nm. Using the measured reflectivity data in PC1D, the solar cell characteristics has been compared for single layer anti-reflection (SLAR coatings and SWS and a 0.8% improvement in efficiency has been seen.

  15. One-Pot Fabrication of Antireflective/Antibacterial Dual-Function Ag NP-Containing Mesoporous Silica Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaikai; He, Junhui

    2018-04-04

    Thin films that integrate antireflective and antibacterial dual functions are not only scientifically interesting but also highly desired in many practical applications. Unfortunately, very few studies have been devoted to the preparation of thin films with both antireflective and antibacterial properties. In this study, mesoporous silica (MSiO 2 ) thin films with uniformly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared through a one-pot process, which simultaneously shows high transmittance, excellent antibacterial activity, and mechanical robustness. The optimal thin-film-coated glass substrate demonstrates a maximum transmittance of 98.8% and an average transmittance of 97.1%, respectively, in the spectral range of 400-800 nm. The growth and multiplication of typical bacteria, Escherichia coli ( E. coli), were effectively inhibited on the coated glass. Pencil hardness test, tape adhesion test, and sponge washing test showed favorable mechanical robustness with 5H pencil hardness, 5A grade adhesion, and functional durability of the coating, which promises great potential for applications in various touch screens, windows for hygiene environments, and optical apparatuses for medical uses such as endoscope, and so on.

  16. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H-. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, John M. [W& M, JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [W& M; Haglund, R. F. [VANDERBILT

    2014-07-01

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer: nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er: YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering <3 %, and a reflection coefficient below 0.5 % across the visible range, with a much smaller number of layers than would be predicted by a standard thin film calculation. The TiO2 nanoparticles contribute more to the enhanced refractive index of the high-index layers than can be accounted for by an effective medium model of the nanocomposite.

  17. [Research on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of grating antireflective layer solar cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hui; Gao, Yong-Yi; Zhou, Ren-Long; Zhou, Bing-ju; Tang, Li-qiang; Wu, Ling-xi; Li, Hong-jian

    2011-07-01

    A numerical investigation of the effect of grating antireflective layer structure on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells was carried out by the finite-difference time-domain method. The influence of grating shape, height and the metal film thickness coated on grating surface on energy storage was analyzed in detail. It was found that the comparison between unoptimized and optimized surface grating structure on solar cells shows that the optimization of surface by grating significantly increases the energy storage capability and greatly improves the efficiency, especially of the photoelectric conversion efficiency and energy storage of the triangle grating. As the film thickness increases, energy storage effect increases, while as the film thickness is too thick, energy storage effect becomes lower and lower.

  18. Fabrication of PEDOT Nanocone Arrays with Electrochemically Modulated Broadband Antireflective Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Seulgi; Fung, Han Wai Millie; Kartub, Kellen; Maley, Adam M; Corn, Robert M

    2017-02-02

    Ordered nanocone arrays of the electroactive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were fabricated by the simultaneous oxygen plasma etching of an electrodeposited PEDOT thin film coated with a hexagonally closed packed polystyrene bead monolayer. PEDOT nanocone arrays with an intercone spacing of 200 nm and an average nanocone height of 350 nm exhibited a low broadband reflectivity of PEDOT nanocone array film was used to change both its ex situ absorption spectrum (electrochromism) and reflection spectrum (electroreflectivity). The sign of the PEDOT nanocone array electroreflectivity was opposite to that observed from unmodified PEDOT thin films; this significant difference is attributed to the unique optical behavior of nanostructured surfaces with an interfacial layer that contains a graded mix of air and highly absorptive nanocones. The combined electrochromic and electroreflective behavior of the antireflective PEDOT nanocone array films should find promising applications in solar energy cells, sensors and other optical devices.

  19. Antireflecting sublayers for neutron thin film polarising mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, F.; Penfold, J.; Williams, W.G.

    1981-09-01

    Measurements of the neutron polarising capability of Iron/Cobalt thin film mirrors deposited onto various Gadolinium-rich antireflecting sublayers are presented and the results compared with theoretical predictions. Excellent results were obtained in the cold neutron region though a degradation in performance is predicted in the thermal region at wavelengths approximately 1A. (author)

  20. Novel Design of Tunable Microlens with Lowered Driving Voltage and Iris with Conformal Antireflective Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoallem, Yousuf Dawood

    iris is discussed. Reducing undesirable light stray reflections from surfaces is desired in many 3D optical elements, such as supporting optomechanical mounts, irises, optical filters, solar cells, and photolithography underlying layers. BSi (as antireflective nanostructures) provides a potential economic solution which is highly absorptive across the visible spectrum to replace many currently used yet expensive coating materials. Si nanowires (SiNW) were formed using a metal-assisted chemical (MAC) etching process to get a conformal antireflective property on the iris 3D structure including sharp tips and sidewalls. A significant reduction in undesirable light stray reflections was achieved as a result of successful implementation of the conformal antireflective surface on all facets of fabricated irises to eliminate undesirable light stray reflections.

  1. High laser damage threshold surface relief micro-structures for anti-reflection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Douglas S.; MacLeod, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    Microstructures built into the surfaces of an optic or window, are an effective replacement for thin-film coatings in anti-reflection (AR) and narrow-band filter applications. AR microstructures exhibit particularly noteworthy performance where an average reflection loss of less than 0.2% over a four-octave range (400-1800nm) has been demonstrated, and a loss of less than 0.03% is routinely achieved for narrow-band applications. Because AR micro-textures provide a gradual change in the refractive index at a material boundary, it is expected that light can propagate through the boundary without material damage at energy levels that are much higher than that found with thin-film interference coatings. Recently, it was shown that the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of an inexpensive borosilicate glass window containing AR microstructures was nearly 57 J/cm2 at 1064nm (20ns pulse). This LIDT is two to three times greater than the damage threshold of single-layer sol-gel AR coatings on fused silica often reported in the literature. The development of surface relief AR textures for use in high-energy laser applications is presented. Data from scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, reflection measurements, and LIDT testing, is shown for high performance AR microstructures fabricated in fused silica, and borosilicate glass. Results of LIDT testing at wavelengths ranging from the near ultraviolet through the near infrared confirm the initial result that AR microstructures can operate at pulsed laser power levels at least two times higher than thin-film coatings. For near infrared applications such as laser weapons and fiber optic communications requiring high performance AR, LIDT levels for AR microstructures in fused silica are found to be at least five times greater than conventional multi-layer thin film coatings. An initial surface absorption test at 1064nm shows that AR microstructures may also exhibit improved lifetimes within continuous wave laser systems.

  2. Graphene-Tapered ZnO Nanorods Array as a Flexible Antireflection Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeseup Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible solar cells have drawn a great deal of attention due to their various advantages including deformable and wearable characteristics. In the solar cells, the antireflection layer plays an important role in the improvement in the conversion efficiency by increasing the light transmission and suppressing the Fresnel refraction. For the successful implantation of the antireflection layer into the flexible solar cells, the flexible mechanical property of the antireflection layer is also necessary. However, the study on flexible antireflection layer for the flexible solar cells or optoelectronics is still lacking. In this study, we report the graphene-tapered ZnO nanorods array as a flexible antireflection layer for the application in flexible solar cells. Flexible two-dimensional graphene sheet and the tapered morphology of ZnO nanorods enable conformal coverage on the flexible substrate with curved surface and significant improvements in antireflection properties, respectively.

  3. Graded index and randomly oriented core-shell silicon nanowires for broadband and wide angle antireflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pignalosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antireflection with broadband and wide angle properties is important for a wide range of applications on photovoltaic cells and display. The SiOx shell layer provides a natural antireflection from air to the Si core absorption layer. In this work, we have demonstrated the random core-shell silicon nanowires with both broadband (from 400nm to 900nm and wide angle (from normal incidence to 60º antireflection characteristics within AM1.5 solar spectrum. The graded index structure from the randomly oriented core-shell (Air/SiOx/Si nanowires may provide a potential avenue to realize a broadband and wide angle antireflection layer.

  4. Self-organized, effective medium black silicon antireflection structures for silicon optics in the mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steglich, Martin; Käsebier, Thomas; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Thanks to its high quality and low cost, silicon is the material of choice for optical devices operating in the mid-infrared (MIR; 2 μm to 6 μm wavelength). Unfortunately in this spectral region, the refractive index is comparably high (about 3.5) and leads to severe reflection losses of about 30% per interface. In this work, we demonstrate that self-organized, statistical Black Silicon structures, fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP-RIE), can be used to effectively suppress interface reflection. More importantly, it is shown that antireflection can be achieved in an image-preserving, non-scattering way. This enables Black Silicon antireflection structures (ARS) for imaging applications in the MIR. It is demonstrated that specular transmittances of 97% can be easily achieved on both flat and curved substrates, e.g. lenses. Moreover, by a combined optical and morphological analysis of a multitude of different Black Silicon ARS, an effective medium criterion for the examined structures is derived that can also be used as a design rule for maximizing sample transmittance in a desired wavelength range. In addition, we show that the mechanical durability of the structures can be greatly enhanced by coating with hard dielectric materials like diamond-like carbon (DLC), hence enabling practical applications. Finally, the distinct advantages of statistical Black Silicon ARS over conventional AR layer stacks are discussed: simple applicability to topological substrates, absence of thermal stress and cost-effectiveness.

  5. Surface antireflection properties of GaN nanostructures with various effective refractive index profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Zhao, Hongping

    2014-12-29

    GaN nanostructures with various effective refractive index profiles (Linear, Cubic, and Quintic functions) were numerically studied as broadband omnidirectional antireflection structures for concentrator photovoltaics by using three-dimensional finite difference time domain (3D-FDTD) method. Effective medium theory was used to design the surface structures corresponding to different refractive index profiles. Surface antireflection properties were calculated and analyzed for incident light with wavelength, polarization and angle dependences. The surface antireflection properties of GaN nanostructures based on six-sided pyramid with both uniform and non-uniform patterns were also investigated. Results indicate a significant dependence of the surface antireflection on the refractive index profiles of surface nanostructures as well as their pattern uniformity. The GaN nanostructures with linear refractive index profile show the best performance to be used as broadband omnidirectional antireflection structures.

  6. Method and tool to reverse the charges in anti-reflection films used for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Tracy, Clarence

    2017-01-31

    A method is provided for making a solar cell. The method includes providing a stack including a substrate, a barrier layer disposed on the substrate, and an anti-reflective layer disposed on the barrier layer, where the anti-reflective layer has charge centers. The method also includes generating a corona with a charging tool and contacting the anti-reflective layer with the corona thereby injecting charge into at least some of the charge centers in the anti-reflective layer. Ultra-violet illumination and temperature-based annealing may be used to modify the charge of the anti-reflective layer.

  7. Self-decorated Au nanoparticles on antireflective Si pyramids with improved hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, C. P.; Barman, A.; Kanjilal, A., E-mail: aloke.kanjilal@snu.edu.in [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh 201 314 (India); Kumar, M.; Som, T. [SUNAG Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751 005, Odisha (India); Satpati, B. [Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2016-04-07

    Post-deposition annealing mediated evolution of self-decorated Au nanoparticles (NPs) on chemically etched Si pyramids is presented. A distinct transformation of Si surfaces from hydrophilic to hydrophobic is initially found after chemical texturing, showing an increase in contact angle (CA) from 58° to 98° (±1°). Further improvement of hydrophobicity with CA up to ∼118° has been established after annealing a 10 nm thick Au-coated Si pyramids at 400 °C that led to the formation of Au NPs on Si facets along with self-ordering at the pyramid edges. Detailed x-ray diffraction studies suggest the evolution of crystalline Au NPs on strained Si facets. Microstructural studies, however, indicate no mixing of Au and Si atoms at the Au/Si interfaces, instead of forming Au nanocrystals at 400 °C. The improved hydrophobicity of Si pyramids, even with Au NPs can be explained in the light of a decrease in solid fractional surface area according to Wenzel's model. Moreover, a sharp drop in specular reflectance from Si pyramids in the range of 300–800 nm, especially in the ultraviolet region up to ∼0.4% is recorded in the presence of Au NPs by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, reflecting the possible use in photovoltaic devices with improved antireflection property.

  8. Biomimetic nanostructures in ZnS and ZnSe provide broadband anti-reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L.; DeCuir, E. A., Jr.; Fu, R.; Morse, D. E.; Gordon, M. J.

    2017-11-01

    Graded-index, moth eye-inspired anti-reflective features were fabricated in ZnS and ZnSe via nanosphere lithography using a Langmuir-Blodgett dip-coating method with plasma-based mask reduction and pattern transfer. Arrays of hexagonally close-packed conical frusta (top diameter = 300 nm, pitch = 690 nm, height = 2800 nm) were realized by isotropic etching (size-reduction) of the colloidal mask with CF4/Ar, followed by pattern transfer into the substrate using CH4/H2 plasma etching. Substantial increases in broadband transmission were achieved across the 2-20 μm range, yielding 23% and 26% single-side transmission improvement, and 92% and 88% absolute double-side transmission for ZnS and ZnSe, respectively, in excellent agreement with finite difference time domain (FDTD) optical simulations. Experimental differences in direct versus total transmission, and the general fall off of transmission at short wavelengths, were attributed to diffuse forward scattering and diffractive effects, as predicted by far-field scattering patterns using FDTD. The fabrication method presented can be used to enhance efficiency for multiple IR applications by minimizing reflective losses, while offering the further advantages of scalability and low cost.

  9. Use of ZnO as antireflective, protective, antibacterial, and biocompatible multifunction nanolayer of thermochromic VO2 nanofilm for intelligent windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Jinhua; Bao, Shanhu; Li, Jian; Liu, Xuanyong; Jin, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A multifunctional VO 2 /ZnO bilayer film is designed and deposited by magnetron sputtering apparatus. • The ZnO top layer can enhance the antireflective, antioxidative and anti-corrosion functions of the VO 2 film. • The ZnO top layer can endow VO 2 film with excellent antibacterial performance. • The ZnO top layer can attenuate the cytotoxicity of VO 2 thin film. - Abstract: A multifunctional VO 2 /ZnO bilayer film is designed and deposited by magnetron sputtering apparatus. The integration of the antireflective, antioxidative and anti-corrosion functions, and antibacterial performance makes the heterostructure film a promising candidate in the energy-saving smart window. The ZnO thin film as the antireflection layer can markedly boost the solar regulation efficiency (ΔT sol ) from 7.7% to 12.2% and possesses excellent luminous transmittance (T lum-L = 50.3%) in the low-temperature semiconductor phase. The ZnO layer as the protection barrier can not only protect VO 2 thin film from oxidation to much toxic V 2 O 5 , but also decrease the release of V ions. Besides, the synergistic effect of releasing killing by Zn 2+ ions and contact killing by ZnO NPs makes ZnO thin film an outstanding antibacterial coating. In terms of the biological safety, ZnO coating with appropriate film thickness can effectively attenuate the cytotoxicity of VO 2 on human HIBEpiC cells. We hope this work can provide new insights for better designing of novel multifunctional VO 2 -based intelligent energy-saving windows.

  10. Use of ZnO as antireflective, protective, antibacterial, and biocompatible multifunction nanolayer of thermochromic VO{sub 2} nanofilm for intelligent windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Jinhua [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Bao, Shanhu [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Li, Jian [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Xuanyong, E-mail: xyliu@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Jin, Ping, E-mail: p-jin@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Materials Research Institute for Sustainable Development, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A multifunctional VO{sub 2}/ZnO bilayer film is designed and deposited by magnetron sputtering apparatus. • The ZnO top layer can enhance the antireflective, antioxidative and anti-corrosion functions of the VO{sub 2} film. • The ZnO top layer can endow VO{sub 2} film with excellent antibacterial performance. • The ZnO top layer can attenuate the cytotoxicity of VO{sub 2} thin film. - Abstract: A multifunctional VO{sub 2}/ZnO bilayer film is designed and deposited by magnetron sputtering apparatus. The integration of the antireflective, antioxidative and anti-corrosion functions, and antibacterial performance makes the heterostructure film a promising candidate in the energy-saving smart window. The ZnO thin film as the antireflection layer can markedly boost the solar regulation efficiency (ΔT{sub sol}) from 7.7% to 12.2% and possesses excellent luminous transmittance (T{sub lum-L} = 50.3%) in the low-temperature semiconductor phase. The ZnO layer as the protection barrier can not only protect VO{sub 2} thin film from oxidation to much toxic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, but also decrease the release of V ions. Besides, the synergistic effect of releasing killing by Zn{sup 2+} ions and contact killing by ZnO NPs makes ZnO thin film an outstanding antibacterial coating. In terms of the biological safety, ZnO coating with appropriate film thickness can effectively attenuate the cytotoxicity of VO{sub 2} on human HIBEpiC cells. We hope this work can provide new insights for better designing of novel multifunctional VO{sub 2}-based intelligent energy-saving windows.

  11. Antireflective "moth-eye" structures on tunable optical silicone membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert; Keil, Bettina; Morhard, Christoph; Lehr, Dennis; Draheim, Jan; Wallrabe, Ulrike; Spatz, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    Flexible silicone membranes are key components for tunable optical lenses. The elastic operation of the membranes impedes the use of classical layer systems for an antireflective (AR) effect. To overcome this limitation, we equipped optical elastomer membranes with "moth-eye" structures directly in the flexible silicone substrate. The manufacturing of the AR structures in the flexible membrane includes a mastering process based on block copolymer micelle nanolithography followed by a replication method. We investigate the performance of the resulting AR structures under strain of up to 20% membrane expansion. A significant transmittance enhancement of up to 2.5% is achieved over the entire visible spectrum, which means that more than half of the surface reflection losses are compensated by the AR structures.

  12. Nature Inspired Surface Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubner, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Materials Scientists more and more are looking to nature for clues on how to create highly functional surface coatings with exceptional properties. The fog harvesting capabilities of the Namib Desert beetle, the beautiful iridescent colors of the hummingbird, and the super water repellant abilities of the Lotus leaf are but a few examples of the amazing properties developed over many years in the natural world. Nature also makes extensive use of the pH-dependent behavior of weak functional groups such as carboxylic acid and amine functional groups. This presentation will explore synthetic mimics to the nano- and microstructures responsible for these fascinating properties. For example, we have demonstrated a pH-induced porosity transition that can be used to create porous films with pore sizes that are tunable from the nanometer scale to the multiple micron scale. The pores of these films, either nano- or micropores, can be reversibly opened and closed by changes in solution pH. The ability to engineer pH-gated porosity transitions in heterostructured thin films has led to the demonstration of broadband anti-reflection coatings that mimic the anti-reflection properties of the moth eye and pH-tunable Bragg reflectors with a structure and function similar to that found in hummingbird wings and the Longhorn beetle. In addition, the highly textured honeycomb-like surfaces created by the formation of micron-scale pores are ideally suited for the creation of superhydrophobic surfaces that mimic the behavior of the self-cleaning lotus leaf. The development of synthetic "backbacks" on immune system cells that may one day ferry drugs to disease sites will also be discussed.

  13. Effective antireflection properties of porous silicon nanowires for photovoltaic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) have been prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching method on the n-Si substrate. The presence of nano-pores with pore size ranging between 10-50nm in SiNWs was confirmed by electron tomography (ET) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The PSiNWs give strong photoluminescence peak at red wavelength. Ultra-low reflectance of <5% span over wavelength 250 nm to 1050 nm has been measured. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been employed to model the optical reflectance for both Si wafer and PSiNWs. Our calculation results are in agreement with the measured reflectance from nanowires length of 6 µm and 60% porosity. The low reflectance is attributed to the effective graded index of PSiNWs and enhancement of multiple optical scattering from the pores and nanowires. PSiNW structures with low surface reflectance can potentially serve as an antireflection layer for Si-based photovoltaic devices.

  14. Thermal Advantages for Solar Heating Systems with a Glass Cover with Antireflection Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2003-01-01

    Investigations elucidate how a glass cover with antireflection surfaces can improve the efficiency of a solar collector and the thermal performance of solar heating systems. The transmittances for two glass covers for a flat-plate solar collector were measured for different incidence angles...... and the incidence angle modifier were measured for a flat-plate solar collector with the two cover plates. The collector efficiency was increased by 4–6%-points due to the antireflection surfaces, depending on the incidence angle. The thermal advantage with using a glass cover with antireflection surfaces...... was determined for different solar heating systems. Three systems were investigated: solar domestic hot water systems, solar heating systems for combined space heating demand and domestic hot water supply, and large solar heating plants. The yearly thermal performance of the systems was calculated by detailed...

  15. Moth eye-inspired anti-reflective surfaces for improved IR optical systems & visible LEDs fabricated with colloidal lithography and etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lesley W; Morse, Daniel E; Gordon, Michael J

    2018-03-16

    Near- and sub-wavelength photonic structures are used by numerous organisms (e.g., insects, cephalopods, fish, birds) to create vivid and often dynamically-tunable colors, as well as create, manipulate, or capture light for vision, communication, crypsis, photosynthesis, and defense. This review introduces the physics of moth eye (ME)-like, biomimetic nanostructures and discusses their application to reduce optical losses and improve efficiency of various optoelectronic devices, including photodetectors, photovoltaics, imagers, and light emitting diodes. Light-matter interactions at structured and heterogeneous surfaces over different length scales are discussed, as are the various methods used to create ME-inspired surfaces. Special interest is placed on a simple, scalable, and tunable method, namely colloidal lithography with plasma dry etching, to fabricate ME-inspired nanostructures in a vast suite of materials. Anti-reflective surfaces and coatings for IR devices and enhancing light extraction from visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) are highlighted. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Sol-gel synthesis of xTiO{sub 2}(100 − x)SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films: Structure, optical and antireflection properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermadi, S., E-mail: kermadisalim@yahoo.fr [CRTSE—Division DDCS, 02 Bd Dr. Frantz Fanon BP, 140, les 07 merveilles, 16038, Algiers (Algeria); Agoudjil, N. [Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Physico-Chemistry of Materials and Environment, USTHB, BO Box 32 El Alia, 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Sali, S.; Boumaour, M. [CRTSE—Division DDCS, 02 Bd Dr. Frantz Fanon BP, 140, les 07 merveilles, 16038, Algiers (Algeria); Bourgeois, S.; Marco de Lucas, M.C. [Interdisciplinary Laboratory Carnot of Bourgogne, University of Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, PO Box 47 870, F-21078 Dijon (France)

    2014-08-01

    Sol-gel xTiO{sub 2}(100 − x)SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with x = 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mol % were dip-coated on glass and silicon substrates. The influence of the composition on structure, morphology and optical properties was studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, monochromatic ellipsometry at λ = 632.8 nm and ultraviolet–visible absorbance spectroscopy. The optical properties were discussed on the basis of the microstructure. After annealing at 500 °C, results showed high pure materials, homogenous crack-free surfaces with good adherence and high optical qualities. The 100% TiO{sub 2} crystallizes in the anatase phase and exhibits nanograins of 6 to 10 nm in size. However, all the other compositions are amorphous with comparable grains around 4 nm in size. The averaged transmittance decreases with increasing the TiO{sub 2} content but remains higher than 90%. Whatever the composition, the coating thickness increases linearly as the withdrawal speed increases from 10 to 54 mm/minute. The relationship between refractive index and composition was analyzed by fitting the experimental data to different theoretical models for the refractive index of mixed films. Results showed that depending on the withdrawal speed, the data can properly fit either the Drude or the linear models. Thus, the film thickness can be adjusted by the control of the withdrawal speed. However, the control of the composition allows easily the tuning of the refractive index from 1.48 to 2.18 at λ = 632.8 nm to achieve optimum anti-reflection characteristics. Different anti-reflection designs of both single and double layers were experimentally examined. Gains (assigned to the reduction of reflection losses) up to 54 and 63% were predicted with 75% TiO{sub 2} single-coating and SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} double-coatings respectively. - Highlights: • Stable sol for dip-coating xTiO{sub 2}(100 − x

  17. Design of multi-layer anti-reflection coating for terrestrial solar panel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B GEETHA PRIYADARSHINI1 A K SHARMA2. Nanotech Research Innovation & Incubation Centre, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Peelamedu, Coimbatore 641004, India; National Centre for Photovoltaic Research & Education, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 400 076, ...

  18. Broad Bandwidth Metamaterial Antireflection Coatings for Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contains a number of faint signals that, if measured, could revolutionize our understandings of the Universe and fundamental...

  19. Minimizing scattering from antireflective surfaces replicated from low-aspect-ratio black silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    The scattering properties of randomly structured antireflective black silicon polymer replica have been investigated. Using a two-step casting process, the structures can be replicated in Ormocomp on areas of up to 3 in. in diameter. Fourier analysis of scanning electron microscopy images of the ...

  20. Indoor measurement of angle resolved light absorption by antireflective glass in solar panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    measurements with trackers. The experimental results showed optical responses that are stable and suitable for indoor characterization of solar cells. We find the characteristic optical response of six different antireflective glasses, and based on such measurements, we perform PVsyst simulations and present...

  1. Omnidirectional luminescence enhancement of fluorescent SiC via pseudoperiodic antireflective subwavelength structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Yakimova, Rositza

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, an approach of fabricating pseudoperiodic antireflective subwavelength structures (ARS) on fluorescent SiC by using self-assembled etch mask is demonstrated. By applying the pseudoperiodic (ARS), the average surface reflectance at 6° incidence over the spectral range of 390...

  2. Efficient light incoupling into silicon thin-film solar cells by anti-reflecting MgO/high-compact-AZO with air-side textured glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong-Won; Han, Min-Koo; Lee, Heon-Min

    2013-01-01

    Light incoupling effects have been enhanced at front interfaces of silicon (Si) thin-film solar cells. Firstly, a MgO thin film was introduced at glass substrate/Al-doped ZnO (AZO) interface for anti-reflection effect. We additionally found that the surface morphology of AZO films grown on MgO film after texture-etching is dependent on the compactness of AZO. For high-compact AZO films, the texture-etched MgO/AZO double layer exhibited significantly enhanced light-scattering capability. Secondly, we made textured surfaces at air/glass interface through simple plasma-etching without sacrificial layers or masks by optimizing the etching pressure. The additional air-side texture contributed to further improvement of total light scattering from the MgO/AZO-coated glass substrate. Fabricated microcrystalline Si thin-film solar cells employing the MgO coated glass with air-side surface texture showed decreased cell reflectance and increased quantum efficiency. The J sc increased from 21.7 to 26.5 mA cm −2 and final efficiency of 9.49% was achieved. Based on our experimental results, the suggested structure, the MgO coating on glass substrate of which air-side surface is texture-etched, can offer a promising approach to improve the light incoupling and efficiency of Si thin-film solar cells. (paper)

  3. Self-assembled nanolaminate coatings (SV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, H.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) are collaborating to develop affordable, self-assembled, nanocomposite coatings and associated fabrication processes that will be tailored to Lockheed Martin product requirements. The purpose of this project is to develop a family of self-assembled coatings with properties tailored to specific performance requirements, such as antireflective (AR) optics, using Sandia-developed self-assembled techniques. The project met its objectives by development of a simple and economic self-assembly processes to fabricate multifunctional coatings. Specifically, materials, functionalization methods, and associated coating processes for single layer and multiple layers coatings have been developed to accomplish high reflective coatings, hydrophobic coatings, and anti-reflective coatings. Associated modeling and simulations have been developed to guide the coating designs for optimum optical performance. The accomplishments result in significant advantages of reduced costs, increased manufacturing freedom/producibility, improved logistics, and the incorporation of new technology solutions not possible with conventional technologies. These self-assembled coatings with tailored properties will significantly address LMC's needs and give LMC a significant competitive lead in new engineered materials. This work complements SNL's LDRD and BES programs aimed at developing multifunctional nanomaterials for microelectronics and optics as well as structure/property investigations of self-assembled nanomaterials. In addition, this project will provide SNL with new opportunities to develop and apply self-assembled nanocomposite optical coatings for use in the wavelength ranges of 3-5 and 8-12 micrometers, ranges of vital importance to military-based sensors and weapons. The SANC technologies will be applied to multiple programs within the LM Company including the F-35, F-22, ADP (Future Strike Bomber

  4. Fabrication of nano-structure anti-reflective lens using platinum nanoparticles in injection moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, K; Nakano, T; Saitou, Y; Kato, H; Souma, N; Makihara, S

    2015-01-01

    We provide a lens mould to attain an anti-reflection sub-wavelength structure (SWS) for plastic replica in the injection moulding process. To obtain the SWS on the lens mould, platinum nanoparticles formed by decomposition of a platinum oxide were employed. The fabricated platinum nanoparticles were estimated to be 90 nm in diameter, on average, and the dispersion of the particle diameter was evaluated to be ±20 nm. Through nanostructure replication by injection moulding, antireflection of less than 0.5% was achieved, and transmittance increased over 98%. In addition, a high-replication durability of over 10 000 times was attained. The variation of the minimum reflection ratio was evaluated to be 0.38% ± 0.04%. The usefulness of the proposed SWS mould for mass-production was confirmed, as it allows for high durability and SWS formation on the lens surface. (paper)

  5. Bioinspired periodic pinecone-shaped Si subwavelength nanostructures for broadband and omnidirectional antireflective surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2012-10-01

    We reported the bioinspired periodic pinecone-shaped silicon (Si) subwavelength nanostructures, which were fabricated by laser interference lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching using thermally dewetted gold (Au) nanoparticles in SiCl4 plasma, on Si substrates for broadband and wide-angle antireflective surface. For the fabricated pinecone-like Si subwavelength nanostructures, antireflection characteristics and wetting behaviors were investigated. The pinecone-shaped Si subwavelength nanostructure with a period of 320 nm for 7 nm of Au film exhibited a relatively low solar weighted reflectance value of 3.5% over a wide wavelength range of 300-1030 nm, maintaining the reflectance values of < 9.9% at a wavelength of 550 nm up to a high incident angle of theta(i) = 70 degrees for non-polarized light. This structure also showed a hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of theta(c) approximately 102 degrees.

  6. Acoustic planar antireflective focusing lens with sub-diffraction-limit resolution based on metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2018-03-01

    Focusing acoustic energy is of fundamental importance for various applications. Traditional acoustic lenses are vulnerable to the backscattering that may be detrimental to the performance. Here, we propose the design of a thin planar acoustic antireflective focusing lens (AFL) based on metamaterials capable of converging the incident energy into a focus spot with the full-width at half-maximum less than λ/2 while preventing the backscattering energy reflecting back to the incident side. Such antireflection functionality results from the coupling of two metastructures as constituent units of the lens that modulates the wavevector of the incident wave and selects the uniformity of wavevectors, respectively, ensuring the precise focusing of the incident wave and the suppression of the backscattered wave. Performance is verified via a comparison against the conventional focusing lens, and numerical results evidence a high contrast of reflected intensity in the incident region between these two lenses surrounded by rough boundaries. Our proposed AFL with a planar profile, compact size, high focus resolution, and unique antireflection ability would open new design possibility for acoustic lens and find diverse applications in relevant fields.

  7. 3-D Printed Anti-Reflection Structures for the Terahertz Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Jarosław; Suszek, Jarosław; Makowski, Michał; Sobczyk, Artur; Sypek, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz radiation has a growing number of applications in material characterization, where spectral fingerprinting and diffractive effects are the carriers of information. On the other hand, electromagnetic waves in the range of millimeters exhibit strong unwanted specular reflections, resulting in uncontrolled interferences. This problem is especially disturbing in the goniometric time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) configuration, where angular distribution of the field modified by the sample is altered by unwanted reflections. For this reason, low-cost anti-reflection layers are desired. Here, we present a simple way of designing and manufacturing one-sided and two-sided anti-reflection polyamide layers for the THz range. The structures were fabricated using 3-D printers based on selective laser sintering. We demonstrate experimentally in the goniometric time-domain spectroscopy the significant reduction of wavelength-dependent oscillations in Fabry-Perot configuration in the range between 0.1 and 0.3 THz. We also examine the influence of the anti-reflection layers on the distribution of THz energy in reflected, transmitted, and diffracted fields.

  8. Antireflective sub-wavelength structures on fused silica via self-assembly of silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Ying; Zhu, Meiping; Sui, Zhan; Yi, Kui; Jin, Yunxia; He, Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    Antireflective sub-wavelength structures with high laser-induced damage threshold on fused silica are fabricated using a self-assembly technique, in which a porous yttrium oxide film is deposited as a mask followed by alkaline etching. By controlling the etching time, several sub-wavelength structures with different height, density and diameter have been made. The best reflectance is less than 2.87% for wavelengths from 300 to 1000 nm after 1.5 h etching. The laser-induced damage threshold of the etched glass measured by a 10 ns Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 532 nm was as high as 30 J/cm 2 compared to 16 J/cm 2 of blank glass. The specular reflectance of structures matches the theoretical simulation using a thin-film multilayer model, and the results reveal that the shape of the structures is similar to the calculated parabolic shape. Achieving antireflective sub-wavelength structures on fused silica paves the way for applications in laser systems. - Highlights: • Antireflective structures on fused silica are grown using a self-assembly technique. • The properties of structures with different etching time were studied. • The laser-induced damage threshold of glass was enhanced after etching. • The reflection matches the theoretical simulation using a thin-film multilayer model

  9. Broadband High-Performance Infrared Antireflection Nanowires Facilely Grown on Ultrafast Laser Structured Cu Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peixun; Bai, Benfeng; Long, Jiangyou; Jiang, Dafa; Jin, Guofan; Zhang, Hongjun; Zhong, Minlin

    2015-09-09

    Infrared antireflection is an essential issue in many fields such as thermal imaging, sensors, thermoelectrics, and stealth. However, a limited antireflection capability, narrow effective band, and complexity as well as high cost in implementation represent the main unconquered problems, especially on metal surfaces. By introducing precursor micro/nano structures via ultrafast laser beforehand, we present a novel approach for facile and uniform growth of high-quality oxide semiconductor nanowires on a Cu surface via thermal oxidation. Through the enhanced optical phonon dissipation of the nanowires, assisted by light trapping in the micro structures, ultralow total reflectance of 0.6% is achieved at the infrared wavelength around 17 μm and keeps steadily below 3% over a broad band of 14-18 μm. The precursor structures and the nanowires can be flexibly tuned by controlling the laser processing procedure to achieve desired antireflection performance. The presented approach possesses the advantages of material simplicity, structure reconfigurability, and cost-effectiveness for mass production. It opens a new path to realize unique functions by integrating semiconductor nanowires onto metal surface structures.

  10. Smooth anti-reflective three-dimensional textures for liquid phase crystallized silicon thin-film solar cells on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, David; Köppel, Grit; Jäger, Klaus; Chen, Duote; Shargaieva, Oleksandra; Sonntag, Paul; Amkreutz, Daniel; Rech, Bernd; Becker, Christiane

    2017-06-01

    Recently, liquid phase crystallization of thin silicon films has emerged as a candidate for thin-film photovoltaics. On 10 μm thin absorbers, wafer-equivalent morphologies and open-circuit voltages were reached, leading to 13.2% record efficiency. However, short-circuit current densities are still limited, mainly due to optical losses at the glass-silicon interface. While nano-structures at this interface have been shown to efficiently reduce reflection, up to now these textures caused a deterioration of electronic silicon material quality. Therefore, optical gains were mitigated due to recombination losses. Here, the SMooth Anti-Reflective Three-dimensional (SMART) texture is introduced to overcome this trade-off. By smoothing nanoimprinted SiO x nano-pillar arrays with spin-coated TiO x layers, light in-coupling into laser-crystallized silicon solar cells is significantly improved as successfully demonstrated in three-dimensional simulations and in experiment. At the same time, electronic silicon material quality is equivalent to that of planar references, allowing to reach V oc values above 630 mV. Furthermore, the short-circuit current density could be increased from 21.0 mA cm -2 for planar reference cells to 24.5 mA cm -2 on SMART textures, a relative increase of 18%. External quantum efficiency measurements yield an increase for wavelengths up to 700 nm compared to a state-of-the-art solar cell with 11.9% efficiency, corresponding to a j sc, EQE gain of 2.8 mA cm -2 .

  11. Surface Nanostructures Formed by Phase Separation of Metal Salt-Polymer Nanocomposite Film for Anti-reflection and Super-hydrophobic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con, Celal; Cui, Bo

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a simple and low-cost fabrication method for multi-functional nanostructures with outstanding anti-reflective and super-hydrophobic properties. Our method employed phase separation of a metal salt-polymer nanocomposite film that leads to nanoisland formation after etching away the polymer matrix, and the metal salt island can then be utilized as a hard mask for dry etching the substrate or sublayer. Compared to many other methods for patterning metallic hard mask structures, such as the popular lift-off method, our approach involves only spin coating and thermal annealing, thus is more cost-efficient. Metal salts including aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN) and chromium nitrate nonahydrate (CNN) can both be used, and high aspect ratio (1:30) and high-resolution (sub-50 nm) pillars etched into silicon can be achieved readily. With further control of the etching profile by adjusting the dry etching parameters, cone-like silicon structure with reflectivity in the visible region down to a remarkably low value of 2% was achieved. Lastly, by coating a hydrophobic surfactant layer, the pillar array demonstrated a super-hydrophobic property with an exceptionally high water contact angle of up to 165.7°.

  12. Ordered and disordered evolution of the pore mesostructure in hybrid silica anti-reflective films obtained by one-pot self-assembly method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazzal, Mohamed N.; Debecker, Damien P.; Gaigneaux, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid mesoporous silica films were prepared in acid-catalysed medium using a one-pot self-assembly method. A gradual content of methyl groups was introduced into the inorganic framework by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and methyltriethoxysilane. To better understand how the ordered and disordered transition occurs in mesoporous hybrid organosilica sytem as function of the MTES molar ratio in the starting solution, textural, chemical and optical properties of the films were studied by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), grazing-incident small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), transmission Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and UV–visible spectroscopy. Increasing the loading of the incorporated organic groups (up to 40% in the starting solution) led simultaneously to a disorganization of the pore mesostructure and a reduction in the pore diameter. Concomitantly, a disordered domain of the silica rings in the walls was observed, which created bond strains in the silica wall contributing also to the disorganization of the pore mesostructure. Furthermore, an optimal MTES content was identified in order to obtain antireflection coatings, exhibiting low reflection in the visible range. - Highlights: • Mesoporous hybrid silica films where prepared by one-pot co-condensation of MTES and TEOS. • Ordered and disordered mesostructures were studied as function as variable MTES molar ratio. • A rearrangement of the silica cyclic species occurred as the molar ratio of MTES increases. • Transmittance of the silica coatings is affected by the MTES molar ratio.

  13. Rational Design and Construction of Well-Organized Macro-Mesoporous SiO2/TiO2Nanostructure toward Robust High-Performance Self-Cleaning Antireflective Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Binbin; He, Junhui; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Yue; Li, Jing

    2017-05-24

    Antireflection (AR) thin films on optical substrates are of great significance in high-performance optoelectronic devices. Here, we present a rational design and construction of well-organized macro-mesoporous nanostructure toward robust high-performance self-cleaning antireflective thin films on the basis of effective medium theory and finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations that combine the optical design principle. A hierarchical macro-mesoporous SiO 2 thin film with very high porosity and gradient refractive indexes works as a λ/4-wavelength AR layer and significantly suppresses the reflection in the range from 350 to 1200 nm. Even after dip-coating a layer of high refractive index TiO 2 nanocrystals, the nanostructured thin film still exhibits broadband AR properties which are much superior to conventional flat SiO 2 /TiO 2 thin films, especially in the range of 350-500 nm. In addition, the obtained thin film exhibits photocatalytic self-cleaning and durable superhydrophilicity. The advantages brought by the well-organized macro-mesoporous structure are also testified through comparing to the solely mesoporous SiO 2 /TiO 2 film counterpart. Moreover, the pencil hardness test and sandpaper abrasion test show favorable robustness and functional durability of the thin film, which make it extremely attractive for practical applications in optical devices, display devices, and photovoltaic cells.

  14. Thin film coated submicron gratings: theory, design, fabrication and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, C.

    1996-12-31

    The realization of new applications of submicron grating structures requires efficient theoretical methods and elaborate fabrication techniques. In this work rigorous diffraction theory for one-dimensional gratings has been investigated and optimization techniques, based on methods used in thin film optics, have been developed. Submicron gratings embossed in polycarbonate have been fabricated and characterized. This includes transmission measurements which are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Designs for a wide range of optical filters, which lead to improved optical and mechanical properties, are presented. This has been demonstrated for broadband antireflection structures for solar energy applications, based on MgF{sub 2}-coated gratings. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  15. Fabrication of an Antireflective Nanodome Array with High Packing Density for Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiseok Lim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a nanofabrication method for an antireflective nanodome array with high packing density. The master for the close packed nanodome array was fabricated by industrially well-established photolithography and physical vapor deposition processes to realize uniform and defect-free nanostructure in large area. The nanodome array was formed on the surface of a glass plate by a nanoimprinting process using the replicated mold from the master with the aim of reducing the Fresnel reflection of the glass surface. The replication fidelity was verified using scanning electron microscopy and the nanodome structured glass substrate showed ~3% increase in optical transmittance.

  16. Broadband antireflective silicon carbide surface produced by cost-effective method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Ou, Yiyu; Ou, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    A cost-effective method for fabricating antireflective subwavelength structures on silicon carbide is demonstrated. The nanopatterning is performed in a 2-step process: aluminum deposition and reactive ion etching. The effect, of the deposited aluminum film thickness and the reactive ion etching...... conditions, on the average surface reflectance and nanostructure landscape have been investigated systematically. The average reflectance of silicon carbide surface is significantly suppressed from 25.4% to 0.05%, under the optimal experimental conditions, in the wavelength range of 390-784 nm. The presence...... of stochastic nanostructures also changes the wetting properties of silicon carbide surface from hydrophilic (47°) to hydrophobic (108°)....

  17. Design of broadband anti-reflective metasurfaces based on an effective medium approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, N. S.; Swisher, A.; Bungay, C.; Tuenge, S.; Mayer, T.; Christodoulides, D. N.; Rivero-Baleine, C.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we show how to systematically design anti-reflective metasurfaces for the mid-infrared wavelength range. To do so, we have utilized a multilayer arrangement involving a judiciously nano-perforated surface, having air holes, arranged in a hexagonal fashion. By exploiting an effective medium approach, we optimized the dimensions of the surface features in our design. Here, we report a broadband reflectivity 3.5 - 5.5 μm that is below 10% over a broad range of incident angles 00 design a wide variety of patterned metasurfaces, capable of controlling the phase of the incident optical field.

  18. Antireflective grassy surface on glass substrates with self-masked dry etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Min; Park, Gyeong Cheol; Kang, Eun Kyu; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Tak

    2013-12-01

    Although recently developed bio-inspired nanostructures exhibit superior optic performance, their practical applications are limited due to cost issues. We present highly transparent glasses with grassy surface fabricated with self-masked dry etch process. Simultaneously generated nanoclusters during reactive ion etch process with simple gas mixture (i.e., CF4/O2) enables lithography-free, one-step nanostructure fabrication. The resulting grassy surfaces, composed of tapered subwavelength structures, exhibit antireflective (AR) properties in 300 to 1,800-nm wavelength ranges as well as improved hydrophilicity for antifogging. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis calculation provides design guidelines for AR surface on glass substrates.

  19. High temperature solar selective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  20. Variation in the Optical Properties of the SiC-SiO2 Composite Antireflection Layer in Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannat, Azmira; Li, Zhen Yu; Akhter, M. Shaheer; Yang, O.-Bong

    2017-11-01

    This study showed the effects of annealing on a sol-gel-derived SiC-SiO2 composite antireflection (AR) layer and investigated the optical and photovoltaic properties of crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. The SiC-SiO2 composite AR coating showed a considerable decrease in reflectance from 7.18% to 3.23% at varying annealing temperatures of 450-800°C. The refractive indices of the SiC-SiO2 composite AR layer were tuned from 2.06 to 2.45 with the increase in annealing temperature. The analysis of the current density-voltage characteristics indicated that the energy conversion efficiencies of the fabricated Si solar cells gradually increased from 16.99% to 17.73% with increasing annealing temperatures of 450-800°C. The annealing of the SiC-SiO2 composite AR layer in Si solar cells was crucial to improving the optical, morphological, and photovoltaic properties.

  1. Broadband antireflective glasses with subwavelength structures using randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyeong Cheol; Song, Young Min; Ha, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Yong Tak

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate broadband antireflective glasses with subwavelength structures (SWSs) using randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles. Ag nanoparticles formed by a thermal dewetting process were used as an etch mask for dry etching to fabricate antireflective SWSs on the glass surface. The size and shape of Ag nanoparticles are changed by the different thickness of the Ag thin film. The morphology of SWSs fabricated by using the Ag thin films is well consistent with that of the Ag nanoparticles. The single-side SWS integrated glass exhibits improved transmittance of approximately 96% at 750 nm due to the graded refractive index profiles, while the transmittance is only approximately 92.5% for the flat surface. To reduce Fresnel reflection at the other side of the glass substrate, the SWSs with optimized Ag film thickness and dry etching conditions are formed on both sides of the glass. The dual-side SWS integrated glass show an average transmittance of approximately 97.5% in a wavelength range of 350-750 nm. Transmission band shrinkage effects of the SWS integrated glass are also observed with increased average size of the Ag nanoparticles.

  2. A Microwave Free-Space Method Using Artificial Lens with Anti-reflection Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangjun; Aratani, Yuki; Nakazima, Hironari

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a microwave free-space method using flat artificial lens antennas with anti-reflection layer. The lens antenna is made of an artificial material of metal particle. Comparing with our previous study, Anti-reflection (AR) layers are supplemented to the lens in this study to obtain a wave matching on the air-lens interface. The improved lens is in a disk shape of 50 mm diameter and 5.9 mm thickness. The lens is applied in a free-space setup, in which it is set in front of a patch antenna resonating at 15 GHz to get a high gain. The free-space setup is used to measure microwave attenuation and phase shift through a sawdust sample. The experimental results show that the multiple-reflection in the free-space method becomes small, because the reflection on air-lens interface has been reduced. The proposed AR lens antenna is flat and very small in the size. It is possible to construct a very compact and low cost free-space setup using the improved lens.

  3. Numerical Modeling of Sub-Wavelength Anti-Reflective Structures for Solar Module Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Katherine; Chang, Chih-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current progress in mathematical modeling of anti-reflective subwavelength structures. Methods covered include effective medium theory (EMT), finite-difference time-domain (FDTD), transfer matrix method (TMM), the Fourier modal method (FMM)/rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) and the finite element method (FEM). Time-based solutions to Maxwell’s equations, such as FDTD, have the benefits of calculating reflectance for multiple wavelengths of light per simulation, but are computationally intensive. Space-discretized methods such as FDTD and FEM output field strength results over the whole geometry and are capable of modeling arbitrary shapes. Frequency-based solutions such as RCWA/FMM and FEM model one wavelength per simulation and are thus able to handle dispersion for regular geometries. Analytical approaches such as TMM are appropriate for very simple thin films. Initial disadvantages such as neglect of dispersion (FDTD), inaccuracy in TM polarization (RCWA), inability to model aperiodic gratings (RCWA), and inaccuracy with metallic materials (FDTD) have been overcome by most modern software. All rigorous numerical methods have accurately predicted the broadband reflection of ideal, graded-index anti-reflective subwavelength structures; ideal structures are tapered nanostructures with periods smaller than the wavelengths of light of interest and lengths that are at least a large portion of the wavelengths considered. PMID:28348287

  4. One-step Maskless Fabrication and Optical Characterization of Silicon Surfaces with Antireflective Properties and a White Color Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ling; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Telecka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple one-step maskless fabrication of inverted pyramids on silicon wafers by reactive ion etching. The fabricated surface structures exhibit excellent anti-reflective properties: The total reflectance of the nano inverted pyramids fabricated by our method can be as low as 12% without...

  5. High quality antireflective ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tec-Yam, S.; Rojas, J.; Rejón, V.; Oliva, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films for antireflective applications were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Chemical analysis of the soluble species permits to predict the optimal pH conditions to obtain high quality ZnS films. For the CBD, the ZnCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 , and CS(NH 2 ) 2 were fixed components, whereas the KOH concentration was varied from 0.8 to 1.4 M. Groups of samples with deposition times from 60 to 120 min were prepared in a bath with magnetic agitation and heated at 90 °C. ZnS films obtained from optimal KOH concentrations of 0.9 M and 1.0 M exhibited high transparency, homogeneity, adherence, and crystalline. The ZnS films presented a band gap energy of 3.84 eV, an atomic Zn:S stoichiometry ratio of 49:51, a transmittance above 85% in the 300–800 nm wavelength range, and a reflectance below 25% in the UV–Vis range. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cubic structure in the (111) orientation for the films. The thickness of the films was tuned between 60 nm and 135 nm by controlling the deposition time and KOH concentration. The incorporation of the CBD-ZnS films into ITO/ZnS/CdS/CdTe and glass/Mo/ZnS heterostructures as antireflective layer confirms their high optical quality. -- Highlights: ► High quality ZnS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD). ► Better CBD-ZnS films were achieved by using 0.9 M-KOH concentration. ► Reduction in the reflectance was obtained for ZnS films used as buffer layers.

  6. Laser-damage thresholds of thin-film optical coatings at 248 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milam, D.; Rainer, F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-12-11

    We have measured the laser-induced damage thresholds for 248 nm wavelength light of over 100 optical coatings from commercial vendors and research institutions. All samples were irradiated once per damage site with temporally multi-lobed, 20-ns pulses generated by a KrF laser. The survey included high, partial, and dichroic reflectors, anti-reflective coatings, and single layer films. The samples were supplied by ten vendors. The majority of samples tested were high reflectors and antireflective coatings. The highest damage thresholds were 8.5 to 9.4 J/cm/sup 2/, respectively. Although these represent extremes of what has been tested so far, several vendors have produced coatings of both types with thresholds which consistently exceed 6 J/cm/sup 2/. Repeated irradiations of some sites were made on a few samples. These yielded no degradation in threshold, but in fact some improvement in damage resistance. These same samples also exhibited no change in threshold after being retested seven months later.

  7. Optical coatings on laser crystals for HiPER project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulehla, Jindrich; Pokorný, Pavel; Lazar, Josef

    2011-12-01

    In this contribution we present a technology for deposition of interference coatings for optical components designed to operate as active media in power pulsed lasers. The aim of the technology is to prepare crystals for lasers for the HiPER project (High Power laser Energy Research facility) which should demonstrate the feasibility of laser driven fusion as a future energy source. Diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSL) are the most likely option for fusion ignition. The choice of the material for the lasers' active medium is critical. Some of the most important properties include the ability to be antireflection coated to reduce the energy losses and increase the overall efficiency. This contribution deals with some of the materials considered to be candidates for slabs serving as the active medium of the DPSSLs. We tested Yb:YAG and Yb:CaF2 samples. As large amounts of heat need to be dissipated during laser operation, cryogenic cooling is necessary. Appropriate coating materials and techniques need to be chosen. Therefore differences between available coating techniques are investigated in terms of adhesion, enduring of stress from temperature shocks, etc. Coated samples were placed into cryogenic environment in order to simulate conditions similar to those in real life operation. Optical microscopy was used for coating investigation after the conducted experiments.

  8. AR coatings on laser crystals for HiPER project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulehla, Jindřich; Pokorný, Pavel

    2010-08-01

    In this contribution we present a technology for deposition of interference coatings for optical components designed to operate as active media in power pulsed lasers. The aim of the technology is to prepare crystals for lasers for the HiPER project (High Power laser Energy Research) which should demonstrate the feasibility of laser driven fusion as a future energy source. Diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSL) are the most likely option for fusion ignition. The choice of material for the lasers active medium is critical. Some of the most important properties include the ability to be antireflection coated to reduce the energy losses and increase the overall efficiency. This contribution deals with some of the materials considered to be candidates for slabs serving as the active medium of the DPSSLs. We tested Yb:YAG, Yb:CaF2 samples. As large amounts of heat need to be dissipated during laser operation, cryogenic cooling is necessary. Appropriate coating materials and techniques need to be chosen. Therefore differences between available coating techniques are investigated in terms of adhesion, enduring of stress resulting from temperature shocks, etc. Coated samples were placed into cryogenic environment in order to simulate conditions similar to those in real life operation. Optical microscopy was used for coating investigation after the conducted experiments.

  9. Long term testing and evaluation of PV modules with and without Sunarc antireflective coating of the cover glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Han, Jiangong

    2015-01-01

    in the modules. No cleaning of the glass has been made except for removal of bird droppings and leaves on single cells that could give a very wrong comparison. The PV modules were mounted due south at 45 degree tilt angle. They were connected to the electric grid with small 250W module inverters from Involar...

  10. Fabrication of highly transparent diamond-like carbon anti-reflecting coating for Si solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Amit, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in [Nano-Science Group, Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India)

    2014-04-24

    ARC grade highly transparent unhydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were produced, directly from a-C target, using RF magnetron sputtering deposition technique, for optoelectronic applications. Optical band gap, transmittance, reflectance, sp{sup 3} fraction, I{sub D}/I{sub G}, density, and refractive index of the films have been estimated with the help of optical tools like Uv-vis spectrophotometer, ellipsometer and micro-Raman. Optimum ARC-qualities have been identified in low-temperature grown DLC films at an Ar pressure of 4 mTorr in the reactor, accomplishing its key requirements for use in silicon solar cells.

  11. Silicon nitride and intrinsic amorphous silicon double antireflection coatings for thin-film solar cells on foreign substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Da; Kunz, Thomas; Wolf, Nadine; Liebig, Jan Philipp; Wittmann, Stephan; Ahmad, Taimoor; Hessmann, Maik T.; Auer, Richard; Göken, Mathias; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) was investigated as a surface passivation method for crystalline silicon thin film solar cells on graphite substrates. The results of the experiments, including quantum efficiency and current density-voltage measurements, show improvements in cell performance. This improvement is due to surface passivation by an a-Si:H(i) layer, which increases the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. In comparison with our previous work, we have achieved an increase of 0.6% absolute cell efficiency for a 40 μm thick 4 cm 2 aperture area on the graphite substrate. The optical properties of the SiN x /a-Si:H(i) stack were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometer techniques. Scanning transmission electron microscopy inside a scanning electron microscope was applied to characterize the cross section of the SiN x /a-Si:H(i) stack using focus ion beam preparation. - Highlights: • We report a 10.8% efficiency for thin-film silicon solar cell on graphite. • Hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon was applied for surface passivation. • SiN x /a-Si:H(i) stacks were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometer techniques. • Cross-section micrograph was obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy. • Quantum efficiency and J-V measurements show improvements in the cell performance

  12. Determination of thermal conductivity of thin layers used as transparent contacts and antireflection coatings with a photothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak-Bałata, Anna; Bodzenta, Jerzy; Korte-Kobylińska, Dorota; Mazur, Jacek; Gołaszewska, Krystyna; Kamińska, Eliana; Piotrowska, Anna

    2009-03-01

    A photothermal experiment with mirage detection was used to determine the thermal conductivity of various thin films deposited on semiconductor substrates. The first type consisted of conducting oxide films: ZnO and CdO deposited on GaSb:Te, while the other contained high dielectric constant HfO(2) layers on Si. All films were fabricated using a magnetron sputtering technique. Experimental results showed that the value of the thermal conductivity of ZnO and CdO films is lower than the value obtained for HfO(2). Thermal conductivities of investigated thin films are about 2 orders of magnitude lower than those corresponding to bulk materials.

  13. Anti-reflective microstructure array and its performance evaluation in thin film flexible solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Zhan, Xinghua; Gao, Mengyu; Tie, Shengnian; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    The anti-reflective (AR) structure greatly reduces the light reflection. When it is applied on solar cells, it enables more light to be absorbed by the cells, increasing the energy of the incident light and improving the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency. In this study, the optical properties of AR microstructures are investigated followed by the performance evaluation of solar cells. The AR microstructure is arrayed in a uniform and periodic fashion. When it is applied on PMMA, only 1.0% of the light is reflected away while 2.6% of the light is reflected on glass. The angular dependence performance is also improved with AR structure with 9.4% more light absorption, which can increase the effective energy generation duration for the solar cell. The AR structure is applied to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells by nano-imprinting technology. The solar cell with AR structure gained 8.63% more power compared to the conventional solar cells.

  14. Stable Single-Mode Operation of Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser by Optimized Reflectivity Facet Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Cheng, Feng-Min; Zhao, Yue; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Shu-Man; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2018-02-02

    In this work, quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on strain compensation combined with two-phonon resonance design are presented. Distributed feedback (DFB) laser emitting at ~ 4.76 μm was fabricated through a standard buried first-order grating and buried heterostructure (BH) processing. Stable single-mode emission is achieved under all injection currents and temperature conditions without any mode hop by the optimized antireflection (AR) coating on the front facet. The AR coating consists of a double layer dielectric of Al 2 O 3 and Ge. For a 2-mm laser cavity, the maximum output power of the AR-coated DFB-QCL was more than 170 mW at 20 °C with a high wall-plug efficiency (WPE) of 4.7% in a continuous-wave (CW) mode.

  15. Broadband Antireflection and Light Extraction Enhancement in Fluorescent SiC with Nanodome Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Zhu, Xiaolong; Jokubavicius, Valdas

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a time-efficient and low-cost approach to fabricate Si3N4 coated nanodome structures in fluorescent SiC. Nanosphere lithography is used as the nanopatterning method and SiC nanodome structures with Si3N4 coating are formed via dry etching and thin film deposition process. By using...... in the future....

  16. Spectral Control of Transmission of Diffuse Irradiation using Piled AR Coated Quartz Glass Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Tomoyuki; Hanamura, Katsunori

    2004-11-01

    Spectral transmission characteristics of piled quartz glass filters with anti-reflection (AR) coating and without coating were investigated for diffuse irradiation through ray tracing numerical simulation. The spectral transmittance for diffuse irradiation is lower than that for normal irradiation because surface reflection becomes large with increasing incident zenith angle. By using the AR coating, the transmittance for diffuse irradiation becomes much higher than that without coating around a wavelength of 1.1 μm that is specified for the coating thickness design. On the other hand, for the long wavelength region, the transmittance reduced largely due to multiple-surface and absorption. The most striking feature is that difference between transmittances for the specified and the long wavelength region is enhanced using the piled AR coated quartz glass filters. If the refractive index of the coating material were 1.19, which was an ideal value for the design of the coating, the effect is the most remarkable. As a result, it is revealed that this spectral control method is useful for the energy recirculation TPV system using super-adiabatic combustion in porous media.

  17. Nanoscale imaging of photocurrent enhancement by resonator array photovoltaic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dongheon; Yoon, Yohan; Zhitenev, Nikolai B.

    2018-04-01

    Nanoscale surface patterning commonly used to increase absorption of solar cells can adversely impact the open-circuit voltage due to increased surface area and recombination. Here, we demonstrate absorptivity and photocurrent enhancement using silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanosphere arrays on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell that do not require direct surface patterning. Due to the combined effects of thin-film interference and whispering gallery-like resonances within nanosphere arrays, there is more than 20% enhancement in both absorptivity and photocurrent. To determine the effect of the resonance coupling between nanospheres, we perform a scanning photocurrent microscopy based on a near-field scanning optical microscopy measurement and find a substantial local photocurrent enhancement. The nanosphere-based antireflection coating (ARC), made by the Meyer rod rolling technique, is a scalable and a room-temperature process; and, can replace the conventional thin-film-based ARCs requiring expensive high-temperature vacuum deposition.

  18. Coatings for high energy applications. The Nova laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtenson, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The combined requirements of energy density, multiple wavelength, and aperture make the coatings for the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) laser unique. This ten beam neodymium glass laser system, built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has over a thousand major optical components; some larger than one meter in diameter and weighing 380 Kg. The laser operates at 1054 nm and can be frequency doubled to 527 nm or tripled to 351 nm by means of full aperture potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal arrays. The 1.0 nsec fluence varies along the laser chain, sometimes reaching values as high as 16 J/cm 2 at the input lens to one of the spatial filters. The design specifications of this massive optical system were changed several times as the state-of-the-art advanced. Each change required redesign of the optical coatings even as vendors were preparing for production runs. Frequency conversion to include shorter wavelengths mandated the first major coating redesign and was followed almost immediately by a second redesign to reduce solarization effects in borosilicate crown glass. The conventional thermal evaporation process although successful for the deposition of mirror coatings, was not able to produce antireflection coatings able to survive the locally high chain fluences. As a consequence it became necessary to develop another technique. Solution produced coatings were developed having transmissions exceeding 99% per part and damage threshold values equal to the bare substrate. The unique requirement of the Nova laser necessitated special deposition and metrology equipment. These programmatic developments will be reviewed in the context of the cooperative working relationship developed between LLNL and its vendors. It was this excellent relationship which has enabled LLNL to obtain these highly specialized coatings for the Nova laser

  19. Comparison between anti-reflection-coated and uncoated spectacle lenses for presbyopic highway patrol troopers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, W G; Weaver, J L

    1999-02-01

    The use of anti-reflection coatings (AR) for spectacle lenses is steadily increasing. These ultra-thin coatings reduce reflections in lenses, increasing light transmittance about 8% (from 91% to 99%). Patient reports of crisper detail and brighter environment indicate that this perceived increase in visual function would probably be of benefit to many, including highway patrolmen who must make daily judgments on the basis of fine visual detail. Nineteen presbyopic Missouri State Highway Patrolmen (MSHP) participated in this crossover study. Subjects randomly wore Varilux Comfort progressive addition lenses in CR-39 that were uncoated or AR-coated. The AR coating was Crizal. Subjects wore each lens for 1 month, then compared the lenses directly for 1 week. Data were collected for lens scoring (both general and job specific) and lens preferences. The AR-coated lens was found to be significantly better in most categories. Reduction in glare and reflections during the day, night, indoors, and in the patrol vehicle--as well as improvement in overall night vision--were highly significant. Eighty-nine percent of the subjects chose the Crizal-coated lenses as their overall preferred lens. The results of this study appear to demonstrate a noticeable subjective preference for AR-coated lenses when used by a group engaged in a visually demanding occupation.

  20. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  1. Ultra-high green light transparency coating on 1D photonic crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantakit, Teanchai; Chiangga, Surasak

    2017-09-01

    The anti-reflective (AR) coatings were regarded as one of the promising options to improving the efficiency of light transmission in optical-based devices. In this work, we designed an ultra-high anti-reflective layer based on a 1D photonic crystal structure. By using the specific properties of the 1D photonic crystal on a particular filtering wavelength, a high transmission enhancement was achieved. The periodic stack of tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in borosilicate glass (BK7) layers was modified with a graphene as a defect layer to investigate the effect of the modification on the optical transmission factor. The FDTD simulations showed an extremely 99.8255% transparency at the wavelength of 505.263 nm. The result was consistent with the analytical results obtained from a transfer matrix calculation. The proposed design can be applied to the coated narrow linewidth thin film as used for example in integrated optical systems.

  2. Antireflective conducting nanostructures with an atomic layer deposited an AlZnO layer on a transparent substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Ji, Seungmuk; Herdini, Diptya Suci; Lim, Hyuneui; Park, Jin-Seong; Chung, Kwun-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We investigated the antireflective conducting nanostructures on a transparent substrate using atomic layer deposited AlZnO films. • The conformal AlZnO layer on a transparent nanostructured substrate exhibited 5.52 × 10 −4 Ω cm in resistivity and 88% in average visible transmittance. • The improvement of transparency was explained by the gradual changes of the refractive index in the film depth direction. • The decrease in electrical resistivity is strongly correlated to the increased surface area with the nanostructure and the change of chemical bonding states. - Abstract: The antireflective conducting nanostructures on a transparent substrate were shown to have enhanced optical and electrical properties via colloidal lithography and atomic layer deposition. The conformal AlZnO layer on a transparent nanostructured substrate exhibited 5.52 × 10 −4 Ω cm in resistivity and 88% in average visible transmittance, both of which were superior to those of a flat transparent conducting substrate. The improvement of transparency was explained by the gradual changes of the refractive index in the film depth direction. The decrease in electrical resistivity is strongly correlated to the increased surface area with the nanostructure and the change of chemical bonding states.

  3. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  4. Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Flip-Chip White Light-Emitting Diodes with Diffused Nanorod Reflector and with ZnO Nanorod Antireflection Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ying Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The GaN-based flip-chip white light-emitting diodes (FCWLEDs with diffused ZnO nanorod reflector and with ZnO nanorod antireflection layer were fabricated. The ZnO nanorod array grown using an aqueous solution method was combined with Al metal to form the diffused ZnO nanorod reflector. It could avoid the blue light emitted out from the Mg-doped GaN layer of the FCWLEDs, which caused more blue light emitted out from the sapphire substrate to pump the phosphor. Moreover, the ZnO nanorod array was utilized as the antireflection layer of the FCWLEDs to reduce the total reflection loss. The light output power and the phosphor conversion efficiency of the FCWLEDs with diffused nanorod reflector and 250 nm long ZnO nanorod antireflection layer were improved from 21.15 mW to 23.90 mW and from 77.6% to 80.1% in comparison with the FCWLEDs with diffused nanorod reflector and without ZnO nanorod antireflection layer, respectively.

  5. Large area precision optical coatings by pulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frach, Peter; Gloess, Daniel; Goschurny, Thomas; Drescher, Andy; Hartung, Ullrich; Bartzsch, Hagen; Heisig, Andreas; Grune, Harald; Leischnig, Lothar; Leischnig, Steffen; Bundesmann, Carsten

    2017-05-01

    Pulse magnetron sputtering is very well suited for the deposition of optical coatings. Due to energetic activation during film growth, sputtered films are dense, smooth and show an excellent environmental stability. Films of materials like SiO2, Al2O3, Nb2O5 or Ta2O5 can be produced with very little absorption and scattering losses and are well suited for precision optics. FEP's coating plant PreSensLine, a deposition machine dedicated for the development and deposition of precision optical layer systems will be presented. The coating machine (VON ARDENNE) is equipped with dual magnetron systems (type RM by FEP). Concepts regarding machine design, process technology and process control as well as in situ monitoring are presented to realize the high demands on uniformity, accuracy and reproducibility. Results of gradient and multilayer type precision optical coatings are presented. Application examples are edge filters and special antireflective coatings for the backlight of 3D displays with substrate size up to 300 x 400mm. The machine allows deposition of rugate type gradient layers by rotating a rotary table with substrates between two sources of the dual magnetron system. By combination of the precision drive (by LSA) for the substrate movement and a special pulse parameter variation during the deposition process (available with the pulse unit UBS-C2 of FEP), it is possible to adjust the deposition rate as a function of the substrate position exactly. The aim of a current development is a technology for the uniform coating of 3D-substrates and freeform components as well as laterally graded layers.

  6. Temporal scaling law and intrinsic characteristic of laser induced damage on the dielectric coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Jiang, Youen; Wang, Chao; Wei, Hui; Zhang, Peng; Fan, Wei; Li, Xuechun

    2018-01-01

    High power laser is essential for optical manipulation and fabrication. When the laser travels through optics and to the target finally, irreversible damage on the dielectric coating is always accompanied without knowing the law and principle of laser induced damage. Here, an experimental study of laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) Fth of the dielectric coating under different pulse duration t is implemented. We observe that the temporal scaling law of square pulse for high-reflectivity (HR) coating and anti-reflectivity (AR) coating are Fth = 9.53t0.47 and Fth = 6.43t0.28 at 1064 nm, respectively. Moreover, the intrinsic LIDT of HR coating is 62.7 J/cm2 where the coating is just 100% damaged by gradually increasing the fluence densities of a 5ns-duration pulse, which is much higher than the actual LIDT of 18.6 J/cm2. Thus, a more robust and reliable high power laser system will be a reality, even working at very high fluence, if measures are taken to improve the actual LIDT to a considerable level near the intrinsic value.

  7. RETRACTED: Modeling and imprint fabrication of an infrared wire-grid polarizer with an antireflection grating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Itsunari; Yamashita, Naoto; Einishi, Toshihiko; Saito, Mitsunori; Fukumi, Kouhei; Nishii, Junji

    2014-05-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor and the authors as they/the authors acknowledged extensive overlap between an earlier published article of Applied Physics Express1 and the current article. The authors would like to apologize to the Editors and readers for this situation. 1Itsunari Yamada, Naoto Yamashita, Kunihiko Tani, Toshihiko Einishi, Mitsunori Saito, Kouhei Fukumi and Junji Nishii, Infrared Wire-Grid Polarizer with Antireflection Structure by Imprinting on Both Sides. Appl. Phys. Express (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/APEX.5.082502

  8. Polarization and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano structures on stainless steel with antireflection property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Caizhen; Ye, Yayun; Jia, Baoshen; Li, Yuan; Ding, Renjie; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Yuxin; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, micro/nano structures on stainless steel were prepared in single spot irradiation mode and scan mode by using femtosecond laser technique. The influence of polarization and fluence on the formation of micro/nano structures were explored. Surface morphology, microstructure, roughness and composition of prepared samples were characterized. The antireflection property and wettability of laser treated samples were also tested and compared with that of original stainless steel.Results showed that the laser-induced spot consists of two distinct regions due to the Gaussian beam profile: a core region of moth-eye-like structure and a peripheral region of nanoparticles-covered laser-induced periodic surface structure (NC-LIPSS). The proportion of the core region and dimension of micro/nano structure increase with increasing laser fluence. Polarization can be used to tune the direction of NC-LIPSS. Atomic ratios of Cr and Mn increase and atomic ratio of Ni decreases after laser irradiation. Oxygen is not detected on laser irradiated samples, indicating that oxidation reactions are not significant during the interaction process between femtosecond laser and 304 stainless steel. These are good for the application of stainless steel as its physical properties would not change or even enhanced. The overlaps between two laser scan lines significantly influence the surface roughness and should be controlled carefully during the preparation process. The laser irradiated surface has a better antireflection property in comparison with that of original stainless steel, which may due to the scattering and absorption of micro/nano structures. Contact angle of micro/nano structured stainless steel decreases with the increase of laser fluence. The hydrophilic property can be explained by Wenzel's model. The interference between the surface plasmon wave and the incident light wave leads to the formation of NC-LIPSS.

  9. Spectral reflectance data of a high temperature stable solar selective coating based on MoSi2–Si3N4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hernández-Pinilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data of optical performance, thermal stability and ageing are given for solar selective coatings (SSC based on a novel MoSi2–Si3N4 absorbing composite. SSC have been prepared as multilayer stacks formed by silver as metallic infrared reflector, a double layer composite and an antireflective layer (doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2016.04.001 [1]. Spectroscopic reflectance data corresponding to the optical performance of samples after moderate vacuum annealing at temperatures up to 600 °C and after ageing test of more than 200 h with several heating–cooling cycles are shown here.

  10. Nanostructures on spin-coated polymer films controlled by solvent composition and polymer molecular weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dario, Aline F.; Macia, Henrique B.; Petri, Denise F.S., E-mail: dfsp@iq.usp.br

    2012-12-01

    In this study we systematically investigated how the solvent composition used for polymer dissolution affects the porous structures of spin-coated polymers films. Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and poly(methyl methacrylate) with low (PMMA-L) and high (PMMA-H) molecular weights were dissolved in mixtures of acetone (AC) and ethyl acetate (EA) at constant polymer concentration of 10 g/L The films were spin-coated at a relative air humidity of 55 {+-} 5%, their thickness and index of refraction were determined by means of ellipsometry and their morphology was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The dimensions and frequency of nanocavities on polymer films increased with the acetone content ({phi}{sub AC}) in the solvent mixture and decreased with increasing polymer molecular weight. Consequently, as the void content increased in the films, their apparent thicknesses increased and their indices of refraction decreased, creating low-cost anti-reflection surface. The void depth was larger for PMMA-L than for CAB. This effect was attributed to different activities of EA and AC in CAB or PMMA-L solution, the larger mobility of chains and the lower polarity of PMMA-L in comparison to CAB. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructures in spin-coated polymer films depend on the solvent vapor pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-reflection polymer films are produced at high solvent vapor pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only shallow cavities are obtained in films of polymers with high molecular weight.

  11. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. Defects with deep levels in a semiconductor structure of a photoelectric converter of solar energy with an antireflection film of porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregulov, V. V.; Litvinov, V. G.; Ermachikhin, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Defects in a semiconductor structure of a photoelectric converter of solar energy based on a p-n junction with an antireflection film of porous silicon on the front surface have been studied by current deeplevel transient spectroscopy. An explanation of the influence of thickness of a porous-silicon film formed by electrochemical etching on the character of transformation of defects with deep levels and efficiency of solarenergy conversion is proposed.

  13. Excellent anti-fogging dye-sensitized solar cells based on superhydrophilic nanoparticle coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jong Hak; Lee, Daeyeon

    2014-06-01

    We present a facile method for producing anti-fogging (AF) and anti-reflection (AR) coating functionalized photoanodes via one-step SiO2 nanoparticle coating for high performance solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). The AF and AR coating functionalized photoanodes are prepared by spin-coating of partially aggregated SiO2 colloidal solution. Poly((1-(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl)-3-butyl-imidazolium iodide) (PEBII), prepared via free radical polymerization, is used as a solid electrolyte in I2-free ssDSSCs. We systematically investigate the enhanced light harvesting characteristics of AF and AR coating functionalized photoanode-based ssDSSCs by measuring UV-visible spectroscopy, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) curves under fogging conditions. Compared with conventional photoanode based ssDSSCs, the AF and AR coating functionalized photoanodes substantially suppress fogging and reduce reflection, leading to significantly enhanced light harvesting, especially under fogging conditions. ssDSSCs made of AF and AR coating functionalized photoanodes exhibit an improved photovoltaic efficiency of 6.0% and 5.9% under non-fogging and fogging conditions, respectively, and retain their device efficiencies for at least 20 days, which is a significant improvement of ssDSSCs with conventional photoanodes (4.7% and 1.9% under non-fogging and fogging conditions, respectively). We believe that AF and AR functionalization via one-step SiO2 colloidal coating is a promising method for enhancing light harvesting properties in various solar energy conversion applications.We present a facile method for producing anti-fogging (AF) and anti-reflection (AR) coating functionalized photoanodes via one-step SiO2 nanoparticle coating for high performance solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). The AF and AR coating functionalized photoanodes are prepared by spin-coating of partially aggregated SiO2 colloidal solution. Poly((1-(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl)-3

  14. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  15. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  16. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  17. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  18. High-rate deposition of optical coatings by closed-field magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, D. R.; Brinkley, I.; Waddell, E. M.; Walls, J. M.

    2005-09-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers a flexible and high throughput deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in a wide range of optical applications. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. Moreover, CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, thereby producing films over a large surface area at high deposition rate with excellent and reproducible optical properties. Machines based on the Closed Field are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Typically, thin film thickness control to <+/-1% is accomplished simply using time. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a specially designed rotating shutter mechanism. The CFM configuration also allows plasma treatment of surfaces prior to deposition, allowing optimisation of coating adhesion to substrates such as plastics. This paper presents data on optical, durability and environmental properties for CFM deposited optical coatings, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and colour control and thermal control filters, graded coatings, as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM sputter process for a range of optical applications are described.

  19. Time-resolved measurements of x-ray damage to optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, R. C.; Grun, J.; Burkhalter, P. G.; Burris, H. R.; Ripin, B. H.; Newman, D. A.; Millard, J. R.; Bey, D.-M.; Manka, C. K.; Konnert, J.

    1997-02-01

    Thin film optical coatings are susceptible to damage by high intensity x rays. Time-resolved measurements of this damage are required to better understand the mechanism, so that more rugged coatings can be developed. In the present experiment, dark-field shadowgraphy was used to temporally map the x-ray damage across the surface of certain anti-reflecting (AR) coatings. Two beams from the NRL PHAROS III high power Nd:glass laser system were utilized to generate a point source of plasma x rays, which in turn was used to irradiate and damage the optical coatings. Thin, opaque filters, coupled with permanent magnets and pinholes, were used to shield the optical samples from ultraviolet and charged-particle damage, respectively. The absolute, time-integrated x-ray fluence was measured with a crystal spectrograph, and also was temporally resolved with an x-ray diode. The surface morphology of the damaged optical samples was examined after each shot visually, and later with a profilometer as well as with both scanning electron- and atomic-force microscopes. A measured threshold fluence for damage of 0.049±30% cal/cm2 agrees very well with a radiation-damage code prediction of 0.046 cal/cm2.

  20. Laser damage of HR, AR-coatings, monolayers and bare surfaces at 1064 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnov, S. V.; Klimentov, S. M.; Said, A. A.; Soileau, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Laser induced damage thresholds and morphologies were investigated in a variety of uncoated and coated surfaces, including monolayers and multi-layers of different chemical compositions. Both antireflective (AR) and highly reflective (HR) were tested. Testing was done at 1064 nm with 25 picosecond and 8 nanosecond YAG/Nd laser single pulses. Spot diameter in the experiments varied from 0.09 to 0.22 mm. The laser damage measurement procedure consisted of 1-on-1 (single laser pulse in the selected site) and N-on-1 experiments including repeated irradiation by pulses of the same fluence and subsequently raised from pulse to pulse fluence until damage occurred. The highest picosecond damage thresholds of commercially available coatings averaged 12 - 14 J/sq cm, 50 percent less than thresholds obtained in bare fused silica. Some coatings and bare surfaces revealed a palpable preconditioning effect (an increase in threshold of 1.2 to 1.8 times). Picosecond and nanosecond data were compared to draw conclusions about pulse width dependence. An attempt was made to classify damage morphologies according to the type of coating, class of irradiating, and damage level.

  1. Optimization and continuous fabrication of moth-eye nanostructure array on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate towards broadband antireflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Ni, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Reflection loss can cause harmful effects on the performance of optoelectronic devices, such as cell phones, notebooks, displays, solar cells, and light-emitting diode (LED) devices. In order to obtain broadband antireflection (AR) properties, many researchers have utilized surface texture techniques to produce AR subwavelength structures on the interfaces. Among the AR subwavelength structures, the moth-eye nanostructure is one of the most promising structures, with the potential for commercialization in the near future. In this research, to obtain broadband AR performance, the optimization of moth-eye nanostructures was first carried out using the finite difference time domain method within the spectral ranges of 400-800 nm, including the optimization of shape, height, pitch, and residual layer thickness. In addition, the continuous production of moth-eye nanostructure array upon a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate was demonstrated by using the roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (R2R UV-NIL) process and anodic aluminum oxide mold, which provided a solution for the cost-effective fabrication of moth-eye nanostructure array. The AR performance of moth-eye nanostructure array obtained by the R2R UV-NIL process was also investigated experimentally, and good consistence was shown with the simulated results. This research can provide a beneficial direction for the optimization and cost-effective production of the moth-eye nanostructure array.

  2. Photoinduced self-epitaxial crystal growth of a diarylethene derivative with antireflection moth-eye and superhydrophobic lotus effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Naoki; Sakiyama, Shingo; Yamazoe, Seiji; Kojima, Yuko; Nishihara, Ei-ichiro; Tsujioka, Tsuyoshi; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Yokojima, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Uchida, Kingo

    2013-06-25

    We identified the mechanism of the formation of needle-shaped microcrystals on which the contact angle of a water droplet exceeds 170° [Nishikawa, N. et al. Langmuir, 2012, 28, 17817-17824]. The standing needle-shaped crystal of the closed-ring isomer of a diarylethene 3c grew at a much lower temperature than the eutectic temperature by irradiation of UV light on the thin films of the open-ring isomer 3o, due to the epitaxial growth of the 013 plane of 3c over the 110 plane of the crystal lattice of 3o in the subphase. Therefore, the new crystal-growth mechanism triggered by the photoisomerization does not require special inorganic single-crystal substrates and may be called self-epitaxial crystal growth. The needle-shaped crystals appeared well-ordered and stood inclined at an angle of about 60° to the surface. Consequently, the photo-induced rough surface shows not only the superhydrophobic lotus effect, but also the antireflection moth-eye effect, and these effects were switchable by alternate irradiation with UV and visible light.

  3. Fabrication of Polymeric Antireflection Film Manufactured by Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Kai Tsai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high energy conversion efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were successfully fabricated by attaching a double anti-reflection (AR layer, which is composed of a subwavelength moth-eye structured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA film and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS film. An efficiency of up to 6.79% was achieved. The moth-eye structured PMMA film was fabricated by using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template which is simple, low-cost and scalable. The nano-pattern of the AAO template was precisely reproduced onto the PMMA film. The photoanode was composed of Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs with a diameter of 25 nm deposited on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass substrate and the sensitizer N3. The double AR layer was proved to effectively improve the short-circuit current density (JSC and conversion efficiency from 14.77 to 15.79 mA/cm2 and from 6.26% to 6.79%, respectively.

  4. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  5. Niobium pentoxide coating replacing zinc phosphate coating

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES, P.R.P.; TERADA, M.; JUNIOR, O.R.A.; LOPES, A.C.; COSTA, I.; BANCZEK, E.P.

    2015-01-01

    A new coating made of niobium pentoxide, obtained through the sol-gel process, was developed for the carbon steel (SAE 1010). The corrosion protection provided by this coating was evaluated through electrochemical tests such as: open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic potentiodynamic polarization in NaCl 0,5 mol L-1 solution. The morphology and composition of the coatings were analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X...

  6. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...... and durability of anticorrosive coatings have been included. The different types of anticorrosive coatings are presented, and the most widely applied generic types of binders and pigments in anticorrosive coatings are listed and described. Furthermore, the protective mechanisms of barrier, sacrificial...

  7. Preparation and characterization of SiO2:Sm3+ nanotube arrays with 1.06 μm laser antireflective property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Wei-min; Huang, Ning; Wang, Li-jun; Song, Tian-shun; Lu, Chun-hua; Wang, Liu-fang; Zhang, Jun-zhi

    2013-01-01

    SiO 2 : Sm 3+ nanotube arrays with excellent antireflective property at 1.06 μm were synthesized by a template-assisted sol–gel process. The molecular structure, morphology and optical properties of the fabricated SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays were investigated by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR), a Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and a spectro-fluorometer, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays were formed via the AAO membrane during the sol–gel process. The remarkable antireflective characteristic of about 0.166% at 1.06 μm was attributed to the drastic decrease of effective refraction index which enhances the matching effect between air and substrate. As well as the absorption performance of Sm3+ at 1.06 μm which consumes the energies of incident light. - Graphical abstract: Directional aligned SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays were synthesized in AAO template by sol–gel process, and the antiflective performance of arrays is prominent comparing to the blank AAO template. Highlights: ► SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays are synthesized by a template-assisted sol–gel process. ► SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays have remarkable antireflective properties at 1.06 μm. ► The subwavelength structure results in a decrease of effective refraction index. ► The absorption performance of Sm 3+ at 1.06 μm consume the energies of incident light

  8. Side-mode transmission diagnosis of a multichannel selectable injection-locked Fabry-Perot Laser Diode with anti-reflection coated front facet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Sheng; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chen, Yung-Jui; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2009-03-16

    Theory and experiments on the side-mode-suppression-ratio (SMSR) enhancement and the linewidth reduction of a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FPLD) side-mode-injection-locked by using another FPLD are demonstrated to realize its potential application as a DWDM transmitter source. The SMSR, the spectral linewidth and the linewidth enhancement factor are simulated to realize the limitation of the FPLD-FPLD link under side-mode injection-locking condition. A degradation of the linewidth enhancement factor from 1.5 to 2.1 is observed due to the slave FPLD injection-locked at principle- and side-mode conditions. Up to 22-channel selectability of the 2.5 Gbit/s directly modulated FPLD based transmitter under side-mode injection-locking is demonstrated with a SMSR >35 dB, a Q-factor 6.8-9.2, a locking range of 24 nm, a power penalty of -0.7 dB, and a BER of 10(-10) at -17 dBm. The side-mode injection-locked FPLD shows high-quality transmission performance and meet the demand for cost-effective and high-capability 2.5 Gbit/s WDM systems. (c) 2008 Optical Society of America

  9. Fabrication of High Transparency Diamond-Like Carbon Film Coating on D263T Glass at Room Temperature as an Antireflection Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Ruey Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to deposit high transmittance diamond-like carbon (DLC thin films on D263T glass substrate at room temperature via a diamond powder target using the radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering technique. Moreover, various process parameters were used to tune the properties of the thin films by using the Taguchi method. Experimental results show that the content of sp3 bonded carbon decreases in accordance with the effect of the substrate temperature. In addition, the hardness of all as-deposited single-layer DLC films ranges from 13.2 to 22.5 GPa, and the RMS surface roughness was improved significantly with the decrease in sputtering pressure. The water repellent of the deposited DLC films improved significantly with the increase of the sp3 content, and its contact angle was larger than that of the noncoated one by 1.45 times. Furthermore, the refraction index (n of all as-deposited DLC films ranges from 1.95 to 2.1 at λ = 600 nm. These results demonstrate that the thickness increased as the reflectance increased. DLC film under an RF power of 150 W possesses high transmissive ability (>81% and low average reflectance ability (<9.5% in the visible wavelengths (at λ = 400–700 nm.

  10. Alleviation of process-induced cracking of the antireflection TiN coating (ARC-TiN) in Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Si films

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Y C; Yang, Y R; Hsieh, W Y; Hsieh, Y F

    1999-01-01

    The alleviation of cracking of the TiN-ARC layer on Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Si films after the development process has been achieved. For the TiN-ARC/Al-Cu system, the stress-induced defects decreased with increasing TiN-ARC layer thickness. In contrast, for the TiN-ARC/Al-Cu-Si system, Si nodules formed during cooling, thereby inducing poor coverage with high aspect-ratio holes. As a result, the photoresist developer penetrated through the films. Chemical vapor deposition of TiN-ARC or predeposition of a Ti Interposing layer was used to eliminate the formation of Si nodules.

  11. Specific features of current flow mechanisms in the semiconductor structure of a photoelectric converter with an n +- p-junction and an antireflective porous silicon film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregulov, V. V.; Stepanov, V. A.; Litvinov, V. G.; Ermachikhin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The temperature dependence of forward and reverse branches of the current-voltage characteristic of the semiconductor structure of a photoelectric converter with an n +- p-junction based on single-crystal silicon and an antireflective porous silicon film on the front surface has been studied. The presence of several current flow mechanisms has been revealed. It has been demonstrated that traps that emerge in the process of the formation of the porous silicon film have a considerable effect on the current flow processes in the semiconductor structure under consideration.

  12. Highly efficient vertical fiber interfacing grating coupler with bilayer anti-reflection cladding and backside metal mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zanyun; Huang, Beiju; Zhang, Zan; Cheng, Chuantong; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Hongqiang; Chen, Hongda

    2017-05-01

    A highly efficient bidirectional grating coupler for perfectly vertical coupling is designed. With a Si3N4/SiO2 bilayer structure and a backside metal mirror acting as anti-reflection cladding (ARC) and substrate reflector respectively, the coupling efficiency can be greatly enhanced for a cost-effective uniform grating coupler. To maximize the grating coupling, all the grating parameters including the bilayer thicknesses are fully optimized using numerical simulation method. As a design trade-off between coupling efficiency (CE) and optical bandwidth (OB), CE of 88.3% (-0.54 dB) and 1-dB bandwidth of 61 nm can be obtained. In addition, this grating coupler shows strong fiber misalignment tolerance. With a 2 μm fiber misalignment, the coupling loss increases by less than 0.5 dB and the up-reflection loss increases by less than 2 dB. Also it is found that the splitting behavior of the grating is quite stable near the grating resonant wavelength. Such characteristics make this device very attractive for low-cost photonic packaging and Mach-Zehnder type device applications. In addition, two optimal designs are presented based on the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method and genetic algorithm (GA). Numerical calculated results show that the coupling efficiency at center wavelength can be further improved compared to that of the balanced design. However, the optical bandwidth suffer at a expense. At last, Fourier analysis of the grating is carried out to analyze the optical field profile and frequency spectrum of the grating region. It is believed such a grating structure can provide flexible designs for different coupler requirements and applications.

  13. The gridless plasma ion source (GIS) for plasma ion assisted optical coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Dawei; Li Xiaoqian; Wang Yu; Lin Yongchang

    2004-01-01

    High-quality optical coating is a key technology for modern optics. Ion-assisted deposition technology was used to improve the vaporized coating in 1980's. The GIS (gridless ion source), which is an advanced plasma source for producing a high-quality optical coating in large area, can produce a large area uniformity>1000 mm (diameter), a high ion current density ∼0.5 mA/cm 2 , 20 eV-200 eV energetic plasma ions and can activate reactive gas and film atoms. Now we have developed a GIS system. The GIS and the plasma ion-assisted deposition technology are investigated to achieve a high-quality optical coating. The GIS is a high power and high current source with a power of 1 kW-7.5 kW, a current of 10 A- 70 A and an ion density of 200 μA/cm 2 -500 μA/cm 2 . Because of the special magnetic structure, the plasma-ion extraction efficiency has been improved to obtain a maximum ion density of 500 μA/cm 2 in the medium power (∼4 kW) level. The GIS applied is of a special cathode structure, so that the GIS operation can be maintained under a rather low power and the lifetime of cathode will be extended. The GIS has been installed in the LPSX-1200 type box coating system. The coated TiO 2 , SiO 2 films such as antireflective films with the system have the same performance reported by Leybold Co, 1992, along with a controllable refractive index and film structure. (authors)

  14. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).

  15. Seal coat research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This study evaluates the use of seal coating as a method to protect bituminous pavements from oxidation, water infiltration, and raveling. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) applied seal coating to a roadway segment of Trunk Highway ...

  16. Evaluation of masonry coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-08-01

    This report describes the evaluation of five coating systems to replace the conventional Class 2 rubbed finish now required on concrete structures. The evaluation consisted of preparing test specimens with each of the five coatings and conducting abs...

  17. METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

    1958-09-01

    A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

  18. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  19. Ceramic with zircon coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An article comprises a silicon-containing substrate and a zircon coating. The article can comprise a silicon carbide/silicon (SiC/Si) substrate, a zircon (ZrSiO.sub.4) intermediate coating and an external environmental/thermal barrier coating.

  20. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  1. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  2. Radiation-hardening coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellmer, H.

    1989-01-01

    Lacquers and coating agents hardened by radiation have replaced conventional coating in some fields. By means of single developments (glass-fiber coating, photosensitive lacquers for films and printing plates, photoresists, additives and fillers) the latest tendencies are shown in a survey. (HP) [de

  3. Coating of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as a sensor, etc. The invention therefor also relates to use of coated graphene.

  4. Effect of SiO2 coating in bolometric Ge light detectors for rare event searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeman, J.W.; Gentils, A.; Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.

    2013-01-01

    In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO 2 anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25–35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at ∼630nm wavelength) that will characterize future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope 82 Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO 2 coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings and luminescent materials

  5. Effect of SiO2 coating in bolometric Ge light detectors for rare event searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, J. W.; Gentils, A.; Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.

    2013-05-01

    In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO2 anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25-35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at ˜630 nm wavelength) that will characterize future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope 82Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO2 coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings and luminescent materials.

  6. Closed field magnetron sputtering: new generation sputtering process for optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, D. R.; Brinkley, I.; Waddell, E. M.; Walls, J. M.

    2008-09-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers a flexible and high throughput deposition process for optical coatings and thin films. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. Moreover, CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, thereby producing films over a large surface area at high deposition rate with excellent and reproducible optical properties. Machines based on the Closed Field are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Typically, thin film thickness control to <+/-1% is accomplished simply using time, although optical monitoring can be used for more demanding applications. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a specially designed rotating shutter mechanism. This paper presents data on optical properties for CFM deposited optical coatings, including anti-reflection, thermal control filters, graded coatings, narrowband filters as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide and carbide films. Benefits of the CFM sputter process are described.

  7. Deposition of multilayer optical coatings using closed-field magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, D. R.; Brinkley, I.; Hall, G. W.; Waddell, E. M.; Walls, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers a flexible and high throughput deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in display technologies. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. Moreover, CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, thereby producing films over a large surface area at high deposition rate with excellent and reproducible optical properties. Machines based on the Closed Field are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Typically, thin film thickness control to < +/-1% is accomplished simply using time, although optical monitoring can be used for more demanding applications. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a specially designed rotating shutter mechanism. This paper presents data on optical properties for CFM deposited optical coatings, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and colour control and thermal control filters, graded coatings, narrowband filters as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM sputter process are described.

  8. Metallic coating of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates

  9. Metallic coating of microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  10. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  11. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  12. Hydrothermal Synthesis Au-Bi2Te3 Nanocomposite Thermoelectric Film with a Hierarchical Sub-Micron Antireflection Quasi-Periodic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlong Tian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film with a hierarchical sub-micron antireflection quasi-periodic structure was synthesized via a low-temperature chemical route using Troides helena (Linnaeus forewing (T_FW as the biomimetic template. This method combines chemosynthesis with biomimetic techniques, without the requirement of expensive equipment and energy intensive processes. The microstructure and the morphology of the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning-electron microscopy (FESEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Coupled the plasmon resonances of the Au nanoparticles with the hierarchical sub-micron antireflection quasi-periodic structure, the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film possesses an effective infrared absorption and infrared photothermal conversion performance. Based on the finite difference time domain method and the Joule effect, the heat generation and the heat source density distribution of the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film were studied. The heterogeneity of heat source density distribution of the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film opens up a novel promising technique for generating thermoelectric power under illumination.

  13. Evaluation of HVOF coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Landová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention in this paper is devoted to the evaluation of wear coatings deposited using HVOF technology (high velocity oxy-fuel. There were evaluated three types of coatings based on WC-Co (next only 1343, WC-Co-Cr (next only 1350 and Cr3C2-25NiCr (next only 1375. There was assessed adherence of coatings, micro hardness, porosity and the tribological properties of erosive, abrasive, adhesive and wear resistance of coatings in terms of cyclic thermal load. Thanks to wide variety of suitable materials and their combinations, the area of utilization thermally sprayed coatings is very broad. It is possible to deposit coatings of various materials from pure metals to special alloys. The best results in the evaluated properties were achieved at the coating with the label 1375.

  14. Zr-ZrO sub 2 cermet solar coatings designed by modelling calculations and deposited by dc magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Qi Chu; Lee, K D; Shen, Y G

    2003-01-01

    High solar performance Zr-ZrO sub 2 cermet solar coatings were designed using a numerical computer model and deposited experimentally. The layer thickness and Zr metal volume fraction for the Zr-ZrO sub 2 cermet solar selective coatings on a Zr or Al reflector with a surface ZrO sub 2 or Al sub 2 O sub 3 anti-reflection layer were optimized to achieve maximum photo-thermal conversion efficiency at 80 deg. C under concentration factors of 1-20 using the downhill simplex method in multi-dimensions in the numerical calculation. The dielectric function and the complex refractive index of Zr-ZrO sub 2 cermet materials were calculated using Sheng's approximation. Optimization calculations show that Al sub 2 O sub 3 /Zr-ZrO sub 2 /Al solar coatings with two cermet layers and three cermet layers have nearly identical solar absorptance, emittance and photo-thermal conversion efficiency that are much better than those for films with one cermet layer. The optimized Al sub 2 O sub 3 /Zr-ZrO sub 2 /Al solar coating film w...

  15. Preliminary coating design and coating developments for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2011-01-01

    We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used...... for these designs and present test results from coatings....

  16. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  17. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  18. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  19. Antireflective sub-wavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    (CRI) and the correlated color temperature (CCT) of the monolithic white LED have been demonstrated. The CRI of the monolithic white LED could be improved from 92.68 to around 94 by applying a cylinder structure, and the CCT could be modified in a very large range with appropriate design......We have theoretically investigated the influence of antireflective sub-wavelength structures on a monolithic white light-emitting diode (LED). The simulation is based on the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) algorithm, and both cylinder and moth-eye structures have been studied in the work. Our...... simulation results show that a moth-eye structure enhances the light extraction efficiency over the entire visible light range with an extraction efficiency enhancement of up to 26 %. Also for the first time to our best knowledge, the influence of sub-wavelength structures on both the color rendering index...

  20. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  1. Metallurgical coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, L.C.; Whittaker, G.S.

    1984-05-01

    The present invention relates to a novel metallurgical coating system which provides corrosion resistance and non-stick properties to metallic components which are subjected to unusually severe operating conditions. The coating system comprises a first layer comprising tantalum which is deposited upon a substrate and a second layer comprising molybdenum disilicide which is deposited upon the first layer.

  2. Unobtrusive graphene coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    The contact angle of water drops on substrates for which the wettability is dominated by van der Waals forces remains unchanged when the substrates are coated with a monolayer of graphene. Such 'wetting transparency' could lead to superior conducting and hydrophobic graphene-coated surfaces with

  3. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  4. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  5. Coating of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as

  6. Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Sharon; Peters, Wanda; Hasegawa, Mark; Hedgeland, Randy; Petro, John; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Wong, Alfred; Triolo, Jack; Miller, Cory

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a zeolite-based sprayable molecular adsorber coating that has been developed to alleviate the size and weight issues of current ceramic puck-based technology, while providing a configuration that more projects can use to protect against degradation from outgassed materials within a spacecraft, particularly contamination-sensitive instruments. This coating system demonstrates five times the adsorption capacity of previously developed adsorber coating slurries. The molecular adsorber formulation was developed and refined, and a procedure for spray application was developed. Samples were spray-coated and tested for capacity, thermal optical/radiative properties, coating adhesion, and thermal cycling. Work performed during this study indicates that the molecular adsorber formulation can be applied to aluminum, stainless steel, or other metal substrates that can accept silicate-based coatings. The coating can also function as a thermal- control coating. This adsorber will dramatically reduce the mass and volume restrictions, and is less expensive than the currently used molecular adsorber puck design.

  7. Cubic zirconia as a high-quality facet coating for semiconductor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, A.K.; Satyanarayan, A.; Zarrabi, J.H.; Vetterling, W.

    1988-08-01

    In this paper we describe the properties of high-quality, semiconductor laser facet coatings based on yttria-stabilizied cubic zirconia (90-m% ZrO/sub 2//10-m% Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/). We have found that cubic zirconia films can be reproducibly deposited by electron-beam evaporation with an index of refraction of 1.98 at 6328 A, almost ideal for use as a single-layer antireflection coating for GaAs/GaAlAs-based lasers. ZrO/sub 2/ has a monoclinic crystal structure at room temperature, but changes to tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic phases upon heating to higher temperatures. However, the addition of the Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ stabilizes ZrO/sub 2/ in the cubic form, thus allowing electron-beam deposition of thin films of this material to be more controllable and reproducible without the usual addition of oxygen into the vacuum chamber during deposition. Preliminary aging tests of high-power GaAs/GaAlAs lasers show that cubic zirconia films suppress the photo-enhanced oxidation of laser facets that degrades device performance.

  8. LEVELING METAL COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, H.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for applying metallic coatings to a cylinder of uranium. An aluminum-silicon coat is applied by a process consisting of first cleaning the article by immersion for 5 minutes in 50% nitric acid at 65 C. The article then is dipped through a flux, prepared by adding 10% sodium fluoride to 90% of a flux comprising 53% potassium chloride, 42% lithium chloride, and 5% sodium chloride at 560 for 2 minutes and then directly into a molten metal bath comprising 99% aluminun and 12% silicon at 620 C for 3 minutes. While the coating is yet molten the article is transferred to a pair of steel rollers and rolled until the coating solidifies. By varying the composition of the flux other metals such as zinc, lead or the like may be coated on uranium in a similar manner.

  9. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  10. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  11. Radiation curable coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkinson, R.D.; Carder, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention provides a low-toxicity diluent component for radiation curable coating compositions that contain an acrylyl or methacryly oligomer or resin component such as an acrylyl urethane oligomer. The low-toxicity diluent component of this invention is chosen from the group consisting of tetraethlorthosilicate and tetraethoxyethylorthosilicate. When the diluent component is used as described, benefits in addition to viscosity reduction, may be realized. Application characteristics of the uncured coatings composition, such as flowability, leveling, and smoothness are notably improved. Upon curing by exposure to actinic radiation, the coating composition forms a solid, non-tacky surface free of pits, fissures or other irregularities. While there is no readily apparent reactive mechanism by which the orthosilicate becomes chemically bonded to the cured coating, the presence of silicon in the cured coating has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. 12 drawing

  12. Effect of SiO{sub 2} coating in bolometric Ge light detectors for rare event searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gentils, A. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nuclaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Giuliani, A., E-mail: andrea.giuliani@csnsm.in2p3.fr [Centre de Spectrométrie Nuclaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Università dell' Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, 22100 Como, Italy, (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Mancuso, M. [Università dell' Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, 22100 Como, Italy, (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Pessina, G. [Università di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, and INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Plantevin, O. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nuclaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Rusconi, C. [Università dell' Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, 22100 Como, Italy, (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO{sub 2} anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25–35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at ∼630nm wavelength) that will characterize future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope {sup 82}Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO{sub 2} coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings and luminescent materials.

  13. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  14. Heavy-ion ERDA and spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of a SiOC:H layered structure as functional coating on polymeric lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreissig, U.; Gago, R.; Vinnichenko, M.; Fernández-Hidalgo, P.; Martín-Palma, R. J.; Martínez-Duart, J. M.

    2004-06-01

    In order to improve the optical and mechanical performance of plastic ophthalmic lenses the use of surface coatings is necessary. However, the application of such coatings can be limited by bad adhesion to the substrate. One way to overcome this drawback is the use of a layered structure consisting of an adherent layer, an abrasion resistant hard layer and an antireflective (AR) multilayer (ML) stack. In this work we study the preparation of SiO xC y:H layered coatings to increase the mechanical durability of polymeric substrates and to accommodate gradually an external dielectric SiO 2/TiO 2 AR-ML. The coatings were grown by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) using a mixture of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and O 2. The possibility of producing the whole layered stack by adjusting the HMDSO:O 2 ratio was demonstrated. The composition and elemental profiles of the different layers were measured by ERDA using 35 MeV Cl-ions. A polymeric-like gradient layer could be formed followed by a buffer layer Si 28O 47C 15H 10 with a nearly constant composition. The variation of the elemental composition does not affect significantly the optical properties, which are close to that of SiO 2.

  15. Microstructural characterization of hydrophobic Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N coatings with moth-eye-like surface morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinho, V., E-mail: godinho@icmse.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla CSIC-Uni. Sevilla, Av. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Lopez-Santos, C. [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur -FUNDP, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Rojas, T.C.; Philippon, D.; Jimenez de Haro, M.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla CSIC-Uni. Sevilla, Av. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Lucas, S. [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur - FUNDP, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Fernandez, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla CSIC-Uni. Sevilla, Av. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moth-eye-like structures were obtained by changing the power supplied to the targets at a constant N{sub 2} pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The antireflecting properties and hydrophobicity of the coatings are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HREM and related techniques revealed the formation of meso- and nano-columns and different degree of open porosity. - Abstract: Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N thin films with different Al content were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The combination of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to evaluate the composition of the coatings. The effect of Al content on the morphology and properties of the coatings was investigated. High resolution electron microscopy and related techniques revealed the formation of a pillared moth-eye-like nanostructure with variable size and distribution of meso- and nano-columns and different degree of open porosity that depends on the Al content on the coating. For low Al content (x {<=} 0.21) c-(Ti,Al)N highly porous columns ending in a sharp pyramidal shape present low reflectivity and high hydrophobicity. While the precipitation of h-AlN phase at the column boundaries for x = 0.71 suppresses the c-(Ti,Al)N columnar growth and produces a smother surface, with higher reflectivity and less hydrophobic character.

  16. Thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces having heat-sensitive coating, comprises restoring coating by thermally coating the coating material after thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Frank; Winkelmann, Ralf; Puschmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The method for thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces (1), which have a heat-sensitive coating (2), comprises restoring the coating by thermally coating a coating material (3) after thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces. A part of the thermal energy introduced in the workpiece for joining and/or coating or separating or in the workpieces is used for thermally coating the coating material. Two workpieces are welded or soldered ...

  17. Coating of substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, J.A.; Nelson, R.L.; Woodhead, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The process is concerned with providing substrates with coatings obtainable from sols, for example to protect the substrate (such as in nuclear reactors or hydrocarbon cracking plant) or to provide a carrier for catalytically active material. Hitherto, coatings obtained from sols have had a high porosity and high surface area so that they have not been entirely satisfactory for the above applications. In the process described, dense, low-porosity coatings are provided by contacting the substrate with a sol of refractory material (e.g. CeO 2 or SiO 2 ) convertible to a gel of density at least 40% of the theoretical density of the refractory material, and converting the sol to the gel. Optionally, the gel may be converted to a ceramic coating by firing. (author)

  18. Aluminum phosphate coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambasivan, Sankar (Chicago, IL); Steiner, Kimberly A. (Chicago, IL); Rangan, Krishnaswamy K. (Evanston, IL)

    2007-12-25

    Aluminophosphate compounds and compositions as can be used for substrate or composite films and coating to provide or enhance, without limitation, planarization, anti-biofouling and/or anti-microbial properties.

  19. Robust Fiber Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goettler, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The highly desired ceramic matrix composite is the one in which the high strength and strain-to-failure is achieved through judicious selection of a fiber coating that can survive the high-temperature...

  20. Manganese phosphate-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyre, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese phosphate-coating is one of the numerous chemical surface treatment which is used industrially. Its applications are usual for improving the friction properties of a lot of mechanical parts. Used for the treatment of steels and cast steels, baths (containing phosphoric acid, manganese phosphate and different additives) lead to the formation of nonmetal coatings of a few micrometers. These manganese-iron or manganese phosphates crystals reduce the friction coefficient and retain the lubricant film in contact with the moving parts. The running noises, the wear and the seizure risks are then strongly reduced. Pure manganese phosphate-coating is currently developing because the obtained coatings are thinner and more regular. (O.M.)

  1. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  2. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  3. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: ► Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. ► Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. ► Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. ► Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  4. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  5. Spin coating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  6. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  7. Coated particle waste form development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  8. Coated particle waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes

  9. Improved performance of Mg–Y alloy thin film switchable mirrors after coating with a superhydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La, Mao [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010020 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Ning; Xin, Yunchuan [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Sha, Ren, E-mail: sr@imnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010020 (China); Bao, Shanhu, E-mail: shanhu.bao@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Jin, Ping [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • The PTFE films was prepared for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. • The PTFE as an antireflection layer to improve the luminous transmission, and also to enhance the switching durability of the switchable mirrors. • The PTFE film has a superhydrophobic surface, which endows the Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors with self-cleaning properties. - Abstract: The magnesium based switchable mirrors can reversibly change their optical properties between the transparent and the reflective state as a result of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. These films can potentially be applied as new energy-saving windows, by controlling the transmittance of solar radiation through the regulation of their reflective state. In this study, magnesium–yttrium (Mg–Y) alloy thin films were prepared using a DC magnetron sputtering method. However, the luminous transmittance in the transparent state and the switching durability of switchable mirrors are too poor to satisfy practical demands. In order to improve the films switching durability, luminous transmittance and the surface functionalization, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was coated with thermal vacuum deposition for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. The PTFE layer had a porous network structure and exhibited a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of approximately 152°. By characterization, PTFE thin films shows the excellent protection role against the oxidization of Mg, the switching durability of the films were improved 3 times, and also shows the antireflection role the luminous transmission of films was enhanced by 7% through the top covered with PTFE.

  10. White coat, patient gown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellbery, Caroline; Chan, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    Much has been written about the symbolic function of the white coat: its implications of purity, its representation of authority and professionalism, and its role in consolidating a medical hierarchy. By contrast, the medical literature has paid almost no attention to the patient gown. In this article, we argue that in order to understand the full implications of the white coat in the doctor-patient relationship, we must also take into account patients' dress, and even undress. We explore contemporary artistic images of white coat and patient gown in order to reveal the power differential in the doctor-patient relationship. Artistic representations capture some of the cultural ambivalence surrounding the use of the white coat, which confers professional status on its wearer, while undermining his or her personal identity. At the other end of the sartorial spectrum, hospital gowns also strip wearers of their identity, but add to this an experience of vulnerability. Although compelling reasons for continuing to wear the white coat in circumscribed settings persist, physicians should be mindful of its hierarchical implications. Ample room remains for improving patients' privacy and dignity by updating the hospital gown. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  12. Simulation and Experimental Study on Anti-reflection Characteristics of Nano-patterned Si Structures for Si Quantum Dot-Based Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wenyi; Lu, Peng; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji

    2016-12-01

    Surface-textured structure is currently an interesting topic since it can efficiently reduce the optical losses in advanced optoelectronic devices via light management. In this work, we built a model in finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions by setting the simulation parameters based on the morphology of the Si nanostructures and compared with the experimental results in order to study the anti-reflection behaviors of the present nano-patterned structures. It is found that the reflectance is gradually reduced by increasing the depth of Si nanostructures which is in well agreement with the experimental observations. The reflectance can be lower than 10 % in the light range from 400 to 850 nm for Si nano-patterned structures with a depth of 150 nm despite the quite low aspect ratio, which can be understood as the formation of gradually changed index layer and the scattering effect of Si nano-patterned structures. By depositing the Si quantum dots/SiO2 multilayers on nano-patterned Si substrate, the reflectance can be further suppressed and the luminescence intensity centered at 820 nm from Si quantum dots is enhanced by 6.6-fold compared with that of flat one, which can be attributed to the improved light extraction efficiency. However, the further etch time causes the reduction of luminescence intensity from Si quantum dots which may ascribe to the serious surface recombination of carriers.

  13. TEM and STEM Studies on the Cross-sectional Morphologies of Dual-/Tri-layer Broadband SiO2Antireflective Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyue; Yan, Hongwei; Li, Dengji; Qiao, Liang; Han, Shaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Xiang, Xia; Zu, Xiaotao

    2018-02-12

    Dual-layer and tri-layer broadband antireflective (AR) films with excellent transmittance were successfully fabricated using base-/acid-catalyzed mixed sols and propylene oxide (PO) modified silica sols. The sols and films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). FTIR and TEM results suggest that the PO molecules were covalently bonded to the silica particles and the bridge structure existing in PO modified silica sol is responsible for the low density of the top layer. The density ratio between different layers was measured by cross-sectional STEM, and the results are 1.69:1 and 2.1:1.7:1 from bottom-layer to top-layer for dual-layer and tri-layer films, respectively. The dual-layer film demonstrates good stability with 99.8% at the central wavelength of 351 nm and nearly 99.5% at the central wavelength of 1053 nm in laser system, and for the tri-layer AR film, the maximum transmittance reached nearly 100% at both the central wavelengths of 527 and 1053 nm.

  14. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically......The present invention relates to a composition comprising encapsulated particles in a polymeric material. The composition comprises a continuous phase and a discontinuous phase incorporated therein, wherein the continuous phase comprises a first polymeric material and wherein the discontinuous...... invisible polymer coatings....

  15. Tribology and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The future use of fuel-efficient, low-emission, advanced transportation systems (for example, those using low-heat-rejection diesel engines or advanced gas turbines) presents new challenges to tribologists and materials scientists. High service temperatures, corrosive environments, and extreme contact pressures are among the concerns that make necessary new tribological designs, novel materials, and effective lubrication concepts. Argonne is working on methods to reduce friction, wear and corrosion, such as soft metal coatings on ceramics, layered compounds, diamond coatings, and hard surfaces.

  16. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means...... of improving the fixation of implants. Of these, hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used and most extensively investigated. HA is highly osseoconductive, and the positive effect is well documented in both basic and long-term clinical research [1–6]. This chapter describes experimental and clinical studies...... evaluating bone-implant fixation with HA coatings....

  17. Coatings to prevent frost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusada, Ricardo; Holberg, Stefan; Bennedsen, Jeanette Marianne Dalgaard

    2016-01-01

    at temperatures just below 0°C, for example at −4°C, is low. Freezing of a single drop on aluminum leads, however, to instant freezing of the complete surface. On hydrophobic coatings, such a freezing drop is isolated; the frozen area grows slowly. At −4°C surface temperature in a +12°C/90% relative humidity...... direction. Although the airflow compromised the anti-ice properties to some extent, the application of the hydrophobic coating in a heat recovery ventilation experiment extended the time interval between defrosting cycles by a factor of 2.3....

  18. Methods and means for coating paper by film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc; Ter Veer, Arend Berend Cornelis; Vrieling-Smit, Annet; Delnoye, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the field of paper coating, more in particular to means and methods for providing paper with at least one layer of pigment using film coating to obtain a well printable surface. Provided is a method for preparing coated paper comprising the steps of: a) providing a

  19. Silicon-on-ceramic coating process. Silicon sheet growth development for the Large-Area Silicon Sheet and Cell Development Tasks of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Quarterly report No. 8, December 28, 1977--March 28, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, P.W. Zook, J.D.; Heaps, J D; Maclolek, R B; Koepke, B; Butter, C D; Schult, S B

    1978-04-20

    A research program to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon by coating inexpensive ceramic substrates with a thin layer of polycrystalline silicon is described. The coating methods to be developed are directed toward a minimum-cost process for producing solar cells with a terrestrial conversion efficiency of 12 percent or greater. By applying a graphite coating to one face of a ceramic substrate, molten silicon can be caused to wet only that graphite-coated face and produce uniform thin layers of large-grain polycrystalline silicon; thus, only a minimal quantity of silicon is consumed. A dip-coating method for putting silicon on ceramic (SOC) has been shown to produce solar-cell-quality sheet silicon. This method and a continuous coating process also being investigated have excellent scale-up potential which offers an outstanding cost-effective way to manufacture large-area solar cells. A variety of ceramic materials have been dip-coated with silicon. The investigation has shown that mullite substrates containing an excess of SiO/sub 2/ best match the thermal expansion coefficient of silicon and hence produce the best SOC layers. With such substrates, smooth and uniform silicon layers 25 cm/sup 2/ in area have been achieved with single-crystal grains as large as 4 mm in width and several cm in length. Solar cells with areas from 1 to 10 cm/sup 2/ have been fabricated from material withas-grown surface. Recently, an antireflection (AR) coating has been applied to SOC cells. Conversion efficiencies greater than 9% have been achieved without optimizing series resistance characteristics. Such cells typically have open-circuit voltages and short-circuit current densities of 0.51 V and 20 mA/cm/sup 2/, respectively.

  20. UV Coatings, Polarization, and Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Quijada, Manuel; West, Garrett; Balasubramanian, Bala; Krist, John; Martin, Stefan; Sabatke, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Presenation for the Large UltraViolet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) and Habitable Exoplanet Imager (HabEx) Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDT) on technical considerations regarding ultraviolet coatings, polarization, and coronagraphy. The presentations review the state-of-the-art in ultraviolet coatings, how those coatings generate polarization aberrations, and recent study results from both the LUVOIR and HabEx teams.

  1. Coatings for transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof LUKASZKOWICZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations concerned structural analysis, as well as mechanical properties and wear resistant of MeN/DLC double-layer coating deposited by hybrid PVD/PACVD method. In sliding dry friction conditions, after the break-in time, the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.03-0.06.

  2. Self-Cleaning Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    4 Removal of filler from PSX-700...particles with filler -removed PSX-700 ............................................ 4 Filtration of the modified paint...700 which is a replacement of Amercoat 7229C. PSX-700 is a weatherable epoxy based polysiloxane coating. What the supplier could provide is the final

  3. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means...

  4. Polydopamine-coated capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Kang, Sen; Baginska, Marta B.

    2018-04-17

    One aspect of the invention is a polymer material comprising a capsule coated with PDA. In certain embodiments, the capsule encapsulates a functional agent. The encapsulated functional agent may be an indicating agent, healing agent, protecting agent, pharmaceutical drug, food additive, or a combination thereof.

  5. Durable superhydrophobic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; Polyzos, Georgios; Schaeffer, Daniel A.

    2017-11-28

    A superhydrophobic coating including a plurality of particles and a resin. The particles covalently bond to the resin and the resin does not fill the pores of the superhydrophobic particles such that the three dimensional surface topology of the superhydrophobic particles is preserved.

  6. Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings as Encapsulants for Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pern, F. J.; Panosyan, Zh.; Gippius, A. A.; Kontsevoy, J. A.; Touryan, K.; Voskanyan, S.; Yengibaryan, Y.

    2005-01-01

    High-quality single-layer and bilayer diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are fabricated by two technologies, namely, ion-assisted plasma-enhanced deposition (IAPED) and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) deposition. Deposition on various substrates, such as sapphires and solar cells, has been performed at low substrate temperatures (50 ∼ 80 C). The two deposition technologies allow good control over the growth conditions to produce DLC films with desired optical properties, thickness, and energy bandgap. The bilayer-structured DLC can be fabricated by using IAPED for the bottom layer followed by ECR for the top layer, or just by IAPED for both layers with different compositions. The DLC films have shown good spatial uniformity, density, microhardness, and adhesion strength. They exhibit excellent stability against attack by strong acids, prolonged damp-heat exposure at 85 C and 85% relative humidity, mechanical scratch, ultrasonication, and irradiation by ultraviolet (UV), protons, and electrons. When deposited on crystalline Si and GaAs solar cells in single-layer and/or bilayer structure, the DLC films not only serve as antireflection coating and protective encapsulant, but also improve the cell efficiencies

  7. Material Science for High-Efficiency Photovoltaics: From Advanced Optical Coatings to Cell Design for High-Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Emmett Edward

    Solar cells based on III-V compound semiconductors are ideally suited to convert solar energy into electricity. The highest efficiency single-junction solar cells are made of gallium arsenide, and have attained an efficiency of 28.8%. Multiple III-V materials can be combined to construct multijunction solar cells, which have reached record efficiencies greater than 45% under concentration. III-V solar cells are also well suited to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures, due in large part to their high material quality. These properties make III-V solar cells an excellent choice for use in concentrator systems. Concentrator photovoltaic systems have attained module efficiencies that exceed 40%, and have the potential to reach the lowest levelized cost of electricity in sunny places like the desert southwest. Hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar energy systems can utilize high-temperature III-V solar cells to simultaneously achieve dispatchability and a high sunlight-to-electricity efficiency. This dissertation explores material science to advance the state of III-V multijunction solar cells for use in concentrator photovoltaic and hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar energy systems. The first half of this dissertation describes work on advanced optical designs to improve the efficiency of multijunction solar cells. As multijunction solar cells move to configurations with four or more subcells, they utilize a larger portion of the solar spectrum. Broadband antireflection coatings are essential to realizing efficiency gains for these state-of-the-art cells. A hybrid design consisting of antireflective nanostructures placed on top of multilayer interference-based optical coatings is developed. Antireflection coatings that utilize this hybrid approach yield unparalleled performance, minimizing reflection losses to just 0.2% on sapphire and 0.6% on gallium nitride for 300-1800nm light. Dichroic mirrors are developed for bonded 5-junction solar cells that utilize InGaN as

  8. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  9. Nanobiomaterial Coatings in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Andy H; Cazalbou, Sophie; Ben-Nissan, Besim

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a major increase in the interest of nanostructured materials in advanced technologies for biomedical and dental clinical applications. Nanostructured materials are associated with a variety of applications within the dental and biomedical field, for example nanoparticles in drug delivery systems and nanostructured scaffolds in tissue engineering. More importantly, nanotechnology has also been linked with the modification of surface properties of synthetic implants in an attempt to improve their bioactivity, reliability and protection from the release of harmful or unnecessary metal ions. This is achieved through the use of nanocoatings and nanocomposite coatings. These new-generation coatings based on inorganic materials and biological materials such as proteins and peptides are currently investigated and applied. This chapter aims to give an overview of the recent advances in nanocoatings and their composites being investigated or used in dentistry. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Acrylic purification and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzniak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  11. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  12. Boosting Light Harvesting in Perovskite Solar Cells by Biomimetic Inverted Hemispherical Architectured Polymer Layer with High Haze Factor as an Antireflective Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Dudem, Bhaskar; Jung, Jae Woong; Yu, Jae Su

    2018-04-18

    Biomimetic microarchitectured polymer layers, such as inverted hemispherical architectured (IHSA)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hemispherical architectured (HSA)-PDMS layers, were prepared by a simple and cost-effective soft-imprinting lithography method via a hexagonal close-packed polystyrene microsphere array/silicon mold. The IHSA-PDMS/glass possessed superior antireflection (AR) characteristics with the highest/lowest average transmittance/reflectance ( T avg / R avg ) values of approximately 89.2%/6.4% compared to the HSA-PDMS/glass, flat-PDMS/glass, and bare glass ( T avg / R avg ∼88.8%/7.5%, 87.5%/7.9%, and 87.3%/8.8%, respectively). In addition, the IHSA-PDMS/glass also exhibited a relatively strong light-scattering property with the higher average haze ratio ( H avg ) of ∼38% than those of the bare glass, flat-PDMS/glass, and HSA-PDMS/glass (i.e., H avg ≈ 1.1, 1.7, and 34.2%, respectively). At last, to demonstrate the practical feasibility under light control of the solar cells, the IHSA-PDMS was laminated onto the glass substrates of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) as an AR layer, and their device performances were explored. Consequently, the short-circuit current density of the PSCs integrated with the IHSA-PDMS AR layer was improved by ∼17% when compared with the device without AR layer, resulting in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 19%. Therefore, the IHSA-PDMS is expected to be applied as an AR layer for solar cells to enhance their light absorption as well as the PCE.

  13. High Solids Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    SITATEMENT rot tho ahatrai .nti,,ed in IfllorM 0, It diIIIorenl Itroft I.port) 15L %UPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19, KEY WORDS (Continiou on roveaou oido It...yji1 :𔃻ppeŽ r prt rni j Lr ,, [VQ I urt, her eL ve.Luprnent into high solids coating systems. The Acryloid AU-568 hns many of the desirable properties

  14. Thermal Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-31

    rigid, intumescent coating Monokote 5 W. R. Grace and Co. One part fireproofing system mixed with water Sodium Silicate L. A. Chemical Co. Dow Corning 325...percent chemically combined water . Perlite, when rapidly heated to its softening temperature, (1400*F to 25000F suddenly pops or expands (one to two...81) .09 (.44) Zonolite MK-5 Fireproofing 4 - 1 Same As #4 Same As #4 61 (.15) .14 (.68) 5 Sodium Silicate - Perlite #1120 - 110 (.28) .59 (2.e8) 347

  15. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    sample is included in Figure 5.5.3. After one minute exposure, there was no detectable change in the surface of the coating or the polycarbonate. After...surface de 1/600 000 square meter of a blackbody at the 1/600 000 rnitre carr-6 d’un corps noir L ha temperature of freezing platinum under a temp6rature

  16. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  17. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  18. Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating and Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kenneth M.; Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed two unique coating formulations that will keep surfaces clean and sanitary and contain contaminants.The Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating, modeled after the self-cleaning, water-repellant lotus leaf, disallows buildup of dust, dirt, water, and more on surfaces. This coating, has been successfully tested on painted, aluminum, glass, silica, and some composite surfaces, could aid in keeping medical assets clean.The Molecular Adsorber Coating is a zeolite-based, sprayable molecular adsorber coating, designed to prevent outgassing in materials in vacuums. The coating works well to adsorb volatiles and contaminates in manufacturing and processing, such as in pharmaceutical production. The addition of a biocide would also aid in controlling bacteria levels.

  19. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  20. Pipeline integrity : control by coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation provided background information on the history of cross-country pipelines in India. It discussed the major use of gas. The key users were described as being the power and fertilizer industries, followed by vehicles using compressed natural gas to replace liquid fuels and thereby reduce pollution. The presentation also addressed the integrity of pipelines in terms of high production, safety, and monitoring. Integrity issues of pipelines were discussed with reference to basic design, control of corrosion, and periodic health monitoring. Other topics that were outlined included integrity by corrosion control; integrity by health monitoring; coatings requirements; classification of UCC pipeline coatings; and how the pipeline integrity approach can help to achieve coatings which give design life without any failure. Surface cleanliness, coating conditions, and the relationship between temperature of Epoxy coating and the time of adhesive coating were also discussed. Last, the presentation provided the results of an audit of the HBJ pipeline conducted from 1999 to 2000. tabs., figs.

  1. Coatings on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2015-01-01

    Coatings have always been spearheading technology developments, as they have to function faultlessly in very demanding conditions. Coatings for use on spacecraft and launch vehicle launch environments offer technological challenges beyond the normal boundaries of most coatings service environments. Among all the space environments, the most treacherous is that of the launch environment. To ensure the success of space missions, NASA must rely on the best materials available, and that very much includes coatings. What kind of technology can meet those challenges? What is expected of coatings manufacturers wanting to join the space race? What insights can the whole industry gain? Luz Marina Calle will present an overview of corrosion protective coatings at NASA.

  2. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and requirements will be discussed. An experimental approach is established to monitor in real time the thermal conductivity of the coating systems subjected to high-heat-flux, steady-state and cyclic temperature gradients. Advanced low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have also been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability. The durability and erosion resistance of low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have been improved utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, in conjunction with more sophisticated modeling and design tools.

  3. Tablet coating by injection molding technology - Optimization of coating formulation attributes and coating process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parind M; Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Halkude, Bhakti S; Hartman, Jeremy E; Wahane, Aniket V; Martinez, Alexander R; Jensen, Keith D; Harinath, Eranda; Braatz, Richard D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2018-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a solvent-free injection molding (IM) coating technology that could be suitable for continuous manufacturing via incorporation with IM tableting. Coating formulations (coating polymers and plasticizers) were prepared using hot-melt extrusion and screened via stress-strain analysis employing a universal testing machine. Selected coating formulations were studied for their melt flow characteristics. Tablets were coated using a vertical injection molding unit. Process parameters like softening temperature, injection pressure, and cooling temperature played a very important role in IM coating processing. IM coating employing polyethylene oxide (PEO) based formulations required sufficient room humidity (>30% RH) to avoid immediate cracks, whereas other formulations were insensitive to the room humidity. Tested formulations based on Eudrajit E PO and Kollicoat IR had unsuitable mechanical properties. Three coating formulations based on hydroxypropyl pea starch, PEO 1,000,000 and Opadry had favorable mechanical (35% elongation, >95×10 4 J/m 3 toughness) and melt flow (>0.4g/min) characteristics, that rendered acceptable IM coats. These three formulations increased the dissolution time by 10, 15 and 35min, respectively (75% drug release), compared to the uncoated tablets (15min). Coated tablets stored in several environmental conditions remained stable to cracking for the evaluated 8-week time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  5. New PVD Technologies for New Ordnance Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    shows the dense microstructure and moderate hardness in the bcc Ta coatings . The white tetragonal beta Ta fingers were observed in the darker bcc... hard dense quality coatings . HIPIMS technology can grow coatings of zone 2 and 3 microstructure with equiaxed structure in Thorton‟s...nucleation and growth properties; 6) Coatings characterization. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Electroplated high contraction chromium (HC Cr) coatings ; Physical

  6. Coatings Technology Integration Office (CTIO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CTIO serves as the Air Force's central resource for aircraft coating systems and their applications. CTIO's primary objectives are pollution prevention and improved...

  7. Coatings for fusion reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The internal surfaces of a tokamak fusion reactor control the impurity injection and gas recycling into the fusion plasma. Coating of internal surfaces may provide a desirable and possibly necessary design flexibility for achieving the temperatures, ion densities and containment times necessary for net energy production from fusion reactions to take place. In this paper the reactor environments seen by various componentare reviewed along with possible materials responses. Characteristics of coating-substrate systems, important to fusion applications, are delineated and the present status of coating development for fusion applications is reviewed. Coating development for fusion applications is just beginning and poses a unique and important challenge for materials development

  8. Steam initiated hydrotalcite conversion coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Roefzaad, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    A facile process of exploiting high-temperature steam to deposit nvironmentally friendly hydrotalcite (HT) coatings on Al alloy 6060 was developed in a spray system. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formationf a continuous and conformal coating comprised of a compact mass of crystallites....... A range of coating processesased on the formation of HT surface layers has been developed to examine its effect on the coating's thicknessnd corrosion resistance properties. These varieties include pre-coating cleaning (grid blasting vs. chemicaltching), metal species in HT compounds (Al-Zn HT coating vs....... Al-Li HT coating), oxidizer additives (K2S2O8,a2SO4, NH4NO3, KNO3), and post-coating treatment (Mg(CH3COO)2, Mg(CH3COO)2+Ce(NO3)3+H2O2, MgCH3COO)2+La(NO3)3). Results showed that grid blasting can increase the coating surface area, while chemical etching improves the chemical bonding connection...

  9. Self-organized antireflection CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} nano-protrusions on flexible substrates by ion erosion based on CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystal precursor inks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Yu-Ting; Wang, Yi-Chung; Chen, Chia-Wei; Tsai, Hung-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ze; Hu, Fan; Chueh, Yu-Lun, E-mail: ylchueh@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} nano-protrusions were demonstrated on 36-cm{sup 2} flexible substrates. • Nano-protrusions were created by ion erosion on selenized CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystal precursor inks. • Tilt orientations and remarkable anti-reflectance characteristics of nano-protrusions can be precisely controlled. - Abstract: In this work, an approach to achieve surface nano-protrusions on a chalcopyrite CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} thin film was demonstrated. Home-made CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals with average diameter of 20 nm were prepared and characterized. By applying ion erosion process on the CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} film, large-area self-aligned nano-protrusions can be formed. Interestingly, the process can be applied on flexible substrate where the CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} film remains intact with no visible cracking after several bending tests. In addition, reflectance spectra reveal the extraordinary anti-reflectance characteristics of nano-protrusions on the CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} film with the incident light from 350 to 2000 nm. A 36-cm{sup 2} CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} film with nano-protrusions on flexible molybdenum foil substrate has been demonstrated, which demonstrated the feasibility of developing low cost with a high optical absorption CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} flexible thin film.

  10. Coating material composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Ozeki, Takao; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo; Maeda, Yutaka.

    1969-01-01

    A coating material composition is provided which can easily be cross-linked by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams and ultraviolet light, using a mixture of a prepolymer (a) with an addition reaction product (b). Such compositions have coating properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resins. The prepolymer (a) is produced by primarily reacting at least 0.1 mol of saturated cyclocarboxylic acid anhydrides and/or alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acid anhydrides by addition reaction with one mol of hydroxyl radicals of a basic polymer having a molecular weight of 1,000 to 100,000, the basic polymer being obtained from 1%-40% of a hydroxyl radical containing vinyl monomer and at least 30% of (meth)acrylate monomer. One mol of the sum of hydroxyl radicals and carboxyl radicals of the primary reaction product undergoes a secondary addition reaction with at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer to form the prepolymer(a). The addition reaction product(b) is produced by reacting an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The coating material composition contains a majority of a mixture consisting of 10%-90% of (a) and 90%-10% of (b) above by weight. Four examples of the production of basic polymers, seven examples of the production of prepolymers, seven examples of the production of oligomers, and five examples of applications are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  11. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  12. SPS: scrubbing or coating?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the SPS with high intensity bunched beams is limited by the electron cloud building-up in both the arcs and long straight sections. Two consolidation options have been considered: suppression of the electron cloud build-up using coatings or relying, as before, on the scrubbing mitigation. A status report on both options will be given with a particular emphasis on measurements plans for 2012 and pending issues. The testing needs, corresponding beam parameters and MD time in 2012 will be addressed. The criteria for the decision making and the corresponding schedule will be discussed. (author)

  13. Coated 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2013/252 4 MECHANICAL TEST Single edge notched, square-bar ( Charpy ) specimens, bare or coated, were tested under four-point bending at...Treated 4340 Steel Tested in Air NAWCADPAX/TR-2013/252 APPENDIX 100 150 200 250 300 1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+07 1.E+08 M ax . S tr es s ( ks i...Fatigue Life, N (cycle) Bare No. 1 ST No. 3 ST Figure 10: Stress-Life Fatigue Curves for Bare and Surface-Treated 4340 Steel Tested in 3.5% NaCl

  14. Radiation hardenable coating mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to coatings that harden under radiation and to their compositions. Specifically, this invention concerns unsaturated urethane resins polymerisable by addition and to compositions, hardening under the effect of radiation, containing these resins. These resins feature the presence of at least one unsaturated ethylenic terminal group of structure CH 2 =C and containing the product of the reaction of an organic isocyanate compound with at least two isocyanate groups and one polyester polyol with at least two hydroxyl groups, and one unsaturated monomer compound polymerisable by addition having a single active hydrogen group reacting with the isocyanate [fr

  15. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  16. Monitoring of tablet coating processes with colored coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barimani, Shirin; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Endpoints of coating processes for colored tablets were determined using in-line Raman spectroscopy. Coatings were performed with six commercially available formulations of pink, yellow, red, beige, green and blue color. The coatings were comprising pigments and/or dyes, some causing fluorescence and interfering the Raman signal. Using non-contact optics, a Raman probe was used as process analytical technology (PAT) tool, and acquired spectra were correlated to the sprayed mass of aqueous coating suspension. Process endpoints were determined using univariate (UV) data analysis and three multivariate analysis methods, namely Projection to Latent Structures (PLS)-regression, Science-Based Calibration (SBC) and Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR). The methods were compared regarding model performance parameters. The endpoints of all coating experiments could be predicted until a total coating time of 50min corresponding to coating thicknesses between 21 and 38µm, depending on the density of the coat formulation. With the exception of SBC, all calibration methods resulted in R 2 values higher than 0.9. Additionally, the methods were evaluated regarding their capability for in-line process monitoring. For each color, at least two methods were feasible to do this. Overall, PLS-regression led to best model performance parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Federal Highway Administration 100-year coating study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Highway Administration 100-Year Coating Study was initiated in August 2009 to search for durable : coating systems at a reasonable cost. The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate coating materials that can : provide 100 year...

  18. Coated fuel particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Mitsunobu; Yoshimuta, Hideharu.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear fuels used for an HTGR type reactor or the like have to sufficiently keep mechanical integrity and nuclear fission products even at a high temperature above 1300degC. In coated fuel particles having a ceramic layer as an intermediate layer, the ceramics layer is divided into a ZrC layer and a SiC layer in order to compensate the drawbacks of SiC and ZrC with each other and, in addition, ZrC layer is disposed at a position nearer to the fuel core in the present invention. With such a constitution, the ZrC layer can prevent corrosion of the SiC layer caused by Sr and Pd. Further, since ZrC is not degradated by dissociation at a temperature lower than 2850degC, high temperature stability as the coating layer can be improved. In addition, since the SiC layer which is less oxidized compared with ZrC is disposed on the side outer to the ZrC layer, oxidative-degradation of the ZrC layer can be prevented even if the outermost high density thermal decomposition carbon layer should be injured accidentally. (T.M.)

  19. Ceramic protective coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbach, F.; Nicoll, A.

    1987-01-01

    The basic material of the above-mentioned layer consists of pure aluminium oxide or essentially aluminium oxide. To improve this protective layer metal oxides from the groups IIA, IIIA, IIIB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIII of the periodic system are added to its basic material before the said protective coating is applied. In this way a corundum structure is formed in the case of aluminium oxide. Gallium oxide, vanadium oxide, chromium oxide or iron oxide are particularly suited for the correlation of such a corundum structure. The formation of the corundum structure increases the resistance of the protective coating to the corrosive effects of vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulfate. By the addition of a specific quantity of magnesium oxide it is possible not only to stimulate the formation of corundum but also to reduce the increase in grain size in the case of the aluminium oxide. The other metallic oxides are especially favorable to the formation of the corundum structure, so that preferably magnesium oxide is to be added to these metallic oxides in order to reduce the increase in grain size. (author)

  20. Cell Membrane Coating Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ronnie H; Kroll, Ashley V; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang

    2018-03-27

    Nanoparticle-based therapeutic, prevention, and detection modalities have the potential to greatly impact how diseases are diagnosed and managed in the clinic. With the wide range of nanomaterials available, the rational design of nanocarriers on an application-specific basis has become increasingly commonplace. Here, a comprehensive overview is provided on an emerging platform: cell-membrane-coating nanotechnology. As a fundamental unit of biology, cells carry out a wide range of functions, including the remarkable ability to interface and interact with their surrounding environment. Instead of attempting to replicate such functions via synthetic techniques, researchers are now directly leveraging naturally derived cell membranes as a means of bestowing nanoparticles with enhanced biointerfacing capabilities. This top-down technique is facile, highly generalizable, and has the potential to greatly augment existing nanocarriers. Further, the introduction of a natural membrane substrate onto nanoparticles surfaces has enabled additional applications beyond those traditionally associated with nanomedicine. Despite its relative youth, there exists an impressive body of literature on cell membrane coating, which is covered here in detail. Overall, there is still significant room for development, as researchers continue to refine existing workflows while finding new and exciting applications that can take advantage of this developing technology. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Superheating in coated niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junginger, T.; Wasserman, W.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Using muon spin rotation it is shown that the field of first flux penetration {H}{entry} in Nb is enhanced by about 30% if coated with an overlayer of Nb3Sn or MgB2. This is consistent with an increase from the lower critical magnetic field {H}{{c}1} up to the superheating field {H}{sh} of the Nb substrate. In the experiments presented here coatings of Nb3Sn and MgB2 with a thickness between 50 and 2000 nm have been tested. {H}{entry} does not depend on material or thickness. This suggests that the energy barrier at the boundary between the two materials prevents flux entry up to {H}{sh} of the substrate. A mechanism consistent with these findings is that the proximity effect recovers the stability of the energy barrier for flux penetration, which is suppressed by defects for uncoated samples. Additionally, a low temperature baked Nb sample has been tested. Here a 6% increase of {H}{entry} was found, also pushing {H}{entry} beyond {H}{{c}1}.

  2. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  3. Intumescent coatings under fast heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere

    2012-01-01

    Intumescent coatings are widely used to delay or minimise the destructive effects of fire. They are usually tested under conditions that simulate the relatively slow build-up of heat in a normal fire. Here, the effects of damage during a fire causing sudden heating of the coating were studied....

  4. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  5. Electroless alloy/composite coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The market for these coatings is expanding fast as the potential applications are on the rise. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review different electroless alloy/composite coatings with respect to bath types and their composition, properties and applications. Different characterisation studies have been ...

  6. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  7. Tests Conducted with Strippable Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. E. Archibald; R. L. Demmer

    1999-08-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of several strippable coatings and their use in decontamination. Pentek 604, Bartlett (TLC), and ALARA 1146 were products examined for their overall effectiveness and ease of use. Conclusions were reached about the effective use of these coatings, and field test examples, with radioactive contamination are incorporated.

  8. Dip coating process. Silicon sheet growth development for the large-area silicon sheet task of the low-cost silicon solar array project. Quarterly report No. 6, March 22, 1977--June 24, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, J.D.; Heaps, J.D.; Maciolek, R.B.; Koepke, B.; Butter, C.D.; Schuldt, S.B.

    1977-06-30

    The objective of this research program is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon by coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon from the melt. Significant progress was made in silicon on ceramic (SOC) solar cell performance. SOC cells having 1 cm/sup 2/ active areas demonstrated measured conversion efficiencies as high as 7.2 percent. Typical open circuit voltages (V/sub oc/) and short circuit current densities (J/sub sc/) were 0.51 volt and 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ respectively. Since the active surface of these solar cells is a highly reflective ''as-grown'' surface, one can expect improvement in J/sub sc/ after an anti-reflection (AR) coating is applied. It is significant that single-crystal comparison cells, also measured without benefit of an AR coating, had efficiencies in the 8.5 percent range with typical V/sub oc/'s and J/sub sc/'s of 0.54 volt and 23 mA/cm/sup 2/, respectively. Therefore, improvement in cell design and junction diffusion techniques should increase the efficiency of both the SOC and single-crystal cells. During this quarter the dip coating facility was inadvertently contaminated, but has since been restored to a purity level exceeding its original state. With this facility, silicon coatings were grown with a single-crystal seed attached to the substrate. Single-crystal silicon was not forthcoming, but the results were nonetheless encouraging. Several of the carbon coating types tried appear promising, including one which has high purity and can be applied uniformly by swab or airbrush.

  9. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2009-01-01

    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates...... and still to realize Si-Si bonding. It has been demonstrated that ribbed silicon plates can be produced and assembled into stacks. All previously work has been done using uncoated Si plates. In this paper we describe how to coat the ribbed Si plates with an Ir coating and a top C coating through a mask so...

  10. Spray coated nanosilver functional layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, J.; Szałapak, J.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, L.; Jakubowska, M.

    2016-09-01

    Silver coatings are highly conductive functional layers. There are many different ways to product the silver coating but most of them need vacuum or high temperature. Spray coating is a technique that is free of this disadvantages - it doesn't need a cleanroom or high temperature. What's more the layer thickness is about 10 μm. In this article the spray coating process of silver nanolayer is described. Four different inks were tested and measured. The layer resistance was measured and show as a graph. After the layer resistance was measured the adhesion test was performed. The pull-off test was performed on testing machine with special self made module. To conclude the article include the test and measurements of spray coated nanosilver functional layers. The layers was examined for the current conductivity and adhesion force.

  11. Functional Plasma-Deposited Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo Pashechko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of low adhesion of plasma sprayed coatings to the substrate. The subsequent laser treatment modes and their influence on the coating-substrate interface were studied. This allows to decrease the level of metstability of the coating, thus decreasing its hardness down to 11-12 GPa on the surface and to about 9 GPa on depth of 400 µm. The redistribution of alloying elements through solid and liquid diffusion improves mechanical properties and rises the adhesion up to 450 MPa after remelting and up to 90-110 MPa after laser-aided thermal cycling. At he same time, remelting of coating helps to decrease its porosity down to 1%. Obtained complex of properties also allows to improve wear resistance of coatings and to decrease friction factor.

  12. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system....... These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism of action...... is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach....

  13. Solar collectors: Technical progress report No. 2, 5 March 1979-5 December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, B.; Binette, M.

    1980-03-14

    The following work is reviewed: accelerated ultraviolet exposure of glazing and housing materials, the evaluation of ultraviolet protective coatings and films, and investigation of antireflective coatings.

  14. Optical coating preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belleville, P.; Sabary, F.; Marcel, C.

    2003-01-01

    In order to optimize the properties of optical components, thin film deposition with controlled thickness and refractive index is often needed. Two different deposition techniques are proposed in this article and illustrated with examples: physical vapor deposition (PVD) and liquid sol-gel process (LSG). PVD and LSG techniques are equivalent as far as the following topics are concerned: elaboration of oxide or composite coated material, optical performance, mechanical performance, and laser performance. PVD is better for the elaboration of metallic films, the design of multi-layers or complex pile-up of layers. LSG is better for the treatment of large surfaces, for substrates with complicated shapes and for its low cost. PVD technique has been widely used so it benefited from an industrial maturity and a clean technology concerning wastes and effluents. On the contrary LSG is a new technique not yet widely used in industrial processes but that looks promising. (A.C.)

  15. Coating compositions and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.S.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a coating composition comprising: (1) a liquid, acrylate ester resin which is curable by exposure to ionizing radiation and which, when so curing, is susceptible to inhibition of surface curing by atmospheric oxygen; and (2) from 0.1% to 10% by weight of the composition of an acidic halide soluble in or dispersible in the resin and selected from the group consisting of: (a) compounds of the formula RCOX where R is an aliphatic or aromatic group and X is Cl or Br; (b) compounds of the formula R'SO 2 X where R' is an aromatic group and X is Cl or Br; and, (c) cyanuric chloride, calcium hypochlorite and phosphorus oxychloride. (author)

  16. Improved performance of Mg-Y alloy thin film switchable mirrors after coating with a superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Mao; Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Ning; Xin, Yunchuan; Sha, Ren; Bao, Shanhu; Jin, Ping

    2017-05-01

    The magnesium based switchable mirrors can reversibly change their optical properties between the transparent and the reflective state as a result of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. These films can potentially be applied as new energy-saving windows, by controlling the transmittance of solar radiation through the regulation of their reflective state. In this study, magnesium-yttrium (Mg-Y) alloy thin films were prepared using a DC magnetron sputtering method. However, the luminous transmittance in the transparent state and the switching durability of switchable mirrors are too poor to satisfy practical demands. In order to improve the films switching durability, luminous transmittance and the surface functionalization, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was coated with thermal vacuum deposition for use as the top layer of Mg-Y/Pd switchable mirrors. The PTFE layer had a porous network structure and exhibited a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of approximately 152°. By characterization, PTFE thin films shows the excellent protection role against the oxidization of Mg, the switching durability of the films were improved 3 times, and also shows the antireflection role the luminous transmission of films was enhanced by 7% through the top covered with PTFE.

  17. Novel coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    An acrylic coating composition rapidly hardenable by irradiating with ionizing radiations or light beams is given using hydroxyl group-containing vinyl monomers, polycarboxylic acid anhydrides, epoxy group-containing vinyl monomers and an organic solvent having a boiling point of at least 120 0 C. The process comprises the steps of first and second reactions. The first reaction takes place between one mol of a hydroxyl group of a basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of polycarboxylic acid anhydride, wherein the basic polymer has a molecular weight ranging from 5,000 to 100,000 and consists of 1-40% by weight of vinyl monomer containing hydroxyl group, at least 30% of (meth)acrylic monomer and other vinyl monomers if required. The second reaction takes place between one mol of hydroxyl plus a carboxyl group of the thus obtained basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy group-containing vinyl monomer to produce a prepolymer. The prepolymer is mixed with a solvent such as ethyl benzene to produce the coating material. The electron beam accelerator energy level may be 0.1-2.0 MeV. In light beam polymerization, benzoin is particularly utilized as an intensifying substance. In one example, a basic polymer is produced by reacting 39 parts of styrene, 37 parts of ethyl acrylate, 24 parts of 2-hydroxyl ethyl acrylate, 4 parts of dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate and others. A prepolymer is produced by reacting this basic polymer with 30 parts of glycidyl acrylate and others. (Iwakiri, K.)

  18. Improved performance thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.R.; Miller, R.A.; Stecura, S.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings offer an attractive approach to improving the durability and efficiency of the hot section of heat engines. The coatings typically consist of an inner alloy bond coating about 0.01 cm thick resistant to oxidation and hot corrosion and an outer ceramic layer, usually a stabilized zirconia, 0.01-0.05 cm thick. Here, the materials, thermomechanical stress, and hot corrosion problems associated with thermal barrier coatings are reviewed along with the capabilities and limitations of current technology. The coatings discussed include ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCrAlY, ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCoCrAlY, ZrO2-MgO/NiCoCrAlY, CaO-SiO2/Co-Cr-Al-Y, and CaO-SiO2/NiCrAlY systems. It is emphasized that the performance of thermal barrier coatings is governed by many complex and interrelated factors, so that optimization of these coatings always involves certain tradeoffs. 27 references

  19. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  20. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  1. Laser-based coatings removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D ampersand D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings

  2. Experimental evaluation of coating delamination in vinyl coated metal forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Young Ki; Lee, Chan Joo; Kim, Byung Min; Lee, Jung Min; Byoen, Sang Doek; Lee, Soen Bong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new evaluation and prediction method for coating delamination during sheet metal forming is presented. On the basis of the forming limit diagram (FLD), the current study evaluates the delamination of PET coating by using a cross cut specimen, dome test, and rectangular cup drawing test. Dome test specimens were subjected to biaxial, plane strain, and uniaxial deformation modes. Rectangular cup drawing test specimens were subjected to the deep drawing deformation mode, and compression deformation mode. A vinyl coated metal (VCM) sheet consists of three layers of polymer on the sheet metals: a protective film, a PET layer and a PVC layer. The areas with coating delamination were identified, and the results of the evaluation were plotted according to major and minor strain values, depicting coating delamination. The constructed delamination limit diagram (DLD) can be used to determine the forming limit of VCM during the complex press forming process. ARGUS (GOM) was employed to identify the strain value and deformation mode of the delaminated surface after the press forming. After identifying the areas of delamination, the DLD of the PET coating can be constructed in a format similar to that of the FLD. The forming limit of the VCM sheet can be evaluated using the superimposition of the delamination limit strain of the coating onto the FLD of VCM sheet. The experimental results showed that the proposed test method will support the sheet metal forming process design for VCM sheets. The assessment method presented in this study can be used to determine the delamination limit strain under plastic deformation of other polymer coated metals. The experimental results suggested that the proposed testing method is effective in evaluating delamination for specific applications

  3. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible

  4. Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  5. Black Sprayable Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this technology project is to develop, optimize, and flight qualify a black version of the molecular adsorber coating and a conductive version...

  6. Thermal Conductivity of Coated Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Lei L.; Pan, Yun-Long; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Wang, Hsin; Peterson, Robert C.

    2009-04-01

    In this article, a method for measuring the thermal conductivity of paper using a hot disk system is introduced. To the best of our knowledge, few publications are found discussing the thermal conductivity of a coated paper, although it is important to various forms of today’s digital printing where heat is used for imaging, as well as for toner fusing. This motivated an investigation of the thermal conductivity of paper coating. This study demonstrates that the thermal conductivity is affected by the coating mass and the changes in the thermal conductivity affect toner gloss and density. As the coating mass increases, the thermal conductivity increases. Both the toner gloss and density decrease as the thermal conductivity increases. The toner gloss appears to be more sensitive to the changes in the thermal conductivity.

  7. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  8. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  9. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  10. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  11. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  12. Corrosion-Resistant Acrylic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-31

    ester solvents include ethylene glycol acceptable for anti-corrosive compositions. Blistering in monoethyl ether acetate, diethylene glycol monoethyl ...corrosion and 0 is i inch or more methyl isobutyl ketone. diethyl ketone, and cyclohexa- creepage from the scribe. Ratings of 3 or above are none. Glycol ...45 * coating is determined in accordance with ASTM ether acetate, etc. D714-56. This method describes blister size as numbers The coating has

  13. Dry and coating of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the mixing and coating of powders by dry processes. The reviews surveys fundamental works on mixture characterization (mixing index definitions and sampling techniques), mixing mechanisms and models, segregation with especial emphasis on free-surface segregation, mixing of cohesive powders and interparticle forces, ordered mixing (dry coating) including mechanism, model and applications and mixing equipment selection. (Author) 180 refs

  14. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  15. 100% Solids Polyurethane Sequestration Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-11

    phosphoryl fluoride agents since calcium reacts readily with fluoride to produce innocuous CaF2. Calcium carbonate powder and flake are supplied...UV/Vis spectrophotometer at λ405 nm, absorbance measurements were ascertained at 30 second intervals for 10 minutes. The coating sample sections...disassembled, extracted and analyzed by GC/MS to determine the mass of surrogate agent which migrates from the substrate surface into the coating and

  16. Coated substrate apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Zhenan; Diao, Ying; Mannsfeld, Stefan Christian Bernhardt; Tee, Chee-Keong; Becerril-Garcia, Hector A.; Zhou, Yan

    2018-01-09

    A coated substrate is formed with aligned objects such as small molecules, macromolecules and nanoscale particulates, such as inorganic, organic or inorganic/organic hybrid materials. In accordance with one or more embodiments, an apparatus or method involves an applicator having at least one surface patterned with protruded or indented features, and a coated substrate including a solution-based layer of objects having features and morphology attributes arranged as a function of the protruded or indented features.

  17. Material Science Smart Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, A. I. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Sabirianov, R. F. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the nonlocal electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics depends nonmonotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic, εC. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate εC below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO2 or Ta2O5). This is in contrast to classical (local) consideration of the solvent, which demonstrates an unfavorable electrostatic interaction of protein with typical metal oxide ceramic materials (εC>10). Thus, a solid implant coated by combining oxide ceramic with a reduced dielectric constant can be beneficial to strengthen the electrostatic binding of the protein-implant complex.

  18. INNOVATIVE COATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asamatdinov Marat Orynbaevich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of monuments of architecture is a sphere of activity which places particularly high demands on technical specialists and experts. It is necessary, depending on the objectives of restoration and finishing of a monument of architecture and its damages and defects, to select appropriate technologies and materials. Mineral substances as fillers, and inorganic (mineral colouring pigments, along with liquid potassium glass form an ultrastrong combination of materials. It gives to paints made of these mineral substances, an extremely high weather resistance and durability.The functional concept of silicate paints is the ability to silicify with other mineral construction materials. Silicate paints are the only colouring system which enters into chemical compound with the base due to the liquid potassium silicate properties. Also, bonds between quartzitic elements in its fillers are formed. As a result, it provides yet greater wear resistance and resistance to chalking. In ICA MGSU bachelors-technologists are given the "Facade Materials in the Modern Architecture of Buildings” course, in which special attention is paid to decorative coatings of various types; also, scientific research for improvement of paintwork material application technologies is performed. Cooperation of the higher school entities with technical assistance centres of construction firms makes it possible to enhance the quality of training and competence of graduates, as well as create favorable conditions for development of modern domestic technologies including those in the sphere of execution of architectural facades using innovative systems.

  19. Spray-Deposited Superconductor/Polymer Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Tran, Sang Q.; Hooker, Matthew W.

    1993-01-01

    Coatings that exhibit the Meissner effect formed at relatively low temperature. High-temperature-superconductor/polymer coatings that exhibit Meissner effect deposited onto components in variety of shapes and materials. Simple, readily available equipment needed in coating process, mean coatings produced economically. Coatings used to keep magnetic fields away from electronic circuits in such cryogenic applications as magnetic resonance imaging and detection of infrared, and in magnetic suspensions to provide levitation and/or damping of vibrations.

  20. Electron beam-cured coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Naoyuki

    1976-01-01

    The method for hardening coatings by the irradiation with electron beams is reviewed. The report is divided into seven parts, namely 1) general description and characteristics of electron beam-cured coating, 2) radiation sources of curing, 3) hardening conditions and reaction behaviour, 4) uses and advantages, 5) latest trends of the industry, 6) practice in the field of construction materials, and 7) economy. The primary characteristics of the electron beam hardening is that graft reaction takes place between base resin and coating to produce strong adhesive coating without any pretreatment. A variety of base resins are developed. High class esters of acrylic acid monomers and methacrylic acid monomers are mainly used as dilutants recently. At present, scanning type accelerators are used, but the practical application of the system producing electron beam of curtain type is expected. The dose rate dependence, the repetitive irradiation and the irradiation atmosphere are briefly described. The filed patent applications on the electron beam hardening were analyzed by the officer of Japan Patent Agency. The production lines for coatings by the electron beam hardening in the world are listed. In the electron beam-cured coating, fifty percent of given energy is consumed effectively for the electron beam hardening, and the solvents discharged from ovens and polluting atmosphere are not used, because the paints of high solid type is used. The running costs of the electron beam process are one sixth of the thermal oven process. (Iwakiri, K.)

  1. Polyester based hybrid organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiang

    Polyesters are a class of polymers widely used in organic coatings applications. In this work, four types of organic coatings based on polyester polyols were prepared: UV-curable polyester/poly(meth)acrylate coatings, thermal curable polyester polyurethane-urea coatings, thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings, and UV-curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Polyester/poly(meth)acrylate block copolymers are synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). All block copolymers are characterized by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). In the case of unsaturated-polyester-based block copolymers the main chain double bond in the polyester backbone remains almost unaffected during ATRP. The unsaturated block copolymers are crosslinkable and can form networks upon photo-irradiation in the presence of a suitable photoinitiator. These copolymers might be interesting candidates for coatings with better overall properties than those based on neat polyesters. Thermal curable polyester polyol based Polyurethane-Urea (PUU) coatings were formulated using Partially Blocked HDI isocyanurate (PBH), Isophorone Diamine (IPDA), and polyester polyol. As a comparison, the polyurethane coatings (PU) without adding IPDA were also prepared. The mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the PUU and PU coating were investigated by using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyzer (DMTA). It was found that PUU coating exhibited higher crosslink density, Tg, tensile modulus and strength than the corresponding PU coating. Thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings were prepared by using polyamine and cyclic carbonate terminated polyester. Cyclic carbonate terminated polyester was synthesized from the reaction of the carbon dioxide and epoxidized polyester which was prepared from the polyester polyol. The properties of the epoxidized and cyclic carbonate

  2. Analysis of Capillary Coating Die Flow in an Optical Fiber Coating Applicator

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoungjin Kim

    2011-01-01

    Viscous heating becomes significant in the high speed resin coating process of glass fibers for optical fiber manufacturing. This study focuses on the coating resin flows inside the capillary coating die of optical fiber coating applicator and they are numerically simulated to examine the effects of viscous heating and subsequent temperature increase in coating resin. Resin flows are driven by fast moving glass fiber and the pressurization at the coating die inlet, while ...

  3. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, G P

    2004-01-01

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there

  4. Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Duncan, Peter; Coupland, Duncan; Rigali, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist oxidation at high temperatures. The metal coats would contribute to oxidation resistance by keeping atmospheric oxygen away from fibers when cracks form in the matrices. Other processes that have been used to coat carbon fibers with metals have significant disadvantages: Metal-vapor deposition processes yield coats that are nonuniform along both the lengths and the circumferences of the fibers. The electrical resistivities of carbon fibers are too high to be compatible with electrolytic processes. Metal/organic vapor deposition entails the use of expensive starting materials, it may be necessary to use a furnace, and the starting materials and/or materials generated in the process may be hazardous. The present process does not have these disadvantages. It yields uniform, nonporous coats and is relatively inexpensive. The process can be summarized as one of pretreatment followed by electroless deposition. The process consists of the following steps: The surfaces of the fiber are activated by deposition of palladium crystallites from a solution. The surface-activated fibers are immersed in a solution that contains platinum. A reducing agent is used to supply electrons to effect a chemical reduction in situ. The chemical reduction displaces the platinum from the solution. The displaced platinum becomes deposited on the fibers. Each platinum atom that has been deposited acts as a catalytic site for the deposition of another platinum atom. Hence, the deposition process can also be characterized as autocatalytic. The thickness of the deposited metal can be tailored via the duration of immersion and the chemical activity of the solution.

  5. Anodic-modified anticorrosive coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel machine parts are exposed to electrochemical corrosion. This applies to many environments including atmosphere, soil, water, and even various fertilizers. High-carbon steel and low-alloyed steel are not stable (in terms of thermo-dynamics, do not feature effective passivation, and even the corrosion products do not form a stable protection layer. As a result, special anti-corrosion protection is critical. In heavy-corrosion environment, paint systems containing Zn have proven to be very effective. Presented text describes verification of paint systems with high Zn content and compares them to galvanic Zn coatings. Steel samples with protective coatings have been tested in condensation chamber with neutral salt-spray. This way, corrosion resistance of Zn-rich paint systems and galvanic Zn coatings has been evaluated and compared. Galvanic Zn-coatings have shown complete decomposition during the chamber exposition. Thus, further testing was adopted for paint systems only with a special attention being paid to gradual degradation of anti-corrosion layer. Final part of the text lists reasons of coating degradation process and outlines possible solutions of the issue.

  6. Chromate conversion coatings and their current application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes formation, composition and possible production technologies of application chromate coatings. Summation of common examples of applications of these coatings in corrosion protection of metals and alloys is provided. Individual chromate coatings are divided by their dominant anions either with CrVI or CrIII. Restrictions of chromate coatings with dominantly CrVI and related toxicity of hexavalent chromium is discussed in detail. In conclusion, examples of both chromium and other, alternative coatings are summed up. Application of these coatings as a protection for concrete hot-dip galvanized reinforcement is also reviewed.

  7. Radiation curable compositions useful as transfer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, W.H.; Nagy, F.A.; Guarino, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is on a method for applying a coating to a thin porous substrate and reducing absorption of the coating into the substrate by applying a radiation-curable composition to a carrying web; the radiation-curable coating composition having a crosslink density of 0.02 to about 1.0 determined by calculation of the gram moles of branch points per 100 grams of uncured coating, and a glass transition temperature of the radiation cured coating within the approximate range of -80 degrees to +100 degrees C. The carrying web being of a nature such that the coating composition, when cured, will not adhere to its surface

  8. Multispectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. The pellets were divided into two groups: one with pellets coated using synthetic astaxanthin in fish oil and the other with pellets coate...... products with optimal use of pigment and minimum amount of waste.......Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. The pellets were divided into two groups: one with pellets coated using synthetic astaxanthin in fish oil and the other with pellets coated...

  9. Mixed zirconia calcium phosphate coatings for dental implants: Tailoring coating stability and bioactivity potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardun, Karoline [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Treccani, Laura, E-mail: treccani@uni-bremen.de [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Volkmann, Eike [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Streckbein, Philipp [University Hospital, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Department of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Klinikstrasse 33, 35385 Giessen (Germany); Heiss, Christian [University Hospital of Giessen-Marburg, Department of Trauma Surgery, Rudolf-Buchheim-Strasse 7, 35385 Giessen, Germany, (Germany); Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Kerkraderstrasse 9, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Destri, Giovanni Li; Marletta, Giovanni [Laboratory for Molecular Surfaces and Nanotechnology (LAMSUN), Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and CSGI, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Rezwan, Kurosch [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Enhanced coating stability and adhesion are essential for long-term success of orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, the effect of coating composition on mechanical, physico-chemical and biological properties of coated zirconia specimens is investigated. Zirconia discs and dental screw implants are coated using the wet powder spraying (WPS) technique. The coatings are obtained by mixing yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in various ratios while a pure HA coating served as reference material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer analysis confirm a similar coating morphology and roughness for all studied coatings, whereas the coating stability can be tailored with composition and is probed by insertion and dissections experiments in bovine bone with coated zirconia screw implants. An increasing content of calcium phosphate (CP) resulted in a decrease of mechanical and chemical stability, while the bioactivity increased in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro experiments with human osteoblast cells (HOB) revealed that the cells grew well on all samples but are affected by dissolution behavior of the studied coatings. This work demonstrates the overall good mechanical strength, the excellent interfacial bonding and the bioactivity potential of coatings with higher TZ contents, which provide a highly interesting coating for dental implants. - Highlights: • Different ratios of zirconia (TZ) and calcium phosphate (CP) were deposited on zirconia substrates. • Enhancement of TZ content in mixed coatings increased coating stability. • Enhancement of CP content in mixed coatings increased bioactivity. • All tested coating compositions were non-toxic.

  10. Mixed zirconia calcium phosphate coatings for dental implants: Tailoring coating stability and bioactivity potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardun, Karoline; Treccani, Laura; Volkmann, Eike; Streckbein, Philipp; Heiss, Christian; Destri, Giovanni Li; Marletta, Giovanni; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced coating stability and adhesion are essential for long-term success of orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, the effect of coating composition on mechanical, physico-chemical and biological properties of coated zirconia specimens is investigated. Zirconia discs and dental screw implants are coated using the wet powder spraying (WPS) technique. The coatings are obtained by mixing yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in various ratios while a pure HA coating served as reference material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer analysis confirm a similar coating morphology and roughness for all studied coatings, whereas the coating stability can be tailored with composition and is probed by insertion and dissections experiments in bovine bone with coated zirconia screw implants. An increasing content of calcium phosphate (CP) resulted in a decrease of mechanical and chemical stability, while the bioactivity increased in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro experiments with human osteoblast cells (HOB) revealed that the cells grew well on all samples but are affected by dissolution behavior of the studied coatings. This work demonstrates the overall good mechanical strength, the excellent interfacial bonding and the bioactivity potential of coatings with higher TZ contents, which provide a highly interesting coating for dental implants. - Highlights: • Different ratios of zirconia (TZ) and calcium phosphate (CP) were deposited on zirconia substrates. • Enhancement of TZ content in mixed coatings increased coating stability. • Enhancement of CP content in mixed coatings increased bioactivity. • All tested coating compositions were non-toxic

  11. Modelling of piezoresistance sliding coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, M.; Rakowski, W.

    2000-01-01

    Polymer composites based on PEI filling metal powders and lubricating additions: graphite and MoS 2 have strong sensor properties appearing as resistance change with external load and temperature. These materials have also good tribological properties and can be applied as slide bearings material or coatings on steel substrate, which in the same time are diagnostic elements - sensors. Electrical conductance of these coatings is strongly correlated with thermomechanical model of composites. The mean distance between conducting particles of filler has decisive influence on resistivity of coatings. modelling of semi-conducting polymer composites allows for designating of materials, whose mechanical properties and sensor characteristics will assure high reliability of bearings and gives the possibility their diagnosis without additional sensors. (author)

  12. Imaging Diagnostic in Coats' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losowska-Kaniwska, D.; Bieganski, T.; Stefanczyk, L.

    2005-01-01

    Coats' disease is a rare congenital vascular abnormality of the retina consisting of multiple telangiectasis, breakdown of the retina-blood barrier, and formation of subretinal lipoproteinaceous exudate, leading to retinal detachment. Globe imaging in Coats' disease precisely shows retinal abnormalities and typical subretinal exudates. These lesions are nonspecific and differentiation from other causes of exudative retinal detachment should be performed. Globe imaging using US, CT, and MR was performed in five patients with decreased visual acuity (4 boys and 1 girl), aged 1-16 years, with a diagnosis or suspicion of Coats' disease etinal thickening in the temporal quadrant was observed in one child. In the other four children, V-shaped retinal detachments with exudate accumulated beneath the detached retina were observed. All affected globes showed decreased anterior-posterior diameters compared with the contralateral eye. Calcifications of the retinal regions were not present. (author)

  13. Optical characterization of antirelaxation coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, S.; Gateva, S.; Cartaleva, S.; Mariotti, E.; Nasyrov, K.

    2018-03-01

    Antirelaxation coatings (ARC) are used in optical cells containing alkali metal vapor to reduce the depolarization of alkali atoms after collisions with the cell walls. The long-lived ground state polarization is a basis for development of atomic clocks, magnetometers, quantum memory, slow light experiments, precision measurements of fundamental symmetries etc. In this work, a simple method for measuring the number of collisions of the alkali atoms with the cell walls without atomic spin randomization (Nasyrov et al., Proc. SPIE (2015)) was applied to characterize the AR properties of two PDMS coatings prepared from different solutions in ether (PDMS 2% and PDMS 5%). We observed influence of the light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD) on the AR properties of coatings.

  14. Studies on soft centered coated snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavithra, A S; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Babylatha, R; Archana, S N; Bhat, K K

    2013-04-01

    Roasted groundnut seeds, amaranth and dates pulp formed the center filling which was coated with sugar, breadings, desiccated coconut and roasted Bengalgram flour (BGF) to get 4 coated snacks. Physicochemical characteristics, microbiological profile, sorption behaviour and sensory quality of 4 coated snacks were determined. Centre filling to coating ratio of the products were in the range of 3:2-7:1, the product having BGF coating had the thinnest coating. Center filling had soft texture and the moisture content was 10.2-16.2% coating had lower moisture content (4.4-8.6%) except for Bengal gram coating, which had 11.1% moisture. Sugar coated snack has lowest fat (11.6%) and protein (7.2%) contents. Desiccated coconut coated snack has highest fat (25.4%) and Bengal gram flour coated snack had highest protein content (15.4%). Sorption studies showed that the coated snack had critical moisture content of 11.2-13.5%. The products were moisture sensitive and hence require packaging in films having higher moisture barrier property. In freshly prepared snacks coliforms, yeast and mold were absent. Mesophillic aerobes count did not show significant change during 90 days of storage at 27 °C and 37 °C. Sensory analysis showed that products had a unique texture due to combined effect of fairly hard coating and soft center. Flavour and overall quality of all the products were rated as very good.

  15. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (plastics. One possible way of processing nanoceramic coatings at low temperatures (plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  16. Laser-based coatings removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D ampersand D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building

  17. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  18. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  19. Coated foams, preparation, uses and articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-10-21

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tension of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  20. Friction- and wear-reducing coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong [Farmington Hills, MI; Milner, Robert [Warren, MI; Elmoursi, Alaa AbdelAzim [Troy, MI

    2011-10-18

    A coating includes a first layer of a ceramic alloy and a second layer disposed on the first layer and including carbon. The coating has a hardness of from 10 to 20 GPa and a coefficient of friction of less than or equal to 0.12. A method of coating a substrate includes cleaning the substrate, forming the first layer on the substrate, and depositing the second layer onto the first layer to thereby coat the substrate.

  1. Review of HTGR coated fuel particle stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.T.

    1975-08-01

    The stability of coated fuel particles in high-temperature, gas-cooled reactors as a function of burnup, fast-neutron fluence, irradiation time, and temperature is reviewed; the effect of coating design parameters was not considered. The purpose of the review is to establish limits of coated particle performance and, in particular, to validate diagrams in which coating failure during abnormal temperature excursions is plotted vs previous irradiation time. (U.S.)

  2. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, A.T.; Hosford, C.D.

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simltaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets is machined out to form a dimple. Glass microballoons,, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  3. Moisture in organic coatings - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, G.K. van der; Adan, O.C.G.

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on transport and equilibrium sorption of moisture in polymer films and organic coatings. Polymeric material forms the continuous phase of a coating and is therefore important for transport properties. Besides polymer, coatings consist of pigments and fillers and various additives,

  4. Amphiphilic copolymers for fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Hvilsted, Søren

    of the coatings [9,10,11]. This work shows the effect of an amphiphilic copolymer that induces hydrophilicity on the surface of the silicone-based fouling release coatings. The behaviour of these copolymers within the coating upon immersion and the interaction of these surface-active additives with other...

  5. Thermal stability of phosphate coatings on steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The work was validated thermal stability of zinc, manganese and tri-cations phosphate coatings on steel, made from commercial phosphating bath type Pragofos. Thermogravimetric data dehydration of scholzite, phosphophylite and hureaulite coatings in the temperature range 160 °C – 400 °C define the conditions for applying paints with higher firing temperature or thermal spraying ceramic coatings.

  6. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  7. Method for coating substrates and mask holder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Frederik; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Kessels, M.J.H.; Maas, Edward Lambertus Gerardus; Bruineman, Caspar

    2004-01-01

    When coating substrates it is frequently desired that the layer thickness should be a certain function of the position on the substrate to be coated. To control the layer thickness a mask is conventionally arranged between the coating particle source and the substrate. This leads to undesirable

  8. Sonochemical coating of magnetite nanoparticles with silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Feng; Enomoto, Naoya; Hojo, Junichi; Enpuku, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were coated with silica through the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) under ultrasonic irradiation. The ultrasonic irradiation was used to prevent the agglomeration of the magnetite particles and accelerate the hydrolysis and condensation of TEOS. TEM, DLS, XRF, VSM, TG and sedimentation test were used to characterize the silica-coated magnetite particles. The dispersibility of silica-coated magnetite particles in aqueous solution was improved significantly and the agglomerate particle size was decreased to 110 nm. It was found that the agglomerate particle size of silica-coated magnetite particles was mainly decided by the coating temperature and the pH value in the silica-coating process. The weight ratio of silica in silica-coated magnetite particles was mainly decided by the pH value in the silica-coating process. The dispersibility of silica-coated magnetite particles was mainly decided by the agglomerate particle size of the suspension. The oxidation of magnetite particles in air was limited through the coated silica. The magnetism of silica-coated magnetite particles decreased slightly after silica-coating.

  9. Latest Developments in PVD Coatings for Tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Strnad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the recent developments in the field of PVD coating for manufacturing tools. A review of monoblock, multilayer, nanocomposite, DLC and oxinitride coatings is discussed, with the emphasis on coatings which enables the manufacturers to implement high productivity processes such as high speed cutting and dry speed machining.

  10. Modifications of optical properties with ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, T.M.; Abdel-Latif, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Coatings of ceramic materials that exhibited high thermal absorptivities and emissivities were chemical vapor deposited on graphite and refractory metals. In this paper the coatings prepared were SiC and B 4 C, and the substrates used were graphite, molybdenum, titanium, and Nb-1Zr. The coatings are characterized with regard to adherence, optical properties, and response to potential harsh environments

  11. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.

    1994-01-01

    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings o...

  12. Industrial Coatings at Extreme Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramanian, Srinath; Pérez Hornero, Clara; Pedersen, Lars Thorslund

    With the gradual depletion of oil wells operable at relatively lower temperatures and pressures, the upstream oil industry relies on High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) wells to source crude oil and gas. HPHT well extraction and processing require anticorrosive coatings applied on substrates...

  13. Corrosion-Resistant Alkyd Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-18

    Glycol ester solvents include ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, etc. The coating has outstanding...hvdroxyl groups in the molecule. Examples of such alcohol. ,irc ethylene glycol . dicthylene glycol . methylc-v: jdunl. propylene glycol . dipropylene... glycol , butanediol. nco- pentyl glycol , butylene glycols . pcntanediol. 2.3-dime- thylpropanediol, hexanediols, hydrogenated

  14. Polymer-coated quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, N.; Liu, Rongrong; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct photophysical properties finding applications in biology, biosensing, and optoelectronics. Polymeric coatings of QDs are used primarily to provide long-term colloidal stability to QDs dispersed in solutions and also as a source of

  15. Failure Mechanisms of the Coating/Metal Interface in Waterborne Coatings: The Effect of Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongxia; Song, Dongdong; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Dawei; Gao, Jin; Du, Cuiwei

    2017-01-01

    Waterborne coating is the most popular type of coating, and improving its performance is a key point of research. Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings. It refers to the weakening or loss of adhesion between the coating and substrate. Physical and chemical characteristics of coatings have been studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Early heterogeneous swelling at the metal-coating interface in non-defective coated metals was elucidated using frequency-dependent alternating-current scanning electrochemical microscopy. Two types of coatings (styrene-acrylic coating and terpolymer coating) were compared. The effects of thickness, surface roughness, and chemical bonding on cathodic delamination were investigated. PMID:28772757

  16. Failure Mechanisms of the Coating/Metal Interface in Waterborne Coatings: The Effect of Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Wan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne coating is the most popular type of coating, and improving its performance is a key point of research. Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings. It refers to the weakening or loss of adhesion between the coating and substrate. Physical and chemical characteristics of coatings have been studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. Early heterogeneous swelling at the metal-coating interface in non-defective coated metals was elucidated using frequency-dependent alternating-current scanning electrochemical microscopy. Two types of coatings (styrene-acrylic coating and terpolymer coating were compared. The effects of thickness, surface roughness, and chemical bonding on cathodic delamination were investigated.

  17. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  18. Preparation of sustained release capsules by electrostatic dry powder coating, using traditional dip coating as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Shen, Lian; Yuan, Feng; Fu, Hui; Shan, Weiguang

    2018-03-27

    Lately, a great deal of attention is being paid to capsule coating, since the coat protects active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from damage, as is in the case of tablet and pellet. However, moisture and heat sensitivity of gelatin shells make it challenging to coat capsules using the conventional aqueous coating techniques. In an effort to overcome this challenge, the present study aims to coat capsules using two different coating techniques: electrostatic dry powder coating (EDPC) and dip coating (DC). Both capsule coatings and free films were prepared by these two coating techniques, and the effects of coating formulations and processing conditions on the film quality were investigated. The corresponding drug in vitro release and mechanisms were characterized and compared. The results of dissolution tests demonstrated that the drug release behavior of both EDPC and DC coated capsules could be optimized to a sustained release of 24 hours, following the Fick's diffusion law. The results of this study suggest that EDPC method is better than DC method for coating capsules, with respect to the higher production efficiency and better stability, indicating that this dry coating technology has promised in gelatin capsule coating applications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Levitation, coating, and transport of particulate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Several processes in various fields require uniformly thick coatings and layers on small particles. The particles may be used as carriers of catalytic materials (platinum or other coatings), as laser fusion targets (various polymer or metallic coatings), or for biological or other tracer or interactive processes. We have devised both molecular beam and electro-dynamic techniques for levitation of the particles during coating and electrodynamic methods of controlling and transporting the particles between coating steps and to final use locations. Both molecular beam and electrodynamic techniques are described and several advantages and limitations of each will be discussed. A short movie of an operating electrodynamic levitation and transport apparatus will be shown

  20. X-ray damage in optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, P. G.; Ripin, B. H.; Elton, R. C.; Grun, J.; Manka, C. K.; Konnert, J. H.; Burris, H. R.; Newman, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Thin film coatings are susceptible to high intensity x-ray damage. The PHAROS III laser was utilized to generate a point source of x-ray emission used to determine the damage threshold of AR-coated space optics. Thin filters coupled with magnets were used to shield the specimens from thermal radiation and plasma debris. Grids supporting the thin filters could be patterned into the coatings. The surface morphology of damaged specimens has been examined with SEM and AFM microscopes to determine the nature of the damage in multilayer AR coatings. Microscopic techniques were used to measure the depths of coating damage and edge sharpness in the patterned region.

  1. Evaluation of irradiated coating material specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Lee Moon [RCS Korea Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Evaluation result of irradiated coating material specimens - Coating material specimens radiated Gamma Energy(Co 60) in air condition. - Evaluation conditions was above 1 X 10{sup 4} Gy/hr, and radiated TID 2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy. - The radiated coating material specimens, No Checking, Cracking, Flaking, Delamination, Peeling and Blistering. - Coating system at the Kori no. 1 and APR 1400 Nuclear power plant, evaluation of irradiated coating materials is in accordance with owner's requirement(2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy)

  2. Thin Film Coating Technology For Ophthalmic Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, K. H.

    1986-05-01

    Coating of ophthalmic lenses is an application of high-vacuum coating technology which must satisfy not only physical and technical requirements but also customer demands with respect to aesthetics, color fidelity, and exchangeability of coated ophthalmic lenses. Because this application caters specifically to the consumer market, ophthalmic lenses are subject to certain fashion trends which frequently require quick adaptation of the coating technique. The state-of-the-art of ophthalmic lens coating is reviewed in this paper, with particular emphasis on the durability requirements in daily use by untrained consumers as well as on the applicable testing methods.

  3. TABLET COATING TECHNIQUES: CONCEPTS AND RECENT TRENDS

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Ankit; Bilandi Ajay; Kataria Mahesh Kumar; Khatri Neetu

    2012-01-01

    Tablet coating is a common pharmaceutical technique of applying a thin polymer-based film to a tablet or a granule containing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Solid dosage forms are coated for a number of reasons, the most important of which is controlling the release profiles. The amount of coating on the surface of a tablet is critical to the effectiveness of the oral dosage form. Tablets are usually coated in horizontal rotating pans with the coating solution sprayed onto the free ...

  4. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  5. Wear performance of laser processed tantalum coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrick, Stanley; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit, E-mail: amitband@wsu.edu

    2011-12-01

    This first generation investigation evaluates the in vitro tribological performance of laser-processed Ta coatings on Ti for load-bearing implant applications. Linear reciprocating wear tests in simulated body fluid showed one order of magnitude less wear rate, of the order of 10{sup -4} mm{sup 3}(N.m){sup -1}, for Ta coatings compared to Ti. Our results demonstrate that Ta coatings can potentially minimize the early-stage bone-implant interface micro-motion induced wear debris generation due to their excellent bioactivity comparable to that of hydroxyapatite (HA), high wear resistance and toughness compared to popular HA coatings. Highlights: {yields} In vitro wear performance of laser processed Ta coatings on Ti was evaluated. {yields} Wear tests in SBF showed one order of magnitude less wear for Ta coatings than Ti. {yields} Ta coatings can minimize early-stage micro-motion induced wear debris generation.

  6. Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Żórawski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  7. Electrostatic coating technologies for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Sheryl A; Sumonsiri, Nutsuda

    2015-01-01

    The application of electrostatics in both powder and liquid coating can improve the quality of food, such as its appearance, aroma, taste, and shelf life. Coatings can be found most commonly in the snack food industry, as well as in confectionery, bakery, meat and cheese processing. In electrostatic powder coating, the most important factors influencing coating quality are powder particle size, density, flowability, charge, and resistivity, as well as the surface properties and characteristics of the target. The most important factors during electrostatic liquid coating, also known as electrohydrodynamic coating, include applied voltage and electrical resistivity and viscosity of the liquid. A good understanding of these factors is needed for the design of optimal coating systems for food processing.

  8. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A method of preparing an aluminum mold for injection molding is provided, the method comprises the steps of providing an aluminum mold having a least one surface, subjecting the at least one surface to a gas or liquid phase silane to thereby form an anti-stiction coating, the anti-stiction coating...... comprising a chemically bonded monolayer of silane compounds on the at least one surface wherein the silane is a halogenated silane. The at least one surface coated with the anti-stiction coating may be configured to withstand an injection molding process at a pressure above 100 MPa. Furthermore, a mold...... having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...

  9. Status of NEG Coating at ESRF

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The ESRF non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating facility is in operation since two years now. A large part of the insertion device straight sections of the electron storage ring has been equipped with in-house coated 5m long aluminum vacuum chambers with an inner vertical aperture of 8 mm. Operational experience with different coating parameters leading to different film thicknesses will be given and compared to bremsstrahlung data. The paper deals also with improvements of the coating production and chamber preparation, and describes some aspects of NEG coating data acquisition, visualization, and remote control. The R&D program leading to a more powerful DC solenoidal coating tool to further improve the NEG coating production throughput and quality aspects is also discussed.

  10. Armor systems including coated core materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; McHugh, Kevin M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  11. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  12. Electrical contact arrangement for a coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; McCamy, James W; Boyd, Donald W

    2013-09-17

    A protective coating is applied to the electrically conductive surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by biasing a conductive member having a layer of a malleable electrically conductive material, e.g. a paste, against a portion of the conductive surface while moving an electrodepositable coating composition over the conductive surface. The moving of the electrodepositable coating composition over the conductive surface includes moving the solar mirror through a flow curtain of the electrodepositable coating composition and submerging the solar mirror in a pool of the electrodepositable coating composition. The use of the layer of a malleable electrically conductive material between the conductive member and the conductive surface compensates for irregularities in the conductive surface being contacted during the coating process thereby reducing the current density at the electrical contact area.

  13. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  14. Quantitative image analysis for evaluating the coating thickness and pore distribution in coated small particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksmana, F L; Van Vliet, L J; Hartman Kok, P J A; Vromans, H; Frijlink, H W; Van der Voort Maarschalk, K

    2009-04-01

    This study aims to develop a characterization method for coating structure based on image analysis, which is particularly promising for the rational design of coated particles in the pharmaceutical industry. The method applies the MATLAB image processing toolbox to images of coated particles taken with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CSLM). The coating thicknesses have been determined along the particle perimeter, from which a statistical analysis could be performed to obtain relevant thickness properties, e.g. the minimum coating thickness and the span of the thickness distribution. The characterization of the pore structure involved a proper segmentation of pores from the coating and a granulometry operation. The presented method facilitates the quantification of porosity, thickness and pore size distribution of a coating. These parameters are considered the important coating properties, which are critical to coating functionality. Additionally, the effect of the coating process variations on coating quality can straight-forwardly be assessed. Enabling a good characterization of the coating qualities, the presented method can be used as a fast and effective tool to predict coating functionality. This approach also enables the influence of different process conditions on coating properties to be effectively monitored, which latterly leads to process tailoring.

  15. Wear mechanisms of coated hardmetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, V.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper several aspects of the wear mechanisms of coated hardmetals, ceramics and super-hard materials (CBN) in machining cast iron are discussed, with particular attention being given to high-speed machining of different cast iron grades. The influence of machining parameters, microstructure, composition and mechanical and chemical properties of the cutting tool and the work-piece material on wear are considered. (author)

  16. Epoxy Corrosion-Resistant Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-22

    diethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, etc. The coating was found to have outstanding perfor- mance when exposed to extreme heat conditions, high...ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, diethyl ketone, and cyclohexa- none. Glycoi ester solvents include ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate...applied conttm» glycidyl ether groups. The preferred polyglyc- on a variety of substrates. **’ comP°unds" denved by the condensation reac- tions of

  17. Seed coat sculpturing in Halophila

    OpenAIRE

    Japar, Sidik Bujang; Muta, Harah Zakaria; Suzalina, Akma Awing; Nojima, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    This study furnishes information on external morphology of the seed coats of selected Halophila. Fruiting plants of Halophila beccarii, H. ovalis, H. decipiens, Halophila sp. were collected from various locations around Malaysia and including Halophila stipulacea from Mauritus. Seeds extracted from mature fruits were fixed in 2.5% glutaradehyde. Fixed seeds were washed in 0.1M Sodium cacodylate buffer at 4℃ for 10 minutes. The washing procedure was repeated three times. The seeds were dehydra...

  18. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  19. High Critical Current Coated Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V. (SuperPower, Inc.)

    2011-12-27

    One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

  20. Electron beam curing of coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, S.; Fujikawa, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Electron beam curing (EBC) method, by which hardened coating film is obtained by polymerizing and cross-linking paint with electron beam, has finally reached industrialized stage. While about seven items such as short curing time, high efficiency of energy consumption, and homogeneous curing are enumerated as the advantages of EBC method, it has limitations of the isolation requirement from air needing the injection of inert gas, and considerable amount of initial investment. In the electron accelerators employed in EBC method, the accelerating voltage is 250 to 750 kV, and the tube current is several tens of mA to 200 mA. As an example of EBC applications, EBC ''Erio'' steel sheet was developed by the cooperative research of Nippon Steel Corp., Dai-Nippon Printing Co. and Toray Industries, Inc. It is a high-class pre-coated metal product made from galvanized steel sheets, and the flat sheets with cured coating are sold, and final products are fabricated by being worked in various shapes in users. It seems necessary to develop the paint which enables to raise added value by adopting the EBC method. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. ALARA trademark 1146 strippable coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    Strippable or temporary coatings are innovative technologies for decontamination that effectively reduce loose contamination at low cost. These coatings have become a viable option during the deactivation and decommissioning of both US Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities to remove or fix loose contamination on both vertical and horizontal surfaces. The ALARA trademark 1146 strippable coating was demonstrated as part of the Savannah River Site LSDDP and successfully removed transferable (surface) contamination from multiple surfaces (metal and concrete) with an average decontamination factor for alpha contamination of 6.68 and an average percentage of alpha contamination removed of 85.0%. Beta contamination removed was an average DF of 5.55 and an average percentage removed of 82.0%. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users. This Innovative Technology offers a 35% cost savings over the Baseline Technology

  2. Brush seal shaft wear resistant coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Harold

    1995-03-01

    Brush seals suffer from high wear, which reduces their effectiveness. This work sought to reduce brush seal wear by identifying and testing several industry standard coatings. One of the coatings was developed for this work. It was a co-sprayed PSZ with boron-nitride added for a high temperature dry lubricant. Other coatings tested were a PSZ, chrome carbide and a bare rotor. Testing of these coatings included thermal shocking, tensile testing and wear/coefficient of friction testing. Wear testing consisted of applying a coating to a rotor and then running a sample tuft of SiC ceramic fiber against the coating. Surface speeds at point of contact were slightly over 1000 ft/sec. Rotor wear was noted, as well as coefficient of friction data. Results from the testing indicates that the oxide ceramic coatings cannot withstand the given set of conditions. Carbide coatings will not work because of the need for a metallic binder, which oxidizes in the high heat produced by friction. All work indicated a need for a coating that has a lubricant contained within itself and the coating must be resistant to an oxidizing environment.

  3. Light Absorption By Coated Soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, A. J.; Lee, J.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Cross, E. S.

    2009-12-01

    The contribution of aerosol absorption on direct radiative forcing is still an active area of research, in part, because aerosol extinction is dominated by light scattering and, in part, because the primary absorbing aerosol of interest, soot, exhibits complex aging behavior that alters its optical properties. The consequences of this can be evidenced by the work of Ramanathan and Carmichael (2008) who suggest that incorporating the atmospheric heating due to brown clouds will increase black carbon (BC) radiative forcing from the IPCC best estimate of 0.34 Wm-2 (±0.25 Wm-2) (IPCC 2007) to 0.9 Wm-2. This noteworthy degree of the uncertainty is due largely to the interdependence of BC optical properties on particle mixing state and aggregate morphology, each of which changes as the particle ages in the atmosphere and becomes encapsulated within a coating of inorganic and/or organic substances. With the advent of techniques that can directly measure aerosol light absorption without influences due to collection substrate or light scattering (e.g., photoacoustic spectroscopy (Arnott et al., 2005; Lack et al., 2006) and photothermal interferometry (Sedlacek and Lee 2007)) the potential exists for quantifying this interdependence. In July 2008, a laboratory-based measurement campaign, led by Boston College and Aerodyne, was initiated to begin addressing this interdependence. To achieve this objective measurements of both the optical and physical properties of flame-generated soot under nascent, coated and denuded conditions were conducted. In this paper, light absorption by dioctyl sebacate (DOS) encapsulated soot and sulfuric acid coated soot using the technique of photothermal interferometry will be presented. In the case of DOS-coated soot, a monotonic increase in light absorption as a function DOS coating thickness to nearly 100% is observed. This observation is consistent with a coating-induced amplification in particle light absorption. (Bond et al. 2006) However

  4. Particulate generation in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, K.A.; Ray, N. [Monash Univ., Clayton (Australia). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Roekkum, M. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Center for Orthopaedics

    2001-07-01

    A hydroxyapatite coated femoral stem, matching a retrieved recovered from a case of third body wear, was analysed to investigate particle release from the hydroxyapatite coating. The stem was sectioned into 12 pieces, mounted in epoxy resin and polished to reveal the microstructure. One section was analysed with X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. It was found that the coating contained a large amorphous phase content indicating that the coating has the potential for rapid dissolution. The small crystalline particles in the coating were mainly in the 1-8 micron size range. Exposure to dilute nitric acid showed that the coating is capable of releasing particles into the peri-implant area. (orig.)

  5. Thermal barrier coatings for heat engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S. R.; Miller, R. A.; Hodge, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive NASA-Lewis program of coating development for aircraft gas turbine blades and vanes is presented. Improved ceramic layer compositions are investigated, along the MCrAlY bond films and the methods of uniform deposition of the coatings; the thermomechanical and fuel impurity tolerance limits of the coatings are being studied. Materials include the ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCrAlY system; the effects of the bond coat and zirconia composition on coating life and Mach 1 burner rig test results are discussed. It is concluded that Diesel engines can also utilize thermal barrier coatings; they have been used successfully on piston crowns and exhaust valves of shipboard engines to combat lower grade fuel combustion corrosion.

  6. Erosion behavior of EEDS cermet coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Guo; Xu Binshi; Wang Haidou; Yin Liang; Li Qingfen; Wei Shicheng; Cui Xiufang

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the erosion performance of electro-thermal explosion directional spraying (EEDS) cermet WC/Co coatings using an air solid particle erosion rig. The influences of the different parameters such as impact angle, impingement velocity, environment temperature, particle diameter, on the erosion property of the coatings were studied. The eroded surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and the erosion mechanisms were discussed. The structure and bond characters of the coatings were also determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM. The results indicate that the EEDS WC/Co coatings are characterized by fine grain structure, good metallurgical bond and brittle erosion character. The erosion rates of the coatings decrease with temperature increasing and increase with impact angle and impingement velocity increasing. At elevated temperature, the oxidation happens on the coatings surface, which affects the erosion behavior

  7. Microneedle Coating Techniques for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Haj-Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug administration via the transdermal route is an evolving field that provides an alternative to oral and parenteral routes of therapy. Several microneedle (MN based approaches have been developed. Among these, coated MNs (typically where drug is deposited on MN tips are a minimally invasive method to deliver drugs and vaccines through the skin. In this review, we describe several processes to coat MNs. These include dip coating, gas jet drying, spray coating, electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA based processes and piezoelectric inkjet printing. Examples of process mechanisms, conditions and tested formulations are provided. As these processes are independent techniques, modifications to facilitate MN coatings are elucidated. In summary, the outcomes and potential value for each technique provides opportunities to overcome formulation or dosage form limitations. While there are significant developments in solid degradable MNs, coated MNs (through the various techniques described have potential to be utilized in personalized drug delivery via controlled deposition onto MN templates.

  8. The self-healing composite anticorrosion coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Wei, Zhang; Le-ping, Liao; Hong-mei, Wang; Wu-jun, Li

    Self-healing coatings, which autonomically repair and prevent corrosion of the underlying substrate, are of particular interest for the researchers. In the article, effectiveness of epoxy resin filled microcapsules was investigated for healing of cracks generated in coatings. Microcapsules were prepared by in situ polymerization of urea-formaldehyde resin to form shell over epoxy resindroplets. Characteristics of these capsules were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and particle size analyzer. The model system of self-healing antisepsis coating consists of an epoxy resin matrix, 10 wt% microencapsulated healing agent, 2wt% catalyst solution. The self-healing function of this coating system is evaluated through corrosion testing of damaged and healed coated steel samples compared to control samples. Electrochemical testing provides further evidence of passivation of the substrate by self-healing coatings.

  9. Cermet coatings for solar Stirling space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic, are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power convertor. The role of the cermet coating is to absorb as much of the incident solar energy as possible. The ability to mix metal and ceramic at the atomic level offers the opportunity to tailor the composition and the solar absorptance of these coatings. Several candidate cermet coatings were created and their solar absorptance was characterized as-manufactured and after exposure to elevated temperatures. Coating composition was purposely varied through the thickness of the coating. As a consequence of changing composition, islands of metal are thought to form in the ceramic matrix. Computer modeling indicated that diffusion of the metal atoms played an important role in island formation while the ceramic was important in locking the islands in place. Much of the solar spectrum is absorbed as it passes through this labyrinth

  10. The application of epoxy resin coating in grounding grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Chen, Z. R.; Xi, L. J.; Wang, X. Y.; Wang, H. F.

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy resin anticorrosion coating is widely used in grounding grid corrosion protection because of its wide range of materials, good antiseptic effect and convenient processing. Based on the latest research progress, four kinds of epoxy anticorrosive coatings are introduced, which are structural modified epoxy coating, inorganic modified epoxy coating, organic modified epoxy coating and polyaniline / epoxy resin composite coating. In this paper, the current research progress of epoxy base coating is analyzed, and prospected the possible development direction of the anti-corrosion coating in the grounding grid, which provides a reference for coating corrosion prevention of grounding materials.

  11. Porosity determination of thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roode, Mark; Beardsley, Brad

    1988-01-01

    Coating porosity is believed to be a critical factor for the thermal conductivity of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). A number of different techniques have been used to determine the porosities of thermal barrier coatings for diesel applications as part of a NASA/DOE sponsored study. A comparison is made between methods based on water immersion, optical microscopy, eddy current thickness measurements, and Archimedes principle for TBC porosity determination.

  12. Tribo-corrosion of coatings: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, R.J.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the available literature relating to the emerging research into the performance of coatings under combined wear and corrosion conditions. Understanding how coatings perform under these tribo-corrosion conditions is essential if the service life of equipment is to be predicted and to allow service life to be extended. Therefore, the tribo-corrosion performance of coatings deposited by a variety of techniques is discussed and the main mechanisms associated with their degradat...

  13. Advanced optical coatings for astronomical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Leplan, Hervé; Vayssade, Hervé; Geyl, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Recently Safran Reosc worked and progressed on various thin film technology for: Large mirrors with low stress and stable coatings. Large lens elements with strong curvature and precise layer specifications. Large filters with high spectral response uniformity specifications. IR coatings with low stress and excellent resistance to cryogenic environment for NIR to LWIR domains. Pixelated coatings. Results will be presented and discussed on the basis of several examples.

  14. Biomarkers in white-coat hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Catherine Ann

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the 1960s provided new insights into the nature of high blood pressure disorders. Blood pressure is now categorised into four quadrants:normotension, masked hypertension, hypertension and white-coat hypertension. In white-coat hypertension blood pressure is elevated when taken at the doctor’s office but normal if taken outside the doctor’s office. Several controversies are associated with white-coat hypertension, which are discuss...

  15. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2017-12-19

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  16. Study of chromate coatings by radioisotope tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozda, T.; Maleczki, E.; Farkas, G.

    1984-01-01

    New radioactive tracer methods were developed to determine chromium(III) and total chromium [chromium(III)+chromium(VI)] content simultaneously. They are capable of investigating solutions and the conversion coating itself in the solid phase, respectively. The increase of chromium(III) concentration in the yellow chromate coating, and the chromium(III) to total chromium ratio in the conversion coating were determined as a function of the treating period. (author)

  17. Dip Process Thermal Barrier Coatings for Superalloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    melting Ce-Co or Ce-Ni alloy, By internally oxidizing these coatings, t is possible to obtain a duplex with a CeO2 -rich oxide scale as the outer layer... Slurry Fusion Coatings......................15 Ultra-Rich Cerium (.- 90%) Dip Coating on IN738 .......... 17 CONCLUSIONS...alloy powder slurried with an organic vehicle, then fired in an inert atmosphere. Our original concept was to selectively oxidize cerium, using CO/CO 2

  18. Surface coatings deposited by CVD and PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    The demand for wear and corrosion protective coatings is increasing due to economic facts. Deposition processes in gas atmospheres like the CVD and PVD processes attained a tremendous importance especially in the field of the deposition of thin hard refractory and ceramic coatings. CVD and PVD processes are reviewed in detail. Some examples of coating installations are shown and numerous applications are given to demonstrate the present state of the art. (orig.) [de

  19. Heat-resistant hydrophobic-oleophobic coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Uyanik, Mehmet; Arpac, Ertugrul; Schmidt, Helmut K.; Akarsu, Murat; Sayilkan, Funda; Sayilkan, Hikmet

    2006-01-01

    Thermally and chemically durable hydrophobic oleophobic coatings, containing different ceramic particles such as SiO2, SiC, Al 2O3, which can be alternative instead of Teflon, have been developed and applied on the aluminum substrates by spin-coating method. Polyimides, which are high-thermal resistant heteroaromatic polymers, were synthesized, and fluor oligomers were added to these polymers to obtain hydrophobic-oleophobic properties. After coating, Al surface was subjected to Taber-abrasio...

  20. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2016-02-09

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  1. Confectionery coating with an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthina, Kumala; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2012-01-01

    In the confectionery coating industry, hard butters are frequently used as cocoa butter replacers. An electrohydrodynamic (EHD) system, which forms fine droplets with a relatively narrow size distribution, may be beneficial in confectionery coating to produce more even coverage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lecithin content and fat type on electrical resistivity and apparent viscosity, and the effect of these variables under EHD (25kV) and non-EHD coating on droplet size, width of coating area, thickness, and minimum flow rate to produce complete coverage. Total of 3 different types of fat were used: cocoa butter, cocoa butter equivalent, and lauric butter. As lecithin content increased, resistivity and apparent viscosity decreased, except all samples showed a local apparent viscosity minimum at 0.5% lecithin. EHD coating was more efficient than non-EHD as a smaller droplet size and thinner coating was formed. Due to repulsive forces between the like-charges on the droplets during EHD, it spread over wider areas which lead to a higher minimum flow rate to get complete coverage. Under EHD, increasing resistivity significantly increased the droplet size, but only at the highest resistivities. There was no correlation between resistivity and droplet size or width of coating under non-EHD. The width of coating under EHD decreased significantly as resistivity increased. Thickness and minimum flow rate to produce complete coverage, significantly correlated to resistivity, for EHD coating, and to apparent viscosity, for 2 of the 3 fat types during both EHD and non-EHD. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spraying offers great potential improvement to the food industry especially in the confectionery area. From the quality point of view, EHD offers greater and more complete coverage than non-EHD coating. From the economic point of view, lower cost can be achieved for coated food because during EHD, smaller droplet size and thinner coating is produced.

  2. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard powder or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as-fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicate that if these coatings reach a temperature above 1100 C

  3. Cold-Sprayed AZ91D Coating and SiC/AZ91D Composite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging coating building technique, cold spraying has many advantages to elaborate Mg alloy workpieces. In this study, AZ91D coatings and AZ91D-based composite coatings were deposited using cold spraying. Coatings were prepared using different gas temperatures to obtain the available main gas temperature. Compressed air was used as the accelerating gas, and although magnesium alloy is oxidation-sensitive, AZ91D coatings with good performance were obtained. The results show that dense coatings can be fabricated until the gas temperature is higher than 500 °C. The deposition efficiency increases greatly with the gas temperature, but it is lower than 10% for all coating specimens. To analyze the effects of compressed air on AZ91D powder particles and the effects of gas temperature on coatings, the phase composition, porosity, cross-sectional microstructure, and microhardness of coatings were characterized. X-ray diffraction and oxygen content analysis clarified that no phase transformation or oxidation occurred on AZ91D powder particles during cold spraying processes with compressed air. The porosity of AZ91D coatings remained between 3.6% and 3.9%. Impact melting was found on deformed AZ91D particles when the gas temperature increased to 550 °C. As-sprayed coatings exhibit much higher microhardness than as-casted bulk magnesium, demonstrating the dense structure of cold-sprayed coatings. To study the effects of ceramic particles on cold-sprayed AZ91D coatings, 15 vol % SiC powder particles were added into the feedstock powder. Lower SiC content in the coating than in the feedstock powder means that the deposition efficiency of the SiC powder particles is lower than the deposition efficiency of AZ91D particles. The addition of SiC particles reduces the porosity and increases the microhardness of cold-sprayed AZ91D coatings. The corrosion behavior of AZ91D coating and SiC reinforced AZ91D composite coating were examined. The Si

  4. Introduction: Edible Coatings and Films to Improve Food Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book gives a history of the development and uses of edible coatings, detailed chapters on coating caracteristics, determination of coating properties, methods for making coatings, and discription of coating film formers (polysaccharieds, lipids, resins, proteins). The book also disucsses coatin...

  5. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for packaging...

  6. Coated woven materials and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, William J.; Carroll, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Coating of woven materials so that not only the outer surfaces are coated has been a problem. Now, a solution to that problem is the following: Woven materials are coated with materials, for example with metals or with pyrolytic carbon, which materials are deposited in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactions using a fluidized bed so that the porosity of the woven material is retained and so that the tiny filaments which make up the strands which are woven (including inner as well as outer filaments) are substantially uniformly coated.

  7. Biomedical coatings on magnesium alloys - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, H; Virtanen, S; Boccaccini, A R

    2012-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers research carried out in the field of degradable coatings on Mg and Mg alloys for biomedical applications. Several coating methods are discussed, which can be divided, based on the specific processing techniques used, into conversion and deposition coatings. The literature review revealed that in most cases coatings increase the corrosion resistance of Mg and Mg alloys. The critical factors determining coating performance, such as corrosion rate, surface chemistry, adhesion and coating morphology, are identified and discussed. The analysis of the literature showed that many studies have focused on calcium phosphate coatings produced either using conversion or deposition methods which were developed for orthopaedic applications. However, the control of phases and the formation of cracks still appear unsatisfactory. More research and development is needed in the case of biodegradable organic based coatings to generate reproducible and relevant data. In addition to biocompatibility, the mechanical properties of the coatings are also relevant, and the development of appropriate methods to study the corrosion process in detail and in the long term remains an important area of research. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Method of identifying defective particle coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E.; Whiting, Carlton D.

    1986-01-01

    A method for identifying coated particles having defective coatings desig to retain therewithin a build-up of gaseous materials including: (a) Pulling a vacuum on the particles; (b) Backfilling the particles at atmospheric pressure with a liquid capable of wetting the exterior surface of the coated particles, said liquid being a compound which includes an element having an atomic number higher than the highest atomic number of any element in the composition which forms the exterior surface of the particle coating; (c) Drying the particles; and (d) Radiographing the particles. By television monitoring, examination of the radiographs is substantially enhanced.

  9. Coated particles for lithium battery cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Pratt, Russell Clayton; Mullin, Scott Allen; Wang, Xiao-Liang

    2017-07-18

    Particles of cathodic materials are coated with polymer to prevent direct contact between the particles and the surrounding electrolyte. The polymers are held in place either by a) growing the polymers from initiators covalently bound to the particle, b) attachment of the already-formed polymers by covalently linking to functional groups attached to the particle, or c) electrostatic interactions resulting from incorporation of cationic or anionic groups in the polymer chain. Carbon or ceramic coatings may first be formed on the surfaces of the particles before the particles are coated with polymer. The polymer coating is both electronically and ionically conductive.

  10. Nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    CATLEDGE, S.A.; THOMAS, V.; VOHRA, Y.K.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing numbers of orthopaedic devices being implanted, greater emphasis is being placed on ceramic coating technology to reduce friction and wear in mating total joint replacement components, in order to improve implant function and increase device lifespan. In this chapter, we consider ultra-hard carbon coatings, with emphasis on nanostructured diamond, as alternative bearing surfaces for metallic components. Such coatings have great potential for use in biomedical implants as a result of their extreme hardness, wear resistance, low friction and biocompatibility. These ultra-hard carbon coatings can be deposited by several techniques resulting in a wide variety of structures and properties. PMID:25285213

  11. Method for partially coating laser diode facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Anil R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Bars of integral laser diode devices cleaved from a wafer are placed with their p regions abutting and n regions abutting. A thin BeCu mask having alternate openings and strips of the same width as the end facets is used to mask the n region interfaces so that multiple bars can be partially coated over their exposed p regions with a reflective or partial reflective coating. The partial coating permits identification of the emitting facet from the fully coated back facet during a later device mounting procedure.

  12. Impact of coated windows on visual perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude

    of a pilot study that investigated the impact of six coated glazings on daylight conditions in scale models. The study focused primarily on visual perception. Generally, the pilot study indicated that some types of coated glazings (especially solar protective coatings) significantly affect the perception......There is at present an architectural trend promoting the use of large glass facades in commercial and office buildings. These facades generate a large cooling and heating demand creating the need for combined solar-protective and low-emissitivity coated windows. This report describes the results...

  13. High speed PVD thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beele, W.; Eschendorff, G.

    2006-01-01

    The high speed PVD process (HS-PVD) combines gas phase coating synthesis with high deposition rates. The process has been demonstrated for high purity YSZ deposited as a chemically bonded top thermal barrier with columnar structure of EB-PVD features. The process can manufacture EB-PVD like coatings that match in regards to their TGO-formation and columnar structure. Coatings with a columnar structure formed by individual columns of 1/4 of the diameter of a classical EB-PVD type TBC have been deposited. These coatings have the potential to prove a significant reduction in thermal conductivity and in erosion performance. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Coatings for the NuSTAR mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Brejnholt, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    The NuSTAR mission will be the first mission to carry a hard X-ray(5-80 keV) focusing telescope to orbit. The optics are based on the use of multilayer coated thin slumped glass. Two different material combinations were used for the flight optics, namely W/Si and Pt/C. In this paper we describe...... the entire coating effort including the final coating design that was used for the two flight optics. We also present data on the performance verification of the coatings both on Si witness samples as well as on individual flight mirrors....

  15. Silica-Coated Liposomes for Insulin Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Dwivedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposomes coated with silica were explored as protein delivery vehicles for their enhanced stability and improved encapsulation efficiency. Insulin was encapsulated within the fluidic phosphatidylcholine lipid vesicles by thin film hydration at pH 2.5, and layer of silica was formed above lipid bilayer by acid catalysis. The presence of silica coating and encapsulated insulin was identified using confocal and electron microscopy. The native state of insulin present in the formulation was evident from Confocal Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Silica coat enhances the stability of insulin-loaded delivery vehicles. In vivo study shows that these silica coated formulations were biologically active in reducing glucose levels.

  16. Surface Roughness Reduction of Additive Manufactured Products by Applying a Functional Coating Using Ultrasonic Spray Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Deferme, Wim; Reddy, Naveen; D'Haen, Jan; Drijkoningen, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the high surface roughness of additive manufactured (AM) products, typically a post-treatment is required. Subtractive post-treatments are often performed by hand and are therefore expensive and time consuming, whereas conventional additive post-treatments, such as pneumatic spray coating, require large quantities of coating material. Ultrasonic spray coating, in contrast, is an additive post-treatment technology capable of applying coatings in an efficient way, resulting in less ma...

  17. Transfer of fissile material through shielding coatings in emergency heating of HTGR coated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, A.N.; Zhuravkov, S.G.; Koptev, M.A.; Kurepin, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement results of leakage dynamics of fissile material from the coated particles within a temperature range of 1200 + 2000 deg. C are given. The methods of carrying out the experiments are briefly described. The relation of the leakage rate of uranium-235 from CP (coated particles) with the pyrocarbonic coatings has been obtained. (author)

  18. Hydroxyapatite/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) double coating on magnesium for enhanced corrosion resistance and coating flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ji-Hoon; Li, Yuanlong; Kim, Sae-Mi; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag

    2013-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite was deposited on pure magnesium (Mg) with a flexible poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer to reduce the corrosion rate of Mg and enhance coating flexibility. The poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer was uniformly coated on Mg by a spraying method, followed by hydroxyapatite deposition on the poly(ε-caprolactone) using an aerosol deposition method. In scanning electron microscopy observations, inorganic/organic composite-like structure was observed between the hydroxyapatite and poly(ε-caprolactone) layers, resulting from the collisions of hydroxyapatite particles into the poly(ε-caprolactone) matrix at the initial stage of the aerosol deposition. The corrosion resistance of the coated Mg was examined using potentiodynamic polarization tests. The hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating remarkably improved the corrosion resistance of Mg in Hank's solution. In the in vitro cell tests, the coated Mg showed better cell adhesion compared with the bare Mg due to the reduced corrosion rate and enhanced biocompatibility. The stability and flexibility of hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy inspections after the coated Mg was deformed. The hydroxyapatite coating on the poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer revealed enhanced coating stability and flexibility without cracking or delamination during bending and stretching compared with the hydroxyapatite single coating. These results demonstrated that the hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating significantly improved the surface corrosion resistance of Mg and enhanced coating flexibility for use of Mg as a biodegradable implant.

  19. Effect of coating parameters on the microstructure of cerium oxide conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Benedict Y.; Edington, Joe; O' Keefe, Matthew J

    2003-11-25

    The microstructure and morphology of cerium oxide conversion coatings prepared under different deposition conditions were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The coatings were formed by a spontaneous reaction between a water-based solution containing CeCl{sub 3} and aluminum alloy 7075-T6 substrates. Microstructural characterization was performed to determine the crystallinity of the coatings and to obtain a better understanding of the deposition parameters on coating microstructure. The results of TEM imaging and electron diffraction analysis indicated that the as-deposited coating was composed of nanocrystalline particles of a previously unreported cerium compound. The particles of the coatings produced using glycerol as an additive were found to be much finer than those of the coatings prepared in the absence of glycerol. This indicates that glycerol may act as a grain refiner and/or growth inhibitor during coating deposition. After deposition, the coated panels were treated for 5 min in a phosphate sealing solution. The sealing treatment converted the as-deposited coating into hydrated cerium phosphate. Panels coated from solutions containing no glycerol followed by phosphate sealing performed poorly in salt fog tests. With glycerol addition, the corrosion resistance of the coatings that were phosphate sealed improved considerably, achieving an average passing rate of 85%.

  20. Quality of Coated Particles : Physical - Mechanical Characterization of Polymeric Film Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perfetti, G.

    2012-01-01

    All coated particle producers, when applying the coating layer(s) would like to know precisely what is the best coating system to use in order to answer customer’s requests. It is, therefore, of very high relevance for many industries, to have a clear understanding of what are the parameters I need