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Sample records for antipyretics

  1. ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITIES OF SOME SPECIES OF ANDROGRAPHIS WALL

    OpenAIRE

    Balu, S.; Boopathi, C. Alagesa; Elango, V.

    1993-01-01

    The antipyretic activities of the alcoholic extracts of three species of Andrographis Wall, were assayed at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight in pyrogenic polysaccharide – induced hyperpyrexia in male albino rats. All the extracts were found to be effective in the inhibition of pyrexia. The maximal antipyretic activity was found with the alcoholic extract of Andrographis alata Nees.

  2. Antipyretic and antinociceptive activity of Diospyros lotus L. in animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdur Rauf; Ghias Uddin; Bina S Siddiqui; Naveed Muhammad; Haroon Khan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate pharmacologically the traditional use of Diospyros lotus as antipyretic and antinociceptive in various animal models.Methods: In vivo experimental models were used in this study. Antipyretic activity of extract/fractions was evaluated in brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermic mice while antinociceptive activity was studied in acetic acid induced writhing test at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.Results:The crude extract strongly ameliorated the induced pyrexia during various assessment times. Upon fractionation, the antipyretic effects were strongly augmented by the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of the plant. However, hexane and butanol fractions were insignificant in their effect as antipyretic. The extract showed marked inhibition on the noxious simulation induced by post acetic acid injection. The effect was strongly supported by other fraction expect hexane.Conclusions:In short, our study scientifically validated the traditional use of the plant as antipyretic.

  3. ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF TBR-002, A HERBAL FORMULATION

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    Subramaniam, A.; Pushpangadan, P.; Rajasekharan, S; Latha, P G

    1995-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of a herbal formulation, TBR-002 was compared with that of andrographis paniculata, andrographis elongate and paracetamol in yeast-induced pyrexia in male albino rats, TBR-oo2 was found to be effective at an oral dose of 100 mg/kg in the inhibition if pyrexia. Its efficacy was almost comparable to that of paracetamol as well as andrographis elongate, the antipyretic activity of andrographis paniculata, the well known antipyretic herb, was found to be less than that of...

  4. Symptomatic intravenous antipyretic therapy: efficacy of metamizol, diclofenac, and propacetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborilová, Andrea; Mayer, Jirí; Pospísil, Zdenek; Korístek, Zdenek

    2002-12-01

    Fever is a common symptom in cancer patients. The most frequent causes of fever are infections, malignancy itself, various medications, transfusions, and allergy. Although it is necessary to treat the cause of fever, if possible, symptomatic fever management is also important. Surprisingly, little attention is paid to this topic in the medical literature, despite the fact that it is a very frequent problem. In order to support symptomatic fever therapy, we wanted to study the patients' discomfort accompanying fever and the beneficial effects of the symptomatic fever management. To the best of our knowledge, there is an absence of studies in this area, despite the fever discomfort can be an important reason for the antipyretic treatment, mainly in cancer patients. In this non-randomized open label pilot study, three intravenous antipyretics were tested in five groups of patients: diclofenac (75 mg, brief intravenous [IV] infusion) vs. metamizol (2500 mg or 1000 mg, brief IV infusion) vs. propacetamol (2000 mg or 1000 mg, slow IV injection or brief IV infusion). The study included 254 febrile episodes mainly in hemato-oncological patients with axillary temperature at least 38 degrees C. The main study endpoints were: changes in axillary temperature, improvement in patient comfort, and number and nature of adverse events. To support justification for symptomatic fever management in febrile patients, we asked the first 45 study subjects to fill in a questionnaire concerning their opinions about fever, fever-associated discomfort, and relief upon antipyretic therapy. All study medications had a significant antipyretic effect. However, metamizol at the dose 2500 mg was considered as the most effective, while propacetamol at the dose 1000 mg showed the lowest antipyretic efficacy. Concerning tolerability and adverse events, there were significant differences among the treatment groups. Diclofenac and metamizol (both 2500 mg and 1000 mg) were tolerated at best. All tested

  5. Measurement of antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and paracetamol in children.

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    Sheth, U K; Gupta, K; Paul, T; Pispati, P K

    1980-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of ibuprofen (Brufen) and paracetamol (Crocin) was compared in 22 children with pyrexia who received either ibuprofen or paracetamol in syrup form. Both axillary and rectal temperatures were recorded prior to drug administration and 1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 12 hours after dosing. Analysis of the results in terms of rate of temperature decrease and degree and duration of decrease in temperature indicated that both drugs produced significant reduction in temperature and in the rate of temperature decrease. The maximum effect of the two drugs was similar. However, ibuprofen was more effective than paracetamol at 6 and 8 hours after administration, and its duration of action was longer. The associated antipyretic and antiinflammatory features of ibuprofen could provide an advantage in the control of exudative forms of upper respiratory tract infections. PMID:6971880

  6. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

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    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po. showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  7. Use of ketoprofen as an antipyretic in cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Glew, A; Aviad, A D; Keister, D M; Meo, N J

    1996-01-01

    The antipyretic effectiveness of Ketoprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was investigated in pyretic cats with a variety of bacterial and viral infections. Cats were randomly assigned to receive either a broad-spectrum antibiotic or a broad-spectrum antibiotic plus ketoprofen. Body temperature was monitored 3 times daily, and attitude and appetite were evaluated once daily. The treatment groups were compared with respect to mean body temperatures, using a one-way analysis of varia...

  8. Antioxidant and antipyretic studies onPothos scandens L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thankarajan Sajeesh; Karuppusamy Arunachalam; Tangaraj Parimelazhagan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigatePothos scandensfor thein vitro antioxidant and antipyretic activity. Methods: Preliminary phytochemicals, total phenolics and flavonoid contents were analyzed in leaf, stem and root samples.In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by different assays such as2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging,2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power(FRAP)assay, phosphomolybdenum reduction assay, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide scavenging assay. The antipyretic activity of root methanol extract was studied by pyrexia induced by brewer’s yeast on Wistar albino rats at concentration of200and400 mg/kg using paracetamol as standard drug.Results: The total phenolics and tannin content were found to be higher in ethanol extract of stem, whereas total flavonoid content was higher in acetone extract of root. The methanol extract of root showed highest free radical scavenging activity in assays namelyABTS assay (8 221.5 μM TE/g extract),FRAP assay [514.4 mM Fe (Ⅱ)/g extract], hydrogen peroxide (60.3%)and nitric oxide scavenging assays(58.7%). The DPPHassay and superoxide radical assay results revealed that the ethanol extract of root has remarkable free radical scavenging capacity (IC500.284 mg/mL and 70.84%). The antipyretic studies on methanol extract of root showed significant reduction of temperature in pyrexia induced rats at200and 400 mg/kg doses. Conclusions:These findings justify thatPothos scandens can be a valuable natural antioxidant and antipyretic source which seemed to provide potential nutraceuticals for human health.

  9. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan Patel; Naveen Mahobia; Nitin Upwar; Naheed Waseem; Hetal Talaviya; Zalak Patel

    2010-01-01

    Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the pre...

  10. A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Mradu; Shaw, B. P; Mukherjee, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic–analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxici...

  11. Antioxidant and antipyretic properties of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosusleaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar; Kuruba Lakshman; Jayaveera KN; Devangam Sheshadri Shekar; Avalakondarayappa Arun Kumar; Bachappa Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Methanolic extract ofAmaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus) leaves was screened for antioxidant and antipyretic activities.Methods:Antioxidant activity was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazile(DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging,2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid(ABTS) radical scavenging assays and total phenolic content was also determined. Antipyretic activity of methanolic extract ofA. spinosus was measured by yeast induced pyrexia method at concentration of200 and400 mg/kg using paracetamol as standard drug.Results: Methanolic extract ofA. spinosusshowed potent antioxidant activity. The IC50 value was(87.50 ±3.52) μg/mL, (98.80±1.40) μg/mL,(106.25±0.20)μg/mL,(88.70±0.62) μg/mL and(147.50±2.61) μg/mL forDPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl, nitric oxide andABTSradical scavenging activities. Methanolic extract ofA. spinosus showed significant(P<0.01)antipyretic activity.

  12. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Mimusops elengi Linn

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    Purnima A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy′s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer′s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer′s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity.

  13. Antipyretic therapy. Comparison of rectal and oral paracetamol.

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    Keinänen, S; Hietula, M; Similä, S; Kouvalainen, K

    1977-08-17

    The absorption of paracetamol from syrup, tablet and two different suppository bases was compared in six adult volunteers using urinary excretion measurements. The total amount of paracetamol and its metabolites excreted and the peak excretion rates were lower from the suppository bases than from the oral dosage forms. Absorption was a little better from a polyethylene glycol suppository base than from a triglyceride base. The antipyretic efficacy of a paracetamol syrup and suppository at a dose of 10 mg/kg was compared in 30 children between the age of 4 months and 12 years, who had infections and a rectal temperature above 38.5 degrees C. Both dosage forms produced a significant decrease in temperature, the greatest fall being about 2 hours earlier with the oral dosage form. The syrup also seemed to be significantly (p less than 0.05) more effective (maximum fall of temperature 1.58 degrees C) in reducing fever than the suppository, which produced its greatest fall of temperature (1.24 degrees C) six hours after insertion of the suppository. From the practical point of view both forms can be regarded as safe and effective antipyretics. PMID:332506

  14. Study of Antipyretic Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats

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    V.I. Borikar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to screen the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. as per the method discribed by Bhalla et.al, (1971. Thirty six healthy rats weighing between 200-250gms were divided into six groups of six animals each, with 50% sex ratio. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 3 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 15% of brewer’s yeast and 2% gum acacia in normal saline sub-cutaneously below the nape of neck @ 1ml/100gm of animal weight. The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The extract showed marked antipyretic activity in a dose dependent manner. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 215-216

  15. Sensing of antipyretic carboxylates by simple chromogenic calix[4]pyrroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyabu, Ryuhei; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2005-06-15

    We present a simple, two- or three-step method for the synthesis of chromogenic octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole-based (OMCP) sensors for anions. Electrophilic aromatic substitution allows for converting the pyrrole moieties of OMCP into a dye. The formation of a sensor-anion complex results in partial charge transfer and a dramatic change in color. The absorption (UV-vis) and NMR titration experiments show that the chromogenic OMCPs sense anions administered as aqueous solutions, even at high ionic strength ( approximately 0.1 M NaCl), while displaying selectivity for pyrophosphate and carboxylate anions. The experiments with polyurethane sensor films show a strong response for aqueous carboxylates, such as antipyretics naproxen approximately ibuprofen > salicylate, without being biased by bicarbonate or carboxy termini of blood plasma proteins. PMID:15941245

  16. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine.

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    Backhouse, N; Delporte, C; Givernau, M; Cassels, B K; Valenzuela, A; Speisky, H

    1994-10-01

    Boldine, an antioxidant alkaloid isolated from Peumus boldus, exhibits a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced guinea pig paw edema test with an oral ED50 of 34 mg/kg. Boldine also reduces bacterial pyrogen-induced hyperthermia in rabbits to an extent which varied between 51% and 98% at a dose of 60 mg/kg p.o. In vitro studies carried out in rat aortal rings revealed that boldine is an effective inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, promoting 53% inhibition at 75 microM. The latter in vitro effect may be mechanistically linked to the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine exerted in vivo. PMID:7879695

  17. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis Linn. in different experimental models

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    Kumar Ashok B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of the whole plant extract of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV was screened for antinociceptive activity using the acetic acid writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice and for antipyretic activity using the yeast-induced pyrexia method in rats, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Significant (p<0.01 dose-dependent antinociceptive and antipyretic properties were observed with 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  18. Electron attachment to antipyretics: Possible implications of their metabolic pathways

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    Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A.; Modelli, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    The empty-level structures and formation of negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0-15 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals in a series of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), namely aspirin, paracetamol, phenacetin, and ibuprofen, were investigated in vacuo by electron transmission and dissociative electron attachment (DEA) spectroscopies, with the aim to model the behavior of these antipyretic agents under reductive conditions in vivo. The experimental findings are interpreted with the support of density functional theory calculations. The negative and neutral fragments formed by DEA in the gas phase display similarities with the main metabolites of these commonly used NSAIDs generated in vivo by the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes, as well as with several known active agents. It is concluded that xenobiotic molecules which possess pronounced electron-accepting properties could in principle follow metabolic pathways which parallel the gas-phase dissociative decay channels observed in the DEA spectra at incident electron energies below 1 eV. Unwanted side effects as, e.g., hepatoxicity or carcinogenicity produced by the NSAIDs under study in human organism are discussed within the "free radical model" framework, reported earlier to describe the toxic action of the well-known model toxicant carbon tetrachloride.

  19. Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation for the antipyretic effect of the seeds of Saraca asoca Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasmal S; Majumdar S; Gupta M; Mukherjee A; Mukherjee PK

    2012-01-01

    To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization, physiochemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity. Methods: Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical, phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations. Also, the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in Wistar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Results: After phytochemical screening, the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin, tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia. The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin (100 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.01) antipyretic activity when compared to the control group. The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature.Conclusions:The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods.

  20. MEDICINAL PLANTS AS A SOURCE OF ANTIPYRETIC AGENT IN TERAI REGION OF WESTERN NEPAL

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    Anant Gopal Singh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during 2009-2011 using semi-structured, open-ended questionnaires, informal interviews, and group discussions with traditional healers and senior citizens having thorough knowledge about plants and plant based remedies. During present study ten phytotherapeutic practices for management of different types of fever using 50 plant species as antipyretic agent were identified and documented. These species may be used for the development of new, cheap, and effective antipyretic agent of herbal origin. Further investigation of these plant species for herbal antipyretic agents will require safety and efficacy testing. There is an urgent need to formulate suitable conservation strategies for wildly growing medicinal plants to overcome their depletion from natural resources.

  1. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

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    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO. PMID:20645831

  2. Comparative evaluation of antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin in children with pyrexia of varied aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandoth, P W; Joshi, M K; Joshi, V R; Satoskar, R S

    1984-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin was compared in sixteen children with pyrexia due to upper respiratory tract infection and in twelve with fever due to other causes. All 28 children received ibuprofen (7 mg/kg of body-weight) and aspirin (15 mg/kg of body-weight) in a single dose on 2 consecutive days in a crossover manner. Rectal temperature was recorded prior to and at regular intervals up to 8 hours after drug administration. Analysis of the results indicate that ibuprofen and aspirin effectively lower temperature and the two drugs are comparable in their antipyretic activity. In conclusion, significant antipyretic activity, good tolerance profile and availability in syrup form make ibuprofen a useful substitute for aspirin in children with fever. PMID:6500169

  3. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethanolic extract of plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. Bark

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    Anil Kumar Singhal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. belongs to the family of "Lamiaceae," which is widely available in Tamil Nadu. Traditionally, plant extract is used to treat fever and common cold for children. The plant has not been yet studied pharmacologically for antipyretic activity. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the bark of plant G. prostratum (L. Benth. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 healthy white albino rats weighing 200 to 250 g were taken and divided into four groups of six animals each. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 4 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 12% of brewer′s yeast (at the dose 1 ml/100 g of animal weight in normal saline subcutaneously below the nape of neck. Ethanolic extract was given orally to groups II and III at the dose 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results are presented as mean΁SEM. Statistical analysis of data was performed using Dunnett′s test to study the difference among the mean. Results: The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The present results showed that ethanolic extract of bark of G. prostratum plant possess a significant antipyretic effect in yeast-induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. It was revealed that the extract showed dose-dependent antipyretic activity. At a dose of 200 mg/kg, it showed significant antipyretic activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of G. prostratum (L. Benth. plant has significant antipyretic activity when compared with the standard drug. So, it can be recommended for further studies.

  4. [On the antipyretic effect of paracetamol. Clinical investigation with two different forms of application (author's transl)].

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    Götte, R; Liedtke, R

    1978-01-01

    144 children, aged between 15 days and 12 years, suffering from febrile condition of various etiology, were treated with differentiated single doses of paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) in form of syrup, suppositories and a combination of syrup with the antihistamine doxylaminsuccinate. During investigation periods of four hours, applying reduced doses, the syrup application showed the same antipyretic effects as those obtained with paracetamol suppositories. When administering the combination with doxylaminsuccinate, the antipyretic effect was reduced and the psychomotoric superactivity did not improve. A control of the actual rectal dosage scheme for repetitive applications is recommended and the combination of paracetamol with sedatives is to be discussed. PMID:304522

  5. Comparative antipyretic activity of methanolic extracts of some species of Amaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar; Kuruba Lakshman; Jayaveera KN

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific validation for the antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis (Linn.), Amaranthus caudatus (Linn.) and Amaranthus spinosus (Linn.). Methods: The antipyretic activity of methanol extracts of all three plants at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was investigated by yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Paracetamol (150 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as reference drug and control group received distilled water. Rectal temperatures of all the rats were recorded and compared at 19 h, immediately before extract or vehicle or paracetamol administration, and again at 1 h interval up to 24 h by thermal probe Eliab themistor thermometer. Results: At 400 mg/kg dose all the three methanolic extracts showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in yeast provoked elevated temperature as compared with that of standard drug paracetamol, whereas 200 mg/kg dose is less effective when compared with higher dose (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results show that methanol extract of three plants of Amaranthus possesses a significant antipyretic effect in maintaining reducing yeast-induced elevated body temperature in rats and their effects were comparable to that of the standard antipyretic drug paracetamol.

  6. Antipyretic therapy in critically ill patients with established sepsis: a trial sequential analysis.

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    Zhongheng Zhang

    Full Text Available antipyretic therapy for patients with sepsis has long been debated. The present study aimed to explore the beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy for ICU patients with sepsis.systematic review and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials.Pubmed, Scopus, EBSCO and EMBASE were searched from inception to August 5, 2014.Mortality was dichotomized as binary outcome variable and odds ratio (OR was chosen to be the summary statistic. Pooled OR was calculated by using DerSimonian and Laird method. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by using the statistic I2. Trial sequential analysis was performed to account for the small number of trials and patients.A total of 6 randomized controlled trials including 819 patients were included into final analysis. Overall, there was no beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy on mortality risk in patients with established sepsis (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.50-2.05. The required information size (IS was 2582 and our analysis has not yet reached half of the IS. The Z-curve did not cross the O'Brien-Fleming α-spending boundary or reach the futility, indicating that the non-significant result was probably due to lack of statistical power.our study fails to identify any beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy on ICU patients with established diagnosis of sepsis. Due to limited number of total participants, more studies are needed to make a conclusive and reliable analysis.

  7. Antipyretic and antibacterial activity of Chloranthus erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verdcourt leaf extract: A popular folk medicine of Arunachal Pradesh

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    Tag, Hui; Nima D Namsa; Mandal, M; Kalita, P; Das, AK; Mandal, SC

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this work was to study the antipyretic and antibacterial activity of C. erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verdcourt leaf extract in an experimental albino rat model. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of C. erectus leaf (MECEL) was evaluated for its antipyretic potential on normal body temperature and Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rat’s model. While the antibacterial activity of MECEL against five Gram (−) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains and antimy...

  8. The Effect of Prophylactic Antipyretic Administration on Post-Vaccination Adverse Reactions and Antibody Response in Children: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Ranjan Das; Inusha Panigrahi; Sushree Samiksha Naik

    2014-01-01

    Background Prophylactic antipyretic administration decreases the post-vaccination adverse reactions. Recent study finds that they may also decrease the antibody responses to several vaccine antigens. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for a relationship between prophylactic antipyretic administration, post-vaccination adverse events, and antibody response in children. Methods A systematic search of major databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out till March 2014. ...

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of Kang 601 heji,a traditional Chinese oral liquid dosage form

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    Raphael; Nammahime; Alolga; Sarah; Wambui; Amadi; Vitus; Onoja; Assogba; Gabin; Assanhou; Moses; Muyaba; Said; Abasse; Kassim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of Kang 601 heji(K-601) as an anti-in flammatory and antipyretic agent using appropriate animal models.Methods: Carrageenan-induced rat paw and xylene-induced ear oedemas were models used to investigate anti-in flammatory actions of K-601. Lipopolysaccharide-induced pyrexia model was used to evaluate antipyretic activity in Wistar rats. The antiin flammatory and antipyretic mechanisms were evaluated by detecting prostaglandins E2, nitric oxide, interleukin-1b and tumour necrosis factora levels using appropriate reagents and ELISA kits.Results: The results revealed that K-601 reduced the level of in flammations in both antiin flammatory models in a dose-dependent manner. The same was true for the antipyretic model. The possible mechanisms of actions were through the inhibition of prostaglandins E2, interleukin-1b, tumour necrosis factora and nitric oxide.Conclusions: K-601 has proven anti-in flammatory and antipyretic actions. The findings provide a scientific basis for the use of K-601 as anti-in flammatory and antipyretic agent in traditional Chinese medicinal practice.

  10. Anti-inlfammatory and antipyretic properties of kang 601 heji, a traditional Chinese medicine oral liquid dosage form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael Nammahime Alolga; Sarah Wambui Amadi; Vitus Onoja; Assogba Gabin Assanhou; Moses Muyaba; Said Abasse Kassim

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of Kang 601 heji (K-601) as an anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agent using appropriate animal models. Methods:Carrageenan-induced rat paw and xylene-induced ear oedemas were models used to investigate anti-inflammatory actions of K-601. Lipopolysaccharide-induced pyrexia model was used to evaluate antipyretic activity in Wistar rats. The anti-inflammatory and antipyretic mechanisms were evaluated by detecting prostaglandins E2, nitric oxide, interleukin-1βand tumor necrosis factor-αlevels using appropriate reagents and ELISA kits. Results:The results revealed that K-601 reduced the level of inflammations in both anti-inflammatory models in a dose-dependent manner. The same was true for the antipyretic model. The possible mechanisms of actions were through the inhibition of prostaglandins E2, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-αand nitric oxide. Conclusions: K-601 has proven anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions. The findings provide a scientific basis for the use of K-601 as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agent in traditional Chinese medicinal practice.

  11. Experimental evaluation of antipyretic and analgesic activities of Amalakyadi Gana: An Ayurvedic formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Timbadiya, Manoj J.; Nishteswar, K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In Ayurvedic classics, the symptom fever is considered as a separate disease called Jwara. Acharya Sushruta has mentioned Amalakyadi Gana for treatment of all types of Jwara, which contains four drugs namely Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz.), Pippali (Piper longum L.), and Chitraka (Plumbago zeylenica L.). Aims: To evaluate the antipyretic and analgesic activity of Amalakyadi Gana in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Decoction ...

  12. Preliminary studies on local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr. in experimental animal models

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    Chakraborty A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Spilanthes acmella Murr. (Family: Compositae is a herb that grows throughout the tropics. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, fever, sore throat, and hemorrhoids. A tincture of the flowers is used to relieve toothache. The leaves and flowers produce numbness of the tongue when eaten as salad. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of S. acmella in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods : Aqueous extract of S. acmella Murr. (SAM was tested for local anesthetic action by (i intracutaneous wheal in guinea pigs and (ii plexus anesthesia in frogs. In both the models, 2% xylocaine was used as the standard drug. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Aspirin 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Result : The test drug in concentrations of 10% and 20% produced 70.36% and 87.02% anesthesia respectively by the intracutaneous wheal compared to 97.22% anesthetic effect produced by 2% xylocaine (P<0.001. The mean onset of anesthesia with the test drug was 5.33±0.57 min compared to 2.75±0.31 min (P<0.001 for the standard drug in the plexus anesthesia model. In the anti-pyretic model, ASA in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg produced dose-dependent reduction in mean temperature at various hours of observation. Conclusion : The present study shows that SAM has significant local anesthetic and antipyretic activities.

  13. Antinociceptive and Antipyretic Activities of Amaranthus Viridis Linn in Different Experimental Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok; Lakshman, Kuruba; Jayaveera, Korala Konta Narsimha; Shekar, Devangam Sheshadri; Muragan, Chinna Swamy Vel; Manoj, Bachappa

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV), was screened for antinociceptive activity using acetic acid induced writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice. In a similar way a screening exercise was carried out to determine the antipyretic potential of the extract using yeast induced pyrexia method in rats. Administration of the extracts was applied to both laboratory animals at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The results of th...

  14. Antipyretic, wound healing and antimicrobial activity of processed shell of the marine mollusc Cypraea moneta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grasian Immanuel; Berkmans Jude Thaddaeus; Muthusamy Usha; Ramasamy Ramasubburayan; Santhiyagu Prakash; Arunachalam Palavesam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Some of the products derived from marine organisms have been recommended in alternative system of medicine especially Siddha medicine for several treatments. Among the marine molluscs, Cypraea moneta shell has been used as siddha medicine from ancient days. But no systematic study has been done on its efficacy as antipyretic, wound healing and as antimicrobial agent. In the present study, the protective action of processed shell powder of C. moneta was evaluated by us in an animal model for the above treatments. Methods: C. moneta shell powder was prepared by standard method described in Siddha medicine. Then the antipyretic, wound healing as well as antimicrobial effect of the processed powder was tested in Wister albino rats. Results: By the intravenous injection of yeast cell suspension into albino rats, the antipyretic effect of the shell powder given orally was studied by various concentrations of 0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml. The body temperature of the albino rat became normal within a short duration (3h). The wound healing effect of the shell powder was very effective. In the thigh region 2 cm wound was made and the different dosages of shell powder (C -Control, SD - Single dose, DD -Double dosage and TD -Triple dose/day) were applied externally as ointment. The scar was produced in eighth day onwards in DD and TD. Antimicrobial activity was studied in three different oppurtunistic human pathogens such as Micrococcus sp., Proteus vulgaris andSalmonella abory in different concentrations (2, 3, 4 and 5% w/v) of C. moneta shell powder extract. Among these, Proteus vulgaris showed the maximum zone of inhibition (15mm size) against 5% w/v concentration, followed by Micrococcus sp. (12mm) and S. abory (10mm) against the same concentration. Conclusions: The present observation suggested that, processed C. moneta shell powder can be used as an alternative medicine, and it has antipyretic, wound healing as well as antimicrobial properties.

  15. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

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    Muhammad Naveed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME. Methods VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p. Results In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23% protection at 300mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90% at 150mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300mg/kg. Conclusions It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant.

  16. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Naveed; Saeed Muhammad; Khan Haroon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME). Methods VBME was employe...

  17. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIPYRETIC PROPERTIES OF THE RHIZOME OF COSTUS SPECIOSUS (KOEN.) SM

    OpenAIRE

    Binny, K; Kumar, Sunil G; Dennis, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Rhizome of Costus speciosus has been traditionally used for treating inflammatory and painful conditions. The objective of the present study was to provide a scientific basis for the traditional use. The ethanolic extract of the rhizome of Costus speciosus possesses anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. Antiinflammatory property was studied in carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation. Significant anti-inflammatory effect was found against carrageenan...

  18. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Yousef A.; Samud, Awatef M.; El-Taher, Fathy E.; ben-Hussin, Ghazala; Elmezogi, Jamal S.; Badryia F. Al-Mehdawi; Salem, Hanan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache.Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice.Methods: Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer’s-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to ...

  19. Acute Toxicity Study and Antipyretic Effect of the Brown Alga Turbinaria Conoides (J. Agardh) Kuetz

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S Sadish; Kumar, Y; Khan, M. S. Y; J Anbu; Sam, K G

    2009-01-01

    The active principles of brown alga, Turbinaria conoides (J.Agardh) Kuetz. (Sargassaceae) was extracted with n-hexane, cyclohexane, methanol and ethanol-water (1:1) and investigated for acute toxicity and antipyretic activity. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids and reducing sugars. Acute toxicity study was performed in Wistar rats after administration of extracts orally. No mortality was observed up to the dose of 5g/kg for methanol and ethano...

  20. Antipyretic and anticonvulsant activity of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed Muhammad; Muhammad Saeed; Haroon Khan; Naila Raziq; Syed Muhammad Ashhad Halimi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia (V. betonicifolia). Methods: The antipyretic effect was scrutinized using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia and anticonvlsion effect was tested using pentylenetetrazol and strychnine induced convulsion in mice. Results: N-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia demonstrated highly significant antipyretic activity during various assessment times (1-5 h) when challenged in yeast induced pyrexia test. The effect was in a dose dependent manner with maximum attenuation (82.50%) observed at 300 mg/kg i.p. When tested in pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion test, the 1st stage (Ear and facial twitching) and 2nd stage (Convulsive wave through the body) was 100% protected during 24 h at all the test doses (300, 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p.), while the latency time of remaining stages was significantly increased. The maximum effect was observed by n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia at 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p., as the latency time for generalized clonic-tonic seizure (5th stage) was increased up to 25.34 min. However, n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia had no protection in strychnine induced convulsion test. Conclusions:In conclusion, phytopharmacological studies provide scientific foundation to the folk uses of the plant in the treatment of pyrexia and neurological disorders.

  1. Antipyretic and anticonvulsant activity of n-hexane fraction of viola betonicifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed; Muhammad; Muhammad; Saeed; Haroon; Khan; Naila; Raziq; Syed; Muhammad; Ashhad; Halimi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia(V.betonicifolia).Methods:The antipyretic effect was scrutinized using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia and anticonvlsion effect was tested using pentylenetetrazol and strychnine induced convulsion in mice.Results:N-hexane fraction of V.betonicifolia demonstrated highly significant antipyretic activity during various assessment times(1-5 h)when challenged in yeast induced pyrexia test.The effect was in a dose dependent manner with maximum attenuation(82.50%)observed at 300 mg/kg i.p.When tested in pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion test,the 1st stage(Ear and facial twitching)and 2nd stage(Convulsive wave through the body)was 100%protected during 24 h at all the test doses(300,400 and 500 mg/kg i.p.),while the latency time of remaining stages was significantly increased.The maximum effect was observed by n-hexane fraction of V.betonicifolia at 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p.,as the latency time for generalized clonic-tonic seizure(5th stage)was increased up to 25.34 min.However,n-hexane fraction of V.betonicifolia had no protection in strychnine induced convulsion test.Conclusions:In conclusion,phytopharmacological studies provide scientific foundation to the folk uses of the plant in the treatment of pyrexia and neurological disorders.

  2. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of Acacia suma stem bark

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    Sumanta Mondal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acacia suma (Fabaceae is a medium sized erect tree found in the greater part of India. Present study was carried out for evaluation of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Acacia suma (EEAS at 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity. EEAS was screened for analgesic activity by writhing, tail flick, tail immersion and hot plate method in mice.  The anti-inflammatory activity by acute carrageenan induced paw oedema and chronic Freund’s adjuvant arthritis models in rats. The antipyretic activity was evaluated using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in rabbits. Acute toxicity in mice was found to be higher than 2000 mg/kg., p.o.  Analgesic activity revealed that test dose of 400 mg/kg, p.o., had significant activity in various tested models. Anti-inflammatory studies at 200 and 400 mg/kg., p.o., of extract showed significant activity (P<0.01.  The extract showed significant (P<0.01 effect on yeast-induced fever in rabbits in dose dependant manner. Preliminary phytochemical tests revealed presence of carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids, saponins and phenolic compounds in the ethanol extract of A. suma bark. The present study therefore provides scientific base for its use in the folklore remedies as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of natural origin.

  3. Evaluation of the antipyretic effect of ketorolac, acetaminophen, and placebo in endotoxin-induced fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, R; Maneatis, T; Bynum, L; Peterson, C; McMahon, F G

    1994-08-01

    The authors studied the antipyretic effect of three intramuscular doses of ketorolac (15, 30, and 60 mg), acetaminophen 650 mg PO, and placebo in healthy male volunteers using an endotoxin-induced fever model. In this double-blind, double-dummy, parallel study, subjects were assigned randomly with equal probability to one of the above treatment groups. Thirty minutes after study medication administration, a 20 unit per kilogram dose of reference standard endotoxin (RSE) was administered intravenously, and temperature was determined every 15 minutes for an 8-hour period. Compared with placebo, all active treatment groups demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in both adjusted area under the temperature-by-time curve (AAUC) and the maximum increase over baseline temperature (dTmax). Furthermore, the 30 mg intramuscular dose of ketorolac demonstrated approximately the same antipyretic activity as the 650 mg oral dose of acetaminophen, and there was a statistically significant dose response across the three ketorolac doses studied (P < .0001). The majority of side effects reported during this study were symptoms associated with fever, including chills, headache, myalgia, and dizziness, all of which are effects of RSE. The frequency of side effects tended to be less in the treatment groups with the greatest antipyretic activity. PMID:7962674

  4. In vivo screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves for antinociceptive and antipyretic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed Muhammad; Barkatullah; Muhammad Ibrar; Haroon Khan; Muhammad Saeed; Amir Zada Khan; Waqar Ahmad Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves (SLO) for acute toxicity, antinociceptive, antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities in various animal models. Methods: SLO were extracted using modified Clevenger type apparatus. Acute toxicity test was used in mice to observe its safety level. Antinociceptive activity of SLO was evaluated in acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests. Yeast induced hyperthermic mice and pentylenetetrazole induced convulsive mice were used for the assessment of its antipyretic and anticonvulsant profile respectively. Results: Substantial safety was observed for SLO in acute toxicity test. SLO showed a high significant activity in acetic acid induced writhing test in a dose dependent manner with maximum pain attenuation of 68.48%at 200 mg/kg i.p. However, it did not produce any relief in thermal induced pain at test doses. When challenged against pyrexia evoked by yeast, SLO manifested marked amelioration in hyperthermic mice, dose dependently. Maximum anti-hyperthermic activity (75%) was observed at 200 mg/kg i.p. after 4 h of drug administration. Nevertheless, SLO had no effect on seizures control and mortality caused by pentylenetetrazole. Conclusions:In vivo studies of SLO showed prominent antinociceptive and antipyretic activities with ample safety profile and thus provided pharmacological base for the traditional uses of the plant in various painful conditions and pyrexia. Additional detail studies are required to ascertain its clinical application.

  5. Acute toxicity study and antipyretic effect of the brown alga Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh) Kuetz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Sadish; Kumar, Y; Khan, M S Y; Anbu, J; Sam, K G

    2009-01-01

    The active principles of brown alga, Turbinaria conoides (J.Agardh) Kuetz. (Sargassaceae) was extracted with n-hexane, cyclohexane, methanol and ethanol-water (1:1) and investigated for acute toxicity and antipyretic activity. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids and reducing sugars. Acute toxicity study was performed in Wistar rats after administration of extracts orally. No mortality was observed up to the dose of 5 g/kg for methanol and ethanol-water (1:1) extracts whereas n-hexane and cyclohexane extracts were found to be toxic at the dose levels of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg respectively. In biochemical analysis, n-hexane, cyclohexane and ethanol-water (1:1) extracts caused a significant (P<0.01) increase in serum cholesterol, protein and alkaline phosphatase levels. In haematological studies, a significant difference was observed for cyclohexane and ethanol-water (1:1) extracts in polymorphs, lymphocytes and eosinophils when compared to the control. Antipyretic activity of extracts (100-400 mg/kg doses) was carried out on yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Cyclohexane extract exhibited more significant antipyretic activity (P<0.01) than the other extracts at a dose of 200 mg/kg (54.43%), which was comparable to that of paracetamol at a dose of 33 mg/kg. The findings validated the use of this brown alga in traditional cure of children's fever. PMID:20448848

  6. Pharmacognostical,phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation for the antipyretic effect of the seeds of Saraca asoca Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasmal; S; Majumdar; S; Gupta; M; Mukherjee; A; Mukherjee; PK

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization,physiochomical evaluation,preliminary phylochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity.Methods:Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical,phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations.Also,the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in Wislar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg.Results:After phytochemical screening,the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin,tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia.The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin(100 mg/kg)showed significant(P<0.01)antipyretic activity when compared to the control group.The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature.Conclusions:The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phylochemieal met hods.

  7. Rectal Diclofenac Versus Rectal Paracetamol: Comparison of Antipyretic Effectiveness in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Haji Rezaei, Mostafa; Aalinezhad, Marzieh; Sarami, Golbahareh; Rangraz, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is the most common complaint in pediatric medicine and its treatment is recommended in some situations. Paracetamol is the most common antipyretic drug, which has serious side effects such as toxicity along with its positive effects. Diclofenac is one of the strongest non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs, which has received little attention as an antipyretic drug. Objectives This study was designed to compare the antipyretic effectiveness of the rectal form of Paracetamol and Diclofenac. Patients and Methods This double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 children aged six months to six years old. One group was treated with rectal Paracetamol suppositories at 15 mg/kg dose and the other group received Diclofenac at 1 mg/kg by rectal administration (n = 40). Rectal temperature was measured before and one hour after the intervention. Temperature changes in the two groups were compared. Results The average rectal temperature in the Paracetamol group was 39.6 ± 1.13°C, and 39.82 ± 1.07°C in the Diclofenac group (P = 0.37). The average rectal temperature, one hour after the intervention, in the Paracetamol and the Diclofenac group was 38.39 ± 0.89°C and 38.95 ± 1.09°C, respectively (P = 0.02). Average temperature changes were 0.65 ± 0.17°C in the Paracetamol group and 1.73 ± 0.69°C in the Diclofenac group (P < 0.001). Conclusions In the first one hour, Diclofenac suppository is able to control the fever more efficient than Paracetamol suppositories. PMID:26889398

  8. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neeraj Kumar Saini; Manmohan Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) leaves extract using different models in rats. Methods:Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 300, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 days. Analgesic activity was evaluated using tail immersion and formalin induced paw licking models in rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Antipyretic activity was evaluated using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia model in rats. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract were given at dose of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 days. This indicated that the methanol extract was safe up to a single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly increased the latency period in the tail immersion test, reduced the licking time in both the neurogenic and inflammatory phases in the formalin test. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly prevented increase in volume of paw edema. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract at the doses of (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly decreased the rectal temperature of the rats. Conclusions: This study exhibites that methanolic T.capensis leaves extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity which may be mediated by the central and peripheral mechanisms.

  9. Antipyretic activity of the extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Wantana Reanmongkol; Arunporn Itharat

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. (H. sabdariffa) on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were examined. Anti-inflammatory activity was also investigated on carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats. No acute toxicity was observed in mice after oral administration of the ethanol and aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa calyces at the dose of 15 g/kg. Oral administration of th...

  10. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmal Kumar Subedi; S. M. Abdur Rahman; Mohammad Ahsanul Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) inhibition of writhing responses ...

  11. The effect of prophylactic antipyretic administration on post-vaccination adverse reactions and antibody response in children: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Das

    Full Text Available Prophylactic antipyretic administration decreases the post-vaccination adverse reactions. Recent study finds that they may also decrease the antibody responses to several vaccine antigens. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for a relationship between prophylactic antipyretic administration, post-vaccination adverse events, and antibody response in children.A systematic search of major databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out till March 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing prophylactic antipyretic treatment versus placebo post-vaccination in children ≤ 6 years of age were included. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed the studies for methodological quality, and extracted data [PROSPERO registration: CRD42014009717].Of 2579 citations retrieved, a total of 13 RCTs including 5077 children were included in the review. Prophylactic antipyretic administration significantly reduced the febrile reactions (≥ 38.0 °C after primary and booster vaccinations. Though there were statistically significant differences in the antibody responses between the two groups, the prophylactic PCM group had what would be considered protective levels of antibodies to all of the antigens given after the primary and booster vaccinations. No significant difference in the nasopharyngeal carriage rates (short-term and long-term of H. influenzae or S. pneumoniae serotypes was found between the prophylactic and no prophylactic PCM group. There was a significant reduction in the local and systemic symptoms after primary, but not booster vaccinations.Though prophylactic antipyretic administration leads to relief of the local and systemic symptoms after primary vaccinations, there is a reduction in antibody responses to some vaccine antigens without any effect on the nasopharyngeal carriage rates of S. pneumoniae & H. influenza serotypes. Future trials and surveillance programs should also aim at

  12. Metabolomics of the Antipyretic Effects of Bubali Cornu (Water Buffalo Horn) in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jinjun; Duan, Jin-ao; Zhu, Zhenhua; Liu, Pei; Bian, Yong; Shang, Er-xin; Qian, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Bubali Cornu (water buffalo horn, WBH) has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as an effective treatment for heat. In the present study, we have carried out a metabolomics profiling study on plasma and urine samples to explore potential biomarkers and determine how WBH exerts its antipyretic effects in yeast-induced pyrexia at a metabolomic level. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), together with multivariate statistical analysis, was used to detect and identify potential biomarkers associated with pyrexia and with WBH treatment. In total, sixteen endogenous metabolites were identified in plasma samples and twenty-one metabolites were detected in urine samples. The biomarkers identified in this study, using metabolic pathway analysis (MetPA), are involved in glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid, amino acid, sphingolipid, and purine metabolism, all of which are disturbed in rats with pyrexia. As a result, WBH affect arachidonic acid metabolism and oxidative stress in yeast-induced pyrexia rats chiefly. The present study determines the important substances underlying the antipyretic efficacy of WBH at a metabolic level. It might pave the way for further investigations into the mechanisms of action of other animal horn-derived traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). PMID:27384078

  13. Antipyretic activity of the extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. in experimental animals

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    Wantana Reanmongkol

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. (H. sabdariffa on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were examined. Anti-inflammatory activity was also investigated on carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats. No acute toxicity was observed in mice after oral administration of the ethanol and aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa calyces at the dose of 15 g/kg. Oral administration of the ethanol extract at the dose of 800 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of contortions and stretchings induced by acetic acid in mice. The aqueous extracts had no effect on this test. Neither the ethanol nor aqueous extract had an effect in the formalin and hot plate tests in mice. The ethanol and the vacuum dried extract of H. sabdariffa calyces (200-800 mg/kg, p.o. decreased the yeast-induced fever in rats. The H. sabdariffa extract had no effect on carrageenininduced paw edema in rats. These results suggest that the ethanol and aqueous extract (vacuum dry of H. sabdariffa calyces possess antipyretic action through mechanisms that are different from that of aspirin.

  14. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Nirmal Kumar; Rahman, S M Abdur; Akbar, Mohammad Ahsanul

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P < 0.001) after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. PMID:26977173

  15. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

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    Nirmal Kumar Subedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P<0.001 and P<0.05 inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P<0.001 after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins.

  16. Study on antinociceptive,antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of Traditional Medicinal plant:Urtica macrorrhiza Hand-Mazz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yongna; Reanmongkol Wantana; Bouking Pisit; Li Zhongkun; Zhang Rongping

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Pharmacological activities of the aqueous extract from the stem of U. macrorrhiza on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever,anti-inflammatory effect in carageenin induced paw edema in rats, were examined. The LD50 value of intraperitoneally injected U.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Pyretic Activity of the Leaf, Root and Saponin Fraction from Vernonia amygdalina

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    P.C. Adiukwu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that Vernonia amygdalina possess saponin as one of the bitter phyto-constituents. This study was aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of the aqueous extract of the leaf, root and saponin fraction from the herb. Standard procedures using ear thickness measurement in xylene induced inflammation and anal temperature readings in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced pyrexia in rats were followed. Data indicated significant (p≤0.05 inhibitory activity for all the dose levels of the extracts in the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic evaluations. Saponin fraction at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg with 10.5 and 19.6% inhibition respectively, showed significant (p≤0.05 anti-inflammatory activity. The antipyretic evaluation of the saponin fraction showed no anal temperature reduction at 50 mg/kg dose level. Finding suggests the antipyretic and non-steroid like anti-inflammatory activity of the saponin fraction. This may partly explain the observed activity of the herbal extract which has found use traditionally as remedy for similar ailments.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties of Spirulina platensis and Spirulina lonar: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Mohamed, Nor Azura; Ahmad, Zuraini; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Shamsuddin, Lokman; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd Sofian; Kadir, Arifah Abdul

    2014-09-01

    Spirulina spp. is a blue-green algae belongs to the family of Oscillatoriaceae, which having diverse biological activity. The aim of this current study was to evaluate and compare the anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory activity of Spirulina platensis/SP and Spirulina lonar/SL extracts. In the anti-pyretic study, the ability to reduce the rectal temperature of rats induced pyrexia with 2g/kg Brewer's Yeast (BY) was performed. Rats were dosed either 2 or 4 mg/kg SP or SL. Rectal temperature was taken every hour for 8 hours. Results shown that there were significant dose-dependent (p<0.05) reduction of both treatments. However, SP treatment revealed faster reduction in rectal temperature. For anti-inflammatory activity, the reduction in the volume of paw edema induced by Prostaglandin E2 (100 IU/rat intraplantar) was measured. Rats were dosed orally with 2 or 4 mg/kg SP or SL. The paw edema was measured every 30 minutes for 4 hours using plethysmometer. Results had shown a significant dose dependent reduction in diameter of paw edema (p<0.05). The finding suggests that SP and SL extracts have anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, SP was found to be more effective than SL as anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25176383

  19. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Adenema hyssopifolium G. Don in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiyalu Rajasekaran; Ramasamy Arivukkarasu; Shanmugasundaram Murugesh

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate extract of Adenema hyssopifolium (AHEAE) on normal body temperature and brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia rats. Methods:Preliminary phytochemical tests, acute toxicity tests and antipyretic evaluation were carried out in ethyl acetate extract of Adenema hyssopifolium. Two doses of the extract (300 or 600 mg/kg orally) and standard antipyretic agent, paracetamol at a dose of 150 mg/kg were administered to various group of the rats. Mean rectal temperature before and after treatment was noted. Results:The phytochemical analysis of AHEAE revealed the presence of flavonoid and iridoid glycosides as major phytoconstituents. The administration of AHEAE at a dose of 300 or 600 mg/kg produced significant reduction (P<0.001 and P<0.01) of the body temperature in normal and pyrexia rats on a dose dependent manner. The antipyretic influence of AHEAE was comparable to that of standard antipyretic agent, paracetamol (150 mg/kg), and onset of action and reduction in pyrexia towards normal body temperature was delayed when compared to paracetamol treatment. At dose of 600 mg/kg, AHEAE reduced pyrexia to normal body temperature at 4 h after its administration compared to reduction of pyrexia to normal body temperature at 2 h by standard drug. The reduction of fever was consistent in paracetamol group from 2 to 4 h after its administration to normal body temperature compared to AHEAE treatments. Conclusions:Our present results corroborate with the traditional notion of Adenema hyssopifolium G. DON that is being used as an effective cure of fever and add authenticity to claim of indigenous healers that the taxon is a potential antipyretic agent.

  20. Analgesic and antipyretic activity of Curcuma longa rhizome extracts in wister rats

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    S. Neha

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain analgesic and antipyretic activities of rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa in Wister rats. Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg by oral, single dose treatment for seven days revealed significant difference (P<0.05, 0.01 in reaction time in terms of analgesic activity before and after treatments which was comparable to analgin (10 mg/kg b wt. and were ineffective in reversal of brewers yeast induced pyrexia. Solvent yield of these extracts was 20 percent and color dark brown and reddish brown with solid and semisolid consistency respectively. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000: 304-306

  1. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling to Study the Antipyretic Effect of Qingkailing Injection on Pyrexia Model Rats

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    Zhixin Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qingkailing injection (QKLI is a modern Chinese medicine preparation derived from a well-known classical formulation, An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan. Although the clinical efficacy of QKLI has been well defined, its severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs were extensively increased. Through thorough attempts to reduce ADR rates, it was realized that the effect-based rational use plays the key role in clinical practices. Hence, the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD model was introduced in the present study, aiming to link the pharmacokinetic profiles with the therapeutic outcomes of QKLI, and subsequently to provide valuable guidelines for the rational use of QKLI in clinical settings. The PK properties of the six dominant ingredients in QKLI were compared between the normal treated group (NTG and the pyrexia model group (MTG. Rectal temperatures were measured in parallel with blood sampling for NTG, MTG, model control group (MCG, and normal control group (NCG. Baicalin and geniposide exhibited appropriate PK parameters, and were selected as the PK markers to map the antipyretic effect of QKLI. Then, a PK-PD model was constructed upon the bacalin and geniposide plasma concentrations vs. the rectal temperature variation values, by a two-compartment PK model with a Sigmoid Emax PD model to explain the time delay between the drug plasma concentration of PK markers and the antipyretic effect after a single dose administration of QKLI. The findings obtained would provide fundamental information to propose a more reasonable dosage regimen and improve the level of individualized drug therapy in clinical settings.

  2. Analysis of Adverse Reaction of Analgesics, Antipyretics and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Prescribed by Physicians of Health Care Facilities in Podilskyi Region during 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Stepaniuk, N. H.; Hladkykh, F. V.; Basarab, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of medicines rational use exists all over the world. It concerns particularly analgesics, antipyretics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In Ukraine the side effects caused by non-steroidal antiphlogistics rank the second place according to the prevalence among all registered cases.The objective of the research was to analyze adverse drug reaction report forms concerning adverse reactions caused by the use of NSAIDs, analgesics, antipyretics, and were submitted du...

  3. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice

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    Yousef A. Taher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache. Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice. Methods: Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity and the antipyretic effects, respectively. The oil was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. at a dose of 33 mg/kg body weight and the effects were compared with reference drugs. Results: In the antinociceptive test, mice treated with clove oil exhibited significantly decreased acetic-acid-induced writhing movements by a maximum of 87.7% (p<0.01 compared with a decrease of 77.7% (p<0.01 in response to aspirin injection (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.. Similarly, in the hot plate test, clove oil significantly increased the reaction latency to pain after 60 min by 82.3% (p<0.05 compared with morphine value of 91.7% (p<0.01. In addition, clove oil and indomethacin produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by respectively 50.6% (p<0.05 and 70.4% (p<0.01 inhibition of mouse paw edema induced by carrageenan. Furthermore, clove oil significantly attenuated the hyperthermia induced by yeast at ΔT-max by 2.7°C (p<0.001, and time of peak effects was 30–180 min compared with a paracetamol value ΔT-max of 3.2°C (p<0.001. The estimated i.p. LD50 of clove oil was 161.9 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the oil showed the presence of eugenol. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate the potential pharmacological properties of clove oil and provide further a support for its reported use in folk medicine.

  4. Estimation of the novel antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects of silymarin in Albino rats and mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Mahmoud; Amin; Mahmoud; Soliman; Arbid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the other pharmacological actions of silymarin in Albino rats and mice such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects. Methods: Rats were injected intramuscularly with pyrogenic dose of brewer’s yeast for the antipyretic test of silymarin. Another group of rats injected with 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan solution in saline at the subplanter area of the right hind paw for the anti-inflammatory test of silymarin. Another group of mice tested by hot plate method for determination of antinociceptive effect of silymarin. Hyperlipidemia was induced using high fat diet for 2 months to estimate the antihyperlipidemic activity of silymarin. Results: Silymarin showed a significant antipyretic effect of both doses(50 and 100 mg/kg) compared with control untreated group. Moreover, silymarin elucidated a significant anti-inflammatory effect of both doses reflected on the decrease of the rat paw edema every hour interval for 4 h after administration in comparison with control positive group. By the same taken, both doses of silymarine revealed a significant antinociceptive action in hot plate method at 30 and 60 min post administration. Besides, it lowered significantly the serum levels of prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta after 2 h of silymarin administration in carrageenan induced rat paw edema besides the significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and significantly elevated high density lipoprotein after 2 weeks of silymarin administration. Conclusions: These outcomes delivered a new vision into the possible pharmacological mechanisms by which silymarin advances antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects.

  5. Antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of hydroethanolic extract from Macrosiphonia velame (A. St.-Hil.) M. Arg. in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Vicente Ribeiro; Regilane Matos da Silva; Joaquim Corsino da Silva Lima; Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins

    2010-01-01

    Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae), popularly known as "velame-branco", is mainly used for treating inflammatory conditions. The antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of the hydroethanolic extract of the xylopodium from M. velame (HEMv) were evaluated using several animal models. HEMv showed low acute oral toxicity with LD50 of 4.176 ± 218.5 mg/kg in mice. In tests of carrageenan and dextran-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats, and croton oil-induced...

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Pyretic Activity of the Leaf, Root and Saponin Fraction from Vernonia amygdalina

    OpenAIRE

    P.C. Adiukwu; F.I.B. Kayanja; G. Nambatya; B. Adzu; S. Twinomujuni; O. Twikirize; A. A. Ganiyu; E. Uwiduhaye; E. Agwu; J.K. Tanayen; P. Nuwagira; P. Buzaare

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that Vernonia amygdalina possess saponin as one of the bitter phyto-constituents. This study was aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of the aqueous extract of the leaf, root and saponin fraction from the herb. Standard procedures using ear thickness measurement in xylene induced inflammation and anal temperature readings in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced pyrexia in rats were followed. Data indicated significant (p≤0.05) inhibitory activity ...

  7. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wibool Ridtitid; Peerati Ruangsang; Wantana Reanmongkol; Malinee Wongnawa

    2007-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The results revealed that the extract at test doses produced a significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h with an inhibition of paw edema of 8.6% (P

  8. STUDIES OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY, ANTIPYRETIC AND ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TRADITIONAL HERBAL DRUG ON RODENTS

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    Gupta Mradu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of combination of stems of Tinospora cordifolia, fruits of Emblica officinalis and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus has been used as traditional herbal drug in Indian medicine system for treatment of fever, body ache, joint pain and inflammation. The collected botanicals were subject to physiochemical, pharmacognostical & phytochemical screening before animal experiments. After acute toxicity studies, anti-inflammatory effect was assessed using carrageen induced paw oedema test and antipyretic effect using yeast induced pyrexia method. Tail immersion, hot plate and writhings test were used for determining the analgesic properties. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of polyphenolic flavonoids, tannin and saponins. Significant anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties were noticed in dose dependant manner after aqueous extract administration especially at 600 mg/kg dose. These test drug activities were sustained and comparable to the standard drugs while exhibiting no acute toxicity. Aqueous extract of test drug possesses significantly high anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties without any acute toxicity possibly due to presence of flavonoids.

  9. Plasma metabolomic profiling to reveal antipyretic mechanism of Shuang-huang-lian injection on yeast-induced pyrexia rats.

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    Xiaoyan Gao

    Full Text Available Shuang-huang-lian injection (SHLI is a famous Chinese patent medicine, which has been wildly used in clinic for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, influenza, etc. The existing randomized controlled trial (RCT studies suggested that SHLI could afford a certain anti-febrile action. However, seldom does research concern the pharmacological mechanisms of SHLI. In the current study, we explored plasma metabolomic profiling technique and selected potential metabolic markers to reveal the antipyretic mechanism of SHLI on yeast-induced pyrexia rat model using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis and pattern recognition techniques. We discovered a significant perturbance of metabolic profile in the plasma of fever rats and obvious reversion in SHLI-administered rats. Eight potential biomarkers, i.e. 1 3-hydeoxybutyric acid, 2 leucine, 3 16:0 LPC, 4 allocholic acid, 5 vitamin B2, 6 Cys-Lys-His, 7 18:2 LPC, and 8 3-hydroxychola-7, 22-dien-24-oic acid, were screened out by OPLS-DA approach. Five potential perturbed metabolic pathways, i.e. 1 valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, 2 glycerophospholipid metabolism, 3 ketone bodies synthesis and degradation, 4 bile acid biosynthesis, and 5 riboflavin metabolism, were revealed to relate to the antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI. Overall, we investigated antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI at metabolomic level for the first time, and the obtained results highlights the necessity of adopting metabolomics as a reliable tool for understanding the holism and synergism of Chinese patent drug.

  10. Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, and Anti-pyretic Effects of Origanum majorana Ethanolic Extract in Experimental Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation, various biological studies (toxicological, pharmacological, biochemical and histopathological) were carried out on Origanum majorana ethanolic extract. The acute toxicity study revealed that 0. majorana ethanolic extract is quietly safe. Both doses (0.25 and 0.5 g/kg b.wt.) of 0. majorana ethanolic extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory (acute and systemic), analgesic, and anti-pyretic effect. Moreover, histopathological findings of stomach and intestine of irradiated rats revealed that both doses of tested extract possess a gastrointestinal protective effect against radiation induced gastritis and enteritis

  11. ISOLATION OF PRELIMINARY PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LINN. LEAVES EXTRACTS

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    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present studies that Isolation of preliminary phytoconstituents and anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Calotropis gigantea linn. Leaves Extracts. Therapeutic use of plants for the treatment of human illnesses dates back over man millennia. Evidence of their effectiveness in the diagnosis, cure and prevention of disease states exists in every culture throughout the world. Today “traditional medicine,” characterized by the use of herbs and other natural products still remains a regular component of health care in countries such as China, Japan, India, South America and Egypt. The search for anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent in modern was marked by the introduction of salicin for the treatment of inflammatory swellings due to rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis. The ethanol extract and distilled water extract showed good significant reduction in paw oedema as compared to control group, where as Petroleum ether (60-800C extract, Chloroform extract, Ethyl acetate, n-Butanol has showed comparatively less significant reduction in paw oedema volume. The chloroform and n-butanol extract showed good significant reduction in rectal temperature as compare to control group, where as pet. ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and distilled water extracts showed less significant reduction in rectal temperature. Hence, to put into the active principle of Calotropis gigantea linn like glycoside, sterols, carbohydrate, flavonoids, terpenoide may be responsible for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.

  12. Antipyretic and antioxidant activities of 5-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles in rats

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    J.S.M. Pasin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of eight 5-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-1-carboxyamidepyrazoles (TFDPs on rat body temperature and baker’s yeast-induced fever. TFDPs or vehicle (5% Tween 80 in 0.9% NaCl, 5 mL/kg were injected subcutaneously and rectal temperature was measured as a function of time in 28-day-old male Wistar rats (N = 5-12 per group. Antipyretic activity was determined in feverish animals injected with baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspension, 0.135 mg/kg, 10 mL/kg, ip. 3-Ethyl- and 3-propyl-TFDP (140 and 200 μmol/kg, respectively, 4 h after yeast injection attenuated baker’s yeast-induced fever by 61 and 82%, respectively. These two effective antipyretics were selected for subsequent analysis of putative mechanisms of action. We then determined the effects on cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2 activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH oxidation in vitro, on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β levels and on leukocyte counts in the washes of peritoneal cavities of rats injected with baker’s yeast. While 3-ethyl- and 3-propyl-TFDP did not reduce baker’s yeast-induced increases of IL-1β or TNF-α levels, 3-ethyl-TFDP caused a 42% reduction in peritoneal leukocyte count. 3-Ethyl- and 3-propyl-TFDP did not alter COX-1 or COX-2 activities in vitro, but presented antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay with an IC50 of 39 mM (25-62 and 163 mM (136-196, respectively. The data indicate that mechanisms of action of these two novel antipyretic pyrazole derivatives do not involve the classic inhibition of the COX pathway or pyrogenic cytokine release.

  13. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic properties of the aqueous extract of Clematis brachiata leaf in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Mohammad; Appidi, Jaipal R; Yakubu, Musa T; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2010-06-01

    Clematis brachiata Thunb. (Ranunculaceae) is used as a folk remedy for the treatment of pain, fever and inflammatory ailments. Aqueous extract of Clematis brachiata leaf was screened for its phytochemical constituents. The anti-inflammatory investigations were carried out using carrageenan and histamine-induced edema models; acetic acid writhing, formalin-induced pain and tail immersion models were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity while a Brewer's yeast-induced hyperthermia model was employed for the antipyretic experiment. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. The extract at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight significantly (PClematis brachiata leaves can be employed in the management of inflammation, pain and fever. These activities may be due in part to the flavonoid content of the extract. PMID:20645742

  14. Randomized controlled study of the antipyretic efficacy of oral paracetamol, intravenous paracetamol, and intramuscular diclofenac in patients presenting with fever to the emergency department

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    Paramba FC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Firjeeth C Paramba,1 Vamanjore A Naushad,1 Nishan Purayil,1 Osama H Mohammed,1 Prem Chandra21Emergency Department, Alkhor Hospital, 2Medical Research Department, Hamad Medical Corporation, QatarBackground: Fever is a common problem in adults visiting the emergency department. Extensive studies have been done in children comparing the efficacy of various antipyretics. However, studies on the efficacy of antipyretic drugs in adults are very scarce. To the best of our knowledge, no controlled trial has been carried out comparing the antipyretic efficacy of paracetamol (oral and intravenous and intramuscular diclofenac in adults. Methods: In this parallel-group, open-label trial, participants aged 14–75 years presenting with fever who had a temperature of more than 38.5°C were enrolled and treated. Participants were randomly allocated to receive treatment with 1,000 mg oral paracetamol (n = 145, 1,000 mg intravenous paracetamol (n = 139, or 75 mg intramuscular diclofenac (n = 150. The primary outcome was degree of reduction in mean oral temperature at 90 minutes. The efficacy of diclofenac versus oral and intravenous paracetamol was assessed by superiority comparison. Analysis was done using intention to treat principles.Results: After 90 minutes, all three groups showed a significant reduction in mean temperature, with intramuscular diclofenac showing the greatest reduction (−1.44 ± 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.4 to −2.5 and oral paracetamol the least (−1.08 ± 0.51, 95% CI −0.99 to −2.2. After 120 minutes, there was a significant difference observed in the mean change from baseline temperature between the three treatment groups (P < 0.0001. Significant changes in temperature were observed in favor of intramuscular diclofenac over oral and intravenous paracetamol at each time point from 60 minutes through 120 minutes inclusive.Conclusion: Both intramuscular diclofenac and intravenous paracetamol showed superior antipyretic

  15. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves in rats

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    Wibool Ridtitid

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The results revealed that the extract at test doses produced a significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h with an inhibition of paw edema of 8.6% (P<0.05, 18.6% (P<0.01 and 24.7% (P<0.01, respectively, compared to the reference drug aspirin 200 mg/kg p.o. with an inhibition of 33.3% (P<0.01. Only the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant inhibition ofcarrageenan-induced rat paw edema beginning at 2 h of 11.8% (P<0.01 and at 3, 4 and 5 h of 24.7% (P< 0.01, 14.1% (P<0.01 and 11.9% (P<0.01, respectively, whereas the reference drug aspirin 200 mg/kg p.o. exhibited a significant inhibition of edema beginning at 1 h of 15.6% (P<0.05 and at 2, 3, 4 and 5 h of 31.8% (P<0.01, 33.3% (P<0.01, 30.4% (P<0.01 and 30.2% (P<0.01, respectively. The methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum leaves (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. did not decrease brewerís yeast-induced pyrexia in rats, whereas aspirin at the dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant antipyretic activity by reducing fever in this animal model. In acute toxicity test, the methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum leaves at the dose of 5g/kg did not produce any abnormal symptoms or mortality in rats.

  16. [Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, etofenamate, in experimental animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Motoyoshi, S; Imazu, C; Ishii, K; Yokoyama, Y; Seto, Y; Kadokawa, T; Shimizu, M

    1982-08-01

    Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities of orally administered etofenamate, the diethylene glycol ester of flufenamic acid, were investigated in experimental animals. Against acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice and ultra-violet light-induced erythema in guinea pigs, etofenamate produced a dose related inhibition at doses of 40--320 mg/kg and 5--20 mg/kg, respectively. In rats, felt-pellet-induced granuloma formation and adjuvant-induced arthritis were significantly inhibited by repeated administration of etofenamate at doses of 20 mg/kg/day for 5 days and 40 mg/kg/day for 21 days, respectively. Etofenamate showed an inhibitory activity on the squeak response caused by flexing and extending the silver nitrate-induced arthritic joint in rats; and it produced a dose related anti-writhing activity at doses of 50--300 mg/kg and 10--80 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Etofenamate showed a significant anti-pyretic activity at doses of 0.2 mg/kg or more. These potencies of etofenamate were 0.5 to 1.6 times those of flufenamic acid. In particular, the anti-erythema, anti-arthritis, and anti-pyretic activities of etofenamate were approximately equivalent to or superior to those of flufenamic acid. From these results, it was suggested that etofenamate given orally, like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities in experimental animals. PMID:6983482

  17. Evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of Acetaminophen (Paracetamol and Mefenamic acid as antipyretic in pediatric patients with febrile illness: a comparative study.

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    Kunkulol Rahul R, Chavan Aishwarya U, Ashok Kumar Chavva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in reports of the failure of Paracetamol as antipyretic in pediatric patients and the increase in the use of Mefenamic acid, the study was undertaken to recommend best among the bothantipyretics by comparing the efficacy and tolerability of both these drugs.Methods-It was a prospective, active treatment controlled study with follow up to 72 hours done over a period of 2 months after the Institutional Ethical committee approval. Total 124 pediatric patients with fever admitted to Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni having a body temperature >38.5 and fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. Patients included were categorized into two groups –group A and group B and administered Paracetamol and Mefenamic acid in the doses 15 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg body weight respectively. The parameters essential for comparing the efficacy and tolerability were observed andrecorded. The collected data were subjected to ‘paired t test’ of significance and was analyzed statistically.Results-Both drugs significantly decreased body temperature in pediatric patients with fever. The antipyretic efficacy of Mefenamic acid was highly significant than Paracetamol (<0.05. No significant differences in adverse effects were noted in both the groups. Conclusion-Mefenamic acid was found to be more effective and equally tolerable than paracetamol as an antipyretic in pediatric patients with febrile illness and can be the best alternative to paracetamol.

  18. Antipyretic, Anti-inflammatory and Antitussive Effects of Jinchai Kanggan Capsule%金柴抗感胶囊解热抗炎止咳作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬姗; 何开勇; 潘望平; 吕晓君; 邹瑞; 刘赵云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antitussive effects of jinchai kanggan capsules. Methods The antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antitussive activities of the preparation were observed in the yeast induced fever in rats, croton oil induced auricular edema in mice, and aqua ammoniae induced cough in mice, respectively. Results The jinchai kanggan capsules reduced body temperature elevation in rats between 3 ~ 6 h, alleviated auricular edema and prolonged cough incubation in mice. Conclusion The jinchai kanggan capsule has antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and antitussive effects.%目的 观察金柴抗感胶囊的解热抗炎止咳作用.方法 通过大鼠干酵母致发热模型观察金柴抗感胶囊解热作用;通过小鼠巴豆油致耳廓肿胀模型观察金柴抗感胶囊抗炎作用;通过小鼠氨水引咳模型观察金柴抗感胶囊止咳作用.结果 金柴抗感胶囊能显著降低大鼠第3~6小时体温升高值;减轻小鼠耳廓肿胀度;延长小鼠咳嗽潜伏期.结论 金柴抗感胶囊具有解热抗炎止咳作用.

  19. Anthropogenic and temporal components in a complex trigger of type 1 diabetes suggest the active participation of antipyretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veteikis, Darijus

    2016-08-01

    Tremendous efforts in research without a conclusion on the cause of type 1 diabetes allow the presumption that there is still a blind spot in the development of T1D that is not covered by current hypotheses. The review of geographical knowledge suggests that there is a well-expressed anthropogenic element within the complex environmental trigger of T1D. On the other hand, the initiation of T1D's directed autoimmunity is temporally related to the organism's immune response, induced by entero-viruses, most expectedly. Consequently, the searched for anthropogenic environmental factor is a player temporally linked to enteroviral infections. This paper discusses the participation of antipyretic medicines, and especially paracetamol, with a whole century's history of growing sales and popularity, including indirect influence through phenacetin during the first half of the 20th century. As proposed by several independent studies, the use of pharmaceuticals to reduce fever may counteract with the protective features of the immune system and create favourable conditions for a virus to spread within the organism and damage specific tissue. A preliminary comparison of paracetamol sales with the incidence of T1D data in Lithuania and the other countries in the North-eastern Baltic region supports this hypothesis. PMID:27372871

  20. Antipyretic effect of ibuprofen in Gabonese children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Necek Magdalena

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antipyretic drugs are widely used in children with fever, though there is a controversy about the benefit of reducing fever in children with malaria. In order to assess the effect of ibuprofen on fever compared to placebo in children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Gabon, a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial, was designed. Methods Fifty children between two and seven years of age with uncomplicated malaria were included in the study. For the treatment of fever, all patients "received" mechanical treatment when the temperature rose above 37.5°C. In addition to the mechanical treatment, continuous fanning and cooling blanket, patients were assigned randomly to receive ibuprofen (7 mg/kg body weight, every eight hours or placebo. Results The fever clearance time using a fever threshold of 37.5°C was similar in children receiving ibuprofen compared to those receiving placebo. The difference was also not statistically significant using a fever threshold of 37.8°C or 38.0°C. However, the fever time and the area under the fever curve were significantly smaller in the ibuprofen group compared to the placebo group. Conclusion Ibuprofen is effective in reducing the time with fever. The effect on fever clearance is less obvious and depends on definition of the fever threshold. Trial registration The trial registration number is: NCT00167713

  1. Antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of hydroethanolic extract from Macrosiphonia velame (A. St.-Hil. M. Arg. in animal models

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    Reginaldo Vicente Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae, popularly known as "velame-branco", is mainly used for treating inflammatory conditions. The antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of the hydroethanolic extract of the xylopodium from M. velame (HEMv were evaluated using several animal models. HEMv showed low acute oral toxicity with LD50 of 4.176 ± 218.5 mg/kg in mice. In tests of carrageenan and dextran-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats, and croton oil-induced cutaneous dermatitis in mice, HEMv presented systemic and topical antiinflammatory activities. In experiments of nociception induced by acetic acid, formalin and capsaicin in mice, the HEMv evidenced an antinociceptive effect, being active against both inflammatory and neurogenic pain. Additionally, the HEMv prevented brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. It is likely that the pharmacologic mechanism of HEMv may involve the inhibition of different mediators of the inflammatory response, such as histamine, serotonin, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. A preliminary phytochemical study was also undertaken on HEMv, which revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, pentacyclic triterpenoids, saponins, coumarins, catechins, tannins, and alkaloids. Taken together, these results suggest that M. velame extract has antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic properties and further validate the traditional use of this plant in inflammatory conditions.Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae, conhecida popularmente como velame-branco, é utilizada no tratamento de inflamações. Avaliou-se nesse estudo, os efeitos antiinflamatório, antinociceptivo e antipirético do extrato hidroetanólico do xilopódio de M. velame (HEMv em modelos animais. O HEMv apresentou baixa toxicidade aguda oral, com DL50= 4.176 ± 218,5 mg/kg nos camundongos. Nos testes de edema de pata por carragenina e dextrana e pleurisia por carragenina em ratos e dermatite cutânea por

  2. 分类管理解热镇痛类药品的用药分析%Analysis of Drug-use of Antipyretic Analgesics Under Sort Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左笑丛; 谢冰玲; 李兵

    2001-01-01

    目的:了解分类管理解热镇痛类药品的用药现状及发展趋势,以引导其合理应用和开发国产新药。方法:对湖南12家医院1997年~1999年度的解热镇痛类药品品种、数量和金额进行归类统计、分析和比较。结果:3年来,解热镇痛类OTC药品的总金额在逐年增加,对乙酰氨基酚制剂的药品金额处于首位;一些副作用大的处方药用量在下降。进口和合资企业生产的解热镇痛类OTC药品的金额占较大比例。结论:药品分类管理具有重大现实意义。%OBJECTIVE: To keep abreast of the current situation anddeveloping trend of drug- use of antipyretic analgesics under sort management,so as to guide rational drug- use and to develop domestic new drugs.METHODS: The kinds,quantity and sum of money of antipyretic analgesics used in 12 hospitals of Hunan Province were classified,analysed and compared.RESULTS: In past three years,the sum of money of OTC antipyretic analgesics increased year by year,of which,acetaminophens ranked first.The consumed amount of those prescription drugs with severe adverse reactions was decreased.The imported and joint venture produced OTC drugs constituted a large proportion of the sum of money.CONCLUSION: Sort management of drugs has practical significance.

  3. Evaluation of the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn. in experimental animals

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    Wantana Reanmongkol

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ethanol and dichloromethane extracts from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn.(G. mangostana on nociceptive response using writhing and hot plate tests in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeastinduced fever in rats, were examined. Anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats was also investigated. The ethanol extract (400, 800 mg/kg, p.o. significantly suppressed the writhings induced by acetic acid. The dichloromethane extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o. also decreased acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Neither theethanol extract nor dichloromethane extract had significant effects on antinociceptive response in the hot plate test. No significanteffects on yeast-induced fever were observed after oral administration of the ethanol and dichloromethane extractsin rats. Either oral administration (800 mg/kg of the ethanol extract or dichloromethane extract significantly decreased therat paw edema induced by carrageenin. These results suggest that the ethanol and dichloromethane extracts from the fruithull of G. mangostana possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions but no antipyretic action and one mechanism of action of the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts may involve in cyclooxygenase (COX inhibition.

  4. 布洛芬栓塞肛对小儿发烧降温疗效的研究%Antipyretic effect of embolization by Ibuprofen on fever in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马周建; 聂玉光; 路朝勋

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the antipyretic effect of of embolization by Ibuprofen on fever in children. Methods: A total of 323 children with hyperpyrexia were assigned into 3 groups with different treatments by ibuprofen via embolization, oral administration and enema. Body temperatures were measured 1 h, 2 h and 4 h before and after therapy, and then the antipyretic effect were compared among three groups. Results: There was no significant difference in antipyretic effect among three groups (P>0.05);Compared to enema group and embolization group, the antipyretic effect of oral administration group was lower at 1 h (P<0.05). Conclusions: Embolization by Ibuprofen is effective on fever, especially on fever in children.%目的:观察布洛芬栓塞肛对小儿发烧降温疗效的影响.方法:323例高热患儿分别接受不同方式布洛芬治疗,即口服、灌肠和栓塞肛治疗;于治疗前及治疗后1 h、2 h和4 h分别测定患儿体温,比较不同组的退热效果.结果:布洛芬口服组、灌肠组及栓塞肛组之间退热效果无明显差别(P>0.05);对灌肠组和栓塞肛组,布洛芬口服组1 h退热程度低(P<0.05).结论:布洛芬栓塞肛能有效治疗高热,适合临床治疗小儿高热.

  5. Comparison between 3-Nitrooxyphenyl acetylsalicylate (NO-ASA) and O2-(acetylsalicyloxymethyl)-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (NONO-ASA) as Safe Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Antioxidant Prodrugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Velazquez, Carlos A.; Pruski, April; Nia, Kamran V.; Abdellatif, Khaled R.; Keefer, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is an underlying etiological factor in carcinogenesis; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and their chemically modified NO-releasing prodrugs (NO-NSAIDs) are promising chemopreventive agents. The aim of this study was to conduct a head-to-head comparison between two NO-ASAs possessing different NO donor groups, an organic nitrate [3-nitrooxyphenyl acetylsalicylate (NO-ASA; NCX-4016)] and an N-diazeniumdiolate [NONO-ASA, O2- (acetylsalicyloxymethyl)-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (NONO-ASA; CVM-01)], as antiulcerogenic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic agents. All drugs were administered orally at equimolar doses. For antiulcerogenic study, 6 h after administration, the number and size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs from euthanized animals were counted. Tissue samples were frozen for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde determination. For anti-inflammatory study, 1 h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 6 h. For antipyretic study, 1 h after dosing, fever was induced by intraperitoneal LPS, and body core temperatures measured for 5 h. For analgesic study, time-dependent analgesic effect of prodrugs was evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Drugs were administered 30 min after carrageenan. NO-ASA and NONO-ASA were equipotent as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents but were better than aspirin. Despite a drastic reduction of PGE2 in stomach tissue, both prodrugs were devoid of gastric side effects. Lipid peroxidation induced by aspirin was higher than that observed by prodrugs. SOD activity induced by both prodrugs was similar, but approximately 2-fold higher than that induced by aspirin. CVM-01 is as effective as NCX-4016 in anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic assays in vivo, and it showed an equivalent safety profile in the stomach. These results underscore the use of N-diazeniumdiolate moieties

  6. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar

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    O.J. Olorunfemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

  7. Assessment of the safety and feasibility of administering anti-pyretic therapy in critically ill adults: study protocol of a randomized trial

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    Niven Daniel J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is one of the most commonly observed abnormal signs in patients with critical illness. However, there is a paucity of evidence to guide the management of febrile patients without acute brain injury and little is known about the biologic response to treatment of fever. As such, observational studies suggest that the treatment of fever is inconsistent. This pilot clinical trial will assess the safety and feasibility of treating febrile critically ill adult patients with an aggressive versus a permissive temperature control strategy. The biologic response to these two different temperature control strategies will also be assessed through analysis of a panel of inflammatory mediators. Findings The study population will include febrile adult patients admitted to one of two general medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Patients will be randomized to either an aggressive or permissive fever treatment strategy. The aggressive group will receive acetaminophen 650 mg enterally every 6 hours upon reaching a temperature ≥ 38.3°C and external cooling will be initiated for temperatures ≥ 39.5°C, whereas the permissive group will receive acetaminophen 650 mg every 6 hours upon reaching a temperature ≥ 40.0°C and external cooling for temperatures ≥ 40.5°C. The study will take place over 12 months with the goal of enrolling 120 patients. The primary outcome will be 28-day mortality after study enrolment, with secondary outcomes that will include markers of feasibility (e.g. the enrolment rate, and the number of protocol violations, and levels of select inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Discussion Results from this study will lead to a better understanding of the inflammatory effects of anti-pyretic therapy and will evaluate the feasibility of a future clinical trial to establish the best treatment of fever observed in nearly one half of patients admitted to adult ICUs. Trial

  8. Clinical experience and results of treatment with suprofen in pediatrics. 3rd communication: Antipyretic effect and tolerability of repeat doses of suprofen and paracetamol syrup in hospitalized children/A single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippl, G; Michos, N; Sundal, E J; Stocker, H

    1985-01-01

    Antipyretic effect and tolerability of alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-phenyl acetic acid (suprofen, Suprol), syrup and paracetamol (acetaminophen) were compared within the scope of the present randomized single-blind study; the test population included a total of 115 children ranging in age from 6 months to 12 years. All patients were admitted to the hospital with an average temperature of 39.3 degrees C, their disease being caused by bacterial or viral infections. The dose levels for treatment with syrup depended upon the children's age and body weight. Treatment was in most cases given for two days; a three-times-a-day schedule was used. The (rectal) temperature as well as pulse and respiratory rates were measured prior to treatment and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 h after first administration of the test preparations. The results showed that the antipyretic effect of suprofen was in both age groups at all rating times statistically significantly superior to that of paracetamol. Pulse and respiratory rates dropped in both age groups after treatment; the means were within the normal range at all rating times. Adverse drug reactions were seen in 5 patients on suprofen and in 3 cases on paracetamol. It is, however, questionable whether such reactions are drug-dependent. PMID:3911963

  9. Clinical experience and results of treatment with suprofen in pediatrics. 5th communication: a single-blind study on antipyretic effect and tolerability of suprofen syrup versus metamizole drops in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, M; Longhi, R; Besana, R; Michos, N; Sarchi, C

    1986-06-01

    In a single-blind study, 60 children in two age groups (30 patients: 6 months to 3 years; 30 patients: 3 years to 12 years), were orally treated with either alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienyl-carbonyl)phenylacetic acid (suprofen, Suprol), syrup 10 mg/ml or metamizole drops 50% for a maximum period of 4 days, up to 4 times a day. The children presented with high fever due to bacterial or virus infections. Body temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were evaluated at the beginning and then 30 min, 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first administration of the respective drug. Significant differences between the drugs were found for all variables; this demonstrated that with suprofen the antipyretic effect set in more rapidly than with the reference drug. No side-effects were observed in children treated with suprofen syrup. Two patients showed adverse effects, i.e. sweating and hypotension, during the treatment with metamizole. Due to its good antipyretic effect and good tolerability, suprofen appears to be particularly useful for symptomatic treatment of pediatric patients with fever caused by bacterial or virus infections. PMID:3527181

  10. 连花柴芩可溶性粉解热镇痛止咳祛痰作用的研究%Study on Antipyretic, Analgesic, Antitussive and Expectorant Effects of Lian-hua-chai-qin Soluble Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双双; 张俊; 杜芳芳; 李晓; 胡安君; 赵雅; 王学兵; 张红英

    2015-01-01

    To study the antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive and expectorant effects of Lian-hua-chai-qin Soluble Powder ( LHCQSP ) to provide reasonable experimental reference for clinical. The antipyretic activity was evidenced in fever rats induced by LPS. Analgesic activity was tested in mice induced by acetic acid. Antitussive effect was examined in mice induced by ammonia, the tracheal phenol red secretion test in mice was for expectorant activity. LHCQSP obviously depressed the temperature of fever rats ( P<0.05) , decreased twist times of mice by 34.81%, 32.59% and 27.31%, respectively (P<0.05), reduced cough times of mice by 36.82%, 31.48%and 20.37% , respectively (P<0.05), increased the amount of secreting phenol red (P<0.05). This experiment shows that LHCQSP possess antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive and expectorant effects in model animal.%为评价连花柴芩可溶性粉的解热、镇痛、止咳、祛痰作用,采用LP S致大鼠发热法、醋酸致小鼠扭体法、小鼠氨水引咳法、小鼠气管段酚红排泌法,观察连花柴芩可溶性粉的解热、镇痛、止咳、祛痰作用。结果显示,连花柴芩可溶性粉抑制大鼠发热效果显著( P<0.05);减少小鼠扭体反应次数( P<0.05),镇痛率分别为34.81%、32.59%和27.31%;减少小鼠咳嗽次数( P<0.05),抑制率分别为36.82%、31.48%和20.37%;能增强小鼠对酚红的排泌( P<0.05)。表明连花柴芩可溶性粉具有明显的解热、镇痛、止咳、祛痰的作用。

  11. Comparação da eficácia de doses iguais de acetaminofeno retal e oral em crianças Comparison of antipyretic effectiveness of equal doses of rectal and oral acetaminophen in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigha Akhavan Karbasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar uma dose de acetaminofeno oral e retal e avaliar a aceitabilidade do acetaminofeno retal, uma vez que o acetaminofeno oral e retal é amplamente usado como agente antipirético em crianças com febre e a eficiência comparativa dessas duas preparações não está bem estabelecida. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo de grupos paralelos, foram incluídas 60 crianças admitidas na emergência ou clínica ambulatorial pediátrica em um hospital terciário, com idade entre 6 meses e 6 anos e com temperatura retal acima de 39 °C. Os pacientes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de mesmo tamanho. O grupo 1 recebeu 15 mg/kg de acetaminofeno retal, e o grupo 2 recebeu a mesma dose oralmente. A temperatura foi registrada no tempo zero e 1 e 3 horas após administração da droga. RESULTADOS: No primeiro grupo, a redução média de temperatura, 1 e 3 horas após administração do acetaminofeno, foi de 1,07±0,16 (p 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: As preparações oral e retal de acetaminofeno têm eficácia antipirética equivalente em crianças. A via retal mostrou ser tão aceitável quanto a oral entre os pais.OBJECTIVE: To compare a dose of oral and rectal acetaminophen and to evaluate acceptability of rectal acetaminophen, since oral and rectal acetaminophen is widely used as an antipyretic agent in febrile children and the comparative effectiveness of these two preparations is not well established. METHODS: In this prospective parallel group designed study, 60 children who presented to the emergency department or outpatient pediatric clinic at a tertiary hospital and aged from 6 months to 6 years with rectal temperature over 39 °C were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to two equal-sized groups. Group 1 received 15 mg/kg acetaminophen rectally and group 2 received the same dose orally. Temperature was recorded at baseline and 1 and 3 hours after drug administration. RESULTS: In the first group, mean decrease in

  12. 多种教学方法在解热镇痛抗炎药教学中的应用%The Application of Multiple Teaching Methods in the Teach-ing of Antipyretic Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨薪正

    2014-01-01

    药理学是一门桥梁学科,是多学科的融合。药品种类繁多、作用机制复杂、理论性强、不易理解、难记忆。本文通过比较法、图片演示法、歌诀法、教学简笔画法等教学方法在解热镇痛抗炎药教学中的应用,阐述灵活掌握教学方法对引导学生主动学习,提高药理学教学质量的重要性。%Pharmacology is a subject just like a bridge, as it is multidisciplinary integration. It includes variety of drugs, complex mechanism of drug action, and a higher theoretical level, so it is difficult in understanding and remembering. Through adopting comparison method, image presentation method, method of for-mulas and stick figure method in the teaching of antipyretic anal-gesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, it proves a view that master-ing the teaching methods flexibly plays a significant role in in-structing students' active study and improving the quality of pharmacology teaching.

  13. Research on Anti-influenza A H1N1 Virus in Vitro and Antipyretic Experiments of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule%大青龙汤颗粒剂体外抗甲型H1N1流感病毒实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田连起; 黄鹤归; 叶晓川; 廖鹏程; 黄婕; 周爱军; 刘焱文

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the effect of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule in anti-influenza A H1N1 virus in Vitro and its antipyretic influences to fever rats caused by lipopolysaccharide. Methods: MDCK infected by anti-influenza A H1N1 virus, and combined cytopathic effect ( CPE ) with MTT colorimetric assay, and the drug effect of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule inhibiting the biosynthesis of A H1N1 influenza virus,the absorption to influenza virus,the blocking of the accession to cells and killing influenza virus were inspected. Lipopolysaccharide duplicated fever models of rats were used,and rectal temperatures of rats of different groups in different times were measured,curves were drawn,and antipyretic effects were analyzed. Results:The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule killing influenza AH1N1 was 12.40 mg·mL-1 ,the therapeutic index (TI) was 1.8. The IC50 of Ribavirin Injection in the same administration route was 0. 45 mg·mL-1 and TI was 1.0. The temperature of the model group had already rised at 1 h after establishing models, reached peak at 5 h, and sustained for 8 h. Compared to the model group, the Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule of high-dose group and low-dose group had significant differences at 4 - 8 hour. Compared to aspirin group, the Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule of high-dose group and low-dose group, the range of cooling the temperature was smaller at 1 - 3 hours,and was equal at 4 - 5 hour, but was larger than that of aspirin group at 6 - 8 hour. The difference between Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule of high-dose group and low-dose group was not significant. Conclusion: Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule shows certain effect of anti-influenza A H1N1 virus in cell level,and the function form is direct inactivation in a dose dependent manner;but the effect of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule in inhibiting the biosynthesis of influenza virus

  14. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acetaminophen, ask a doctor or pharmacist.” (C) “Ask a doctor before use if you have liver disease”. (D) “Ask a doctor or pharmacist before use if you are taking the blood thinning drug warfarin” except on the... not sure whether a drug contains acetaminophen, ask a doctor or pharmacist.” (3) “Ask a doctor...

  15. 21 CFR 201.322 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not limited to, acetaminophen, aspirin, carbaspirin calcium, choline salicylate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen... salicylate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, magnesium salicylate, naproxen sodium, and sodium salicylate. “Alcohol... limited to aspirin, carbaspirin calcium, choline salicylate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, magnesium...

  16. Experimental studies on antipyretic, analgesic and antibacterial effects of GK 001, a poly-prescription of traditional chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Su-yun; ZhANG Ting-ting; DING Hong-yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the anti-inflammatory effect of a poly-prescription of traditional Chinese medicine GK001. Methods 1. Inhibitory effect on pain in mice: The pain was induced by i. p. 0.2 ml of 0.6 % HAc per mouse 1 h post dosing GK001. The writhing numbers of mice were recorded in 10 minutes and the inhibitory rate of pain was calculated compared with the control group. 2. Antipyretie effect In single dose experiment 15 healthy rabbits weighing 1.7-2.8 kg with body temperature(BT) measured in the experiment day meeting to the requirements were selected for the experiment and divided into 5 groups(3 in each group), which were dosed orally with GK001 and 1 h later followed by i. p. injection of 40 EU bacterial endotoxin standard·kg-1. Then, the BT of rabbits was measured every 30 min during 1-3 h after administration. The difference between the highest BT post-dose and the average BT pre-dose was calculated. In multi-dose experiment rabbits were selected and grouped as well as received i. p. endotoxin in the same way as above, but were administered with GK001 for consecutive 5 day. 3. Bacteriostatie effect. The antibacterial activities of GK001 on Bacillus Pumilus, Bacillus Subtilis and Micrococcus Luteus were measured in vitro at concentrations of 0.125-1.0 g·mL-1. Results 1. The GK001 showed a significant and dose-dependent painsuppressant effect, with inhibitory rate being 45.2 %, 31.2 % and 20.8 % at high, medium and low dose, respectively (P< 0.05). 2. Both single and multiple administration of GK001 had no effect on rabbit pyrogen response caused by endotoxin. 3. GK001 had bacteriostatic effects on the aforementioned 3 bacteria significantly and in dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions GK001 has analgesic and in vitro antibacterial but no antipyretie effects.

  17. 黄蜀葵花总黄酮抗炎解热作用%Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of TFA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽; 董六一; 江勤; 岑德意; 陈志武; 马传庚

    2003-01-01

    目的研究黄蜀葵花总黄酮( TFA)的抗炎、解热作用.方法采用二甲苯致小鼠耳片肿胀的急性炎症模型和皮下埋植棉球致肉芽组织形成的慢性非特异性炎症模型观察TFA的抗炎作用;采用sc松节油或iv大肠杆菌液两种诱发家兔发热的模型观察TFA的解热作用.结果 TFA(200、100、50 mg/kg)均能有效减轻小鼠右耳肿胀程度,TFA 50 mg/kg可明显抑制大鼠新生肉芽组织形成;由sc松节油或iv大肠杆菌液诱发的家兔体温升高,TFA可产生不同程度地降低作用.结论 TFA具有良好的抗炎、解热作用.

  18. Assessment of the safety and feasibility of administering anti-pyretic therapy in critically ill adults: study protocol of a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Niven Daniel J; Léger Caroline; Kubes Paul; Stelfox H Tom; Laupland Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Fever is one of the most commonly observed abnormal signs in patients with critical illness. However, there is a paucity of evidence to guide the management of febrile patients without acute brain injury and little is known about the biologic response to treatment of fever. As such, observational studies suggest that the treatment of fever is inconsistent. This pilot clinical trial will assess the safety and feasibility of treating febrile critically ill adult patients wit...

  19. 清热止咳糖浆中盐酸麻黄碱含量测定%The Determination of Hydrochloric Ephedrine in Antipyretic Cough Syrup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金凤珠

    2000-01-01

    利用麻黄碱的挥发性,用水蒸气蒸馏法使其与制剂中其它组分分离后再利用溴麝香草酚蓝比色法测定清热止咳糖浆中盐酸的麻黄碱含量,方法准确,结果令人满意.

  20. Research the Antipyretic Effect for the Extract of Senecio Cannabifolius Less%返魂草提取物解热的药效学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商明秀; 陈秀兰; 尚士光; 周丽荣

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究返魂草提取物(FH)解热的作用.方法:通过内毒素致家兔体温升高和啤酒酵母致大鼠发热实验研究FH的解热作用;结果:返魂草提取物各剂量组对内毒素致家兔体温升高、对啤酒酵母致大鼠发热均有显著的抑制作用,作用强度与剂量呈一定的相关性.结论:返魂草提取物具有显著地解热作用,具有较好的应用价值.

  1. A thin-layer chromatography study on the ingredient Herba corydalis bungeanae in coryza antipyretic granules%感冒清热颗粒中苦地丁薄层色谱实验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜素兰; 杜素芳

    2004-01-01

    目的研究感冒清热颗粒中苦地丁薄层色谱(TLC)实验方法,筛选可靠的TLC鉴别方法.方法采用TLC鉴别方法.结果确定本品TLC鉴别提取方法、展开剂和薄层板类型.结论该方法灵敏、准确、可靠,获得的TLC图谱清晰、持久,可用于本品质量控制.

  2. 水牛角主要药效学评价及解热活性物质基础研究%Pharmacodynamics research of water buffalo horn and the basic study of water baffulo horn antipyretic active compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘睿; 段金廒; 李友宾; 戴俊; 彭蕴茹

    2007-01-01

    目的 对水牛角的解热、镇静、促凝血等生物活性进行了评价研究,并针对其解热活性的物质基础开展了初步研究.方法 采用皮下酵母致热法、光电管法、毛细管法评价了水牛角粉、热提液和冷浸液的解热、镇静、促凝血作用;采用凝胶柱层析法将水牛角热提液按分子量分为大、中、小3个部位,并以皮下酵母致热法评价了各部位的解热作用.结果 水牛角粉、水牛角热提液和冷浸液均可降低酵母致热大鼠体温、降低小鼠自发活动次数、缩短小鼠凝血时间,其中热提液的作用强于冷浸液样品;水牛角热提液的大分子量和小分子量部位均能降低酵母致热大鼠体温,中分子量部位作用不明显.结论 水牛角粉、水牛角热提液均具有明显的解热、镇静、促凝血作用,冷浸液解热作用较弱;水牛角解热作用的物质基础源于大分子和小分子部位的共同贡献.

  3. Acetaminophen administration in pediatric age: an observational prospective cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Lubrano, Riccardo; Paoli, Sara; Bonci, Marco; Di Ruzza, Luigi; Cecchetti, Corrado; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Pavone, Piero; Matin, Nassim; Vitaliti, Giovanna; Gentile, Isotta

    2016-01-01

    Background Parents often do not consider fever as an important physiological response and mechanism of defense against infections that leads to inappropriate use of antipyretics and potentially dangerous side effects. This study is designed to evaluate the appropriateness of antipyretics dosages generally administered to children with fever, and to identify factors that may influence dosage accuracy. Results In this cross-sectional study we analyzed the clinical records of 1397 children aged ...

  4. EFEK-ANTI PIRETIK BEBERAPA TANAMAN OBAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wahjoedi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brotowali (Tinospora tuberculata Beaumae, Meniran (Phyllanthus niruri L.. Bengle (Zingiber cas-sumunar Roxb. and Tapak limau (Elephantopus scaber L. are four plants that have been known to have antipyretic property. To confirm the antipyretic property, materials obtained from The Balai Pene­litian Tanaman Obat Tawangmangu, Surakarta (Central Java were tested on fever induced rats. The fever depressing effect of 750 mg symplicium/100 g body weight on ratsdid not differ significantly that of 30 mg sodium salicylate/100g body weight. No dosage-response relationship was seen in the four symplicia, and thterefore it is not advisable to recommend the use of those symplicia as antipyretis.

  5. Drug: D04226 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04226 Drug Flupirtine maleate (USAN) C15H17FN4O2. C4H4O4 420.1445 420.3916 D04226....US SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02B OTHER ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BG Other analgesics and antipyretics N02BG07 Flupirtine D04226 Flu...ate receptor [HSA:2902 2903 2904 2905 2906] [KO:K05208 K05209 K05210 K05211 K05212] Flupirtine [ATC:N02BG07] D04226 Flupirtine...pirtine maleate (USAN) Target-based classification of dr

  6. Paracetamol.

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, T. J.; Goulding, R

    1980-01-01

    Paracetamol is an analgesic and antipyretic agent which was first marketed for use as a drug in the U.K. in 1956. It has since become popular with the medical profession and the general public as an alternative to aspirin.

  7. Pharmacological effects of methanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni Jacq (meliaceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sruti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of medicinal plants are common ingredients of many folk and herbal medicines, and seed extracts have been reported to possess pharmacological activity including anti-inflammatory activity. In the present investigation, the methanolic extract of the dried ground seeds of Swietenia mahagoni (SMSE has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acute, sub-chronic, and chronic models of inflammation in rodents. The antipyretic and analgesic activities were evaluated in mice models. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the extract up to a dose of 1.2 g/kg intraperitoneally was nontoxic. SMSE at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. was found to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities and the effect was comparable with that produced by the standard drug, ibuprofen. The results of the experiment on arachidonic acid-induced paw edema in rat revealed that the extract produces anti-inflammatory activity through dual inhibition of the cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. SMSE also enhanced peritoneal cell exudates along with macrophage significantly. The triterpenoids present in SMSE may be responsible for these activities. SMSE possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities.

  8. Drug: D03960 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : magnesium carbonate = 1 : 2 map07049 Antithrombosis agents Therapeutic categor...ntral nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents 1143 Salicylates D03960 Aspir...in - dialuminate mixt 3 Agents affecting metabolism 33 Blood and body fluid agents

  9. Effect of Temperature and Light on Phytochemical Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Andrographis paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    B. Jaikumar; R. Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) is an annual herb. It is found in Sri Lanka, and throughout the plains of India especially Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Orissa. Various medicinal properties like cholevetic, antidiarrheal, immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory have been attributed to this plant in the traditional system of Indian medicine. Further reported activities are hepatoprotective, antimalarial, anticancer, antihypertensive, antipyretic, antithrombotic and antidote for sn...

  10. FLUPIRTINE: A HUMAN DRUG WITH POTENTIAL FOR USE IN THE VETERINARY FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Giorgi; Helen Owen

    2012-01-01

    Flupirtine is a nonopioid drug without antipyretic or antiphlogistic properties and with a favorable tolerability in humans. It constitutes a unique class within the group of nonsteroidal analgesics and displays a peculiar pharmacokinetic/dynamic profile that could have large potentialities of applications in the veterinary field. This review describes and evaluates the pharmacologic literature concerning flupirtine and addresses its potential in veterinary medicine.

  11. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kidon Mona; Kang Liew; Chin Chiang; Hoon Lim; Hugo,, Argentiniensis, (ca. 1210-ca. 1270)

    2007-01-01

    Although extensively studied in adults, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) hypersensitivity in children, especially in young children, remains poorly defined. Pediatricians, prescribing antipyretics for children, rarely encounter significant problems, but the few epidemiologic studies performed show conflicting results. Although it is clear that some patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-sensitive asthma have their clinical onset of disease in childhood and bronchoconstriction af...

  12. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome (DRESS) syndrome associated with azithromycin presenting like septic shock: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sriratanaviriyakul, Narin; Nguyen, Lam-Phuong; Henderson, Mark C.; Timothy E Albertson

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome is a potentially life-threatening cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction characterized by extensive mucocutaneous eruption, fever, hematologic abnormalities including eosinophilia and/or atypical lymphocytosis, and extensive organ involvement. The drugs most often responsible for causing drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome are anticonvulsants, antimicrobial agents and antipyretic or anti-inflam...

  13. Ibuprofen versus steroids: risk and benefit, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovannini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years we have observed an upward trend in the employment of ibuprofen as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic therapy. Therefore the pediatrician has often a precious option in the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment in children instead of using steroids and paracetamol. In clinical practice ibuprofen can be used in the treatment of headache, toothache, otalgy, dysmenorrhea, neuralgia, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and fever: it is the first choice for these common diseases. However, the use of steroids is a routine, even if non-corticosteroid anti-inflammatory molecules could be useful. Certainly steroids are powerful anti-inflammatory, indicated for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders and in acute respiratory and allergic diseases. Beside, thanks to their chemical and pharmacological profile, they also provide patients with an antipyretic effect. However, the use of steroids must be reserved to cases in which other classical antipyretics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not effective. The possible side effects and risks associated with stepping down steroids must be considered. Although “steroids-phobia” should be discouraged, steroids are to be reserved only as the first indication. In all other cases the pediatrician can use ibuprofen, whose efficacy and safety are widely demonstrated by now.

  14. Characterization of phytoconstituents and evaluation of total phenolic content, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial activities of Solanum violaceum Ortega. (Family:Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Sarwar Raju

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Since S. violaceum have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activities, more studies such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and other pharmacological activities should be carried out to justify its traditional use, as the plant is available and used broadly in the rural areas for folkloric remedies. 

  15. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di

    2013-12-01

    The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003. PMID:24791478

  16. ANTIOXIDANT, IMMUNOMODULATORY AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Madhuri S.; Pandey Govind; Verma Karuna S.

    2011-01-01

    Emblica officinalis (Amla) is traditionally used for several diseases, and it is believed to increase the defense against diseases. It is particularly used for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, liver disorders, heart disease, ulcer, snake venom, haemorrhage, diarrhea, dysentery, anaemia and ophthalmic disorders. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, cytoprotective, analgesic, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antitussive and gastroprotective are the important properties of amla. Vitamin C...

  17. Drug: D07294 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07294 Drug Propacetamol (INN) C14H20N2O3 264.1474 264.3202 D07294.gif Analgesic; Antipyretic AT ... C code: N02BE05 prodrug, active substance: Acetaminophen ... [DR:D00217] Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) ...

  18. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Janabi, Ali Abdul Hussein S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ibuprofen and acetaminophen are common chemical agents that have anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activity. Aims: To detect any potential antibacterial effects of ibuprofen and acetaminophen on pathogenic bacteria. Materials and methods: Ibuprofen and acetaminophen were tested for antibacterial activity against seven isolates of bacteria including gram positive bacteria (Staphylococci aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and gram negative bacteria (E. coli, Enterobacter a...

  19. Direct toxicity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for renal medullary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Gerson M.; Michea, Luis F.; Peters, Eugenia M.; Kirby, Martha; Xu, Yuhui; Ferguson, Douglas R.; Burg, Maurice B.

    2001-01-01

    Antipyretic analgesics, taken in large doses over a prolonged period, cause a specific form of kidney disease, characterized by papillary necrosis and interstitial scarring. Epidemiological evidence incriminated mixtures of drugs including aspirin (ASA), phenacetin, and caffeine. The mechanism of toxicity is unclear. We tested the effects of ASA, acetaminophen (APAF, the active metabolite of phenacetin), caffeine, and other related drugs individually and in combination...

  20. Long-term toxicological effects of paracetamol in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Majeed,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The analgesic and antipyretic properties of paracetamol were first described in 1893, then it has been widely available as a non-prescription drug, with a therapeutic profile that reflects widespread safety and efficacy as well as paracetamol became the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. It is the most frequently used over-the counter medicine in young children and is nearly universally used in infants. The drug is used by millions of children every day. The study was designed to study the toxicological effect of therapeutic dose of paracetamol after oral administration for three months in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicous on the heart, kidney and liver. Results showed oral administration of the paracetamol for three months in laboratory rats showed that this drug has a severe damaging effect on most of the vital organs in the body like kidney, liver and heart.

  1. A comparative study of two dosage levels of ibuprofen syrup in children with pyrexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotob, A

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the antipyretic effect of two dosage levels of ibuprofen syrup in children with fever due to a variety of causes, forty-four out of the fifty children admitted completed the 24-hour trial period, twenty-three receiving 20 mg ibuprofen/kg body-weight, twenty-one receiving 30 mg/kg ibuprofen. Both dosage levels gave highly significant (p less than 0.001) reductions in rectal temperatures, with a statistically significant reduction, at the 5% level, in favour of the higher dose at 12 and 20 hours. No side-effects were reported at either dosage level, and the taste was acceptable to all the children. It is concluded that ibuprofen was a useful and effective antipyretic drug in the population studied, and that the higher dosage is preferable to the lower, being more effective, equally palatable, and giving rise to no side-effects in this study. PMID:3888726

  2. The Curative and Prophylactic Effects of Xylopic Acid on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Boampong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been intensified to search for more effective antimalarial agents because of the observed failure of some artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT treatments of malaria in Ghana. Xylopic acid, a pure compound isolated from the fruits of the Xylopia aethiopica, was investigated to establish its attributable prophylactic, curative antimalarial, and antipyretic properties. The antimalarial properties were determined by employing xylopic acid (10–100 mg/kg in ICR mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Xylopic acid exerted significant (P<0.05 effects on P. berghei infection similar to artemether/lumefantrine, the standard drug. Furthermore, it significantly (P<0.05 reduced the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced fever in Sprague-Dawley rats similar to prednisolone. Xylopic acid therefore possesses prophylactic and curative antimalarial as well as antipyretic properties which makes it an ideal antimalarial agent.

  3. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ichnocarpus frutescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narendra Kumar Singh; V.P. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Ichnocarpusfrutescens R.Br.(Apocynaceae),is a woody climbing shrub,found almost in all parts of India.In India,tribes used this plant as a substitute of Indian Sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus) for the treatment of atrophy,convulsions,cough,delirium,dysentery,measles,splenomegaly,tuberculosis,tumor,diabetes as a lactogogue,antipyretic,demulcent,diaphoretic and in skin diseases.Phytochemical investigations indicate that 28 compounds reported from the plant belong to various chemical category viz.phytosterol,triterpenes,flavonoids and various other phenolic compounds.Pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant reported include antiurolithiatic,hepatoprotective,antioxidant,analgesic,antipyretic,anti-inflammatory,antidiabetic,antihyperlipidemic and antitumor activity.In the present review the literature data on the phytochemical and biological investigations on the I.frutescens are summarized up to March 2011.

  4. Therapeutic misadventure with paracetamol in children

    OpenAIRE

    Shivbalan So; Sathiyasekeran Malathi; Thomas Kuruvilla

    2010-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen), though considered a safe, "over the counter" analgesic and antipyretic, can cause liver injury with overdose. Therapeutic misadventure is a unique problem where the existing nomogram used for acute poisoning is not applicable. In this context, early initiation of N-acetylcysteine even before a biochemical evidence of liver injury may be beneficial. A series of 6 children with this type of paracetamol overdose are presented here to increase the awareness and unders...

  5. Quality control and stability study of 100 mg/ml paracetamol oral drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paracetamol is an effective analgesic and antipyretic drug of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug group. Paracetamol oral drops are indicated for use in infant population aged up to 5 years to relieve fever, headache, toothache and symptomatic relief of common cold. To validate two analytical methods for the quality control and the stability study and to study the stability of 100 mg/ml Paracetamol oral drops made in Cuba

  6. The formulation and evaluation of alcohol-free paediatric paracetamol preparations / Nicóle Stieger

    OpenAIRE

    Stieger, Nicóle

    2005-01-01

    Paracetamol is currently the analgesic / antipyretic which is most commonly used. It is inexpensive, available without prescription and is relatively safe in therapeutic doses. Since toxic effects are so rare, paracetamol is the drug of choice for treating pain and fever in children. The poor water-solubility of paracetamol, as well as its bitter taste, complicates the formulation of oral paediatric preparations. It has been shown that ethanol increases the risk of paracetam...

  7. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Anthriscus sylvestris as an Alternative Source for Anticancer Lignans

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian Tudorel Olaru; George Mihai Niţulescu; Alina Orțan; Cristina Elena Dinu-Pîrvu

    2015-01-01

    Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. is a wild herbaceous plant common in most temperate regions. It has been used traditionally to treat headaches, as a tonic, as antitussive, antipyretic, analgesic and diuretic. The plant contains deoxypodophyllotoxin, which is proven to have antitumor and anti-proliferative effects, anti-platelet aggregation, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activity. Deoxypodophyllotoxin is considered to be the plant’s most important constituent, because of its ...

  8. Drimys brasiliensis essential oil as a source of drimenol

    OpenAIRE

    Luciele Milani Zem; Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas; Henrique Soares Koehler; Maria Izabel Radomski; Cicero Deschamps

    2016-01-01

    Drimys brasiliensis Miers is a native plant species to the Atlantic Forest, commonly known as cataia, and used as a stimulant, anti-diahrreal, antipyretic, among other properties. Dried and fresh leaves of cataia were collected in autumn/2012, submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger graduated apparatus over a period of 4 hours after reaching the boiling point, then essential oil was collected. In oil from green leaves, 49 compounds were identified, being 65.0% sesquiterpenes, 12.0% mono...

  9. The Inherent Reactor Kinetics for Transformation of Geniposidic Acid from Geniposide in a Microreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu-Lan Hsieh; Wang-Chi Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    The ripe fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae) (GJ) are widely used in chemical, food and medicinal industries. Crocin and geniposide, the main constituents of GJ, have shown a diversity of biological activities including sedative, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic. We propose some new bioactive chemicals could be derived from geniposide. The optimum transformation condition of geniposide into geniposidic acid still remains unclear. In order to develop a reactor, the in...

  10. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. II. Aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    P. Marson; Pasero, G

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of aspirin, an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, undoubtedly represents a milestone in the history of medical therapy. Since ancient times the derivatives of willow (Salix alba) were used to treat a variety of fevers and pain syndromes, although the first report dates back to 1763 when the English Reverend Edward Stone described the effect of an extract of the bark willow in treating malaria. In the XIX century many apothecaries and chemists, including the Itali...

  11. NSAIDs, Mitochondria and Calcium Signaling: Special Focus on Aspirin/Salicylates

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihiro Suzuki; Toshio Inoue; Chisei Ra

    2010-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has long been used as an anti-pyretic and analgesic drug. Recently, much attention has been paid to the chemopreventive and apoptosis-inducing effects of NSAIDs in cancer cells. These effects have been thought to be primarily attributed to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis. However, recent studies have demonstrated unequivocally that certain NSAIDs, including asp...

  12. Dystonia as acute adverse reaction to cough suppressant in a 3-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, A; Incorpora, G; Ruggieri, M

    2001-01-01

    Cough suppressant preparations containing mixtures of dextromethorphan or codeine with antihistamines, decongestants (sympathomimetic), expectorants and antipyretics with either sedative or anticholinergic activity have been associated with dystonic reactions in children. We report on a 3-year-old girl who presented with episodic stiffness and abnormal posturing with rigidity after arbitrary maternal administration of a mixture of methylcodeine and extract from Hedera plant. PMID:11587381

  13. Isolation, Characterization and In vitro Antiurolithiatic activity of Cerpegin Alkaloid from Ceropegia bulbosa var. Lushii root

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Monika; Bhandari Anil; Bhandari Aakanksha; Patel Priyanka

    2012-01-01

    Ceropegia bulbosa var.lushii also known as Kadula, Haudlo, Khappar-kaddu, Bhuu-tumbi, Gilodya and Patalatumbi in local language, family Asclepiadaceae. The tuberous roots are used to treat several diseases like diarrhoea, dysentery, analgesic, antipyretic, kidney stone and other activities. The tuberous root contains steriods, polyphenols, fats, albuminoids, sugars, potassium and active constituent an alkaloid cerpegin.The present investigation was carried out to isolate, purify and character...

  14. Compliance with Universal Precautions Among Nurses and Laboratory Technicians in Mansoura International Specialized Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Mamoud Sayed Ahmed; Salwa Abbas Aly Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Compliance with universal precautions by nurses and laboratory technicians in hospitals is very important because it prevent cross infection and decrease costs of antibiotics and antipyretics. Also, it decreases spread of infection, which leads to decrease morbidity and mortality rate. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used for conducting this study. The sample of the study consisted of 150 nurses and lab technicians working at morning shift in a hospital at Mansoura City, Dakahlia Gov...

  15. Preformulation Characterisation, Designing and Formulation of Aceclofenac Loaded Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    B. Jayanthi; Madhusudhan, S.; Mohanta, G. P.; Manna, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to systematically investigate some of the important physicochemical properties of Aceclofenac loaded micro particles.Aceclofenac is a potent analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the management of moderate-to-severe pain and in rheumatoid disorder, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylities. Almost all drugs are marketed as tablets, capsules or both. Prior to the development of these major dosage forms, it is essential that pert...

  16. Effects of Nigella sativa (Black Seed) on Serum Levels of Urea and Uric Acid in Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity of Commercial Layer Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Taseer Ahmed Khan; Muhammad Noman Khan; Ruqaiya Hasan; Habib Fatima; Einas Kousar

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen is an analgesic and antipyretic agent administered in high doses causes kidney and liver necrosis both in humans and in animals. Nigella sativa (Black seed) has been reported to have hepatoprotective and nephroprotective properties. Present investigation is performed to find out the effects of aqueous solution of Nigella sativa and its oil extract on serum urea and uric acid levels of layer chicks after oral administration of a single dose of 300 mg acetaminophen/kg ...

  17. Pharmacological basis for the use of Hypericum oblongifolium as a medicinal plant in the management of pain, inflammation and pyrexia

    OpenAIRE

    Raziq, Naila; Saeed, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Haroon; Gul, Farah

    2016-01-01

    Background The present therapeutic agents for the treatment of pain, inflammation and pyrexia are not very effective and accompanied by various side effects. Therefore, new effective agents are the most wanted. The present study investigates the anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of crude methanol extract of Hypericum oblongifolium. Methods In vivo acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests were used for antinociceptive effects at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg i.p. ...

  18. Distribution and chemotaxonomic significance of phenolic compounds in Spermacoce verticillata (L.) G. Mey

    OpenAIRE

    Iasmim C. Lima; Rosane Nora; Mário G. de Carvalho; Douglas S.A. Chaves

    2014-01-01

    Context: Spermacoce verticillata, known as “poaia and vassourinha de botão”, is a species widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic. It is a native species, small, upright perennial, and broadly distributed throughout Brazil. Until now, few chemical studies have focused on the phenolic composition of this species. Aims: Evaluate the phytochemical profile of phenolic compounds from Spermacoce verticillata and search new compounds that have...

  19. Safety evaluation of Bon-santé cleanser® polyherbal in male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, O. E.; Awodele, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background The potential harm of medicinal herbs has been recently observed following herbal toxicity studies after ingestion of polyherbal remedies. This was the rationale for the food and drug regulatory agency decision for thorough safety evaluation of herbal medicines. Androgenic, antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory potentials as well as chemical compositions of extracts of massularia acuminata, terminalia ivorensis, anogeissus leiocarpus and macuna pruriens respectively have bee...

  20. Drug: D04022 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04022 Mixture, Drug Sodium salicylate - dibucaine hydrocholoride - calcium bromide... mixt; Neo vitacain (TN) Sodium salicylate [DR:D00566], Dibcaine hydrochloride [DR:D02220], Calcium bromide ...[DR:D01723] Anti-inflammatory Therapeutic category: 1149 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301]... nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents 1149 Others D04022 Sodium salicylate - dibucaine hydrocholoride - calcium bromide mixt PubChem: 17398006 ...

  1. A comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of two Artemisia species found in Nilgiris biosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, J.; K Elango; Dhanabal, S.P.; Paramakrishnan, N.; Suresh, B.

    2007-01-01

    Artemisia pallens Wall. ex DC commonly known as “Davana” in Kannada and Artemisia abrotanum Linn. known as “Southernwood” (Asteraceae) are aromatic herbs, erect in habit, upto 60 cm tall, leaves are very small, much divided, bluish green. These plants find use in traditional systems of medicine viz., anthelmintic, tonic and antipyretic properties. Since, these species have not been scientifically evaluated; the present study was aimed to bring these plants under a suitable pharmacognostical s...

  2. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2001-01-01

    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose of this...... article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  3. Effect of flupirtine on the growth and viability of U373 malignant glioma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Panchanathan, Elango; Ramanathan, Gnanasambandan; Lakkakula, Bhaskar Venkata Kameswara Subrahmanya

    2013-01-01

    Objective Flupirtine is a non-opioid analgesic without antipyretic or antiphlogistic properties but with favorable tolerability in humans. This analgesic also exhibits neuroprotective activities. Furthermore, flupirtine antagonizes glutamate- and NMDA-induced intracellular levels of Ca2+ and counteracts the effects of focal cerebral ischemia. Although flupirtine has been used to relieve pain caused by different diseases and clinical procedures, information on the safety and efficacy of flupir...

  4. FLUPIRTINE: A HUMAN DRUG WITH POTENTIAL FOR USE IN THE VETERINARY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Giorgi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flupirtine is a nonopioid drug without antipyretic or antiphlogistic properties and with a favorable tolerability in humans. It constitutes a unique class within the group of nonsteroidal analgesics and displays a peculiar pharmacokinetic/dynamic profile that could have large potentialities of applications in the veterinary field. This review describes and evaluates the pharmacologic literature concerning flupirtine and addresses its potential in veterinary medicine.

  5. Role of Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Acute Acetaminophen Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Adult Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab M. Gebaly* and Gamal M. Aboul Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic is known to cause hepatic injury in humans and experimental animals when administered in high doses. It was reported that toxic effects of acetaminophen are due to oxidative reactions that take place during its metabolism. L-carnitine is a cofactor in the transfer of long-chain fatty acid allowing to the beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the mitochondria. It is a known antioxidant with protective effects against lipid peroxidati...

  6. Toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by acetaminophen: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Gupta; Niti Mittal; Nishikant Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a very commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drug across various age groups. Although mild to moderate cutaneous reactions have been reported quite frequently, serious reactions like Stevens –Johnson syndrome and Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are very rare. We report the case of a 10 year old child who had TEN after ingestion of tablet acetaminophen. This case report highlights the need to be critically aware of this rare and serious adverse effect of this commonly ...

  7. Pharmacokinetic properties of intramuscular versus oral syrup paracetamol in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Wattanakul, Thanaporn; Teerapong, Pramote; Plewes, Katherine; Newton, Paul N.; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Silamut, Kamolrat; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; White, Nicholas J.; Arjen M. Dondorp; Tarning, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is an inherent symptom of malaria in both adults and children. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the recommended antipyretic as it is inexpensive, widely available and has a good safety profile, but patients may not be able to take the oral drug reliably. A comparison between the pharmacokinetics of oral syrup and intramuscular paracetamol given to patients with acute falciparum malaria and high body temperature was performed. Methods A randomized, open-label, two-treatment, cro...

  8. Paracetamol use (and/or misuse) in children in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obu Herbert A; Chinawa Josephat M; Ubesie Agozie C; Eke Christopher B; Ndu Ikenna K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen) is the commonest available analgesic and anti-pyretic. It is readily accessed from pharmacy, patent medicine and provision shops as over the counter drug making it a potential drug of abuse, especially in children. We sought to find its use and/or misuse in children seen at the paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. Objective To determine the dosage, formulation, and ...

  9. Clinical experience and results of treatment with suprofen in pediatrics. 1st communication: Suprofen dosage for children/An open and a double-blind study with suprofen syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippl, G; Michos, N; Bolla, K; Stocker, H

    1985-01-01

    The antipyretic effect of single doses of alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-phenyl acetic acid (suprofen, Suprol) syrup, administered at dose levels of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg b.w., was tested in a randomized double-blind and a subsequent open study. The test populations consisted of 100 children in the double-blind study and 40 patients in the open test (20 subjects/group). The patients' age ranged from 2 to 12 years; the lowest initial rectal temperature was 39.0 degrees C. The treatment groups were homogeneous as to demographic data. The temperature was reduced in all treatment groups. In the double-blind study the mean value dropped under the subfebrile threshold of 38.0 degrees C only in the group on 5 mg/kg and remained then constant for up to 6 h following administration. No sufficient antipyretic effect was obtained with lower doses. The results of the additional open study with doses of 7.5 and 10 mg/kg indicated good antipyretic effect. This effect was not, however, superior to that obtained with 5 mg/kg. Pulse and respiratory rates returned to normal within 1.5 h following administration, except in patients on 1 mg/kg. A total of 10 patients, homogeneously distributed in the treatment groups, experienced vomiting as an adverse reaction. Short-term hypotonia was seen in one subject on 7.5 mg/kg. The results obtained show that single doses of suprofen upward of 5 mg/kg b.w. exert satisfactory, long-lasting, antipyretic effect on children. PMID:3911961

  10. Penetapan Kadar Ketoprofen Dalam Sediaan Tablet Secara Spektrofotometri Ultraviolet

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Rini Juwita

    2010-01-01

    Ketoprofen is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic action. The purpose of this research was used to determine ketoprofen in the tablet which circulate in the general whether it requirement in The Farmakope Indonesia Edisi IV. The method used to determining tablet of ketoprofen was done by ultraviolet spectrophotometry using sodium hydroxide as a solvent at wavelength 260 nm. This method give the acceptable result based on paramete...

  11. Pharmacology of ketoprofen administered orally to pigs : an experimental and clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug belonging to the 2-arylpropionic acid group. It has been widely used in domestic animals because of its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic actions. Ketoprofen is a chiral compound existing in two enantiomeric forms, S (+) and R (-) ketoprofen. Each enantiomer has different pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. The commercial products in veterinary medicine are 50:50 racemic mixtures of both enantiomers. Ketoprofen underg...

  12. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Mokhber-Dezfuli; Soodabeh Saeidnia; Ahmad Reza Gohari; Mahdieh Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-a...

  13. Synthesis, spectral characterization, and pharmacological screening of some 4-[{1-(arylmethylidene}-amino]-3-(4-pyridyl-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees A Siddiqui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Pain is an unpleasant and subjective sensation that results from a harmful sensorial stimulation, which alerts the body about current or potential damage to its tissues and organs. Fever is a complex physiological response triggered by infections or aseptic stimuli. Elevation in body temperature occurs when the concentration of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 increases within parts of the brain. Triazole derivatives have been found to possess various pharmacological and biological activities, such as, anti-inflammatory, analgesics, antipyretic, and antifungal. Materials and Methods : Various 4-[{1-(arylmethylidene}-amino]-3-(4-pyridyl-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives were synthesized by a sequence of reactions starting from isonicotinic acid hydrazide. The synthesized compounds were screened for in-vivo analgesic by the tail-flick method and anti-pyretic activities at a dose of 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight respectively. The antipyretic activity was evaluated using Brewer′s yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Fever was induced by subcutaneously injecting 20 ml/kg of 20% aqueous suspension of Brewer′s yeast in normal saline. Results and Discussion : The analgesic screening results revealed that the compounds 3b, 3c, and 3d exhibited excellent analgesic activity at 60 and 90 minutes compared to the standard drug (Analgin. Results revealed that the compounds 3a, 3e, and 3f significantly decreased the temperature of pyretic (P<0.001 rats at one, three and six hours after compound administration as compared to Aspirin (standard drug. Conclusion : Compounds 3b, 3c, and 3d exhibited significant analgesic activity comparable with the standard drug analgin, using the tail flick model. Compounds 3a, 3e, and 3f showed significant anti-pyretic activities comparable with the standard drug aspirin using the yeast-induced pyrexia model.

  14. Anatomical characters of the medicinal leaf and stem of Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia do Rocio Duarte; Ariane Gonçalves Silva

    2013-01-01

    Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae), better known by its former name Vernonia amygdalina Delile, is a small shrub used in folk medicine as an antipyretic, laxative, antimalarial and anthelmintic. Studies have demonstrated that different vegetal extracts possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Among the bioactive metabolites, there are sesquiterpene lactones, saponins, polyphenols and flavonoids. This study investigated the leaf and stem mi...

  15. The Curative and Prophylactic Effects of Xylopic Acid on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Boampong; Ameyaw, E. O.; B. Aboagye; Asare, K.; Kyei, S; Donfack, J. H.; Woode, E.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts have been intensified to search for more effective antimalarial agents because of the observed failure of some artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) treatments of malaria in Ghana. Xylopic acid, a pure compound isolated from the fruits of the Xylopia aethiopica, was investigated to establish its attributable prophylactic, curative antimalarial, and antipyretic properties. The antimalarial properties were determined by employing xylopic acid (10–100 mg/kg) in ICR mice infected wi...

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. T. Barroso; Villanueva, G.; A. M. Lucas; G. P. Perez; R. M. F. Vargas; G. W. Brun; E. Cassel

    2011-01-01

    Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10,...

  17. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi: chemical composition, biological properties and toxicity Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi: composição química, propriedades biológicas, e toxicidade

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, M.G.; A.G.N. Melo; C.F.S. Aragão; F.N. Raffin; T.F.A.L. Moura

    2013-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a medicinal plant known in Brazil as "aroeira da praia", which has been used in popular medicine as antipyretic, analgesic, depurative and in the treatment of diseases of the urogenital system. On the other hand, the scientific literature has reported that this plant has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activity. This review addresses the main biological properties and toxicological effects of "aroeira da praia", in addition to a systemati...

  18. Aspirin for the next generation

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Nick; Smith, Tom

    2013-01-01

    First used as an analgesic and antipyretic, investigations into aspirin’s anti-inflammatory effects led to its establishment in 1974 as a drug that altered the activity of platelets to influence the course and incidence of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease. It became the standard in treatment and prevention of vascular disorders. The 25th International Scientific Meeting on aspirin held at the Royal College of Physicians in London on 24th October 2012 took aspirin into fresh f...

  19. Confusion

    OpenAIRE

    Krenzelok, Edward P.; Royal, Mike A.

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) plays a vital role in American health care, with in excess of 25 billion doses being used annually as a nonprescription medication. Over 200 million acetaminophen-containing prescriptions, usually in combination with an opioid, are dispensed annually. While acetaminophen is recognized as a safe and effective analgesic and antipyretic, it is also associated with significant morbidity and mortality (hepatotoxicity) if doses in excess of the therapeutic amount are ing...

  20. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Garg Nitika; Meena Ajay; Nain Jaspreet

    2011-01-01

    The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glyco...

  1. Study of drug use in outdoor pediatric patients of upper respiratory tract infections in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Joshi

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The study revealed that the majority of children were below 5 years of age. The most common class of drugs prescribed was antihistaminics and expectorant combinations followed by analgesics and antipyretics. Although the majority of the patients received antibiotics, 40.55% of patients received symptomatic treatment. This is a welcome step as inappropriate use of the antibiotics can potentiate to the increasing trend of antimicrobial resistance. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(5.000: 1004-1008

  2. Evaluation of Analgesic & Anti-inflammatory activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf root on Experimental Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar; Rajeev Kumar; Sanjay Yadav; Satyawan Singh; Surendra Nath Pandeya

    2010-01-01

    Desmostachia bipinnata (L.) Stapf (Gramineae) occurs widely in Egypt. This plant used traditionally as analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, asthma, thirst, jaundice, vaginal discharges, vesicle calculi, diseases of bladder, skin eruptions, vomiting, and sedative to pregnant uterus. So, in the present study, Desmostachia bipinnata roots were explored for their anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced paw oedema) and analgesic potential (Hot plate method) on experimental model and compared ...

  3. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Kummer; Fernanda Carolina Fachini-Queiroz; Camila Fernanda Estevão-Silva; Renata Grespan; Expedito Leite Silva; Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado; Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Rutaceae) includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka...

  4. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essence oil of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L)

    OpenAIRE

    Izadi, Z; M Esna-Ashari; G Ahmadvand; P Davoodi; KH Piri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a perennial herbaceous essence oil bearing plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family. This plant is a valuable and important herb which has many therapeutic properties. Recent investigations have shown its excellent anti-irritable bowel syndrome effects. Other properties of this plant are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, promote menstrual flow, antipyretic, antiseptic and anti-rheumatoid effects. This investigation was conducted to s...

  5. Formulation, in vitro release and transdermal diffusion of diclofenac salts by implementation of the delivery gap principle / Hanri Smith

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Hanri

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in the treatment of inflammation and pain (Escribano et al., 2003:203). Diclofenac, a classical NSAID, is considerably more effective as an analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug than other traditional NSAIDs, like indomethacin and naproxen (Grosser et al., 2011:986). However, the use of diclofenac is known for its many side effects, such as gastric disorders, while fluid and sodium retention are also comm...

  6. Essential oil constituents and their biological activities from the leaves of Cassia fistula growing in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Prabodh Satyal; Noura S Dosoky; Ambika Poudel; William N. Setzer

    2013-01-01

    Cassia fistula L. (Fabaceae) fruit is used traditionally in Nepal as an antipyretic and to treat constipation, while the leaves are used to treat jaundice, piles, rheumatism, ulcers, insect bites, facial paralysis and skin eruptions. C. fistula leaves are important ingredients in Ayurvedic medicine. This study was undertaken to characterize the volatile constituents of C. fistula leaves and to evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. The essential oil from the leaves of Cassia f...

  7. Total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents in different extracts of Artemisia absinthium

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Singh; Pawan Kumar Verma; Gagandeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    The A. absinthium is commonly known as wormwood having antipyretic, antimicrobial, antifungal, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties. Natural bioactive compounds like phenols and flavonoids are the important secondary metabolites in plant posses high scavenging ability of free radical and reactive oxygen species produced in mammals. To maximize these agents in the extract different solvents viz. aqueous, ethanolic and chloroform are used for the extraction procedure (among these different...

  8. Variation in Morphological Characteristics and Andrographolide Content in Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees of Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, A. K.; Mandal, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (king of bitters), commonly known as Kalmegh is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines for a number of ailments related to digestion, hepatoprotection, hypoglycemic, and as anti-bacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, vermicidal and antipyretic. A. paniculata collected from five locations of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh were studies for their morphological characteristics and diterpene contents to find out superior genotype. The average amount of dry ...

  9. Pharmacological screening of glycine amino acid prodrug of acetaminophen

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Parashar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop an amino acid prodrug of acetaminophen with comparable therapeutic profile and less hepatotoxicity than acetaminophen. Materials and Methods: Acetaminophen prodrug was synthesized by esterification between the carboxyl group of amino acid glycine and hydroxyl group of acetaminophen. Analgesic, antipyretic, ulcer healing, and hepatotoxic activities were performed on Wistar rats in this study. Results: Prodrug showed a 44% inhibition in writhings as compared to 53....

  10. Acetaminophen prevents hyperalgesia in central pain cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Crawley, Brianna; Saito, Osamu; Malkmus, Shelle; Fitzsimmons, Bethany; Hua, Xiao-Ying; Yaksh, Tony L.

    2008-01-01

    Acetaminophen is an analgesic and antipyretic drug believed to exert its effect through interruption of nociceptive processing. In order to determine whether this effect is due to peripheral or central activity, we studied the efficacy of systemic (oral) and intrathecal (IT) application of acetaminophen in preventing the development of hyperalgesia induced through the direct activation of pro-algogenic spinal receptors. Spinal administration of substance P (SP, 30 nmol, IT) in rats produced a...

  11. NQO2 Is a Reactive Oxygen Species Generating Off-Target for Acetaminophen

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Teemu P.; Björklund, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    The analgesic and antipyretic compound acetaminophen (paracetamol) is one of the most used drugs worldwide. Acetaminophen overdose is also the most common cause for acute liver toxicity. Here we show that acetaminophen and many structurally related compounds bind quinone reductase 2 (NQO2) in vitro and in live cells, establishing NQO2 as a novel off-target. NQO2 modulates the levels of acetaminophen derived reactive oxygen species, more specifically superoxide anions, in cultured cells. In hu...

  12. Acetaminophen: Beyond Pain and Fever-Relieving

    OpenAIRE

    MiaozongWu

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen, also known as APAP or paracetamol, is one of the most widely used analgesics (pain reliever) and antipyretics (fever reducer). According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), currently there are 235 approved prescription and over-the-counter drug products containing acetaminophen as an active ingredient. When used as directed, acetaminophen is very safe and effective; however when taken in excess or ingested with alcohol hepatotoxicity and irreversible liver damage ca...

  13. Acetaminophen overdose associated with double serum concentration peaks

    OpenAIRE

    Papazoglu, Cristian; Jonathan R. Ang; Mandel, Michael; Basak, Prasanta; Jesmajian, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic–antipyretic medication in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose, a frequent cause of drug toxicity, has been recognized as the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis. N-Acetylcysteine is the recommended antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Despite evidence on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of hepatic injury, controversy persists about the optimal duration of the therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 65-y...

  14. [Paracetamol overdose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlawi, M; Marti, C; Sarasin, F

    2013-08-14

    Acetaminophen is the most widely used analgesic-antipyretic and is available as an over-the-counter medication in many countries. Although generally safe at usual therapeutic doses, acetaminophen may cause hepatic toxicity in case of chronic or acute overuse and even at therapeutic doses in susceptible individuals. The aim of this article is to review the mechanisms of acetaminophen toxicity and to review the critical steps in the management of acute or chronic acetaminophen intoxication. PMID:24024393

  15. Acetaminophen induces JNK/p38 signaling and activates the caspase-9-3-dependent cell death pathway in human mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yiang, Giou-Teng; YU, YUNG-LUNG; LIN, KO-TING; CHEN, JEN-NI; Chang, Wei-Jung; Wei, Chyou-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug. Generally, the therapeutic dose of APAP is clinically safe, however, high doses of APAP can cause acute liver and kidney injury. Therefore, the majority of previous studies have focussed on elucidating the mechanisms of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, in addition to examining ways to treat these conditions in clinical cases. However, few studies have reported APAP-induced intoxication in human stem cells. St...

  16. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Kadam; K.N. Yadav; F.A. Patel; F.A. Karjikar; M J Patil

    2013-01-01

    Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy,...

  17. A REVIEW ON TRADITIONAL, PHARMACOLOGICAL, PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROPERTIES OF FICUS CARICA (ANJIR)

    OpenAIRE

    Alam Imran; Jat R.K; Srivastava Varnika

    2011-01-01

    Ficus carica (Moraceae) is a deciduous tree, which grows in tropical and subtropical regien of India, commonly known as fig tree. Dried figs are nutritionally rich fruits. Figs are one of the highest sourse of calcium, copper, magnesium, vit.k. The seeds are real fruit in figs. In traditional medicine the roots are used in the treatment of leucoderma and ringworms. Fruits have antipyretic aphrodiasic property. A 40gm portion of dried figs (2 medium size figs) produces significant increase in ...

  18. Study of Formulation of Mild Pharmaceutical Forms of Paracetamol in Medical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahu, Bedri; Morina, Naim; Islami, Hilmi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Paracetamol is one of the most used antipyretic- analgesic preparation, which can be found in different pharmaceutical forms and in different doses. Due to its wide utilization in the clinical practice, determination of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulation is of a great importance since that over dosage with paracetamol may cause the hepatic fulminant necroses and other toxic effects. Material and methods: Study has included two formulations of paracetamol suppositories wit...

  19. Assessment of the effect of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. extract on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells Avaliação do efeito do extrato de Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. na marcação de elementos sanguíneos com tecnécio-99m e na morfologia de células vermelhas do sangue

    OpenAIRE

    Kakali De; Susmita Chandra; Mridula Misra

    2009-01-01

    Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (BM), a traditional Ayurvedic medicine, used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. BM extract have been extensively investigated by several authors for their neuropharmacological effects. In nuclear medicine, red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have several clinical applications. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labeling of RBC wit...

  20. ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHARANTIN FROM MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LINN. FRUIT

    OpenAIRE

    Subhashchandra Patel; Tushar Patel; Kaushal Parmar; Yagnesh Bhatt; Yogesh Patel; N. M. Patel

    2010-01-01

    Momordica Charantia (Cucurbitaceae) is commonly known as bitter guard in English and karela in Hindi. The fruit has claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordicosides, carbohydrate, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucoside, etc. Earlier claim shows that the plant used as stomachic, carminative, tonic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The present investigation was carried out to isolate, purify and characterize Charantin from fruit of Momord...

  1. Sleep Disruption and Proprioceptive Delirium due to Acetaminophen in a Pediatric Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Carnovale; Marco Pozzi; Andrea Angelo Nisic; Elisa Scrofani; Valentina Perrone; Stefania Antoniazzi; Emilio Clementi; Sonia Radice

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 7-year-old boy, who received acetaminophen for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, due to an infection of the superior airways. 13 mg/kg (260 mg) of acetaminophen was administered orally before bedtime, and together with the expected antipyretic effect, the boy experienced sleep disruption and proprioceptive delirium. The symptoms disappeared within one hour. In the following six months, acetaminophen was administered again twice, and the reaction reappeared with similar f...

  2. Sargassum fulvellum Protects HaCaT Cells and BALB/c Mice from UVB-Induced Proinflammatory Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Chan-Ik Park; Eun Mi Ahn; Gyu Hwan Park; Chan Lee; Jung-Hee Jang

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been reported to induce cutaneous inflammation such as erythema and edema via induction of proinflammatory enzymes and mediators. Sargassum fulvellum is a brown alga of Sargassaceae family which has been demonstrated to exhibit antipyretic, analgesic, antiedema, antioxidant, antitumor, fibrinolytic, and hepatoprotective activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate anti-inflammatory effects of ethylacetate fraction of ethanol extract of Sargassum fulve...

  3. Drug: D07443 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Analgestic; Antipyretic Phenylacetic acid derivatives nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cyclooxyg...enase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] ...s Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) [HSA:57...42] [KO:K00509] Amfenac D07443 Amfenac (INN) cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] Amfenac D07443

  4. STUDY OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY WITH REDUCTION OF DPPH RADICAL AND XANTHINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR OF THE EXTRACT OF RUELLIA TUBEROSA LINN LEAF

    OpenAIRE

    Aktsar Roskiana Ahmad; Abdul Munim; Berna Elya

    2012-01-01

    Ruellia tuberosa L belongs to Acanthaceae family. In traditional medicine has been used as diuretic, antidiabetic, antipyretic and antihypertensive, and it also recently been incorporated as a component in a herbal tea in Taiwan. This research aims to determine the antioxidant activity of R. tuberosa leaf extract. Extraction of R. tuberosa leaf by stratified maceration method using dichloromethana and methanol. Methanol extract was partitioned by using ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Antioxidant...

  5. Amelioration of Aspirin Induced Oxidative Impairment and Apoptotic Cell Death by a Novel Antioxidant Protein Molecule Isolated from the Herb Phyllanthus niruri

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Ghosh, Shatadal; Sil, Parames C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has been used for a long time as an analgesic and anti-pyretic drug. Limitations of its use, however, remain for the gastro-intestinal side effects and erosions. Although the role of aspirin on gastro-intestinal injury has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying aspirin-induced liver and spleen pathophysiology are poorly defined. The present study has been conducted to investigate whether phyllanthus niruri protein (PNP) possesses any protective role against aspi...

  6. Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Stolzberg

    2012-01-01

    Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs or aging which affects ~14% of the gener...

  7. Leuckart Synthesis and Pharmacological Assessment of Novel Acetamide Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Priyanka; Pal, Dilipkumar; Hegde, Rahul Rama; Hashim, Syed Riaz

    2016-01-01

    A new concatenation of N-(1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl)-2-phenoxyacetamide and N-(1-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl)-2-phenoxyacetamide derivatives having 2-phenoxy-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide nucleus as common in both the types was synthesized for the sake of achieve titled compounds as potential cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic agents. All the novel derivatives have been synthesized through multi-step reaction sequence starting from Leuckart reaction. The structural assignments of the new compounds have been determined by virtue of their IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectrum analysis. All the synthesized compounds were assessed for cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects. Among the series, compounds 3a, 3c, 3g and 3h possess cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities comparable with standard drugs. The synthesized compounds were found to be active because of the presence of bromo, tert- butyl and nitro groups at position 4 of phenoxy nucleus. PMID:26555612

  8. Estado actual del manejo de la fiebre en niños. Current status of management of fever in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Alberto Rueda Zambrano, MD

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Es muy frecuente en el ambiente médico y entre los padres de familia el uso y abuso de antipiréticos buscando disminuir abruptamente la temperatura, mejorar los síntomas derivados de la fiebre y contrarrestar las reacciones adversas de la misma. Por otro lado, existen diferentes conceptos acerca de la elección del antipirético más eficaz y seguro en niños y su ruta de administración, así como su utilidad en la prevención de convulsiones febriles, entre otras. Este artículo pretende dar claridad a las controversias en el manejo de la fiebre mediante la revisión de la literatura, incluyendo solo ensayos clínicos, meta análisis, guías de manejo y revisiones de tema, publicadas en las dos últimas décadas. Para tal fin se revisaron las bases de datos Cochrane, PubMed y Medscape.Antipyretics are very often used between physicians and parents to treat fever and relief its symptoms and prevent vaccination side effects. Indeed, there is a misconception about the prevention of recurrence of febrile seizures with antipyretics and this leads to overdoses, side effects and, therefore, more parent´s anxiety. There are contradictory concepts about the election of safer and better antipyretic in children and its better administration via: oral and rectal paracetamol, ibuprofen, ketoprofeno, nimesulide, oral and intramuscular metamizol, paracetamol plus ibuprofen and ponging/lukewarm bath. All these alternatives have been studied by many researchers without consensus because more trials with bigger samples and longer time of study are needed. No clarity exists between doctors and parents about the antipyretic's effects over febrile seizure prevention and prophylaxis of post vaccine symptoms. This article pretends to find actual evidence about fever , its implications and use of antipyretics in children through searching on data bases like PubMed, Cochcrane, and Medscape.

  9. Adamantyl analogues of paracetamol as potent analgesic drugs via inhibition of TRPA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Fresno

    Full Text Available Paracetamol also known as acetaminophen, is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic agent. We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of adamantyl analogues of paracetamol with important analgesic properties. The mechanism of nociception of compound 6a/b, an analog of paracetamol, is not exerted through direct interaction with cannabinoid receptors, nor by inhibiting COX. It behaves as an interesting selective TRPA1 channel antagonist, which may be responsible for its analgesic properties, whereas it has no effect on the TRPM8 nor TRPV1 channels. The possibility of replacing a phenyl ring by an adamantyl ring opens new avenues in other fields of medicinal chemistry.

  10. Bacopa monniera -a Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Shikha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa moniera, a traditional Ayurvedic plant, used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. The plant, extract and isolated bacosides (the major active principles have been extensively investigated in several laboratories for their different biological activities. In addition researchers have evaluated the anti-inflammatory, cardio tonic and other pharmacological effects of Bacopa monniera preparations/exracts. Therefore, in view of the important activities performed by this plant, research is an on going process over Bacopa monniera.

  11. Yamogenin 3-O--D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 4)-O--D-xylopyranoside from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Saxena; Albert Shalem

    2004-03-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum (NO - Leguminosae) is cultivated in many parts of India. It has been found to possess significant medicinal value. Its leaves are used both internally and externally to reduce swelling, prevent falling of hair and in treating burns. Its seeds are carminative, antipyretic, anthelmintic and diuretic, and are also useful in treatment of dropsy, chronic cough, heart diseases, bronchitis, piles and small pox. This plant also possesses antidiabetic property. The present communication deals with the isolation and identification of steroidal saponin SA-III, characterised as yamogenin 3-O--D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 4)-O--D-xylopyranoside, which was isolated from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum.

  12. Antinociceptive activity of Dyera costulata extract in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Wantana Reanmongkol; Sanan Subhadhirasakul; Chittima Pairat; Chaiya Poungsawai; Wiparat Choochare

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the chloroform extract from the leaves of Dyera costulata Hook. f. (D. costulata) on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were examined. General behavior was also examined using pentobarbitalinduced sleep and locomotor activity in mice. The LD50 value of intraperitoneally injected D. costulata extract in mice was 0.27 g/kg. Oral administration of D. costulata extract (100-400 mg/kg...

  13. Antinociceptive activity of the alkaloid extract from Kopsia macrophylla leaves in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sunisa Sengsui; Jittima Kalnaowakul; Sanan Subhadhirasakul; Khemawenut Thanyapanit; Surapon Thienmontree; Wantana Reanmongkol

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the alkaloid extract from the leaves of Kopsia macrophylla Hk. f. K. (K. macrophylla) on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in mice, were examined. General behavior was also examined using pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. The LD50 value of intraperitoneally injected K. macrophylla extract in mice was 318.46 mg/kg. Oral administration of K. macrophylla extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significa...

  14. Introducing a rare form of PFAPA from the Marshal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFever is considered a common symptom in children. Periodic fever with less luadeuce produces additional complications. In this study, we present a rare periodic fever syndrome which contains; aphthus stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA in a 3 year old child with typical symptoms. His fever was present for 2-4 days (100%, in addition, cervical adenitis & pharyngitis associated arthritis (only one tries was observed. The sedimentation rate was increased. Its treatment consisted of antipyretic and corticosteroids. This lead to a good prognosis and with the passage of time had a complete resolution.

  15. POTENSI LICHEN SEBAGAI SUMBER BAHAN OBAT: SUATU KAJIAN PUSTAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIS SEPTIANA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen is a plant with many benefits. Its abundant existence in an area may indicate that air pollution levels are still low. Besides as indicator of air quality, lichen is also used as traditional medicine. Until present time, application of lichens for arthritis, constipation, chemotherapy, external wound, microbial infection, worm and infestation are still done in some countries. It is due to active chemical compounds contain in lichen that has activities as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoa, analgesic and antipyretic, and anthelmintic. With its potential and efforts to provide sustainable materials, lichen has good prospect to be developed become modern medicine.

  16. [Analysis of patients with acute exogenous poisoning at an intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, R; Meier, F; Penk, I; Striehn, E

    1987-02-01

    Over a period of 2 years patients with exogenic intoxications take 16% in the total number of patients of the department for internal intensive care. The cases in question were 43.3% males and 56.7% females. The average age of the patients with 31 years was low. The mortality was 2.4%. In the first place of the exogenic intoxications were intoxications with the groups of medicaments sedatives, hypnotics, tranquilizers, analgetics and antipyretics followed by intoxications with neuroleptics, beta-receptor blockers, antidepressives, antiepileptics and glycosides. The rate of complications was greatest in the mixed intoxications. PMID:3590879

  17. Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol with Microwave Assisted Alkaline Hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunli Xu; Wei Liu; Baoxin Li

    2003-01-01

    @@ Paracetamol (N-acetyl-4-amino-phenol) is a popular analgesic and antipyretic medication that is readily absorbed after administration and has few side effects and little toxicity when used in recommended dose. After ingestion of an overdose quantity of paracetamol, the accumulation of toxic metabolites may cause severe and sometimes fatal hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. So, the accurate determination of paracetamol in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids has appeared especially attractive. For its measurement, many me thods have been developed, such as fluorometry, electrochemical method, nuclear magnetic resonance-mass spectrometry,chromatography method, and capillary electrophoresis

  18. The effect of magnetic field on the shape of etch pits of paracetamol crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchenko, V.E. [Kemerovo State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Research and Educational Center, Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Boldyrev, V.V.; Shakhtshneider, T.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zakharov, Yu.A.; Krasheninin, V.I. [Kemerovo State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ermakov, A.E. [Institute of Physics of Metals, Ural Branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2002-04-01

    In the present study we investigate the effect of magnetic field on the shape of etch pits of the crystals of p-hydroxyacetanilide (paracetamol), which is widely used in pharmacy as antipyretic, antiphlogistic medicine. It was discovered that the magnetic field (H=0.5 T, {tau}=15 min) changes the morphology of etch pits and shifts dislocations in paracetamol crystal. Activation energy of the changes induced by the action of the magnetic field was determined to be 63 kJ/mol, which is comparable with the energy of hydrogen bonds in crystal lattice. (orig.)

  19. Drug: D07979 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07979 Drug Flupirtine D-gluconate; Katadolon (TN) C15H17FN4O2. C6H12O7 500.1919 50...esics and antipyretics N02BG07 Flupirtine D07979 Flupirtine D-gluconate Target-ba..., NMDA N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor [HSA:2902 2903 2904 2905 2906] [KO:K05208 K05209 K05210 K05211 K05212] Flupirtine... [ATC:N02BG07] D07979 Flupirtine D-gluconate CAS: 105507-11-7 PubChem:

  20. Drug: D07978 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07978 Drug Flupirtine (INN) C15H17FN4O2 304.1336 304.3195 D07978.gif Analgesic; An... and antipyretics N02BG07 Flupirtine D07978 Flupirtine (INN) Target-based classif...thyl-D-aspartate receptor [HSA:2902 2903 2904 2905 2906] [KO:K05208 K05209 K05210 K05211 K05212] Flupirtine [ATC:N02BG07] D07978 Flup...irtine (INN) CAS: 56995-20-1 PubChem: 96024673 LigandBox

  1. Toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by acetaminophen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is a very commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drug across various age groups. Although mild to moderate cutaneous reactions have been reported quite frequently, serious reactions like Stevens –Johnson syndrome and Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are very rare. We report the case of a 10 year old child who had TEN after ingestion of tablet acetaminophen. This case report highlights the need to be critically aware of this rare and serious adverse effect of this commonly used over the counter drug. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 831-832

  2. Safety of Ketoprofen in Cow calves following repeated intravenous administration

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R. D.; Sarita Devi; S. R.Gondaliya; S.K. Bhavsar and A.M. Thaker

    2009-01-01

    Ketoprofen is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for its anti-inflammatory,analgesic and antipyretic properties in Veterinary Medicine. The present study was planned to assess safety of ketoprofen (3 mg.kg-1) after repeated intravenous administration at 24 hours interval for five days in six crossbred cow calves (6-12 months age and weighing between 60-122 kg). Ketoprofen in calves was found safe based on evaluation of haematological (Hb, PCV, TLC and DLC), blood biochemical ...

  3. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    directly related to stroke severity and outcome, and fever after stroke is associated with substantial increases in morbidity and mortality. Normalisation of temperature in acute stroke by antipyretics is generally recommended, although there is no direct evidence to support this treatment. Despite its...... obvious therapeutic potential, hypothermia as a form of neuroprotection for stroke has been investigated in only a few very small studies. Therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in acute stroke but owing to serious side-effects--such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia--it is still thought of...

  4. Structural Elucidation of two Compounds from the Fruit of Medicinally Important Plant, Basella Rubra

    OpenAIRE

    Swarnali Nath Choudhury; Biplab De; Satya Bhusan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Basella rubra is a medicinal plant species found in India and other parts of Asia and tropical Africa. It improves the appetite, useful in biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers and it has antiviral and antipyretic activity. The red pigment from the fruit has good colouring ability. It is bright purple at pH 3-7. It is a good additive and a safe, non-poisonous colorant. At present, the dyestuff industry has grown rapidly because of the vital role played by small – scale sector, which is resp...

  5. Mothers’ knowledge attitudes and behaviors in connection to fever in their children Original Article

    OpenAIRE

    Baysoy, Gökhan; Aydoğmuş, Tuğba; Akın, Demet; Uyan, Ayten Pamukçu

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the knowledge of mothers about fever and the source of this knowledge attiudes and behavior towards the fever and the extent of lever phobia Moreover in respect to the mothers who received information about fever were compared with those who didn’t The knowledge and attitudes and approach to fever thermometer and antipyretic usage Material and Method: From January to July 2004 285 mothers who were admitted to Abant İzzet Baysal University hospital and primary care clinics in...

  6. ANTIOXIDANT, IMMUNOMODULATORY AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis (Amla is traditionally used for several diseases, and it is believed to increase the defense against diseases. It is particularly used for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, liver disorders, heart disease, ulcer, snake venom, haemorrhage, diarrhea, dysentery, anaemia and ophthalmic disorders. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, cytoprotective, analgesic, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antitussive and gastroprotective are the important properties of amla. Vitamin C, tannins and flavaniods present in amla have very powerful antioxidant activities. Due to rich vitamin C, amla is successfully used in the treatment of human scurvy.

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia causing diarrhea leading to mortality:an unusual disease course in a 10 month old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepa balachandran; WANG Suo-ying; SUN Bing-wei; LI Yu-qin; Krishna kumar.A

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ten months old female infant was admitted with three days history of fever and loose stools. The patient was initially treated with suspicion of viral infection. Interferon 10 μg was given IM and antipyretics were prescribed before the patient was brought to our hospital. Previous investigation showed neutropenia[WBC 7.88×109 /L, Neutrophils 0.39×109 /L, Lymphocytes 6.26×109 /L, PLT 264×109 /L, Hemoglobin level 108.10 g/L].

  8. Mothers' perceptions and knowledge on childhood malaria in the holendemic Kibaha district, Tanzania: implications for malaria control and the IMCI strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Lwihula, G K; Minjas, J N;

    2000-01-01

    Prior to an intervention on improving the quality of malaria case management, we assessed mothers' abilities to recognize nonsevere and severe/complicated malaria in children when a child has fever with other physiological and behavioural symptoms associated with malaria. Malaria was mentioned as...... diagnosis and treatment (89.4%). Poor outcome of treatment was ascribed to incorrect diagnosis and prescription, noncompliance at home and ineffective drugs (62.1%). Most mothers (86.6%) would take antipyretic measures first when a child has fever, and subsequently the majority (92.9%) would seek care at a...

  9. Toxicita volně dostupných analgetik ve vztahu k lidskému zdraví

    OpenAIRE

    VODVÁŘKA, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Analgesics represent a large group of medicines which is used for suppresing subjectively perceived pain. Analgesics can be divided into two large groups, opioids and non-opioids. Some of the non-opioids can be used as anti-inflammatory and/or antipyretics as well. All non-opioids influence metabolism of prostaglandins. Diverse group of non-opioid analgesics is available in Czech pharmacies as prescription medicines or for sale over the counter. The aim of this work is mainly to assess the to...

  10. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Kadam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy, Cytomorphology, Physical constants and Photochemical study of fruit. All parameters were studied according to the WHO and Pharmacopoeial guidelines to standardize the Piper nigrum.

  11. Agranulocytosis after Metamizole Sodium Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Cagan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metamizole sodium (Novalgine is commonly used as an antipyretic, analgesic, and spasmolytic agent in some parts of the world and our country; however, it is banned in developed countries because of severe side effects. Here we present a case of a three-years- four- months-old girl who developed life-threatening agranulocytosis in his bone marrow after metamizole sodium use for fever, which resolved with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 580-583

  12. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the crude ethanol extract of Eugenia uniflora L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    F. C. PIMENTA; L.M.F. TRESVENZOL; J.R. Paula; S. M.T. SABóIA-MORAIS; T. S. FIúZA

    2009-01-01

    Eugenia unifl ora L. is a tree whose leaves are used in popular medicine as an antihypertensive, antimicrobial drug, in the treatment of bronchitis, infl uenza and as an antipyretic. This paper reports the antimicrobial activity of a crude ethanol extract of E. unifl ora L. leaves. The crude extract was prepared from material collected in Goiânia, Goiás (Brazil), dried, pulverized and subjected to phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity was tested against spore-forming and non-spo...

  13. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor-mediated inhibition of thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Christopher J.; Tupone, Domenico; Cano, Georgina; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) agonists have been use as anti-hypertensive agents, in the management of drug withdrawal, and as sedative analgesics. Since α2-AR agonists also influence the regulation of body temperature, we explored their potential as antipyretic agents. This study delineates the central neural substrate for the inhibition of rat brown adipose tissue (BAT) and shivering thermogenesis by α2-AR agonists. Nanoinjection of the α2-AR agonist, clonidine (1.2 nmol), into the ros...

  14. Drug: D01866 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cycloox...D01866 Drug Lornoxicam (JAN/USAN/INN); Lorcam (TN) C13H10ClN3O4S2 370.9801 371.8192...ygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] hsa00590(5742+5743) Arachidoni...c acid metabolism Enzyme: CYP2C9 [HSA:1559] map07219 Cyclooxygenase inhibitors Therapeutic category of drugs...ous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents 1149 Others

  15. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF EFFERVESCENT TABLET OF PARACETAMOL AND IBUPROFEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren K. Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, fast-dissolving drug delivery system have started gaining popularity and acceptance as newdrug delivery system, because they are easy to administer and lead to better compliance. Usually, elderlypeople experience difficulty in swallowing the tablet. Paracetamol having analgesic, antipyretic effect,they inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme involved in prostaglandin (PG synthesis but not in peripheraltissue while Ibuprofen inhibit prostaglandin (PG synthesis in peripheral tissue so in this studyParacetamol and Ibuprofen combination used for analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory actionsimultaneously. The aim of this study was to formulate effervescent tablet with sufficient mechanicalintegrity and to achieve faster disintegration in the water. Effervescent tablets are uncoated tablets thatgenerally contain acid substances and carbonates or bicarbonates and which react rapidly in the presenceof water by releasing carbon dioxide. They are intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before use.Effervescent compositions in the form of tablets are comprising a therapeutic agent, granulating agent,and an effervescent system which dissolve rapidly in water to yield an effervescent solution containing acompletely dissolved therapeutic agent and a process for their preparation. In this study different ratio ofCitric acid and Sodium bicarbonate was used, superdisintegrant like SSG and cross-providone was used,compared to cross-providone SSG decreases the Solution time of tablet. Granules prepared by Wetgranulation technique and from the result it was found that the Particle size 355-500 μm of granulesshow good Solution time and Hardness property.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extract of Wattakaka volubilis (Dreagea volubilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Debkumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wattakaka volubilis (Family: Asclepiadaceae has been reported to possess medicinal effects. In the present study, the dried leaf extract [methanol-water (1:1] of W. volubilis designated as ′the extract′ was evaluated for pharmacological activity in rats and mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acute, sub-chronic and chronic models of inflammation in rodents. The antipyretic and analgesic activities were evaluated in mice models. In the acute toxicity study, it was found that the extract was non-toxic up to 1 g/kg, i.p. The extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. was found to possess, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in a dose-dependent manner and the effect was comparable with that produced by the standard drug, ibuprofen. The extract significantly inhibited the arachidonic acid-induced paw oedema in rats, indicating that the extract inhibited both the cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. The extract also significantly enhanced the macrophage count in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It is possible that the saponins present in the extract may be responsible for these activities.

  17. Effects of electrical stimulation of VSA on firing characteristics of thermosensitiveneurons in POAH of rabbits treated with pyrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract] AIM and METHODS:The recent work from our laboratory showed that ventral septal area (VSA) played a negative-regulatory central role in thermoregulation during endogenous pyrogen-induced fever. In order to further investigate the role of VSA in the antipyretic mechanism, we observed the effects of electrical stimulation of VSA on firing characteristics of thermosensitive neurons in preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POAH) by using extracellular microelectrode technique on 32 New Zealand white rabbits treated with interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) intracerebroventriculary (ICV). RESULTS:(1)Injection of IL-1β decreased discharging rate of warm-sensitive neurons in POAH. Electrical stimulation of VSA remarkably decreased thermosensitive coefficient of warm-sensitive neurons. (2)Injection of IL-1β caused increase in discharging rate of cold-sensitive neurons in POAH. Electrical stimulation of VSA remarkably increased thermosensitive coefficient of cold-sensitive neurons. CONCLUSTION:VSA may have an antipyretic effect through affecting the firing characteristics of thermosensitive neurons in POAH during IL-1β-induced fever.

  18. Vasopressin: its role in antipyresis and febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, W L; Cooper, K E; Ruwe, W D

    1984-02-01

    When pyrogenic substances are injected intravenously into experimental animals, a sequence of events is set in motion which involves the hypothalamus and perhaps other portions of the diencephalon to produce a febrile response. We now present evidence that the brain produces its own endogenous antipyretic which may serve as a means of controlling the extent of the fever. When arginine vasopressin is perfused through the lateral septal area of the hypothalamus of the sheep, fever is suppressed. Vasopressin alone does not lower normal body temperature when perfused through this region of the brain. In addition, evidence is provided to indicate that vasopressin is released within the lateral septal area during the febrile response. It is concluded that, in fever, arginine vasopressin may be released in the lateral septal area of the brain and serve as an endogenous antipyretic. Results indicate that, following an initial application of vasopressin into the brain itself, a subsequent similar administration of vasopressin produces seizure-like activity. Therefore, it is suggested that this release of arginine vasopressin may contribute to the production of febrile convulsion. PMID:6722595

  19. POLA PERSEDIAAN DAN PENGGUNAAN OBAT BERDASAR RESEP DAN NON RESEP OLEH ANGGOTA RUMAH TANGGA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharni Raharni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug resources and health enforcement are essential to each effort to ensure the availability of high quality drugs in the market, as well as easy and equity acces to them. Along with health awareness, they foster community health Drug and health awareness problems are so complex, because related to some aspects, such as quality, policy, on price performance, safety, availability and value for money. From this point of view, it is interesting to conduct a research on the pattern of drug availability in households representing the community. The analysis aims to identify the pattern of drug availability in housholds, either prescribed or non prescribed. Results shows that the highest percentage (23% of prescribed drugs belong to analgesic, antipyretic, and antinflammatory therapy class, followed by anti infection and (respiratory medicine for 13% and 10%, respectively. For non prescribed drugs, the highest percentage is analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory (5%, followed by traditional herbs/medicines and respiratory medicines and digestive medicines, for 10%, 10%, and 8%,respectively. For joint diseases, accidents, and asthma, a majority of non prescribed drugs are used. While for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, most of drugs used are prescribed drugs. It concluded that drugs belong to analgesic, antipiretic,and antinflammatory therapy class are widely used for chronic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and other diseases, either prescribed or non prescribed. Key words: drugs, therapy class, prescribed - non prescribed drugs

  20. Use of aquatic bryophytes as bio monitors for radioactive studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a widespread water moss Fontinalis antipyretics is frequently used as a biomonitor for trace elements pollution in lakes and running waters. The purpose of this study is to use Fontinalis antipyretics as a tool for monitoring of radioactivity in waters from different rivers (Musalenska Bistriza, Iskar, Maritza, etc.) in Rila Mountain. The radioactivity of aquatic moss, water samples and sediments were measured using HPG detector with the parameters FWHM 2 kev at 60Co efficiency 35% with low background. The dose rate measurements (μR/h) show different values according to the place of sampling and reflect the present ecological status of the river ecosystems. The ongoing measurements will allowed the absolute value of 137Cs in bryophytes to be determined and eventually some seasonal variations to be observed. A special interest is whether the measured activity is accidental or is as a consequence of a long time accumulation in the bryophytes. In this case they could probably be used for water purification. On that basis the bryophytes could be used for controlling radioactivity of river ecosystems even in high-mountain difficult accessible places replacing the transportation of large volumes of water

  1. Intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Sean T; Scott, Lesley J

    2009-01-01

    Intravenous paracetamol (rINN)/intravenous acetaminophen (USAN) is an analgesic and antipyretic agent, recommended worldwide as a first-line agent for the treatment of pain and fever in adults and children. In double-blind clinical trials, single or multiple doses of intravenous paracetamol 1 g generally provided significantly better analgesic efficacy than placebo treatment (as determined by primary efficacy endpoints) in adult patients who had undergone dental, orthopaedic or gynaecological surgery. Furthermore, where evaluated, intravenous paracetamol 1 g generally showed similar analgesic efficacy to a bioequivalent dose of propacetamol, and a reduced need for opioid rescue medication. In paediatric surgical patients, recommended doses of intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg were not significantly different from propacetamol 30 mg/kg for the treatment of pain, and showed equivocal analgesic efficacy compared with intramuscular pethidine 1 mg/kg in several randomized, active comparator-controlled studies. In a randomized, noninferiority study in paediatric patients with an infection-induced fever, intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg treatment was shown to be no less effective than propacetamol 30 mg/kg in terms of antipyretic efficacy. Intravenous paracetamol was well tolerated in clinical trials, having a tolerability profile similar to placebo. Additionally, adverse reactions emerging from the use of the intravenous formulation of paracetamol are extremely rare (<1/10 000). [table: see text]. PMID:19192939

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir Figen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80. The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3% in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3% stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.

  3. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidon Mona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although extensively studied in adults, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID hypersensitivity in children, especially in young children, remains poorly defined. Pediatricians, prescribing antipyretics for children, rarely encounter significant problems, but the few epidemiologic studies performed show conflicting results. Although it is clear that some patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA-sensitive asthma have their clinical onset of disease in childhood and bronchoconstriction after ASA challenge is seen in 0 to 22% of asthmatic children so challenged, ibuprofen at antipyretic doses may cause acute respiratory problems only in a very small number of mild to moderate asthmatics. The recently elucidated mechanism of action of acetaminophen may explain some occurrences of adverse reactions in patients with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity on the basis of its inhibitory activity on the newly described enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX-3. This nonspecific sensitivity to inhibition of COX is most likely genetically determined and shows a remarkable association with atopic disease even in the very young age group and possibly an increased predilection in specific ethnic groups. This review summarizes state-of-the-art published data on NSAID hypersensitivity in preschool children.

  4. Emblica officinalis (Amla: A review of potential therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, is perhaps the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Several parts of the plant are used to treat a variety of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. Many ailments are treated by the fruit which is used either alone or in combination with other plants. These include common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. E. officinalis possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemic, antihypercholesterolemic, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties as demonstrated in numerous preclinical studies. Furthermore, experimental studies have reported that E. officinalis and some of its phytochemicals also exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. E. officinalis is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities. These properties are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research establishing its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans.

  5. Randomized Trial of the Effect of Intravenous Paracetamol on Inflammatory Biomarkers and Outcome in Febrile Critically Ill Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshyar Honarmand

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study The febrile reaction is a complex response involving immunologic and other physiologic systems. Antipyretics are commonly used in critically ill patients with fever. We investigated the inflammatory responses following application of antipyretic therapy in febrile critically ill patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS. Patients and methods In a prospective, randomized controlled study, critically ill patients with fever (T [greater than or equal to] 38.3degreesC, SIRS diagnosed within 24 hours of Intensive Care Unit (ICU admission and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score [greater than or equal to]10 were randomized into two groups. Upon appearance of fever, one group received intravenous paracetamol 650 mg every 6 hours for 10 days and other group received no treatment unless temperature reached 40degreesC. Body temperature, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA scores, length of ICU stay, ICU mortality and infectious complications were recorded. Levels of Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-10, Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFalpha and High-Sensitive C-Reactive Protein (HS-CRP were assessed at baseline and 2, 6 and 24 hours after intervention. Results and discussion During a period of 15-month screening, 20 patients met the criteria and randomized to the control or paracetamol group. Body temperature decreased significantly in the paracetamol group (p = 0.004 and control group (p = 0.001 after 24 hours, but there was no significant difference between two groups at this time point (p = 0.649. Levels of IL-6 and IL-10 decreased significantly (p = 0.025 and p = 0.047, respectively in the paracetamol group at 24 hours but this was not of statistical significance in control group. No patterns over time in each group or differences across two groups were found for HS-CRP, TNFalpha

  6. Randomized trial of the effect of intravenous paracetamol on inflammatory biomarkers and outcome in febrile critically ill adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honarmand Hooshyar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study The febrile reaction is a complex response involving immunologic and other physiologic systems. Antipyretics are commonly used in critically ill patients with fever. We investigated the inflammatory responses following application of antipyretic therapy in febrile critically ill patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS. Patients and methods In a prospective, randomized controlled study, critically ill patients with fever (T ≥ 38.3°C, SIRS diagnosed within 24 hours of Intensive Care Unit (ICU admission and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score ≥10 were randomized into two groups. Upon appearance of fever, one group received intravenous paracetamol 650 mg every 6 hours for 10 days and other group received no treatment unless temperature reached 40°C. Body temperature, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA scores, length of ICU stay, ICU mortality and infectious complications were recorded. Levels of Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10, Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα and High-Sensitive C-Reactive Protein (HS-CRP were assessed at baseline and 2, 6 and 24 hours after intervention. Results and discussion During a period of 15-month screening, 20 patients met the criteria and randomized to the control or paracetamol group. Body temperature decreased significantly in the paracetamol group (p = 0.004 and control group (p = 0.001 after 24 hours, but there was no significant difference between two groups at this time point (p = 0.649. Levels of IL-6 and IL-10 decreased significantly (p = 0.025 and p = 0.047, respectively in the paracetamol group at 24 hours but this was not of statistical significance in control group. No patterns over time in each group or differences across two groups were found for HS-CRP, TNFα, and IL-1α (p > 0

  7. Some mechanisms involved in the radiosensitization of E.coli B/r by paracetamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paracetamol, a widely-used analgesic and antipyretic drug, sensitized E.coli B/r to 60Co gamma-rays under hypoxic conditions. Part of the sensitizing effect has been shown to be due to an electron adduct of the drug. Paracetamol inhibited both post-irradiation DNA and protein syntheses. The targets involved in the inhibition of post-irradiation DNA synthesis have been shown to be different in the presence of the sensitizer. Increased DNA degradation after irradiation was also observed when E.coli B/r were irradiated in the presence of the drug. The presence of paracetamol during hypoxic irradiation of E.coli B/r resulted in the enhancement of DNA single-strand scissions with no apparent effect on their rejoining. (author)

  8. Physicochemical and mechanical properties of paracetamol cocrystal with 5-nitroisophthalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiendrawan, Stevanus; Veriansyah, Bambang; Widjojokusumo, Edward; Soewandhi, Sundani Nurono; Wikarsa, Saleh; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2016-01-30

    We report novel pharmaceutical cocrystal of a popular antipyretic drug paracetamol (PCA) with coformer 5-nitroisophhthalic acid (5NIP) to improve its tabletability. The cocrystal (PCA-5NIP at molar ratio of 1:1) was synthesized by solvent evaporation technique using methanol as solvent. The physicochemical properties of cocrystal were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot stage polarized microscopy (HSPM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stability of the cocrystal was assessed by storing them at 40°C/75% RH for one month. Compared to PCA, the cocrystal displayed superior tableting performance. PCA-5NIP cocrystal showed a similar dissolution profile as compared to PCA and exhibited good stability. This study showed the utility of PCA-5NIP cocrystal for improving mechanical properties of PCA. PMID:26657269

  9. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Anthriscus sylvestris as an Alternative Source for Anticancer Lignans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Niţulescu, George Mihai; Orțan, Alina; Dinu-Pîrvu, Cristina Elena

    2015-01-01

    Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. is a wild herbaceous plant common in most temperate regions. It has been used traditionally to treat headaches, as a tonic, as antitussive, antipyretic, analgesic and diuretic. The plant contains deoxypodophyllotoxin, which is proven to have antitumor and anti-proliferative effects, anti-platelet aggregation, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activity. Deoxypodophyllotoxin is considered to be the plant's most important constituent, because of its pharmacological properties and because it can be converted into epipodophyllotoxin, the main raw material for the semisynthesis of the cytostatic agents etoposide and teniposide. This work summarizes for the first time the results related to the botanical description, distribution and habitat, phytochemical and pharmacological properties and emphasizes the aspects for future biotechnological research to establish its utility in the therapeutic arsenal. PMID:26287153

  10. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Anthriscus sylvestris as an Alternative Source for Anticancer Lignans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Tudorel Olaru

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthriscus sylvestris (L. Hoffm. is a wild herbaceous plant common in most temperate regions. It has been used traditionally to treat headaches, as a tonic, as antitussive, antipyretic, analgesic and diuretic. The plant contains deoxypodophyllotoxin, which is proven to have antitumor and anti-proliferative effects, anti-platelet aggregation, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activity. Deoxypodophyllotoxin is considered to be the plant’s most important constituent, because of its pharmacological properties and because it can be converted into epipodophyllotoxin, the main raw material for the semisynthesis of the cytostatic agents etoposide and teniposide. This work summarizes for the first time the results related to the botanical description, distribution and habitat, phytochemical and pharmacological properties and emphasizes the aspects for future biotechnological research to establish its utility in the therapeutic arsenal.

  11. Novel application of hydrotropic solubilizing additives in the estimation of aspirin in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated aqueous solutions of various hydrotropic agents like sodium benzoate, sodium salicylate, sodium acetate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide and sodium ascorbate have been observed to enhance aqueous solubilities of a large number of poorly water-soluble drugs. In the present investigation hydrotropic solubilization technique has been employed to solubilize poorly water-soluble aspirin (analgesic and antipyretic drug by 0.5 M ibuprofen sodium solution to carry out titrimetric analysis of aspirin in tablet dosage form. Results of analysis by proposed method and Phamacopoeial method are very comparable. Proposed method is new, rapid, simple, accurate, and reproducible. Statistical data proved the accuracy, reproducibility and the precision of proposed method.

  12. Modern Research and Application Characteristics of Gegen%葛根现代研究及应用特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程博琳; 苗明三

    2014-01-01

    Gegen contains Isoflavones,Puerarin glycosides,triterpenoid saponin and other compound. Gegen has Antipyretic,Antioxi-dant,alleviating a hangover,growing in intelligence,antitumor and other pharmacological effects. Meanwhile,it has clinical application in cerebrovascular disease. Gegen diet and the application in cerebrovascular disease and diabetes will be the focus of research and ap-plication in the future.%葛根含有异黄酮类、葛根苷类、三萜皂苷类及其他化合物,具有解热、抗氧化、解酒、益智、抗肿瘤等药理作用,可用于治疗心脑血管疾病。未来葛根的食疗及在心脑血管系统、糖尿病方面的应用将是研究、应用的重点。

  13. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  14. Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the genus Prunella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yubing; Xia, Bohou; Xie, Wenjian; Zhou, Yamin; Xie, Jiachi; Li, Hongquan; Liao, Duanfang; Lin, Limei; Li, Chun

    2016-08-01

    Prunella is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants in the Labiatae family. There are approximately 15 species worldwide, distributed widely in the temperate regions and tropical mountains of Europe and Asia. In the genus Prunella, P. vulgaris is the most studied, following a several thousand-year history as a traditional antipyretic and antidotal Chinese herb. Furthermore, since ancient times, P. vulgaris has been widely used as a cool tea ingredient and consumed as a vegetable. The genus Prunella contains triterpenoids and their saponins, phenolic acids, sterols and associated glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, volatile oil and saccharides. Modern pharmacological studies have revealed that Prunella possess antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, antihypertensive and hypoglycemic functions. The active components related to these functions are mainly triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids and polysaccharides. This review mainly summarizes recent advances in traditional usage, chemical components and pharmacological functions. PMID:26988527

  15. Lemon grass oil for improvement of oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruckmani Rajesvari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon grass essential oil has been used for decades to treat respiratory infections, sinusitis, bladder infections, high cholesterol, digestive problem, varicose veins and also for regeneration of connective tissue. It has anti spasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, insect repellent, sedative, vasodilator and flavoring properties. In china, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver diseases and also to treat rheumatism. Since lemon grass oil possess various pharmacological actions, it is also quite useful in dentistry. Hence, the objective of this article is to highlight various uses of lemon grass oil in the dental field and in the medical field in order to aid the professionals for future research.

  16. Synthesis and activity evaluation of 2-(1-naphtho[2,1- b ]furan-2-yl-carbonyl-3,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaraswamy M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl naphtho[2,1- b ]furan-2-carboxylate (2 on reaction with hydrazine hydrate in presence of acid catalyst in ethanol medium affords naphtho[2,1-b]furan-2-carbohydrazide (3. The reaction of substituted acetophenones (4a-c with aromatic aldehydes (5a-e produces chalcones (6a-o via the Claisen condensation. The reaction of naphtho[2,1- b ]furan-2-carbohydrazide (3 with chalcones (6a-6o in presence of acetic acid as catalyst in dioxane produces 1-(naphtho[2,1- b ]furan-2-yl-carbonyl-3,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles (7a-o. The structures of newly synthesized compounds have been established by elemental analysis and spectral studies. The compounds 7a-o have been evaluated for their antimicrobial activity and some selected compounds evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic, anthelmintic, diuretic and antipyretic activities.

  17. STANDARDIZATION AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON CYPERUS ROTUNDUS LINN RHIZOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Puneet kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus rotundus Linn vernacularly called “Nagarmotha” is a medicinal plant belonging to the family of the Cyperaceae and was widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin areas. This plant, which grows naturally in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, is widespread in northeast appearing among Indian, Chinese, Japanese natural drugs used as home remedy against spasms, stomach disorders and irritation of bowel. Cyperus rotundus has many different uses and used as cooling, intellect promoting, nervine tonic, diuretic, antiperiodic, diarrhoea, dysentery, leprosy, bronchitis, amenorrhea, blood disorders, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity. The present study was aimed to evaluate the parameter to determine the quality of the Cyperus rotundus rhizome. These studies comprise to investigate macroscopy, powder analysis, physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening and fluorescence characteristics. The studies will provide referential information for the correct identification of the crude drug.

  18. Aspectos químicos, biológicos e etnofarmacológicos do gênero Cassia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Viegas Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of Cassia are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world, and have been extensively investigated chemically and pharmacologically.They are known to be a rich source of phenolic derivatives, most of them with important biological and pharmacological properties. Some Asian, African and Indian tribes use these species as a laxative, purgative, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antiviral and anti-inflammatory agent. Among a number of other classes of secondary metabolites, such as anthracene derivatives, antraquinones, steroids and stilbenoids, biologically active piperidine alkaloids are an especially important bioactive class of compounds that showed to be restricted to a small group of Cassia species. In this paper we present an overview of the chemical, biological and ethnopharmacological data on Cassia piblished in the literature.

  19. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience show that hypothermia protects the brain from damage during ischaemia. There is a growing hope that the prevention of fever in stroke will improve outcome and that hypothermia may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. Body temperature is...... directly related to stroke severity and outcome, and fever after stroke is associated with substantial increases in morbidity and mortality. Normalisation of temperature in acute stroke by antipyretics is generally recommended, although there is no direct evidence to support this treatment. Despite its...... obvious therapeutic potential, hypothermia as a form of neuroprotection for stroke has been investigated in only a few very small studies. Therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in acute stroke but owing to serious side-effects--such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia--it is still thought of...

  20. The role of shops in the treatment and prevention of childhood malaria on the coast of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, R W; Peshu, N; Forster, D; Mwenesi, H; Marsh, K

    1992-01-01

    A community survey of 388 mothers in a rural and peri-urban population surrounding a district hospital on the coast of Kenya revealed that the preferred choice of treatment for childhood febrile illnesses was with proprietary drugs bought over the counter at shops and kiosks (72% of interviews). 67% of the mothers who reported using shops claimed they would buy chloroquine-based drugs. Preventative measures such as mosquito nets were uncommon (6.2%), but the use of commercial pyrethrum mosquito coils was reported more frequently (46.4%). Separate investigations of treatment given to 394 children before presentation at hospital with severe and mild malaria was consistent with the reports in the community of high usage of shop-bought anti-malarials and anti-pyretics. The involvement of the private sector in peripheral health care delivery for malaria is discussed. PMID:1412642

  1. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  2. Variation in Morphological Characteristics and Andrographolide Content in Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (king of bitters, commonly known as Kalmegh is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines for a number of ailments related to digestion, hepatoprotection, hypoglycemic, and as anti-bacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, vermicidal and antipyretic. A. paniculata collected from five locations of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh were studies for their morphological characteristics and diterpene contents to find out superior genotype. The average amount of dry weight per individual was between 16.58 to 18.92 g. The average andrographolide content varied from 1.07 to 2.24 percent in dried leaves. The differences in growth characteristics among the plants collected from different locations were not significant. However, andrographolide content among the plants from different locations were statistically significant. The results indicated that those populations are potentially important sources for breeding, improvement of cultivars and best sources for obtaining higher drug yield.

  3. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy in Tanzanian children gives rapid parasite clearance but slow fever clearance that is improved by chloroquine in combination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2002-01-01

    Following widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance, sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine (SP) is now the first line antimalarial drug in a number of African countries including Tanzania. Unlike CQ, SP has no antipyretic effects, a feature that might delay fever clearance, and by acting on late stage...... paracetamol (PCM) (n=38) in children with uncomplicated malaria. Over 72 h, there were eight (20.5%) treatment failures in the CQ group but none in the other groups. Although not significant (P > 0.1), irrespective of resistance CQ alone had a shorter median survival time to fever clearance than SP alone (54...... resistance, CQ alone had a median survival time to parasite clearance equal to that of SP alone (48 h). Parasite clearance by SP was rapid and at the end of 72 h, most (77.3%, 95% confidence interval: 69.6, 85.0) of the children on SP (as a group) had become aparasitaemic. The findings rule out concerns on...

  4. Mimusops elengi: A Review on Ethnobotany, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad V. Kadam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethno botanical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on Mimusops elengi to which commonly known as Bakul and Spanish cherry, belonging to Sapotaceae family. It is a large ornamental evergreen tree cultivated in India and generally reared in gardens for the sake of its fragrant flowers. In the traditional Indian system of medicine, the ayurveda and in various folk system of medicine, the bark, fruit and seeds of Mimusops elengi possess several medicinal properties such as astringent, tonic, and febrifuge. Chemical studies have shown that, Bark contain tannin, some caoutchoue, wax, starch and ash and Flower contain volatile oil as well as Seeds contain fixed fatty oil. Preclinical studies have shown that Mimusops elengi or some part of its phytochemicals possess Analgesic, Antibiotic, Antihyperlipidemic, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antoxidant, Antipyretic, Cytotoxic, Congestive enhancing, Gingival bleeding, Gastic ulcer, Hypotensive activity

  5. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichosanthes , a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc.

  6. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Satyendra; Manvi; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc. PMID:22654406

  7. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine:A concise report of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanika Patel; Ravi B Singh; Dinesh K Patel

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins.Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on aC27 cholestane skeleton.Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system.Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques.Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  8. The discovery of “sale amarissimo antifebbrile” (“bitter febrifugal saline” by Bartolommeo Rigatelli, i.e. the origins of pharmacoeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Marson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering the history of salycilates, it has to be underlined that a number of Italian scientists made significant contributions on such a topic. Among these, two pharmacists, Bartolommeo Rigatelli in Verona and Francesco Fontana in Lazise, carried out the first extraction of the active component of willow bark in 1824. Rigatelli named the drug “sale amarissimo antifebbrile” (“bitter febrifugal saline”. In his report some references of pharmacoeconomics are sketched out, thus indicating the attention that the Austrian government on the North Italian districts gave to the management policy. In fact, Rigatelli carried out an economic account of the use of salicin extracts as an antipyretic agent instead of the chincona bark which had been imported from South America at that time and was very expensive. This historical report gives rise to outline a brief history of pharmacoeconomics.

  9. A Review on Herbal Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangh Partap

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethno botanical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on Mimusops elengi to which commonly known as Bakul and Spanish cherry, belonging to Sapotaceae family. It is a large ornamental evergreen tree cultivated in India and generally reared in gardens for the sake of its fragrant flowers. In the traditional Indian system of medicine, the ayurveda and in various folk system of medicine, the bark, fruit and seeds of Mimusops elengi possess several medicinal properties such as astringent, tonic, and febrifuge. Chemical studies have shown that, Bark contain tannin, some caoutchoue, wax, starch and ash and Flower contain volatile oil as well as Seeds contain fixed fatty oil. Preclinical studies have shown that Mimusops elengi or some part of its phytochemicals possess Analgesic, Antibiotic, Antihyperlipidemic, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antoxidant, Antipyretic, Cytotoxic, Congestive enhancing, Gingival bleeding, Gastic ulcer, Hypotensive activity.

  10. USE OF HONEY AS NUTRITIONAL AND THERAPEUTIC SUPPLEMENT IN THE TREATMENT OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C.M. PEREIRA

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey, royal jelly, propolis, materials produced and/or gathered by Apis mellifera honeybees have been used as food and medication for centuries(6,7,8. Although extensively used, honeybee products have become a matter of interest and controversy for years. Honey, well known as healthy and natural food, has shown therapeutic properties in the treatment of digestive, respiratory, cardiac and rheumatic disorders, among others(4. Several studies have reported honey's immunological, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antipyretic properties besides its importance in terms of energy intake(3,5. Furthermore, honey has proved to possesses wound healing and analgesic actions(1,2. Honey and propolis are also known to be effective in the treatment of respiratory disorders caused by bacteria and fungi which lead to a deterioration of the patient's nutritional and immunological condition(6,7. Thus, a nutritional supplementation with propolis and honey associated with specific treatment can contribute to the patient's recovery.

  11. REVIEW ARTICLE – Intravenous paracetamol in pediatrics: A global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzammil Irshad, MBBS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous (IV Paracetamol is an excellent post operative analgesic and antipyretic in children. Efficacy and tolerability of IV Propacetamol have been established in pediatric practice. It is believed that paracetamol works by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzymes. Studies bring to light that therapeutic doses of IV acetaminophen are effective and tolerable in children with least chances of hepatotoxicity. However, overdose toxicity has been reported in children and drug induced hypotension in febrile critically ill patients. Therapeutic doses according to body weight of neonates and children can be administered in hospital settings. Special education of health care staff regarding precise dose and solution is necessary to assess the role of IV paracetamol preparation in pediatric practice.

  12. Novel pharmaceutical cocrystal consisting of paracetamol and trimethylglycine, a new promising cocrystal former.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yusuke; Fukami, Toshiro; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Tomono, Kazuo

    2014-10-01

    Paracetamol (APAP), a frequently used antipyretic drug, has poor compression moldability. In this study, we identified a novel cocrystal consisting of APAP and trimethylglycine (TMG) that exhibits improved tabletability. TMG was used instead of oxalic acid (OXA), which is a coformer reported previously. The cocrystal (APAP-TMG at a molar ratio of 1:1) was characterized by X-ray analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The crystal structure of APAP-TMG revealed that it was a cocrystal, since no proton was transferred between the APAP and TMG molecules. The compression and dissolution properties of APAP-TMG were similar to that of the APAP-OXA cocrystal. In addition, taste sensing measurements suggested that TMG has a sweet and umami taste, indicating that TMG should suppress the bitterness of APAP. From these results, TMG could be a safe and promising cocrystal former that could replace OXA, which can irritate tissues. PMID:25010838

  13. Genotoxicity of paracetamol on the germ cells of Drosophilla melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Y. M. alakilli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug. The aim of the present study is to determine the potential genetic effects of Paracetamol in Drosophilla melanogaster using two methods: Sex Linked Recessive Lethals (SLRL test and effect of Paracetamol on enzyme activity using spectrophotometric analysis. Three concentrations of drug were used (5, 10, and 20 mM. The results reveal significant differences in S.L.R.L, except spermatozoa stages showed insignificant increases when the data of the four broods were considered all together in three treatments. Meanwhile, Paracetamol showed a genotoxic effects in the three categories of the two generations of S.L.R.L, F1 heterozygous females, F2 bar eye females and F2 wild type males on the genetic back ground of Cholinesterase in all treatments.

  14. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn. & Unani Description– A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Shahzad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn. is a marshy perennial herb and rhizomes which has been traditionally used as medicine, against different diseases viz; Nisyan (dementia, Zofe Dimagh (Alzheimers disease, Humma (fever, Zeequn Nafs (asthama, Sual Muzmin (chronic cough, Ziabetus (ziabetes, Dyslipidemia, Quroohe Muzmina (chronic ulcer and mainly for digestive problems such as Dyspepsia (Zofe Hazm, Sue Hazm and Tukhma. A large number of chemical constituents such as phenyl propanoids, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes as well as xanthone glycosides, flavones, lignans, steroids obtained from the Vaj have been proved to show various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, nootropic, antipyretic, anti-asthamatic, hypoglycaemic, hepato-protective, cardioprotective, cytotoxic activity etc. The aim of this review is to provide information regarding Unani description in classical texts and scientific studies at current scenario which will motivate the research scholars on the basis of current scientific updates in their field of research.

  15. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różański, Michał; Jankowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines with antipyretic action have a long tradition of use in Polish phytotherapy. Over the years, they have proven both their efficacy and safety in a feverishness, which very often have accompanied the upper respiratory tract infections in children. Leading active ingredient of these products is the willow bark (Cortex salicis), which has been the active ingredient in both, the herbal mixture Pyrosan placed on the market in the 50's of last century and Pyrosal syrup marketed in the year 1989. Other herbal substances used in such preparations are elder flower, lime flower and meadowsweet flower. The usage of a pharmaceutical form of syrup is prerequisite when the main group of the patients are children. Such products are continuously in use for nearly 30 years in Poland. PMID:27162290

  16. A comparison of nimesulide and paracetamol in the treatment of fever due to inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, G; Titti, G; Pieragostini, P; Comito, A; Scaricabarozzi, I

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of nimesulide were compared with those of paracetamol in a nonblind randomised study that recruited 110 children (64 males, 46 females; aged 3 to 6 years) with inflammation of the upper respiratory tract and fever. Nimesulide suspension (1.5 mg/kg 3 times daily) or paracetamol syrup (10 mg/kg 4 times daily) were administered orally until fever resolved. Body temperature was recorded and local pain and general discomfort assessed. Three patients treated with nimesulide and 6 patients treated with paracetamol withdrew from the study as a result of adverse events, and 1 paracetamol-treated patient discontinued because of a requirement for therapy with steroids. Nimesulide was as effective as paracetamol in reducing fever, local pain, and general discomfort. Nimesulide therefore appears to be at least as effective as paracetamol in terms of antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity in children with inflammation of the upper respiratory tract and fever. PMID:7506180

  17. Comparative efficacy and tolerance of ibuprofen syrup and acetaminophen syrup in children with pyrexia associated with infectious diseases and treated with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autret, E; Breart, G; Jonville, A P; Courcier, S; Lassale, C; Goehrs, J M

    1994-01-01

    A double-blind, randomised, parallel group study has been done comparing the efficacy and tolerability of 7.5 mg/kg ibuprofen syrup (n = 77) and 10 mg.kg-1 acetaminophen syrup (n = 77) in 154 children (6 months to 5 years) with fever (> or = 38 degrees C) associated with infectious diseases and treated with antibiotic therapy. The area under the percentage reduction in temperature curve captured the net effect of each drug and provided the best estimate for comparison of efficacy during a defined period. Temperature evolution over time was not significantly different between the two groups. Nevertheless, the temperature reduction over the first 4 h of treatment (H0-H4) was significantly higher after ibuprofen (60%) than acetaminophen (45%). Both ibuprofen and acetaminophen were well tolerated. In conclusion, significant antipyretic activity, good tolerability and its availability as a syrup make ibuprofen an effective means of fever control in children. PMID:8070499

  18. Safety of Ketoprofen in Cow calves following repeated intravenous administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Singh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ketoprofen is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID used for its anti-inflammatory,analgesic and antipyretic properties in Veterinary Medicine. The present study was planned to assess safety of ketoprofen (3 mg.kg-1 after repeated intravenous administration at 24 hours interval for five days in six crossbred cow calves (6-12 months age and weighing between 60-122 kg. Ketoprofen in calves was found safe based on evaluation of haematological (Hb, PCV, TLC and DLC, blood biochemical (AKP, ACP, AST, ALT, LDH, Total bilirubin, Serum Creatinine, BUN, Serum total protein, Serum albumin and Blood glucose parameters. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 105-107

  19. Berberis lycium a Medicinal Plant with Immense Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sood2

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Berberis lycium belong to family Berberidaceae is an evergreen shrub growing in Himalayan region. The various parts of the plant like root, bark, stem, leaves and fruits are used by the people as a medicine or food. This plant has also gained wide acceptance for its medicinal value in ayurvedic drugs. The plant is known to prevent liver disorders, abdominal disorders, skin diseases, cough, ophthalmic etc. Moreover the pharmacological studies have shown that plant is hypoglycemic, hyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic and antipyretic properties. The fruits of the plant are also very nutritious and are rich source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, anthocyanin etc. These fruits are consumed in raw form or are utilized in the preparation of juices, jams, preserve etc. by the local inhabitants. In the present article an attempt has been made to summarize the various properties of Berberis lycium plant.

  20. Polar Compounds Isolated from the Leaves of Albertisia delagoensis (Menispermaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous infusions of the leaves of the shrub Albertisia delagoensis (Menispermaceae are used in South Africa in traditional Zulu medicine to alleviate a variety of symptoms, including fever, and intestinal problems. We report the analysis of such an aqueous extract using the HPLC-NMR technique. A number of polar compounds were identified, including proto-quercitol, nicotinic acid, allantoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid, phthalic acid and the aporphine alkaloid derivative roemrefidine. Allantoic acid and roemrefidine have been fully characterised by 1H- and 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. Earlier reports of antiplasmodial activity of roemrefidine and of A. delagoensis extracts are correlated with this study and with the antipyretic properties of neutral aqueous extracts.

  1. Role of neutrophils in hepatotoxicity induced by oral acetaminophen administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G S; Nadig, D E; Kokoska, E R; Solomon, H; Tiniakos, D G; Miller, T A

    1998-12-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common analgesic and antipyretic compound which, when administered in high doses, has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality, secondary to hepatic toxicity. To date, the mechanism(s) whereby APAP induces liver injury remains to be delineated. This study investigated the potential role of neutrophils as contributors to liver injury in rats administered sublethal doses of APAP. Oral APAP administration (650 mg/kg) was associated with increases in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels indicating biochemical evidence of significant liver damage. Furthermore, histological analyses verified significant hepatocellular necrosis as well as enhanced myeloperoxidase staining in these liver specimens. However, if animals were pretreated with antineutrophil sera prior to APAP administration, neutrophil counts remained depressed, ALT levels were significantly decreased, and the degree of liver injury was attenuated on a histological level. Taken together these data suggest that neutrophils mediate, at least in part, the hepatotoxic effects of oral acetaminophen administration in rats. PMID:9878321

  2. Chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhay Kumar Pandey; Pooja Singh; Nijendra Nath Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance. The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz., Ocimum basilicum Linn. (alt. Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurience), Ocimum campechianum Mill., Ocimum canum Sims. (Ocimum americanum), Ocimum citriodorum, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn., Ocimum micranthum Willd., Ocimum sanctum Linn., (alt. Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn.), Ocimum selloi Benth., Ocimum trichodon, Ocimum utricifolium from different geographical regions. A considerable difference in chemical composition of a particular species is found, which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic zones and changes in edaphic factors. Attention is also focused on the biological properties of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant, repellent, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal and therapeutic (anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antiulcer, analgesic, anthelmintic, anticarcinogenic, skin permeation enhancer, immunomodulatory, cardio-protective, antilipidemic) agents.

  3. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF OXAZINE AND ITS DERIVATIVES: A REVIEW

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    SINDHU T J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxazine derivatives are an important class of heterocycles, which has attracted much synthetic interest due to their wide range of biological activities. Oxazine is a heterocyclic compound can be formally derived from benzene, and its reduction products, by suitable substitution of carbon (and hydrogen atoms by nitrogen and oxygen. In the last few years oxazine derivatives have proved to be valuable synthetic intermediates and also possess important biological activities like sedative, analgesic, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antitumour, antimalarial and antimicrobial. In these days, development of drug resistance is a major problem and to overcome this situation, it is necessary to synthesize new classes of compounds. The aim of the article is to review the generalization of the collected data about the synthesis of oxazine derivatives and their activities. We hope that this work will be a definite interest for researchers concerned with azines in generally and oxazines in particular.

  4. From plant extract to molecular panacea: a commentary on Stone (1763) 'An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of the agues'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John N

    2015-04-19

    The application of aspirin-like drugs in modern medicine is very broad, encompassing the treatment of inflammation, pain and a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Although anecdotal accounts of willow bark extract as an anti-inflammatory drug have occurred since written records began (for example by Hippocrates), the first convincing demonstration of a potent anti-pyretic effect of willow bark containing salicylates was made by the English cleric Edward Stone in the late eighteenth century. Here, we discuss the route to optimizing and understanding the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory drugs that have their origins in Stone's seminal study, 'An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of agues'. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750237

  5. Analysis of 251 cases of adverse drug reactions in our hospital report%我院251例药品不良反应报告分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐锦辉

    2013-01-01

      purpose: to understand adverse drug reactions in our hospital (Adverse Drug Reaction) the incidence and relevant factors, provide reference for rational drug use, avoid the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Methods: 251 cases on our 2011 colection statistics, analysis of ADR reports. Results 251 cases ADR report total involved 16 class drugs, vein drops note is caused ADR of main to drug way (201 cases); antibiotics occurred rate Supreme (142 cases), second is proprietary Chinese medicines (28 cases), and antipyretic analgesia drug (20 cases), and anti-tumor drug (16 cases), and effect blood and hematopoietic system of drug (12 cases); clinical performance main for skin and damage (99 cases), accounted for 39.44%, digestive system of of damage (75 cases) accounted for 29.88%. Conclusion: ADR is related to many factors relevant to clinical ADR monitoring work should be strengthened to reduce or avoid the occurrence of ADR.

  6. [The Misgav Ladach method for cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, Dubravko; Kulas, Tomislav; Karsa, Matija

    2007-04-01

    The Misgav Ladach method for cesarean section is based on the principles of surgical minimalism. This is based on the Joel Cohen laparotomy, somewhat higher than the Pfannenstiel incision. Subcutaneous tissue is left undisturbed apart from the midline, rectus muscles are separated by pulling. The peritoneum is opened by stretching with index fingers. The hysterotomy is closed with one layer extraendometrial continuous absorbable stitches (Vicryl), and the visceral and parietal peritoneal layers are left open. Fascia is stitched with a continuous synthetic absorbable stitch. The skin is closed with intracutaneous resorptive suture or metallic stapler sutures. The Misgav Ladach method is restrictive in the use of sharp instruments preferring manual manipulation: it gives faster recovery, shorter period to normal bowel function, less peritoneal adhesions and less scarring in the abdominal layers, less use of postoperative antibiotics, analgesics and antipyretics, and a shorter anesthetic and operative time. It is ideal for emergency and planned cesarean section. PMID:17585470

  7. Acetaminophen from liver to brain: New insights into drug pharmacological action and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Carolina I; Pérez, María J; Manautou, José E; Mottino, Aldo D

    2016-07-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a well-known analgesic and antipyretic drug. It is considered to be safe when administered within its therapeutic range, but in cases of acute intoxication, hepatotoxicity can occur. APAP overdose is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the northern hemisphere. Historically, studies on APAP toxicity have been focused on liver, with alterations in brain function attributed to secondary effects of acute liver failure. However, in the last decade the pharmacological mechanism of APAP as a cannabinoid system modulator has been documented and some articles have reported "in situ" toxicity by APAP in brain tissue at high doses. Paradoxically, low doses of APAP have been reported to produce the opposite, neuroprotective effects. In this paper we present a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of hepatic toxicity as well as a thorough review of both toxic and beneficial effects of APAP in brain. PMID:26921661

  8. Near-fatal infection following an elective ankle-fracture fixation: less risk should not mean less vigilance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giada Bianchi; Dingxin Qin; Joseph A.Dearani; Qi Qian

    2011-01-01

    Surgical fixation of closed ankle fracture is traditionally viewed as having low risk for post-operative infection. Only a few cases of surgical-site confined infection have been reported. Because of the low infection risk, the necessity for perioperative prophylaxis has been questioned. We report a case of fulminant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis occurring shortly after an elective ankle fixation surgery in an elderly woman with chronic rheumatoid arthritis. Because systemic infection was unexpected, she had been given antipyretics for postoperative fever until just before rapid clinical deterioration. A nearly fatal hematogenous infection occurred after such a procedure, indicating the necessity for being on high alert and considering the possibility of bloodstream infection.

  9. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Wattamwar, Amruta S

    2015-07-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. ( niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far. PMID:26151026

  10. Isolation, Characterization and In vitro Antiurolithiatic activity of Cerpegin Alkaloid from Ceropegia bulbosa var. Lushii root

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    Jain Monika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceropegia bulbosa var.lushii also known as Kadula, Haudlo, Khappar-kaddu, Bhuu-tumbi, Gilodya and Patalatumbi in local language, family Asclepiadaceae. The tuberous roots are used to treat several diseases like diarrhoea, dysentery, analgesic, antipyretic, kidney stone and other activities. The tuberous root contains steriods, polyphenols, fats, albuminoids, sugars, potassium and active constituent an alkaloid cerpegin.The present investigation was carried out to isolate, purify and characterize cerpegin from root of Ceropegia bulbosa var.lushii. The isolated cerepegin was further characterized with the help of Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, Thin Layer Chromatography, Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, Proton- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy confirmed the identification. The antiurolithiatic activity of cerpegin was evaluated by using modified invitro model. The isolated compound cerpegin (A1 was showed maximum dissolution of both types of stones (calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in comparison to the all extract tested. Cystone was found to be more effective.

  11. A review of traditional use, phytoconstituents and biological activities of Himalayan yew, Taxus wallichiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hitender Sharma; Munish Garg

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize certain phytoconstituents for their protection, which, because they are not of primary need, are known as secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites of plants, have often been found to have medicinal uses for human beings. One such gymnosperm having secondary metabolites of medicinal potential for humans is Taxus wal ichiana (Himalayan yew). Besides being the source of taxol, this plant has been investigated for its essential oil, diterpenoids, lignans, steroids, sterols and bifavonoids. Traditional y, it is used to treat disorders of the digestive, respiratory, nervous and skeletal systems. Although pharmacological y underexplored, it has been used for antiepileptic, anti-infammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, analgesic, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. The present review compiles traditional uses, phytochemical constituents (speciifcal y the secondary metabolites) pharmacological activities and the toxicity of T. wal ichiana.

  12. Regimen analysis of children infected by macrolide-resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae%耐药肺炎支原体感染患儿的用药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王穗琼; 王豫; 邓文喻; 张琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the regimen of children infected by macrolide - resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae. Methods The regimens were analyzed of children whose throat swab mycoplasma pneumoniae cultures were positive, from November 2010 to May 2012 in our hospital. And the courses of medications were returned visits. Results There were 116 children whose throat swab mycoplasma pneumoniae cultures were positive. All of them took macrolide antibacterial agents. In addition to three children combined (3-lactam antibacterials, there were 49 children in the drug - resistant group of 52 children infected by macrolide - resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae. There were 64 children in the drug - susceptive group. No significant differences were found in sex, age, usage rates of macrolide antibacterial agents, antipyretic drugs, antihistamines and phlegm drugs, P > 0. 05. Compared to drug - susceptive group, the courses of macrolide antibacterial agents were shorter, and antipyretic drugs, antihistamine drugs and apophlegmatisants were longer in the drug -resistant group, P < 0. 05. Conclusions The children infected by macrolide - resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae treated by antipyretic drugs, antihistamine drugs and apophlegmatisants. Compared to the children infected by macrolide - susceptive mycoplasma pneumoniae, the children infected by macrolide - resistant had shorter course of macrolide antibacterial agents, and longer courses of antipyretic drugs, antihistamine drugs and apophlegmatisants.%目的 探讨耐大环内酯类抗菌药的肺炎支原体感染患儿的用药方案.方法 分析2010年11月至2012年5月广东省妇幼保健院收治的咽拭子肺炎支原体培养阳性患儿的用药方案,并回访用药疗程.结果 MP培养阳性患儿116例均使用了大环内酯类抗菌药抗感染治疗,其中耐药52例,除去3例联合了β内酰胺类抗菌药,耐药组为49例;敏感组为64例,没有联合β内酰胺类抗菌药病例.两组

  13. Co-Trimoxazole-Induced DRESS Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitorn, Limvorraphan

    2016-02-01

    Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS syndrome) is a severe adverse drug reaction. The drugs, which most commonly induce this condition, are anti-convulsants and sulfonamides. A 15-year-old Thai woman with no known underlying disease was prescribed co-trimoxazole, and two months after initiation, DRESS was diagnosed by RegiSCAR's score. Her clinical symptoms were fever laboratory abnormalities and maculopapular rash on her face, trunk and extremities. She was treated with antipyretics, antihistamines and steroid therapy, and her clinical and laboratory findings were restored to normal by the 10th day of treatment. Early diagnosis, discontinuation of the culprit drug, and management with steroids therapy can reduce the severity of DRESS syndrome. PMID:27266243

  14. Total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents in different extracts of Artemisia absinthium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Singh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The A. absinthium is commonly known as wormwood having antipyretic, antimicrobial, antifungal, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties. Natural bioactive compounds like phenols and flavonoids are the important secondary metabolites in plant posses high scavenging ability of free radical and reactive oxygen species produced in mammals. To maximize these agents in the extract different solvents viz. aqueous, ethanolic and chloroform are used for the extraction procedure (among these different extractions. Current study was aimed to determine the levels of total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents. Observations suggested that ethanolic extract has significantly high (P<0.05 concentration of flavonoids, phenolic and tannin contents as compared to aqueous and chloroform extracts. Therefore, ethanolic extract of A. absinthium has greater potential to scavenge free radicals/ ROS and can produce more beneficial effects as compared to aqueous and chloroform extracts. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 101-104

  15. Towards antivirals against chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnabi, Rana; Neyts, Johan; Delang, Leen

    2015-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has re-emerged in recent decades, causing major outbreaks of chikungunya fever in many parts of Africa and Asia, and since the end of 2013 also in Central and South America. Infections are usually associated with a low mortality rate, but can proceed into a painful chronic stage, during which patients may suffer from polyarthralgia and joint stiffness for weeks and even several years. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV infections. Current therapy therefore consists solely of the administration of analgesics, antipyretics and anti-inflammatory agents to relieve symptoms. We here review molecules that have been reported to inhibit CHIKV replication, either as direct-acting antivirals, host-targeting drugs or those that act via a yet unknown mechanism. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World." PMID:26119058

  16. Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus

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    Daniel eStolzberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs or aging which affects ~14% of the general population. For over a quarter century, auditory scientists have used the salicylate toxicity model to investigate candidate biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying phantom sound perception. In this review, we summarize some of the intriguing biochemical and physiological effects associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus, some of which occur in the periphery and others in the central nervous system. The relevance and general utility of the salicylate toxicity model in understanding phantom sound perception in general are discussed.

  17. Caring for patients with rabies in developing countries - the neglected importance of palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Arnaud; Crabol, Yoann; Mahendra, Bangalore Jayakrishnappa; In, Sotheary; Barennes, Hubert; Bourhy, Hervé; Peng, Yiksing; Ly, Sowath; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Although limited publications address clinical management of symptomatic patients with rabies in intensive care units, the overwhelming majority of human rabies cases occur in the rural setting of developing countries where healthcare workers are few, lack training and drugs. Based on our experience, we suggest how clinicians in resource-limited settings can make best use of essential drugs to provide assistance to patients with rabies and their families, at no risk to themselves. Comprehensive and compassionate patient management of furious rabies should aim to alleviate thirst, anxiety and epileptic fits using infusions, diazepam or midazolam and antipyretic drugs via intravenous or intrarectal routes. Although the patient is dying, respiratory failure must be avoided especially if the family, after being informed, wish to take the patient home alive for funereal rites to be observed. Healthcare staff should be trained and clinical guidelines should be updated to include palliative care for rabies in endemic countries. PMID:26806229

  18. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné in animals

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    Thereza C. M. de Lima

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacologicalproperties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS, particularly, the sedative and analgesic properties of root crude aqueous extract of this plant in mice and rats. This extract showed an antinociceptive effect in acetic acid - acetylcholine - and hypertonic saline - induced abdominal constrictions, but not in hot-plate and tail flick tests P. alliacea did not produce any CNS depressor effect. Thus its antinociceptive action in animals can be responsible by its poplar use as an analgesic.

  19. Effects of Nigella sativa (Black Seed on Serum Levels of Urea and Uric Acid in Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity of Commercial Layer Chickens

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    Taseer Ahmed Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is an analgesic and antipyretic agent administered in high doses causes kidney and liver necrosis both in humans and in animals. Nigella sativa (Black seed has been reported to have hepatoprotective and nephroprotective properties. Present investigation is performed to find out the effects of aqueous solution of Nigella sativa and its oil extract on serum urea and uric acid levels of layer chicks after oral administration of a single dose of 300 mg acetaminophen/kg body weight. Observations indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen to layer chicks caused significant (p<0.05 decrease in mean serum urea while non-significant decrease in mean serum uric acid concentration. The results of this study indicated that Nigella sativa has positive effects on urea and uric acid concentrations during the administration of acetaminophen overdose. However, Nigella sativa oil extract is more effective than its aqueous solution.

  20. 癌性发热的中医辨治%Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer-inducde Fever by TCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵; 侯炜

    2012-01-01

    癌性发热是影响癌症患者生存质量的一个重要的因素,西医对癌性发热通常采用解热镇痛药或者激素治疗,效果不佳.中医认为癌性发热属于"内伤发热"的范畴,根据发热原因不同,具体辨证施治,往往可获良效.%The cancer - induced fever is an important factor affecting the life quality of cancer patients. Western medicine for cancer -induced fever usually adopts the antipyretic and analgesic drugs or hormone therapy, hut had poor effect. Chinese medicine considers cancer -induced fever belongs to the" fever due to internal injury " category. According to the different causes treatment based on syndrome differentiation often can obtain good effect.

  1. Self medication practices among medical students of a private institute

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    Arti A Kasulkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate various aspects of self-medication in medical students. A prospective, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out among 488 medical students selected by simple random sampling from January 2013 to June 2013. Data was collected and analyzed for counts and percentage. Students reported self-medication in the preceding one year was 71.7 % and the prevalence was more in final year students. Fever and headache were the most frequently reported illnesses, commonly used drugs were antipyretics and analgesics, obtained information through reading material, and reasons quoted were minor ailments and quick relief. Majority students agreed that medical knowledge is necessary for administration of medicine by self. Self-medication is highly prevalent in medical students, which is quite alarming.

  2. POLA PENGOBATAN SENDIRI OLEH MASYARAKAT (SURVAI KESEHATAN RUMAH TANGGA 1980

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    L. Ratna Budiarso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pattern on self-treatment was studied from Household Health Survey in 1980. The major disease symptoms identified by lay-men were cough 15.2%, fever 12.9% and running-nose 9.4%. Thirty-four percent of the people being ill, had self treatment as their first action taken. Modem medication were used by 84.6% of those having self-treatment, and antipyretic-analgesics were most frequently used (52,1 %. Traditional medicine was utilized by 20% cases having self-treatment. The subjective outcome of self-treatment, showed that 76.4% cases had improved or were cured. The final result of self-treat­ment did not show very much difference as compared to medical treatment.

  3. Antioxidant Capacity and Lipophilic Constitution of Alternanthera bettzickiana flower extract

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    A.J.A. Petrus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel Nicolson is an erect herb and an ornamental pot plant, which is recorded to be useful in purifying and nourishing blood. It is also claimed to be a soft laxative, a galactagogue and an antipyretic in addition to its wound healing property. The leaves are reported to be used like spinach and in soups. The lipophilic acetone extract of the fresh flowers exhibited in vitro antioxidant/radical scavenging (ABTS•+ and FRAP assays and metal (Ferrous ion chelating capacities. The extract has been analysed to contain eighteen saturated and four unsaturated hydrocarbons, ten saturated, three monounsaturated and one polyunsaturated esters of fatty acid, in addition to a saturated and an unsaturated higher alcohol and a fatty aldehyde, together with a monoterpene and nine acyclic diterpenes and a steroid. γ-Tocopherol and α-tocopherol-β-D-mannoside are the principal vitamin E identified in combination with pairs of cyclohexenones and benzofuranones as well as five phthalates.

  4. A REVIEW ON TRADITIONAL, PHARMACOLOGICAL, PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROPERTIES OF FICUS CARICA (ANJIR

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    Alam Imran

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ficus carica (Moraceae is a deciduous tree, which grows in tropical and subtropical regien of India, commonly known as fig tree. Dried figs are nutritionally rich fruits. Figs are one of the highest sourse of calcium, copper, magnesium, vit.k. The seeds are real fruit in figs. In traditional medicine the roots are used in the treatment of leucoderma and ringworms. Fruits have antipyretic aphrodiasic property. A 40gm portion of dried figs (2 medium size figs produces significant increase in plasma antioxidant capacity. Many biologically active compounds were isolated from figs. The barks, leaves are used in the treatment of diabetes, skin, diarrhea, and ulcer. Sushrusha included the fruits for use in fever, consumption, asthma, epilepsy and insanity. The present review in therefore, and effort to give a detailed survey of literature on its pharmacognostic, traditional and pharmacological uses.

  5. Sleep Disruption and Proprioceptive Delirium due to Acetaminophen in a Pediatric Patient

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    Carla Carnovale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 7-year-old boy, who received acetaminophen for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, due to an infection of the superior airways. 13 mg/kg (260 mg of acetaminophen was administered orally before bedtime, and together with the expected antipyretic effect, the boy experienced sleep disruption and proprioceptive delirium. The symptoms disappeared within one hour. In the following six months, acetaminophen was administered again twice, and the reaction reappeared with similar features. Potential alternative explanations were excluded, and analysis with the Naranjo algorithm indicated a “probable” relationship between acetaminophen and this adverse reaction. We discuss the potential mechanisms involved, comprising imbalances in prostaglandin levels, alterations of dopamine, and cannabinoid and serotonin signalings.

  6. Sleep Disruption and Proprioceptive Delirium due to Acetaminophen in a Pediatric Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnovale, Carla; Pozzi, Marco; Nisic, Andrea Angelo; Scrofani, Elisa; Perrone, Valentina; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Radice, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 7-year-old boy, who received acetaminophen for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, due to an infection of the superior airways. 13 mg/kg (260 mg) of acetaminophen was administered orally before bedtime, and together with the expected antipyretic effect, the boy experienced sleep disruption and proprioceptive delirium. The symptoms disappeared within one hour. In the following six months, acetaminophen was administered again twice, and the reaction reappeared with similar features. Potential alternative explanations were excluded, and analysis with the Naranjo algorithm indicated a “probable” relationship between acetaminophen and this adverse reaction. We discuss the potential mechanisms involved, comprising imbalances in prostaglandin levels, alterations of dopamine, and cannabinoid and serotonin signalings. PMID:23573447

  7. ETHNOMEDICOBOTANICAL STUDY ON OCIMUM SANCTUM L. (TULSI - A REVIEW

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    BIPLAB KUMAR DASH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicobotanical study of different plant parts of Ocimum sanctum L., belonging to the family Lamiaceae, popular for its medicinal and religious value in Hinduism of Bangladesh. Methods and materials: This review has been conducted to pile up information that is available in different scientific literatures and this update compendium documentation has focused on some of the traditional and pharmacological aspects and phytochemical constituents. Results: From the result it reveals that wide numbers of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant e.g. aesculectin, orientin, vallinin, eugenol, alkanoids and is proved to have potential for medical effects like hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, chemopreventive, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiulcer, antiinflammatory, antipyretic and various other important medicinal properties. Conclusion: The effects of O. sanctum may delay the development some life threating complications and this work stimulates the researchers for further research on the potential use of this medicinal plants having pharmaceutical potential.

  8. The effect of preoperative intravenous paracetamol administration on postoperative fever in pediatrics cardiac surgery

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    Mohammad-Hasan Abdollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-operative fever is a common complication of cardiac operations, which is known to be correlated with a greater degree of cognitive dysfunction 6 weeks after cardiac surgery. The aim of the present study was to examine efficacy and safety of single dose intravenous Paracetamol in treatment of post-operative fever in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 80 children, aged 1-12 years, presenting for open heart surgery were entered in the trial and randomly allocated into two groups: Placebo and Paracetamol. After induction of anaesthesia, 15 mg/kg intravenous Paracetamol solution was infused during 1 h in the Paracetamol group. Patients in placebo group received 15 mg/kg normal saline infusion during the same time. Since the end of operation until next 24 h in intensive care unit, axillary temperature of the two group patients was recorded in 4-h intervals. Any fever that occurred during this period had been treated with Paracetamol suppository (125 mg and the amount of antipyretic drug consumption for each patient had been recorded. In order to examine the safety of Paracetamol, patients were evaluated for drug complication at the same time. Results: Mean axillary temperature during first 24 h after operation was significantly lower in Paracetamol group compared with placebo group (P = 0.001. Overall fever incidence during 24 h after operation was higher in placebo group compared with Paracetamol group (P = 0.012. Of Paracetamol group patients, 42.5% compared with 15% of placebo group participants had no consumption of antipyretic agent (Paracetamol suppository during 24 h after operation (P = 0.001. Conclusion: This study suggests that single dose administration of intravenous Paracetamol before paediatric cardiac surgeries using cardiopulmonary bypass; reduce mean body temperature in the first 24 h after operation.

  9. 布洛芬分散片的药效学研究%Experimental study of pharmacodynamics of Ibuprofen Dispersible Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凤玉; 孙海清

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究布洛芬分散片的药效学.方法 应用布洛芬分散片探索对角叉胶所致大鼠足跖炎性肿胀的抗炎作用以及解热镇痛作用、内毒素致家兔发热的解热作用与醋酸致小鼠疼痛的镇痛效果.结果用布洛芬分散片低、中和高剂量组分别与空白组比较,动物关节肿胀程度明显减轻(P < 0.01),小鼠扭体次数显著减少 (P < 0.01),家兔体温显著降低(P < 0.01).结论 布洛芬分散片药效与片剂相同,可以作为一种新剂型开发.%Objective To study the pharmacodynamics of Ibuprofen Dispersible Tablets. Methods Ibuprofen Dispersible Tablets were used to explore the anti-inflammatory effect and the antipyretic and analgesic effect on the car-rageenan-induced rat footpad inflammatory swelling, the antipyretic effect on the endotoxin-induced home rabbit fever and the analgesic effect on the acetate-induced mice pain. Results Compared with the control group, the joint swelling degree significantly relieved (P < 0.01), the number of writhing times significantly reduced (P < 0.01) and the temperature of home rabbit significantly lowered (P < 0.01) in the low, medium and high dose ibuprofen dispersible tablet groups. Conclusion Ibuprofen Dispersible Tablets have the same pharmacodynamics with Ibuprofen Tablets and thus can be served as a new formulation.

  10. Drug eruptions: An 8-year study including 106 inpatients at a dermatology clinic in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Akpinar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few clinical studies are found in the literature about patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of cutaneous drug eruption. Aims: To determine the clinical types of drug eruptions and their causative agents in a hospital-based population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in the Dermatology Department of Haseki General Hospital. Through 1751 patients hospitalized in this department between 2002 and 2009, inpatients diagnosed as drug eruption were evaluated according to WHO causality definitions. 106 patients composed of probable and possible cases of cutaneous drug eruptions were included in this study. Results: Seventy one females and 35 males were evolved. Mean age was 44.03±15.14. Duration between drug intake and onset of reaction varied from 5 minutes to 3 months. The most common clinical type was urticaria and/or angioedema in 48.1% of the patients, followed by maculopapular rash in 13.2%, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in 8.5%. Drugs most frequently associated with cutaneous drug eruptions were antimicrobial agents in 40.5% of the patients, followed by antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics in 31.1%, and antiepileptics in 11.3%. Conclusion: Urticaria and/or angioedema and maculopapular rash comprised majority of the drug eruptions. Rare reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, sweet syndrome, oral ulceration were also found. Antimicrobial agents and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics were the most commonly implicated drugs. Infrequently reported adverse reactions to myorelaxant agents, newer cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were also detected. We suppose that studies on drug eruptions should continue, because the pattern of consumption of drugs is changing in every country at different periods and many new drugs are introduced on the market continuously.

  11. Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Zaman; Alamgeer; Kanwal, Munazza; Hassan, Mubashir; Abdullah, Sahar; Waheed, Mamuna; Ahsan, Haseeb; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (–COOH) was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic –OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (P<0.001) reduced the inflammation against carrageenan and egg albumin-induced paw edema at 4 hours of study. The reduction in the size of the inflamed paw showed that most of the compounds inhibited the later phase of inflammation. The prodrug 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (4b) showed significant reduction in paw licking with percentage inhibition of 58%. It also exhibited higher analgesic activity, reducing the number of writhes with a percentage of 75%, whereas flurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (P<0.001) reduction in rectal temperature was shown by all prodrugs at all times of assessment. The results of ulcerogenic activity showed that all prodrugs produced less GI irritation than flurbiprofen. Molecular docking and simulation studies were carried out with cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) proteins, and it was observed that our prodrugs have more potential to selectively bind to COX-2 than to COX-1. It is concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities

  12. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from the Red Sea soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens

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    R Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The Red Sea soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens has been investigated concerning its secondary metabolites. Analysis of H. fuscescens has led to the isolation of 6-hydroxy -α- muurolene (1, gorgosten-5(E-3 β-ol (2, 1-nonadecyloxy-2,3-propanediol (3 and (2S,3R,4E,8E-N-hexadecanoyl-2-amino 4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol (4 and sarcoaldosterol A (5. The isolated compounds were reported from several marine organisms and are identified for the first time from the soft coral H. fuscescens collected from the Red Sea. The activity of the alcoholic extract as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, anti oxidant is reported. The activity of the isolated compounds against several pathogenic microbes has been also reported. Industrial Relevance: A huge number of secondary metabolites are produced by soft bodied marine organisms to get over predation and infection. Compounds produced by soft bodied marine organisms are different from those produced by terrestrial organisms, and therefore may yield novel lead for antimicrobial drugs. With the diversity in the secondary metabolites and the new activities and mechanism of action marine animals considered an excellent source for new pharmaceuticals. This work is concerned with the isolation of secondary metabolites isolated form the Heteroxenia fuscescens from the red sea and the evaluation of some biological activities. The alcoholic extract of Heteroxenia fuscescens was found to possess antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity. 6-hydroxy -α- muurolene was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with MIC of 19 µg/ml. The alcoholic extract of the organism under study is none toxic so we believe its sterol content could be a good source for safer anti-inflammatory drugs and also the 6-hydroxy -α- muurolene (compound 1 will be a good candidate for more derivatisation studies to optimize its activity and selectivity as antimicrobial.

  13. Recent Advances in Pediatric Use of Oral Paracetamol in Fever and Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Maurizio; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Paracetamol is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug for management of fever and mild-to-moderate pain in infants and children, and it is considered as first-line therapy for the treatment of both according to international guidelines and recommendations. The mechanism of action of paracetamol is complex and multifactorial, and several aspects of the pharmacology impact its clinical use, especially in the selection of the correct analgesic and antipyretic dose. A systematic literature search was performed by following procedures for transparent reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. To maximize efficacy and avoid delays in effect, use of the appropriate dose of paracetamol is paramount. Older clinical studies using paracetamol at subtherapeutic doses of ≤10 mg/kg generally show that it is less effective than non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, recent evidence shows that when used at dose of 15 mg/kg for fever and pain management, paracetamol is significantly more effective than placebo, and at least as effective as NSAIDs. Paracetamol 15 mg/kg has a tolerability profile similar to that of placebo and NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and ketoprofen used for short-term treatment of fever. However, when used at repetitive doses for consecutive days, paracetamol shows lower risk of adverse events compared to NSAIDs. Also, unlike NSAIDs, paracetamol is indicated for use in children of all ages. Overall, clinical evidence qualifies paracetamol 15 mg/kg a safe and effective option for treatment of pain and fever in children. PMID:26518691

  14. Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bum, E Ngo; Soudi, S; Ayissi, E R; Dong, C; Lakoulo, N H; Maidawa, F; Seke, P F E; Nanga, L D; Taiwe, G S; Dimo, T; Njikam, Njifutie; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V; Kamanyi, A

    2011-01-01

    Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica significantly antagonised the increase of temperature. ΔT° decreased from 0.75°C in the control group to 0.36°C at the dose of 110 mg/kg for A. laxiflora; from 1°C in the control group to -1.1°C at the dose of 120 mg/kg for C. ambrosioides; from 1.7°C in the control group to 0.2°C at the dose of 128 mg/kg for M. pyrifolia and from 1.3°C in the control group to 0.5°C at the dose of 180 mg/kg for M. pudica. In the elevated plus maze test, the four plants increased the number of entries into, percentage of entries into, and percentage of time in open arms. A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides and M. pudica also reduced the percentage of entries and time in closed arms. In addition, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica showed antipyretic activity by reducing the body temperature. The results suggested that C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica posses anxiolytic-like and antipyretic activities while A. laxiflora possesses only anxiolytic-like properties. These plants could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional medicine in Cameroon. PMID:22754066

  15. Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Leaves: Analysis Of Proximate, Antioxidant Activities And Inorganic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of herbal plants species has been used in traditional medicine. Most of these plants contained several potent bio-active ingredients and nutrients that could give potential positive effects to the health such as antioxidant and antipyretic. Hibiscus rosa sinensis, commonly known as Bunga raya, have similar concoction characteristic to tea which contain antioxidants that help to control cholesterol. In addition, mucilage that was found in the leaves could helps to reduce extreme body heat during fever (which potentially acts as an antipyretic). Therefore, this preliminary study on the fresh and dried H. rosa sinensis leaves was carried out to analyze and identify the nutrients content, anti-oxidants and inorganic material. Total phenolic content (TPC) method was used for both fresh and dried leaves prior to the antioxidant activities of DPPH free radicals scavenging and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) as to confirm the existence of antioxidant constituents. Meanwhile, the composition of heavy metals was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The proximate analysis of the fresh leaves showed the presence of moisture content (9.03 %), protein (10.44 %), fat (6.43 %), crude fiber (11.55 %), ash (11.22 %) and carbohydrate (51.33 %). Meanwhile, the inorganic contents are as follows: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of FRAP and DPPH showed that dried leaves of H. rosa sinensis was higher than the fresh leaves (p < 0.05) irrespective of any solvent used. The positive correlation between TPC and two other antioxidant activities of DPPH and FRAP (p < 0.05) indicates the presence of antioxidant components in the acetone and water extracts. Therefore, the high availability of essential nutritional component, anti-oxidants and low concentration of hazardous inorganic matter in H. rosa sinensis leaves enable it to be used as one

  16. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory properties of some aromatic and heterocyclic aromatic curcuminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Akram; El-Khatib, Riyad; Rainsford, K D; Whitehouse, M W

    2012-02-01

    A variety of novel aromatic and heterocyclic aromatic curcuminoids were synthesised, characterised and their anti-inflammatory activities (AIA) determined in vivo. Some of these compounds also were tested for inflammatory mediator production. The AIA of the main representatives of these compounds were assessed by oral administration to female Wistar rats using (a) acute carrageenan-induced paw oedema, (b) chronic adjuvant arthritis (therapeutic mode), and (c) anti-pyretic activity assessed in the yeast pyrexia. Gastric ulceration was determined in pre-inflamed rats. Natural curcumin showed modest aspirin-like anti-inflammatory activity which was enhanced when co-administered with the PGE(1) analogue misoprostol as a synergist. In contrast, four novel curcuminoids (RK-97, RK-103, RK-104 and RK-106) in which the bis-methoxy-phenyl group of curcumin was replaced with bis-dimethoxybutenolidyl-(ascorbate), bis-naphthyl, and bis-furanyl derivatives, respectively, had potent activity in the anti-arthritic assay with little gastric or systemic toxicity, compared with the vehicle-treated controls. Of the curcuminoids the furan RK-106 was the only compound to inhibit production of TNFα and IL-1β in a monocytic cell-line THP-1 in vitro. The inactivity of RK-106 on the production of PGE(2) may be related to its absence of gastrotoxicity. None of the curcuminoids exhibited anti-pyretic activity and this may also be related to its insensitivity to PGE(2). Thus, these novel curcuminoids, such as RK-106, may warrant the development of new low gastro-toxic anti-inflammatory agents with selective inhibitory activity of cytokine inflammatory mediators. PMID:22172598

  17. Occurrence and distribution pattern of acidic pharmaceuticals in surface water, wastewater, and sediment of the Msunduzi River, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunbiade, Foluso O; Moodley, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of information on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment in African countries led the authors to investigate 8 acidic pharmaceuticals (4 antipyretics, 3 antibiotics, and 1 lipid regulator) in wastewater, surface water, and sediments from the Msunduzi River in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The method recoveries, limits of detection (LOD), and limits of quantification were determined. The method recoveries were 58.4% to 103%, and the LODs ranged between 1.16 ng/L and 29.1 ng/L for water and between 0.58 ng/g and 14.5 ng/g for sediment. The drugs were all present in wastewater and in most of the surface water and sediment samples. Aspirin was the most abundant pharmaceutical observed, 118 ± 0.82 μg/L in wastewater influent, and the most observed antibiotic was nalidixic acid (25.2-29.9 μg/L in wastewater); bezafibrate was the least observed. The distribution pattern of the antipyretic in water indicates more impact in suburban sites. The solid-liquid partitioning of the pharmaceuticals between sediment and water, measured as the distribution coefficient (log KD ) gave an average accumulation magnitude of 10× to 32× in sediments than in water. The downstream distribution patterns for both water and sediment indicate discharge contributions from wastewater, agricultural activities, domestic waste disposal, and possible sewer system leakages. Although concentrations of the pharmaceuticals were comparable with those obtained from some other countries, the contamination of the present study site with pharmaceuticals has been over time and continues at present, making effective management and control necessary. PMID:26138880

  18. Occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals in water and sediment of Umgeni River, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matongo, Solomon; Birungi, Grace; Moodley, Brenda; Ndungu, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Selected pharmaceuticals including antibiotics, antipyretics, a stimulant, an antiepileptic and an antipsychotic drug were determined in wastewater, surface water and sediment along the Umgeni River which is the main source of water to Durban City in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS) after clean up and pre-concentration by solid phase extraction (SPE). At the wastewater treatment plant outlet, the antipyretic ibuprofen was detected in concentrations up to 12.94 μg/L and 15.96 ng/g in wastewater and bio-solids, respectively. The antipsychotic clozapine was detected in concentrations up to 14.43 μg/L and 18.75 ng/g in wastewater and bio-solids, respectively. Other pharmaceuticals namely sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, metronidazole, trimethoprim, acetaminophen, caffeine and carbamazepine were also detected but in lower concentration compared to clozapine and ibuprofen (Clozapine and ibuprofen were detected at high concentrations in the surface water and sediment of Umgeni River. The highest concentration of clozapine (78.33 μg/L) was detected at the business park, while that for ibuprofen (62.0 μg/L) was detected at the point where a tributary, Msunduzi, joins Umgeni. Metronidazole was only detected in sediment, and caffeine (2243.52 ng/g) was detected at the highest concentration in the sediment at the blue lagoon sampling site. The antibiotic sulfamethoxazole was also detected in appreciable amounts up to 507.34 ng/g in the sediment at the Msunduzi tributary sampling site. The data collected implies that while insufficiently treated wastewater contributes to surface water contamination, human activities also contribute appreciably to the pharmaceutical loading of River Umgeni. PMID:25708853

  19. Study of polypharmacy and associated problems among elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at the assessment of prescribing pattern for elderly patients, since they are more prone to prescription of multiple medications. The prescription of multiple medications leads to polypharmacy, more adverse drug reactions and non-adherence to treatment. The study was conducted on OPD basis in a rural health centre for a period of six months. Information pertaining to the age, sex, religion, monthly income, education level, any previous illnesses, or any chronic diseases, any drug treatment, adherence to the treatment, and self medication or non-allopathic treatment was collected. The study included 310 elderly patients, among which 51.9% were males and 48.1% were females. The prevalence of polypharmacy was 25.20%, more among elderly men (26.10% than women (24.20%, the odds ratio (OR was 1.11. The major fraction 35.81% of the patients was in the age group of 60-64 years. Only 59.3% were literate. 64.41% belonged to lower socioeconomic status. The cardiovascular diseases 139 (44.83 % followed by arthritis 121 (39.03%, and diabetes 58 (18.71% were the most common ailments. Anti-hypertensive drugs were prescribed in 26.13%, analgesics/antipyretics in 19.68%, and anti-diabetic drugs in 18.71%. Non-adherence to therapy was seen in 49.68%. Self medication habits were seen in 23.90% patients, who most commonly used analgesics/antipyretics and antacids/anti-ulcer drugs. Polypharmacy is very common among elderly and interventions to improve the optimal use of medication in elderly could lead to reduction in the problems associated with polypharmacy.

  20. 蜂毒蜜点涂佐治小儿急性细菌性扁桃体炎的疗效与安全性%The efficacy and safety of the adjuvant Treatment of the children with acute bacterial tonsillitis by pointing the Honey Bee Venom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊莉; 成永明; 邓庭超; 朱锦妍; 洁珍; 黄晨娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价蜂毒蜜点涂佐治小儿急性细菌性扁桃体炎的临床疗效与安全性。方法:将符合本方案入选条件的患儿125例,随机分成治疗组和对照组,其中治疗组为64例,对照组为61例。治疗组在口服头孢克洛颗粒的基础上,用蜂毒蜜1ml点涂咽部两侧与双侧扁桃体,每天2次,疗程5d;对照组仅口服头孢克洛颗粒,不用蜂毒蜜点涂,疗程相同。结果:治疗组48小时退热率为73.4%,总有效率为100%,不良反应率为3.1%。对照组48小时退热率为55.7%,总有效率为90.2%,不良反应率为1.6%。经统计学处理:两组临床疗效有显著性差异(P0.05)。结论:蜂毒蜜点涂佐治小儿急性细菌性扁桃体炎安全、有效,易于被患儿接受。%Objective:To assess the efficacy and safety of the adjuvant treatment of the children with acute bacterial tonsillitis by pointing the honey bee Venom. Methods:To divide 125 patients into two groups randomly-the treatment group (sixty four) and the control group (sixty one). On the basis of oral cefaclor granules,the treatment group were pointed on the pharynx and bilateral amygdala with the one milliliter of the honey bee venom, twice a day for five days, and control group only with oral cefaclor particles for five days. Results: The treatment group showed antipyretic rate of 73.4% within 48 hours and the total effective rate was 100% with the rate of adverse events of 3.1%. The control group showed antipyretic rate of 55.7% within 48 hours, the total effective rate was 90.2%, the incidence rate of adverse events of 1.6%; After the statistics treatment, the significant difference was seen between the two groups in the antipyretic rate within 48 hours and clinical curative effect (P0.05).Conclusion: The adjuvant treatment with pointing honey bee venom was safe, effective, and easily acceptant in the children with acute bacterial tonsillitis.

  1. Use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the prevention of streptococcal and viral pharyngotonsillitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Maria Colombo,2 Alberto Zanvit,3 Paolo Risso,4 Amilcare S Rottoli5 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milan, 2Pediatric Department, University of Parma, Parma, 3Stomatology Institute, Milan, 4Laboratory of Epidemiology and Social Psychiatry, Mario Negri Institute, Milan, 5Pediatric Department, Uboldo Hospital, Cernusco sul Naviglio, Italy Background: Streptococcus salivarius K12 is an oral probiotic strain releasing two lantibiotics (salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B that antagonize the growth of S. pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans also affected by episodes of acute otitis media. S. salivarius K12 successfully colonizes the oral cavity, and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. We tested its preventive role in reducing the incidence of both streptococcal and viral pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis in children. Materials and methods: We enrolled 61 children with a diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal disorders. Thirty-one of them were enrolled to be treated daily for 90 days with a slow-release tablet for oral use, containing no less than 1 billion colony-forming units/tablet of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®, and the remaining 30 served as the untreated control group. During treatment, they were all examined for streptococcal infection. Twenty children (ten per group were also assessed in terms of viral infection. Secondary end points in both groups were the number of days under antibiotic and antipyretic therapy and the number of days off school (children and off work (parents. Results: The 30 children who completed the 90-day trial with Bactoblis® showed a significant reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (>90%, as calculated by comparing the infection rates of the previous year. No difference was observed in the control group. The treated group showed a significant decrease in the incidence (80% of oral viral infections. Again

  2. Anticancer activities against cholangiocarcinoma, toxicity and pharmacological activities of Thai medicinal plants in animal models

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    Plengsuriyakarn Tullayakorn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA, a devastating cancer with increasing worldwide incidence and mortality rates, is largely ineffective. The discovery and development of effective chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. Methods/Design The study aimed at evaluating anticancer activities, toxicity, and pharmacological activities of the curcumin compound (CUR, the crude ethanolic extracts of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger: ZO and Atractylodes lancea thung. DC (Khod-Kha-Mao: AL, fruits of Piper chaba Hunt. (De-Plee: PC, and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai formulation (a mixture of parts of 18 Thai medicinal plants: PPF were investigated in animal models. Anti-cholangiocarcinoma (anti-CCA was assessed using CCA-xenograft nude mouse model. The antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and anti-ulcer activities and effects on motor coordination were investigated using Rota-rod test, CODA tail-cuff system, writhing and hot plate tests, carrageenan-induced paw edema test, brewer's yeast test, and alcohol-induced gastric ulcer test, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity tests were performed according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals with modification. Results Promising anticancer activity against CCA in nude mouse xenograft model was shown for the ethanolic extract of AL at all oral dose levels (1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight as well as the extracts of ZO, PPF, and CUR compound at the highest dose level (5000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. PC produced no significant anti-CCA activity. Results from acute and subacute toxicity tests both in mice and rats indicate safety profiles of all the test materials in a broad range of dose levels. No significant toxicity except stomach irritation and general CNS depressant signs were observed. Investigation of pharmacological activities of the test materials revealed promising anti-inflammatory (ZO, PPF, and AL, analgesic (CUR and

  3. The epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medication errors are widely reported for hospitalised patients, but limited data are available for medication errors that occur in community-based and clinical settings. Epidemiological data from poisons information centres enable characterisation of trends in medication errors occurring across the healthcare spectrum. AIM: The objective of this study was to characterise the epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) of Ireland. METHODS: A 3-year prospective study on medication errors reported to the NPIC was conducted from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009 inclusive. Data on patient demographics, enquiry source, location, pharmaceutical agent(s), type of medication error, and treatment advice were collated from standardised call report forms. Medication errors were categorised as (i) prescribing error (i.e. physician error), (ii) dispensing error (i.e. pharmacy error), and (iii) administration error involving the wrong medication, the wrong dose, wrong route, or the wrong time. RESULTS: Medication errors were reported for 2348 individuals, representing 9.56% of total enquiries to the NPIC over 3 years. In total, 1220 children and adolescents under 18 years of age and 1128 adults (>\\/= 18 years old) experienced a medication error. The majority of enquiries were received from healthcare professionals, but members of the public accounted for 31.3% (n = 736) of enquiries. Most medication errors occurred in a domestic setting (n = 2135), but a small number occurred in healthcare facilities: nursing homes (n = 110, 4.68%), hospitals (n = 53, 2.26%), and general practitioner surgeries (n = 32, 1.36%). In children, medication errors with non-prescription pharmaceuticals predominated (n = 722) and anti-pyretics and non-opioid analgesics, anti-bacterials, and cough and cold preparations were the main pharmaceutical classes involved. Medication errors with prescription medication predominated for

  4. 抗风湿中药制剂中非法添加多种化学成分的HPLC检测%Determination of the illegal addictives in the traditional Chinese antirheumatic preparations by RP-HPLC-UV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘放; 唐靓

    2014-01-01

    Obj ective To determine the illegal addictives in the traditional Chinese antirheumatic preparations by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography(RP-HPLC-UV).Methods The separation was performed on an Agilent HC C18 column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 mm)with detective wavelength at 240 nm.The mixture solution of methanol and 1 mL·L-1 acetic acid (60∶40) was used as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1 .0 mL·min-1 .Results 4 kinds antipyretic analgesic chemical substances and 2 kinds glucocorticoid were proved to be separated completely under the selected chromatography conditions.Conclusion The meth-od is simple and accurate,and can be used for detecting antipyretic analgesic chemical substances and glucocorticoid aduherated in the preparations of traditional Chinese medicine and health food.%目的:应用反相高效液相色谱-紫外检测(RP-HPLC-UV)技术分析检测抗风湿中药制剂中可能存在的化学药品成分。方法采用的色谱柱分别为 Agilent HC C18(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 mm );流动相为甲醇-1 mL·L-1醋酸水溶液(60∶40);流速:1 mL·min-1;捡测波长240 nm。结果4种解热镇痛类化学药物和2种糖皮质激素化学药物,能在该色谱条件下得到分离和鉴定。结论该法简便、快速、准确,可用于中成药及保健品中非法添加解热镇痛类化学药物和糖皮质激素的检测。

  5. 栀子化学成分及其药理作用研究进展%Advances in studies on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Gardenia jasminoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥乐; 李红伟; 李颜; 余奇; 万丽丽; 郭澄

    2011-01-01

    栀子(Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.)是茜草科(Rubiaceae)栀子属植物,其干燥成熟果实作为中药栀子,具有泻火除烦、清热利尿、凉血解毒的功效.现代植物化学研究发现,该植物中含有大量的环烯醚萜类化合物,同时还存在一些有机酸、黄酮、香豆素、挥发油、皂苷、木脂素、多糖及其他类化合物;现代药理研究表明栀子具有抗炎、抗氧化、利胆、利尿、抗肿瘤、解热、镇痛、辐射防护、降血脂等多种药理活性,成为研究的热点.因此本文对最近5年有关栀子的化学成分和药理研究的新进展进行分类汇总,为其进一步研究提供参考.%Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, one genus of Gardenia, belongs to the family of the Rubiaceae.The fruit of G.jasminoides is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine named “Zhizi”.It has significant biologic activities including antipyretic, antianxiety, diuretic effcts, Cooling the Blood and Detoxication.Recently, a large quantity of newly-emerging bioactive constituents from G.jasminoides has been reported.The unique constituents iridoid glucosides, and other types of active principles include organic acid, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, terpenoids, volatile oils and fatty acids.They entitle the plant to possess several bioactivities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cholagogue, diuretic, anticancer, radiological protection, antiphlogistic, antipyretic, analgesic,and antihyperlipidemic effects.In this paper, we reviewed categorization of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of G.jasminoides from reports since 2004.This review will provide a reference for further studies.

  6. Inclusion of Paracetamol into β-cyclodextrin nanocavities in solution and in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kemary, Maged; Sobhy, Saffaa; El-Daly, Samy; Abdel-Shafi, Ayman

    2011-09-01

    We report on steady-state UV-visible absorption and emission characteristics of Paracetamol, drug used as antipyretic agent, in water and within cyclodextrins (CDs): β-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl- β-CD (HP- β-CD) and 2,6-dimethyl- β-CD (Me- β-CD). The results reveal that Paracetamol forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with CD. Upon encapsulation, the emission intensity enhances, indicating a confinement effect of the nanocages on the photophysical behavior of the drug. Due to its methyl groups, the Me- β-CD shows the largest effect for the drug. The observed binding constant showing the following trend: Me- β-CD > HP- β-CD > β-CD. The less complexing effectiveness of HP- β-CD is due to the steric effect of the hydroxypropyl-substituents, which can hamper the inclusion of the guest molecules. The solid state inclusion complex was prepared by co-precipitation method and its characterization was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H NMR and X-ray diffractometry. These approaches indicated that Paracetamol was able to form an inclusion complex with CDs, and the inclusion compounds exhibited different spectroscopic features and properties from Paracetamol.

  7. Design, Synthesis and the Biological Evaluation of New 1,3-Thiazolidine-4-ones Based on the 4-Amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Apotrosoaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New thiazolidine-4-one derivatives based on the 4-aminophenazone (4-amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one scaffold have been synthesized as potential anti-inflammatory drugs. The pyrazoline derivatives are known especially for their antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, but recently there were synthesized new compounds with important antioxidant, antiproliferative, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. The beneficial effects of these compounds are explained by nonselective inhibition of cyclooxygenase izoenzymes, but also by their potential scavenging ability for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The structure of the new compounds was proved using spectroscopic methods (FR-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS. The in vitro antioxidant potential of the synthesized compounds was evaluated according to the ferric reducing antioxidant power, phosphomolydenum reducing antioxidant power, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The chemical modulation of 4-aminophenazone (6 through linkage to thiazolidine-propanoic acid derivatives 5a–l led to improved antioxidant potential, all derivatives 7a–l being more active than phenazone. The most active compounds are the derivatives 7e, and 7k, which showed the higher antioxidant effect depending on the antioxidant assay considered.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

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    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  9. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37-38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses. PMID:27227051

  10. ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION; VERTICAL TRANSMISSION AND FOETAL CONGENITAL ANOMALIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Aziz-un-Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to flaviviridae family that includes Dengue, West Nile, and Yellow Fever among others. Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 in Zika forest of Uganda. It is a vector borne disease, which has been sporadically reported mostly from Africa, Pacific islands and Southeast Asia since its discovery. ZIKV infection presents as a mild illness with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after the bite of an infected mosquito. Majority of the patients have low grade fever, rash, headaches, joints pain, myalgia, and flu like symptoms. Pregnant women are more vulnerable to ZIKV infection and serious congenital anomalies can occur in foetus through trans-placental transmission. The gestation at which infection is acquired is important. Zika virus infection acquired in early pregnancy poses greater risk. There is no evidence so far about transmission through breast milk. Foetal microcephaly, Gillian Barre syndrome and other neurological and autoimmune syndromes have been reported in areas where Zika outbreaks have occurred. As infection is usually very mild no specific treatment is required. Pregnant women may be advised to take rest, get plenty of fluids. For fever and pain they can take antipyretics like paracetamol. So far no specific drugs or vaccines are available against Zika Virus Infection so prevention is the mainstay against this diseases. As ZIKV infection is a vector borne disease, prevention can be a multi-pronged strategy. These entail vector control interventions, personal protection, environmental sanitation and health education among others. PMID:27323550

  11. Studies on in vivo radioprotection efficacy of indazolone derivative on electron beam induced oxidative stress using Drosophila Melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indazole nucleus is an effective pharmacophore in medicinal chemistry and shows diverse biological and pharmacological activities. Indazolone and its derivatives show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities as some of them act as dopamine antagonists, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic agents. Benzyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxilic acids has antispermatogenetic and anticancer activity. In the present study the synthesis of 4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3H-indazol-3-one was carried out and characterized by spectral and analytical data. The synthesized indazolone derivative showed good in vitro antioxidant activity namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay, FRAP assay etc. By keeping the antioxidant property in mind the synthesized molecule was screened for its in vivo radioprotection activity using Drosophila Melanogaster (Oregon K). The compound was supplied to flies in the form of diet and the safety evaluation was carried out for 7 days at 300 μg/ml concentration. Later the electron beam irradiated flies were assayed for oxidative stress markers namely, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), enzymatic and Non enzymatic antioxidants.The results showed that the indazolone molecule exhibited good in vivo radioprotection activity. (author)

  12. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. II. Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of aspirin, an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, undoubtedly represents a milestone in the history of medical therapy. Since ancient times the derivatives of willow (Salix alba were used to treat a variety of fevers and pain syndromes, although the first report dates back to 1763 when the English Reverend Edward Stone described the effect of an extract of the bark willow in treating malaria. In the XIX century many apothecaries and chemists, including the Italian Raffaele Piria and Cesare Bertagnini, developed the biological processes of extraction and chemical synthesis of salicylates, and then analyzed their therapeutic properties and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. In 1899 the Bayer Company, where Felix Hoffmann, Heinrich Dreser and Arthur Eichengrün worked, recorded acetyl-salicylic acid under the name “Aspirin”. In the XX century, besides the definition of the correct applications of aspirin in the anti-rheumatic therapy being defined, Lawrence L. Crawen identified the property of this drug as an anti-platelet agent, thus opening the way for more widespread uses in cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Pharmacology and biochemistry ofPolygonatum verticillatum:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saboon; Yamin Bibi; Muhammad Arshad; Sidra Sabir; Muhammad Shoaib Amjad; Ejaz Ahmed; Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Polygonatum verticillatum (Linn.) All. syn.Convallaria verticillata Linn. is a valuable medicinal plant, distributed in the temperate Himalaya at the elevations 2 400 to 2 800 m. It is a perennial rhizomatous herb and contains various pharmacologically important secondary metabolites among which the most important areα-bulnesene, linalyl acetate, eicosadienoic, pentacosane, piperitone, docasane, diosgenin, santonin and calarene. It also possesses antimalarial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, lipoxygenase, urease inhibition, diuretic, tracheorelaxant, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, antifungal, antibacterial and bronchodilator activities. The plant also got importance in traditional systems of medicine due to its broad therapeutic potential especially of its rhizome. But in the past few years, over exploitation of plant parts caused the decline in the frequency of this species due to which it became threatened, endangered and vulnerable in different parts of the world. So efforts are being made in certain regions of the world for bothex-situ and in-situ conservation. This paper briefly reviewed the botanical, traditional, phytochemical, pharmacological and conservation related aspects of this plant.

  14. ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHARANTIN FROM MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LINN. FRUIT

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    Subhashchandra Patel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Momordica Charantia (Cucurbitaceae is commonly known as bitter guard in English and karela in Hindi. The fruit has claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordicosides, carbohydrate, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucoside, etc. Earlier claim shows that the plant used as stomachic, carminative, tonic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The present investigation was carried out to isolate, purify and characterize Charantin from fruit of Momordica Charantia Linn. The isolated charantin was further characterized with the help of Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, Thin Layer Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, Proton- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy confirmed the identification. The antibacterial activity of charantin was tested by using Agar Diffusion (Cup Plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of crude extracts were determined for various organism which was 0.2 mg/ml. The present studies confirm better antimicrobial activity of Charantin when compared with standard, against bacterial species such as gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  15. Effect of acetaminophen exposure in Oncorhynchus mykiss gills and liver: detoxification mechanisms, oxidative defence system and peroxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A S; Correia, A T; Antunes, S C; Gonçalves, F; Nunes, B

    2014-05-01

    The increasing presence of pharmaceutical drugs in nature is cause of concern due to the occurrence of oxidative stress in non-target species. Acetaminophen is widely used in human medicine as an analgesic and antipyretic drug, and it is one of the most sold non-prescription drugs. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of acetaminophen (APAP) in Oncorhynchus mykiss following acute and chronic exposures in realistic levels. In order to evaluate the APAP effects in the rainbow trout, gills and liver were analyzed with biochemical biomarkers, such as catalase (CAT), total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) activity and also lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS). The results obtained in all tests indicate that a significant response of oxidative stress was established, along with the increase of APAP concentrations. The establishment of an oxidative stress scenario occurred with the involvement of all tested biomarkers, sustaining a generalized set of pro-oxidative effects elicited by APAP. Additionally, the occurrence of oxidative damage strongly suggests the impairment of the antioxidant defense mechanism of O. mykiss. It is important to note that the occurrence of oxidative deleterious effects and peroxidative damages occurred for concentrations similar to those already reported for several freshwater ecosystems. The importance of these assumptions is further discussed under the scope of ecological relevance of the assessment of effects caused by pharmaceuticals in non-target organisms. PMID:24816177

  16. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touran MAHMOUDIAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepam in febrile  seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy of intermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age range of 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female were studied. Children with a history of psychomotor delay, abnormal  neurological examination, a history of antiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excluded from the study. Patients received a single dose of prophylactic Clonazepam (0.05 mg/kg/ day on the first day of febrile illness and twice daily during the course of fever.An antipyretic medication (Acetaminophen was advised if fever exceeded 38oC. Patients were followed up for one year after the study inclusion date.ResultsThree patients were excluded from study since they didnot follow the tritment and three patients experienced afebrile seizures. Twenty four patients had 162 febrile episodes during the course of the study and all patients were seizure-free after 1 year.ConclusionClonazepam was 100% effective but lethargy and ataxia were common side effects in patients. Fortunately, their parents continued treatment because they had prior awareness of the  possible side effects of clonazepam. Clonazepam is efficacious as an intermittent therapy for febrile seizures if parents are informed of its side effects.Keywords: recurrent febrile seizures, clonazepam, intermittent prophylaxis

  17. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J

    2015-11-01

    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. PMID:26187566

  18. Clinical and epidemiological analysis of hospitalizations of elderly due to poisoning and adverse effects of medications, Brazil from 2004 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Tatiana Cruz; Bochner, Rosany; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2012-12-01

    The elderly are more susceptible to adverse drugs effects due to a variety of factors, such as excessive and concomitant use of several drugs, administration errors, physiological changes in the body that alter the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. In order to determine the main therapeutic classes involved in hospital admissions of elderly people due to intoxication and adverse drug effects, as well as major health problems related to these events, 9,793 hospitalizations of people aged 60 or over registered in the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (SIH-SUS) in the period of 2004 to 2008 were analyzed. Unspecified drugs, systemic antibiotics, psychotropics, psychoactives, antiepileptics, sedatives, hypnotics and antiparkinsonians accounted for 57% of the total of admissions analyzed. Injuries and falls were the main health problems related to intoxication and adverse drug effects. Hospitalizations due to injuries were associated with analgesic, antipyretic and antirheumatic non-opioid. Falls were associated with systemic antibiotics, contradicting studies which point out psychotropic drugs as the main drug involved in these events. The results reflect the growing trend of problems associated with drug use by elderly people. It was verified that the consumption profile alone is not sufficient to explain the concentration of cases of the major therapeutic classes. We suggest the adoption of more effective programs of pharmacovigilance, capable of intervening at different stages of drug use: prescribing, dispensing, marketing, administration and compliance. PMID:23515778

  19. 肉桂的化学、药理及应用特点%Discussion on the Chemical,Pharmacology and Application Characteristics of Cinnamon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 苗明三

    2015-01-01

    肉桂中主要含有挥发油、多糖类、多酚类、香豆素以及无机元素等化学成分;具有抗胃溃疡、抗炎、抗菌、抗肿瘤、预防糖尿病以及镇静、解痉、解热等药理作用。肉桂具有较高的药用价值,对其活性成分进行深入地开发研究,特别是在糖尿病、肿瘤等方面有望发现活性先导化合物或创新药物,而对于开发肉桂保健食品也具有广阔的前景。%Cinnamon mainly contains the chemical constituents of the essential oil,polysaccharides,polyphenols,coumarin and inorganic elements in;with anti gastric ulcer,anti-inflammatory,antibacterial,antitumor,prevent diabetes and sedative,antispasmodic,antipyretic and pharmacological effects. Cinnamon has a high medicinal value. The active component were deeply research and development,espe-cially in diabetes,cancer,and so may be found active lead compounds or innovative drugs as well as a broad prospect for the develop-ment of cinnamon health care food.

  20. The Effect of Flunixin Injection on Reproductive Hormones in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Kazemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Flunixin is an anti inflammatory non steroidal chemical compound which is used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug in veterinary. Considering the frequent use of this drug in recent years this study was conducted to investigate the effects of this drug on pituitary-gonad axis of male mice. Results of this study can be used highly for better use of this drug and saving sexual power of male sex. Five experimental groups with eight male mice in each group were studied as control, Placebo and three treatment groups. Flunixin was injected in 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg/kg in peritoneum in a twenty-day period. Control group didn’t receive any injection and Placebo group received only physiological serum. At the end of twenty days, blood samples were prepared and the amounts of FSH, LH and testosterone hormones were measured. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS11.5 program. According to results, FSH and LH concentrations were increased significantly (p<0.05 but testosterone was not changed. Results show that flunixin can affect sexual power of male sex by increasing hormones of pituitary-testicle axis.

  1. Compliance with Universal Precautions Among Nurses and Laboratory Technicians in Mansoura International Specialized Hospital

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    Sahar Mamoud Sayed Ahmed; Salwa Abbas Aly Hassan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Compliance with universal precautions by nurses and laboratory technicians in hospitals is very important because it prevent cross infection and decrease costs of antibiotics and antipyretics. Also, it decreases spread of infection, which leads to decrease morbidity and mortality rate. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used for conducting this study. The sample of the study consisted of 150 nurses and lab technicians working at morning shift in a hospital at Mansoura City, Dakahlia Governorate. Data were collected using a questionnaire sheet and an observation checklist. The study revealed that majority (86.66% of the studied sample of nurses and lab technicians aged less than 30 years. Also, majority of the studied sample have poor knowledge about sign and symptom and transmission of AIDS. In addition, about 94% of the studied samples have poor knowledge about signs, symptoms and mode of transmissions of hepatitis B and C virus infection. All of the studied sample reported that there are no eye protections in the hospital. Positive correlations between nurses' and lab technicians' practice and available supplies in the hospital were found, but the relations were not statistically significant. The exception was the item of the infection prevention ways which has a significant statistical relation. Also, positive correlations between lab technicians' and nurses' practice and their attending for training courses about infection control were found, but the relations were not statistically significant.

  2. Preformulation Characterisation, Designing and Formulation of Aceclofenac Loaded Microparticles

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    B. Jayanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to systematically investigate some of the important physicochemical properties of Aceclofenac loaded micro particles.Aceclofenac is a potent analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the management of moderate-to-severe pain and in rheumatoid disorder, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylities. Almost all drugs are marketed as tablets, capsules or both. Prior to the development of these major dosage forms, it is essential that pertain fundamental physical and chemical properties of the drug molecule and other divided properties of the drug powder are determined. This information decides many of the subsequent events and approaches in formation development.A per oral extended release micro particles of aceclofenac was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method using polymer ethyl cellulose as well as eudragit RSPO and dispersion carrier as Aerosil. So before selection of excipients, the Preformulation study of drug aceclofenac is completed for successful formulation of per oral extended release micro particles. Preformulation studies included solubility, pKa, dissolution, melting point, assay development,, stability in solid state; bulk density, flow properties, excipient compatibility, entrapment efficiency, release profile of micro particles and Marketed brands of modified release product were investigated.

  3. Drimys brasiliensis essential oil as a source of drimenol

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    Luciele Milani Zem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers is a native plant species to the Atlantic Forest, commonly known as cataia, and used as a stimulant, anti-diahrreal, antipyretic, among other properties. Dried and fresh leaves of cataia were collected in autumn/2012, submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger graduated apparatus over a period of 4 hours after reaching the boiling point, then essential oil was collected. In oil from green leaves, 49 compounds were identified, being 65.0% sesquiterpenes, 12.0% monoterpenes and 23.0% other substances. In oil from dry leaves, 40 compounds were identified, being 76.1% sesquiterpenes, 2.0% monoterpenes and 21.9% other compounds. The main constituents in green leaves were germacrene D (8.9%, bicyclegermacrene (5.3%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.1%, alpha-cadinol (6.0%, and drimenol (9.3%. In dry leaves the main constituents were germacrene D (6.3%, (E-nerodidol (5.4%, spathulenol (9.5%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.5%, alpha-cadinol (6.7%, and drimenol (11.6% Due to its composition, antibacterial, antimycotic, insectifuge and molluscicide activities are proven, together with the pharmacological properties that this species may present.

  4. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

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    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  5. Comparison of Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Bioactive for the Eurycoma longifolia jack using different Analysis Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eurycoma longifolia jack (Tongkat Ali, Genus: Eurycoma; Family, Simaroubaceae) is one of the most popular tropical herbal plants. The plant contains a series of quassinoids, which are mainly responsible for its bitter taste. The plant extract, especially roots, are exclusively used (traditionally) for enhancing testosterone levels in men. The roots also have been used in indigenous traditional medicines for its unique anti-malarial, anti-pyretic, antiulcer, cytotoxic and aphrodisiac properties. As part of an on-going research on the bioactive compound of Eurycoma longifolia and evaluation for an optimized analysis method and parameter that influence in LC-MS analysis were carried out. Identification of the bioactive compounds was based on comparison of calculated retention time and mass spectral data with literature values. Examination of the Eurycoma longifolia sample showed some variations and differences in terms of parameters in LC-MS. However, combined method using methanol as the solvent with injection volume 1.0 μL and analysis in ultra scan mode and acetic acid as acidic modifier is the optimum method for LCMS analysis of Eurycoma longifolia because it successfully detected the optimum mass of compounds with good resolution and perfectly separated within a short analysis time. (author)

  6. Effects of lysine clonixinate on cyclooxygenase I and II in rat lung and stomach preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, A M; Di Girolamo, G; de los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Gimeno, M A

    1998-06-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a drug of antiinflammatory antipyretic and analgesic activity that produces minor digestive side-effects. This fact induced us to think that LC is possibly a weak COX-1 inhibitor. In order to investigate our hypothesis we inhibited cyclooxygenase activity with LC or indomethacin (INDO) in rat lung and stomach obtained from rats treated with lipopolysacharide (LPS) and control rats. Rat lung preparations incubated with 14C-arachidonic acid synthesise mainly PGE2. LC at 2.5 and 4.1 x 10(-5) M does not modify the basal production of PGE2 (probably COX-1) but at 6.8 x 10(-5) M significantly inhibited PGE2 production (approximately 48.5% inhibition, P<0.001). On the other hand, INDO at 10(-6) inhibited the basal production of PGE2 by around 73%. In LPS-treated rats, the production of PGE2 was significantly higher than in the lungs of control rats, probably due to the induction of COX-2. The addition of LC at 2.7 and 4.1 x 10(-5) M recovered the control values of PGE2 inhibiting, probably only from COX-2 activity. LC at higher concentrations (6.8 x 10(-5) M) and INDO 10(-6) M inhibited PGE2 formed by COX-2 and also partly by COX-1 activity. PMID:10189073

  7. IMLII: A CRAZE LOVELY

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    Dhamija Isha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Every part of Tamarind tree, from roots to leaf tips has been utilized to meet different human needs. Tamarindus indica (Caesalpiniaceae, popularly known as imli is a perennial evergreen tree with a spreading crown, feathery evergreen foliage and fragrant flowers. Tamarindus indica is one of the auspicious, versatile tree species in the Indian subcontinent. The pulp of Tamarind finds important place in chutneys, pickles, jams, curries, sauces, ice cream, sharbat and “tamarind fish”. It is extensively used in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh cuisines, particularly in the preparation of Rassam and Sāmbhar. Traditionally, Tamarindus indica has been used as an antidiabetic, digestive, expectorant, anti-pyretic and anti-malarial agent. This review article summarizes the phytoconstituents, pharmacological actions, drug interactions encountered and safety profile with the use of Tamarind.I first fell in love with tamarind fruit, during school summer vacations. There was an elderly lady in my village, who carried delightful tamarind balls. Her tamarind balls were made up of tamarind pulp, sugar, a pinch of salt and ginger. We, children would break the balls apart and suck on the pieces. We'd suck the entire tamarind piece until there was nothing left except the seed to discard. Our craze had nothing to do with the nutritional or medicinal content of the fruit.

  8. IN VIVO RODENT MICRONUCLEUS ASSAY OF GMELINA ARBOREA ROXB (GAMBHARI EXTRACT

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    Kalyani Divakar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gmelina arborea Roxb (family Verbenaceae commonly known as ‘Gambhari’tree, the various parts of the plants are widely used in diarrhoea, anti-pyretic, thirst,anemia, leprosy, ulcers, consumption, strangury, vaginal discharges. We tested thegenotoxic potential of G. arborea in bone marrow cells obtained from Swiss albino miceusing micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Aqueous extract of G.arborea (AEGA was tested at the dose of 286 & 667 mg/kg body weight (b. w..Cyclophosphamide (CPZ 25 mg/kg b. w. was used as positive control in micronucleustest. The AEGA significantly increased the % micronucleated polychrometics at doses of286mg/kg and 667mg/kg, after 24, 48 72h time interval. And also decreased thePCE/NCE ratio after 24, 48 and 72 h as compared to solvent control group. In this study,we investigated the effect of G. arborea on mammalian bone marrow cells usingmicronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb.

  9. In vivo rodent micronucleus assay of gmelina arborea roxb (gambhari) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Rohit; Divakar, Goli; Divakar, Kalyani

    2010-01-01

    Gmelina arborea Roxb (family Verbenaceae) commonly known as 'Gambhari' tree, the various parts of the plants are widely used in diarrhoea, anti-pyretic, thirst, anemia, leprosy, ulcers, consumption, strangury, vaginal discharges. We tested the genotoxic potential of G. arborea in bone marrow cells obtained from Swiss albino mice using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Aqueous extract of G. arborea (AEGA) was tested at the dose of 286 & 667 mg/kg body weight (b. w.). Cyclophosphamide (CPZ) 25 mg/kg b. w. was used as positive control in micronucleus test. The AEGA significantly increased the % micronucleated polychrometics at doses of 286mg/kg and 667mg/kg, after 24, 48 72h time interval. And also decreased the PCE/NCE ratio after 24, 48 and 72 h as compared to solvent control group. In this study, we investigated the effect of G. arborea on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb. PMID:22247828

  10. In Vivo rodent micronucleus assay of Gmelina Arborea Roxb (Gambhari extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Sahu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gmelina arborea Roxb (family Verbenaceae commonly known as ′Gambhari′ tree, the various parts of the plants are widely used in diarrhoea, anti-pyretic, thirst, anemia, leprosy, ulcers, consumption, strangury, vaginal discharges. We tested the genotoxic potential of G. arborea in bone marrow cells obtained from Swiss albino mice using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Aqueous extract of G. arborea (AEGA was tested at the dose of 286 & 667 mg/kg body weight (b. w.. Cyclophosphamide (CPZ 25 mg/kg b. w. was used as positive control in micronucleus test. The AEGA significantly increased the % micronucleated polychrometics at doses of 286mg/kg and 667mg/kg, after 24, 48 72h time interval. And also decreased the PCE/NCE ratio after 24, 48 and 72 h as compared to solvent control group. In this study, we investigated the effect of G. arborea on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb.

  11. Co-administration of N-Acetylcysteine and Acetaminophen Efficiently Blocks Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owumi, Solomon E; Andrus, James P; Herzenberg, Leonard A; Herzenberg, Leonore A

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical Research Although acetaminophen (APAP) is an effective analgesic and anti-pyretic, APAP overdose is the most frequent cause of serious, often lethal, drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) within 8 hours of APAP overdose effectively mitigates APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, preventing APAP toxicity before it occurs by formulating APAP with NAC is logical and, as we show here in a mouse model, is effective in preventing APAP toxicity. Thus, toxic oral APAP doses sufficient to cause severe widespread liver damage do not cause significant damage when administered concurrently with equal amounts of NAC, that is, in the NAC-APAP treated animals, hepatic transaminases increase only marginally and liver architecture remains fully intact. Thus, we conclude that concomitant oral dosing with APAP and NAC can provide a convenient and effective way of preventing toxicity associated with large dosage of APAP. From a public health perspective, these findings support the concept that a co-formulation of APAP plus NAC is a viable over-the-counter (OTC) alternative to the current practice of providing APAP OTC and treating APAP toxicity if/when it occurs. In essence, our findings indicate that replacing the current OTC APAP with a safe and functional APAP/NAC formulation could prevent the accidental and intentional APAP toxicity that occurs today. PMID:26250417

  12. Topical gels of etofenamate: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, Joana; Baltazar, Diogo; Duarte, Aida; Fernandes, Adelaide; Gouveia, Luís; Militão, Maria; Salgado, Ana; Simões, Sandra; Oliveira, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Helena Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as etofenamate, are among the most prescribed drugs used for their analgesic, anti-rheumatic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. Topical formulations have the main advantage of targeted delivery. However, drugs must overcome the skin due to its role as a physical and chemical barrier against the penetration of chemicals and microorganisms. This barrier must be altered to allow the permeation of drugs at a suitable rate to the desired site of activity. Permeation modulators can intercalate the skin outer layers causing structure disruption, opening an energetically favourable route for the drug to diffuse through. The aim of this work was the development of hydroalcoholic gels containing 5.0% (w/w) of etofenamate for topical administration with anti-inflammatory activity and enhanced drug delivery. The physical and chemical characterization, in vitro release and permeation studies and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity were assessed. The gel with 30% ethanol showed in vivo anti-inflammatory activity with suitable physical chemical and microbiologic characteristics. In vitro release and permeation studies revealed that the different amounts of ethanol used influenced the release profiles of etofenamate. Moreover, it was demonstrated that this formulation is an adequate vehicle for the etofenamate skin permeation. PMID:24798887

  13. Nelumbo Nucifera (Lotus: A Review on Ethanobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology

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    Nishkruti R Mehta*, Ekta P Patel Pragnesh V Patani, Biren Shah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae, a perennial aquatic plant, has been used as a medicinal herb in China and India. It has been recorded in the most famous medicinal book in China for more than 400 years. Different part of plant (leaves, seeds, flower, and rhizome can be used in traditional system of medicine. In traditional system of medicine, the different parts of plant is reported to possess beneficial effects as in for the treatment of pharyngopathy, pectoralgia, spermatorrhoea, leucoderma, smallpox, dysentery, cough, haematemesis, epistaxis, haemoptysis, haematuria, metrorrhagia, hyperlipidaemia, fever, cholera, hepatopathy and hyperdipsia. Following the traditional claims for the use of N.nucifera as cure of numerous diseases considerable efforts have been made by researchers to verify it’s utility through scientific pharmacological screenings. The pharmacological studies have shown that N.nucifera posseses various notable pharmacological activities like amti-ischemic, antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, antiobesity, lipolytic, hypocholestemic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, hypoglycaemic, antidiarrhoeal, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and diuretic activities. A wide variety of phytoprinciples have been isolated from the plant. The present review is an effort to consolidate traditional, ethnobotanic, phytochemical and pharmacological information available on N.nucifera.

  14. HPTLC methods for the Rapid Determination of Adhatoda vasica L. Glycyrrhiza glabbra L., Phyllanthus embelica L. and Camellia sinensis L. in a polyherbal formulation (INSTY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Insty Granule is a polyherbal formulation, and it is widely used to treat upper respiratory tract infections. It contains expectorant, anti-inflammatory, mucolytic and anti-pyretic properties. The major active constituents are vasicine, gallic acid, caffeine and glycyrrhizin. Insty a poly herbal formulation of eight herbs were investigated for its phytochemical evaluation. Biomarkers of about four herbs both qualitatively and quantitatively were investigated. Methods: The solvent systems used were ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol, ammonia (6: 3: 1: 1) for vasicin, ethyl acetate, chloroform, formic acid (12: 15: 3) for gallic acid, ethyl acetate, methanol, water (100: 13.5: 10) for caffeine, and methanol, water, acetic acid (70: 30: 0.5) for glycyrrhizin. Results: The methods showed a good linear relationship (r/sup 2/ = 0.999) in the concentration range 25-1500 ng per spot. It was found to be linear, accurate, precise, specific, robust and can be applied for quality control and standardization. Conclusion: In present study rapid and inexpensive qualification methods for the quality control of Adhatoda vasica L. Glycyrrhiza glabbra L., Phyllanthus embelica L. and Camellia sinensis L. on thin layer chromatography (TLC) were developed and validated on silica gel. HPTLC is most suitable technique because of quantification of number of samples at low operating cost, easy sample preparation, short analysis time and analytical assurance. (author)

  15. ANALGESIC AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF TOTAL EXTRACT, FLAVONOID FRACTION AND VOLATILE OIL OF SALVIA HYDRANGEA

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    V.A HAJ HASHEMI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gol-e-arvaneh with the scientific name of salvia hydrangea (Labiatea belongs to Salvia genus. In traditional medicine it has been used as analgesic, relieving headache, cold remedy, antipyretic and diuretic. Since until now this plant has not been investigated pharacologically. This study was aimed to find any anti-inflammatory or analgesic activity of the plant. Methods. At first, total extract, flavonoid fraction and volatile oil was prepared. Analgesic effect was assessed using light tail flick and acetic acid writhing test. Male wistar rats (180-220g and mice (25±2g were used in these tests. Carrageen in test was used for assessing anti-inflammatory activity. Results. Total extract and flavonoid fraction could not produce analgesic effect in light tail flick test, while morphine as a standard drug 15 and 30 min. after administration produced 35% and 90% of MPE respectively. In writhing test, total extract and flavonoid fraction had considerable analgesic effect which was comparable to that of indomethacin. Results of Carageenin test showed that both total extract and flavonoid fraction had marked anti-inflammatory activity and volatile oil had only a slight effect. Discussion. Since potent drugs (such as opioids show positive response to light tail flick test, it seems that the plant lacks such compounds. Considerable analgesic activity of total extract and flavonoid fraction in writhing test and also their anti-inflammatory activity indicate that this plant is probably useful for relieving pains, particularly with inflammatory origin.

  16. Treatment patterns of childhood diarrhoea in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey

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    Löfgren Jenny

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death in children under five accounting for 1.8 million deaths yearly. Despite global efforts to reduce diarrhoea mortality through promotion of proper case management, there is still room for ample improvement. In order to seek options for such improvements this study explored the knowledge and practices of diarrhoea case management among health care providers at health centres and drug shops in Uganda. Methods Records were reviewed for case management and structured interviews concerning knowledge and practices were conducted with the staff at all health centres and at all identified drug shops in the rural district of Namutumba, Uganda. Results There was a significant gap between knowledge and documented practices among staff. Antibiotics, antimalarials and antipyretics were prescribed or recommended as frequently as Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS. In almost a third of the health facilities, ORS was out of stock. 81% of staff in health centres and 87% of staff in drug shops stated that they prescribed antibiotics for common diarrhoea. Zinc was not prescribed or recommended in any case. Conclusions The findings indicate that many children presenting with diarrhoea are inadequately treated. As a result they may not get the rehydration they need and are at risk of potential side effects from unjustified usage of antibiotics. Practices must be improved at health centres and drug shops in order to reduce childhood mortality due to diarrhoeal diseases.

  17. Therapeutic Potential of the Medicinal Plant Aegle Marmelos (Linn.) Correa: Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandra Kant; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Various plant species are used globally for therapeutic purposes and have been authenticated by the World Health Organization. Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., one of only three species in the genus Aegle, is a subtropical, fruit-bearing, deciduous tree that grows throughout the hills and plains of sub-Himalayan countries. Plants with medicinal importance have been used in almost every culture since ancient times. Various studies are underway to understand more about the qualities and components of medicinal plants, including drug preparation, phytochemical analysis, cultivation, toxicology, and pharmacology. According to the Indian conventional system of medicine, A. marmelos can successfully treat many diseases and conditions; for example, its extracts have been found to reduce the intensities of hepatic lipid peroxidation and augment the levels of hepatic antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione. The essential oils present in the foliage (leaves), fruits, and bark of A. marmelos provide strong antifungal action. A. marmelos is thus cytoprotective, works against ulcers and diarhea, promotes skin and bone healing, and acts as a hypoglycemic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, and anticancer agent. Such qualities have been well documented with scientific evidence. PMID:27279580

  18. Medication use and potential drug interactions in pediatric patients with infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisby, S M; Nahata, M C

    1987-04-01

    Infectious diseases are the most common type of illness in pediatric patients. Limited data are available, however, about the most frequently prescribed drugs for children in pediatric infectious diseases units. The authors prospectively evaluated medication records of 493 children over a 5-month period to determine the pattern of drug prescribing and incidence of potential drug interactions in children admitted to the infectious diseases unit in a pediatric hospital. Antimicrobial agents were the most frequently prescribed class of drugs, comprising 60% of all drug orders. Of all antibiotics used during this period, ampicillin was the most common (24% of antibiotic orders). Ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, and gentamicin were also used frequently and consisted of 15%, 10%, and 14% of all orders for anti-infective agents, respectively. Other classes of drugs frequently given to patients on the infectious disease unit were antipyretics (14%), bronchodilators (10%), and anticonvulsants (7%). The incidence of potential drug interactions was 3.5%, the majority involving anticonvulsants. A clinically significant drug interaction was not documented in any of these cases. Observations made from this study may assist in developing clinical pharmacy services and educational programs for pharmacy students. In addition, knowledge of drug use patterns may aid in conducting antibiotic use reviews. PMID:10281735

  19. Effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on the in vitro protease inhibitory activity of naproxen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmalingam, Senthil Rajan; Chidambaram, Kumarappan; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Nadaraju, Shamala, E-mail: dsenthilrajan@yahoo.co.in [School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated the effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on in vitro trypsin inhibitory activity of naproxen—a member of the propionic acid derivatives, which are a group of antipyretic, analgesic, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques were used to increase the solubility and anti-inflammatory efficacy of naproxen. The evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS) technique and the kneading methods were used to prepare the nanosuspension and inclusion complex of naproxen, respectively. We also used an in vitro protease inhibitory assay to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of modified naproxen formulations. Physiochemical properties of modified naproxen formulations were analyzed using UV, IR spectra, and solubility studies. Beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of naproxen was found to have a lower percentage of antitryptic activity than a pure nanosuspension of naproxen did. In conclusion, nanosuspension of naproxen has a greater anti-inflammatory effect than the other two tested formulations. This is because the nanosuspension formulation reduces the particle size of naproxen. Based on these results, the antitryptic activity of naproxen nanosuspension was noteworthy; therefore, this formulation can be used for the management of inflammatory disorders. (author)

  20. Effect of Temperature and Light on Phytochemical Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Andrographis paniculata

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    B. Jaikumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae is an annual herb. It is found in Sri Lanka, and throughout the plains of India especially Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Orissa. Various medicinal properties like cholevetic, antidiarrheal, immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory have been attributed to this plant in the traditional system of Indian medicine. Further reported activities are hepatoprotective, antimalarial, anticancer, antihypertensive, antipyretic, antithrombotic and antidote for snake bites. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-microbial activity for the isopropanol extract of A. paniculata against different bacterial strains such as E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. vulgaris, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus by determining inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition. Minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition values and the high bioactive metabolites production was observed in different extracts of A. paniculata under different physical stress (Light and temperatures. The results revealed that, the isopropanol extract of A. paniculata is potent for inhibiting bacterial growth and various secondary metabolites production in dark condition at 37°C than other tested parameters.

  1. Potent Insecticidal Secondary Metabolites from the Medicinal Plant Acanthus montanus

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    Elham Amin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acanthus montanus (Nees T. Anders. (Family: Acanthaceae is a small shrub with sparse branches and soft stems, widespread in Africa, the Balkans, Romania, Greece and Eastern Mediterranean. Documented evidence showed that the leaves of the plant possess spasmolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. In our ongoing research project; aimed at identifying new natural compounds with insecticidal activity, the alcohol extract of the aerial parts of A. montanus exhibited a significant activity against adult Aedes aegypti. Phytochemical study of the plant has resulted in isolation of nine compounds, eight of which exhibit variable degrees of insecticidal activity. β-sitosterol-3-O- β –D-glucoside (1 exhibited potent mosquitocidal activity (100% mortality against adult Aedes aegypti at 1.25 μg/mg concentration, followed by palmitic acid (2 (90%, linaroside (3 (80%, and acetoside (9 (70% respectively. It is noteworthy that this is the first report of insecticidal activity of β-sitosterol-3-O- β –D-glucoside, linaroside and acetoside.

  2. The Validity and Reliability of the Parent Fever Management Scale: A Study from Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Nabulsi, Masa M; Tubaila, Mais F; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat; Walsh, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Parental concern about childhood fever and consequent use of antipyretics is increasing. Little is known about childhood fever management among Arab parents. No scales to measure parents' fever management practices in Palestine are available. The aim of this study was to validate the Arabic version of the Parent Fever Management Scale (PFMS) using a sample of parents in Palestine. A standard "forward-backward" procedure was used to translate PFMS into Arabic language. It was then validated on a convenience sample of 402 parents between July and October 2012. Descriptive statistics were used, and instrument reliability was assessed for internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Validity was confirmed using convergent and known group validation. Applying the recommended scoring method, the median (interquartile range) score of the PFMS was 26 (23-30). Acceptable internal consistency was found (Cronbach's alpha = 0.733) and the test-retest reliability value was 0.92 (P Arabic version of the PFMS is a reliable and valid measure and can be used as a useful tool for health professionals to identify parents' fever management practices. The Arabic version of the PFMS can be used to reduce unnecessary parental practices in fever management for a febrile child. PMID:24880253

  3. Bromism caused by mix-formulated analgesic injectables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, P F; Tsan, Y T; Hung, D Z; Hsu, C L; Lee, Y C; Chang, M H

    2007-12-01

    Bromism, chronic bromide intoxication, can be caused by a variety of medicines, but bromism due to pain-relieving injectable medications has not been reported. In this study, the methods used were internet searching on bromide-containing injectables available in Taiwan and the first case report of bromism due to mixed-formulated injectable medication. Many analgesic/antipyretic and antihistamine injections containing bromides are still being used in Taiwan. They contain sodium bromide up to 1000 mg/ampoule or calcium bromide up to 800 mg/amp. A 25-year-old female suffered from forgetfulness and unstable gait after long-term frequent injections of a preparation to relieve head and neck pain. Blood tests showed hyperchloremia (171 mEq/L) and a negative anion gap (-48.7 mEq/L). Serum bromide measured 2150 mg/L. She recovered completely in 3 days with saline treatment. Many bromide-containing injections are still being used in Taiwan. Clinicians should keep alert on this issue to avoid iatrogenic bromism or making misdiagnoses. PMID:18375642

  4. A review on versatile applications of transition metal complexes incorporating Schiff bases

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    Ahmed M. Abu-Dief

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schiff bases and their complexes are versatile compounds synthesized from the condensation of an amino compound with carbonyl compounds and widely used for industrial purposes and also exhibit a broad range of biological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antipyretic properties. Many Schiff base complexes show excellent catalytic activity in various reactions and in the presence of moisture. Over the past few years, there have been many reports on their applications in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. The high thermal and moisture stabilities of many Schiff base complexes were useful attributes for their application as catalysts in reactions involving at high temperatures. The activity is usually increased by complexation therefore to understand the properties of both ligands and metal can lead to the synthesis of highly active compounds. The influence of certain metals on the biological activity of these compounds and their intrinsic chemical interest as multidentate ligands has prompted a considerable increase in the study of their coordination behaviour. Development of a new chemotherapeutic Schiff bases and their metal complexes is now attracting the attention of medicinal chemists. This review compiles examples of the most promising applied Schiff bases and their complexes in different areas.

  5. Pharmacognostic studies on Pergularia daemia roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, V H; Balakrishnan, N

    2010-04-01

    Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov. (Asclepiadaceae) is used traditionally as an anthelmintic, laxative, antipyretic, and expectorant, and also used to treat malarial intermittent fever. But the scientific parameters are not yet available to identify the true plant material. In the present investigation, various pharmacognostic standards for P. daemia have been established. Microscopically, thick root and thick taproot of P. daemia showed the presence of periderm, secondary phloem and secondary xylem. Abundant starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are present in the cortical parenchyma masses included within the xylem. Powdered roots of the plant showed vessel elements, tracheids, fibers and xylem parenchyma. Total ash of the root of P. daemia was not more than 5% and water-soluble extractive value was two times higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Phytochemically, the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the root of P. daemia showed maximum phytochemicals such as alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, saponin, tannin and phenolic compounds, terpenoids, carbohydrates, gums and mucilage. The results of this study should provide a standard for identification and preparation of monograph of this drug. PMID:20645722

  6. Nimesulide has a role of radio-sensitizer against lung carcinoma A549 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Joo Yoon; Park, Jong Kuk; Hong, Sung Hee [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Cyclooxygenases (COX) are key enzymes in the prostaglandin synthesis. There are two isoforms of the COX enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 expression is associated with carcinogenesis in variety of cancers and to render cells resistant to apoptotic stimuli. Increased expression of COX-2 is shown in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), specifically in adenocarcinomas. Radiotherapy has been the important treatment for NSCLC. In recent studies, newer molecules that target specific pathophysiology or molecular pathways have been tested for the radiation sensitizers. COX-2 inhibitors are shown to enhanced radioresponse of cultured human cancer cell lines and immunodeficient mice. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms how NSAIDs enhance radioresponse of tumor cells. Nimesulide (methanesulfonamide, N-(4-nitro-2- phenoxyphenyl)), selective COX-2 inhibitors, is a drug with anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic properties. Nimesulide has the specific affinity to inhibit the inducible form of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) rather than the constitutive form (COX-1), and is well tolerated by adult, elderly and pediatric patients. Nimesulide was found also to have a chemopreventive activity against colon, urinary bladder, breast, tongue, and liver carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined whether nimesulide can increase radiation induced cell death and its mechanism in NSCLC cells A549.

  7. Nimesulide has a role of radio-sensitizer against lung carcinoma A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclooxygenases (COX) are key enzymes in the prostaglandin synthesis. There are two isoforms of the COX enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 expression is associated with carcinogenesis in variety of cancers and to render cells resistant to apoptotic stimuli. Increased expression of COX-2 is shown in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), specifically in adenocarcinomas. Radiotherapy has been the important treatment for NSCLC. In recent studies, newer molecules that target specific pathophysiology or molecular pathways have been tested for the radiation sensitizers. COX-2 inhibitors are shown to enhanced radioresponse of cultured human cancer cell lines and immunodeficient mice. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms how NSAIDs enhance radioresponse of tumor cells. Nimesulide (methanesulfonamide, N-(4-nitro-2- phenoxyphenyl)), selective COX-2 inhibitors, is a drug with anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic properties. Nimesulide has the specific affinity to inhibit the inducible form of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) rather than the constitutive form (COX-1), and is well tolerated by adult, elderly and pediatric patients. Nimesulide was found also to have a chemopreventive activity against colon, urinary bladder, breast, tongue, and liver carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined whether nimesulide can increase radiation induced cell death and its mechanism in NSCLC cells A549

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA LINN: AN OVERVIEW

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    Gheewala Payal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines and their application have always been the basis for man’s curiosity from the time immemorial. Averrhoa carambola Linn, commonly known as Kamrakh or Golden Star, is undoubtedly one of the most unique creations of nature grown widely in the tropics and the warmer areas of subtropics. Averrhoa carambola is reported to contain mainly saponins, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids. It is used as a well known remedy for the treatment of a number of manifestations in Ayurvedic as well as folklore systems of medicine. In Ayurveda, Averrhoa carambola finds use as an anti-helminth, anti-malarial, antipyretic, digestive tonic, febrifuge, antiscorbutic and antidote for poison. It is considered as one of the best Indian cooling medicines. These properties are believed to be mediated by different phytochemicals found in the plant, acting singly or in concert. A relatively large number of scientific publications on Averrhoa carambola have been published in recent years, including a number of research articles. The goal of this review is to provide an updated categorization of the phytochemical constituents along with the comprehensive list of known ethno-botanical uses, common names and a brief summary of relevant pharmacological activities of this plant.

  9. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS LEAVES

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    Choudhury Antara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physiochemical and phytochemical details about the plant Amaranthus spinosus. The physiochemical result obtained can be used for the identification of powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening, different types of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. Phytoconstituents like fixed oils, fats, carbohydrates, glycosides, gum and mucilage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, amino acids and saponins showed positive tests in the extracts. Amaranthus spinosus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. It is commonly known as Spiny amaranth or Pig weed and found throughout the world. In India it is found at roadsides, waste places and fields. The whole plant is used as a laxative. Traditionally it has been used as diuretic, antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-snake venom, antileprotic, anti-gonorrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and immunomodulatory. The root paste of the plant is used to cure skin disease. A red pigment obtained from the plant is used for colouring foods and medicines.

  10. The incredible queen of green: Nutritive value and therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

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    Muhammad Shoaib Amjad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera, rightly called as the miracle tree, is the extensively grown and highly valuable species of Moringaceae family. The tree has a pantropical distribution with nativity to Indian subcontinent. Nutritionally and therapeutically, it is a highly valued plant. Vitamins, proteins, β-carotene, aminoacids and various phenolics such as β-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and zeatin with potential for nutritional and therapeutic applications are enriched in different plant parts. Different plant parts of this plant such as roots, leaves, bark, flowers, fruit of immature pods and seeds possess a number of therapeutic properties such as diuretic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antitumor, antiulcer, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activities, and are being operational in various traditional medicine system for curing different health problems. Moringa is higly beneficial in depression, malnutrition, general weakness and osteoporosis. The present review is intended to emphasize the phytochemical constitution, traditional medicinal uses along pharmacological properties with the purpose to create public awareness regarding therapeutic and nutritive potential of this multipurpose tree as well as to facilitate the pharmacists and the researchers to fill the gap by exploring novel therapeutic compounds that will, of course, be in favor of humanity.

  11. Escin reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis on glioma and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, Gülşen Akalin; Işcan, Arzu; Kutlu, Mehtap

    2015-10-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut) seed extract has a wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is escin. It is known that several medicinal herbs with anti-inflammatory properties have been found to have a role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of escin in the C6 glioma and A549 cell lines were analyzed by MTT. Apoptotic effects of escin on both cell lines were evaluated by Annexin V binding capacity with flow cytometric analysis. Structural and ultrastructural changes were also evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that escin has potent antiproliferative effects against C6 glioma and A549 cells. These effects are both dose and time dependent. Taken together, escin possesses cell cycle arrest on G0/G1 phase and selective apoptotic activity on A549 cells as indicated by increased Annexin V-binding capacity, bax protein expression, caspase-3 activity and morphological changes obtained from micrographs by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:25906387

  12. β-Aescin at subinhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) enhances susceptibility of Candida glabrata clinical isolates to nystatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franiczek, Roman; Gleńsk, Michał; Krzyżanowska, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Maciej

    2015-11-01

    Aescin (escin) derived from the seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) is a natural mixture of triterpene saponins exhibiting a wide variety of pharmacological properties, including antiinflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. However, data concerning antifungal activities of these compounds are limited. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida glabrata clinical isolates to α-aescin sodium, β-aescin crystalline and β-aescin sodium using the disk diffusion (DD) and broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Moreover, the influence of subinhibitory concentration (0.5×MIC) of β-aescins on the nystatin MIC was also studied. In general, the results obtained by the DD assay correlated well with those obtained by the BMD method. Both β-aescins effectively inhibited the growth of all 24 strains tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 8 to 32 μg/ml for β-aescin crystalline, whereas those of β-aescin sodium were slightly lower and ranged from 4 to 16 μg/ml. In contrast, α-aescin sodium was found to be completely ineffective against the strains studied. MIC values of nystatin were reduced 2-16-fold and 2-4-fold in the presence of subinhibitory concentration of β-aescin crystalline and β-aescin sodium, respectively. Results of the present study may suggest the additive interaction between β-aescin and nystatin. PMID:26092104

  13. Escin Chemosensitizes Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Inhibits the Nuclear Factor-kappaB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmon, A; Vexler, A; Berkovich, L; Earon, G; Ron, I; Lev-Ari, S

    2013-01-01

    Background. There is an urgent need to develop new treatment strategies and drugs for pancreatic cancer that is highly resistant to radio-chemotherapy. Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut) known in Chinese medicine as a plant with anti-inflammatory, antiedema, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is Escin (C54H84O23). Objective. To evaluate the effect of Escin alone and combined with chemotherapy on pancreatic cancer cell survival and to unravel mechanism(s) of Escin anticancer activity. Methods. Cell survival was measured by XTT colorimetric assay. Synergistic effect of combined therapy was determined by CalcuSyn software. Cell cycle and induction of apoptosis were evaluated by FACS analysis. Expression of NF- κ B-related proteins (p65, I κ Bα, and p-I κ Bα) and cyclin D was evaluated by western blot analysis. Results. Escin decreased the survival of pancreatic cancer cells with IC50 = 10-20 M. Escin combined with gemcitabine showed only additive effect, while its combination with cisplatin resulted in a significant synergistic cytotoxic effect in Panc-1 cells. High concentrations of Escin induced apoptosis and decreased NF- κ B-related proteins and cyclin D expression. Conclusions. Escin decreased pancreatic cancer cell survival, induced apoptosis, and downregulated NF- κ B signaling pathway. Moreover, Escin sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy. Further translational research is required. PMID:24282639

  14. Development of species-specific SCAR markers for identification of three medicinal species of Phyllanthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piyada THEERAKULPISUT; Nantawan KANAWAPEE; Duangkamol MAENSIRI; Sumontip BUNNAG; Pranom CHANTARANOTHAI

    2008-01-01

    Phyllanthus amarus Schum.& Thonn.has been widely used in traditional medicine in Thailand as an antipyretic.a diuretic.to treat liver diseases and viml infections.Two closely related species,P. debills L.and P.urinaria KIein ex Willd.,with different and less effective medicinal properties,are less commonly used.These three species are similar in morphology and often Occur in overlapping populations in nature.The latter two species can easily be mistaken for P.amarus and collected for medicinal uses, which can lead to undesirable results.DNA fingerprints of these species were obtained using RAPD-PCR techniques.RAPD markers specific for each species were identified.Primers for highly specific sequence-characterized-amplified-regions (SCAR) were then designed from nucleotide sequences of specific RAPD markers.These primers efficiently amplified SCAR markers of 408,501 and 319 bp unique to P.amarus,P.debilis and P.urinaria respectively.This method of plant identification Was rapid and highly specific when tested against DNA of several closely related species and was able to amplify specific markers from mixed DNA samples.

  15. Pharmacology and biochemistry of Polygonatum verticillatum: A review

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    Saboon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polygonatum verticillatum (Linn. All. syn. Convallaria verticillata Linn. is a valuable medicinal plant, distributed in the temperate Himalaya at the elevations 2400 to 2800 m. It is a perennial rhizomatous herb and contains various pharmacologically important secondary metabolites among which the most important are α-bulnesene, linalyl acetate, eicosadienoic, pentacosane, piperitone, docasane, diosgenin, santonin and calarene. It also possesses antimalarial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, lipoxygenase, urease inhibition, diuretic, tracheorelaxant, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, antifungal, antibacterial and bronchodilator activities. The plant also got importance in traditional systems of medicine due to its broad therapeutic potential especially of its rhizome. But in the past few years, over exploitation of plant parts caused the decline in the frequency of this species due to which it became threatened, endangered and vulnerable in different parts of the world. So efforts are being made in certain regions of the world for both ex-situ and in-situ conservation. This paper briefly reviewed the botanical, traditional, phytochemical, pharmacological and conservation related aspects of this plant.

  16. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

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    BAJOGHLI Shirin MD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepamin febrile seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy ofintermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age rangeof 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female were studied. Children with ahistory of psychomotor delay, abnormal neurological examination, a history ofantiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excluded from thestudy. Patients received a single dose of prophylactic Clonazepam (0.05 mg/kg/day on the first day of febrile illness and twice daily during the course of fever.An antipyretic medication (Acetaminophen was advised if fever exceeded38oC. Patients were followed up for one year after the study inclusion date.ResultsThree patients were excluded from study since they didnot follow the tritmentand three patients experienced afebrile seizures. Twenty four patients had 162febrile episodes during the course of the study and all patients were seizure-freeafter 1 year.ConclusionClonazepam was 100% effective but lethargy and ataxia were common sideeffects in patients. Fortunately, their parents continued treatment because theyhad prior awareness of the possible side effects of clonazepam. Clonazepam isefficacious as an intermittent therapy for febrile seizures if parents are informedof its side effects.

  17. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

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    Shamkant B. Badgujar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  18. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses. PMID:25162032

  19. Biological assessment (antiviral and antioxidant and acute toxicity of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis

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    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drimys presents the widest geographical distribution of the Winteraceae family, which comprises seven genera and about 120 species. In Brazil, the genus is found from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul and occur in two species, Drimys angustifolia Miers, and D. brasiliensis Miers, Winteraceae, popularly known as "casca-de-anta", characterized by the presence of flavonoids and essential oils. It is used in folk medicine as an antiscorbutic, stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, antipyretic, antibacterial, and against asthma and bronchitis, besides having insecticidal properties. In addition to the known biological activities, it is very important to explore new applications in the treatment of physiological disorders or diseases caused by parasites. Based on this information, in this study we propose to evaluate volatile oils of the species D. brasiliensis and D. angustifolia, as an antioxidant, using the model of the DPPH radical as an antiviral against human herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1 and acute toxicity in vivo. The two species were not able to reduce the DPPH radical and showed interesting antiviral activity, significantly reducing the virus titers in vitro assays. Regarding the in vivo toxicity in female Wistar rats, treatment with the two species showed interesting signs in animals such as salivation, ptosis, tremor, decreased motor activity. In addition the oils of D. brasiliensis to other signs, some animals showed increased urination and diarrhea.

  20. Biological assessment (antiviral and antioxidant and acute toxicity of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drimys presents the widest geographical distribution of the Winteraceae family, which comprises seven genera and about 120 species. In Brazil, the genus is found from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul and occur in two species, Drimys angustifolia Miers, and D. brasiliensis Miers, Winteraceae, popularly known as "casca-de-anta", characterized by the presence of flavonoids and essential oils. It is used in folk medicine as an antiscorbutic, stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, antipyretic, antibacterial, and against asthma and bronchitis, besides having insecticidal properties. In addition to the known biological activities, it is very important to explore new applications in the treatment of physiological disorders or diseases caused by parasites. Based on this information, in this study we propose to evaluate volatile oils of the species D. brasiliensis and D. angustifolia, as an antioxidant, using the model of the DPPH radical as an antiviral against human herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1 and acute toxicity in vivo. The two species were not able to reduce the DPPH radical and showed interesting antiviral activity, significantly reducing the virus titers in vitro assays. Regarding the in vivo toxicity in female Wistar rats, treatment with the two species showed interesting signs in animals such as salivation, ptosis, tremor, decreased motor activity. In addition the oils of D. brasiliensis to other signs, some animals showed increased urination and diarrhea.

  1. Dual effects of acetylsalicylic acid on ERK signaling and Mitf transcription lead to inhibition of melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Takashi; Usami, Mai; Awaji, Mizuki; Shinohara, Sumire; Sato, Kazuomi

    2016-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as an analgesic/antipyretic drug. It exhibits a wide range of biological effects, including preventative effects against heart attack and stroke, and the induction of apoptosis in various cancer cells. We previously found that ASA inhibits melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. However, the mechanisms of how ASA down-regulates melanin synthesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of ASA on melanogenic pathways, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) transcription. ASA significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner without oxidative stress and cell death. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the inhibitory effect of ASA might be due to the inhibition of Mitf gene transcription. Interestingly, ASA also induced ERK phosphorylation. Additionally, treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, abolished the anti-melanogenic effect of ASA. These results suggest that the depigmenting effect of ASA results from down-regulation of Mitf, which is induced by both the induction of ERK phosphorylation and the inhibition of Mitf transcription. PMID:26699907

  2. [Appropriate prescription, adherence and safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostres, Carlos; Lanas, Ángel

    2016-03-18

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most numerous category of drugs sharing the same mechanism of action and therapeutic activities (anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic). Despite having similar efficacy for pain relieve, the different available NSAIDs show variability in its safety profile. The risk of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular complications varies depending on the dose of NSAID and also the presence of different risk factors. It is necessary, therefore, an individualized case assessment before establishing the indication of the best NSAID for each patient, taking account of the best gastroprotection strategy. Improved prescription and enhanced treatment adherence are central objectives to reduce NSAID-related complications. A recent consensus of the Spanish Association of Gastroenterology and the Spanish societies of Cardiology and Rheumatology intends to promote the rational use of NSAIDs according to new recent studies. This review provides additional aspects to facilitate the optimal decision-making process in the routine use of these drugs in clinical practice. PMID:26724872

  3. Cognitive enhancing effect of the fermented Gumiganghwal-tang on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Jung, Youn Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-04-01

    Gumiganghwal-tang (GT) is a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic actions. Fermented GT has been reported to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and to exert a neuroprotective effect. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermented GT against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. The results of the Morris water maze test indicated that fermented GT significantly decreased escape latency, as compared with that observed in the scopolamine-treated group. In the prove test, fermented GT attenuated the decreased time spent in the target quadrant observed after scopolamine treatment. The results of the passive avoidance test indicated that the treatment with fermented GT increased latency time when compared with the scopolamine-treated group. Moreover, fermented GT inhibited AChE activity in the hippocampi of the treated mice. These results suggest that fermented GT reduced scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice through AChE inhibition. Therefore, we hypothesize that fermented GT may be a useful therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25216329

  4. Delivery of Piroxicam With A Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablet: In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Evaluation

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    Ali Riza Kepsutlu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam (PX is one of the most potent non-steroidal, antiinflammatory agents which also exhibit anti-pyretic activity in various types of non-rheumatic pains. Although the drug is well absorbed following oral administration, gastric irritation is still the most serious adverse effect. Thus there is a need for an alternative drug delivery system with better GI tolerability. Buccal administration of drugs provides a convenient route of administration for both systemic and and local actions and bypasses first-pass effects and avoids GI side effects. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop buccal tablets of piroxicam by using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and chitosan as mucoadhesive agents. Tablets were prepared with direct compression method and evaluated for physical properties. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the release rate of PX from the formulations affected by type and ratio of polymers. The release mechanism of PX from buccal tablets follows diffusive mechanism with first order and Higuchi release kinetics. In vivo studies of optimum buccal tablet formulation carried out on human healthy volunteers showed that the relative bioavailability of PX was 67.52 ± 21.47%. These results demonstrate that buccal tablet formulation of PX seems to be an alternative drug delivery for patients especially suffering from GI disturbances

  5. The Italian contributions to the history of salicylates

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    Giampiero Pasero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the modern history of salicylates began in 1899 when the compound acetylsalicylic acid was registered and introduced commercially as “aspirin” by the Bayer Company of Germany. As a matter of fact, however, remedies made from willow bark had been used to treat fever and rheumatic complaints at least since 1763, when Edward Stone described their efficacy against malarian fever. A number of Italian scientists made significant contributions during the long period of research leading up to the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid and its widespread use in rheumatic diseases. In this paper we will review the contributions of some of these researchers, beginning with Bartolomeo Rigatelli, who in 1824 used a willow bark extract as a therapeutic agent, denominating it “salino amarissimo antifebbrile” (very bitter antipyretic salt. In the same year, Francesco Fontana described this natural compound, giving it the name “salicina” (salicin. Two other Italian chemists added considerably to current knowledge of the salicylates: Raffaele Piria in 1838, while working as a research fellow in Paris, extracted the chemical compound salicylic acid, and Cesare Bertagnini in 1855 published a detailed description of the classic adverse event associated with salicylate overdoses – tinnitus – which he studied by deliberately ingesting excessive doses himself. Bertagnini and above all Piria also played conspicuous roles in the history of Italy during the period of the Italian Risorgimento, participating as volunteers in the crucial battle of Curtatone and Montanara during the first Italian War of Independence.

  6. The incredible queen of green:Nutritive value and therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad ShoaibAmjad; Huma Qureshi; MuhammadArshad; Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari; Maria Masood

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, rightly called as the miracle tree, is the extensively grown and highly valuable species of Moringaceae family. The tree has a pantropical distribution with nativity to Indian subcontinent. Nutritionally and therapeutically, it is a highly valued plant. Vitamins, proteins, β-carotene, aminoacids and various phenolics such as β-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and zeatin with potential for nutritional and therapeutic applications are enriched in different plant parts. Different plant parts of this plant such as roots, leaves, bark, flowers, fruit of immature pods and seeds possess a number of therapeutic properties such as diuretic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antitumor, antiulcer, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activities, and are being operational in various traditional medicine system for curing different health problems. Moringa is higly beneficial in depression, malnutrition, general weakness and osteoporosis. The present review is intended to emphasize the phytochemical constitution, traditional medicinal uses along pharmacological properties with the purpose to create public awareness regarding therapeutic and nutritive potential of this multipurpose tree as well as to facilitate the pharmacists and the researchers to fill the gap by exploring novel therapeutic compounds that will, of course, be in favor of humanity.

  7. Acetaminophen injection: a review of clinical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Virginia M

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen injection is an antipyretic and analgesic agent recently marketed in the United States as Ofirmev. Five published trials directly compare acetaminophen injection to drugs available in the United States. For management of pain in adults, acetaminophen injection was at least as effective as morphine injection in renal colic, oral ibuprofen after cesarean delivery, and oral acetaminophen after coronary artery bypass surgery. In children (3 to 16 years old), single-dose acetaminophen injection was similar to meperidine intramuscular (i.m.) for pain after tonsillectomy; readiness for discharge from the recovery room was shorter with acetaminophen injection (median 15 minutes) compared with meperidine i.m. (median 25 minutes), P = .005. In children (2 to 5 years old) postoperative adenotonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, the time to rescue analgesia was superior with high-dose acetaminophen rectal suppository (median 10 hours) compared with acetaminophen injection (median 7 hours), P = .01. One published trial demonstrated acetaminophen injection is noninferior to propacetamol injection for fever related to infection in pediatric patients. Dosing adjustments are not required when switching between oral and injectable acetaminophen formulations in adult and adolescent patients. Acetaminophen injection represents another agent for multimodal pain management. PMID:21936636

  8. A novel selective prostaglandin E2 synthesis inhibitor relieves pyrexia and arthritis in Guinea pigs inflammatory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Ryusuke; Kubota, Kazufumi; Sugimoto, Kotaro; Tachida, Yuki; Shibayama, Takahiro; Kiho, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Katsuhiro; Shimada, Kohei

    2016-02-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), one of the terminal products in the cyclooxygenase pathway, plays an important role in various inflammatory responses. To determine whether selective inhibition of PGE2 may relieve these inflammatory symptoms, we synthesized a selective PGE2 synthesis inhibitor, compound A [1-(6-fluoro-5,7-dimethyl-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-N-[(1S,2R)-2-(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine-4-carboxamide], then investigated the effects on pyrexia, arthritis and inflammatory pain in guinea pigs. In LPS-stimulated guinea pig macrophages, compound A selectively inhibited inducible PGE2 biosynthesis in a dose-dependent manner whereas enhanced the formation of thromboxane B2 (TXB2). Compound A suppressed yeast-evoked PGE2 production selectively and enhanced the production of TXB2 and 6-keto PGF1αin vivo. In addition, compound A relieved yeast-induced pyrexia and also suppressed paw swelling in an adjuvant-induced arthritis model. The effect on gastrointestinal (GI) ulcer formation was also evaluated and compound A showed a lower GI adverse effect than indomethacin. However, compound A failed to relieve yeast-induced thermal hyperalgesia. These results suggest that selective inhibition of PGE2 synthesis may have anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory properties without GI side effect, but lack the analgesic efficacy. PMID:26906248

  9. Paracetamol Supplementation Does Not Alter The Antitumor Activity and Lung Toxicity of Bleomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada M. Suddek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin (BLM is well known by its antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, pulmonary fibrosis has been considered the dose limiting toxicity of the drug. Hyperpyrexia following injection of BLM was reported thus, paracetamol is sometimes administered with BLM as antipyretic drug. Actually, paracetamol was found to interfere with cytotoxicity of some drugs. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of paracetamol administration on the antitumor and lung toxicity of BLM. The antitumor activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC cells. Paracetamol did not alter the antitumor effect of BLM in vitro or in vivo. The lung toxicity of BLM was evidenced by decrease in the body weight, increase in the lung/body weight ratio, decrease in the response of pulmonary arterial rings to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and increase in the contractility of tracheal smooth muscles induced by acetylcholine (ACh. The toxicity was also confirmed biochemically by marked increases in hydroxyproline and lipid peroxidation in rat lung and the decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH level. Pretreatment with paracetamol did not significantly change lipid peroxidation, GSH level, percent survival of rats or the response of pulmonary arterial rings and tracheal smooth muscles to 5-HT and ACh respectively. The results of the present study indicated that paracetamol neither modified the antitumor effect of BLM nor changed drug-induced lung toxicity.

  10. Effect of flupirtine on the growth and viability of U373 malignant glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flupirtine is a non-opioid analgesic without antipyretic or antiphlogistic properties but with favorable tolerability in humans. This analgesic also exhibits neuroprotective activities. Furthermore, flupirtine antagonizes glutamate- and NMDA-induced intracellular levels of Ca2+ and counteracts the effects of focal cerebral ischemia. Although flupirtine has been used to relieve pain caused by different diseases and clinical procedures, information on the safety and efficacy of flupirtine is limited. The present study was conducted to investigate the neuroprotective effects of flupirtine on U373 malignant glioma (MG) cell lines. Cell viability and cell cycle analysis was performed by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Variations in the growth of U373 MG cells in 5 mM N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), 1 mM flupirtine, and combined treatment indicated the antagonistic effects of NMDA and flupirtine on MG cell lines. The variation in the percentage of gated cell population in different cell cycle phases showed significant variations after 48 h of treatment. Flupirtine has neuroprotective effect of on U373 MG cells, which limits its use in the pain management of brain tumors. This property warrants further studies using animal models and large-scale clinical trials

  11. p-Coumaric acid and its conjugates: dietary sources, pharmacokinetic properties and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Kehan; Ou, Juanying; Huang, Junqing; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-07-01

    p-Coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is a phenolic acid that has low toxicity in mice (LD50 = 2850 mg kg(-1) body weight), serves as a precursor of other phenolic compounds, and exists either in free or conjugated form in plants. Conjugates of p-coumaric acid have been extensively studied in recent years due to their bioactivities. In this review, the occurrence, bioavailability and bioaccessibility of p-coumaric acid and its conjugates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides, alkyl alcohols, organic acids, amine and lignin are discussed. Their biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antivirus, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation, anxiolytic, antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-arthritis activities, and their mitigatory effects against diabetes, obesity, hyperlipaemia and gout are compared. Cumulative evidence from multiple studies indicates that conjugation of p-coumaric acid greatly strengthens its biological activities; however, the high biological activity but low absorption of its conjugates remains a puzzle. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26692250

  12. Evaluation of Memory Enhancing Activity of Leaf Extract of Dalbergia sissoo in Mice

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    Sayanti Sau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dalbergia sissoo (family: Fabaceae is an Asian deciduous rosewood tree. It is the state tree of Punjab state (India called as Shisham used for antipyretic, emesis, ulcers, leucoderma, stomach troubles and skin disease, memory enhancer etc. The aim of this study is to evaluate the learning and memory activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of Dalbergia sissoo in mice. The animals were divided into six groups of 6 each. Group I was considered as normal control, II as Standard control (Imipramine, III, IV and V was treated group (ELDS 300, 450 and 600 mg/kg respectively and VI as scopolamine treated (negative control.The effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Dalbergia sissoo was investigated in mice for memory enhancing activity using various experimental paradigms of learning and memory viz. Transfer latency (TL on elevated plus maze and passive avoidance. For memory and learning activity vehicle/ extracts / STD drug administered daily for first seven days, on 8th day dementia was induced by scopolamine. ELDS significantly enhanced the learning and memory activities against the scopolamine induced dementia and significant decrease in Acetylcholinesterase level in brain in animals. The memory enhanced activity as evidenced by learning and retrieval was due to cholinergic facilitatory effect in animals. These results indicate a possible memory enhancing action of Dalbergia sissoo which qualitatively comparable with that of piracetam.

  13. [Treatment of acute inflammatory pathology of the upper airway with morniflumate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, C F; Livi, E; Oliani, C; Guerzoni, P; Corona, M

    1990-12-01

    Sixty patients, 33 men and 27 women (mean age about 45 years; range 25-60), affected by acute influenza syndrome of the upper airways were admitted to a controlled single-blind study with three drugs under parallel conditions. According to a balanced randomized sequence, the subjects were treated over a 7-10 day period with morniflumate sachets (700 mg bid) or with tiaprofenic acid sachets (300 mg bid) or with paracetamol (10 ml syrup equivalent to 500 mg tid). The efficacy of the test drugs was assessed by determining the local and general signs and symptoms before starting the treatments, in basal conditions, and on the 3rd, 5th and last day of treatment. At the doses and formulations used, morniflumate proved to be equivalent to paracetamol and more effective than tiaprofenic acid as for its antipyretic action in the first days of treatment. On the other hand, both morniflumate and tiaprofenic acid showed a significantly higher antiinflammatory effect compared to paracetamol. Pain was effectively and equally controlled in all the treatment groups. The drugs administered were generally well tolerated. A greater incidence of adverse GI events was reported in the group treated with tiaprofenic acid. PMID:2132289

  14. Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen syrup in small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokki, H; Le Liboux, A; Jekunen, A; Montay, G; Heikkinen, M

    2000-04-01

    Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. Its pharmacokinetics has not been determined in small children. The objective here was to determine the pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen syrup, 0.5 mg/kg, in two groups of 10 children. Group 1 was from ages 6 months up to 2 years (7/10 younger than 1 year), and Group 2 was from ages 2 to 7 years. Venous blood samples were collected before drug administration and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after. A validated HPLC method was used to determine plasma levels of ketoprofen. The lower limit of quantification was 0.02 microgram/ml of plasma. Ketoprofen syrup was absorbed rapidly, the plasma level reaching its maximum at 0.5 hours, with C0.5 hours = 3 micrograms/ml. The pharmacokinetics was similar between the two groups of children. The elimination half-life, 2.0 hours in Group 1 or 1.9 hours in Group 2, was similar to that reported in adults. PMID:10761162

  15. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Bhakta Prasad; Subedi, Lalita

    2014-12-01

    Phyllanthus emblica L. (syn. Emblica officinalis) is commonly known as Indian gooseberry. In Ayurveda, P. emblica has been extensively used, both as edible (tonic) plants and for its therapeutic potentials. P. emblica is highly nutritious and is reported as an important dietary source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids. All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, especially the fruit, which has been used in Ayurveda as a potent Rasayana (rejuvenator). P. emblica contains phytochemicals including fixed oils, phosphatides, essential oils, tannins, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids, glycosides, etc. Various pharmaceutical potential of P. emblica has been reported previously including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, adaptogenic, hepatoprotective, antitumor and antiulcerogenic activities either in combined formulation or P. emblica alone. The various other Ayurvedic potentials of P. emblica are yet to be proven scientifically in order to explore its broad spectrum of therapeutic effects. On this regards we, in this review, tried to explore the complete information of P. emblica including its pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacology. PMID:25491539

  16. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

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    Najmeh Mokhber-Dezfuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species, there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation.

  17. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of berberis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

  18. Clinicopathological changes and effect of imidocarb therapy in dogs experimentally infected with Babesia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, A; Vörös, K; Németh, T; Biksi, I; Hetyey, Cs; Manczur, F; Tekes, L

    2006-03-01

    In this study one spleen-intact dog (A) and two splenectomised dogs (BSE, CSE) were infected with Babesia canis. All animals developed an acute disease characterised by fever, haemoglobinuria and anaemia, the latter being more severe in the splenectomised dogs. Fever and parasitised red blood cells were detected for three days after imidocarb treatment in the splenectomised animals. Haematological abnormalities included regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia (due to neutropenia and lymphopenia) in the acute phase, soon followed by leukocytosis, neutrophilia and left shift a few days later. Acute hepatopathy was detected in all dogs with elevated ALT activity, which was more seriously altered in the splenectomised dogs. Diffuse changes in liver structure and hepatomegaly were seen by ultrasonography. Liver biopsy and histology revealed acute, non-purulent hepatitis in the splenectomised dogs. Both splenectomised dogs were successfully cured after collection of 400 ml highly parasitised blood, proving that large-amount antigen production is possible with rescuing the experimental animals. Whole blood transfusion, imidocarb and supportive care with infusions, antipyretics, glucocorticoids and diuretics were applied. The spleen-intact dog clinically recovered after receiving supportive treatment, with no imidocarb therapy. Microbial infections developed in both splenectomised animals (BSE: haemobartonellosis, CSE: osteomyelitis caused by Escherichia coli), probably as a consequence of immunosuppression after splenectomy and glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:16613023

  19. Acetaminophen: beyond pain and fever-relieving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiaozongWu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen, also known as APAP or paracetamol, is one of the most widely used analgesics (pain reliever and antipyretics (fever reducer. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, currently there are 235 approved prescription and over-the-counter drug products containing acetaminophen as an active ingredient. When used as directed, acetaminophen is very safe and effective; however when taken in excess or ingested with alcohol hepatotoxicity and irreversible liver damage can arise. In addition to well known use pain relief and fever reduction, recent laboratory and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that acetaminophen may also have beneficial effects on blood glucose levels, skeletal muscle function, and potential use as cardioprotective and neuroprotective agents. Extensive laboratory and pre-clinical studies have revealed that these off label applications may be derived from the ability of acetaminophen to function as an antioxidant. Herein, we will highlight these novel applications of acetaminophen, and attempt, where possible, to highlight how these findings may lead to new directions of inquiry and clinical relevance of other disorders.

  20. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

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    Raquel Kummer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus (Rutaceae includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90 μg/mL had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg also reduced TNF-α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis.

  1. Antimicrobial Properties of α-MSH and Related Synthetic Melanocortins

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    A. Catania

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural antimicrobial peptides are ancient host defense effector molecules, present in organisms across the evolutionary spectrum. Several properties of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH suggested that it could be a natural antimicrobial peptide. α-MSH is a primordial peptide that appeared during the Paleozoic era, long before adaptive immunity developed and, like natural antimicrobial molecules, is produced by barrier epithelia, immunocytes, and within the central nervous system. α-MSH was discovered to have antimicrobial activity against two representative pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The candidacidal influences of α-MSH appeared to be mediated by increases in cell cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. The cAMP-inducing capacity of α-MSH likely interferes with the yeast's own regulatory mechanisms of this essential signaling pathway. It is remarkable that this mechanism of action in yeast mimics the influences of α-MSH in mammalian cells in which the peptide binds to G-protein-linked melanocortin receptors, activates adenylyl cyclase, and increases cAMP. When considering that most of the natural antimicrobial peptides enhance the local inflammatory reaction, the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of α-MSH confer unique properties to this molecule relative to other natural antimicrobial molecules. Synthetic derivatives, chemically stable and resistant to enzymatic degradation, could form the basis for novel therapies that combine anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.

  2. Structural Elucidation of two Compounds from the Fruit of Medicinally Important Plant, Basella Rubra

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    Swarnali Nath Choudhury

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Basella rubra is a medicinal plant species found in India and other parts of Asia and tropical Africa. It improves the appetite, useful in biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers and it has antiviral and antipyretic activity. The red pigment from the fruit has good colouring ability. It is bright purple at pH 3-7. It is a good additive and a safe, non-poisonous colorant. At present, the dyestuff industry has grown rapidly because of the vital role played by small – scale sector, which is responsible for the production of azo, acids, basics and direct dyes. But such synthetic dyes have toxic effect and hence may not be useful in edible substances. Therefore keeping this in mind the structure of two separated compounds from the fruit pigment of medicinally important plant Besella rubra were elucidated. The structures of the compounds have been characterized on the basis of spectral data such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectral studies.

  3. COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ETHANOBOTANICAL USES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MELIA AZEDARACH LINN.

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    SABIRA SULTANA, HAFIZ MUHAMMAD ASIF, NAVEED AKHTAR, MUHAMMAD WAQAS, SAIF UR REHMAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants, since times immemorial, have been used in virtually all cultures for therapeutic purposes. The widespread use of herbal remedies and healthcare preparations obtained from commonly used traditional herbs and medicinal plants have been traced to the occurrence of natural products with medicinal properties. In the present review, an attempt has been made to collect the botanical, phytochemical, ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and toxicological information on Melia azedarach L. which is used traditionally as an anthelmintic, diuretic, emmenagouge, expectorant, vermifuge, used in piles, used as astringent, used in hysteria, leprosy, and in scrofula. Medicinally it has been shown to possess various pharmacological activities like antifungal, anti-malarial, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-fertility, anthelmintic, antipyretic and cytotoxic activities. The available literature on the M. azedarach L. revealed that this plant contains many phytochemical constituents including alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and rutins. The aim of this article is to review those medicinal and pharmacological properties of M. azedarach which have been or still are being learned. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological properties.

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

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    M. S. T. Barroso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20 MPa at 323.15 K. The volatile compounds were obtained by CO2 supercritical extraction with moderate pressure (9 MPa, whereas the non-volatile compounds were extracted at higher pressure (12 to 20 MPa. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC-MS and the main compounds identified were sabinene, limonene, D-germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, and spathulenol. For the non-volatile extracts, the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Moreover, one of the goals of this study was to compare the experimental data with the simulated yields predicted by a mathematical model based on mass transfer. The model used requires three adjustable parameters to predict the experimental extraction yield curves.

  5. Formulation Development of Mouth Dissolving Film of Etoricoxib for Pain Management

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    K. Senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Etoricoxib is a potent, orally active, and highly selective COX-2 inhibitor that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. The present research was undertaken to develop mouth dissolving films of etoricoxib to have rapid onset of action. Mouth dissolving film (MDF is a better alternate to oral disintegrating tablets due to its novelty, ease of use, and the consequent patient compliance. Solubility enhancement and taste masking of etoricoxib were the two challenges solved by formulating drug-inclusion complex with beta-cyclodextrin (BCD. MDF prepared by solvent casting etoricoxib-BCD complex along with HPMC as film forming polymer was found to possess desirable physicomechanical properties. In vitro release of etoricoxib from MDF in simulated salivary fluid and 0.1 N HCl was more than 95% within 2 minutes. Taste masking and in vivo disintegration were in acceptable range as assessed by human volunteers. Etoricoxib MDF was further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The index of analgesia shown by etoricoxib MDF was comparable to that of immediate release tablets (100% activity within 40 minutes in animal studies. Conclusively, the present study documents the development of a commercially viable formula for an MDF of etoricoxib with rapidity in pain management.

  6. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root

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    Pravaree Phuneerub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS to evaluate nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, and PGE 2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root.

  7. Effect of acetaminophen on fetal acid-base balance in chorioamnionitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshon, B; Moise, K J; Wasserstrum, N

    1989-12-01

    The effect of antipyretic treatment with acetaminophen on fetal status was examined in eight laboring women febrile with chorioamnionitis. After a fetal heart rate tracing and scalp blood gas level were obtained near maximum maternal fever, a 650-mg acetaminophen suppository was administered. If the temperature remained greater than 101 degrees F, the dose was repeated in one to two hours. The fetal heart rate tracing was analyzed again after the mother's fever was reduced by acetaminophen. All patients delivered within four hours of the first dose. Umbilical artery blood gases were obtained at delivery. Significant improvements in the bicarbonate concentration and base deficit were noted at the time of delivery as compared to the scalp gas at the height of the maternal fever. The fetal heart rate tracings at the height of the maternal fever, characterized by tachycardia, poor variability and late decelerations, changed to a normal heart rate pattern without decelerations when the mother's fever was reduced. Hence, in the laboring gravida with chorioamnionitis, reducing maternal fever with acetaminophen improves fetal status and thereby may reduce the probability of cesarean section for fetal distress. PMID:2621737

  8. Adverse respiratory reactions to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ronald A

    2004-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is an adult-onset condition that manifests as asthma, rhinosinusitis/nasal polyps, and sensitivity to aspirin and other cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)-inhibitor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). There is no cross-sensitivity to highly selective COX-2 inhibitors. AERD is chronic and does not improve with avoidance of COX-1 inhibitors. The diagnosis of AERD is made through provocative challenge testing. Following a positive aspirin challenge, patients can be desensitized to aspirin and NSAIDs. The desensitized state can be maintained indefinitely with continued daily administration. After desensitization, there is an approximately 48-hour refractory period to adverse effects from aspirin. The pathogenesis of AERD remains unknown, but these patients have been shown to have multiple abnormalities in arachidonic acid metabolism and in cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptors. AERD patients can take up to 650 mg of acetaminophen for analgesic or antipyretic relief. Patients can also use weak COX-1 inhibitors, such as sodium salicylate or choline magnesium trisalicylate. Treatment of AERD patients with antileukotriene medications has been helpful but not preferential when compared with non-AERD patients. An alternative treatment for many AERD patients is aspirin desensitization. This is particularly effective in reducing upper-airway mucosal congestion, nasal polyp formation, and systemic steroids. PMID:14680616

  9. Acute diarrhea in children

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    Radlović Nedeljko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea (AD is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child’s treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD.

  10. Characterization of inflammatory response induced by Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Louise F; Prezotto-Neto, José P; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Jared, Simone Gs; Santoro, Marcelo L; Barbaro, Katia C

    2014-05-01

    Freshwater stingray accidents cause intense pain followed by edema, erythema, and necrosis formation. Treatment for stingray envenomation is based on administration of analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory drugs. This report evaluated the local inflammatory reaction-including edema formation, leukocyte recruitment, release of inflammatory mediators, and histopathological changes-after the intraplantar injection of Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom in mice. Edema was observed as soon as 15 min after venom injection, peaking at 30 min, and lasted up to 48 h. In addition, P. motoro venom increased neutrophil counts in the site of injection, at all time periods and venom doses analyzed. Increased eosinophil and lymphocyte counts were detected mainly at 24 h. Moreover, monocytes/macrophages were observed in large amounts at 24 and 48 h. Microscopically, the venom induced leukocyte migration to the injured tissue, edema, mast cell degranulation, angiogenesis, and epidermal damage. Inflammatory mediator release (IL-6, MCP-1 and KC) was detected as soon as 1 h after venom injection, and it increased significantly at 4 h. At 24 h, the venom induced only the production of MCP-1. These results show that this stingray venom evokes a complex inflammatory reaction, with rapid and persistent edema formation, leukocyte recruitment, and release of cytokines and chemokines. PMID:24668554

  11. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL & PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS LEAVES

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    Hiremath G. Urmila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physicochemical and phytochemical detail about the plant Amaranthus caudatus. The physicochemical results obtained can be used for the identification of the powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening different type of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. The results revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, proteins, amino acids, tannins, and phenolic compounds in the plant. Amaranthus caudatus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae .The Amaranthus plants are spread throughout the world, growing under a wide range of climatic conditions and they are able to produce grains and leaves edible vegetables. Traditionally it has been used nutritionally for infants, children, pregnant and lactating woman, as it is comparable to the properties of milk; it was also used in countering heavy menstrual bleeding and vaginal discharge. It helps control dysentery and diarrhea. The roots were used to cure kidney stones, leaves used to cure cuts, leprosy, boils, burns, fever and decoction of the stem used in jaundice. The plant has cooling effect, laxative, diuretic, stomachic and antipyretic, anti-diarrheal, anti-hemorrhagic. The leaves, roots, bark, stem, seeds have medicinal value.

  12. Say No to Indiscriminate usage of NSAIDs

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    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Say No to Indiscriminate usage of NSAIDsIt will be our tradition to start every issue with a topic which demands attention of peopleespecially pharma professionals and of course the researchers. NSAIDs are proved to be verybeneficial as analgesic, antipyretic and anti inflammatory agents. Their usage is becoming moreand more as they are available as OTC drugs. Its worth to remember that they too possessesnumber of side effects, including GI side effects, Nephropathy, liver failure and prolongedbleeding after an injury or surgery. It is now reported NSAIDs causes dementia and showsnegative effect on protein synthesis. Their cardiovascular risk was in the head lines for severalmonths. One more fact is that no NSAID should be taken for more than 10 days, unless a doctorhas prescribed otherwise. Unnecessary and indiscriminate usage of NSAIDS increasingalarmingly (Green, 2001 and should be taken care of. They often take along with prescriptiondrugs and there are several incidences of drug interactions. For example concomitant usage ofanticoagulants or oral glucocorticoids should be avoided. (Ibuprofen, Clinical Pharmacologywww.clinicalpharmacology.com. So, indiscriminate usage of NSAIDs should be regulated.

  13. chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhay; Kumar; Pandey; Pooja; Singh; Nijendra; Nath; Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance.The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz.,Ocimum basilicum Linn.(alt.Ocimum basilicum var.minimum,Ocimum basilicum var.purpurience).Ocimum campechianum Mill.,Ocimum canum Sims.(Ocimum americanum),Ocimum citriodorum,Ocimum gratissimum Linn.,Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn..Ocimum micranthum Willd.,Ocimum sanctum Linn.,(alt.Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn.),Ocimum selloi Benth..Ocimum trichodon,Ocimum utricifolium from different geographical regions.A considerable difference in chemical composition of a particular species is found,which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic zones and changes in edaphic factors.Attention is also focused on the biological properties of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial,antioxidant,repellent,insecticidal,larvieidal,nematicidal and therapeutic(anti-inflammatory,antinociceptive,antipyretic,antiulcer,analgesic,anthelmintic,anticarcinogenic,skin permeation enhancer,immunomodulatory,cardio-protective,antilipidemic) agents.

  14. Empyema associated with community-acquired pneumonia: A Pediatric Investigator's Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC study

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    Le Saux Nicole

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the incidence of serious morbidity with childhood pneumonia has decreased over time, empyema as a complication of community-acquired pneumonia continues to be an important clinical problem. We reviewed the epidemiology and clinical management of empyema at 8 pediatric hospitals in a period before the widespread implementation of universal infant heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada. Methods Health records for children Results 251 children met inclusion criteria; 51.4% were male. Most children were previously healthy and those ≤ 5 years of age comprised 57% of the cases. The median length of hospitalization was 9 days. Admissions occurred in all months but peaked in winter. Oxygen supplementation was required in 77% of children, 75% had chest tube placement and 33% were admitted to an intensive care unit. While similarity in use of pain medication, antipyretics and antimicrobial use was observed, a wide variation in number of chest radiographs and invasive procedures (thoracentesis, placement of chest tubes was observed between centers. The most common organism found in normally sterile samples (blood, pleural fluid, lung biopsy was Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusion Empyema occurs most commonly in children under five years and is associated with considerable morbidity. Variation in management by center was observed. Enhanced surveillance using molecular methods could improve diagnosis and public health planning, particularly with regard to the relationship between immunization programs and the epidemiology of empyema associated with community-acquired pneumonia in children.

  15. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities from Actinidia callosa var. callosa In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Jung-Chun Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinidia callosa var. callosa has been widely used to treat antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammation, abdominal pain, and fever in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages and pawedema induced by λ-carrageenan activities of the methanol extract from A. callosa. In HPLC analysis, the fingerprint chromatogram of ethyl-acetate fraction of A. callosa (EAAC was established. EAAC showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. We evaluated that EAAC and the reference compound of catechin and caffeic acid decreased the LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of male ICR mice with EAAC significantly inhibited the numbers of acetic acid-induced writhing response and the formalin-induced pain in the late phase. Administration of EAAC showed a concentration-dependent inhibition on paw edema development after Carr treatment in mice. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of EAAC might be correlated to the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 in vitro and in vivo. Overall, the results showed that EAAC demonstrated antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activity, which supports previous claims of the traditional use for inflammation and pain.

  16. 中药栀子有效成分及药理作用的研究进展%Research Progress in Effective Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Gardenia Jasminoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亭

    2015-01-01

    中药栀子为茜草科植物栀子的干燥成熟果实,其主要有效成分包括环烯醚萜、栀子黄色素、有机酸等. 现代药理研究表明栀子具有抗炎、解热、镇痛、保肝、利胆、降血脂、抗血栓、神经保护、抗阿尔茨海默病等作用. 本文综述了栀子的有效成分及药理作用,为其深入研究提供参考.%Traditional Chinese medicine"Zhizi" is the dry ripe fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, which belongs to the family of Rubiaceae. The main effective constituents of gardenia include iridoid, gardenia yellow pigment and organic acid. Modern pharmaco-logical studies showed that the main pharmacological effects of gardenia included anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects, liver protection, cholagogue, antilipidemic effect, antithrombus, nerve protection and anti-Alzheimer' s disease. In this paper, the ef-fective constituents and pharmacological effects of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis were reviewed to provide available information for further research.

  17. Mononucleosis and Epstein–Barr virus infection: treatment and medication

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    Valachis A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antonis Valachis2, Diamantis P Kofteridis11Departments of Internal Medicine-Infectious Disease Unit, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece; 2Department of Oncology, Mälarsjukhuset, Eskilstuna, SwedenAbstract: Epstein–Barr virus is a member of the human herpes virus family. Primary infection is usually asymptomatic in childhood; in adolescents and young adults, however, it leads to infectious mononucleosis with symptoms including fever, fatigue, and sore throat that can persist for months. The disease is usually self-limited and resolves over a period of weeks or months but may occasionally be complicated by a wide variety of complications. Symptomatic treatment, the cornerstone of therapy, includes adequate hydration, analgesics, antipyretics, and limitations of contact sports and activities. The role of antiviral treatment and corticosteroids is debatable and not recommended in general, while the development of vaccination is under investigation. This review concentrates on the diagnosis, the potential complications, and the therapeutic strategies in patients with infectious mononucleosis.Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus, infectious mononucleosis, EBV

  18. Extract of Sesbania grandiflora Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in High Fat Diet-Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Ghanshyam; Panda, Chhayakanta; Patra, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sesbania grandiflora has been traditionally used as antidiabetic, antioxidant, antipyretic, and expectorant and in the management of various ailments. Materials and Methods. The study evaluates the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Sesbania grandiflora (MESG) in type 2 diabetic rats induced by low dose streptozotocine and high fat diet. Diabetic rats were given vehicle, MESG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.), and the standard drug, metformin (10 mg/kg), for 28 days. During the experimental period, body weight, abdominal girth, food intake, fasting serum glucose, urine analyses were measured. Insulin tolerance test was carried out on 25th day of drug treatment period. Serum analyses for lipid profile and SGOT and SGPT and serums creatinine, urea, protein, SOD, and MDA were also carried out. At the end of the experiment, animals were euthanized, the liver and pancreas were immediately dissected out, and the ratio of pancreas to body weight and hepatic glycogen were calculated. Results. MESG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) induced significant reduction (P rats and also restored other parameters to normal level. Conclusion. Therefore, it is concluded that MESG has potential antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipemic activities and alleviate insulin resistance conditions. PMID:27313954

  19. Simple UV spectrophotometric assay of Mefenamic acid

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    Dr. Safila Naveed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mefenamic acid belongs to non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID.. It is being used widely for the treatment of analgesia. It is also used as antirheumatic and antipyretic drug. Our aim of study is to develop a efficient least time consuming and simple spectrophotometric method for the assay of mefenamic acid. Comparision of assay of three different brands of mefenamic acid (mefnac,ponstan,dolar available in public medical store of Karachi, Pakistan has also been done. The assay is based on the ultraviolet UV absorbance maxima at about 288nm wavelength of mefenamic acid, water is used as solvent. A sample of drug was dissolved in water to produce a solution containing mefenamic acid. Similarly, a sample of ground tablets of different brand were dissolved in water and various dilutions were made. The absorbance of sample preparation was measured at 288nm against the solvent blank and the assay was determined by comparing with the absorbance of available brand. Our results reveals that among all the three brands of mefenamic acid (mefnac,ponstan,dolar rosulin and rovista shows highest percentage assay 107.5%. xplended and rosubar shows percent assay of 106.25% and 103.75% while rovactor shows lowest value for percentage assay 98.75%.

  20. Role of nicotinamide (vitamin B3) in acetaminophen-induced changes in rat liver: Nicotinamide effect in acetaminophen-damged liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Yomna I; Mahmoud, Asmaa A

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic agent, which is safe at therapeutic doses. However, overdoses of acetaminophen induce severe oxidative stress, which leads to acute liver failure. Nicotinamide has proven effective in ameliorating many pathological conditions that occur due to oxidative stress. This study verifies the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of nicotinamide against the hepatic pathophysiological and ultrastructural alterations induced by acetaminophen. Wistar rats intoxicated with an acute overdose of acetaminophen (5g/kg b.wt) were given a single dose of nicotinamide (500mg/kg b.wt) either before or after intoxication. Acetaminophen caused significant elevation in the liver functions and lipid peroxidation marker, and decline in the activities of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes. This oxidative injury was associated with hepatic centrilobular necrosis, hemorrage, vacuolar degeneration, lipid accumulation and mitochondrial alterations. Treating intoxicated rats with nicotinamide (500mg/kg) significantly ameliorated acetaminophen-induced biochemical changes and pathological injuries. However, administering the same dose of nicotinamide to healthy animals or prior to acetaminophen-intoxication induced hepatotoxicity. Caution should be taken when administering high doses of NAM because of its possible hepatotoxicity. Considering the wide use of nicotinamide, there is an important need for monitoring nicotinamide tolerance, safety and efficacy in healthy and diseased subjects. PMID:27211843

  1. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

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    Bruno da Cruz Pádua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetaminophen (APAP is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose.

  2. Ninety-Day Subchronic Oral Toxicity Study of Senecio scandens Extract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Kun; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Ting; Yi, Yan; Li, Chun-Ying; Wang, Hong-Jie; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Ye, Zu-Guang; Liang, Ai-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the safety/toxicity of Senecio scandens, a well-known Chinese herb that is used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiosis, and antipyretic drug. A 90-d subchronic oral toxicity study of S. scandens was performed in Wistar rats. The extract of S. scandens was administered orally to male and female rats at a single dose of 225, 450, and 900 mg/kg/d. There was no obvious toxicity. Certain changes in hematology and coagulation parameters (red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count (PLT), monocyte percentage (Mo%), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT)) were observed in some administration groups. In regards to the blood biochemical parameters, the levels of creatinine (CRN), potassium, and chloride were increased in a number of the treated rats. There were no significant changes in other hematology, coagulation, or biochemical parameters in rats orally administered S. scandens. S. scandens has a slight effect on rat coagulation and metabolism systems. The herb was safe at all doses tested, but caution should be taken when administering S. scandens at higher doses. PMID:26195160

  3. Clinical implications and treatment of dengue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chawla Pooja; Yadav Amrita; Chawla Viney

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a common pathogenic disease often proving fatal, more commonly affecting the tropics. Aedes mosquito is the vector for this disease, and outbreaks of dengue often cause mass damage to life.The current review is an effort to present an insight into the causes, etiology, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, major organs affected, mitigation and line of treatment of this disease with special emphasis on drugs of natural origin.The disease has a potential to spread as an endemic, often claiming several lives and thus requires concerted efforts to work out better treatment options. Traditional medicine offers an alternative solution and could be explored as a safer treatment option. Development of a successful vaccine and immunization technique largely remains a challenge and a better antiviral approach needs to be worked out to complement the supportive therapy.No single synthetic molecule has found to be wholly effective enough to offer curative control and the line of treatment mostly utilizes a combination of fluid replacement and antipyretics-analgesics like molecules to provide symptomatic relief.

  4. Proposition of real-time precise prediction model of infectious disease patients from Prescription Surveillance using the National Database of Electronic Medical Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuuki; Kawanohara, Hirokazu; Kamei, Miwako

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of common pediatric infectious diseases has been monitored officially at sentinel medical institutions in Japan. However, the numbers of affected patients are not provided. Prescription Surveillance (PS), which infers the number of patients with influenza, varicella, and gastrointestinal infections from data related to prescriptions at external pharmacies, provides estimates to the public the following morning. This study assessed the prediction ability of the incidence of common pediatric infectious diseases from PS information using the National Database of Electronic Medical Claims (NDBEMC): the number of patients prescribed neuraminidase inhibitors, anti-herpes virus drugs, antibiotic drugs, antipyretic analgesics, and multi-ingredient cold medications. The diseases include RS virus infection, pharyngoconjunctival fever, hand, foot and mouth disease, erythema infectiosum, exanthem subitum, pertussis, herpangina, influenza, varicella, and gastrointestinal infection. For comparison, we used the estimated number of patients who were prescribed neuraminidase inhibitor in PS, which had been confirmed already for precision, and provided estimates to the general public via the internet. The discrepancy rates of all considered diseases between the reported number in NDBEMC and the predicted numbers of patients from PS were less than the value in NI counts and the coefficients of determination in the estimation were from .8109 to .9825. These predictions were sufficiently precise to provide to the general public. PMID:26320387

  5. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zerumbone against Mono-Iodoacetate-Induced Arthritis

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    Ting-Yi Chien

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The fresh rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Zingiberaceae is used as a food flavoring and also serves as a folk medicine as an antipyretic and for analgesics in Taiwan. Zerumbone, a monocyclic sesquiterpene was isolated from the rhizome of Z. zerumbet and is the major active compound. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of zerumbone on arthritis were explored using in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that zerumbone inhibited inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expressions, and NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production, but induced heme oxygenase (HO-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. When zerumbone was co-treated with an HO-1 inhibitor (tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, the NO inhibitory effects of zerumbone were recovered. The above results suggest that zerumbone inhibited iNOS and COX-2 through induction of the HO-1 pathway. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13 and COX-2 expressions of interleukin (IL-1β-stimulated primary rat chondrocytes were inhibited by zerumbone. In an in vivo assay, an acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice was significantly reduced by treatment with zerumbone. Furthermore, zerumbone reduced paw edema and the pain response in a mono-iodoacetate (MIA-induced rat osteoarthritis model. Therefore, we suggest that zerumbone possesses anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects which indicate zerumbone could be a potential candidate for osteoarthritis treatment.

  6. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients. PMID:22668446

  7. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

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    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  8. The effect of filler addition and oven temperature to the antioxidant quality in the drying of Physalis angulata fruit extract obtained by subcritical water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R. F.; Christianto, G.

    2016-01-01

    Physalis angulata or ceplukan is medicinal herb, which grows naturally in Indonesia. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. It is also reported to have antimycobacterial, antileukemic, antipyretic. In this research, Pysalis angulata fruit was investigated for its antioxidant capacity. In order to avoid the toxic organic solvent commonly used in conventional extraction, subcritical water extraction method was used. During drying, filler which is inert was added to the extract. It can absorb water and change the oily and sticky form of extract to powder form. The effects of filler types, concentrations and drying temperatures were investigated to the antioxidant quality covering total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity. The results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity were improved by addition of filler because the drying time was shorter compared to extract without filler. Filler absorbs water and protects extract from exposure to heat during drying. The combination between high temperature and shorter drying time are beneficial to protect the antioxidant in extract. The type of fillers investigation showed that aerosil gave better performance compared to Microcrystalline Celullose (MCC).

  9. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

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    Garg Nitika

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glycosides, tannins, flavanoid, b-sitosterol and lupeol. The present study deals with phytochemical investigations of Bombax ceiba root including determination of loss on drying, ash values, TLC and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of powdered drug was also carried out. The qualitative chemical examinations revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents like flavanoid, terpenoid saponins, phenolic compounds and mucilage’s in the extracts. The study revealed specific identities for the particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

  10. The Effect of Polymer Content on the Non-Newtonian Behavior of Acetaminophen Suspension

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    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. The aim of the study was evaluation of the effect of different polymers on rheological behavior of acetaminophen suspension. In order to achieve controlled flocculation, sodium chloride was added. Then structural vehicles such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, tragacanth, and magnesium aluminum silicate (Veegum were evaluated individually and in combination. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume (F, redispersibility (n, and growth of crystals of the suspensions were determined. Also, the rheological properties of formulations were studied. The results of this study showed that the combination of suspending agents had the most physical stability and pseudoplastic behavior with some degree of thixotropy. Viscosity of suspensions was increased by adding NaCl 0.02%. Presence of PVP is necessary for improving rheological behavior of suspensions by NaCl. This may be related to the cross-linking between the carbonyl group in the PVP segment and Na+ ions.

  11. The chemistry, pharmacologic, and therapeutic applications of Polyalthia longifolia

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    K V Katkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are nature′s gift to human beings to lead a disease-free, healthy life. They play a vital role in preserving our health. India is one of the most medicoculturally diverse countries in the world, where the medicinal plant sector is part of a time-honored tradition that is respected even today. Medicinal plants are believed to be much safer and proved as elixir in the treatment of various ailments. In our country, more than 2000 medicinal plants are recognized. Polyalthia longifolia cv. pendula (Annonaceae is native to the drier regions of India and is locally known as "Ashoka" and is commonly cultivated in Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This plant is used as an antipyretic agent in indigenous systems of medicine. Pharmacologic studies on the bark and leaves of this plant show effective antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic function, antiulcer activity, hypoglycemic activity, and hypotensive effect. The present article includes the detailed exploration of pharmacologic properties of P. longifolia in an attempt to provide a direction for further research.

  12. Bioactive constituents from Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. and Rhus coriaria L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Marawan M.; El Sayed, Aly M.; Yousif, Miriam F.; El Sayed, Abeer M.; Sleem, Amany A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The leaf ethanol extract of Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. has evidenced medicinal value due to its hepatoprotective activity. It demonstrated inhibitory effects on test standard microbes approximated to 40% the potency of ofloxacin and fluconazole. The same extract evidenced in vitro cytotoxicity on human cell lines, liver carcinoma HEPG2, larynx carcinoma HEP2, and colon carcinoma HCT116 cell lines when compared to doxorubicin. Materials and Methods: Fractionation of the leaf ethanol extract led to the isolation of the polyphenols, ethyl gallate, and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, a hydrocarbon, hendecane, the fatty acid ester, methyl linoleate, and four triterpenoids, betulonic acid, 3-acetyl-methyl betulinate, lupenone and lupeol for the first time, in addition to the previously reported phenol acids and flavonoids, gallic acid, methyl gallate, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-galactoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside. Results: The ethanol extract of the fruit of the genetically related Rhus coriaria L., known as sumac, afforded protocatechuic acid, isoquercitrin, and myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside from the fruits for the first time, in addition to the previously reported phenol acids and flavonoids, gallic acid, methyl gallate, kaempferol, and quercetin. Conclusion: The leaf ethanol extract of H. caffrum Bernh. exhibited variable anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities, besides the hepatoprotective, in vitro cytotoxic and anti-microbial activities. PMID:22262932

  13. Escin Chemosensitizes Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Inhibits the Nuclear Factor-kappaB Signaling Pathway

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    A. Rimmon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an urgent need to develop new treatment strategies and drugs for pancreatic cancer that is highly resistant to radio-chemotherapy. Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut known in Chinese medicine as a plant with anti-inflammatory, antiedema, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is Escin (C54H84O23. Objective. To evaluate the effect of Escin alone and combined with chemotherapy on pancreatic cancer cell survival and to unravel mechanism(s of Escin anticancer activity. Methods. Cell survival was measured by XTT colorimetric assay. Synergistic effect of combined therapy was determined by CalcuSyn software. Cell cycle and induction of apoptosis were evaluated by FACS analysis. Expression of NF-κB-related proteins (p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα and cyclin D was evaluated by western blot analysis. Results. Escin decreased the survival of pancreatic cancer cells with IC50 = 10–20 M. Escin combined with gemcitabine showed only additive effect, while its combination with cisplatin resulted in a significant synergistic cytotoxic effect in Panc-1 cells. High concentrations of Escin induced apoptosis and decreased NF-κB-related proteins and cyclin D expression. Conclusions. Escin decreased pancreatic cancer cell survival, induced apoptosis, and downregulated NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, Escin sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy. Further translational research is required.

  14. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Ranking by Nondeterministic Assessments of Probabilistic Type

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    Madalina luiza MOLDOVEANU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With a number of common therapeutic prescriptions, common mechanisms, common pharmacological effects - analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory (acetaminophen excepted, common side effects (SE (platelet dysfunction, gastritis and peptic ulcers, renal insufficiency in susceptible patients, water and sodium retention, edemas, nephropathies, and only a few different characteristics – different chemical structures, pharmacokinetics and different therapeutic possibility, different selectivities according to cyclooxygenase pathway 1 and 2, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs similarities are more apparent than differences. Being known that in a correct treatment benefits would exceed risks, the question “Which anti-inflammatory drug presents the lowest risks for a patient?” is just natural. By the Global Risk Method (GRM and the Maximum Risk Method (MRM we have determined the ranking of fourteen NSAIDs considering the risks presented by each particular NSAID. Nimesulide, Etoricoxib and Celecoxib safety level came superior to the other NSAIDs, whereas Etodolac and Indomethacin present an increased side effects risk.

  15. MANFAAT Indigofera Sp. DALAM BIDANG PERTANIAN DAN INDUSTRI

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    - Suharlina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera    sp. is a leguminous plant which has varoius species, wide spread in tropical regions and adapted to a wide range of environmental condition. Indigofera sp. has many benefits in agricultural and industrial sector. It is widely used in agriculture as forage because its  high protein content, easily cultivated, high adaptability, and high biomass production (I. zollingeriana, I. hirsuta, I. pilosa, I. schimperi Syn,    I.    oblongifolia,    I.    spicata,    I. subulata Syn, and I. trita. Over the last 5 years Indigofera sp has been explored as forage feed for the goats. As cover crops, Indigofera is used to prevent erosion and nutrient leaching in the soil surface (I. hirsuta and I. Trita and it is also used as green manure, mulch, erosion control and ornamental plants (I. australis. In industrial sector, Indigofera sp. widely used as dyes and traditional medicine. Indigofera is used as a natural dye (I. tinctoria because it contains an excellent pigment called ‘indigo’ to dye silk material. Indigofera sp is also used as traditional medicine because it contains phytochemical substance which roles as antipyretic, laxative, diuretic, and useful against snakes attack, bees and insect bites. Using Indigofera    spp. as traditional medicine should be considered to avoid causing poisoning.

  16. Enhanced photoactivity of graphene/titanium dioxide nanotubes for removal of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hong; Liang, Xiao; Zhang, Qian; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen is commonly used as an antipyretic or analgesics agent and poses threat to human health. In this research, TiO2 and graphite oxide were used as precursors of titanium dioxide nanotubes and graphene respectively. Titanium dioxide nanotube and graphene (GR-TNT) nanocomposites were synthesized through a hydrothermal method. FT-IR, UV-Vis, XRD, and TGA were used to characterize the catalysts. The acetaminophen degradation rate can reach up to 96% under UV light irradiation for 3 h and with the 5% GR-TNT dosage of 0.1 g L-1. Further experiments were done to probe the mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction catalyzed by the GR-TNT composite. EDTA (hole scavengers) and t-BuOH (radical scavengers) were used to detect the main active oxidative species in the system. The results showed that the holes are the main oxidation species in the photocatalytic process. This study provides a new prospect for acetaminophen degradation by using high efficiency catalysts.

  17. Acetaminophen induces JNK/p38 signaling and activates the caspase-9-3-dependent cell death pathway in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiang, Giou-Teng; Yu, Yung-Lung; Lin, Ko-Ting; Chen, Jen-Ni; Chang, Wei-Jung; Wei, Chyou-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug. Generally, the therapeutic dose of APAP is clinically safe, however, high doses of APAP can cause acute liver and kidney injury. Therefore, the majority of previous studies have focussed on elucidating the mechanisms of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, in addition to examining ways to treat these conditions in clinical cases. However, few studies have reported APAP-induced intoxication in human stem cells. Stem cells are important in cell proliferation, differentiation and repair during human development, particularly during fetal and child development. At present, whether APAP causes cytotoxic effects in human stem cells remains to be elucidated, therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the cellular effects of APAP treatment in human stem cells. The results of the present study revealed that high-dose APAP induced more marked cytotoxic effects in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) than in renal tubular cells. In addition, increased levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38, and activation of caspase-9/-3 cascade were observed in the APAP-treated hMSCs. By contrast, antioxidants, including vitamin C reduced APAP-induced augmentations in H2O2 levels, but did not inhibit the APAP-induced cytotoxic effects in the hMSCs. These results suggested that high doses of APAP may cause serious damage towards hMSCs. PMID:26096646

  18. Paracetamol: mechanism of action, applications and safety concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwiak-Bebenista, Marta; Nowak, Jerzy Z

    2014-01-01

    Paracetamol/acetaminophen is one of the most popular and most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drugs around the world, available without a prescription, both in mono- and multi-component preparations. It is the drug of choice in patients that cannot be treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), such as people with bronchial asthma, peptic ulcer disease, hemophilia, salicylate-sensitized people, children under 12 years of age, pregnant or breastfeeding women. It is recommended as a first-line treatment of pain associated with osteoarthritis. The mechanism of action is complex and includes the effects of both the peripheral (COX inhibition), and central (COX, serotonergic descending neuronal pathway, L-arginine/NO pathway, cannabinoid system) antinociception processes and "redox" mechanism. Paracetamol is well tolerated drug and produces few side effects from the gastrointestinal tract, however, despite that, every year, has seen a steadily increasing number of registered cases of paracetamol-induced liver intoxication all over the world. Given the growing problem of the safety of acetaminophen is questioned the validity of the sale of the drug without a prescription. This work, in conjunction with the latest reports on the mechanism of action of paracetamol, trying to point out that it is not a panacea devoid of side effects, and indeed, especially when is taken regularly and in large doses (> 4 g/day), there is a risk of serious side effects. PMID:24779190

  19. Self-medication in academics of a public university in the south of Minas Gerais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martiniano MONTANARI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-medication is a common practice anywhere in the world and the study of drug use is recognized as an important indicator in identifying the major pathologies in specific populations, estimating the prevalence and enabling better understanding on how populations use therapeutic resources. Objective: The objective of the study was to verify the prevalence of self-medication among students of a public university in southern Minas Gerais and verify if the healthcare academics behave differently from the ones of humanities area. To this end, we performed a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 200 students, with 100 in the area of ​​Health Science (group 1 and 100 of the area of Humanities (group 2. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 96.9 % among students in group 1 and 82.6 % in group 2 (p = 0.002. The most commonly used classes of drugs were analgesics/antipyretics. The main responsible for the indication of the drug in group 1 was the pharmacist; and in group 2 relatives and friends (p = 0.002 Conclusion: The self-medication proved to be a frequent practice among academics, demonstrating the need to devise strategies to sensitize the academic community regarding this practice.

  20. Perceptions and practices of self-medication among medical students in coastal South India.

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    Nithin Kumar

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a common practice worldwide and the irrational use of drugs is a cause of concern. This study assessed the prevalence of self-medication among the medical students in South India. The data was analysed using SPSS version 11.5. A total of 440 students were included in the study. The prevalence of self-medication was 78.6%. A larger number of females were self-medicating (81.2% than males (75.3%. The majority of the students self-medicated because of the illness being too trivial for consultation (70.5%. Antipyretics were most commonly self-medicated by the participants (74.8%. Only 47% of the participants opined that self-medication was a part of self-care and it needs to be encouraged. 39.3% of the participants perceived that the supply of medicine without prescription by the pharmacist can prevent the growing trend of self-medication. Easy availability and accessibility to health care facilities remains the cornerstone for reducing the practice of self-medication.

  1. Acetaminophen overdose associated with double serum concentration peaks

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    Cristian Papazoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic–antipyretic medication in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose, a frequent cause of drug toxicity, has been recognized as the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis. N-Acetylcysteine is the recommended antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Despite evidence on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of hepatic injury, controversy persists about the optimal duration of the therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old male with acetaminophen overdose and opioid co-ingestion who developed a second peak in acetaminophen serum levels after completing the recommended 21-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol and when the standard criteria for monitoring drug levels was achieved. Prolongation of N-acetylcysteine infusion beyond the standard protocol, despite a significant gap in treatment, was critical for successful avoidance of hepatotoxicity. Delay in acetaminophen absorption may be associated with a second peak in serum concentration following an initial declining trend, especially in cases of concomitant ingestion of opioids. In patients with acetaminophen toxicity who co-ingest other medications that may potentially delay gastric emptying or in those with risk factors for delayed absorption of acetaminophen, we recommend close monitoring of aminotransferase enzyme levels, as well as trending acetaminophen concentrations until undetectable before discontinuing the antidote therapy.

  2. Foliar Biophenolic Antioxidant Metabolites of Alternanthera bettzickiana

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    K. Kalpana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel Nicholson (Family: Amaranthaceaeis an erect herb and an ornamental pot plant, claimed to be useful in purifying and nourishing blood, in addition to the acclaimed soft laxative, galactagogue, antipyretic and wound healing characteristics. The tender leaves and shoots are commonly consumed like vegetable or spinach and in soups, either cooked alone or mixed with other vegetables and served with a staple food like rice or ugali. From the hydrophilic extract of the fresh leaves that exhibited in vitro antioxidant/radical scavenging (ABTS•+ and FRAP assays and metal (Ferrous ion chelating capacities, six biophenolic antioxidants, viz., 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6-C-β-D-glucopyranosylapigenin, 6-C-β-D-glucopyranosylapigenin, 8-C-β-D-glucopyranosylapigenin, (E-3-(4-hydroxyphenylprop-2-enoic acid, (E-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylprop-2-enoic acid and (E-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylprop-2-enoic acid, have been isolated and characterised for the first time adopting extensive chromatographic and spectral studies.

  3. Prospective cohort study of febrile neutropenia in breast cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy: CSPOR-BC FN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Narui, Kazutaka; Kaise, Hiroshi; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Mukai, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of adjuvant chemotherapy for treating early breast cancer, febrile neutropenia management has become crucial. Guidelines for febrile neutropenia management are mostly based on a Caucasian population survey although ethnic differences are reported in terms of adverse events. We survey the current status of febrile neutropenia and risk factors in Japanese female breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens potential for febrile neutropenia. Subsequently, we plan to conduct a multicenter prospective cohort study involving 1000 patients with operable breast cancer. With the current state of oral antibiotics being routinely prescribed without hematology tests, we survey febrile neutropenia based on two different definitions, namely, true febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and Grade 4 neutropenia, and surrogate febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and oral antibiotic and antipyretic intake. The comparison of true febrile neutropenia and surrogate febrile neutropenia incidences is anticipated to provide information on the safety and feasibility of chemotherapy management without performing blood tests. PMID:27162322

  4. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zerumbone against Mono-Iodoacetate-Induced Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ting-Yi; Huang, Steven Kuan-Hua; Lee, Chia-Jung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2016-01-01

    The fresh rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Zingiberaceae) is used as a food flavoring and also serves as a folk medicine as an antipyretic and for analgesics in Taiwan. Zerumbone, a monocyclic sesquiterpene was isolated from the rhizome of Z. zerumbet and is the major active compound. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of zerumbone on arthritis were explored using in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that zerumbone inhibited inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressions, and NO and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production, but induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. When zerumbone was co-treated with an HO-1 inhibitor (tin protoporphyrin (SnPP)), the NO inhibitory effects of zerumbone were recovered. The above results suggest that zerumbone inhibited iNOS and COX-2 through induction of the HO-1 pathway. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and COX-2 expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated primary rat chondrocytes were inhibited by zerumbone. In an in vivo assay, an acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice was significantly reduced by treatment with zerumbone. Furthermore, zerumbone reduced paw edema and the pain response in a mono-iodoacetate (MIA)-induced rat osteoarthritis model. Therefore, we suggest that zerumbone possesses anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects which indicate zerumbone could be a potential candidate for osteoarthritis treatment. PMID:26901193

  5. THE NATURE'S GIFT TO MANKIND: NEEM

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    Upma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is popularly known as the miracle tree. It is known as ‘Nimba’ in India. The Sanskrit name of neem is ‘Arishtha’ meaning the reliever of the sickness. Neem also holds medicinal value. Each and every part of neem is used in the medicines. It has been used in Ayurvedic medicines for more than 4000 years. Its important phytoconstituents are nimbin, nimbinene acetylnimbinase, nimbandial, nimbolide and quercentin. Medicinal uses are purgative, antihemorrhoidal, antihelminthic, antileprotic and antipoisonous in nature. Neem bark is cool, astringent, acrid and refrigerant. It is useful in tiredness, cough, fever, loss of appetite, worm infestation. Nimibidin present in used as antipyretic and non-irritant, and it has found to be effective in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, furunculosis, arsenical dermatitis, burn ulcers, herpes labialis, scabies and seborrheic dermatitis. Nimbidin and sodium nimbidmate contained in bark are reported to possess spermicidal and anti-inflammatory activity. So it is a tree that has a long history of use by humans. It is said to have medicinal, cosmetic and insecticidal potential.

  6. Parental fever phobia and its correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, M S; Naimark, L; Leduc, D G

    1985-06-01

    Parents of 202 young febrile children were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and fears concerning fever and its treatment. Forty-eight percent of the parents considered temperatures less than 38.0 degrees C to be "fevers", 43% felt that temperatures less than 40.0 degrees C could be dangerous to a child, 21% favored treatment for fevers less than 38.0 degrees C, and 15% believed that, left untreated, temperature could rise to 42.0 degrees C or higher. Fifty-three percent advocated waking a febrile child at night to administer antipyretic therapy. Young age of the child was associated with a preference for use of acetaminophen over aspirin and, unexpectedly, with a higher parental threshold for consideration of fever. The higher their child's temperature at the time they were questioned, the higher the minimum temperature that parents considered a cause for concern. Surprisingly, higher socioeconomic status was not associated with a lesser degree of fever phobia. In fact, parents of higher socioeconomic status were more concerned about the risks of brain damage or seizures as sequelae of fever than were parents of lower socioeconomic status. It is concluded that undue fear and overly aggressive treatment of fever are epidemic among parents of infants and young children, even among the highly educated and well-to-do. Considerable effort will be required on the part of pediatricians and other child health workers to reeducate these parents about the definition, consequences, and appropriate treatment of fever. PMID:4000786

  7. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and iron (II-dependent DNA damage by extracts of Pothomorphe peltata (L. Miq

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    Desmarchelier C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Pothomorphe peltata (L. Miq. (Piperaceae are used locally as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and diuretic infusions and to treat external ulcers and local infections in several parts of the Peruvian, Bolivian and Brazilian Amazon region. The antioxidant activity of different extracts of P. peltata was studied using the hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence assay in liver homogenates, and the methanolic extract was found to have the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 = 4 µg/ml. Aqueous and dichloromethane extracts did not show antioxidant activity. The extracts were further evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS assay. Finally, an assay of DNA sugar damage induced by Fe (II salt was used to determine the capacity of the extracts to suppress the oxidative degradation of DNA. All the extracts showed antioxidant activity in the latter two bioassays. The methanolic extract showed the highest activity in reducing oxidative damage to DNA, with an IC50 = 5 µg/ml. Since this extract was highly effective in reducing chemiluminescence and DNA damage, and because the latter activity could be due to the presence of compounds that bind to DNA, DNA-binding activity was studied using the DNA-methyl green (DNA-MG bioassay. A 30% decrease in the initial absorbance of DNA-MG complex was observed in the methanolic extract at 1000 µg/ml, suggesting the presence of compounds that bind to genetic material. No DNA-binding activity was observed in the aqueous or dichloromethane extracts

  8. Apoptotic induction activity of Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. extracts on human lung and cervical cancer cell lines

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    Pintusorn Hansakul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. (Yaa paak khwaai and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. (Yaa teen-ka have long been used in traditional Thai medicine because of their diuretic, anti-inflamatory, and antipyretic effects. The present study examined the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of the hexane and butanolic extracts of these two grass species. All the grass extracts exhibited selective growth inhibition effect on human lung cancer (A549 and cervical cancer (HeLa cells relative to normal human lung MRC-5 fibroblasts with IC50 values in a range of 202 to 845 mg/ml. Apparently, HeLa cellswere more sensitive to the extracts than A549 cells. Moreover, all the extracts induced lethality in both cancer cell lines atconcentrations close to 1,000 mg/ml, indicating their selective cytotoxicity effects. ELISA assay showed that only the hexaneextract of D. aegyptium (L. P.B. and E. indica (L. Gaerth. significantly increased the apoptotic level in extract-treatedA549 cells. However, DNA ladder assay detected classic DNA ladder patterns, a characteristic feature of apoptosis, in both cancer cell lines treated with all the extracts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicatethat the cytotoxic activity of the grass extracts against lung and cervical cancer cells is mediated through the induction ofapoptosis.

  9. NSAIDs, Mitochondria and Calcium Signaling: Special Focus on Aspirin/Salicylates

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    Yoshihiro Suzuki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid is a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID that has long been used as an anti-pyretic and analgesic drug. Recently, much attention has been paid to the chemopreventive and apoptosis-inducing effects of NSAIDs in cancer cells. These effects have been thought to be primarily attributed to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis. However, recent studies have demonstrated unequivocally that certain NSAIDs, including aspirin and its metabolite salicylic acid, exert their anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects independently of cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. It is becoming increasingly evident that two potential common targets of NSAIDs are mitochondria and the Ca2+ signaling pathway. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding the roles of mitochondria and Ca2+ in the apoptosis-inducing effects as well as some side effects of aspirin, salicylates and other NSAIDs, and introducing the emerging role of L-type Ca2+ channels, a new Ca2+ entry pathway in non-excitable cells that is up-regulated in human cancer cells.

  10. Anatomical characters of the medicinal leaf and stem of Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae

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    Márcia do Rocio Duarte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae, better known by its former name Vernonia amygdalina Delile, is a small shrub used in folk medicine as an antipyretic, laxative, antimalarial and anthelmintic. Studies have demonstrated that different vegetal extracts possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Among the bioactive metabolites, there are sesquiterpene lactones, saponins, polyphenols and flavonoids. This study investigated the leaf and stem microscopic characters of G. amygdalinum, aiming to expand the knowledge on this medicinal species and indicate anatomical structures. Plant material was fixed and sectioned by freehand and using a microtome. The sections were either stained or underwent standard histochemical tests. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to investigate epidermal relief. The leaf is amphistomatic with anomocytic stomata. There are striate cuticle, glandular and non-glandular trichomes and dorsiventral mesophyll. In transverse section, the midrib and the petiole have a plano-convex shape. Both show several collateral vascular bundles and few crystals of calcium oxalate. In the stem, the epidermis persists and the phellogen has a peripheral origin. It presents typical endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps adjoining the phloem. The aspects that contribute to characterizing the species are stomata on both leaf surfaces, midrib and petiole features, the endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps in the stem, as well as the different types of trichome on both aerial organs.

  11. Study of the radioprotective efficiency of combined administration of natural antioxidants and a sulfhydryl compound in feverish irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present experiments, a study of the radioprotective effects of natural antioxidants, rutin alone, vitamine E alone or each of them combined with synthetic radioprotector, cysteine have been investigated in irradiated and feverish irradiated rats. Furthermore, the oxidative stress bio markers and certain liver function tests of the irradiated and the feverish whole body irradiated rats were examined. Two main sets of animals were used: The 1st set was constructed in order to study the effect of irradiation, while the second set was used to study the effect of irradiation on feverish rats. The effect of irradiation was evaluated by exposing the whole body of rats to gamma radiation at acute single dose level of 6.5 Gy. Rutin was orally daily administered for two weeks before irradiation in a dose of 1.064 mmol/kg , vitamine E was injected intraperitoneally daily for seven days before irradiation in a dose of 50 mg/100 g. While, cysteine was intraperitoneally administered only 30 min. before irradiation in a dose of 30 mg/kg. In order to determine the antipyretic effect of the drugs, body temperature of each animal was measured before induction of hyperthermia as well as 18 hours following yeast injection. Rats were treated with the tested drugs before induction of fever then exposed to whole body gamma radiation at acute single dose level of 6.5 Gy and body temperature of each animal was measured 3 days after irradiation

  12. Cyclooxygenases in the skin: pharmacological and toxicological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclooxygenase (COX), a prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins are lipid signaling mediators that play a central role in a broad range of diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, reproduction, nocioception, and gastrointestinal protection. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity is the mechanism by which nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) exert their analgesic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, and antithrombotic effects. COX is currently believed to exist in three isoforms. In this review, we provide a concise state-of-the-art description of the role of COX in pharmacology and toxicology of skin including its involvement in normal physiology, cutaneous inflammation, nociception, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. COX-dependent pathways influence keratinocyte differentiation, hair follicle development, and hair growth. The critical role of COX-2 in pathophysiology of skin is also addressed. COX-2 mediates inflammatory processes in skin, including inflammatory hyperalgesia and nociception, and administration of specific COX-2 inhibitors reduces edema, vascular permeability, and other markers of cutaneous inflammation. A number of studies in animal models and in humans show that COX-2 inhibitors possess cancer chemopreventive properties. Selective COX-2 inhibitors have a more favorable side-effect profile. Topical formulations of COX-2 inhibitors are being developed as a novel pharmacologic approach for the treatment of COX-2 mediated skin diseases

  13. Amelioration of aspirin induced oxidative impairment and apoptotic cell death by a novel antioxidant protein molecule isolated from the herb Phyllanthus niruri.

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    Sudip Bhattacharyya

    Full Text Available Aspirin has been used for a long time as an analgesic and anti-pyretic drug. Limitations of its use, however, remain for the gastro-intestinal side effects and erosions. Although the role of aspirin on gastro-intestinal injury has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying aspirin-induced liver and spleen pathophysiology are poorly defined. The present study has been conducted to investigate whether phyllanthus niruri protein (PNP possesses any protective role against aspirin mediated liver and spleen tissue toxicity, and if so, what signaling pathways it utilizes to convey its protective action. Aspirin administration in mice enhanced serum marker (ALP levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, reduced antioxidant power and altered oxidative stress related biochemical parameters in liver and spleen tissues. Moreover, we observed that aspirin intoxication activated both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, as well as down regulated NF-κB activation and the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK MAPKs. Histological assessments and TUNEL assay also supported that aspirin induced tissue damages are apoptotic in nature. PNP treatment after aspirin exposure effectively neutralizes all these abnormalities via the activation of survival PI3k/Akt pathways. Combining all results suggest that PNP could be a potential protective agent to protect liver and spleen from the detrimental effects of aspirin.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives

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    Asma Agrebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several new pyrazolopyrimidine compounds were achieved from aminocyanopyarazole 1. The starting material 1 was initially coupled with orthoester at refluxed with various primary amines, ammonia, hydrazines and hydroxylamine to furnish a series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines. The reaction of imidate 2a-b with hydrazide derivatives led to the formation of pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]pyrimidines. Some of the synthesized compounds 3a and 4c were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and nociceptive activities. We start by studing the toxicity of these two molecules by measuring the corresponding DL50. The DL50 of 3a and 4c are estimated to 1333.2mg / kg and 1593.5mg / kg respectively. Pharmacological evaluation showed that compounds 3a and 4c at doses (5.5-22.2 mg / Kg, i.p exhibited anti-inflammatory activities compared to Ibuprofen (150 mg / Kg, i.p, used as a refer ence drug. Further, our study showed that the injection of derived pyrazolopyrimidines on hyperthermic animal leads to a decrease in temperature after 1 hours of treatment compared to paracetamol used as reference. In addition, the injection of derived pyrazolopyrimidines at different doses contains a potent nociceptive activity. This effect is dose-dependent compared to aspirin.

  15. Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link Essential Oil from India: β-Caryophyllene and 1-Octen-3-ol Chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2016-03-01

    Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link (Lamiaceae) is an annual, branched herb used in traditional medicine as an antipyretic and insecticide. The hydro-distilled essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts of L. aspera growing wild in North West Karnataka region of India and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Forty-three compounds were identified, representing 98.1% of the total oil. The main constituents were identified as β-caryophyllene (34.2%), 1-octen-3-ol (14.8%), α-humulene (6.3%), α-pinene (5.8%), epi-α-bisabolol (4.6%) and limonene (4.5%). The oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (47.7%), followed by others (long chain hydrocarbons (LCH), oxygenated LCH and phenyl derivative constituents) (20.2%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (14.8%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (14.8%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (0.6%) type compounds. PMID:26620424

  16. Curative Effect Observation of Bezoar Sedative Pill on Preventing and Treating Pediatric Febrile Convulsion%牛黄清心丸防治小儿热性惊厥疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of the therapy of Bezoar Sedative Pill on children with febrile convulsion.Methods:60 children with febrile convulsion participated in the study.30 cases were randomly assigned into therapy group (Bezoar Sedative Pill add conventional therapy) and 30 cases were in controlled group (conventional therapy).All patients were followed up for one year after discharge.During follow up,children in treatment group were given oral antipyretics add Bezoar Sedative Pill when they got fever again; while children in controlled group were given oral antipyretics alone when they got fever.Then the time of continued fever during hospital and the cases of recurrent febrile convulsion within one year after discharge were compared between the two groups.Results:The time of continued fever of patients in therapy group during hospital was significantly shorter than those in controlled group (P<0.05),and the cases of recurrent febrile convulsion in therapy group within one year after discharge was significantly less than recurrent cases in controlled group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Bezoar Sedative Pill can shorten the time of continued fever during hospital and decreases the cases of recurrent febrile convulsion within one year after discharge.%目的:观察牛黄清心丸辅助治疗小儿热性惊厥的疗效.方法:选取热性惊厥患儿60例,随机分为牛黄清心丸治疗组和对照组各30例,两组均给予常规治疗,治疗组加用口服牛黄清心丸(3g/天,3~5天).出院后所有患儿随访1年.随访期间患儿如再次出现发热,治疗组予口服退热药加牛黄清心丸(3g/天,3~5天),对照组仅口服退热药.比较两组住院期间发热持续时间、出院后1年内各组热性惊厥复发病例数.结果:治疗组患儿住院期间发热持续时间较对照组缩短,两组间比较有统计学意义(P<0.05);随访1年期间,治疗组热性惊厥复发例数低于对照组,两组

  17. Automedicação em idosos na cidade de Salgueiro-PE Self-medication in the elderly of the city of Salgueiro, State of Pernambuco

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    Mirivaldo Barros e Sá

    2007-03-01

    /355 60-70-year olds, 69.8% (247/355 of which were female, 53.1% (188/355 illiterate, 40.7% (145/355 without having finished high school, and 77.7% (276/355 retired. In the group that used medicines without medical prescription, the drugs used most often were analgesics (30% and antipyretics (29%. Of the reasons presented to justify the use of self-prescribed medicines, pain was the most frequent one (38.3%, followed by fever (24.4%, diarrhea (8.0%, hypertension (8.0% and cough (5.2%. There was association between the lack of exercise and self-medication (x² =14.44 p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: there is a high prevalence of self-medication in this group; analgesics and antipyretics are the drugs used most often; pain is the symptom that most leads to self-medication; and sedentary individuals use more self-medication than those who exercise.

  18. Correlative Studies on Chemistry and Pharmacodynamics Estimation of Quality of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees%穿心莲药材质量的化学和药效学评价相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 吴瑕; 杨薇; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    目的:为中药质量药理学评价方法体系的建立提供正面依据.方法:采用高效液相检测五个批次穿心莲药材中穿心莲内酯和脱水穿心莲内酯的含量;采用二甲苯所致小鼠耳肿胀试验表征药材的抗炎作用;采用细菌脂多糖所致大鼠发热试验表征药材的解热作用;根据上述结果分析用化学和药效学方法评估穿心莲药材质量的相关性.结果:不同批次药材的穿心莲内酯和脱水穿心莲内酯含量存在差异,其总含量分别为3.92%、3.89%、4.61%、3.67%、3.41%;上述药材均存在一定的抗炎和解热作用,且指标成分含量最高组的药效作用最为明显.结论:采用化学或药效学方法均可对药材质量进行评价,而在药效成分与质控指标成分一致时,两种方法评价结论呈正相关.%Objective; To provide reference for the quality evaluation of Chinese medicine by pharmacological methods. Methods: HPLC was applied to the determination of andrographolide and dehydroanddrographolide in 5batches of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. ) Nees. The model mice of ear swelling was induced by xylene for studying the anti-inflammatory activity of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. ) Nees, and the model of rat fever was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for studying the antipyretic activity. The correlation between quality control factors and pharmacological elements was studied on the basis of the experimental results. Results; There was difference in the content of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide. The contents were 3. 92% , 3. 89% , 4. 61% , 3. 67% and 3. 41% in the 5batches of Andrographis paniculata ( Burm. f. ) Nees respectively. All the Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. ) Nees had certain anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. The batch of Andrographis paniculata ( Burm. f. ) Nees with highest content of target element had most significant pharmacological activities. Conclusion; Both chemical and

  19. Mechanisms Involved in Toxicity of Liver Caused by Piroxicam in Mice and Protective Effects of Leaf Extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.

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    Sahu, C R

    2016-01-01

    Piroxicam is one of the important therapeutic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory class of drugs used mainly to suppress pain and inflammation in arthritis and other musculoskeletal disorders. Besides being anti-inflammatory, these drugs are analgesic and antipyretic often used for the relief of nonspecific fever condition. Recently, piroxicam has also gained attention as an effective therapy for tumors, colorectal, and invasive bladder cancers. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of the alcoholic leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (AEH), Malvaceae, against piroxicam-induced toxicity in mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were divided into four groups (n = 10), which included a control group, a group treated orally with AEH (30 mg kg(-1) b.w.) for 15 days, a group treated orally with piroxicam (6.6 mg kg(-1) b.w.) for 15 days, and another group treated orally with piroxicam and AEH for 15 days. The results indicated that treatment with piroxicam alone resulted in a significant increase in the activities of serum marker enzymes, namely, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase with profound hepatic lipid peroxidation as evidenced by a marked increment in the level of thoibarbituric acid reactive substances along with a distinct diminution in reduced glutathoine content and various antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver. However, treatment with AEH during piroxicam treatment retrieved or partially antagonized the effects induced by piroxicam toward the normal values of controls. Histopathological observations also corroborate with the above findings. It can be concluded that AEH exhibited a protective action against piroxicam toxicity and effective in combating oxidative stress-induced hepatic damage. PMID:26819562

  20. The Role of RAAS Inhibition by Aliskiren on Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity Model in Rats.

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    Karcioglu, Saliha Sena; Palabiyik, Saziye Sezin; Bayir, Yasin; Karakus, Emre; Mercantepe, Tolga; Halici, Zekai; Albayrak, Abdulmecit

    2016-03-01

    Paracetamol is one of the most popular and widely used analgesic and antipyretic agents, but an overdose can cause hepatotoxicity and lead to acute liver failure. Aliskiren directly inhibits renin which downregulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Recent findings suggest that RAAS system takes part in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. We aimed to reveal the relationship between hepatotoxicity and the RAAS by examining paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were separated into five groups as follows: control, 100 mg/kg aliskiren (p.o.), 2 g/kg paracetamol (per os (p.o.)), 2 g/kg paracetamol + 50mg/kg aliskiren (p.o.), and 2 g/kg paracetamol + 100 mg/kg aliskiren(p.o.). Samples were analyzed at the biochemical, molecular, and histopathological levels. Paracetamol toxicity increased alanine aminotransferases (ALT), aspartate aminotransferases (AST), renin, and angiotensin II levels in the serum samples. In addition, the SOD activity and glutathione (GSH) levels decreased while Lipid Peroxidation (MDA) levels increased in the livers of the rats treated with paracetamol. Paracetamol toxicity caused a significant increase in TNF-α and TGF-β. Both aliskiren doses showed an improvement in ALT, AST, oxidative parameters, angiotensin II, and inflammatory cytokines. Only renin levels increased in aliskiren treatment groups due to its pharmacological effect. A histopathological examination of the liver showed that aliskiren administration ameliorated the paracetamol-induced liver damage. In immunohistochemical staining, the expression of TNF-α in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes was increased in the paracetamol group but not in other treatment groups when compared to the control group. In light of these observations, we suggest that the therapeutic administration of aliskiren prevented oxidative stress and cytokine changes and also protected liver tissues during paracetamol toxicity by inhibiting the RAAS. PMID:26280784

  1. Pediatric Epidemic of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in the Area of L’Aquila, Italy, Four Years after a Catastrophic Earthquake

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    Nigro, Giovanni; Bottone, Gabriella; Maiorani, Daniela; Trombatore, Fabiana; Falasca, Silvana; Bruno, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Background: A Salmonella enterica epidemic occurred in children of the area of L’Aquila (Central Italy, Abruzzo region) between June 2013 and October 2014, four years after the catastrophic earthquake of 6 April 2009. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory children. Routine investigations for Salmonella infection were carried out on numerous alimentary matrices of animal origin and sampling sources for drinking water of the L’Aquila district, including pickup points of the two main aqueducts. Results: Salmonella infection occurred in 155 children (83 females: 53%), aged 1 to 15 years (mean 2.10). Of these, 44 children (28.4%) were hospitalized because of severe dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, and fever resistant to oral antipyretic and antibiotic drugs. Three children (1.9%) were reinfected within four months after primary infection by the same Salmonella strain. Four children (2.6%), aged one to two years, were coinfected by rotavirus. A seven-year old child had a concomitant right hip joint arthritis. The isolated strains, as confirmed in about the half of cases or probable/possible in the remaining ones, were identified as S. enterica serovar Typhimurium [4,5:i:-], monophasic variant. Aterno river, bordering the L’Aquila district, was recognized as the main responsible source for the contamination of local crops and vegetables derived from polluted crops. Conclusions: The high rate of hospitalized children underlines the emergence of a highly pathogenic S. enterica strain probably subsequent to the contamination of the spring water sources after geological changes occurred during the catastrophic earthquake. PMID:27164121

  2. USE OF FRESH PARTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK – A NEW CONCEPT OF FARMING

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  3. An analysis of the pharmacological management of respiratory tract infections in pediatric in-patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital

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    Geetha S Iyer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the pharmacological management of respiratory tract infections in hospitalized pediatric patients. The economic burden of the disease and the adverse drug reactions occurring during the course of treatment have also been studied. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective, longitudinal, and observational study, carried out over a period of one-and-a-half years. The patients, aged one month to twelve years, diagnosed with respiratory tract infections (RTI, as confirmed by a pediatrician, were enrolled. Modified Kunin's criteria along with the guidelines set by the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP were followed for assessing the appropriateness of the antibacterials prescribed. The adverse drug reactions occurring during the course of the treatment were noted and the economic burden of the disease was calculated as direct and indirect costs. Results: A total of 201 patients were enrolled, of whom 46% were in the age group of one month to one year. The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (76%. The number of drugs and antibacterials prescribed per patient were 4.88 ± 1.57 and 1.85 ± 0.86, respectively. Antibacterials (37.7%, intravenous fluids (17.2%, respiratory medicines (16.6%, and analgesic/antipyretics (16.5% were the common drug groups prescribed. Among the antibacterials, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (47% and cefotaxime (22% were frequently prescribed. Appropriate antibacterial therapy was given in 42% of the cases. Salbutamol and a combination of Levosalbutamol and Ipratropium Bromide were the commonly prescribed respiratory medicines. Three adverse drug reactions (ADRs were observed in indoor patients, all due to antibacterials. The economic burden of the disease was calculated to be Rs. 4925.14 or US$ 109.9 per patient. Conclusion: An overuse of antibacterials and respiratory medicines was seen in the study. Emphasis on proper diagnosis and treatment, education and availability of locally effective guidelines

  4. Medication storage and self-medication behaviour amongst female students in Malaysia

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    Ali SE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence, attitudes and behaviours of medication storage and self-medication amongst female students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and cluster random sampling technique was used for respondent selection. A pre-piloted questionnaire was administered to female respondents so as to collect the data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and analysis was conducted using descriptive analysis procedures.Results: Of the 481 participants (mean age; SD was 22.1; 3.3, 93.1% (n=448 students stated that they stored medicine in their rooms, while 70.7% (n=340 stated that they stopped taking a prescribed medicine without consulting a doctor. The prevalence of self-medication was 80.9% (n=389. The most common reasons for self-medication were related to their knowledge of their ailment and its treatment (58.0%, 14.4% thought it saved time and 8.5% mentioned that medication given by provider was not effective. The most common symptoms were otorhinolaryngology problems (22.5%, followed by respiratory disease (19.6%, Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT disease (18.1% and headache/fever (16.8%. Commonly used medicines were analgesics & antipyretics (30.2%, ear, nose & throat drugs (10.8%, vitamins & minerals (10.8%, GIT drugs (8.5%, anti-infections (7.3% and herbal medicines (3.5%. Prevalence of medicine storage and self-medication practice is high among educated female students in USM.Conclusions: There is a need to educate the students to ensure safe practice by increasing their awareness. Strict policies need to be implemented on the unrestricted availability of medicines so as to prevent the wastage of medicines.

  5. TRPV1 in brain is involved in acetaminophen-induced antinociception.

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    Christophe Mallet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen, the major active metabolite of acetanilide in man, has become one of the most popular over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic agents, consumed by millions of people daily. However, its mechanism of action is still a matter of debate. We have previously shown that acetaminophen is further metabolized to N-(4-hydroxyphenyl-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z -eicosatetraenamide (AM404 by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH in the rat and mouse brain and that this metabolite is a potent activator of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV(1 in vitro. Pharmacological activation of TRPV(1 in the midbrain periaqueductal gray elicits antinociception in rats. It is therefore possible that activation of TRPV(1 in the brain contributes to the analgesic effect of acetaminophen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that the antinociceptive effect of acetaminophen at an oral dose lacking hypolocomotor activity is absent in FAAH and TRPV(1 knockout mice in the formalin, tail immersion and von Frey tests. This dose of acetaminophen did not affect the global brain contents of prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 and endocannabinoids. Intracerebroventricular injection of AM404 produced a TRPV(1-mediated antinociceptive effect in the mouse formalin test. Pharmacological inhibition of TRPV(1 in the brain by intracerebroventricular capsazepine injection abolished the antinociceptive effect of oral acetaminophen in the same test. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that TRPV(1 in brain is involved in the antinociceptive action of acetaminophen and provides a strategy for developing central nervous system active oral analgesics based on the coexpression of FAAH and TRPV(1 in the brain.

  6. Adverse drug reactions and drug–drug interactions with over-the-counter NSAIDs

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    Moore N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas Moore,1 Charles Pollack,2 Paul Butkerait2 1Department of Pharmacology, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; 2Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Madison, NJ, USA Abstract: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such as ibuprofen have a long history of safe and effective use as both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC analgesics/antipyretics. The mechanism of action of all NSAIDs is through reversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs including gastrointestinal bleeding as well as cardiovascular and renal effects have been reported with NSAID use. In many cases, ADRs may occur because of drug–drug interactions (DDIs between the NSAID and a concomitant medication. For example, DDIs have been reported when NSAIDs are coadministered with aspirin, alcohol, some antihypertensives, antidepressants, and other commonly used medications. Because of the pharmacologic nature of these interactions, there is a continuum of risk in that the potential for an ADR is dependent on total drug exposure. Therefore, consideration of dose and duration of NSAID use, as well as the type or class of comedication administered, is important when assessing potential risk for ADRs. Safety findings from clinical studies evaluating prescription-strength NSAIDs may not be directly applicable to OTC dosing. Health care providers can be instrumental in educating patients that using OTC NSAIDs at the lowest effective dose for the shortest required duration is vital to balancing efficacy and safety. This review discusses some of the most clinically relevant DDIs reported with NSAIDs based on major sites of ADRs and classes of medication, with a focus on OTC ibuprofen, for which the most data are available. Keywords: adverse effects, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal

  7. The Inherent Reactor Kinetics for Transformation of Geniposidic Acid from Geniposide in a Microreactor

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    Chiu-Lan Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ripe fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae (GJ are widely used in chemical, food and medicinal industries. Crocin and geniposide, the main constituents of GJ, have shown a diversity of biological activities including sedative, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic. We propose some new bioactive chemicals could be derived from geniposide. The optimum transformation condition of geniposide into geniposidic acid still remains unclear. In order to develop a reactor, the information about the inherent reaction kinetics is required. In a microreactor (V =62.8 mL, geniposide (0.01 mole/L, 20 mL and NaOH (0.1 equivalent/L, pH=13, 10mL were left to react at 80, 70, 60, 50, and 40 oC and tracked with HPLC. Results indicated that the reaction obeyed the pseudo-first order kinetics, the corresponding pseudo-first order rate constants ( 1 k ' were 11.064 h -1 , 8.682 h -1 , 2.400 h -1 , 1.021 h -1 , and 0.750 h-1 , and the fractional conversions were 73.4%, 60.5%, 38.6%, 43.6%, and 51.8% at 0.50, 0.50, 0.833, 1.00, and 2.00 h. The energy of activation was 8.751 kJ mol-1 . Conclusively, this transformation obeys the pseudo-first order kinetics with a low energy of activation, 8.751 kJ mol-1 . The optimum transformations at 80oC and 70oC for 0.5 h were 73.4% and 60.5%, respectively.

  8. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal

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    I Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05% respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21% followed by diarrhea (68 students (25.47%, fever (42 students (15.73%, headache (40 students (14.98% and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students (8.61%. Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09% followed by analgesics (23.21%, antipyretics (17.98%, antiulcer agents (8.99%, cough suppressant (7.87%, multivitamins (6.37% and antihelminthics (4.49%. Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19% felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46% preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73% cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62% preferred because of urgency. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  9. Medication use among children 0-14 years old: population baseline study

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    Maria J.B. Cruz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of medication use in children and adolescents in 20 municipalities of Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais-Brazil, showing the main groups and variables that may have influenced use. METHODS: Descriptive population-based survey sample of 555 interviews, selected by simple random cluster sampling of 137 census tracts. Inclusion criteria were age ≤ 14 years, mandatory interview with the legal guardians, and regardless of having received medications. Regarding the usage pattern, participants were divided into two groups: consumption and non-consumption of drugs. A descriptive analysis of the variables and tests of association were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of drug consumption was 56.57%, and 42.43% showed no consumption. The use of medicinal plants was 72.9% for drug users and 74.3% for non-users. The health conditions for consumption were cough, common cold, flu, nasal congestion or bronchospasm (49.7%, fever (5.4%, headache (5.4%, diarrhea, indigestion, and abdominal colic (6.7%. In cases of self-medication, 30.57% of the drugs were given by the mother, and 69.42% were prescription drugs. Self-medication was prevalent using paracetamol (30.2%, dipyrone (20.8%, and cold medicine (18.8%. There was increased use of analgesics/antipyretics, followed by respiratory medications, systemic antibiotics, histamine H1 antagonists, and vitamins/antianemics. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of drugs use in children was high, indicating the need for formulating educational programs aiming at the awareness of caregivers regarding rational use.

  10. Drivers for inappropriate fever management in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M; McCarthy, S; O'Sullivan, R; Shiely, F; Larkin, P; Brenner, M; Sahm, L J

    2016-08-01

    Background Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms and accounts for numerous consultations with healthcare practitioners. It causes much anxiety amongst parents as many struggle with managing a feverish child and find it difficult to assess fever severity. Over- and under-dosing of antipyretics has been reported. Aim of the review The aim of this review was to synthesise qualitative and quantitative evidence on the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents regarding fever and febrile illness in children. Method A systematic search was conducted in ten bibliographic databases from database inception to June 2014. Citation lists of studies and consultation with experts were used as secondary sources to identify further relevant studies. Titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Quantitative studies using a questionnaire were analysed using narrative synthesis. Qualitative studies with a semi-structured interview or focus group methodology were analysed thematically. Results Of the 1565 studies which were screened for inclusion in the review, the final review comprised of 14 studies (three qualitative and 11 quantitative). Three categories emerged from the narrative synthesis of quantitative studies: (i) parental practices; (ii) knowledge; (iii) expectations and information seeking. A further three analytical themes emerged from the qualitative studies: (i) control; (ii) impact on family; (iii) experiences. Conclusion Our review identifies the multifaceted nature of the factors which impact on how parents manage fever and febrile illness in children. A coherent approach to the management of fever and febrile illness needs to be implemented so a consistent message is communicated to parents. Healthcare professionals including pharmacists regularly advise parents on fever management. Information given to parents needs to be timely, consistent and accurate so that inappropriate fever

  11. Self‐medication patterns among medical students in South India

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    Nitasha Bhat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSelf-medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self-medication and the pattern of self-medication among medical students.MethodThis cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore. The participants were medical students from first to final year. Medical students were selected through convenience sampling. The data was collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions.ResultsA total of 200 students, 121 (60.5% female and 79 (39.5% male, were included in the study. Of the medical students surveyed, self-medication was reported among 92%. The respondents who used self-medication found it to be time-saving in providing relief from minor ailments. The most common ailments for which self-medication were used were: the common cold (69%, fever (63% and headache (60%. The students consulted their textbooks (39% and seniors or classmates (38% for the medications. Antipyretics (71%, analgesics (65%, antihistamines (37% and antibiotics (34% were the most common self-medicated drugs. Of the respondents, 33% were unaware of the adverse effects of the medication and 5% had experienced adverse reactions. The majority (64% of students advised medications to others, more often to family and friends.ConclusionThe prevalence of self-medication among medical students is high, facilitated by the easy availability of drugs and information from textbooks or seniors. A significant number of students are unaware of the adverse effects of the medication that they themselves take and suggest to others. Therefore, potential problems of self-medication should be emphasised to the students.

  12. Phytochemical composition of Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils and their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties on Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbenou, Joachin D; Ahounou, Judith F; Akakpo, Huguette B; Laleye, Anatole; Yayi, Eléonore; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Baba-Moussa, Lamine; Darboux, Raphael; Dansou, Pierre; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Kotchoni, Simeon O

    2013-02-01

    Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora are widely used herbs/plants as a source of ethnomedicines in tropical regions of the world. In this work, we studied the anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of C. citratus and E. citriodora essential oils on formol-induced edema, and acetic acid induced abdominal cramps in Wistar rats. To fully understand the chemically induced anti-inflammatory properties of these plants, we first analyzed the chemical composition of the essential oils. A total of 16 chemical constituents accounting for 93.69 % of the oil, were identified in C. citratus among which, Geranial (27.04 %), neral (19.93 %) and myrcene (27.04 %) were the major constituents. For E. citriodora, 19 compounds representing 97.2 % of the extracted oil were identified. The dominant compound of E. citriodora essential oil was citronellal (83.50 %). In vivo analysis and histological assay showed that the two essential oils displayed significant dose dependent edema inhibition effect over time. They displayed strong analgesic and antipyretic properties similar to that induced by 50 mg/kg of acetylsalicylate of lysine. However, the E. citriodora essential oil was more effective than that of C. citratus. We identified significant numbers of aldehyde molecules in both essential oils mediating antioxidant activity that may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects observed on the rats. Altogether, this work demonstrates the anti-inflammatory property of C. citratus and E. citriodora suggesting their potential role as adjuvant therapeutic alternatives in dealing with inflammatory-related diseases. PMID:23065287

  13. 丁香酚的药理学作用研究进展%Advance in Pharmacological Research of Eugenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔晓军; 刘希望; 李剑勇; 杨亚军

    2013-01-01

    丁香酚是丁香油的主要成分,为一种有机酚.现代药理学研究表明其具有解热镇痛、抗炎、麻醉等药效;此外还具有抗细菌、抗真菌、抗氧化、抗癌、驱蚊避虫等多种活性,同时毒副作用小,代谢残留少,因而在医药、化妆品等诸多领域备受青睐.随着其功能团、作用位点、作用方式的进一步阐明以及有关数据库的建立,丁香酚的应用前景将更加广阔.对丁香酚的药理学作用研究进展进行了综述.%Eugenol,a main constituent of clove oil,is an organic phenol,and has antipyretic,analgesic,anti-inflammatory and anesthetic efficacy.In addition,pharmacological studies showed its anti-bacterial,anti-fungal,antioxidant,anticancer,insect repellent and other activity.It has small side effects,toxicity and non metabolism residue,so that it was widely accepted in many fields such as pharmaceuticals,cosmetics,etc.With further elucidation of its functional groups,sites of action and mode of action,and with the establishment of related database,eugenol will have wider use.This paper briefly reviewed pharmacological effects of eugenol.

  14. Ex vivo effects of lysine clonixinate on cyclooxygenases in rat lung and stomach preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, A M; Girolamo, G D; De los Santos, A R; Marti, M L; Gimeno, M A

    1999-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is an anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic drug with minor digestive side effects, which might suggest a weak COX-1 inhibitor. The aim of this study focused on ex vivo effects of LC 40 mg/kg ip and indomethacin (INDO) 10 mg/kg ip in lung and stomach preparations of control rats and LPS-treated rats (5 mg/kg ip). The non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs were administered concomitantly, following three hours and before one, two or three hours of LPS treatment. Tissues were weighed and incubated in 2 ml of Kress Ringer Bicarbonate buffer containing glucose (11 mM) under an atmosphere of 95% oxygen and 5% CO(2). Approximately 200 mg of tissue were used for each determination; 0.25 microCi of (14)C-arachidonic acid was added to each tube and the tissues were incubated for 60 min. Prostanoids were extracted from the incubation medium and separated by TLC. Results were expressed as a percentage of the total radioactivity of the plates (% of cpm on plate/100 mg ww). It was found that LC animals that were not given LPS did not modify the synthesis of PGE(2); in lung and stomach tissues showing that did not inhibit COX-1 activity. However, LC inhibited clearly the synthesis of PGE(2) in both preparations obtained from LPS-treated animals. The inhibition was shown when the rats were treated concomitantly, 3 h after or 1 or 2 h before the injection of LPS. PMID:17657442

  15. In vivo and in vitro effects of lysine clonixinate on nitric oxide synthase in LPS-treated and untreated rat lung preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, A M; Di Girolamo, G; Farina, M; de los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Gimeno, M A

    2001-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that some nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) inhibited the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) without direct effect on the catalytic activity of this enzyme. This study was conducted to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of lysine clonixinate (LC) and indomethacin (INDO) on NOS activity in rat lung preparation. LC is a drug with antiinflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic action. In the in vitro experiments, rats were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and killed 6 h after treatment. Lung preparations were incubated with LC at 2.3 x 10(-5) M or 3.8 x 10(-5) M. The minimum concentration did not modify NOS activity in control or LPS-treated rats but the maximum dose inhibited increased NO production induced by LPS. Furthermore, INDO at 10(-6) M had no effect on enzymatic activity in control or LPS-treated rats. In the in vivo experiments, 40 mg/kg of LC were injected ip. Such a dose did not affect basal production of NO. When LC and LPS were injected simultaneously 6 h before sacrifice, a significant decrease in LPS-induced NOS activity was observed. INDO 10 mg/kg injected in control animals had no effect on NOS activity and did not block LPS induced stimulation of NO production when injected simultaneously. Finally, when LC (40 mg/kg) was injected 3 h after LPS, the enzymatic activity remained unchanged. Expression of iNOS was detected by Western blotting in rats treated with LPS plus 4, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of LC. The lowest dose was the only one showing no effect on LPS-induced increase of iNOS. In short, LC is a NSAID with inhibitory action on the expression of LPS-induced NOS, effect that was not seen with INDO in our experimental conditions. PMID:11292364

  16. 炎琥宁注射液联合莪术油治疗手足口病临床观察%Clinical Observation of Yanhuning Injection plus Zedoary Turmeric Oil on Hand Foot and Mouth Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万琴; 陈桃

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察炎琥宁注射液联合莪术油注射液治疗儿童手足口病的临床疗效.方法 将104例手足口病患儿随机平分为两组.对照组52例予常规治疗、炎琥宁注射液静滴;实验组52例加用莪术油注射液静滴.结果 实验组总有效率92.31%,高于对照组的80.77%;其退热时间和皮疹消退时间短于对照组.结论 炎琥宁注射液联合莪术油注射液治疗儿童手足口病疗效确切.%Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of Yanhuning Injection plus zedoary turmeric oil on hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD).Methods:104 cases of HFMD were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group with the Yanhuning Injection only and the treatment group with Yanhuning Injection plus zedoary turmeric oil.Results:The total effect of the treatment group with 92.31% was higher significantly than that of the control gorup with 80.77%.Meanwhile,the antipyretic time and the erythema disappeared time in the treatment group were shorter obviously than those in the contrl group.Conclusion:It is effective of Yanhuning Injection plus zedoary turmeric oil on HFMD.

  17. Management of respiratory tract infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul SP

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Siba Prosad Paul,1 Rachel Wilkinson,2 Christine Routley3 1Southmead Hospital, Bristol, 2St Richard's Hospital, Chichester, 3Paediatric Services, Yeovil District Hospital, Yeovil, UK Abstract: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs in children are one of the most common reasons for parents consulting health professionals. Most RTIs are self-limiting viral illnesses that will resolve with time and supportive management. However, it is important for the health professional to identify any RTI that may have more serious implications for the child and require medical intervention. Diagnosis can usually be made from the history and presenting symptoms such as cough, wheeze, tachypnea, fever, or stridor. Exclusion of "red flag" symptoms will enable health professionals to appropriately reassure parents and advise symptomatic management with antipyretics and adequate fluid administration. With the expanding role of nurses in ambulatory settings, many children are now being seen by health professionals other than doctors, (eg, advanced nurse practitioners, some of whom are trained in pediatrics while others have limited knowledge of nursing sick children. It is therefore vital that these professionals remain aware of any risk factors and that they can recognize "red flags" in a sick child rapidly and escalate further management appropriately. Some children will require admission to hospital for respiratory support and other therapies, such as intravenous antibiotics and fluids. With advancement of the "non-medical prescriber" within the nursing profession, awareness of when to give or not give antibiotic therapy needs careful consideration, especially in light of the problems that may arise from overuse of antibiotic treatment. Nurses have a vital role, not only in administering medications and supporting other medical interventions, but also in supporting the child and family over the period of illness. The education of the parents and the child, in some

  18. Study on Drug Prescribing Pattern in Dengue Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital – A tool to teach Clinical Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Atif Beg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Dengue fever (DF is the most common arboviral infection of mankind gaining global attention. Data about drug usage patterns in DF in India are lacking.The present study was undertaken to analyze drug utilization pattern of dengue infections to teach certain basic skills to MBBS students which will form an integral component of practising rational therapeutics. Methods: A total no of 122 cases were followed up by the 5th semester 2nd Professional undergraduate students in the department of pharmacology at hospital wards of SGRRIM &HS, Dehradun from June 2012 to July 2014. Patients were analysed on various parameters using WHO drug use indicators and National List of Essential Medicines. Results: A total of 122 prescriptions were analyzed. Male:Female ratio was (72.95%, 27.05% Age wise distribution of patients was done: 0-15 years were 9 (7.34%, 16-30 years were 45(36.88%, 31-45 years were 46(37.70%, 46-60 years were 18 (14.75% and >60 years were 4 (3.28%. A total of 614 drugs were prescribed. 169(27.52% antimicrobials, 99(16.12% antipyretics, 91(14.82% antacids, 65(10.59% multivitamins, 55(8.96% antiemetics and 135(21.99% in miscellaneous category were prescribed. 243(40.23% oral drugs and 361(59.77% injectable drugs were prescribed. 5.03 drugs per prescription were prescribed. 377(62.42% drugs were prescribed from National Essential Medicine List.100% drugs were prescribed by brand names. Conclusion: Majority of the drugs were prescribed from national essential medicine list. As the incidence of DF is increasing with epidemics, the demand for specific treatment guidelines is in great need.

  19. Frequency of cardiac defects among children at echocardiography centre in a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess frequency of cardiac defects among children from birth to 12 years of age on each Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted at echocardiography centre in coronary care unit at Bahawal Victoria Hby Paediatric Transthoracic echo probe; 2-D colour Doppler, Acuson CV-70 and Niemo-30 echocardiography machines. Mothers of children with cardiac defects were interviewed at the echocardiography centre. Variables included were A- Muscular plus Vascular defects; B- Valvular defects; C-Pericardial effusion; D- Dextrocardia and E- Congestive cardiac failure. History of children for sore throat followed by joint pains; history of mothers for drug intake (antihypertensive, antipyretic, anti-emetic, hypoglycaemic) as well as chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, anaemia) during pregnancy were surveyed. Parity of mothers, their cousin marriages, and family socio-economic status was also inquired. The results were tabulated, analyzed and finally subjected to suitable test of significant (SR of proportion) to find out statistical significant if any. Results: It was found that out of 150 patients, 76 (50.66%) were suffering from Cardiac muscular and Vascular defects, 61 (40.66%) Valvular defects, 7 (4.66%) Pericardial effusion, 2 (1.33%) Dextrocardia and 4 (2.66%) from Congestive Cardiac Failure. According to age, 54 (36%) were from birth to 3 years of age and 51 (34%) from 10 to 12 years. There was history of Rheumatic fever among 45 (30%) children. There were 106 (70.6%) children from lower socio-economic class and 79 (52.6%) parents had history of cousin marriages. Conclusion: Frequency of cardiac defects was more in children of male sex, lower socio-economic group, from birth to three years age and children from primipara mothers in our specified locality. Rheumatic fever, cousin's marriage, and prescribed drugs intake during pregnancy (for metabolic and hormonal disorders) were other contributors to cardiac defects. (author)

  20. 鱼腥草注射液对急性咽炎治疗作用的实验研究%Experimental Research on the Efficacy of Yuxingcao Injection in Treating Acute Pharyngitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Yuxingcao Injection in treating acute pharyngitis. Methods The anti-inflammation efficacy of Yuxingcao Injection was evaluated by the rat ear swelling test, judging from the histopathology of SD rat acute pharyngitis model with 15% ammonia. After 2 d of modeling, the administration was continued for 5 d. The blood routine examination of rats was measured, meanwhile the pharyngeal mucosa pathological section of SD rat acute pharyngitis model was detected. Results Yuxingcao Injection could inhibit the rat ear swelling;it had an obvious antipyretic effect and could alleviate the pathological changes on inflammatory mucous membrane in rat acute pharyngitis model. Conclusion Yuxingcao Injection can inhibit the acute inflammation, and it has the alleviating effect of the acute pharyngitis.%目的:观察鱼腥草注射液对急性咽炎大鼠的抗炎作用。方法运用小鼠耳肿胀试验评价鱼腥草注射液的抗炎消肿作用;采用15%氨水制备大鼠急性咽炎模型,造模2 d后,连续给药5 d,测定大鼠血常规,并做咽部黏膜病理切片,评价鱼腥草注射液抗急性咽炎的作用。结果鱼腥草注射液可抑制小鼠耳肿胀,降低急性咽炎模型大鼠血浆中白细胞含量,改善急性咽炎大鼠模型咽部黏膜病理变化。结论鱼腥草注射液具有较好的抗急性炎症,缓解急性咽炎作用。

  1. Studies on Chemical Constituents From Artabotrys Hainanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guangying; SONG Xiao-Ping; HAN Chang-ri

    2004-01-01

    Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries are plants of the Annonaccac family artabotrys genus,which includes an estimated 100 types of plants distributed mainly in the tropical zone and the subtropics areas. Four types of the plants are discovered in our country, two of which, A.Hongkongensis Hance and A. hexapetalus (Linn. F.) Bhandari, in Guangdong Province, and the other two, A. Pilosus and A. Hainanensis R.E. Fries, in Hainan Province. The latter are widely distributed in Hainan Island with very rich reserves. They have long been used among the ordinary people as medicinal plants with antipyretic, antidotal, antiphlogistic and analgesic effects and are often used for malaria. Scholars from home and abroad have paid much attention to the plants of the Annonaccac family for their containing anti-tumor activities, and after early or late research of the chemical constituents of the root, stem (derm), leaf and fruit of many types of plants of Artabotrys genus, more than 40 compounds including alkaloid, flavone and terpenoid have been isolated and obtained. Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries are Hainan endemic plants and there has been no report on the research of their chemical constituents and biological activities so far. In order to find new constituents of pharmacologic activity, we have researched the chemical constituents of the leaf and stem.The crude drugs were collected from Hainan Jianfeng Mountain and were identified as Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries of the Annonaccac family artabotrys genus. Its sample specimen is now kept in Chemistry Department of Hainan Normal University.After isolation and identification of constituent, six compounds were isolated from the leaf of Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries and elucidated as β -sitosterol (Ⅰ), catechin (Ⅱ), mangiferin (Ⅲ),(Ⅳ), (Ⅴ), (Ⅵ). All the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time. Compounds Ⅱ, Ⅲ,Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ were obtained from the genus of Artabotrys for the first time.

  2. Determination the Total Flavonoids from Stem and Leaf of Artabotrys.haimanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI He-ping; SONG Xiao-Ping; HAN Chang-ri; LI Chuan-bao

    2004-01-01

    The Annonaccac family is a main one of the tropical plants flora and there are totally 127 genus, about 2231 species in the world, wildly distributed in the tropical zone and subtropics areas.China is one of the countries where species of this family are mostly distributed, with 24 genus, 103 species and 6 variant, among which, 45 species and 1 variant are endemic to China. There are about 100 types of plants of Artabotrys genus in the world, among which, 10 species are in China. Scholars from home and abroad have found a series of new substance of biological activities in the plants of Annonaccac family with antimalarial, anti-tumor, anti-leukemia and obvious cardiotonic effects,which has aroused great interest. Plants of Artabotrys genus, Artabotrys Hainanensis are endemic to Hainan, distributed widely in Hainan Island. They have long been used among the ordinary people as medicinal plants with antipyretic, antidotal, antiphlogistic and analgesic effects. The flavonoid is a very important secondary metabolite in plants with many physiological activities such as fat-reduction, antithrombus, antioxidant and blood-sugar-reduction. This paper studies the total flavonoids from stem and leaf of Artabotrys by spectrophotometry. Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E.Fries were collected from Hainan Jianfeng Mountain and were identified. Spectrophotometry was used to determination of the total flavonoids from stem and leaf of Artabotrys. The total flavonoids of Artabotrys were tested with rutin as check sample. By adding aluminium ion agent and controling proper pH, the flavonoids and the aluminium ion were combined into complex compound and the characteristic absorption peak was obtainable in the visible spectrum. The total flavonoids from stem and leaf of Artabotrys were determined to be 2.29% in stem and 6.83% in leaf. The regression equation was Y=0.000786A+0.0058, and the correlation coefficient r=0.9997. This method is easily operated and the result determined is stable and

  3. AN UPDATED REVIEW ON MOLECULAR GENETICS, PHYTOCHEMISTRY, PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF BLACK NIGHTSHADE (SOLANUM NIGRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar*, S. Sagwal, Niketa and S. Rani

    2012-09-01

    , neuroprotective, cytoprotective, antimicrobial, antinociceptive and antipyretic properties.

  4. Methisoprinol for children with early phase dengue infection: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa G. Ompico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Dengue fever is associated with many health complications and medical costs. Furthermore, there is currently no approved dengue antiviral medication or vaccine. Empiric evidence has suggested that patients who received supplemental methisoprinol therapy had faster recovery times and fewer complications. Objective To determine the effects of oral methisoprinol on the clinical course and laboratory findings of children with early phase dengue infection. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind study from June to September 2012 on 22 children aged 2.7-16.8 years with laboratory-confirmed early dengue infection. Subjects had not previously received antithrombotic agents, nor did they have bleeding disorders or immunodeficiency. We randomized the subjects to receive either oral methisoprinol (100 mg/kg BW/day, divided into four doses or placebo for 72 hours, with 11 subjects per group. The primary endpoint was fever clearance time (FCT, and secondary endpoints were platelet nadir, white blood cell (WBC nadir, maximum hemoconcentration, length of hospital stay, and development of complications. Results The mean decrease in WBC count was less with methisoprinol than with placebo [1.14 (SD 0.84 vs 2.60 (SD 3.12 x 109/L; P=0.004]. In addition, the mean decrease in platelet count was less in patients on methisoprinol [38.36 (SD 58.3 vs. 50.46 (SD 73.42 x 109/L; P=0.046]. No significant differences between the two groups were found for FCT (P=0.158, length of hospital stay (P=0.511, hemoconcentration, or dengue complications. Conclusion Methisoprinol initiated at an early phase in dengue infection reduced the anticipated leukopenia by 56% and thrombocytopenia by 24%. Hence it can be used along with standard approved fluid and antipyretic therapy. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:320-7.].

  5. Pharmaceuticals as emerging organic contaminants in Umgeni River water system, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunbiade, Foluso O; Moodley, Brenda

    2014-11-01

    The occurrences of pharmaceuticals and personal care products as emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) have been reported in several countries of the world except from African countries. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the occurrence of nine antibiotics, five antipyretics, atenolol, bezafibrate, and caffeine in wastewater and surface water samples from the Umgeni River. The water samples were extracted with solid-phase extraction using hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) and C-18 cartridges for the acidic and neutral drugs, respectively. The quantification was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) using the standard addition method. The method limits of detections were in the range of 0.14-0.97 μg/L while the recoveries were between 53.8 and 108.1 %. The wastewater had 100 % occurrence of the analytes studied, with caffeine having the highest concentration at 61 ± 5 μg/L and nalidixic acid being the most observed antibiotic at 31 ± 3 μg/L. The waste treatment process reduced the influent concentrations by 43.0-94.2 % before discharge except for atenolol removal that is lower. The concentrations of the analytes were lower in the surface water with most compounds having concentrations below 10 μg/L except acetaminophen and atenolol. The estuary mouth and Blue Lagoon had the highest concentrations of some of the compounds in surface water which depict downstream load. The factors governing the fate and mobility of these compounds in this environment are not fully understood yet and will require further studies. PMID:25027777

  6. Characteristic Analysis of the Elsholtzia's Chemistry and Pharmacology in Clinical Application%香薷的化学、药理与临床应用特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 苗明三

    2015-01-01

    香薷含有挥发油类、黄酮类、香豆素类等多种活性成分,具有抗病原微生物、消炎、解热、镇痛、解痉、增强免疫等药理作用,临床上常用于发汗解暑,行水散湿,温胃调中,夏月感寒饮冷,头痛发热,恶寒无汗,胸痞腹痛,呕吐腹泻,水肿,脚气等。香薷作为药食同源的植物具有广泛的应用性和广阔的应用前景,积极研究香薷的药用价值具有重要意义。%Elsholtzia includes many active ingredients,such as essential oil,flavonoid,coumarins,and so on. The pharmacologic action of elsholtzia is resistant microorganisms,anti-inflammatory,antipyretic and analgesic,spasmolysis,enhance immunity. In clinic,the elsholt-zia was used for diaphoresis relieving summer-heat,flowing water and dispersing damp,warm the stomach,in summer have a cold,have a headache and fever,aversion to cold and adiapneustia,feeling of stuffiness in chest and abdominal pain,vomit and diarrhea,edema, beriberi. Elsholtzia has extensive applicability and wide application prospect as a plant of homology of medicine and food. It has signifi-cant for study the medicinal value of elsholtzia.

  7. Assessing the performance, practices and roles of drug sellers/dispensers and mothers'/guardians' behaviour for common childhood conditions in Kibaha district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsimba, S E D

    2007-10-01

    In most third world countries, self-medication is common and pharmacies, drug stores and drug shops are important providers of health advice and inexpensive medicines. We used exit interviews to assess drug sellers'/dispensers' roles and consumers' behaviour in Kibaha district, Coast region, Tanzania. Exit interviews with mothers/guardians reported the following childhood conditions treated with or without prescriptions at drug shops: respiratory infections (34%), fever (21%), a combination of diarrhoea, acute respiratory infection (ARI) and fever (14%), diarrhoea alone (13%) and other conditions (17%). The majority of drug sellers/dispensers prescribed or dispensed branded drugs (85%) for most mothers/guardians who visited these drug shops. In addition, antibiotics in total were prescribed for 31% of the mothers/guardians. Of the antibiotics dispensed, 38% were not prescribed by clinicians. In total, oral rehydration salts (ORSs) (3%), antimalarials (sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine) (24%) and antipyretics (11%), were prescribed in 20% but were bought by only 9%; multivitamins (6%), cough mixtures (4%) and other drugs (2%) (antihelminthics, benzylbenzoate emulsions, ear and eye drops) were also purchased from these facilities. Of the diarrhoea case histories presented by simulated clients at the drug shops, only 35% of the bloody diarrhoea scenarios were accurately diagnosed for getting antibiotics as compared with 44% for watery diarrhoea for which the use of antibiotics were wrongly advised (Pdispensers in these drug shops recommended use of ORS less frequently (3%) for a combination of diarrhoea, ARI and fever, and 2% for ARI alone than for watery (29%) and bloody diarrhoea (32%), respectively, for children under five years of age (Pdispense generic drugs so that it costs patients less when they buy drugs in shops. There is a need to increase awareness in recommending the use of ORS for clients to manage watery and bloody diarrhoea, and ARI in children under five

  8. Is COX-2 a perpetrator or a protector? Selective COX-2 inhibitors remain controversial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng LUO; Ming-liang HE; Lars BOHLIN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: COX-2(cyclooxygenase-2) has sparked a surge in pharmaceutical interest since its discovery at the beginning of the 1990s. Several COX-2 selective inhibitors that avoid gastrointestinal side effects have been successfully launched into the market in recent years. The first selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, entered the market in December 1999. However, there are a few organs that physiologically and functionally express COX-2, particularly the glomeruli of the kidney and the cortex of the brain. Inhibition of COX-2 expression in these organs possibly causes heart attack and stroke in long-term COX-2 inhibitor users. Recently, a USA Food and Drug Agency (FDA) advisory panel re-evaluated COX-2 inhibitors and unanimously concluded that the entire class of COX-2 inhibitors increase the risk of cardiovascular problems. Thus the use of COX-2 inhibitors is still controversial, and there is a challenge for not only pharmacologists, but also the pharmaceutical industry, to develop improved painkilling and anti-inflammatory drugs. This may involve exploring a new generation of COX-2 inhibitors with different inhibitory mechanisms through computer-aided design, screening different sources of inhibitors with lower Selectivity, or seeking completely new targets.Synthetic COX-2 inhibitors have high selectivity and the advantage of irreversible inhibition, whereas naturally derived COX-2 inhibitors have lower selectivity and fewer side effects, with the medical effects in general not being as striking as those achieved using synthetic inhibitors. This review discusses the mechanism of COX-2 inhibitor therapy and a possible new way of exploration in the development of anti-inflammatory, analgetic, and antipyretic drugs.

  9. Enhanced photoactivity of graphene/titanium dioxide nanotubes for removal of Acetaminophen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Hong; Liang, Xiao [School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Zhang, Qian [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 10617, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chang-Tang, E-mail: ctchang@niu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National I-Lan University, 26047, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} and graphite oxide were used as precursors of titanium dioxide nanotubes and graphene respectively. Titanium dioxide nanotube and graphene (GR-TNT) nanocomposites were synthesized through a simple hydrothermal method. • And its application to removal acetaminophen, degradation efficiency is more than 96%. • The photocatalytic degradation results indicated that the sample with 5% GO in GR-TNT nanocomposites for 3 h had the highest degradation rate. • The degradation intermediates of acetaminophen by the composites were invested by GC-MS and the possible pathways were invested. - Abstract: Acetaminophen is commonly used as an antipyretic or analgesics agent and poses threat to human health. In this research, TiO{sub 2} and graphite oxide were used as precursors of titanium dioxide nanotubes and graphene respectively. Titanium dioxide nanotube and graphene (GR-TNT) nanocomposites were synthesized through a hydrothermal method. FT-IR, UV-Vis, XRD, and TGA were used to characterize the catalysts. The acetaminophen degradation rate can reach up to 96% under UV light irradiation for 3 h and with the 5% GR-TNT dosage of 0.1 g L{sup −1}. Further experiments were done to probe the mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction catalyzed by the GR-TNT composite. EDTA (hole scavengers) and t-BuOH (radical scavengers) were used to detect the main active oxidative species in the system. The results showed that the holes are the main oxidation species in the photocatalytic process. This study provides a new prospect for acetaminophen degradation by using high efficiency catalysts.

  10. Experimental study of neuropharmacological profile of Euphorbia pulcherrima in mice and rats

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    Kundan Kr Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Euphorbia pulcherrima (EP belongs to the family: Euphorbiaceae and Genus: Euphorbia. Many species of Euphorbia have been reported as having beneficial properties like anticonvulsive effect, central analgesic properties, antipyretic action, central depressant action and strong sedative effect. However, little study has been done and published on EP. Aims: To observe and evaluate various neuropharmacological effects like antinociceptive effect, anticonvulsant effect, motor in-coordination, pentobarbital induced sleeping time and behavioral responses of EP in mice and rats. Setting and Design: Quantitative experimental study in mice and rats by various experimental models. Materials and Methods: Different experimental models were used to assess the antinociceptive effect (hotplate, tail flick and acetic acid induced writhing test, anticonvulsant effect (Maximal Electroshock Seizure test [MES] and Pentylenetetrazole induced seizures [PTZ], motor in-coordination effect (Rota rod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time and behavioral responses of EP in mice and rats after oral administration of EP crude dried extracts in three different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Statistical Analysis Used: The significance of difference with respect to control was evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. A probability (P-value level less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In MES test model, duration of tonic hind limb extension in mice treated with EP was significantly less as compared to vehicle treated group. EP was most effective in a dose of 1000 mg/kg. There was also significant increase in the latency and decrease in the incidence of convulsions with the use of EP in three different doses in PTZ induced seizure model. Conclusions: This study showed EP (crude dried extracts to possess anticonvulsant properties but no effect on motor co-ordination and anxiety.

  11. Environmental optimization of continuous flow ozonation for urban wastewater reclamation.

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    Rodríguez, Antonio; Muñoz, Iván; Perdigón-Melón, José A; Carbajo, José B; Martínez, María J; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; García-Calvo, Eloy; Rosal, Roberto

    2012-10-15

    Wastewater samples from the secondary clarifier of two treatment plants were spiked in the microgram-to-tens-of-microgram per liter range with diuron (herbicide), ibuprofen and diclofenac (anti-inflammatory drugs), sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin (antibiotics), bezafibrate and gemfibrozil (lipid regulators), atenolol (β-blocker), carbamazepine (anti-epileptic), hydrochlorothiazide (diuretic), caffeine (stimulant) and N-acetyl-4-amino-antipiryne, a metabolite of the antipyretic drug dypirone. They were subsequently ozonated in continuous flow using 1.2L lab-scale bubble columns. The concentration of all spiking compounds was monitored in the outlet stream. The effects of varying ozone input, expressed as energy per unit volume, and water flow rate, and of using single or double column were studied in relation to the efficiency of ozone usage and the ratio of pollutant depletion. The ozone dosage required to treat both wastewaters with pollutant depletion of >90% was in the 5.5-8.5 mg/L range with ozone efficiencies greater than 80% depending on the type of wastewater and the operating conditions. This represented 100-200 mol of ozone transferred per mole of pollutant removed. Direct and indirect environmental impacts of ozonation were assessed according to Life Cycle Assessment, a technique that helped identify the most effective treatments in terms of potential toxicity reduction, as well as of toxicity reduction per unit mass of greenhouse-gas emissions, which were used as an indicator of environmental efficiency. A trade-off between environmental effectiveness (toxicity reduction) and greenhouse-gas emissions was observed since maximizing toxicity removal led to higher greenhouse-gas emissions, due to the latter's relatively high ozone requirements. Also, there is an environmental trade-off between effectiveness and efficiency. Our results indicate that an efficient use of ozone was not compatible with a full pollutant removal. PMID:22922131

  12. National consumption of opioid and nonopioid analgesics in Croatia: 2007–2013

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    Krnic D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Darko Krnic,1 Andrea Anic-Matic,2 Svjetlana Dosenovic,2 Pero Draganic,1 Sasa Zezelic,1 Livia Puljak2 1Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices, Zagreb, 2Laboratory for Pain Research, School of Medicine, University of Split, Split, Croatia Background: The increased consumption of analgesics has been documented worldwide during the last 2 decades. The aim of the study was to examine the trends in opioid and nonopioid analgesic consumption in Croatia between 2007 and 2013. Methods: Data on opioid consumption were extracted from the database of the national authority. All opioid and nonopioid analgesics were included in the analysis. Data were presented as defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Adequacy of opioid consumption was calculated using adequacy of consumption measure. Results: During the examined 7-year period, the total consumption and total cost of all analgesics in Croatia showed continuous increase. In the M01A group (anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, nonsteroids, ibuprofen had an exponential increasing trend, and in 2011, it overtook diclofenac consumption. Ibuprofen and diclofenac had the highest consumption also in the M02A group of topical products for joint and muscular pain. Tramadol was by far the most consumed type of opioids (N02A group and paracetamol in the group of other analgesics and antipyretics (N02B. The adequacy of consumption measure value was 0.19, indicating that Croatia is a country with a low opioid consumption. Conclusion: Between 2007 and 2013, both consumption of analgesics and their cost in Croatia had an increasing trend. Comparisons with data from other countries, based on the published literature, indicate that analgesic consumption in Croatia is still relatively low. Calculation of the adequacy of opioid consumption indicated that Croatia is a country with low opioid consumption. Further studies are necessary for establishing whether current analgesic consumption in

  13. PISA. The effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute stroke: Protocol for a phase II double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690

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    Kappelle Jaap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the first days after stroke, one to two fifths of the patients develop fever or subfebrile temperatures. Body temperature is a strong prognostic factor after stroke. Pharmacological reduction of temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke may improve their functional outcome. Previously, we studied the effect of high dose (6 g daily and low dose (3 g daily paracetamol (acetaminophen in a randomised placebo-controlled trial of 75 patients with acute ischemic stroke. In the high-dose paracetamol group, mean body temperature at 12 and 24 hours after start of treatment was 0.4°C lower than in the placebo group. The effect of ibuprofen, another potent antipyretic drug, on body-core temperature in normothermic patients has not been studied. Aim The aim of the present trial is to study the effects of high-dose paracetamol and ibuprofen on body temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke, and to study the safety of these treatments. Design Seventy-five (3 × 25 patients with acute ischaemic stroke confined to the anterior circulation will be randomised to treatment with either: 400 mg ibuprofen, 1000 mg acetaminophen, or with placebo 6 times daily during 5 days. Body-temperatures will be measured with a rectal electronic thermometer at the start of treatment and after 24 hours. An infrared tympanic thermometer will be used to monitor body temperature at 2-hour intervals during the first 24 hours and at 12-hour intervals thereafter. The primary outcome measure will be rectal temperature at 24 hours after the start of treatment. The study results will be analysed on an intent-to-treat basis, but an on-treatment analysis will also be performed. No formal interim analysis will be carried out.

  14. Self medication practice among undergraduate pharmacy students in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

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    Nirajan Bhattarai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Self medication is practice by a pharmacist or lay person to treat minor health problem or symptoms without prescription. The study was conducted to evaluate the medication pattern, behaviour, practice and attitude among undergraduate pharmacy students on self medication. Methods Descriptive cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among 175 pharmacy undergraduates in different institutions within Kathmandu valley, Nepal using prevalidated, five sectional and structured questionnaires. Results Non steroidal analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drugs (n=235, 38.29% were mostly preferred for the treatment of fever (n=94, 55.29% and headaches (n=89, 52.35%, mainly paracetamol (n=144, 23.8%.Community pharmacies (n=136, 80.00% and pharmacist recommendation (n=76, 44.70% were main sources of obtaining and selecting particular medicine and its dose (n=108, 63.54% while friends and family (n=75, 44.11% remained main source of information. 128(75.29%always checked up the information on package label or insert, mainly date of manufacturing (n=96, 56.47% . 70(41.17% respondents fully and 71(41.76% of them partly understood the information. 161(94.30%respondent always checked the expiry date before medicating. Significant proportion perceived it as unacceptable practice with main reasons of being unsafe (n=64, 37.64% and potential adverse reaction (n=21, 12.35%.52(30.58% of them faced adverse reactions or side effects. Allopathic system (n=114, 67.05% was preferable medication system for self medication. Conclusion Most common drugs were NSAIDs, primly paracetamol, cough and cold reliever and GI infection ailments. Students and their profession interrelationship were predominant shaping their attitude and behaviour on self medication.

  15. Pharmacokinetic profiles of the analgesic drug flupirtine in cats.

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    De Vito, V; Lebkowska-Wieruszewska, B; Owen, H; Kowalski, C J; Giorgi, M

    2014-11-01

    Flupirtine (FLU) is a non-opioid analgesic drug with no antipyretic or antiphlogistic effects, used in the treatment of a wide range of pain states in human beings. There is a substantial body of evidence on the efficacy of FLU in humans but this is inadequate to recommend its off-label use in veterinary clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of FLU after IV and PO administration in healthy cats. Six mixed breed adult cats were randomly assigned to two treatment groups using an open, single-dose, two-treatment, two-phase, paired, cross-over design (2 × 2 Latin-square). Group 1 (n  =  3) received a single dose of 5 mg/kg of FLU injected IV into the jugular vein. Group 2 (n  =  3) received the same dose via PO route. The wash out period was 1 week. Blood samples (1 mL) were collected at assigned times and plasma was then analysed by a validated HPLC method. No adverse effects at the point of injection and no behavioural changes or alterations in health parameters were observed in the animals during or after the study (up to 7 days after the full study). After IV administration, FLU was detectable in plasma up to 36 h. After PO administration, FLU plasma concentrations were lower than those following IV administration, but they were detectable over the same time range. The terminal part of both mean pharmacokinetic curves showed a similar trend of elimination. The oral bioavailability was approximately 40%. This is the first study of FLU in an animal species of veterinary interest and it could pave the way for the use of this active ingredient in the veterinary field. PMID:25011711

  16. Role of Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Acute Acetaminophen Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Adult Albino Rats

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    Zeinab M. Gebaly* and Gamal M. Aboul Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic is known to cause hepatic injury in humans and experimental animals when administered in high doses. It was reported that toxic effects of acetaminophen are due to oxidative reactions that take place during its metabolism. L-carnitine is a cofactor in the transfer of long-chain fatty acid allowing to the beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the mitochondria. It is a known antioxidant with protective effects against lipid peroxidation. This study aimed to investigate the possible beneficial effect of L-carnitine as an antioxidant agent against acetaminophen induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Four rat groups (N=7 in each group. Group I is the control, group II received 500 mg/kg/ body weight of L-carnitine for 7 days by oral route, group III received 640/kg/ bw of acetaminophen by oral route, group IV acute acetaminophen group pretreated with L-carnitine for 7 days by gastric tube gavage tube. The liver of all rats were removed for investigation using light and electro microscopic studies. Results: Acetaminophen caused massive centrilobular necrosis and massive degenerative changes. The electron-microscopic study showed few mitochondria, increased fat droplets and scanty smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER.These changes were reduced by L-carnitine pretreatment. Conclusion: those results suggest that acetaminophen results damage in the liver as an acute effect and L-carnitine ameliorated the adverse effects of acetaminophen via its antioxidant role

  17. PROSOPIS CINERARIA (L DRUCE: A DESERT TREE TO BRACE LIVELIHOOD IN RAJASTHAN

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    BINA RANI, UPMA SINGH, RAVI SHARMA, A AYUSHI GUPTA, NIDHI GAUBA DHAWAN, AJIT KUMAR SHARMA, SURBHI SHARMA, RAAZ K MAHESHWARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prosopis cineraria (L Druce is an important tree (Khejri- a local name in Rajasthanfor the Thar Desert withhard climatic adaptation and one of the lifeline in desert habitat as mentioned in ancient literature. This is a speciesrepresenting all five F viz., Forest, Fiber, Fuel, Fodder and Food. This tree is also mythological important in localcommunities. High value of this species recognized as a State symbol (state tree of Rajasthan. Prosopis cineraria(L. Druce is a tree endemic to hot deserts of India, belonging to the family Leguminosae. Pods locally called“Sangri” are considered as dry fruit of desert and are one of the main ingredients of quintessential Rajasthani dish -The Panchkuta. In the present article, we have attempted to review different characteristics of the pods, tounderstand its health benefits. Various phytoconstituents like tannins (gallic acid, steroids (stigmasterol,campesterol, sitosterol, etc., Flavone derivatives (prosogerin A, B, C, D, and E, alkaloids (spicigerine,prosophylline, etc. have been isolated from the sangri pods .As this plant is found in water stress (or deficient areaso antioxidant potential of pods has also been discussed. Prosopis cineraria (L Druce is one of the highly valuedplant in the Indigenous System of Medicine. P. cineraria pods provide protein, iron, vitamins A and C and othermicro minerals Unripe pods are also nutritious and are used to prepare curries and pickles. Its bark is said to be apotent drug for several ailments such as leprosy, dysentery, bronchitis, asthma, leucoderma, piles, muscular tremors,asthma, rheumatism and inflammations. Pharmacological activities like analgesic, antipyretic, antihyperglycemic,antioxidant, antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, nootropic anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral andanticancer activities have been reported from different plant extracts. In view of its medicinal importance, thepresent review is focused to delineate its chemical

  18. Ketoprofen versus paracetamol (acetaminophen) or ibuprofen in the management of fever: results of two randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, repeated-dose, multicentre, phase III studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokki, Hannu; Kokki, Merja

    2010-01-01

    Fever is a common symptom in children and one of the major concerns of parents of younger and preschool-age children. To compare the efficacy and safety of ketoprofen with that of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprofen in the treatment of febrile conditions in children. Two prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, repeated-dose, multicentre, phase III studies with two parallel groups in each study were conducted in primary-care outpatient clinics. Children aged 6 months to 6 years presenting with a febrile condition and an oral body temperature of > or =38.8 degrees C or rectal temperature of > or =39 degrees C were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomized to receive either ketoprofen syrup 0.5 mg/kg, ibuprofen suspension 5 mg/kg or paracetamol suspension 15 mg/kg every 6 hours by the oral route. The primary outcome measure was the change in temperature at 3 hours (H3), compared with baseline (H0). All three treatments provided similar mean maximum decreases of 1.4-1.5 degrees C in body temperature at H3 compared with H0. Use of ketoprofen was not associated with any increased risk of adverse events compared with the two reference compounds. Ketoprofen 0.5 mg/kg appeared to be equivalent to the standard antipyretic doses of the reference products ibuprofen 5 mg/kg and paracetamol 15 mg/kg. Ketoprofen at the 0.5 mg/kg dose should be an effective and safe option for symptomatic management of fever in children. PMID:20380479

  19. Open study of the clinical effect of suprofen syrup in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, G R; Nespoli, L; Michos, N; Sarchi, C

    1986-06-01

    The aim of the study was to test the antipyretic effect and the tolerability of alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienyl-carbonyl)phenylacetic acid (suprofen, Suprol) syrup in a sample of pediatric patients with fever of various etiology. The study was designed as an open multiple dose study including 41 hospitalized children (males and females) aged 6 months to 12 years. Temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were measured immediately after consumption of the syrup, after 30 min, 1 h, 1 1/2, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h. The study was performed at one investigational center. At the end of the study, data were evaluated for a total of 41 patients. 27 patients were 5 years or less, 14 patients were 6 to 12 years old. The mean age of the males (23 patients) was 4.5 years; the mean age of the females (18 patients) was 3.8 years. There was no significant sex dependence of the development of temperature, the pulse rate, and the respiratory rate. Prior to treatment the mean temperature was 38.6 degrees C. Temperature decreased to 37.7 degrees C within 1 h and to 37.2 degrees C within 2 h after treatment. From then on, the temperature increased to 37.7 degrees C at the end of the observation period. The decrease in temperature (compared to baseline) was significant throughout the trial. The mean pulse rate decreased from 131.2/min to 119.9/min within 1 h, and to 114.0/min within 2 h. At the end of the trial the mean pulse rate was 120.1/min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3741532

  20. Management of childhood febrile illness prior to clinic attendance in urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, B M; Brieger, W R; Salako, L A

    2004-03-01

    Parents and caregivers often try various treatment modalities for their sick children before bringing them to clinic. Many community-based studies have documented home and self-treatment practices, often with the aid of patent medicine vendors, but less is known about prior treatment behaviour of caregivers who actually reach a government clinic. This study, therefore, aimed at documenting the treatment provided by caregivers prior to their attendance at a public hospital. Beginning in April 1996, a year-long study was conducted among 1,943 sick children and their caregivers who attended the largest government-owned paediatric hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. The major complaints mentioned by the caregivers included fever, cough, and diarrhoea. Most (89%) caregivers had administered some form of medicine to the child prior to the clinic visit, and on average, 2.5 medications had been given. Associations were found between major complaint and type of medicine given: fevers were associated with antimalarial drugs and analgesics (antipyretics), cough was associated with cough syrup and analgesics, while diarrhoea was associated with antidiarrhoeal drugs. Although one-fifth of the children had received an antibiotic, provision of antibiotics was not associated with a particular complaint/illness. Since caregivers appeared to use perceived complaints/illnesses as a treatment guide, this can form the basis of safer and more appropriate recognition of illness and home management. In addition, the information obtained in this study can be used for training clinicians to inquire about home management and, thus, for making more informed decisions about their own treatment and prescribing practices. PMID:15190811

  1. TITRIMETRIC AND UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF DICLOFENAC IN TABLET FORMULATION

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    Benjamin U Ebeshi*, Vaikosen N Edebi and Ossai Assuai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It is usually formulated as a sodium or potassium salt. It exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities both in animals and in humans. This study sets out to evaluate the quality and efficacy of diclofenac tablets using Chemical and UV spectrophotometric methods with a view to providing simple, sensitive and cost-effective analytical methods. The tablet samples were subjected to weight uniformity and hardness test. Method validation was by means of a precision assay. The methods were applied to the determination of diclofenac in tablets formulation. Six different brands of diclofenac tablets sourced from pharmacies in Yenagoa and Port-Harcourt, South-south region of Nigeria were analysed for diclofenac by non-aqueous titrimetry and UV spectrophotometry at the λmax of 296 nm. All the six different brands of diclofenac tablet complied with the pharmacopoeia specification for uniformity of weight and the tablets possess suitable hardness for handling in manufacturing, packaging and shipping. The percentage purity of diclofenac from the non-aqueous titration ranged from 99.2 - 133%. The coefficient of variation for In-between run, Intra-day run and accuracy of the UV spectrophotometric method was within 4%. The percentage purity from UV determination ranged from 87.8 - 120.5%. Four of the six different samples conform to the BP specification using the non- aqueous titration while four of the brands did not meet the BP specification using the UV spectrophotometric method. The findings suggest that no single method could be adequate in the determination of the quality of pharmaceutical formulations.

  2. A NATURAL WAY TO KEEP DEPRESSION MILES AWAY

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    Dhamija Isha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Depression matters because depressive victims matter’. Tamarindus indica (Caesalpiniaceae, popularly known as Imli, is a perennial evergreen tree with a spreading crown, feathery evergreen foliage and fragrant flowers. Traditionally, Tamarind fruit is used as a digestive, laxative, expectorant, antipyretic and antimalarial agent. In the light of above, the present study was undertaken to test the anti-depressant potential of Tamarindus indica. Tamarindus indica pulp was administered along with diet at various concentrations ranging from 2%-8% w/w orally to Swiss mice, once daily for 14 successive days. The anti-depressant activity was measured using Forced Swim Test and Tail Suspension Test. Tamarindus indica pulp significantly (p<0.01 reduced the despair behavior of mice in Forced swim test and immobility duration in Tail suspension test. The anti-depressant efficacy of Tamarindus indica pulp was found to be comparable to that of fluoxetine (5-HT reuptake inhibitor and imipramine (Tricyclic anti-depressant. The combination of Tamarindus indica pulp either with sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p. or prazosin (62.5 µg/kg i.p. or p-CPA (100 mg/kg, i.p. reversed the enhanced immobility duration in TST model. The reduction in immobility duration produced by Tamarind fruit in the present study reflects its anti-depressant potential. Furthermore, Tamarindus indica pulp inhibited the monoamine oxidase (MAO enzyme, which metabolizes 5-HT and norepinephrine in brain, thereby elevating 5-HT and norepinephrine levels. These findings suggest that Tamarindus indica pulp possessed useful anti-depressant activity, which needs to be confirmed clinically.

  3. Acetaminophen induces a caspase-dependent and Bcl-XL sensitive apoptosis in human hepatoma cells and lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulares, A Hamid; Zoltoski, Anna J; Stoica, Bogdan A; Cuvillier, Olivier; Smulson, Mark E

    2002-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug that exhibits toxicity at high doses to the liver and kidneys. This toxicity has been attributed to cytochrome P-450-generated metabolites which covalently modify target proteins. Recently, acetaminophen, in its unmetabolized form, has been shown to affect a variety of cells and tissues, for instance, testicular and lymphoid tissues and lymphocyte cell lines. The effects on cell viability of acetaminophen at a concentration comparable to that achieved in plasma during acetaminophen toxicity have now been examined with a hepatoma cell line SK-Hep1, primary human peripheral blood lymphocytes and human Jurkat T cells. Acetaminophen reduced cell viability in a time-dependent manner. Staining of cells with annexin-V also revealed that acetaminophen induced, after 8 hr of treatment, a loss of the asymmetry of membrane phospholipids, which is an early event associated with apoptosis. Acetaminophen triggered the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, activation of caspase-3, 8, and 9, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and degradation of lamin B1 and DNA. Whereas cleavage of DNA into internucleosomal fragments was apparent in acetaminophen treated SK-Hep1 and primary lymphocytes, DNA was only degraded to 50-kb fragments in treated Jurkat cells. Overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-XL prevented these various apoptotic events induced by acetaminophen in Jurkat cells. Caspase-8 activation was a postmictochondrial event and occurred in a Fas-independent manner. These results demonstrate that acetaminophen induces caspases-dependent apoptosis with mitochondria as a primary target. These results also reiterate the potential role of apoptosis in acetaminophen hepatic and extrahepatic toxicity. PMID:12005112

  4. A review on phytochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacognostical profile of Wrightia tinctoria: Adulterant of kurchi

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    Rajani Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. belongs to family Apocynaceae commonly called as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo Plant, Dyer′s Oleander. "Jaundice curative tree" in south India. Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark. Native to India and Burma, Wrightia is named after a Scottish physician and botanist William Wright (1740-1827. Sweet Indrajao is called dhudi (Hindi because of its preservative nature. The juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice. Crushed fresh leaves when filled in the cavity of decayed tooth relieve toothache. In Siddha system of medicine, it is used for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Oil 777 prepared out of the fresh leaves of the plant has been assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activities and to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The plant is reported to contain presence of flavanoid, glycoflavones-iso-orientin, and phenolic acids. The various chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant are reported as 3,4-Seco-lup-20 (29-en-3-oic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and campetosterol, Indigotin, indirubin, tryptanthrin, isatin, anthranillate and rutin Triacontanol, Wrightial, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, β-amyrin, Alpha-Amyrin, and β-sitosterol, 14α-methylzymosterol. Four uncommon sterols, desmosterol, clerosterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol, and 24-dehydropollinastanol, were isolated and identified in addition to several more common phytosterols. The Triterpinoids components of the leaves and pods of Wrightia tinctoria also isolated. This article intends to provide an overview of the chemical constituents present in various parts of the plants and their pharmacological actions and pharmacognostical evaluation.

  5. Confusion: acetaminophen dosing changes based on NO evidence in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, Edward P; Royal, Mike A

    2012-06-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) plays a vital role in American health care, with in excess of 25 billion doses being used annually as a nonprescription medication. Over 200 million acetaminophen-containing prescriptions, usually in combination with an opioid, are dispensed annually. While acetaminophen is recognized as a safe and effective analgesic and antipyretic, it is also associated with significant morbidity and mortality (hepatotoxicity) if doses in excess of the therapeutic amount are ingested inappropriately. The maximum daily therapeutic dose of 3900-4000 mg was established in separate actions in 1977 and 1988, respectively, via the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) monograph process for nonprescription medications. The FDA has conducted multiple advisory committee meetings to evaluate acetaminophen and its safety profile, and has suggested (but not mandated) a reduction in the maximum daily dosage from 3900-4000 mg to 3000-3250 mg. In 2011, McNeil, the producer of the Tylenol® brand of acetaminophen, voluntarily reduced the maximum daily dose of its 500 mg tablet product to 3000 mg/day, and it has pledged to change the labeling of its 325 mg/tablet product to reflect a maximum of 3250 mg/day. Generic manufacturers have not changed their dosing regimens and they have remained consistent with the established monograph dose. Therefore, confusion will be inevitable as both consumers and health care professionals try to determine the proper therapeutic dose of acetaminophen. Which is the correct dose of acetaminophen: 3000 mg if 500 mg tablets are used, 3250 mg with 325 mg tablets, or 3900 mg when 650 mg arthritis-strength products are used? PMID:22530736

  6. Cytotoxicity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Cucurbita pepo and Solanum nigrum on HepG2 and CT26 cancer cell lines

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    M Shokrzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are used worldwide for the treatment of diseases, and novel drugs continue to be developed through research from plants. There are more than 20,000 species of plants used in traditional medicines, and these are all potential reservoirs for new drugs. Cucurbita pepo has been used in traditional folk medicine to treat cold and alleviate ache. Previous pharmacological tests have shown that it possesses antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Also, Solanum nigrum has been used as a diuretic and an antipyretic agent and it has also been used to cure inflammation, edema, mastitis and hepatic cancer. In this investigation, cytotoxicity of specific concentrations of hydro-alcoholic extracts of C. pepo and S. nigrum was studied on normal [Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO and rat fibroblast] and cancer (HepG2 and CT26 cell lines. The cytotoxic effects and IC 50 of the extracts on the selected cell lines were studied followed by colonogenic assay method. The results showed that IC 50 of S. nigrum extract was significantly lower than that of the C. pepo extract on all four cell lines (P < 0.05. On the other hand, IC 50 of S. nigrum extract was significantly higher than the extract of Taxus baccata and Cisplatin, herbal and chemical control positive anticancer compounds, respectively, on all four cell lines (P < 0.05. As a result, it is concluded that the extract of S. nigrum has almost similar cytotoxicity to the extract of T. baccata on cancer cells.

  7. Parental and medical knowledge and management of fever in Italian pre-school children

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    Chiappini Elena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the management of fever in children have been recently published, however “fever phobia” is still spreading. To provide information which may sustain educational interventions tailored to our population we investigated the parental and medical knowledge and management of fever in preschool children. Methods A questionnaire was administered to a convenient sample of Italian parents and paediatricians. The questionnaire elicited information about definition and cause of fever, concerns about fever, method of temperature measurement, and treatment modalities. Results Overall, 388 parents and 480 paediatricians were interviewed. All the parents believed that fever could cause at least one harmful effect and 89.9% (n = 349 believed that, if left untreated, it can cause brain damage or seizures. Parents used multiple resources to obtain information about fever but 67.8% (n = 264 considered paediatricians as their primary resource. Several wrong behaviours were found in the same proportions among parents and paediatricians: 78.5% of paediatricians (n = 377 and 77.8% of parents (n = 302 used physical method to reduce fever (P = 0.867; 27.0% of paediatricians (n = 103 and 21.4% (n = 83 of parents declared to alternate ibuprofen and acetaminophen (P = 0.953. Differently, 73.1% (n = 351 of paediatricians preferred oral to rectal administration of antipyretics compared to 48.7% (n = 190 of parents (P  Conclusions Paediatricians’ attitudes greatly influence the parental behaviours and beliefs. Implementation of educational programs regarding the management of the febrile child are needed in our setting.

  8. The efficacy of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Pistia stratiotes linn in the management of arthritis and fever

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    Boampong, J. N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Arthritic pain and disability are at or near the top of the list of reasons adult patients seek medical attention. This study therefore attempts to establish the efficacy of an aqueous and ethanolic leaf extract of Pistia stratiotes Linn (Araceae in a rodent experimental model of arthritis and fever to ascertain its importance in the traditional management of this inflammatory disorder. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. stratiotes at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg as well as 0.3 mg/kg methotrexate, 0.46 mg/kg diclofenac and 1 mg/kg dexamethasone were administered to formalin-induced arthritic rats. The same doses of the extracts in comparison to 150 mg/kg acetaminophen were also administered to rats in which fever had been induced with lipopolysaccharides. Data ob-tained was analyzed using GraphPad Prism 5.0. The results obtained indicated significant reduc-tion (P ≤ 0.05-0.01 in paw thickness of formalin-induced arthritic animals treated with both aque-ous and ethanolic leaf extracts with effects comparable to that of methotrexate, diclofenac, and dexamethasone. Lipopolysacharride-induced fever in rats was also significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05-0.01 at all dose levels of aqueous and ethanolic treated animals in a manner similar to that of acet-aminophen. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of P. stratiotes have anti-arthritic and antipy-retic effect in formalin-induced arthritis and LPS-induced fever in Sprague-Dawley rats.

  9. A rare case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome presenting with serious hyperthermia treated with a non-invasive cooling device: a case report

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    Storm Christian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A rare side effect of antipsychotic medication is neuroleptic malignant syndrome, mainly characterized by hyperthermia, altered mental state, haemodynamic dysregulation, elevated serum creatine kinase and rigor. There may be multi-organ dysfunction including renal and hepatic failure as well as serious rhabdomyolysis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The prevalence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome is between 0.02% and 2.44% for patients taking neuroleptics and it is not necessary to fulfil all cardinal features characterizing the syndrome to be diagnosed with neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Because of other different life-threatening diseases matching the various clinical findings, the correct diagnosis can sometimes be hard to make. A special problem of intensive care treatment is the management of severe hyperthermia. Lowering of body temperature, however, may be a major clinical problem because hyperthermia in neuroleptic malignant syndrome is typically unresponsive to antipyretic agents while manual cooling proves difficult due to peripheral vasoconstriction. Case presentation A 22-year-old Caucasian man was admitted unconscious with a body temperature of 42°C, elevated serum creatine phosphokinase, tachycardia and hypotonic blood pressure. In addition to intensive care standard therapy for coma and shock, a non-invasive cooling device (Arctic Sun 2000®, Medivance Inc., USA, originally designed to induce mild therapeutic hypothermia in patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, was used to lower body temperature. After successful treatment it became possible to obtain information from the patient about his recent ambulant treatment with Olanzapin (Zyprexa® for schizophrenia. Conclusion Numerous case reports have been published about patients who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to Olanzapin (Zyprexa® medication. Frequently hyperthermia has been observed

  10. Pediatric Epidemic of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in the Area of L’Aquila, Italy, Four Years after a Catastrophic Earthquake

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    Giovanni Nigro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Salmonella enterica epidemic occurred in children of the area of L’Aquila (Central Italy, Abruzzo region between June 2013 and October 2014, four years after the catastrophic earthquake of 6 April 2009. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory children. Routine investigations for Salmonella infection were carried out on numerous alimentary matrices of animal origin and sampling sources for drinking water of the L’Aquila district, including pickup points of the two main aqueducts. Results: Salmonella infection occurred in 155 children (83 females: 53%, aged 1 to 15 years (mean 2.10. Of these, 44 children (28.4% were hospitalized because of severe dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, and fever resistant to oral antipyretic and antibiotic drugs. Three children (1.9% were reinfected within four months after primary infection by the same Salmonella strain. Four children (2.6%, aged one to two years, were coinfected by rotavirus. A seven-year old child had a concomitant right hip joint arthritis. The isolated strains, as confirmed in about the half of cases or probable/possible in the remaining ones, were identified as S. enterica serovar Typhimurium [4,5:i:-], monophasic variant. Aterno river, bordering the L’Aquila district, was recognized as the main responsible source for the contamination of local crops and vegetables derived from polluted crops. Conclusions: The high rate of hospitalized children underlines the emergence of a highly pathogenic S. enterica strain probably subsequent to the contamination of the spring water sources after geological changes occurred during the catastrophic earthquake.

  11. Modern Research Progress of Huanglian%黄连现代研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王影; 刘文娟; 崔瑛

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Huanglian contains many isoquinoline alkaloids. Berberine is the main composition of Huanglian. It has antibacteri-al,antiviral,fall blood sugar,antitumor,antipyretic,anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effect,as well as adjust the cardiovascular sys-tem,cardiovascular system,digestive system,central nervous system and the body's immune function. Clinical used in the treatment of infectious diseases,insomnia,mental disease,arrhythmia,cerebrovascular disease,high blood pressure,diabetes and its complications. Reference citation:Wang Ying,Liu Wenjuan,Cui Ying. Modern Research Progress of Huanglian[ J]. China Journal of Chinese Medi-cine,2014,29(11):1642-1645.%黄连含多种异喹啉类生物碱,其中小檗碱,又名黄连素( berberine),为黄连的主要成分。具有抗菌、抗病毒、降血糖、抗肿瘤、解热、抗炎、抗氧化等作用,并能调节心血管系统、脑血管系统、消化系统、中枢神经系统及机体免疫功能。临床用于治疗感染性疾病、失眠、精神性疾病、心律失常、高血压、糖尿病及其并发症、脑血管病。

  12. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essence oil of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L

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    Z Izadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Peppermint (Mentha piperita L. is a perennial herbaceous essence oil bearing plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family. This plant is a valuable and important herb which has many therapeutic properties. Recent investigations have shown its excellent anti-irritable bowel syndrome effects. Other properties of this plant are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, promote menstrual flow, antipyretic, antiseptic and anti-rheumatoid effects. This investigation was conducted to study the antibacterial properties of peppermint essence oil, as well as determining the content and composition of essential oil. Materials & Methods: In order to study the effect of the antibacterial activity of the essence oil of peppermint, this experimental study was conducted in 2009 at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. The aerial parts of the peppermint were harvested in summer when it was in the full blooming stage of the plant. The collected aerial parts were then dried in the shade. The essence oil of the aerial parts was extracted by hydro-distillation technique using Clevenger apparatus and was analyzed by the capillary GC and GC/MS method. Anti bacterial properties of the essence oil on four pathogenic bacteria were determined by using broth dilution and well diffusion agar methods. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS version 11.5 software, using the independent t-test. Results: The essence oil of peppermint showed the maximum anti bacterial effect on E. coli and the minimum effect on S. aureus and P. aeuroginosa. The essence oil content of aerial parts was 0.69% (w/w based on dry weight. The amount of menthol which is the main constituent of the oil and as an antiseptic component was 47.9%. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that the essential oil of peppermint is rich in menthol and can be considered as an anti-bacterial agent in drug and food industries.

  13. Essential oil constituents and their biological activities from the leaves of Cassia fistula growing in Nepal

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    Prabodh Satyal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassia fistula L. (Fabaceae fruit is used traditionally in Nepal as an antipyretic and to treat constipation, while the leaves are used to treat jaundice, piles, rheumatism, ulcers, insect bites, facial paralysis and skin eruptions. C. fistula leaves are important ingredients in Ayurvedic medicine. This study was undertaken to characterize the volatile constituents of C. fistula leaves and to evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. The essential oil from the leaves of Cassia fistula collected from Biratnagar, Nepal, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activities (minimum inhibitory concentration against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans, were determined using the microbroth dilution technique, in-vitro cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells was determined using the MTT method. C. fistula leaf oil was composed of only seven components, all of which were identified: eugenol (25.0%, (E-phytol (21.5%, camphor (13.5%, limonene (11.0%, salicyl alcohol (10.4%, linalool (9.9%, and 4- hydroxybenzyl alcohol (8.7%. The leaf oil showed antifungal activity against A. niger (MIC = 78 μg/mL and C. albicans (MIC = 313 μg/mL, but only marginal cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells (19.63 ± 11.89% kill at 100 μg/mL. All of the individual essential oil components were screened for activity. Eugenol exhibited antifungal properties (MIC on A. niger = 78 μg/mL and limonene and phytol were cytotoxic (IC50 = 74.7 and 54.3 μg/mL, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of the effects of Cimicifugae Rhizoma on the morphology and viability of mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    JEONG, SU-HYEON; LEE, JI-EUN; KIM, BO-BAE; KO, YOUNGKYUNG; PARK, JUN-BEOM

    2015-01-01

    Cimicifugae Rhizoma is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat various diseases in Korea, China and Japan. Cimicifugae Rhizoma is primarily derived from Cimicifuga heracleifolia Komarov or Cimicifuga foetida Linnaeus. Cimicifugae Rhizoma has been used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic remedy. The present study was performed to evaluate the extracts of Cimicifugae Rhizoma on the morphology and viability of human stem cells derived from gingiva. Stem cells derived from gingiva were grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at final concentrations that ranged from 0.001 to 1,000 µg/ml. The morphology of the cells was viewed under an inverted microscope and the analysis of cell proliferation was performed using a Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Under an optical microscope, the control cells exhibited a spindle-shaped, fibroblast-like morphology. The shapes of the cells in the groups treated with 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml Cimicifugae Rhizoma were similar to the shapes in the control group. Significant alterations in morphology were noted in the 100 and 1,000 µg/ml groups when compared with the control group. The cells in the 100 and 1,000 µg/ml groups were rounder, and fewer cells were present. The cultures that were grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at a concentration of 0.001 µg/ml on day 1 had an increased CCK-8 value. The cultures grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at a concentration of 10 µg/ml on day 7 had a reduced CCK-8 value. Within the limits of this study, Cimicifugae Rhizoma influenced the viability of stem cells derived from the gingiva, and its direct application onto oral tissues may have adverse effects at high concentrations. The concentration and application time of Cimicifugae Rhizoma should be meticulously controlled to obtain optimal results. PMID:26622366

  15. A STUDY ON SELF MEDICATION PATTERNS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS IN SANTHIRAM MEDICAL COLLEGE, NANDYAL

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    Venkateswarlu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-medication can be defined as the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for chronic or recurrent disease or symptoms. Self‐medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self‐medication and the pattern of self‐medication among medical students. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and pattern of use of self-medication among medical students from first year to final year. METHODS: This cross‐sectional descriptive study was conducted at the Santhiram Medical College, Nandyal, during the period of Dec 10th 2013 to Jan 10th 2014. Medical students were selected through convenience sampling. The data was collected using a pre‐tested semi‐structured questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 150 students, 93 (62% male and 57 (38% female were included in the study of the medical students surveyed; self-medication was reported among 92%. The respondents who used self‐medication found it to be timesaving in providing relief from minor ailments. The most common ailments for which self‐medication were used were: the common cold (73%, fever (68% and headache (62%. The students consulted their textbooks (45% and seniors or classmates (39% for the medications. Antipyretics (78%, analgesics (72%, antihistamines (42% and antibiotics (38% were the most common self-medicated drugs. Of the respondents, 29% were unaware of the adverse effects of the medication. CONCLUSION: Self‐medication is becoming an increasingly important area within healthcare. The prevalence of self‐medication among medical students is high, facilitated by the easy availability of drugs and information from textbooks or seniors, due to high level of education and professional

  16. Dengue:epidemiology, prevention and pressing need for vaccine development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuldeep Kumar; Pankaj Kumar Singh; Juhi Tomar; Swati Baijal

    2010-01-01

    Dengue fever is a mosquito born viral infection, and the complicated form of dengue is dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). In the recent decades incidence and distribution of dengue has increased dramatically. Dengue viruses belong to family flaviviridae with four serotypes and are transmitted mainly by mosquito Aedes aegypti. Today almost two-fifth of world's population (2.5 million) is at risk of dengue and no specific antiviral drug or vaccine is available against it. Uncontrolled population growth in Africa and South East Asia has increased number of susceptible hosts in urban and semi urban areas. About 40% of world population resides in the high risk area for dengue transmission. According to latest estimates by WHO, yearly 50 to 100 million infections occur globally, this includes around 500 000 DHF and 22 000 deaths, mostly among children. Only symptomatic treatment in the form of analgesic, antipyretics and body fluid management is provided to the patient. Prevention strategies mainly focus on two approaches, firstly on activities to control vector and secondly on activities to protect human from mosquito bite but there is always concerns regarding their sustainably and effectiveness. Theoretically development of an effective dengue vaccine is feasible and production of an effective and affordable vaccine could be a viable option to save humans from this dreadful disease. Conceptually vaccine production is possible, but it has to be tetravalent, providing immunity against all serotypes. Few candidate vaccines are in advance stage of their development; however international cooperation is needed to make these vaccines available on cheaper rates to the poor and vulnerable countries. Objective of this review is to discuss various aspects related to dengue, its epidemiology, available preventive methods, need for vaccine and challenges in its development.

  17. Chemical constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss. with α-amylase inhibitory activity

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    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase inhibitors play a critical role in the control of diabetes and many of medicinal plants have been found to act as α-amylase inhibitors. Swertia genus, belonging to the family Gentianaceae, comprises different species most of which have been used in traditional medicine of several cultures as antidiabetic, anti-pyretic, analgesic, liver and gastrointestinal tonic. Swertia longifolia Boiss. is the only species of Swertia growing in Iran. In the present investigation, phytochemical study of S. longifolia was performed and α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant fractions and purified compounds were determined. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with hexane, chloroform, methanol and water, respectively. The components of the hexane and chloroform fractions were isolated by different chromatographic methods and their structures were determined by 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR data. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was determined by a colorimetric assay using 3,5-dinitro salysilic acid. During phytochemical examination, α-amyrin, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol were purified from the hexane fraction,while ursolic acid, daucosterol and swertiamarin were isolated from chloroform fraction. The results of the biochemical assay revealed α-amylase inhibitory activity of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water fractions, of which the chloroform and methanol fractions were more potent (IC 50 16.8 and 18.1 mg/ml, respectively. Among examined compounds, daucosterol was found to be the most potent α-amylase inhibitor (57.5% in concentration 10 mg/ml. With regard to α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant extracts, purified constituents, and antidiabetic application of the species of Swertia genus in traditional medicine of different countries, S. longifolia seems more appropriate species for further mechanistic antidiabetic evaluations.

  18. Gastroprotective effect of andrographolide sodium bisulfite against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Zheng, Yi-Feng; Chen, Hai-Ming; Yu, Xiu-Ting; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xie; Xie, Jian-Hui; Su, Zu-Qing; Feng, Xue-Xuan; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Su, Zi-Ren

    2015-06-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfite (ASB), a water-soluble sulfonate of andrographolide has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities. However, there is no report on the gastroprotective effect of ASB against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Here we investigated the possible anti-ulcerogenic potential of ASB and the underlying mechanism against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The ulcer area, histopathological assessment, contents of gastric mucosal glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined. In addition, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression and immunohistochemical evaluation of HSP70, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were also investigated. Results indicated that ASB pre-treatment significantly reduced the ulcer areas induced by indomethacin compared with the vehicle group. The gastric levels of GSH, CAT and SOD were markedly increased by ASB while the level of MDA was decreased. In addition, ASB pretreatment significantly promoted the gastric PGE2 levels and up-regulated the COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA expression in comparison with the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed obvious up-regulation of HSP70 and Bcl-2 protein expression while suppression of Bax protein in the gastric tissue of ASB-pretreated group. Taken together, these findings indicated that the gastroprotective effect of ASB might be associated with the improvement of antioxidative status, activation of COX-mediated PGE2 synthesis, down-regulation of Bax proteins and up-regulation of Bcl-2 and HSP70 proteins. ASB might have the potential for further development as a promising alternative for antiulcer treatment. PMID:25916678

  19. Profile of circulating levels of IL-1Ra, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL2/MCP-1 in dengue fever and parvovirosis

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    Luzia Maria de-Oliveira-Pinto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and parvovirus B19 (B19V infections are acute exanthematic febrile illnesses that are not easily differentiated on clinical grounds and affect the paediatric population. Patients with these acute exanthematic diseases were studied. Fever was more frequent in DENV than in B19V-infected patients. Arthritis/arthralgias with DENV infection were shown to be significantly more frequent in adults than in children. The circulating levels of interleukin (IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra, CXCL10/inducible protein-10 (IP-10, CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 were determined by multiplex immunoassay in serum samples obtained from B19V (37 and DENV-infected (36 patients and from healthy individuals (7. Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that circulating CXCL10/IP-10 tends to be associated with DENV infection and that IL-1Ra was significantly associated with DENV infection. Similar analysis showed that circulating CCL2/MCP-1 tends to be associated with B19V infection. In dengue fever, increased circulating IL-1Ra may exert antipyretic actions in an effort to counteract the already increased concentrations of IL-1β, while CXCL10/IP-10 was confirmed as a strong pro-inflammatory marker. Recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and upregulation of the humoral immune response by CCL2/MCP-1 by B19V may be involved in the persistence of the infection. Children with B19V or DENV infections had levels of these cytokines similar to those of adult patients.

  20. Enhanced photoactivity of graphene/titanium dioxide nanotubes for removal of Acetaminophen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • TiO2 and graphite oxide were used as precursors of titanium dioxide nanotubes and graphene respectively. Titanium dioxide nanotube and graphene (GR-TNT) nanocomposites were synthesized through a simple hydrothermal method. • And its application to removal acetaminophen, degradation efficiency is more than 96%. • The photocatalytic degradation results indicated that the sample with 5% GO in GR-TNT nanocomposites for 3 h had the highest degradation rate. • The degradation intermediates of acetaminophen by the composites were invested by GC-MS and the possible pathways were invested. - Abstract: Acetaminophen is commonly used as an antipyretic or analgesics agent and poses threat to human health. In this research, TiO2 and graphite oxide were used as precursors of titanium dioxide nanotubes and graphene respectively. Titanium dioxide nanotube and graphene (GR-TNT) nanocomposites were synthesized through a hydrothermal method. FT-IR, UV-Vis, XRD, and TGA were used to characterize the catalysts. The acetaminophen degradation rate can reach up to 96% under UV light irradiation for 3 h and with the 5% GR-TNT dosage of 0.1 g L−1. Further experiments were done to probe the mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction catalyzed by the GR-TNT composite. EDTA (hole scavengers) and t-BuOH (radical scavengers) were used to detect the main active oxidative species in the system. The results showed that the holes are the main oxidation species in the photocatalytic process. This study provides a new prospect for acetaminophen degradation by using high efficiency catalysts