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Sample records for antipyretics

  1. Endogenous antipyretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joachim

    2006-09-01

    The febrile increase of body temperature is regarded as a component of the complex host response to infection or inflammation that accompanies the activation of the immune system. Late phases of fever appear mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines called endogenous pyrogens. The rise of body temperature is beneficial because it accelerates several components of the activated immune system. To prevent an excessive and dangerous rise of body temperature the febrile response is controlled, limited in strength and duration, and sometimes even prevented by the actions of endogenous antipyretic substances liberated systemically or within the brain during fever. In most cases the antipyretic effects are achieved by an inhibitory influence on the formation or action of endogenous pyrogens, or by effects on neuronal thermoregulatory circuits that are activated during fever. Endogenous antipyretic substances include steroid hormones, neuropeptides, cytokines and other molecules. It is the purpose of this review to consider the current state in the research on endogenous antipyretic systems.

  2. ANALGESICS ANTIPYRETICS IN PEDIATRICS

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    O.V. Zaitseva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers one of the most critical issues in the pediatrics: the problem of children's hyperthermia. The article features the fever pathogenesis and 'points of application' for antipyretics, the data on efficiency and side effects of this group of medications, as well as indications to reduce heightened body temperature of children. The author demonstrates her own experience: an application of an antipyretic — ibuprofen.Key words: fever, antipyretics, medications of choice, medical indications, children.

  3. Classical Antipyretic Therapy

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    A.E. Abaturov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a contemporary view on the mechanisms of fever development in infectious diseases in children, characterized adverse effects of antipyretic agents, which should be taken into consideration in differentiated selection of the preparation. The choice of ibuprofen in the treatment of hyperthermic syndrome in children is substantiated.

  4. antipyretic and analgesic activities of sphenoceutrum jollyanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Sphenoceutrum jollyanum leaves possess significant in vitro analgesstic and antipyretic activities. Key Words: Sphenocentrum jollyanum, Menispermaceae, analgesic activity, antipyretic activity. Nig. J. Nat. Prod. And Med. Vol.2 1998: 52-53 ...

  5. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f) Radlk leaves at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in male rats. Antiinflammatory activity was studied by using carrageenan and histamine induced oedema right hind paw volume while the ...

  6. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan ...

  7. Evaluation of local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of Cinchona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of an aqueous extract of Cinchona officinalis (C. officinalis) in experimental animal models. Methods: Various doses of the aqueous extract was tested for its local anesthetic activity in guinea pigs and frogs using intracutaneous and plexus anesthesia, ...

  8. Phytochemical Screening and In-vivo Antipyretic Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antipyretic activity of the methanol extract of Bombax malabaricum leaves (MEBM) in rats. Methods: Baker's yeast was used to induce fever in Wistar rats which were divided into four groups. The animal groups were thereafter administered MEBM (200 mg/kg), MEBM (400 mg/kg), paracetamol ...

  9. Phytochemical Screening and In-vivo Antipyretic Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To investigate the antipyretic activity of the methanol extract of Bombax malabaricum leaves. (MEBM) in rats. Methods: Baker's yeast was used to induce fever in Wistar rats which were divided into four groups. The animal groups were thereafter administered MEBM (200 mg/kg), MEBM (400 mg/kg), paracetamol.

  10. Studies of anticancer and antipyretic activity of Bidens pilosa whole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . (Asteraceae) has been conducted using the in – vitro comet assay for anticancer and the antipyretic action, which was done with in – vivo models. The extract from whole plant was extracted with n – hexane, chloroform and methanol extract ...

  11. Antipyretic and analgesic activities of aqueous extract of Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the scientific basis for the use of Acacia nilotica root extract for treatment of fever and pain in traditional medical practice. Anti-Pyretic study was carried out using Brewerʼs yeast suspension to induce pyrexia. The hot plate, tail immersion and acetic acid-induced writhing tests were the ...

  12. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Drymaria cordata (Linn.) Willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, D. cordata produced significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent inhibition of temperature elevation in the 2,4-DNP and yeast-induced hyperthermia models with ... that the aqueous whole plant extract of Drymaria cordata possesses analgesic and antipyretic properties mediated through peripheral and central mechanisms.

  13. Toxicity and antipyretic studies of the crude extract of Tephrosia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity and antipyretic studies of the crude extract of Tephrosia bractiolata leaves. MOA Onaolapo, HC Nzelibe, AO Aduadi, JO Ayo. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jopat.v9i1.48589.

  14. Preliminary investigation on antipyretic activity of Cuscuta Reflexa in rats

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    Sanjib Bhattacharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the antipyretic activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts from Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Cuscutaceae was evaluated using Brewer′s yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Both the extracts at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight dose significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the increased rectal temperature. The extracts started reducing the elevated rectal temperature after 3 h of treatment in a dose related manner. At the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight the aqueous and ethanol extract reduced 79 % and 83.8 % respectively of the elevated rectal temperature as compared to reference drug paracetamol (96.5 % after 6 h of treatment. It was therefore concluded that both the extracts of C. reflexa demonstrated antipyretic activity, the ethanol extract was found to be slightly potent than the aqueous extract.

  15. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA IN RATS

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    Bodhisattva Roy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the antipyretic activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts fromCuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Cuscutaceae was evaluated using Brewer’s yeast inducedpyrexia in rats. Both the extracts at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight dose significantly (p< 0.05 reduced the increased rectal temperature. The extracts started reducing theelevated rectal temperature after 3 h of treatment in a dose related manner. At the dose of400 mg/kg body weight the aqueous and ethanol extract reduced 79 % and 83.8 %respectively of the elevated rectal temperature as compared to reference drug paracetamol(96.5 % after 6 h of treatment. It was therefore concluded that both the extracts of C.reflexa demonstrated antipyretic activity, the ethanol extract was found to be slightlypotent than the aqueous extract.

  16. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

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    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po. showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  17. Hyperthermia and Use of Antipyretics in Pediatric Practice

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    Yu.V. Marushko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problem of hyperthermia in pediatric practice. There are given the peculiarities of fever types, recommendations on management by physician who provides care for a child with a fever, recommendations on the definition of the category of patients who should be administered with antipyretic agent. The authors provide evidence-based data on the benefits of ibuprofen (Nurofen® for children as the hypothermic therapy in children with fever.

  18. Antipyretic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis: An Interaction with Body Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Chen, Lin; Ni, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The effect of antipyretic therapy on mortality in patients with sepsis remains undetermined. The present study aimed to investigate the role of antipyretic therapy in ICU patients with sepsis by using a large clinical database. Methods The multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care II (MIMIC- II) database was employed for the study. Adult patients with sepsis were included for analysis. Antipyretic therapy included antipyretic medication and external cooling. Multivariable model with interaction terms were employed to explore the association of antipyretic therapy and mortality risk. Main Results A total of 15,268 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria and were included in the study. In multivariable model by treating temperature as a continuous variable, there was significant interaction between antipyretic therapy and the maximum temperature (Tmax). While antipyretic therapy had no significant effect on mortality in low temperature quintiles, antipyretic therapy was associated with increased risk of death in the quintile with body temperature >39°C (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.04–1.61). Conclusion Our study shows that there is no beneficial effect on reducing mortality risk with the use of antipyretic therapy in ICU patients with sepsis. External cooling may even be harmful in patients with sepsis. PMID:25822614

  19. Study of Antipyretic Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats

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    V.I. Borikar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to screen the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. as per the method discribed by Bhalla et.al, (1971. Thirty six healthy rats weighing between 200-250gms were divided into six groups of six animals each, with 50% sex ratio. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 3 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 15% of brewer’s yeast and 2% gum acacia in normal saline sub-cutaneously below the nape of neck @ 1ml/100gm of animal weight. The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The extract showed marked antipyretic activity in a dose dependent manner. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 215-216

  20. Antipyretic Effects of Citral and Possible Mechanisms of Action.

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    Emílio-Silva, Maycon T; Mota, Clarissa M D; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Cárnio, Evelin C; Branco, Luiz G S

    2017-10-01

    Citral is a mixture of the two monoterpenoid isomers (neral and geranial) widely used as a health-promoting food additive safe for human and animal (approved by the US Food and Drug Administration). In vitro studies have reported on the capability of citral to reduce inflammation. Here, we report antipyretic effects of citral in vivo using the most well-accepted model of sickness syndrome, i.e., systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide ( LPS ) to rats. Citral given by gavage caused no change in control euthermic rats (treated with saline) but blunted most of the assessed parameters related to the sickness syndrome [fever (hallmark of infection), plasma cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) release, and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) synthesis (both peripherally and hypothalamic)]. Moreover, LPS caused a sharp increase in plasma corticosterone levels that was unaltered by citral. These data are consistent with the notion that citral has a corticosterone-independent potent antipyretic effect, acting on the peripheral febrigenic signaling (plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE 2 ), eventually down-modulating hypothalamic PGE 2 production.

  1. Studies on anti-ulcer, analgesic and antipyretic properties of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ulcer, analgesic and anti pyretic activities in rats and mice. Ethanol-induced gastric ulceration, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced nociception were used. Yeast-induced hyperpyrexia was used to investigate the antipyretic activity.

  2. Studies on anti-ulcer, analgesic and antipyretic properties of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Yeast-induced hyperpyrexia was used to investigate the antipyretic ... be important in establishing a pharmacological basis for some of the ..... Koster R, Anderson M, De Beer EJ (1959) Acetic acid for analgesic screening.

  3. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis Linn. in different experimental models

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    Kumar Ashok B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of the whole plant extract of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV was screened for antinociceptive activity using the acetic acid writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice and for antipyretic activity using the yeast-induced pyrexia method in rats, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Significant (p<0.01 dose-dependent antinociceptive and antipyretic properties were observed with 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  4. Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perianayagam, James B; Sharma, S K; Joseph, Aney; Christina, A J M

    2004-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of ethanol (EEO) and aqueous (AEO) extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits in several experimental models. A single oral dose of EEO and AEO (500 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant reduction in brewer's yeast induced hyperthermia in rats. EEO and AEO also elicited pronounced inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice in the analgesic test. Both, EEO and AEO did not show any significant analgesic activity in the tail-immersion test. These findings suggest that extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits possessed potent anti-pyretic and analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and amino acids, which may be responsible for anti-pyretic and analgesic activities.

  5. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  6. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethanolic extract of plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. Bark

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    Anil Kumar Singhal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. belongs to the family of "Lamiaceae," which is widely available in Tamil Nadu. Traditionally, plant extract is used to treat fever and common cold for children. The plant has not been yet studied pharmacologically for antipyretic activity. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the bark of plant G. prostratum (L. Benth. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 healthy white albino rats weighing 200 to 250 g were taken and divided into four groups of six animals each. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 4 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 12% of brewer′s yeast (at the dose 1 ml/100 g of animal weight in normal saline subcutaneously below the nape of neck. Ethanolic extract was given orally to groups II and III at the dose 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results are presented as mean΁SEM. Statistical analysis of data was performed using Dunnett′s test to study the difference among the mean. Results: The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The present results showed that ethanolic extract of bark of G. prostratum plant possess a significant antipyretic effect in yeast-induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. It was revealed that the extract showed dose-dependent antipyretic activity. At a dose of 200 mg/kg, it showed significant antipyretic activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of G. prostratum (L. Benth. plant has significant antipyretic activity when compared with the standard drug. So, it can be recommended for further studies.

  7. Current Issues of Antipyretic Therapy in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections

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    E. I. Novikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the current issues in the pediatric practice of seasonal incidence of children with acute respiratory infections. The basic etiological aspects of this pathology, specific clinical symptoms typical for different pathogens, causes of bursts of disease in certain periods are described. Special attention is paid to the tactics of antipyretic therapy in different groups of children with fever and acute respiratory diseases, understand the typical errors in its appointment. The author discusses the domestic and foreign results of using ibuprofen to relieve fever in children with this pathology, comparative efficacy and safety data of ibuprofen with other analgesics-antipyretics.

  8. Antipyretic therapy in critically ill patients with established sepsis: a trial sequential analysis.

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    Zhongheng Zhang

    Full Text Available antipyretic therapy for patients with sepsis has long been debated. The present study aimed to explore the beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy for ICU patients with sepsis.systematic review and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials.Pubmed, Scopus, EBSCO and EMBASE were searched from inception to August 5, 2014.Mortality was dichotomized as binary outcome variable and odds ratio (OR was chosen to be the summary statistic. Pooled OR was calculated by using DerSimonian and Laird method. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by using the statistic I2. Trial sequential analysis was performed to account for the small number of trials and patients.A total of 6 randomized controlled trials including 819 patients were included into final analysis. Overall, there was no beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy on mortality risk in patients with established sepsis (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.50-2.05. The required information size (IS was 2582 and our analysis has not yet reached half of the IS. The Z-curve did not cross the O'Brien-Fleming α-spending boundary or reach the futility, indicating that the non-significant result was probably due to lack of statistical power.our study fails to identify any beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy on ICU patients with established diagnosis of sepsis. Due to limited number of total participants, more studies are needed to make a conclusive and reliable analysis.

  9. [Antipyretics indication by pediatricians. Internet as a tool in data collections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamud, Ariel; Suwezda, Alejandro; Matamoros, Rodrigo; Ringuelet, Lucio

    2008-10-01

    Fever is one of the most common complaints in Pediatrics. We performed this study to know how pediatricians use antipyretics to manage fever in children, and Internet was used to collect data. On line survey with a questionnaire regarding general and specific issues about fever. 1600 pediatricians participated. 62% were female, 35% had less than 10 years of practice, 28% between 10 and 20 years of practice, and 33% over 20 years of practice. 67% had training in Pediatrics. 93% use the arm-pit to measure fever and 37% consider over 38 degrees C as being fever. The mostly used antithermic in older than 6 month was Ibuprofeno and in younger than 6 months, Paracetamol. 59% of the pediatricians alternate 2 antipyretics (63.7% with less than 20 year of experience versus 49.3% with > 20 years of experience in their profession); 29% define their actions based on the Argentine Society of Pediatrics guidelines and 26% on their personal experience. Pediatricians prescribe antipyretics regularly alternating them in spite of the lack of evidence supporting that behavior. The less experienced the pediatrician, the more frecuent the practice of alternating antipyretics.

  10. USE OF ELEUSINE INDICA (L. GAERTN. (KECHILA GHAS AS AN ANTIPYRETIC MEDICINE OF HERBIVORES

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Murshidabad district of West Bengal state, India, the traditionally animal rearing people feed parts of Kechila ghas as an antipyretic medicine to their herbivorous animals. The plant is identified as Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. of the family Poaceae. After collection from the soil, the plants are washed and the whole root along with 1-2 centimeter of stems are cut and fed directly at fresh, succulent stage to the ailing animals for that purpose.

  11. Antipyretic activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Moringa oleifera in rabbits.

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    Ahmad, Saeed; Shah, Syed Muhammad-Ali; Alam, Muhammad Khurshid; Usmanghani, Khan; Azhar, Iqbal; Akram, Muhammad

    2014-07-01

    Pyrexia and inflammation are indicatives of various disorders. Modern medicines are available for treatment of pyrexia, but they have few side effects. Several studies are ongoing Worldwide to search natural antipyretic agents with better efficacy and fewer or no side effects. This study was aimed at evaluating the antipyretic activity of Moringa oleifera bark in rabbits against E. coli induced pyrexia. Rectal temperature was recorded with digital thermometer at 0 h and E. coli suspension was injected. After 1 h again rectal temperature of the animals was recorded and hydro-alcoholic extract were administered to the treatment groups and paracetamol hydro-alcoholic 50 mg/kg orally to the positive control group. Then rectal temperature was recorded at the interval of one h for 4 h. After the drug administration (at h 1), the decrease in body temperature with the dose of 25mg/kg(-1) during next four h ranged between 1.9-2.6of as compared to the negative control. At the dose of 50mg/kg(-1) the decrease in temperature was 1.9-3.0 of. The decrease in body temperature at the dose of 100mg/kg(-1) was high, which ranged from 2.3-3.1of as compared to negative control. Paracetamol, a standard drug , also significantly lowered the temperature but Moringa oleifera at the concentration of 100mg/kg(-1) lowered the body temperature significantly as compared to the negative as well as positive control. Moringa oleifera bark has marked antipyretic activity in animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Moringa oleifera bark as an antipyretic plant.

  12. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

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    Muhammad Naveed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME. Methods VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p. Results In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23% protection at 300mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90% at 150mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300mg/kg. Conclusions It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant.

  13. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Naveed; Saeed, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon

    2012-05-02

    Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME). VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p). In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23%) protection at 300 mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90%) at 150 mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300 mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300 mg/kg. It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant.

  14. Preclinical validation of antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, and antipyretic activities of Cordia martinicensis leave decoction

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Hormaza, Ioanna; Victoria Amador, María del Carmen; Brito Álvarez, Gisselle; Morón Rodríguez, Francisco; López Barreiro, Marisol; García Hernández, Ana Ibis; Duménigo González, Abel; Morejón Rodríguez, Zulema; Bacallao Elguea, Yunier; Nossin, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: leave decoction of Cordia martinicensis (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult. is commonly used in Dominica, Martinique and St. Lucia to relieve thoracic pain and fever. Objectives: to validate the antiinflammatory, antinociceptive (analgesic), and antipyretic ethnobotanical uses of Cordia martinicensis in experimental animal models. Methods: 30 % aqueous extract of Cordia martinicensis dry leaves was prepared just before use. Analgesic activity was assayed by writhing and tail flick, and anti...

  15. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of artesunate in experimental animals

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    Ette Ettebong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potentials of artesunate in albino wistar mice and rats respectively. Methods: For the anti-inflammatory activity, artesunate (5 mg/kg was administered orally against egg albumin- and xylene-induced inflammation in mice using ibuprofen (50 mg/kg as standard drug. To assess antipyretic activity, artesunate (5 mg/kg was administered orally against amphetamine- and 2, 4-dinitrophenol-induced pyrexia in rats using ibuprofen (15 mg/ kg as standard drug. Results: The result showed that artesunate significantly (P < 0.001–0.010 reduced inflammation induced by egg albumin and xylene in a time-dependent manner. It also significantly (P < 0.001–0.050 and time-dependently reduced pyrexia induced by amphetamine and 2, 4-dinitrophenol. These reductions were similar to those produced by the standard drug ibuprofen, and thereby demonstrating that artesunate possesses antiinflammatory and antipyretic activities. Conclusions: These results further support the rationale for the use of artesunate in the treatment of malaria, a disease characterized by fever and inflammation and open up possibilities of its usefulness in other inflammatory and feverish diseases.

  16. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity on Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Kaur, Jagjit

    2015-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. is an important medicinal plant of family Boraginaceae. Traditionally, its leaves are used to treat fever, headache, and joint pain but its medicinal activities have not been proven by research. To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of C. dichotoma G. Forst. leaf extract. The various extracts of leaf powder were prepared by using soxhlet apparatus. The methanol extract was selected for pharmacological study. To evaluate analgesic activity, Eddy's hot plate method, to study anti-inflammatory activity, carageenan-induced rat paw edema method, and to study antipyretic activity, yeast-induced pyrexia method was used. SD female rats (180-200 g) were used for the study. In all three tests, the methanol extract high dose (400 mg/kg) was found to be highly significant as compared to standard drug. This study proved the traditional uses of plant leaves and concluded the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of the leaf methanol extract.

  17. Qualitative phytochemical screening and evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Microcos paniculata barks and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Md Abdullah

    2015-05-01

    The main objectives of this study were to qualitatively evaluate the profile of phytochemical constituents present in methanolic extract of Microcos paniculata bark (BME) and fruit (FME), as well as to evaluate their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. Phytochemical constituents of BME and FME were determined by different qualitative tests such as Molisch's test, Fehling's test, alkaloid test, frothing test, FeCl3 test, alkali test, Salkowski's test and Baljet test. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the extracts were evaluated through proteinase-inhibitory assay, xylene-induced ear edema test, cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in mice, formalin test, acetic acid-induced writhing test, tail immersion test and Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. M. paniculata extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and triterpenoids. All of the extracts showed significant (Panalgesic activities at 60 min in the tail immersion test. Again, the significant (Panalgesic and antipyretic activities.

  18. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla L. (Saltcedar) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Abbas, Khizar; Hamayun, Rahma; Ali, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Tamarix aphylla. The powdered plant was extracted by the method of cold maceration using aqueous ethanol (70:30) as solvents. Analgesic activity was assessed by Eddy's hot plate method, formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carageenan-induced mice paw edema. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. The aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla showed 42% inhibition (pTamarix aphylla exhibit analgesic and antipyretic activity but lacks anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. The effect of prophylactic antipyretic administration on post-vaccination adverse reactions and antibody response in children: a systematic review.

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    Rashmi Ranjan Das

    Full Text Available Prophylactic antipyretic administration decreases the post-vaccination adverse reactions. Recent study finds that they may also decrease the antibody responses to several vaccine antigens. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for a relationship between prophylactic antipyretic administration, post-vaccination adverse events, and antibody response in children.A systematic search of major databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out till March 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing prophylactic antipyretic treatment versus placebo post-vaccination in children ≤ 6 years of age were included. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed the studies for methodological quality, and extracted data [PROSPERO registration: CRD42014009717].Of 2579 citations retrieved, a total of 13 RCTs including 5077 children were included in the review. Prophylactic antipyretic administration significantly reduced the febrile reactions (≥ 38.0 °C after primary and booster vaccinations. Though there were statistically significant differences in the antibody responses between the two groups, the prophylactic PCM group had what would be considered protective levels of antibodies to all of the antigens given after the primary and booster vaccinations. No significant difference in the nasopharyngeal carriage rates (short-term and long-term of H. influenzae or S. pneumoniae serotypes was found between the prophylactic and no prophylactic PCM group. There was a significant reduction in the local and systemic symptoms after primary, but not booster vaccinations.Though prophylactic antipyretic administration leads to relief of the local and systemic symptoms after primary vaccinations, there is a reduction in antibody responses to some vaccine antigens without any effect on the nasopharyngeal carriage rates of S. pneumoniae & H. influenza serotypes. Future trials and surveillance programs should also aim at

  20. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

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    Nirmal Kumar Subedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P<0.001 and P<0.05 inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P<0.001 after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins.

  1. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Yousef A; Samud, Awatef M; El-Taher, Fathy E; ben-Hussin, Ghazala; Elmezogi, Jamal S; Al-Mehdawi, Badryia F; Salem, Hanan A

    2015-01-01

    Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache. The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice. Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity and the antipyretic effects, respectively. The oil was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose of 33 mg/kg body weight and the effects were compared with reference drugs. In the antinociceptive test, mice treated with clove oil exhibited significantly decreased acetic-acid-induced writhing movements by a maximum of 87.7% (pscreening of the oil showed the presence of eugenol. The present findings demonstrate the potential pharmacological properties of clove oil and provide further a support for its reported use in folk medicine.

  2. Analgesic, anti-inflmmatory and antipyretic activities of methanolic leaf extract of Maerua crassifolia

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    Godwin Christian Akuodor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic leaf extract of Maerua crassifolia in mice and rats. Methods: Acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion methods were used to assess analgesic activity, while xylene and carrageenan-induced paw oedema methods were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the leaf extract. Yeast and amphetamine-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the antipyretic activity. The phytochemical analysis and oral acute toxicity of the methanolic leaf extract of Maerua crassifolia were also evaluated. Results: The leaf extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg showed a dose dependent and significant (P < 0.05 inhibition of pain in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.05 anti-inflammatory activity in both paradigms. A significant (P < 0.05 reduction in hyperpyrexia was also observed with the leaf extract. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, steroids, resins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The oral median lethal dose of the leaf extract was estimated to be greater than 5 000 mg/kg in rats. Conclusions: The findings confirmed its ethnomedical use in the treatment of pains and feverish conditions.

  3. [Hemodynamic and antipyretic effects of paracetamol, metamizol and dexketoprofen in critical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, P; Zapata, L; Gich, I; Mancebo, J; Betbesé, A J

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to study the antipyretic and hemodynamic effects of three different drugs used to treat fever in critically ill patients. Prospective, observational study in a 16-bed, general ICU of a university hospital. We studied 150 patients who had a febrile episode (temperature>38°C): 50 received paracetamol, 50 metamizol and 50 dexketoprofen. None. Body temperature, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, heart rate, central venous pressure and oxygen saturation were determined at baseline and at 30, 60 and 120minutes after infusion of the drug. Additionally, we recorded temperature 180minutes after starting drug infusion. Diuresis and the need for or change of dose of vasodilator or vasoconstrictor drugs were also recorded. Patient characteristics, baseline temperature and hemodynamics were similar in all groups. We observed a significant decrease of at least 1°C in temperature after 180minutes in 38 patients treated with dexketoprofen (76%), in 36 with metamizol (72%), and in 20 with paracetamol (40%) (pdexketoprofen (p=0.005). Dexketoprofen was the most effective antipyretic agent at the doses tested. Although all three drugs reduced mean arterial pressure, the reduction with paracetamol was less pronounced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Antipyretic activity of the extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. in experimental animals

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    Wantana Reanmongkol

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. (H. sabdariffa on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were examined. Anti-inflammatory activity was also investigated on carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats. No acute toxicity was observed in mice after oral administration of the ethanol and aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa calyces at the dose of 15 g/kg. Oral administration of the ethanol extract at the dose of 800 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of contortions and stretchings induced by acetic acid in mice. The aqueous extracts had no effect on this test. Neither the ethanol nor aqueous extract had an effect in the formalin and hot plate tests in mice. The ethanol and the vacuum dried extract of H. sabdariffa calyces (200-800 mg/kg, p.o. decreased the yeast-induced fever in rats. The H. sabdariffa extract had no effect on carrageenininduced paw edema in rats. These results suggest that the ethanol and aqueous extract (vacuum dry of H. sabdariffa calyces possess antipyretic action through mechanisms that are different from that of aspirin.

  5. Assessment of antinociceptive, antipyretic and antimicrobial activity of Piper cubeba L. essential oil in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothana, Ramzi; Alsaid, Mansour; Khaled, Jamal M; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Alatar, Abdulrahman; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Ahamad, Syed Rizwan

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possible antiniciceptive, antipyretic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of Piper Cubeba (L.). To assess the antinociceptive and antipyretic activities, three doses (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, tail flick reaction and hot-plate and Brewer's yeast-induced hyperpyrexia test models in animals. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity was examined using agar diffusion method and broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The Piper Cubeba essential oil (PCEO) showed a marked antinociception (17, 30 and 54%) and an increase in reaction time in mice in the flick tailed and hot-plate tests. The brewer's yeast induced hyperpyrexia was decreased in a dose dependent manner. PCEO also exhibited a strong antimicrobial potential. These findings confirm the traditional analgesic indications of P. cubeba oil and provide persuasive evidence and support its use in Arab traditional medicine.

  6. Antipyretic efficacy and tolerability of oral ibuprofen, oral dipyrone and intramuscular dipyrone in children: a randomized controlled trial

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    Judith Prado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Dipyrone is a widely used over-the-counter antipyretic in Latin America, and elsewhere among Latin immigrants. Despite limited evidence, physicians often prescribe oral ibuprofen or intramuscular dipyrone as the most effective antipyretics. Our aim was to compare the antipyretic efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of oral ibuprofen, oral dipyrone or intramuscular dipyrone in febrile children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, single-blind clinical trial, at San Bartolomé Mother-Child National Teaching Hospital, Lima, Peru. METHODS: Children from six months to six years old with fever (rectal temperature: 38.3 to 39.8° C in the emergency ward between February and June 2003 were eligible. Seventy-five children were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of oral ibuprofen (10 mg/kg, oral dipyrone (15 mg/kg or intramuscular dipyrone (15 mg/kg. The primary outcome was mean temperature reduction after 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Secondary outcomes were fever-associated symptoms and clinical adverse events. RESULTS: Fever decreased by about 0.5° C after 45 minutes and by about 1.0° C after 120 minutes in all three groups. Mean temperatures were similar for the three groups at all times. There was a significant decrease in fever-associated symptoms for all groups. Six patients (four receiving oral dipyrone and two receiving ibuprofen were withdrawn because of vomiting within 20 minutes after first dose of study medication. One patient assigned to oral ibuprofen presented transient urticaria. CONCLUSIONS: Antipyretic efficacy and tolerability were similar for oral ibuprofen, oral dipyrone and intramuscular dipyrone. Oral antipyretics seem more appropriate for feverish children.

  7. [Has the use of antipyretics been modified after the introduction of different concentrations of ibuprofen into the market?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Blanes, C P; Rodríguez-Cantón Pascual, P; Morales-Carpi, C; Morales-Olivas, F J

    2014-12-01

    Due to the emergence of new pharmaceutical presentations of ibuprofen (40 mg/ml), an analysis was made on the use of antipyretics in pediatric outpatient in Spain. A cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study was carried out on a sample of children under 14 years old with treated febrile syndrome, seen in the Emergency Room of the Hospital General Universitario de Valencia from November 2012 to January 2013. Of the 217 children included, 144 were treated with paracetamol or ibuprofen, 69 received both drugs, and one received paracetamol and metamizol. There were 58.7% of exposures to paracetamol and 40.9% to ibuprofen. The parents decided the use of antipyretics in 63.2% of cases. In 98 exposures the dose was different from that authorized in the labeling of the drug (off-label use). Ibuprofen was used off-label in 40.2% of cases, mostly by underdosing (35.9%). Paracetamol was used off-label in 29.8% of cases, predominantly overdose (26.8%), with the difference being statistically significant. No significant differences were observed in the off-label use in either monotherapy or combined use. There were also no differences when antipyretics prescribed by doctors or given directly by parents were evaluated separately. The majority of children with treated febrile syndrome seen in the Emergency Room were receiving antipyretic drugs after a parental decision. Paracetamol is the most commonly used drug and one in three children received it simultaneously with ibuprofen. The antipyretics were used off label in one-third of the cases. Off label use of ibuprofen is increasing, and is probably due to the existence of different pharmaceutical presentations. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Analgesic and antipyretic activity of Curcuma longa rhizome extracts in wister rats

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    S. Neha

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain analgesic and antipyretic activities of rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa in Wister rats. Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg by oral, single dose treatment for seven days revealed significant difference (P<0.05, 0.01 in reaction time in terms of analgesic activity before and after treatments which was comparable to analgin (10 mg/kg b wt. and were ineffective in reversal of brewers yeast induced pyrexia. Solvent yield of these extracts was 20 percent and color dark brown and reddish brown with solid and semisolid consistency respectively. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000: 304-306

  9. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling to Study the Antipyretic Effect of Qingkailing Injection on Pyrexia Model Rats

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    Zhixin Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qingkailing injection (QKLI is a modern Chinese medicine preparation derived from a well-known classical formulation, An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan. Although the clinical efficacy of QKLI has been well defined, its severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs were extensively increased. Through thorough attempts to reduce ADR rates, it was realized that the effect-based rational use plays the key role in clinical practices. Hence, the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD model was introduced in the present study, aiming to link the pharmacokinetic profiles with the therapeutic outcomes of QKLI, and subsequently to provide valuable guidelines for the rational use of QKLI in clinical settings. The PK properties of the six dominant ingredients in QKLI were compared between the normal treated group (NTG and the pyrexia model group (MTG. Rectal temperatures were measured in parallel with blood sampling for NTG, MTG, model control group (MCG, and normal control group (NCG. Baicalin and geniposide exhibited appropriate PK parameters, and were selected as the PK markers to map the antipyretic effect of QKLI. Then, a PK-PD model was constructed upon the bacalin and geniposide plasma concentrations vs. the rectal temperature variation values, by a two-compartment PK model with a Sigmoid Emax PD model to explain the time delay between the drug plasma concentration of PK markers and the antipyretic effect after a single dose administration of QKLI. The findings obtained would provide fundamental information to propose a more reasonable dosage regimen and improve the level of individualized drug therapy in clinical settings.

  10. Investigation the antinociceptive, antipyretic and antiinflammatory activities of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extracts in experimental animals

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    Arunee Khamjun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma aeruginosa (C. aeruginosa Roxb. (Zingiberaceae is known in Thai as Waan-Ma-Haa-Mek. The rhizomes of this plant have been used as a component of Thai herbal medicinal recipes used for decreasing dysmenorrhea. In the present study, the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions of this plant were investigated in experimental animals. The rhizomes of C. aeruginosa were extracted with chloroform, methanol and water to give chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. The effects of the three extracts on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in mice were performed. The antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever and the anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced edema in rats, were examined. The LD50 value of orally administered the chloroform extract and methanol extract in mice was 3.03 g/kg. No dead mice were observed after oral administration of aqueous extract at the dose of 10 g/kg. Oral administration of the chloroform extract and the methanol extract of C. aeruginosa rhizomes (100-400 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of writhings and stretchings induced by acetic acid. Only the chloroform extract suppressed the licking activity of the late phase in the formalin test in mice. All extracts of C. aeruginosa rhizomes had no effects on heat-induced pain in mice, yeast-induced fever and carrageenin-induced edema in rats. These results suggest that the chloroform extract of C. aeruginosa rhizome possesses analgesic effect via a different mechanism from that of the aspirin.

  11. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of extracts and fractions from Dracaena loureiri in experimental animals

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    Pisit Bouking

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Dried coarsely powdered material from the stem woods of Dracaena loureiri Gagnep (D loureiri has extracted with hexane and methanol to give hexane and methanol extracts, respectively. The methanol extract was roughly separated into four fractions. They were methanol, methanol + water, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions. The effects of the methanol extract, hexane extract, methanol fraction, methanol + water fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and chloroform fraction on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were examined. General behavior was also examined using pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. The LD5 0 value of intraperitoneally injected the methanol extract, hexane extract, methanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and chloroform fraction in mice was 1.67 g/kg, >7 g/kg, 739.73 mg/kg, 489.77 mg/kg and 1.67 g/kg, respectively. Oral administration of the methanol extract and methanol fraction of D. loureiri (100-400 mg/kg dose de- pendently decreased the number of writhings and stretchings induced by acetic acid and licking activity of the late phase in the formalin test. All extracts or fractions of D. loureiri had no effects on heat-induced pain in mice. Only the methanol fraction of D. loureiri suppressed yeast-induced fever in rats. Neither extracts nor fractions affected paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats. The methanol extract of D. loureiri (100- 400 mg/kg, p.o. prolonged the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. These results suggest that the methanol extract and the methanol fraction of D. loureiri possess analgesic effect. Only the methanol fraction of the extract exhibited antipyretic effect.

  12. Analysis of Adverse Reaction of Analgesics, Antipyretics and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Prescribed by Physicians of Health Care Facilities in Podilskyi Region during 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Stepaniuk, N. H.; Hladkykh, F. V.; Basarab, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of medicines rational use exists all over the world. It concerns particularly analgesics, antipyretics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In Ukraine the side effects caused by non-steroidal antiphlogistics rank the second place according to the prevalence among all registered cases.The objective of the research was to analyze adverse drug reaction report forms concerning adverse reactions caused by the use of NSAIDs, analgesics, antipyretics, and were submitted du...

  13. Determinants of antipyretic misuse in children up to 5 years of age: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, Natalya; Tessler, Hedva; Okbe, Ranya; Press, Joseph; Gorodischer, Rafael

    2006-05-01

    Fever in children is a common and usually benign symptom. It is known that antipyretic treatment is ineffective in the prevention of simple febrile seizures. Caregivers' administration of antipyretic medications to children has been reported, but data concerning the formulations used, actual doses administered, and effects of ethnicity and socioeconomic status on administration practices are incomplete. The aim of this study was to identify the factors affecting antipyretic administration (higher-than-recommended doses in particular) by caregivers to their febrile children in 2 differing cultural-ethnic backgrounds. This cross-sectional survey study, conducted from January to March 2002, was part of a larger, ongoing survey study of the differences in care givers' knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes concerning children's fever in the 2 major cultural-ethnic groups in the Negev District in Israel: Jews and Bedouin Moslems. It was conducted at the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED), Soroka Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel. A structured questionnaire was administered to Jewish and Bedouin Moslem parents or usual caregivers of young (age, 0-60 months) children attending the PED due to fever. Each child's weight was obtained from the PED medical record. After completion of the interview, the reported antipyretic dose per kilogram of body weight was calculated. Less-than-recommended dose was defined as 16.5 mg/kg for acetaminophen and >11 mg/kg for ibuprofen. The caregivers of a total of 201 children (mean [SD] age, 20 [17] months; mean [SD] weight, 10.4 [4.0] kg) were included in the study. The study included 101 Jewish and 100 Bedouin Moslem caregivers. The proportion of people surveyed who were parents was 98%; grandmothers, 2%. Differences existed between the 2 cultural-ethnic groups in the source of knowledge regarding antipyretic use in children (a significantly larger proportion of Jewish caregivers received their knowledge concerning antipyretic use from

  14. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice

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    Yousef A. Taher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache. Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice. Methods: Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity and the antipyretic effects, respectively. The oil was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. at a dose of 33 mg/kg body weight and the effects were compared with reference drugs. Results: In the antinociceptive test, mice treated with clove oil exhibited significantly decreased acetic-acid-induced writhing movements by a maximum of 87.7% (p<0.01 compared with a decrease of 77.7% (p<0.01 in response to aspirin injection (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.. Similarly, in the hot plate test, clove oil significantly increased the reaction latency to pain after 60 min by 82.3% (p<0.05 compared with morphine value of 91.7% (p<0.01. In addition, clove oil and indomethacin produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by respectively 50.6% (p<0.05 and 70.4% (p<0.01 inhibition of mouse paw edema induced by carrageenan. Furthermore, clove oil significantly attenuated the hyperthermia induced by yeast at ΔT-max by 2.7°C (p<0.001, and time of peak effects was 30–180 min compared with a paracetamol value ΔT-max of 3.2°C (p<0.001. The estimated i.p. LD50 of clove oil was 161.9 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the oil showed the presence of eugenol. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate the potential pharmacological properties of clove oil and provide further a support for its reported use in folk medicine.

  15. Puerarin exerts antipyretic effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced fever in rats involving inhibition of pyrogen production from macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiu-Juan; Yin, Ji-Ai; Xia, Yu-Feng; Wei, Zhi-Feng; Luo, Yu-Bin; Liu, Mei; Feleder, Carlos; Dai, Yue

    2012-05-07

    Puerarin is the most abundant isoflavonoid in Radix Puerariae (Gegen), which has been prescribed as a medicinal herb for treating fever in China for a long history. The present study aimed at evaluating the antipyretic effect of puerarin and revealing the related mechanisms. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever in rats was used to assess the antipyretic effect of puerarin. After an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (100μg/kg), body temperature was tested every 30min up to 8h. Different doses of puerarin (25, 50, 100mg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered 30min before LPS injection. In vitro, LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were treated with various concentrations of puerarin (25-200μM). The pyrogenic mediators, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and nitric oxide (NO), were examined on both transcription and expression levels. Furthermore, the influences of the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by puerarin were assayed by western blot. The intraperitoneal administration of puerarin at test doses clearly demonstrated apparent antipyretic effect through the declines in body temperature elevated by LPS in rats. The in vitro data showed that puerarin inhibited the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, PGE(2) and NO; moreover, the RT-PCR analysis and the western blot analysis indicated that puerarin regulated the transcriptional level via suppression of NF-κB activation and blockade of MAPK signal pathway. In summary, the antipyretic property of puerarin might result, at least in part, from an inhibition of endogenous pyrogen production and expression. Taken in this sense, our findings provide an explanation for puerarin acting as an important constituent in Gegen, thus, provide scientific basis for the wide use of Radix Puerariae in China as a traditional antipyretic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland

  16. Kuwaiti parent’s knowledge of their children’s fever and their patterns of use of over the counter antipyretics

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    Nabil Ahmed Kamal Badawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Many parents consider fever a disease with the continuation of fever phobia and overuse of antipyretics to reduce it. Aims Identifying Kuwaiti parent’s knowledge of their children’s fever and determining their patterns of use of Over-the- Counter- Antipyretics. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study in which we have recruited 614 Kuwaiti mothers of well children aged between six months and five years. Data was collected over six-months from September 2015 to March 2016, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results A total of 614 mothers participated in the study, with a response rate of 94.5 per cent. Twenty-seven per cent (166 of them considered a temperature ≤38.5°C to be a high- grade fever, with the level of education significantly influenced mothers’ reports of high-grade fever (F=4.68, df.=4, P=0.001, n=207. Almost all the parents believed that heat could cause harm, and 48 per cent (294 of them stated that fever is very harmful. Fifty-three per cent of mothers (309 would give antipyretic medication when body temperature is ≤38°C. Sixty-one per cent (375 of the mothers had alternated antipyretic paracetamol and ibuprofen. Forty-five per cent (274 of parents think that antipyretics are without potential harm. Level of education had a positive impact on the perception of fever [χ2 (df=8=70.68, p<0.001]. Usual practices targeted temperature reduction using antipyretics by 53.7 per cent. Conclusion Mothers have an imperfect knowledge of fever. Fever phobia is widespread, leading to an overuse of antipyretics.

  17. Antipyretic action of the new hydrazides 2 - (5 - (adamantane-1-yl-4-r-1 ,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetate

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    E. S. Pruglo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. It is known that fever is a necessary defense response that activates the immune system, enhances phagocytosis, stimulates the formation of Interferon, antibody production, which leads to inhibition of reproduction of many viruses and bacteria. However, the raising of the temperature above 39 ° C is dangerous for adults and children of all ages. Despite the high efficacy of analgesics, antipyretics, their use is not always safe. Therefore, the search for new highly efficient drug with antipyretic action is an urgent problem nowadays. RESEARCH GOAL - was pharmacological antipyretics screening among first synthesized derivatives of 1,2,4-triazoles. MATERIALS AND METHODS of research. The experimental fever reproduced on white nonlinear rats by administering 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP (disconnector of the oxidative phosphorylation at a dose of 20 mg / kg. Investigated substances were injected through 0.5 hours (T 0,5 after administration of 2,4-DNP, rectal body temperature for 1 hour (T1 was fixed. Initial rectal temperature (T0 recorded to intra-abdominal injection 2.4-DNF. Acetylsalicylic acid was used as a comparison reference drug at a dose of 100 mg / kg. The results were processed with modern statistical methods of analysis on a personal computer using standard software package Microsoft Office 2010 (Microsoft Excel and «STATISTICA ® for Windows 6.0». We used 3 levels of statistical significance of differences in outcomes research - p <0.05, p <0.01, and P <0.001. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. A new antipyretics were identified with activity not less than in the standard for comparison - acetylsalicylic acid. Intraabdominal injection of 2,4-DNF in 0.5 hour caused a fever in rat in average from 37.480 to 38.580 Co (Δ 1,10 C. Most significantly retarded the body temperature in animals compound number 76 (ΔT 1,230 C, p <0.01, 86 (ΔT 1,140 C, p <0.001, 85 (ΔT 1,330 C, p <0.01, 87 (ΔT 1,010 S , p <0.01, it’s action were somewhat

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of schiff bases of 4-aminophenazone as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic agent

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    Shahzad Murtaza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of schiff base derivatives of 4-aminophenazone (4APZ-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one with different aldehydes were synthesized. The synthetic compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. The characterization of synthesized compounds was carried out by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS. Carrageenan-induced paw oedema (CIPO and histamine induced paw oedema (HIPO methods were used to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of commercial sample of 4APZ and its synthesized schiff bases in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was in the order of 4APZAB > 4APZBB > 4APZCB > 4APZVn and all the test compounds exhibited considerable dose dependent inhibition of the paw oedema. The effect of the compounds on membrane stabilization was also determined which showed that compounds 4APZ (120 and 240 mg/kg doses, 4APZAB (160 mg/kg and 4APZVn (600 mg/kg produced highly significant inhibition (P  4APZBB > 4APZVn > 4APZCB. Moreover, phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time (PIST in mice was also studied but only 600 mg/kg of 4APZVn significantly increased the duration of induced sleep which also suggested its sedative property. Brewer’s yeast was used to induce fever in rabbits and analysed the compounds for their antipyretic activity. Different doses of 4APZ for different time durations (240 mg/kg-after 1 h, 120 and 240 mg/kg doses-after 2 h produced highly significant (P < 0.001 inhibition of hyperpyrexia. Other compounds showed good antipyretic activity after 2, 3 and 4 h.

  19. Forsythoside A exerts antipyretic effect on yeast-induced pyrexia mice via inhibiting transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 function

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    Liu, Cuiling; Su, Hongchang; Wan, Hongye; Qin, Qingxia; Wu, Xuan; Kong, Xiangying; Lin, Na

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel gated by noxious heat, playing major roles in thermoregulation. Forsythoside A (FT-A) is the most abundant phenylethanoid glycosides in Fructus Forsythiae, which has been prescribed as a medicinal herb for treating fever in China for a long history. However, how FT-A affects pyrexia and what is the underlying molecular mechanism remain largely unknown. Here we found that FT-A exerted apparent antipyretic effect through decreasing the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in a dose-dependent fashion on the yeast induced pyrexia mice. Interestingly, FT-A significantly downregulated TRPV1 expression in the hypothalamus and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of the yeast induced pyrexia mice. Moreover, FT-A inhibited IL-8 and PGE2 secretions, and calcium influx in the HEK 293T-TRPV1 cells after stimulated with capsaicin, the specific TRPV1 agonist. Further investigation of the molecular mechanisms revealed that FT-A treatment rapidly inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in both yeast induced pyrexia mice and HEK 293T-TRPV1 cells. These results suggest that FT-A may serve as a potential antipyretic agent and the therapeutic action of Fructus Forsythiae on pyretic related disease is, in part, due to the FT-A activities. PMID:28123347

  20. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and in vivo evaluation of antipyretic effects of hydro-methanolic extract of Cleome scaposa leaves

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    Waheed Mumtaz Abbasi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleome scaposa has been associated with the prevention of many diseases as fever, abdominal complaints and cancer. But its antipyretic effect is not reported so far. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of C. scaposa in reducing temperature in Baker's yeast-induced fever model of rabbits. Rabbits were randomized into 4 groups (n = 24. Fever was induced in by Saccharomyces cerevisae (3 mL/kg of 10% suspension subcutaneous in all study groups. Afterward, group 1, 2, 3 and 4 were orally administered with paracetamol 150 mg/kg b. wt., distilled water, C. scaposa 250 and 500 mg/kg b. wt. respectively. 500 mg/kg dosage was selected after dose fixation study. The standard control was paracetamol. Rectal temperature was recorded with the help of a digital thermometer. ANOVA followed by post hoc test was applied for statistical analysis of results. Results of the study indicate that C. scaposa possesses antipyretic activity comparable to that of standard drug paracetamol as it exhibited comparable antipyretic potential against baker's yeast-induced fever in rabbits. This study confirms the traditional use of C. scaposa in fever. So, it can be an alternative therapeutic choice in fever. However, specific constituents responsible for its antipyretic activity should be evaluated.

  1. Randomized, controlled, multicentre clinical trial of the antipyretic effect of intravenous paracetamol in patients admitted to hospital with infection.

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    Tsaganos, Thomas; Tseti, Ioulia K; Tziolos, Nikolaos; Soumelas, Georgios-Stefanos; Koupetori, Marina; Pyrpasopoulou, Athina; Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos; Tsokos, Nikolaos; Karagiannis, Asterios; Sympardi, Styliani; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2017-04-01

    No randomized study has been conducted to investigate the use of intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) for the management of fever due to infection. The present study evaluated a new ready-made infusion of paracetamol. Eighty patients with a body temperature onset ≥38.5°C in the previous 24 h due to infection were randomized to a single administration of placebo (n = 39) or 1 g paracetamol (n = 41), and their temperature was recorded at standard intervals. Rescue medication with 1 g paracetamol was allowed. Serum samples were collected for the measurement of APAP and its metabolites. The primary endpoint was defervescence, defined as a core temperature ≤37.1°C. During the first 6 h, defervescence was achieved in 15 (38.5%) patients treated with placebo compared with 33 (80.5%) patients treated with paracetamol 1 g (P paracetamol 1 g was 3 h. Rescue medication was given to 15 (38.5%) and five (12.2%) patients allocated to placebo and paracetamol, respectively (P = 0.007); nine (60.0%) and two (40.0%) of these patients, respectively, experienced defervescence. No further antipyretic medication was needed for patients becoming afebrile with rescue medication. Serum glucuronide-APAP concentrations were significantly greater in the serum of patients who did not experience defervescence with paracetamol. The efficacy of paracetamol was not affected by serum creatinine. No drug-related adverse events were reported. The 1 g paracetamol formulation has a rapid and sustainable antipyretic effect on fever due to infection. Its efficacy is dependent on hepatic metabolism. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Association of body temperature and antipyretic treatments with mortality of critically ill patients with and without sepsis: multi-centered prospective observational study

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    2012-01-01

    Introduction Fever is frequently observed in critically ill patients. An independent association of fever with increased mortality has been observed in non-neurological critically ill patients with mixed febrile etiology. The association of fever and antipyretics with mortality, however, may be different between infective and non-infective illness. Methods We designed a prospective observational study to investigate the independent association of fever and the use of antipyretic treatments with mortality in critically ill patients with and without sepsis. We included 1,425 consecutive adult critically ill patients (without neurological injury) requiring > 48 hours intensive care admitted in 25 ICUs. We recorded four-hourly body temperature and all antipyretic treatments until ICU discharge or 28 days after ICU admission, whichever occurred first. For septic and non-septic patients, we separately assessed the association of maximum body temperature during ICU stay (MAXICU) and the use of antipyretic treatments with 28-day mortality. Results We recorded body temperature 63,441 times. Antipyretic treatment was given 4,863 times to 737 patients (51.7%). We found that treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or acetaminophen independently increased 28-day mortality for septic patients (adjusted odds ratio: NSAIDs: 2.61, P = 0.028, acetaminophen: 2.05, P = 0.01), but not for non-septic patients (adjusted odds ratio: NSAIDs: 0.22, P = 0.15, acetaminophen: 0.58, P = 0.63). Application of physical cooling did not associate with mortality in either group. Relative to the reference range (MAXICU 36.5°C to 37.4°C), MAXICU ≥ 39.5°C increased risk of 28-day mortality in septic patients (adjusted odds ratio 8.14, P = 0.01), but not in non-septic patients (adjusted odds ratio 0.47, P = 0.11). Conclusions In non-septic patients, high fever (≥ 39.5°C) independently associated with mortality, without association of administration of NSAIDs or

  3. In vivo evaluation of analgesic and antipyretic activities of piceatannol-rich extract from Senna garrettiana heartwood

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    Suparada Surapanthanakorn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A methanolic extract from Senna garrettiana (S. garrettiana heartwood was prepared and then a fractionation process was performed to obtain hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions. An antinociceptive screening of each fraction was carried out using the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Among all the fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest activity on the writhing test. The ethyl acetate fraction was separated to obtain a piceatannol-rich extract. The S. garrettiana extract contains 11.70 % w/w and 39.16 % w/w piceatannol in the ethyl acetate fraction and the piceatannol-rich extract, respectively. The analgesic activities of the ethyl acetate fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and the piceatannol-rich extract (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg were evaluated by the acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot-plate test and formalin test. The antipyretic activity of these extracts was assessed on yeast’s-induced pyrexia in rats. The acute toxicity was also investigated. In the acute toxicity study, no lethality was observed after the oral administration of methanolic extract of S. garrettiana heartwood even at a high dose of 5 g/kg in mice. The oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction decreased the number of writhings in a dose dependent manner with 54.9 %, 68.5 %, and 71.0 % inhibition, respectively. A similar result was also observed after the oral administration of the piceatannol-rich extract with 53.1%, 69.2% and 80.3% inhibition, respectively. In the formalin test, either the ethyl acetate fraction or the piceatannol-rich extract significantly diminished the licking time in both the early and late phases. Neither the ethyl acetate nor the piceatannol-rich extract had any effect on heat-induced pain. The ethyl acetate fraction at the same dosage range significantly decreased the rat rectal temperature at 2, 3 and 4 hrs. The piceatannol-rich extract at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg suppressed the rectal temperature

  4. Antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of two major chromenes from Melicope lunu-ankenda.

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    Johnson, Anil J; Kumar R, Arun; Rasheed, Sherin A; Chandrika, Sreeja P; Chandrasekhar, Arun; Baby, Sabulal; Subramoniam, Appian

    2010-07-20

    Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) T.G. Hartley is used in Indian traditional medicine for fever, improving complexion and as a tonic. Previous studies have isolated fungicidal, antifeedant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory compounds from Melicope lunu-ankenda. This study is aimed at the isolation and biological activity screening of potential molecules from the volatile oils and extracts of Melicope lunu-ankenda in the light of traditional applications. Volatile oil of Melicope lunu-ankenda leaves was isolated by hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-FID, GC-MS, LRI determination, Co-GC and database searches. Major chromene-type compounds in Melicope lunu-ankenda leaf oil, evodione and leptonol, were isolated by preparative TLC and characterized by UV-Vis, IR, 1H-, 13C-, 13C-DEPT NMR and EIMS. They were also isolated from the petroleum ether and acetone extracts of the leaves of Melicope lunu-ankenda by column chromatography in petroleum ether-ethyl acetate. Their contents in leaf oil, leaf and inflorescence extracts were estimated by HPTLC. Antipyretic (Baker's yeast-induced fever test), analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion assays), anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema) and in vitro antioxidant (DPPH radical, superoxide radical scavenging) activities of evodione and leptonol were tested. Gas chromatographic analyses found 50.7% monoterpene hydrocarbons, 0.4% oxygenated monoterpenes, 3.2% sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 0.7% oxygenated sesquiterpenes and 43.7% chromene-type compounds in Melicope lunu-ankenda leaf oil, with evodione (20.2%) and leptonol (22.5%) as its two major constituents. HPTLC estimations in the petroleum ether, acetone extracts (leaf, inflorescence) and leaf oil found evodione 1.0% (dr. wt., leaf), 1.1% (inflorescence), 0.04% (fr. wt. leaves, leaf oil), and leptonol 0.3% (leaf), 0.3% (inflorescence) and 0.04% (leaf oil). Leptonol (200 mg/kg) showed good antipyretic activity. DPPH radical scavenging assay found

  5. [Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, etofenamate, in experimental animals].

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    Nakamura, H; Motoyoshi, S; Imazu, C; Ishii, K; Yokoyama, Y; Seto, Y; Kadokawa, T; Shimizu, M

    1982-08-01

    Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities of orally administered etofenamate, the diethylene glycol ester of flufenamic acid, were investigated in experimental animals. Against acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice and ultra-violet light-induced erythema in guinea pigs, etofenamate produced a dose related inhibition at doses of 40--320 mg/kg and 5--20 mg/kg, respectively. In rats, felt-pellet-induced granuloma formation and adjuvant-induced arthritis were significantly inhibited by repeated administration of etofenamate at doses of 20 mg/kg/day for 5 days and 40 mg/kg/day for 21 days, respectively. Etofenamate showed an inhibitory activity on the squeak response caused by flexing and extending the silver nitrate-induced arthritic joint in rats; and it produced a dose related anti-writhing activity at doses of 50--300 mg/kg and 10--80 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Etofenamate showed a significant anti-pyretic activity at doses of 0.2 mg/kg or more. These potencies of etofenamate were 0.5 to 1.6 times those of flufenamic acid. In particular, the anti-erythema, anti-arthritis, and anti-pyretic activities of etofenamate were approximately equivalent to or superior to those of flufenamic acid. From these results, it was suggested that etofenamate given orally, like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities in experimental animals.

  6. UPLC Q-TOF/MS-Based Metabolic Profiling of Urine Reveals the Novel Antipyretic Mechanisms of Qingkailing Injection in a Rat Model of Yeast-Induced Pyrexia

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    Xiaoyan Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fever is one of the most common clinical symptoms of many diseases. Qingkailing (QKL injection is widely used in China as a clinical emergency medicine due to its good antipyretic effects. It is a herbal formula which is composed by eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM. As a kind of typical multiple constituents and multiple actions of TCM, it is very difficult to elaborate the antipyretic mechanism by conventional pharmacological method. Metabonomics technique provides beneficial tool for this challenge. In this study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS metabonomics method was developed to explore the changing process of biochemical substances in rats of yeast-induced pyrexia. Partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA was used to distinguish the normal control group, the pyrexia model group, and the pyrexia model group treated by QKL injection. The potential biomarkers related to pyrexia were confirmed and identified. MetPA was used to find the possible metabolic pathways. The results indicated that the antipyretic effect of QKL injection on yeast-induced pyrexia rats was performed by repairing the perturbed metabolism of amino acids.

  7. Hypothermic and antipyretic effects of ACTH (1-24) and alpha-melanotropin in guinea-pigs

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    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH 1-24) and alpha-melanotropin (alpha-MSH), peptides which occur naturally in brain induced dose-related hypothermia in guinea-pigs at room temperature (21 C) and also produced greater hypothermia at low (10 C) ambient temperature. However, when the experiments were repeated in a warm (30 C) environment, no effect on body temperature was observed. These results indicate that the peptides did not reduce the central set-point of temperature control. The hypothermia induced by ACTH and alpha-MSH was not mediated via histamine H1- or H2-receptors and serotonin since the H1-receptor antagonist, mepyramine, the H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine, and the serotonin antagonist, methysergide, had no antagonistic effects. The peptides were antipyretic since they reduced pyrogen-induced-fever and hyperthermia due to prostaglandin E2, norepinephrine and dibutyryl cAMP, at a dose which did not affect normal body temperature. The powerful central effects of these peptides on normal body temperature, fever and hyperthermia, together with their presence of the brain regions important to temperature control, suggest that they participate in thermoregulation.

  8. Antipyretic effect of ibuprofen in Gabonese children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Necek Magdalena

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antipyretic drugs are widely used in children with fever, though there is a controversy about the benefit of reducing fever in children with malaria. In order to assess the effect of ibuprofen on fever compared to placebo in children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Gabon, a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial, was designed. Methods Fifty children between two and seven years of age with uncomplicated malaria were included in the study. For the treatment of fever, all patients "received" mechanical treatment when the temperature rose above 37.5°C. In addition to the mechanical treatment, continuous fanning and cooling blanket, patients were assigned randomly to receive ibuprofen (7 mg/kg body weight, every eight hours or placebo. Results The fever clearance time using a fever threshold of 37.5°C was similar in children receiving ibuprofen compared to those receiving placebo. The difference was also not statistically significant using a fever threshold of 37.8°C or 38.0°C. However, the fever time and the area under the fever curve were significantly smaller in the ibuprofen group compared to the placebo group. Conclusion Ibuprofen is effective in reducing the time with fever. The effect on fever clearance is less obvious and depends on definition of the fever threshold. Trial registration The trial registration number is: NCT00167713

  9. A novel antipyretic action of 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in the rat brain.

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    Mouihate, Abdeslam; Boissé, Lysa; Pittman, Quentin J

    2004-02-11

    Fever is an important part of the host defense response, yet fever can be detrimental if it is uncontrolled. We provide the first evidence that 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), an endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), can attenuate the febrile response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats via an action on the brain. Furthermore, we show that PPARgamma is expressed in the hypothalamus, an important locus in the brain for fever generation. In addition, 15d-PGJ2 and its synthesizing enzyme (PGD2 synthase) were present in rat cerebrospinal fluid, and their levels were enhanced in response to systemic injection of LPS. The antipyretic effect of 15d-PGJ2 was associated with reduction in LPS-stimulated cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the hypothalamus but not in p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation or in the expression of the PPARgamma. Thus it is likely that there is a parallel induction of an endogenous prostanoid pathway in the brain capable of limiting deleterious actions of the proinflammatory prostaglandin E2-dependent pathway.

  10. Antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of hydroethanolic extract from Macrosiphonia velame (A. St.-Hil. M. Arg. in animal models

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    Reginaldo Vicente Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae, popularly known as "velame-branco", is mainly used for treating inflammatory conditions. The antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of the hydroethanolic extract of the xylopodium from M. velame (HEMv were evaluated using several animal models. HEMv showed low acute oral toxicity with LD50 of 4.176 ± 218.5 mg/kg in mice. In tests of carrageenan and dextran-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats, and croton oil-induced cutaneous dermatitis in mice, HEMv presented systemic and topical antiinflammatory activities. In experiments of nociception induced by acetic acid, formalin and capsaicin in mice, the HEMv evidenced an antinociceptive effect, being active against both inflammatory and neurogenic pain. Additionally, the HEMv prevented brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. It is likely that the pharmacologic mechanism of HEMv may involve the inhibition of different mediators of the inflammatory response, such as histamine, serotonin, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. A preliminary phytochemical study was also undertaken on HEMv, which revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, pentacyclic triterpenoids, saponins, coumarins, catechins, tannins, and alkaloids. Taken together, these results suggest that M. velame extract has antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic properties and further validate the traditional use of this plant in inflammatory conditions.Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae, conhecida popularmente como velame-branco, é utilizada no tratamento de inflamações. Avaliou-se nesse estudo, os efeitos antiinflamatório, antinociceptivo e antipirético do extrato hidroetanólico do xilopódio de M. velame (HEMv em modelos animais. O HEMv apresentou baixa toxicidade aguda oral, com DL50= 4.176 ± 218,5 mg/kg nos camundongos. Nos testes de edema de pata por carragenina e dextrana e pleurisia por carragenina em ratos e dermatite cutânea por

  11. Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antiulcer effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Polygonum minus Huds. (Polygonaceae in rodents

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    Parayil Varghese Christapher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polygonum minus (Kesum is an annual plant that grows throughout South East Asian countries. The Leaf of P. minus is commonly used as diet ingredient in Malaysia. Traditionally the decoction of leaves of this plant is used to treat stomach ache and digestive problems. The plant has known antioxidant activity, and its pharmacological properties are remaining unclear. Hence the study is planned to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and antipyretic activity of kesum. Materials and methods: P. minus leaves was extracted with methanol and distilled water by simple maceration. The dried extract was used for further phytochemical and pharmacological analysis. The analgesic effect of methanol and aqueous extract of P. minus was studied using acetic acid, tail immersion and formalin induced pain in rats. The anti-inflammatory effect of both extracts was studied using carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. The pyloric ligation model was used to study the antiulcer effect. The antipyretic effect was studied using Brewer′s yeast induced pyrexia. Results: The percentage yield of aqueous and methanol extract of P. minus leaves were 1.15 and 2.57% w/w respectively. Both the extract showed significant analgesic effect against acetic acid writing, tail immersion and formalin induced pain methods, but the effect was not equivalent to that of standard. Aqueous extract showed significant anti-inflammatory action and methanol extract showed significant anti-ulcer effect. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of the P. minus has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory action, whereas methanolic extract showed presence of analgesic and anti-ulcer activity. Both aqueous and methanolic extract did not show any significant antipyretic activity.

  12. Chemical composition and anti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activity of rhizome essential oil of Globba sessiliflora Sims. collected from Garhwal region of Uttarakhand

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    Ravendra Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Family Zingiberaceae is worldwide in distribution. Plants of the zingiberaceae family are used in traditional herbal folk medicine besides their uses in spices, cosmetic, ornamental, food preservatives etc. In Uttarakhand the herbs grow from sub-tropical to temperate region. Globba sessiliflora Simsrhizomes were collected at maturity stage in November from Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India. In present communication the medicinal use of various zingiberaceous herb provoked us to study the chemical diversity and pharmacological activity determination of this important traditional herb. Experimental: The essential oil was extracted using hydrodistillation method and analyzed by GC-MS. Anti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activities of essential oil were experimently determined using mice model. Results: The major compounds identified were β-eudesmol (27.6%, (E-β-caryophyllene (24.3%, α-humulene (3.0%, (6E-nerolidol (4.1%, caryophyllene oxide (9.7%, γ-eudesmol (6.4% and τ-muurolol (8.3% besides other minor constituents. Essential oil of G. sessiliflora rhizome showed good anti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activities at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight. The oral administration of the essential oil exhibited no toxicity at 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg b.wt. concentration. Ibuprofen, indomthacin and paracetamol were used as standard drugs for comparison. Recommended applications/industries: G. sessiliflora essential oil can be used as herbal remedy for its nontoxicityanti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activities.

  13. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Cariniana rubra stem bark in animal models

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    Edson N. Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularly known as "jequitibá-vermelho'', is a large Brazilian tree whose bark is used in infusion and decoction for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of Cariniana rubra methanolic stem bark extract (EM Cr using experimental animals. Anti-inflammatory activity of EM Cr was tested on carrageenan and dextran-induced rat paw edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats and acetic acid-increase vascular permeability in mice. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, as well as brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract inhibitied carrageenan and dextran-induced edema, reduced exudate volume and leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy and on the vascular permeability increase induced by acetic acid. The EM Cr inhibited nociception on the acetic acid-induced writhing and in the second phase of formalin test, and decreased rectal temperature. It was, however, inactive against thermal nociception.Phytochemical analysis with EM Cr showed the occurrence of saponins, triterpenes, sterols and phenolic compounds. Phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, pentacyclic triterpenes (α- and β-amyrin as a mixture, arjunolic acid, a phytosterol glycoside (sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and triterpenoid saponins (28-β-glucopyranosyl-23-O-acetyl arjunolic acid; 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl arjunolic acid and 28-O-[α-L-Rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-glucopyranosyl]-23- O-acetyl arjunolic acid were the main identified compounds. It can be presumed that EM Cr caused their effects by inhibiting the liberation and/or action of different inflammatory mediators. These findings support the traditional use of Cariniana rubra preparations to treat inflammation.Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularmente conhecido como

  14. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and haematological effects of aethiopinone, an o-naphthoquinone diterpenoid from Salvia aethiopis roots and two hemisynthetic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, M; Rabanal, R M; de la Torre, M C; Rodríguez, B

    1995-12-01

    Aethiopinone (1), an o-naphthoquinone diterpene from Salvia aethiopis L. roots and two hemisynthetic derivatives 2 and 3 have been evaluated for toxicity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and haemostatic activities. The compounds tested showed low toxicity and a pharmacological profile similar to other NSAI substances on reducing the edema induced by carrageenan and contractions induced by phenyl-p-quinone; the most active compounds were 1 and 2. In the same way and as expected with these types of substances, the bleeding time increased. In the TPA-induced ear inflammation model, the three compounds showed a moderate reduction of edema, and 1 produced a significant increase in the reaction time against thermal painful stimuli in the tail immersion test. The results demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory, peripheral and central analgesic properties for 1, as well as antiedematose topical action and peripheral analgesic properties for 2 and 3.

  15. Analysis of the presence of cardiovascular and analgesic/anti-inflammatory/antipyretic pharmaceuticals in river- and drinking-water of the Madrid Region in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Y; Alonso, S González; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; Maroto, R Romo; Gil, A; Catalá, M

    2011-02-01

    Interest in the presence of pharmaceuticals in wastewater, in the water of our rivers and, to a lesser extent, in our drinking water, has been growing in recent decades. Many of these substances, currently classified as "emerging pollutants", are biologically active compounds and continuously released in effluents. As sewage treatment plants (STPs) are not adequately equipped to eliminate all of these substances completely, some are discharged directly into rivers. In Spain, as in most of its neighbouring countries, there is an elevated use of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (which are extremely prevalent among the older adult population) and anti-inflammatory medications, which are obtainable over the counter without a medical prescription. This study therefore sought to determine to what degree pharmaceuticals with the highest regional prescription and/or use rates, such as cardiovascular and analgesic/anti-inflammatory/antipyretic medications, were present in the principal rivers (Jarama, Manzanares, Guadarrama, Henares and Tagus) and tap-water samples of the Madrid Region (MR). Samples were taken downstream the discharge of 10 of the most important region's STPs and the most frequently used drugs in the region were analysed for. Of the 24 drugs analysed, 21 were detected at concentrations ranging from 2 ng L⁻¹ to 18 μg L⁻¹. The highest drug concentrations corresponded to ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen, atenolol, frusemide (furosemide), gemfibrozil and hydrochlorthiazide, and in most cases exceeded the amounts reported in the scientific literature. No traces of these groups of pharmaceuticals were detected in the drinking water analysed. On the basis of the high concentrations detected, we believe that an environmental surveillance system should be implemented to assess the continuous discharge of these pharmaceuticals and their possible ecotoxicological effects. At the same time, efforts to raise the awareness of the public

  16. Comparação da eficácia de doses iguais de acetaminofeno retal e oral em crianças Comparison of antipyretic effectiveness of equal doses of rectal and oral acetaminophen in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigha Akhavan Karbasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar uma dose de acetaminofeno oral e retal e avaliar a aceitabilidade do acetaminofeno retal, uma vez que o acetaminofeno oral e retal é amplamente usado como agente antipirético em crianças com febre e a eficiência comparativa dessas duas preparações não está bem estabelecida. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo de grupos paralelos, foram incluídas 60 crianças admitidas na emergência ou clínica ambulatorial pediátrica em um hospital terciário, com idade entre 6 meses e 6 anos e com temperatura retal acima de 39 °C. Os pacientes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de mesmo tamanho. O grupo 1 recebeu 15 mg/kg de acetaminofeno retal, e o grupo 2 recebeu a mesma dose oralmente. A temperatura foi registrada no tempo zero e 1 e 3 horas após administração da droga. RESULTADOS: No primeiro grupo, a redução média de temperatura, 1 e 3 horas após administração do acetaminofeno, foi de 1,07±0,16 (p 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: As preparações oral e retal de acetaminofeno têm eficácia antipirética equivalente em crianças. A via retal mostrou ser tão aceitável quanto a oral entre os pais.OBJECTIVE: To compare a dose of oral and rectal acetaminophen and to evaluate acceptability of rectal acetaminophen, since oral and rectal acetaminophen is widely used as an antipyretic agent in febrile children and the comparative effectiveness of these two preparations is not well established. METHODS: In this prospective parallel group designed study, 60 children who presented to the emergency department or outpatient pediatric clinic at a tertiary hospital and aged from 6 months to 6 years with rectal temperature over 39 °C were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to two equal-sized groups. Group 1 received 15 mg/kg acetaminophen rectally and group 2 received the same dose orally. Temperature was recorded at baseline and 1 and 3 hours after drug administration. RESULTS: In the first group, mean decrease in

  17. Research on Anti-influenza A H1N1 Virus in Vitro and Antipyretic Experiments of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule%大青龙汤颗粒剂体外抗甲型H1N1流感病毒实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田连起; 黄鹤归; 叶晓川; 廖鹏程; 黄婕; 周爱军; 刘焱文

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the effect of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule in anti-influenza A H1N1 virus in Vitro and its antipyretic influences to fever rats caused by lipopolysaccharide. Methods: MDCK infected by anti-influenza A H1N1 virus, and combined cytopathic effect ( CPE ) with MTT colorimetric assay, and the drug effect of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule inhibiting the biosynthesis of A H1N1 influenza virus,the absorption to influenza virus,the blocking of the accession to cells and killing influenza virus were inspected. Lipopolysaccharide duplicated fever models of rats were used,and rectal temperatures of rats of different groups in different times were measured,curves were drawn,and antipyretic effects were analyzed. Results:The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule killing influenza AH1N1 was 12.40 mg·mL-1 ,the therapeutic index (TI) was 1.8. The IC50 of Ribavirin Injection in the same administration route was 0. 45 mg·mL-1 and TI was 1.0. The temperature of the model group had already rised at 1 h after establishing models, reached peak at 5 h, and sustained for 8 h. Compared to the model group, the Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule of high-dose group and low-dose group had significant differences at 4 - 8 hour. Compared to aspirin group, the Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule of high-dose group and low-dose group, the range of cooling the temperature was smaller at 1 - 3 hours,and was equal at 4 - 5 hour, but was larger than that of aspirin group at 6 - 8 hour. The difference between Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule of high-dose group and low-dose group was not significant. Conclusion: Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule shows certain effect of anti-influenza A H1N1 virus in cell level,and the function form is direct inactivation in a dose dependent manner;but the effect of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule in inhibiting the biosynthesis of influenza virus

  18. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the ethnomedicinal claims regarding the use of Acacia jacquemontii Benth. (Fabaceae) in fever, pain and inflammation. Methods: The methanol root bark extract (AJRBM) of the plant was used in the studies. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out according to established ...

  19. Antinociceptive, Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: R. graveolens (100 mg/kg, i.p.), significantly reduced the number of acetic acid-induced ... of the leaf methanol extract (25 mg/kg, i.p.), and indomethacin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Geranium carolinianum L. (Geraniaceae) is widely used for a variety of diseases including herpetic keratitis, eczema, rheumatalgia etc. However, there is lack of relevant scientific research. Materials and Methods: GCE (125, 250, 500mg/kg body weight) was evaluated for its pharmacological properties by ...

  1. Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Sansevieria Trifasciata Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Anbu, Jeba Sunilson J; Jayaraj, P; Varatharajan, R; Thomas, John; Jisha, James; Muthappan, M

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol and water extracts of Sansevieria trifasciata leaves showed dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) increase in pain threshold in tail-immersion test. Moreover, both the extracts (100 – 200 mg/kg) exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of writhing and also showed a significant (P < 0.001) inhibition of both phases of the formalin pain test. The ethanol extract (200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) reversed yeast-induced fever. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts sh...

  2. Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Sansevieria trifasciata leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbu, Jeba Sunilson J; Jayaraj, P; Varatharajan, R; Thomas, John; Jisha, James; Muthappan, M

    2009-07-03

    The ethanol and water extracts of Sansevieria trifasciata leaves showed dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) increase in pain threshold in tail-immersion test. Moreover, both the extracts (100 - 200 mg/kg) exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of writhing and also showed a significant (P < 0.001) inhibition of both phases of the formalin pain test. The ethanol extract (200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) reversed yeast-induced fever. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins, proteins and carbohydrates.

  3. Anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Extracts of Terminalia citrina fruits were evaluated at doses of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg in albino mice for preventive effect in inflammatory edema, peripheral pain sensation and pyrexia. Carrageenan induced paw edema method was utilized to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity.

  4. Antipyretic and Analgesic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of the Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic effect of the extract was evaluated using acetic acid-induced mouse writhing test. The extract was tested for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, Escherichia coli, and Psuedomonas aeruginosa using agar diffusion method. Phytochemical screening of the plant extract ...

  5. Antipyretic and Analgesic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of the Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    6 cm long, yellow, smooth, 8 – 25 seeded embedded in a ... dysmenorrhoea, fever, infertility8, helminthic infection9, and as an ... group C which served as positive control. The rabbits in .... Health Plan Mgt, 1997; 12: S81-S108. 3. Wang Y.

  6. Anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrhoeal properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... properties of Faidherbia albida in rats. A. Y. Tijani1*. , M. O. Uguru2 ..... extract significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited formation of oedema in rat paw than ... other models of inflammation like carrageenan, are its longer duration of ...

  7. Trivalent rare earth complexes of some potential antiinflammatory and antipyretic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, Devashish

    1994-01-01

    Binary complexes of 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-ABA), 3-aminobenzoic acid (3-ABA) and 4-aminobenzoic acid (4-ABA) with La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) have been studied paper electrophoretically at different temperatures and a constant ionic strength. The stability constants of the complexes have been reported. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  8. A rapid method for the determination of some antihypertensive and antipyretic drugs by thermometric titrimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, U M; Chand, F; Bhanger, M I; Memon, S A

    1986-02-01

    A simple and rapid method is described for the direct thermometric determination of milligram amounts of methyl dopa, propranolol hydrochloride, 1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolone (MPP) and 2,3-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one (phenazone) in the presence of excipients. The compounds are reacted with N'-bromosuccinimide and the heat of reaction is used to determine the end-point of the titration. The time required is approximately 2 min, and the accuracy is analytically acceptable.

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Sonchus oleraceus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Fabiana C; Bitencourt, Andressa D; Cabral, Layla D M; Franqui, Lidiane S; Soncini, Roseli; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2010-02-17

    Sonchus oleraceus L. has been used to relieve headaches, general pain, hepatitis, infections, inflammation and rheumatism in Brazilian folk medicine. Nevertheless, scientific information regarding this species is scarce; there are no reports related to its possible anti-inflammatory effects. This study was aimed at evaluating the scientific basis for the traditional use of Sonchus oleraceus using in vivo inflammatory models. Carrageenan-induced paw edema, peritonitis and febrile response induced by lipopolysaccharide tests, as well as fibrovascular tissue growth induced by s.c. cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Sonchus oleraceus hydroethanolic extract (SoHE) in rats. The SoHE at test doses of 100-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by reduced paw edema induced by carragenan, inhibited leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity and reduced LPS-induced febrile response, and in the model of chronic inflammation using the cotton pellet-induced fibrovascular tissue growth in rats, the SoHE significantly inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue. The extract administered at 300 mg/kg p.o. had a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than indomethacin (10mg/kg) or dexamethasone (1mg/kg). The hydroethanolic extract of Sonchus oleraceus markedly demonstrated anti-inflammatory action in rats, which supports previous claims of its traditional use. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on anti-ulcer, analgesic and antipyretic properties of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... either sex obtained from the Animal Facility Centre of National institute for Pharmaceutical ..... the animals react with characteristic stretching behavior which is called writhing. ... stimulation in rats and cats. Pain, 4: 161-174.

  11. Acute effect of antipyretic analgesics, alone or in combination with alcohol, on human psychomotor skills related to driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnoila, M.; Seppälä, T.; Mattila, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    1 The effect of acetylsalicylic acid (1 g), indomethacin (50 mg), and phenylbutazone (200 mg) on psychomotor skills was examined double blind on 180 volunteer students. Ninety students received ethyl alcohol (0.5 g/kg) and 90 subjects an equal volume of placebo drink in combination with the drugs. 2 Psychomotor skills were measured with a choice reaction test, two co-ordination tests, and a divided attention test, having correlation with traffic behaviour. The subjects assessed their feelings of performance by means of a rating scale. The tests were done 30, 90 and 150 min after the administration of the agents. 3 Acetylsalicylic acid proved inactive whereas both indomethacin and phenylbutazone impaired eye-hand co-ordination and divided attention. Acetylsalicylic acid did not interact with alcohol to a measurable extent whereas indomethacin in combination with alcohol proved less harmful than without it. The deleterious effects of phenylbutazone and alcohol were additive. 4 An impairment of psychomotor skills related to driving by indomethacin and phenylbutazone should be considered when prescribing these drugs to active out-patients. PMID:22454933

  12. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... higher if you [bullet] are age 60 or older [bullet] have had stomach ulcers or bleeding problems [bullet... stomach ulcers or bleeding problems [bullet] takes a blood thinning (anticoagulant) or steroid drug... bleeding. The chance is higher if the user [bullet] has had stomach ulcers or bleeding problems [bullet...

  13. In vivo evaluation of antipyretic effects of homoeopathic ultrahigh dilutions of Typhoidinum on baker's yeast-induced fever in comparison with Paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Homoeopathy is a widely used, controversial alternative system of medicine. It is assumed that homoeopathic medicines are slower in action and does not work in acute conditions such as ‘fever’. The study aims to estimate the effectiveness of some homoeopathic remedies in fever and to compare their effects with Paracetamol. Materials and Methods: Baker's yeast fever model of rabbits was used in the study. Rabbits were divided into four different groups (n = 6. Rectal temperature was measured before and after fever induction hourly. After fever induction, medicines were administered orally. Paracetamol and Typhoidinum in 200C and 1M potencies were given orally. ANOVA followed by post hoc test was used for statistical analysis of results. The results were considered statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Fever was induced in all the rabbits after 4 h of baker's yeast administration. The results of the study revealed the significant effectiveness of Typhoidinum in 200C and 1M potencies in baker's yeast-induced fever (P = 0.05. Typhoidinum in both potencies showed less significant results as compared to Paracetamol. However, all the medicines’ effects were significant compared to the negative control. Conclusion: Typhoidinum 200C and 1M worked against baker's yeast-induced fever. However, the results were slower and less significant than Paracetamol that might be due to lack of similarity of remedy picture and disease picture.

  14. 1346- IJBCS-Article-Adiukwu Chuwuemeka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    the antipyretic and antinociceptive property of the crude saponin from Vernonia amygdalina leaf. Standard procedure for antipyretic study using Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced pyrexia in rats; and acetic acid induced writhe, hot plate and cold tail flick .... Phytochemical screening. Preliminary screening of the aqueous.

  15. Effect of paracetamol on the plasma protein binding of quinine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The co-administration of antimalarial and antipyretic drugs is a common practice in the treatment of malaria. Paracetamol, which is a majorly used antipyretic drug, has proved useful in the management of some common feverish effects such as pains and headache associated with most antimalarial drugs. This study was ...

  16. Nutritional Value and Utilization of Amaranthus ( Amaranthus spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetic, antipyretic, anti-snake venom, antileprotic, anti-gonorrheal, expectorant, to relieve breathing in acute bronchitis. It also has anti-inflammatory properties, immunomodulatory activity, anti-androgenic activity and anthelmintic properties.

  17. Parental beliefs and practices regarding childhood fever in Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-12

    Mar 12, 2016 ... Parents with a child with fever aged between 0 and 14 years were interviewed. The participants ... common reasons parents seek medical attention for their children by ..... received inaccurate doses of antipyretics.[22] In our ...

  18. Biokemistri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... The hot plate, tail immersion and acetic acid-induced writhing tests were the ... Group 1 was administered 10 ml/kg body weight of distilled water, Group 2 was ..... inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol.

  19. Characterization of Momordica charantia Ussing FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Keseru

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, because earlier claim shows that the plant used as stomachic, carminative, tonic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, in rheumatoid arthritis and gout, the present investigation was carried to characterized a principal components of plant using FT-IR technique

  20. Isolation and pharmacological screening of 8-O-acetyl harpagide from Ajuga bracteosa wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, N.; Khan, G.A.; Ahmad, K.D.; Gilani, N.D.; Arfan, M.

    2004-01-01

    8-O-Acetyl harpagide was isolated and characterized from Jaguar bracteosa Wall, a species indigenous to Pakistan. Pharmacological screening of the compound for antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic, cardiotonic and antipyretic activities was carried out. The compound was found effective against a number of human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Antispasmodic and cardiotonic effects elicited by the compound were also found. The compound also exhibited antipyretic activity when administered in the higher doses. (author)

  1. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy in Tanzanian children gives rapid parasite clearance but slow fever clearance that is improved by chloroquine in combination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2002-01-01

    Following widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance, sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine (SP) is now the first line antimalarial drug in a number of African countries including Tanzania. Unlike CQ, SP has no antipyretic effects, a feature that might delay fever clearance, and by acting on late stage para...... on possible delayed parasitological and clinical responses to SP that could result from its action on late stage parasites. Despite its diminishing antimalarial activity, CQ has beneficial in vivo antipyretic effects in therapeutic combination with SP.......Following widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance, sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine (SP) is now the first line antimalarial drug in a number of African countries including Tanzania. Unlike CQ, SP has no antipyretic effects, a feature that might delay fever clearance, and by acting on late stage...

  2. IBUPROFEN IN COMPLEX TREATMENT OF FEVER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.А. Alexeeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain and fever are one of the most frequent conditions in pediatric practice. Frequent occurrence of fever accompanied by a pain syndrome stipulates combined antipyretic and analgesic medications. This article contains information upon ibuprofen use («Nurofen for children» in pediatric patients as an antipyretic and analgesic medication to be used as part of complex treatment of acute respiratory infections.Key words: fewer, children, ibuprofen. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 137–140

  3. PENGARUH EKSTRAK TANAMAN OBAT ASLI TERHADAP SUHU NORMAL MENCIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wahjoedi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of screening of the medicinal plants efficacy, 19 plants have been tested to see their influence to the normal body temperature of mice. Among the 19 plants there are some medicinal plants which are used as antipyretic by the Indonesian people. Those are Ageratum conyzoides L, Brasica rugosa Prain, Euphatorium triplinerve Vahl, Messua ferrea L and Oroxylum indicum Vent. The administration is intra-peritoneally. Some extract at test dose (1/3 - 1/2 LD 50 decrease the normal body temperature more than 2°C. Most of them happened to be known as antipyretic in traditional medicines.

  4. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trigonella foenum-graecum (NO - Leguminosae) is cultivated in many parts of India. It has been found to possess significant medicinal value. Its leaves are used both internally and externally to reduce swelling, prevent falling of hair and in treating burns. Its seeds are carminative, antipyretic, anthelmintic and diuretic, and ...

  5. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Profile of n-Hexane Fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    inflammatory activities (carrageenan-induced and histamine-induced edema models) in BALB/c mice. Results: VBHF exhibited significant (p ... The analgesic effect of VBHF was dose-dependent in acetic acid pain model while the extract was a weak ... In Pakistan, it is found in Swat, Hazara and. Dir and used as antipyretic, ...

  6. FEVER IN CHILDREN WITH RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTIONS: EFFECTIVE AND SAFE METHODS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Taranushenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important — the problem of treatment of fever in children with respiratory viral infections — is discussed in this article. It is fever as one of the first symptoms of disease which often frightens parents and leads to inappropriate and excess usage of antipyretic agents, which in its turn can cause unfavorable consequences. The authors represent their own data on frequency of antipyretic drugs usage in children with respiratory viral infections, as well as the answers of pediatricians to the questionnaires on methods of choice in temperature normalization. According to the modern Russian as well as European and American clinical guidelines on treatment of fever in children the management of selection of patients demanding antipyretic treatment is detailed, indications and contraindications to such therapy are described, the most effective methods of temperature normalization in children with acute respiratory infection are discussed. The authors suggested the data on recommended dosages of paracetamol, which were revised in 2011 by the UK Medicines Control Agency, to be very useful. The current information on advantages of ibuprofen in comparison to paracetamol in treatment of fever in children with respiratory viral infections is shown. The main target of this article is understanding and acceptance by pediatricians of the modern recommendation on differential and reasonable approach to administration of antipyretic drugs in children with respiratory viral infections.

  7. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of intravenous paracetamol in the critically ill patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, A.D.; Hunfeld, N.G.; Touw, D.J.; Melief, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Paracetamol (PCM) is a drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Despite its frequent use, little is known about its efficacy and pharmacokinetics (PK) when intravenously administered in the critically ill patient. A previous study suggests that therapeutic concentrations are not

  8. Paracetamoldosering til børn--anderledes end til voksne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaspar Buus; Dalhoff, Kim P

    2005-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) has become the most widely used antipyretic and analgesic drug for children in Denmark. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the consumption of the drug and our knowledge of children's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Dosage, therapeutic intervals and toxic...

  9. Aspirin and its related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspirin and its related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid has been utilised by physicians for hundreds of years as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic (1). Derived from plant sources, such as the willow tree, it has the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells and stimulate.

  10. Clinical Effectiveness and Dose Titration in Pediatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the questions of usage of one of the popular antipyretic and anesthetic drug in pediatric practice — ibuprofen. In the article there are generalized literature data and own experience in ibuprofen dose titration in single dose 5 and 10 mg/kg depending on clinical situation.

  11. contributory pharmacological effects of azadirachta indica leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three crude extracts from Azadirachta indica leaves were assessed on various signs and symptoms of infection in vivo and in vitro. The methanolic and diethylether extracts have significant antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregatory activities, while the chloroform extract did not show appreciable effect.

  12. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offringa, Martin; Newton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects

  13. Experience of Using Nurofen® Forte for Children in Pediatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of literature and own data of efficacy of ibuprofen in children with acute respiratory infection with febrile fever. This data indicate that ibuprofen is a rapid and long-acting antipyretic agent with a high degree of safety and is recommended for use in children.

  14. Ibuprofen versus steroids: risk and benefit, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovannini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years we have observed an upward trend in the employment of ibuprofen as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic therapy. Therefore the pediatrician has often a precious option in the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment in children instead of using steroids and paracetamol. In clinical practice ibuprofen can be used in the treatment of headache, toothache, otalgy, dysmenorrhea, neuralgia, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and fever: it is the first choice for these common diseases. However, the use of steroids is a routine, even if non-corticosteroid anti-inflammatory molecules could be useful. Certainly steroids are powerful anti-inflammatory, indicated for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders and in acute respiratory and allergic diseases. Beside, thanks to their chemical and pharmacological profile, they also provide patients with an antipyretic effect. However, the use of steroids must be reserved to cases in which other classical antipyretics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not effective. The possible side effects and risks associated with stepping down steroids must be considered. Although “steroids-phobia” should be discouraged, steroids are to be reserved only as the first indication. In all other cases the pediatrician can use ibuprofen, whose efficacy and safety are widely demonstrated by now.

  15. Interindividual variation in gene expression responses and metabolite formation in acetaminophen-exposed primary human hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, M.J.A.; Blanco Garcia, Ainhoa; Coonen, M.L.J.; Claessen, Sandra; Herwijnen, van M.H.M.; Lommen, Arjen; Delft, van J.H.M.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a readily available over-the-counter drug and is one of the most commonly used analgesics/antipyretics worldwide. Large interindividual variation in susceptibility toward APAP-induced liver failure has been reported. However, the exact underlying factors causing this

  16. Synthesis of novel 2-(4-(2-morpholinoethoxy)phenyl)-N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gefitinib4 and the analgesic dextromoramide.5 Certain morpholino acetimidamide derivatives were found to suppress hepatitis C virus replication.6 Paracetamol, a simple acetamide is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Acetamide derivatives show potential biological functions. They possess excellent antimicro-.

  17. Novel hydroquinone derivatives alleviate algesia, inflammation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in silico studies predicted high binding affinity of the hydroquinone derivatives to the active site of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme. Conclusion: The synthesized hydroquinone compounds possess analgesic, antipyretic and antiinflammatory properties with low gastric-ulcerogenic potential. This may be credited to ...

  18. Influence of Cardiospermum halicacabum leaf extract on membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiospermum halicacabum L. proved to have anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, antiglycation, analgesic and antipyretic activities. It also has been used in Ayurveda and folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, fever and earache. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the ...

  19. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies of the Genus Tacca : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tacca is an important genus comprising of approximately 15 species of the medicinal plants (Taccaceae). The plants are used in traditional medicine to relieve pains of the body and stomach, as an antidote for food poisoning as well as for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Chemical studies have ...

  20. Side effects of pain and analgesia in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkof, Paulin

    2017-03-22

    This review highlights selected effects of untreated pain and of widely used analgesics such as opioids, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and antipyretics, to illustrate the relevance of carefully planned, appropriate and controlled analgesia for greater reproducibility in animal experiments involving laboratory rodents.

  1. The use of dipyrone (metamizol) as an analgesic in children: What is the evidence? A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, T.G. de; Dirckx, M.; Candel, A.G.; Scoones, G.P.; Huygen, F.; Wildt, S.N. de

    2017-01-01

    Dipyrone has analgesic, spasmolytic, and antipyretic effects and is used to treat pain. Due to a possible risk of agranulocytosis with the use of dipyrone, it has been banned in a number of countries. The most commonly used data for the use of dipyrone are related to adults. Information relating to

  2. Wel of geen paracetamol bij kinderen met koorts? [Risks and benefits of paracetamol in children with fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, E.G.P.M.; Brand, P.L.P.; Dinant, G.J.; van Well, G.T.J.; Cals, J.W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, paracetamol is the most commonly used antipyretic for children and the drug of first choice for reducing fever named in the majority of practice guidelines. However, whether or not it is necessary or desirable to treat fever is questionable. The provision of accurate information on the

  3. Home Management of Febrile Children Under-Five Years in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The self-administered drugs were antimalarials 45%, antipyretics 34%, antidiarrhoeals 26%, cough syrups 23% and analgesics 17%. The drugs used were obtained from drug stores (68%) while left-overs from previous supplies accounted for 15%. Univariate analysis revealed that diarrhoeal diseases, shortness of breath, ...

  4. A multicentre trial of voltaren in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , PG Joubert, DF Du P Louw, DF Marais, WA McDonald Scott, FO Muller. Abstract. Voltaren, a compound with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties, has been compared at two dose levels-25 mg t.d.s. and 50 mg t.d.s. with ...

  5. Hypolipidemic activity of kaempferol a flavanoid on streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mastour

    Background: Cardiospermum halicacabum L. proved to have anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, antiglycation, analgesic and antipyretic activities. It also has been used in Ayurveda and folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, fever and earache. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the ...

  6. Peptides extracted from Artemisia herba alba have antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Artemisia herba alba, classified into the family of Asteraceae, is an aromatic herb that is traditionally used as a purgative and antipyretic folk medicine by rural people of south Tunisia. This study reports the first identification of antimicrobial peptides from this medicinal plant that inhibited the growth of several ...

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    Voucher specimens were prepared, identified and deposited. ...... Notably, some plants can be administered by more than one route depending on treated disease. .... locally used for fever and its biological activity for anti-malaria (Saiin and ... Antipyretic activity of Crateva magna bark on Tab-vaccine induced pyrexia.

  8. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offringa, Martin; Newton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the

  9. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Bryonopsis laciniosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... cholera, colic, consumption, convulsions, cough, delirium, fertility, headache, megalospleny, paralysis, phthisis, snake bite. The chloroform extract of B. laciniosa has exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity (Gupta et al., 2003). Analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanol extract of B. laciniosa also ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 318 ... Vol 3, No 3 (2008), Essential Concepts in Modern Health Services, Abstract ... of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate dental students, Abstract PDF ... antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil inmice, Abstract PDF ... Vol 4, No 4 (2009), Impact of Robotic Dispensing Machines in ...

  11. Artemisia absinthium: burning plant! | El Makrini | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Absinthe is gently used in herbal medicine for her virtues tonic , antispasmodic, antipyretic, anthelmintic, stimulating ...However, this plant may contain toxic agents (such as thujone, malic acid, alcohol ...) responsible for adverse reactions. In our case, use for cosmetic purposes has caused redness and sensitivity of the face, ...

  12. Parental Approach to the Prevention and Management of Fever and Pain Following Childhood Immunizations: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ezzeldin; Swamy, Geeta K; Moody, M Anthony; Walter, Emmanuel B

    2017-05-01

    Antipyretic analgesics are commonly used to prevent and treat adverse events following immunizations. Current practice discourages routine use due to possible blunting of vaccine immune responses. We surveyed 150 parents/caregivers of recently vaccinated 6- and 15-month-old children to determine the prevalence of and beliefs regarding antipyretic analgesics use around vaccinations. 11% used them prophylactically, before vaccination. Use in the first 48 hours after vaccination was 64%, primarily to prevent and/or treat fever and pain. Acetaminophen was administered 2.6 times more frequently than ibuprofen. Ibuprofen was used more in the 15-month compared with the 6-month-old children (28% vs 7.4%, respectively, P = .001). The majority of caregivers disagreed with their use for fever (53%) or pain (59%). Antipyretic analgesic use, including prophylaxis, around vaccinations was common in our study population. Effective interventions are needed to target parents/caregivers to eliminate unnecessary antipyretic analgesic use around vaccination time and foster nonmedication alternatives.

  13. Okoli et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(3):221-227

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    In some Nigerian communities, the fruits are used for the treatment of cough, fever and toothache (Adebayo et al. 2010). It also serves as mild stimulant, source of some vitamins, appetite stimulant, mouth wash and anti-pyretic (Gill, 1992; Enwere, 1998; Keay, 1989). The fruits are rich in antioxidants. A survey of existing.

  14. PHARMACOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF JASMINUM SAMBAC- A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

    2018-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Jasminum sambac revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, coumarins, glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, steroids, fats, essential oils, fixed oils, terpines, resin, and salicylic acid. The pharmacological studies revealed that the plant extracts possessed antimicrobial, insecticidal, analgesic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, dermatological, anticancer, CNS and peripheral NS, ca...

  15. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Ulcerogenic Activities of Chantaleela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic activity of Chantaleela recipe may act via mechanism at peripheral and partly central nervous system. In antipyretic test, Chantaleela recipe significantly decreased rectal temperature of brewer's yeast-induced hyperthermia rats, probably by inhibiting synthesis and/or release of prostaglandin E2 in the ...

  16. Kelainan Hati akibat Penggunaan Antipiretik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Demam menyebabkan penderitaan pada anak dan kecemasan pada orangtua. Demam terjadi pada hampir sebagian besar anak setiap tahunnya. Antipiretik yang paling sering digunakan adalah acetaminophen, ibuprofen dan aspirin. Antipiretik ini dapat menyebabkan kelainan hati pada dosis tinggi dan pada penggunaan dosis terapi yangberulang. Baru-baru ini banyak digunakan obat kombinasi acetaminophen-ibuprofen. Tujuan penulisan artikel ini adalah untuk menjelaskan kelainan hati akibat penggunaan antipiretik. Penggunaan pada dosis terapi secara berulang harus sesuai indikasi, mempertimbangkan efek samping dan memahami dosis maksimal. Penggunaan obat kombinasi acetaminophen-ibuprofen harus diberikan hati-hati, dosis kandungan antipiretik harus dibaca lebih teliti. Perluanamnesis yang jelas pada penegakan diagnosis dan perhitungan dosis total atau dosis rata-rata yang diterima. Klinisi harus dapat memonitor gejala kelainan hati akibat penggunaan obat-obatan antipiretik. Perlu komunikasi yang jelas, antara dokter dan keluarga pasien tentang keuntungan dan resiko pemberian antipiretik, baik itu penggunaan sekalisaja ataupun berulang.Kata kunci: antipiretik, ibuprofen, acetaminophen hepatoksik, drug induced hepatitis Abstract Fever causes misery for children and parental anxiety. It affects almost of children each year. The antipyretics most commonly used for treating fever are acetaminophen, ibuprofen and aspirin. These antipyretics can causeshepatotoxicity in high dose and in multiple daily doses. Recently, the use of combination acetaminophen-ibuprofen was widely use in child. The objective of this artikel was to learn more about how about antipyretics induced hepatotoxicity. The use of multiple daily doses must be in the right indication, considering the side effect and clear in maximal doses.The use of combination acetaminophen-ibuprofen must be with caution, composition of dose must be read cerefully. Its need good anamnesis and calculation of total

  17. Dipyrone metabolite 4-MAA induces hypothermia and inhibits PGE2 -dependent and -independent fever while 4-AA only blocks PGE2 -dependent fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvar, David do C; Aguiar, Fernando A; Vaz, Artur de L L; Assis, Débora C R; de Melo, Miriam C C; Jabor, Valquíria A P; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Clososki, Giuliano C; de Souza, Glória E P

    2014-08-01

    The antipyretic and hypothermic prodrug dipyrone prevents PGE2 -dependent and -independent fever induced by LPS from Escherichia coli and Tityus serrulatus venom (Tsv) respectively. We aimed to identify the dipyrone metabolites responsible for the antipyretic and hypothermic effects. Male Wistar rats were treated i.p. with indomethacin (2 mg·kg(-1) ), dipyrone, 4-methylaminoantipyrine (4-MAA), 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AA) (60-360 mg·kg(-1) ), 4-formylaminoantipyrine, 4-acethylaminoantipyrine (120-360 mg·kg(-1) ) or vehicle 30 min before i.p. injection of LPS (50 μg·kg(-1) ), Tsv (150 μg·kg(-1) ) or saline. Rectal temperatures were measured by tele-thermometry and dipyrone metabolite concentrations determined in the plasma, CSF and hypothalamus by LC-MS/MS. PGE2 concentrations were determined in the CSF and hypothalamus by elisa. In contrast to LPS, Tsv-induced fever was not followed by increased PGE2 in the CSF or hypothalamus. The antipyretic time-course of 4-MAA and 4-AA on LPS-induced fever overlapped with the period of the highest concentrations of 4-MAA and 4-AA in the hypothalamus, CSF and plasma. These metabolites reduced LPS-induced fever and the PGE2 increase in the plasma, CSF and hypothalamus. Only 4-MAA inhibited Tsv-induced fever. The higher doses of dipyrone and 4-MAA also induced hypothermia. The presence of 4-MAA and 4-AA in the CSF and hypothalamus was associated with PGE2 synthesis inhibition and a decrease in LPS-induced fever. 4-MAA was also shown to be an antipyretic metabolite for PGE2 -independent fever induced by Tsv suggesting that it is responsible for the additional antipyretic mechanism of dipyrone. Moreover, 4-MAA is the hypothermic metabolite of dipyrone. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigation of Ethanol Extract of Cissampelos pareira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, H M; Shohel, M; Aziz, Sadia B; Pinaz, Farzana I; Uddin, M F; Al-Amin, M; Khan, I N; Jain, Preeti

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the ethanol extract of Cissampelos pareira has been evaluated. The extract was tested for analgesic properties using both hot plate and acetic acid-induced writhing methods. Antiinflammatory effect was investigated using two different doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight on Evans rats by carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The antipyretic activity was evaluated using Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in Wistar rats. The phytochemical screening of the extract of Cissampelos pareira exhibited the presence of several phytochemical compounds including saponins, gums and carbohydrates, reducing sugars, alkaloids and terpenoids. Ethanol extract of Cissampelos pareira exhibited significant analgesic, antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity in a dose-dependent manner. The results obtained from these studies confirm its therapeutic value against diseases caused by various pain and fever.

  19. THE MEANING OF FEVER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Polyakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fever is a normal physiological response to illness in young children and it is often associated with a self-limiting viral infection. Fever is not a diagnosis, but a symptom of illness. A diagnosis of the underlying illness is essential to institute appropriate treatment. Although it is a normal response, that facilitates and accelerates recovery, some people, including many doctors, believe that fever should be treated to reduce temperature without determining the underlying illness causing the fever. Antipyretics should be used to make the child more comfortable and not used routinely with the sole aim of reducing the temperature. This article aims to acquaint primary healthcare workers and general practitioners with last guidelines to assist the measurement of body temperature, deciding on when to refer and the appropriate use of antipyretic medication in children, efficacy and safety of paracetamol and ibuprofen in oral and rectal forms. 

  20. Long-term toxicological effects of paracetamol in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Majeed,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The analgesic and antipyretic properties of paracetamol were first described in 1893, then it has been widely available as a non-prescription drug, with a therapeutic profile that reflects widespread safety and efficacy as well as paracetamol became the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. It is the most frequently used over-the counter medicine in young children and is nearly universally used in infants. The drug is used by millions of children every day. The study was designed to study the toxicological effect of therapeutic dose of paracetamol after oral administration for three months in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicous on the heart, kidney and liver. Results showed oral administration of the paracetamol for three months in laboratory rats showed that this drug has a severe damaging effect on most of the vital organs in the body like kidney, liver and heart.

  1. [A pharmaceutical of the century will be 100. A historical vignette on the introduction of acetylsalicylic acid to the market in 1899].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, F

    1999-10-15

    This article describes the historic roots of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) from the first experiments at 1800 until the introduction into the pharmaceutical market in 1899. In 1869, Hermann Kolbe enlightened the chemical structure of salicylic acid, which was used at that time as an analgetic and antipyretic drug. Because of the side effects, for example the irritation of the stomach, analytical chemists and pharmacologists searched for chemical modifications. In August 1897 Felix Hoffmann (1868-1946) was successful in acetylizing the salicylic acid to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Between 1897 and 1899 Kurt Witthauer (1865-1911) collected clinical data and experiences on the efficiency of ASA as an analgetic and antipyretic drug. In 1899 ASA was introduced into the pharmaceutical market as Aspirin and became soon one of the most successful drugs of its time. The indication exceeds analgesia in the mean time and to prophylaxis of myocardial ischaemia or cerebral stroke, among others.

  2. The site of action of corticosteroid antipyresis in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willies, G H; Woolf, C J

    1980-01-01

    1. The antipyretic effects of corticosteroids on the fevers produced by bacterial and endogenous pyrogens in the rabbit were investigated. 2. Intravenous infusions of hydrocortisone and methyl prednisolone, when administered simultaneously with bacterial or endogenous pyrogens, failed to produce an antipyresis. 3. Pretreatment of rabbits with methyl prednisolone for 3 days diminished the febrile effect of both bacterial and endogenous pyrogens. 4. The fever produced by intrahypothalamic micro-injections of endogenous pyrogen was significantly attenuated by the simultaneous micro-injection of methyl prednisolone. 5. These results indicate that the antipyretic effect of steroids in the rabbit is the result not of a peripheral inhibition of endogenous pyrogen production, but rather of an action on the central nervous system. PMID:7381781

  3. Parental beliefs and practices regarding childhood fever in Turkish primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, E; Yayla, E; Cebeci, S E; Kırımlı, E; Gümüştakım, R Ş; Çakır, L; Doğan, S

    2017-01-01

    Fever is a very common problem in pediatric age and is one of the most common reasons parents seek medical attention. We aimed to investigate beliefs, habits, and concerns of Turkish parents regarding their children's fever. We performed a cross-sectional survey which was conducted as face-to-face interviews by family physicians from April to June 2014 in family healthcare centers in nine different cities in Turkey. Parents with a child with fever aged between 0 and 14 years were interviewed. The participants were asked questions about sociodemographic data, the definition and measurement of fever, antipyretics, and other interventions used to reduce fever before presenting to the primary care center. A total of 205 parents participated in this study. Ninety-four parents (45.8%) measured fever with a thermometer prior to presentation. Only 36 parents (38%) used the thermometer correctly. Thirty-eight parents (18.5%) knew the correct temperature definition of fever for the measured site. A mercury-in-glass thermometer was the choice for most parents (78%) and preferred site for measurement was axillary region (85%). The fever was treated prior to arrival by 171 parents (83.4%). Paracetamol was the most frequently used antipyretic. Fifty-four parents (31.5%) failed to administer the correct antipyretic dose, and 73 parents (42.6%) failed to give the antipyretics at proper intervals. One hundred and fifty-three parents (67%) believed that if not treated fever could cause convulsions. We conclude that parents share important misconceptions about definition, treatment, and consequences of childhood fever and tend to treat fever before seeking medical care with a substantial rate of wrong doses and wrong intervals.

  4. Association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and acetaminophen (paracetamol): Friend or foe?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdel-Daim; Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk; Raffaella Reggi; Nagendra Sastry Yarla; Maura Palmery; Ilaria Peluso

    2018-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol or APAP) is an analgesic and antipyretic drug that can induce oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxicity at high doses. Several studies reported that antioxidant nutraceuticals, in particular phenolic phytochemicals from dietary food, spices, herbs and algae have hepatoprotective effects. Others, however, suggested that they may negatively impact the metabolism, efficacy and toxicity of APAP. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of the association of...

  5. Synthesis, spectral characterization, and pharmacological screening of some 4-[{1-(arylmethylidene}-amino]-3-(4-pyridyl-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees A Siddiqui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Pain is an unpleasant and subjective sensation that results from a harmful sensorial stimulation, which alerts the body about current or potential damage to its tissues and organs. Fever is a complex physiological response triggered by infections or aseptic stimuli. Elevation in body temperature occurs when the concentration of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 increases within parts of the brain. Triazole derivatives have been found to possess various pharmacological and biological activities, such as, anti-inflammatory, analgesics, antipyretic, and antifungal. Materials and Methods : Various 4-[{1-(arylmethylidene}-amino]-3-(4-pyridyl-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives were synthesized by a sequence of reactions starting from isonicotinic acid hydrazide. The synthesized compounds were screened for in-vivo analgesic by the tail-flick method and anti-pyretic activities at a dose of 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight respectively. The antipyretic activity was evaluated using Brewer′s yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Fever was induced by subcutaneously injecting 20 ml/kg of 20% aqueous suspension of Brewer′s yeast in normal saline. Results and Discussion : The analgesic screening results revealed that the compounds 3b, 3c, and 3d exhibited excellent analgesic activity at 60 and 90 minutes compared to the standard drug (Analgin. Results revealed that the compounds 3a, 3e, and 3f significantly decreased the temperature of pyretic (P<0.001 rats at one, three and six hours after compound administration as compared to Aspirin (standard drug. Conclusion : Compounds 3b, 3c, and 3d exhibited significant analgesic activity comparable with the standard drug analgin, using the tail flick model. Compounds 3a, 3e, and 3f showed significant anti-pyretic activities comparable with the standard drug aspirin using the yeast-induced pyrexia model.

  6. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol, 4-Aminophenol, 4-Chloroacetanilid, Benzyl alcohol,Benzaldehyde and EDTA by HPLC methodin paracetamol injection ampoule

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Merrikhi Khosroshahi; Fereydoon Aflaki; Nader Saemiyan; Assem Abdollahpour; Ramin Asgharian

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol that is known as acetaminophen have the most consume as an analgesic and antipyretic drug in the world. That is formulated in single compound or mixture at many forms such as tablets, syrups, suspensions and drops. The last form is intravenous injections. Paracetamol derived from 4-minophenol which is synthesized by acylated the P-acetaminophenol and acetic anhydride. 4-aminophenol is the main impurity at manufacturing of paracetamol which could produce by hydrolysis during sto...

  7. Herbal mouthwash based on Libidibia ferrea: microbiological control, sensory characteristics, sedimentation, pH and density

    OpenAIRE

    Venâncio, Gisely Naura; Rodrigues, Isis Costa; Souza, Tatiane Pereira de; Marreiro, Raquel de Oliveira; Bandeira, Maria Fulgência Costa Lima; Conde, Nikeila Chacon de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Phytotherapy is the study of herbal medicines and their applicability to cure diseases in general, being a therapeutic method which can be used for the prevention and treatment of mouth diseases. Among the herbal studied, the Libidibia ferrea, known as jucá or ironwood, is widely used in folk medicine by presenting anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antipyretic therapeutic properties. Objective To evaluate in vitro pharmacological stability of the Libidibia ferrea ex...

  8. Herbal mouthwash based on Libidibia ferrea: microbiological control, sensory characteristics, sedimentation, pH and density

    OpenAIRE

    Venâncio,Gisely Naura; Rodrigues,Isis Costa; Souza,Tatiane Pereira de; Marreiro,Raquel de Oliveira; Bandeira,Maria Fulgência Costa Lima; Conde,Nikeila Chacon de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Phytotherapy is the study of herbal medicines and their applicability to cure diseases in general, being a therapeutic method which can be used for the prevention and treatment of mouth diseases. Among the herbal studied, the Libidibia ferrea, known as jucá or ironwood, is widely used in folk medicine by presenting anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antipyretic therapeutic properties. Objective To evaluate in vitro pharmacological stability of the Libidibia ferr...

  9. Pengaruh Penambahan Sodium Lauril Sulfat (Sls) Sebagai Surfaktan Terhadap Sifat Fisik Dan Uji Disolusi Tablet Ketoprofen

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Adithya Wahyu; Siswanto, Agus; Suparman, Suparman

    2012-01-01

    Ketoprofen (acid 2-(3-benzoilfenil) propanoat) was derivated of propionat acid which has analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory with poor solubillity in water. This research allowed to increase the dissolution rate of ketoprofen tablets and effect on the physical characteristic by adding sodium lauril sulfat as surfactant. Sodium lauryl sulfat is a surfactant that can be used to improve wetting and dissolution rate. This study was done with make four formula of ketoprofen tablets by d...

  10. The Evidence Base on the Efficacy and Safety of Ibuprofen in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of the world literature of recent years, the aim of which was to study the efficacy and safety of ibuprofen use as first-line antipyretic in pediatric practice. Special attention was paid to researches on the study the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of ibuprofen in fever in children of all ages, as well as the use of different forms of ibuprofen (suspension, suppositories.

  11. Capsule Formulation of Ethanolic Extract of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma Longifolia Jack.,) and its Effect on Human Health Vital Signs

    OpenAIRE

    Laela Hayu Nurani; Eka Kumalasari; Abdul Rohman; Sitarina Widyarini

    2017-01-01

    Pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia) has the potential to be developed as antihypertensive, antipyretic, aphrodisiacs and health supplements. The use of E. longifolia as a traditional medicine needs to be pursued in the form of more effective and appropriate formulation. The capsule preparations are easy to make and can cover the bitter taste of E. longifolia. Clinical trials in this study use design pre-post treatment in healthy humans. Subjects used were male - healthy men and healthy women ...

  12. Hibiscus syriacus Extract from an Established Cell Culture Stimulates Skin Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    di Martino, O.; Tito, A.; De Lucia, A.; Cimmino, A.; Cicotti, F.; Apone, F.; Colucci, G.; Calabrò, V.

    2017-01-01

    Higher plants are the source of a wide array of bioactive compounds that support skin integrity and health. Hibiscus syriacus, family Malvaceae, is a plant of Chinese origin known for its antipyretic, anthelmintic, and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to assess the healing and hydration properties of H. syriacus ethanolic extract (HSEE). We established a cell culture from Hibiscus syriacus leaves and obtained an ethanol soluble extract from cultured cells. The properties of th...

  13. OPERCULINA TURPETHUM AS A PANORAMIC HERBAL MEDICINE: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Veena Sharma

    2012-01-01

    O. turpethum is the source of the drug known as Turpeth or Indian Jalap and it is widely grown throughout India and it is occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornament. It has been used as a traditional medicine in many countries. The root is prescribed in scorpion sting and snake bite. The roots are bitter,acrid, sweet, thermogenic, purgative, carminative, antihelmintic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatic, stimulant and hydragogue. They are useful in colic constipation, dropsy, vitiated c...

  14. Actividad antimalárica in vitro y citotoxicidad de algunas plantas medicinales Cubanas seleccionadas

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés, Aymé Fernández-Calienes; Martínez, Judith Mendiola; Lizama, Ramón Scull; Gaitén, Yamilet Gutiérrez; Rodríguez, Deyanira Acuña; Payrol, Juan Abreu

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial plants have been demonstrated to be sources of antimalarial compounds. In Cuba, little is known about antimalarial potentials of plant species used as medicinals. For that reason, we evaluated the antimalarial activity of 14 plant species used in Cuba as antimalarial, antipyretic and/or antiparasitic. Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared and tested in vitro for the antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum Ghana strain and over human cell line MRC-5 to determine cytotox...

  15. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Burçak

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen causes serious problems as toxication in cats in spite of being an effective and reliable analgesic and antipyretic in humans. A six months-old female cat suffering from cough was presented to examination to International Pet Hospital/Tirana/Albania when no result was obtained after one  acetaminophen tablet had been administered in order to heal the disease. Depression, grey and cyanotic mucous membranes and tongue, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypothermia were primary clinical sign...

  16. Advances in NSAID Development: Evolution of Diclofenac Products Using Pharmaceutical Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, Roy; Bosch, Bill; Brune, Kay; Patrignani, Paola; Young, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the phenylacetic acid class with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties. Contrary to the action of many traditional NSAIDs, diclofenac inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme with greater potency than it does COX-1. Similar to other NSAIDs, diclofenac is associated with serious dose-dependent gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal adverse effects. Since its introduction in 1973, a number of different diclofen...

  17. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Belniak; Katarzyna Świąder; Michał Szumiło; Aleksandra Hyla; Ewa Poleszak

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH) on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP) a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter) and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500?+?400). The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.): the uniform...

  18. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) efficacy and safety in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzolin, Laura; Antonucci, Roberto; Fanos, Vassilios

    2013-02-01

    Neonates can perceive pain, therefore an adequate analgesic therapy is a major issue not only from an ethical perspective but also to improve short- and long-term outcome. Fever during the neonatal period requires hospitalization and needs a treatment with an antipyretic agent because of the high risk of severe complications. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), the most commonly prescribed drug in paediatric patients for its analgesic and antipyretic effects, is the only agent recommended for use as an antipyretic in the newborn and has been recently proposed as a supplement therapy to opioids for postoperative analgesia. This article aims to give an updated overview on the use of paracetamol in newborns by presenting its pharmacological profile (mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics), recommendations for dosing regimens (oral or rectal administration: 25-30 mg/kg/day in preterm neonates of 30 weeks' gestation, 45 mg/kg/day in preterm neonates of 34 weeks' gestation, 60 mg/kg/day in term neonates; i.v. administration: indicatively 20-40 mg/kg/day depending on gestational age, with some differences among various guidelines) and clinical uses (more commonly as analgesic/antipyretic by oral or rectal route, but also i.v. in anaesthesia for postoperative analgesia and painful procedures in Neonatal Intensive Care Units). Moreover, drug tolerability is discussed in the light of its potential hepatotoxicity and the unique characteristics of the newborn patient. By analyzing the available literature and the dosing guidelines, a mismatch exists between the current clinical use of paracetamol and the recommendations, suggesting a cautious approach particularly in extremely preterm neonates.

  19. Quality control and stability study of 100 mg/ml paracetamol oral drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Penna, Caridad M.; Montes de Oca Porto, Yanet; Salomon Izquierdo, Suslebys

    2013-01-01

    Paracetamol is an effective analgesic and antipyretic drug of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug group. Paracetamol oral drops are indicated for use in infant population aged up to 5 years to relieve fever, headache, toothache and symptomatic relief of common cold. To validate two analytical methods for the quality control and the stability study and to study the stability of 100 mg/ml Paracetamol oral drops made in Cuba

  20. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2001-01-01

    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  1. The “febrifuge principle” of cinchona barks

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira, Teresa; Lopes, Sandra; Maia, Elisa

    2007-01-01

    The antipyretic properties of cinchona barks were known since ancient times in South America, particularly in Peru. The use of these barks in medicines against “fevers” in Europe in the 17th century made the exploitation of cinchonas of Peru a highly productive process, and those cinchona trees became menaced. The Portuguese government aware of the problem searched an alternative in cinchona varieties existing in Brazil. By the beginning of 19th century, samples of different Brazilian barks w...

  2. A Multicentre Trial of Voltaren in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. A. McDONALD SCOTT, F. O. MuLLER. SUMMARY. Voltaren, a compound with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties, has been compared at two dose levels-25 mg t.d.s. and 50 mg t.d.s.-with indome- thacin 25 mg t.d.s. and acetylsa"licylic acid 1 500 mg t.d.s.. Ninety-one patients with definite or classical ...

  3. FAST DETECTION OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY(LC-MSMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Abusoglu, Sedat; Unlu, Ali; Sivrikaya, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    ObjectivesAcetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is themost widely used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drug, andalso used to inhibit cyclooxygenase dependent platelet aggregation.   The aimof this study was to develop a simple, fast and accurate tandem mass method fordetermination and quantification of ASA.  MethodsChromatographic seperation was performedusing an Shimadzu LC-20-AD (Kyoto, Japan) coupledwith a ABSCIEX API 3200 triple quadrupole massspectromete...

  4. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné) in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Thereza C. M. de; Morato, Gina S.; Takahashi, Reinaldo N.

    1991-01-01

    Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacologicalproperties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS), partic...

  5. PRESCRIBING TRENDS OF NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN THE MIDDLE ANATOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Borekci

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs are widely used for their analgesic, antipyretic and antiinflammatory effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prescribing trends of NSAI drugs among the doctors working the outpatients clinics in our hospital. Materials and methods: Questionnaires consisting of 10 questions related to analgesic and NSAI drug preferences were applied to the doctors working the medical and surgery outpatient clinics in a tertiary care hospita...

  6. The influence of age and repeated LPS administration on body temperature and the relation with interleukin-6 and IgM antibodies in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    De Boever , Sandra; Beyaert , Rudi; Vandemaele , Fréderic; Baert , Kris; Duchateau , Luc; Goddeeris , Bruno; De Backer , Patrick; Croubels , Siska

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to create a standardized and reproducible inflammation model in chickens in order to study the pharmacodynamics of several anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs. We studied the influence of age and repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on body temperature and the correlation of this with concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IgM antibodies against LPS in plasma of chickens. Three and five week old broilers were injected intravenously...

  7. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry)

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Gupta; Ghanshyam Das Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show ...

  8. USE OF A NEW FORM OF IBUPROFEN IN CHILDREN WITH FEVER AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Lokshina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study clinical efficacy, tolerance and safety of a new pelleted ibuprofen form for children in treatment of fever in patients with acute respiratory tract infection. Patients and methods: children aged from 6 to 12 years old with clinical manifestation of respiratory tract infections and requiring antipyretic treatment were included into the study. Children (n = 50 were administered ibuprofen at a single dose of 5–10 mg/kg of body weight, not more than 3–4 times per day. The efficacy assessment included time needed for temperature decrease (assessment was performed in 15, 30 and 60 minutes and duration of the antipyretic effect (assessment in 6, 8 and 12 hours. Rapidity of analgesic effect in children with ear ache, headache and myalgias was performed in 15, 30, 60 minutes and 6, 8 and 12 hours after the drug intake. Results: antipyretic effect of pelleted ibuprofen for children begins in 15 minutes after its intake. Stable temperature decrease during the first 6 hours was observed in 58% of children (the mean temperature was 37,1 ± 0,3 and maintained up for 12 hours. Relief of pain intensity was established in 62,1% of patients during the first 3 hours, and in 37,9% the pain syndrome was arrested completely. Conclusions: the new pelleted form of ibuprofen for children was proved to have high clinical efficacy and safety in treatment of fever in children with acute respiratory tract infections.

  9. Estado actual del manejo de la fiebre en niños. Current status of management of fever in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Alberto Rueda Zambrano, MD

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Es muy frecuente en el ambiente médico y entre los padres de familia el uso y abuso de antipiréticos buscando disminuir abruptamente la temperatura, mejorar los síntomas derivados de la fiebre y contrarrestar las reacciones adversas de la misma. Por otro lado, existen diferentes conceptos acerca de la elección del antipirético más eficaz y seguro en niños y su ruta de administración, así como su utilidad en la prevención de convulsiones febriles, entre otras. Este artículo pretende dar claridad a las controversias en el manejo de la fiebre mediante la revisión de la literatura, incluyendo solo ensayos clínicos, meta análisis, guías de manejo y revisiones de tema, publicadas en las dos últimas décadas. Para tal fin se revisaron las bases de datos Cochrane, PubMed y Medscape.Antipyretics are very often used between physicians and parents to treat fever and relief its symptoms and prevent vaccination side effects. Indeed, there is a misconception about the prevention of recurrence of febrile seizures with antipyretics and this leads to overdoses, side effects and, therefore, more parent´s anxiety. There are contradictory concepts about the election of safer and better antipyretic in children and its better administration via: oral and rectal paracetamol, ibuprofen, ketoprofeno, nimesulide, oral and intramuscular metamizol, paracetamol plus ibuprofen and ponging/lukewarm bath. All these alternatives have been studied by many researchers without consensus because more trials with bigger samples and longer time of study are needed. No clarity exists between doctors and parents about the antipyretic's effects over febrile seizure prevention and prophylaxis of post vaccine symptoms. This article pretends to find actual evidence about fever , its implications and use of antipyretics in children through searching on data bases like PubMed, Cochcrane, and Medscape.

  10. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid has enhanced chemo-preventive properties compared to aspirin, is gastrointestinal safe with all the classic therapeutic indications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodela, Ravinder; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A.; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin is chemopreventive; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel hybrid that releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-platelet, and chemopreventive properties of aspirin and NBS-1120 administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6h post-administration, the number and size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs were counted; tissue samples were frozen for PGE2, SOD, and MDA determination. Anti-inflammatory: 1h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 5h. Anti-pyretic: fever was induced by LPS (ip) an hour before administration of the test drugs, core body temperature was measured hourly for 5h. Analgesic: time-dependent analgesic effects were evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Antiplatelet: anti-aggregatory effects were studied on collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Chemoprevention: Nude mice were gavaged daily for 25 days with vehicle, aspirin or NBS-1120. After one week, each mouse was inoculated subcutaneously in the right flank with HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Both agents reduced PGE2 levels in stomach tissue; however, NBS-1120 did not cause any stomach ulcers, whereas aspirin caused significant bleeding. Lipid peroxidation induced by aspirin was higher than that exerted by NBS-1120. SOD activity was significantly inhibited by aspirin but increased by NBS-1120. Both agents showed similar anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anti-platelet activities. Aspirin increased plasma TNFα more than NBS-1120-treated animals. NBS-1120 was better than aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; it dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth and tumor mass. PMID:26394025

  11. Synthesis, characterization and pharmacological evaluation of substituted phenoxy acetamide derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy-N-(1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ylacetamide and N-(2-bromocyclohexyl-2-(substituted phenoxyacetamide derivatives having cyclohexyl nucleus as common in both types were synthesized and assessed for their anti-inflammatory activity by a carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method, analgesic activity by Eddy’s hot plate method and antipyretic activity by brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia method. All the novel derivatives have been synthesized by the reaction of camphor and similar ketone having cyclohexane nucleus (e.g. 2-bromocyclohexanone with ammonium carbonate and formic acid resulting in the formation of aromatic amines (1a-b. These amines on further chloroacetylation with chloroacetylchloride give compounds (2a-b. Compounds (2a-b are converted to 2-(substituted phenoxy-N-(1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl acetamide and N-(2-bromocyclohexyl-2-(substituted phenoxyacetamide derivatives on treatment with substituted phenol. Among the series 3a-f, 3i, 3k, 3l compounds showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to the standard drug diclofenac sodium and also compound 3a-f, 3h, 3j, 3k exhibit significant analgesic activity as compared to the standard drug. Compounds 3a-f and 3k showed antipyretic activity nearly to the standard drug indomethacin. Compounds 3a-f and 3k possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities near to the standard.

  12. Drug Use before and during Pregnancy in Japan: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Nishigori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To elucidate drug use before and during pregnancy in Japan. Methods: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS is an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. We analyzed data from JECS involving cases where drugs were used for 12 months before pregnancy was diagnosed, between the time of diagnosis of pregnancy until week 12 of pregnancy, and after week 12 of pregnancy. Results: We analyzed data from 97,464 pregnant women. The percentages of pregnant women who had taken one or more drugs and supplements before diagnosis of pregnancy, between the time of diagnosis of pregnancy until week 12 of pregnancy, and after week 12 of pregnancy, were 78.4%, 57.1%, and 68.8% respectively. Excluding iron supplements, folic acid, and other vitamins and minerals, the percentages of women taking supplements were 75.3%, 36.0%, and 51.7% at each respective time point. The following drugs and supplements were frequently used for 12 months before pregnancy diagnosis: Commercially available antipyretics, analgesics, and/or medicine for treating common cold (34.7%, antipyretics, analgesics, and/or medicine for treating common colds, which were prescribed in hospitals (29.8%, antimicrobial drugs (14.0%, and anti-allergy drugs (12.5%. The following drugs and supplements were frequently used from the time of pregnancy diagnosis until week 12 of pregnancy, and after week 12 of pregnancy: folic acid (28.9% and 26.2%, antipyretics, analgesics and/or medicines for treating common cold, that were prescribed in hospitals (7.8% and 13.3%, Chinese herbal medicines (6.0% and 9.4%, and uterine relaxants (5.1% and 15.2%. Conclusions: The analysis of a nationwide cohort study showed that a high percentage of Japanese pregnant women were taking medicinal drugs. Further research is required to elucidate the relationship between drug use during pregnancy and birth defects in Japan.

  13. POTENSI LICHEN SEBAGAI SUMBER BAHAN OBAT: SUATU KAJIAN PUSTAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIS SEPTIANA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen is a plant with many benefits. Its abundant existence in an area may indicate that air pollution levels are still low. Besides as indicator of air quality, lichen is also used as traditional medicine. Until present time, application of lichens for arthritis, constipation, chemotherapy, external wound, microbial infection, worm and infestation are still done in some countries. It is due to active chemical compounds contain in lichen that has activities as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoa, analgesic and antipyretic, and anthelmintic. With its potential and efforts to provide sustainable materials, lichen has good prospect to be developed become modern medicine.

  14. Degradation of Paracetamol by Photolysis Using C-N-codoped TiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Vanny Yulia Safitri; Adlis Santoni; Diana Vanda Wellia; Khoiriah Khoiriah; Safni Safni

    2017-01-01

    Paracetamol is generally used as analgesic and antipyretic drugs. Contamination paracetamol in the environment can occur because of waste material disposal from production site and immediate disposal of household that cause water pollution. Paracetamol is degraded by photolysis method under irradiation 10 watt UV-light (λ=365 nm), visible-light (Philips LED 13 watt 1400 lux) and solar-light with and without addition C-N-codoped TiO2catalyst. The solution is analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotomete...

  15. A case report of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: A mini-review with latest updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Gulab Meshram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia (ED is a rare hereditary disorder involving two or more of the ectodermal structures, which include the skin, hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands. The two most common forms of the disease are hypohidrotic/anhidrotic ED and hidrotic ED. They are caused by the mutations of several genes. We present a case of a 9-year-old child with hypohidrotic ED, who presented with hypodontia, dyshidrosis, hypotrichosis, and raised body temperature. We treated the raised body temperature symptomatically with cooling techniques and antipyretics. A multidisciplinary approach with physicians from several fields is required to provide comprehensive medical care to patients with ED.

  16. Anaphylaxis following intravenous paracetamol: the problem is the solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S S; Green, S; Rose, M

    2015-11-01

    Paracetamol is a ubiquitous analgesic and antipyretic that is widely administered, including by anaesthetists. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to intravenous paracetamol are particularly rare. We report two cases involving four separate episodes of anaphylaxis to intravenous paracetamol in different perioperative settings without a past history of intolerance to the oral form. The allergological investigations are described, during which it became evident that both patients were allergic to an excipient (mannitol) present in the formulation and that neither was allergic to the principal agent (paracetamol). The importance of referral and investigation of perioperative drug reactions is underscored by these two cases.

  17. Overdose effect of aconite containing Ayurvedic Medicine ('Mahashankha Vati').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Debnath, Saroj Kumar

    2010-07-01

    There are chances that the use of larger than recommended dose of Ayurvedic medicines containing aconite can produce drug reactions. Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox Wall.) is a very well-known ingredient of Ayurvedic formulations and is prescribed as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic, appetizer and digestive. The recommended dose of purified Vatsanabha (A. ferox Wall.) root is 15 mg. We present a case of hypotension and bradycardia due to aconite poisoning caused by overdosing of an Ayurvedic medicine (Mahashankha Vati), which was primarily managed by Ayurvedic treatment.

  18. Overdose effect of aconite containing Ayurvedic Medicine (‘Mahashankha Vati’)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Debnath, Saroj Kumar

    2010-01-01

    There are chances that the use of larger than recommended dose of Ayurvedic medicines containing aconite can produce drug reactions. Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox Wall.) is a very well-known ingredient of Ayurvedic formulations and is prescribed as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic, appetizer and digestive. The recommended dose of purified Vatsanabha (A. ferox Wall.) root is 15 mg. We present a case of hypotension and bradycardia due to aconite poisoning caused by overdosing of an Ayurvedic medicine (Mahashankha Vati), which was primarily managed by Ayurvedic treatment. PMID:21170213

  19. Ibuprofen: Synthesis, production and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in 1969, ibuprofen has become one of the most common painkillers in the world. Ibuprofen in an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and like other drugs of its class it possesses analgetic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. While ibuprofen is a relatively simple molecule, there is still sufficient structural complexity to ensure that a large number of different synthetic approaches are possible. Since the introduction of pharmaceutical products containing ibuprofen, industrial and academic scientists have developed many potential production processes. This paper describes the history, synthesis and production, as well as the properties and stability of ibuprofen.

  20. The effect of magnetic field on the shape of etch pits of paracetamol crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchenko, V.E. [Kemerovo State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Research and Educational Center, Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Boldyrev, V.V.; Shakhtshneider, T.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zakharov, Yu.A.; Krasheninin, V.I. [Kemerovo State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ermakov, A.E. [Institute of Physics of Metals, Ural Branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2002-04-01

    In the present study we investigate the effect of magnetic field on the shape of etch pits of the crystals of p-hydroxyacetanilide (paracetamol), which is widely used in pharmacy as antipyretic, antiphlogistic medicine. It was discovered that the magnetic field (H=0.5 T, {tau}=15 min) changes the morphology of etch pits and shifts dislocations in paracetamol crystal. Activation energy of the changes induced by the action of the magnetic field was determined to be 63 kJ/mol, which is comparable with the energy of hydrogen bonds in crystal lattice. (orig.)

  1. Design synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-methylphenyl semicarbazone derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmohan Singhal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We have used pharmacophore hybridization technique of drug design and designed a pharmacophore model 2-methylphenylsemicarbazone which is having hydrogen acceptor site, hydrogen donor site, lipophilic site etc using ligandscout-2.02 software. A series of 2-methylphenyl-semicarbazone was synthesized and evaluated for their antipyretic activity using boiled cow milk induced pyrexia in rabbits. Compound 11 was the most active compound. The possible metabolites of some selected synthesized chalconesemicarbazones were predicted by computational method using Pallas version-3.1 ADME-Tox prediction software. The major pathway of metabolism was found to be p-hydroxylation and amide hydrolysis.

  2. A REVIEW ON THE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS AND BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Aisha Noreen; Kiran Qadeer; Zubair Anwar; Iqbal Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol (PM) is an active metabolite of phenacetin and belongs to p-aminophenol derivatives. It is also termed as acetaminophen. PM is one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. It is an OTC drug and is used as a common household analgesic. It is not used as a substitute of aspirin or any other NSAIDs. It is a weak cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 inhibitor but may inhibit COX-3 in the central nervous system. Many analytical ...

  3. Chemical Burns Following Massage With Chopped Pulsatilla koreana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinkyung; Tae, Sangpil; Joo, Hongsil; Lee, Sang-Yeul; Sung, Kun-Yong

    2017-11-01

    Herbal massage is commonly used for cosmetic and antirheumatic purposes in the Republic of Korea. Cutaneous burns can complicate herbal massages, but this is a very rare occurrence. Pulsatilla koreana, the Korean pasque flower, is a species of the genus Pulsatilla from the Ranunculaceae family. It is a perennial plant native to Korea, where it is used in herbal and folk medicine for its antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, astringent, and hemostatic effects. Three cases of burns as a result of herbal massages with Pulsatilla koreana are presented herein to increase public awareness about the adverse effects of products used incorrectly for herbal massage.

  4. The effect of direct heating and cooling of heat regulation centers on body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were done on 28 rabbits in which puncture instruments were left in the brain for 1-2 days until the calori-puncture hyperthermia had passed and the body temperature was again normal. The instrument remaining in the brain was then used as a galvanic electrode and a second fever was produced, this time due to the electrical stimulus. It was concluded that heat is a centrally acting antipyretic and that cold is a centrally acting stimulus which produces hyperpyrexia cold-induced fever.

  5. Use of aquatic bryophytes as bio monitors for radioactive studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damianova, A.; Penev, I.; Drenska, M.

    2006-01-01

    As a widespread water moss Fontinalis antipyretics is frequently used as a biomonitor for trace elements pollution in lakes and running waters. The purpose of this study is to use Fontinalis antipyretics as a tool for monitoring of radioactivity in waters from different rivers (Musalenska Bistriza, Iskar, Maritza, etc.) in Rila Mountain. The radioactivity of aquatic moss, water samples and sediments were measured using HPG detector with the parameters FWHM 2 kev at 6 0Co efficiency 35% with low background. The dose rate measurements (μR/h) show different values according to the place of sampling and reflect the present ecological status of the river ecosystems. The ongoing measurements will allowed the absolute value of 1 37Cs in bryophytes to be determined and eventually some seasonal variations to be observed. A special interest is whether the measured activity is accidental or is as a consequence of a long time accumulation in the bryophytes. In this case they could probably be used for water purification. On that basis the bryophytes could be used for controlling radioactivity of river ecosystems even in high-mountain difficult accessible places replacing the transportation of large volumes of water

  6. Alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the treatment of febrile children: a pilot study [ISRCTN30487061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra Ramzi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen for the treatment of febrile children is a prevalent practice among physicians and parents, despite the lack of evidence on effectiveness or safety. This randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial aims at comparing the antipyretic effectiveness and safety of a single administration of alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen doses to that of ibuprofen mono-therapy in febrile children. Methods Seventy febrile children were randomly allocated to receive either a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg ibuprofen and 15 mg/kg oral acetaminophen after 4 hours, or a similar dose of ibuprofen and placebo at 4 hours. Rectal temperature was measured at baseline, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours later. Endpoints included proportions of afebrile children at 6, 7 and 8 hours, maximum decline in temperature, time to recurrence of fever, and change in temperature from baseline at each time point. Intent-to-treat analysis was planned with statistical significance set at P Results A higher proportion of subjects in the intervention group (83.3% became afebrile at 6 hours than in the control group (57.6%; P = 0.018. This difference was accentuated at 7 and 8 hours (P Conclusion A single dose of alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen appears to be a superior antipyretic regimen than ibuprofen mono-therapy. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Zaman; Alamgeer; Kanwal, Munazza; Hassan, Mubashir; Abdullah, Sahar; Waheed, Mamuna; Ahsan, Haseeb; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (–COOH) was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic –OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (Pflurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (Pflurbiprofen. Molecular docking and simulation studies were carried out with cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) proteins, and it was observed that our prodrugs have more potential to selectively bind to COX-2 than to COX-1. It is concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities with reduced GI adverse effects than the parent drug. PMID:27555750

  8. Flurbiprofen-antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Zaman; Alamgeer; Kanwal, Munazza; Hassan, Mubashir; Abdullah, Sahar; Waheed, Mamuna; Ahsan, Haseeb; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen-antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (-COOH) was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic -OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (Pflurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (Pflurbiprofen. Molecular docking and simulation studies were carried out with cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) proteins, and it was observed that our prodrugs have more potential to selectively bind to COX-2 than to COX-1. It is concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities with reduced GI adverse effects than the parent drug.

  9. Biological studies on the effect of some Egyptian medicinal plants in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rafei, M.K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Various biological studies (toxicological, pharmacological biochemical and histopathological were carried out on Origanum Majorana and Artemisia herba alba ethanolic extracts. The acute toxicity study (LD 50 ) revealed that both extracts are quietly safe. Both doses (0.25 and 0.5 g/kg b.wt.) of O. Majorana ethanolic extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory (acute and systemic) analgesic and mild anti-pyretic effect. Both doses (0.25 and 0.5 g/kg b.wt.) of A. herba alba ethanolic extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory (acute and systemic) analgesic and mild anti-pyretic effect. Moreover, histopathological findings of stomach and intestine of irradiated rats revealed that both doses of both extracts possess a gastrointestinal protective effect against radiation-induced gastritis and enteritis. Prolonged administration of both doses of both extracts for one month revealed that both doses of O. Majorana ethanolic extract possess a hepato protective and reno protective effect, while there was no significant effect of both doses of A. herba alba ethanolic extract on the biochemical parameters, but there were slight changes in liver and kidney on the histological level.

  10. Use of intravenous acetaminophen (paracetamol) in a pediatric patient at the end of life: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Adam D; Keefer, Patricia; Saul, D'Anna

    2013-12-01

    For the better part of 100 years, acetaminophen (or paracetamol as it is known outside of the United States) has been a common first-line analgesic in pediatrics and is typically well tolerated with minimal side effects. Its use as an anti-pyretic is also well-documented and thus it is used broadly for symptom control in the general pediatric population. In pediatric palliative care, acetaminophen is also used as an adjuvant to opioid therapy for pain as well as an anti-pyretic. For many pediatric patients near end-of-life, however, the ability to tolerate oral intake is diminished and rectal suppository administration can be distressing or contraindicated as in the setting of neutropenia, thus limiting use of acetaminophen by its usual routes. In Europe and Australia, an intravenous formulation of acetaminophen has been used for many years and has only recently become available in the United States. Here, we describe a case using intravenous acetaminophen in a pediatric patient at the end of life.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children: a cross sectional study

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    Demir Figen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80. The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3% in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3% stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.

  12. Acute acetaminophen (paracetamol) ingestion improves time to exhaustion during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Alexis R; Taylor, Lee; Harding, Christopher; Wright, Benjamin; Foster, Josh; Castle, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic and has previously been shown to improve exercise performance through a reduction in perceived pain. This study sought to establish whether its antipyretic action may also improve exercise capacity in the heat by moderating the increase in core temperature. On separate days, 11 recreationally active participants completed two experimental time-to-exhaustion trials on a cycle ergometer in hot conditions (30°C, 50% relative humidity) after ingesting a placebo control or an oral dose of acetaminophen in a randomized, double-blind design. Following acetaminophen ingestion, participants cycled for a significantly longer period of time (acetaminophen, 23 ± 15 min versus placebo, 19 ± 13 min; P = 0.005; 95% confidence interval = 90-379 s), and this was accompanied by significantly lower core (-0.15°C), skin (-0.47°C) and body temperatures (0.19°C; P 0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate that an acute dose of acetaminophen can improve cycling capacity in hot conditions, and that this may be due to the observed reduction in core, skin and body temperature and the subjective perception of thermal comfort. These findings suggest that acetaminophen may reduce the thermoregulatory strain elicited from exercise, thus improving time to exhaustion.

  13. New Flavonoid Glycoside and Pharmacological Activities of Pteranthus dichotomus Forssk.

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    Emad, M. Atta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Luteolin 6-rhamnosyl (1``` 4`` rhamnoside was isolated from Pteranthus dichotomus for the first time as a natural product along with eight compounds; kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin-7-glucoside, isoorientin, orientin-7-methoxide, luteolin, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside-7-glucouronic acid and myricetin-3-glucoside. The plant contained phenol, protocatechuic, p-hydroxy benzoic, gallic, p-coumaric and o-coumaric acids; they were identified by HPLC, the flavonoid compounds were purified by chromatographic methods, identified by chemical and physical methods including UV, 1H, 13C and 2D- NMR. The tested extract was highly safe as LD 50 (4 g/kg b.wt., it has anti-inflammatory, moderate analgesic effect and caused increase in urine volume, it also had no effect on liver functions of animals. Kidney functions were impaired after large dose (100 mg/kg -1. It has Anti-tumor activity against Ehrlish Ascites Carcinoma. The new isolated compound showed antipyretic effect and increased the urine volume while the tested extract had moderate antipyretic activity in rats.

  14. Role of a proprietary propolis-based product on the wait-and-see approach in acute otitis media and in preventing evolution to tracheitis, bronchitis, or rhinosinusitis from nonstreptococcal pharyngitis

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    Di Pierro F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alberto Zanvit,2 Maria Colombo3 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, 2Biological Dentistry Department, Italian Stomatology Institute, 3ATS, District 5, Milan, Italy Abstract: Antipyretics and/or anti-inflammatory drugs along with a wait-and-see approach are the only treatments recommended in early acute otitis media (AOM or viral pharyngitis. Propolis has been widely investigated for its antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties and could perhaps be administered as an add-on therapy during watchful waiting in AOM or for better control of symptoms in nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. However, propolis has well-known problems of poor solubility and low oral bioavailability. We therefore analyzed a proprietary propolis-based product (Propolisina® developed to overcome these limitations, in a retrospective, open-label, controlled study of Streptococcus pyogenes-negative children with a diagnosis of AOM or pharyngitis. Our results show that the use of propolis supplement for 72 hours lessens the severity of AOM and viral pharyngitis, reduces the use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatory drugs, and decreases the rate of evolution to tracheitis, bronchitis, and rhinosinusitis. Our study shows that propolis could be used as a safe add-on therapy in case of AOM and/or viral pharyngitis. Keywords: pediatric infections, cogrinding, bioavailability, propolis

  15. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity in Preschool Children

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    Kidon Mona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although extensively studied in adults, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID hypersensitivity in children, especially in young children, remains poorly defined. Pediatricians, prescribing antipyretics for children, rarely encounter significant problems, but the few epidemiologic studies performed show conflicting results. Although it is clear that some patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA-sensitive asthma have their clinical onset of disease in childhood and bronchoconstriction after ASA challenge is seen in 0 to 22% of asthmatic children so challenged, ibuprofen at antipyretic doses may cause acute respiratory problems only in a very small number of mild to moderate asthmatics. The recently elucidated mechanism of action of acetaminophen may explain some occurrences of adverse reactions in patients with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity on the basis of its inhibitory activity on the newly described enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX-3. This nonspecific sensitivity to inhibition of COX is most likely genetically determined and shows a remarkable association with atopic disease even in the very young age group and possibly an increased predilection in specific ethnic groups. This review summarizes state-of-the-art published data on NSAID hypersensitivity in preschool children.

  16. EFEK ANTIPIRETIK KOMBINASI EKSTRAK DAUN COCOR BEBEK (Kalanchoe pinnata L. DAN EKSTRAK DAUN TEMBELEKAN(Lantana camara L. PERS.TERHADAP MARMUT (Cavia porcellus DENGAN DEMAM YANG DIINDUKSI PEPTON

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    Heni Purwitasari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocor Bebek (Kalanchoe pinnata L. is a medicinal plant that has been used as traditional medicine for long period, used to fight fever, but it empirically leaves of  Tembelekan (Lantana camara L. are also generally primarily used to treat fever. Research on the effects of the combination of Cocor Bebek’s leaf extract (Kalanchoe pinnata L. and the leaf extract of tembelekan (Lantana camara L. Pers on male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus is induced peptone 5% at a dose of 150 mg / kg body weight. With the aim to determine the effect of the combination and determine the effects of the most effective as an antipyretic. Extracts prepared by maceration method using ethanol 95%. Marmots were divided into 4 groups. Each guinea pig was induced using peptone 5%. The first group was given Na CMC as a negative control group 2nd given a combination of one dose combinations (50 + 720. Group 3 was given a second dose combination (100 + 720. Group-4 were given a 3-dose combination (150 + 720. Temperature measurement is carried out for 2 hours with a 30 minute interval. Data were analyzed temperature measurements were statistically analyzed using ANOVA (Analisys Of Variance. The research result was addressing, that the combination of extracts can reduce fever. The combination is most effective as an antipyretic is cocor duck leaf extract 50 mg and 720 mg tembelekan leaf extract (50 + 720.

  17. Calcium channel blockers inhibit endogenous pyrogen fever in rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, J T; Shimada, S G

    1991-09-01

    We have previously shown that febrile responses in both rats and rabbits are elicited by the intravenous injection of a semipurified endogenous pyrogen (EP) prepared from human monocytes. We are now presenting evidence that these febrile responses are mediated via activation of Ca2+ channels by EP. The febrile responses of male New Zealand White rabbits and Sprague-Dawley rats to a standard dose of EP were determined at their respective thermoneutral ambient temperatures. The animals were then treated with Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil (7.5 mg/kg iv) 30-60 min before the EP challenge. In every case the febrile response to EP was markedly attenuated after verapamil pretreatment, while administration of verapamil by itself had no detectable effect on body temperature. Another Ca2+ channel blocker, nifedipine (5 mg/kg iv), was shown to possess antipyretic activity in rats also. To localize where in the fever pathway these Ca2+ channel blockers were acting, we investigated the effect of verapamil at the same dose on fevers that were produced by microinjection of prostaglandin E (PGE) directly into the brain. These PGE fevers were unaffected by verapamil pretreatment, indicating that the antipyretic action of Ca2+ channel blockers occurs before the formation of PGE in response to EP stimulation. The most likely locus of action is the activation of the enzyme phospholipase A2, which regulates the production of arachidonic acid from cellular phospholipids in the prostanoid cascade.

  18. The neurobiology of the human febrile response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Chuck

    2006-04-01

    Fever is a normal adaptation in response to a pyrogenic stimulus resulting in the generation of cytokines and prostaglandins. Fever differs from hyperpyrexia and hyperthermia associated with hot environs and pharmacological triggers. Typically, pyrogens are infectious organisms or their direct products (toxins). The body produces a wide array of pyrogenic cytokines such as interleukins (IL-1, IL-6), interferon, and tumor necrosis factor. Tissue trauma can trigger the febrile response, as can infectious organisms, certain medications, and blood products. The circumventricular organ system (CVOS) is neuronal tissues lying outside the blood-brain barrier that has a key role in initiating the communication sequence responsible for the synthesis of febrile prostaglandins. When pyrogenic cytokines are detected by the CVOS, prostaglandin synthesis, especially cyclooxygenase-dependent prostaglandin E2, is induced, activating the febrile response. Once the appropriate signal is received by the hypothalamus, autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral processes are activated until the hypothalamic set-point is reset downward as a consequence of a reduction in pyrogen content or antipyretic therapy, with subsequent heat loss. There is little evidence that fever facilitates recovery from disease or assists the immune system in mounting a response. Antipyretics are used commonly to decrease the distressing manifestations associated with fever.

  19. Depletion of brain alpha-MSH alters prostaglandin and interleukin fever in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S M; Malkinson, T J; Veale, W L; Pittman, Q J

    1990-09-03

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a putative endogenous antipyretic agent, is synthesized largely within neurons in the arcuate nucleus. To test the hypothesis that destruction of this area would increase the febrile response, male Wistar rats, treated as neonates with intraperitoneal injections of monosodium glutamate (MSG) or saline, were given intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of prostaglandin E1 (20 ng; 200 ng) or purified interleukin-1 (20 U) and body temperature was monitored. The fevers displayed by the MSG-treated animals were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than those of the controls for the lower dose of PGE1 at 10-30 min and for IL-1 at 3-6 h after the injections. MSG-treated rats showed significant reduction (P less than 0.01) in alpha-MSH content of the medial basal hypothalamus and lateral septum when compared to saline controls. Body temperature response of non-febrile animals to high ambient temperature was not affected by the MSG treatment. These data support the hypothesis that alpha-MSH is an endogenous antipyretic in the rat.

  20. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children

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    Martin Offringa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects of continuous antiepileptic drugs. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antiepileptic and antipyretic drugs used prophylactically to treat children with febrile seizures. METHODS Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011. Issue 3; MEDLINE (1966 to May 2011; EMBASE (1966 to May 2011; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE (May 2011. No language restrictions were imposed. We also contacted researchers in the field to identify continuing or unpublished studies. Selection criteria: Trials using randomized or quasi-randomized patient allocation that compared the use of antiepileptic or antipyretic agents with each other, placebo or no treatment. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors (RN and MO independently applied pre-defined criteria to select trials for inclusion and extracted the pre-defined relevant data, recording methods for randomization, blinding and exclusions. Outcomes assessed were seizure recurrence at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 months and at age 5 to 6 years in the intervention and non-intervention groups, and adverse medication effects. The presence of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. MAIN RESULTS Thirty-six articles describing 26 randomized trials with 2740 randomized participants were included. Thirteen interventions of continuous or intermittent prophylaxis and their control treatments were analyzed. Methodological quality was moderate to poor in most studies. We could not do a meta-analysis for 8 of the 13 comparisons due to insufficient numbers of trials. No significant benefit for valproate, pyridoxine

  1. Therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.-An overview

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    Shahedur Rahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.

  2. Neutropenia, agranulocytosis and dipyrone

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    Nelson Hamerschlak

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Neutropenia and agranulocytosis may be defined as granulocyte counts of less than 1,500/mm³ and 500/mm³, respectively. Agranulocytosis is a rare and serious disease often caused by drugs. Its mortality rate is around 10%. The most common manifestations are infections such as tonsillitis, pharyngitis, stomatitis or pneumonia. Although dipyrone is one of the drugs known to be associated with agranulocytosis, the strength of the association has been a matter of much debate. Moreover, alternative analgesic and antipyretic agents are not devoid of serious side effects. CONCLUSIONS: It is therefore necessary to establish the incidence of agranulocytosis in Latin America and the role of dipyrone. The ongoing LATIN Study is a multicenter international case-control study that will provide answers for these questions.

  3. Diagnosing night sweats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthon J; Bond, Michael M; Yates, Scott W

    2003-03-01

    Night sweats are a common outpatient complaint, yet literature on the subject is scarce. Tuberculosis and lymphoma are diseases in which night sweats are a dominant symptom, but these are infrequently found to be the cause of night sweats in modern practice. While these diseases remain important diagnostic considerations in patients with night sweats, other diagnoses to consider include human immunodeficiency virus, gastroesophageal reflux disease, obstructive sleep apnea, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, and several less common diseases. Antihypertensives, antipyretics, other medications, and drugs of abuse such as alcohol and heroin may cause night sweats. Serious causes of night sweats can be excluded with a thorough history, physical examination, and directed laboratory and radiographic studies. If a history and physical do not reveal a possible diagnosis, physicians should consider a purified protein derivative, complete blood count, human immunodeficiency virus test, thyroid-stimulating hormone test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate evaluation, chest radiograph, and possibly chest and abdominal computed tomographic scans and bone marrow biopsy.

  4. POLA PENGOBATAN SENDIRI OLEH MASYARAKAT (SURVAI KESEHATAN RUMAH TANGGA 1980

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    L. Ratna Budiarso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pattern on self-treatment was studied from Household Health Survey in 1980. The major disease symptoms identified by lay-men were cough 15.2%, fever 12.9% and running-nose 9.4%. Thirty-four percent of the people being ill, had self treatment as their first action taken. Modem medication were used by 84.6% of those having self-treatment, and antipyretic-analgesics were most frequently used (52,1 %. Traditional medicine was utilized by 20% cases having self-treatment. The subjective outcome of self-treatment, showed that 76.4% cases had improved or were cured. The final result of self-treat­ment did not show very much difference as compared to medical treatment.

  5. Plant germination and production of callus from the yellow hornpoppy (Glaucium flavum): the first stage of micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M E; Arafa, A M; Soliman, S S; Eldahmy, S I

    2014-09-01

    The yellow hornpoppy, Glaucium flavum Cr. (Fam. Papaveraceae) is a perennial herb, distributed in the Mediterranean region, including Egypt. The plant contains many benzyl isoquinoline alkaloids from the aporphine type such as glaucine, isoboldine, 1-chelidonine, 1-norchelidonine and 3-O-methylarterenol, making it to display various medicinal activities including antitussive, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, hypoglycemic, analgesic, antipyretic, bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. The plant is now rare and endangered in the Egyptian flora due to urban sprawl. The present study looks into Glaucium flavum seeds' in vitro germination as well as the ability of the explants taken from the growing seedlings to form stable callus lines in order to enable micropropagation as a way to save the rare plant. The study also scans the production of different medicinally valuable alkaloids, particularly glaucine, in produced callus.

  6. Fever

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    Tamas Bartfai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of body temperature remains one of the most common ways to assess health. An increase in temperature above what is considered to be a normal value is inevitably regarded as a sure sign of disease and referred to with one simple word: fever. In this review, we summarize how research on fever allowed the identification of the exogenous and endogenous molecules and pathways mediating the fever response. We also show how temperature elevation is common to different pathologies and how the molecular components of the fever-generation pathway represent drug targets for antipyretics, such as acetylsalicylic acid, the first “blockbuster drug”. We also show how fever research provided new insights into temperature and energy homeostasis, and into treatment of infection and inflammation.

  7. Some mechanisms involved in the radiosensitization of E. coli B/r by paracetamol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, M A; Gopalakrishna, K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biology and Agriculture Div.

    1977-06-01

    Paracetamol, a widely-used analgesic and antipyretic drug, sensitized E.coli B/r to /sup 60/Co gamma rays under hypoxic conditions. Part of the sensitizing effect has been shown to be due to an electron adduct of the drug. Paracetamol inhibited both post-irradiation DNA and protein syntheses. The targets involved in the inhibition of post-irradiation DNA synthesis have been shown to be different in the presence of the sensitizer. Increased DNA degradation after irradiation was also observed when E.coli B/r were irradiated in the presence of the drug. The presence of paracetamol during hypoxic irradiation of E.coli B/r resulted in the enhancement of DNA single-strand scissions with no apparent effect on their rejoining.

  8. Some mechanisms involved in the radiosensitization of E.coli B/r by paracetamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, M.A.; Gopalakrishna, K.

    1977-01-01

    Paracetamol, a widely-used analgesic and antipyretic drug, sensitized E.coli B/r to 60 Co gamma-rays under hypoxic conditions. Part of the sensitizing effect has been shown to be due to an electron adduct of the drug. Paracetamol inhibited both post-irradiation DNA and protein syntheses. The targets involved in the inhibition of post-irradiation DNA synthesis have been shown to be different in the presence of the sensitizer. Increased DNA degradation after irradiation was also observed when E.coli B/r were irradiated in the presence of the drug. The presence of paracetamol during hypoxic irradiation of E.coli B/r resulted in the enhancement of DNA single-strand scissions with no apparent effect on their rejoining. (author)

  9. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  10. Formulation and Physical Test of Ethanolic Extract Sambiloto Leaves (Andrographis paniculata Ointment

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    Indri Kusuma Dewi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Andrographis paniculata had known contained active substance such as andrographolida, atsiri oil, flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and saponin which functions as antibacterial, antitoxic, analgesic, and anti-pyretic. Based on its antibacterial properties, an ointment form of Andrographis paniculata leaf is then formulated, for practical usage. Ointment formula is semi solid for topical use in the skin or mucosal membranes. Objectives: to know the result of ointment physical test of etanolic extract Andrographis paniculata leaf. Methods: physical tests contain organoleptic test, pH, homogenity, adhesion test and dispersive test. Results: Ointment shaped semi solid, blacky green and special smell of Andrographis paniculata, pH 6, homogenity test obtained homogenous results, adhesion test was 82 second and dispersive test was 5.6 cm. Conclusion: the result of physical tests of etanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract ointment appropriate with quality standard.

  11. Review: Current Advances in Gloriosa superba L.

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    MAHENDRA K. RAI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Gloriosa superba L. is an important medicinal plant of Asia and Africa. It is used in diseases, like cancer, gout, scrofula and act as antipyretic, antihelmintic, purgative and antiabortive. It is a source of colchicines and colchicocides, which are very costly, being highly demanded by pharma industries. Due to excessive use of the plant for diverse medicinal purposes the species is on the verge of extinction and included in Red Data Book. The strenuous efforts of botanists, biotechnologists, policy makers and conservationists are required. It is a matter of great concern to conserve this plant otherwise we will be loosing it by 2020.The present review is focused on current status of the genus, source of alkaloids, poisonous nature, the strategies for its conservation and future perspectives of G. superba.

  12. Beyond COX-1: the effects of aspirin on platelet biology and potential mechanisms of chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Argentina; Zacharias-Millward, Niki; Menter, David G; Davis, Jennifer S; Lichtenberger, Lenard; Hawke, David; Hawk, Ernest; Vilar, Eduardo; Bhattacharya, Pratip; Millward, Steven

    2017-06-01

    After more than a century, aspirin remains one of the most commonly used drugs in western medicine. Although mainly used for its anti-thrombotic, anti-pyretic, and analgesic properties, a multitude of clinical studies have provided convincing evidence that regular, low-dose aspirin use dramatically lowers the risk of cancer. These observations coincide with recent studies showing a functional relationship between platelets and tumors, suggesting that aspirin's chemopreventive properties may result, in part, from direct modulation of platelet biology and biochemistry. Here, we present a review of the biochemistry and pharmacology of aspirin with particular emphasis on its cyclooxygenase-dependent and cyclooxygenase-independent effects in platelets. We also correlate the results of proteomic-based studies of aspirin acetylation in eukaryotic cells with recent developments in platelet proteomics to identify non-cyclooxygenase targets of aspirin-mediated acetylation in platelets that may play a role in its chemopreventive mechanism.

  13. CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF NONSTEROID ANTI-INFLAMMATORY MEDICATIONS IN TREATMENT OF ENT-DISEASES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Sergeev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This trial included 97 children with acute tonsillopharyngitis (angina, acute pharyngitis, laryngitis, otitis media. Ibubrofen suspension (Nurofen for Children was administrated in standard dose. Good and excellent analgetic and antipyretic result was registered in 75% of patients after 1 day, and satisfactory – in 25% of children. 44 children with different diseases of throat were treated with flurbiprofen as symptomatic anesthetic medication combined with other ones. Pain in throat and deglutitive problems were lessened after 2-3 hours after 1 administration of medication, and further reduction of symptoms was registered every 3 hours. Pain in throat was stopped in 38 children after 3 days of treatment. Thus, ibuprofen suspension and resorption tablets with flurbiprofen provide significant anesthetic effect in children, and they can be used in practice of children’s ENT specialist.Key words: children, ENT diseases, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory medications.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:81-84

  14. Assessment of in vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen on human cultured lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan Basri; Dordu, Tuba; Husunet, Mehmet Tahir; Tazehkand, Mostafa Norizadeh; Valipour, Ebrahim; Topaktas, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is commonly used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the study was to explore the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen in human cultured lymphocytes by sister chromatid exchange, chromosome aberration, and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus tests. 10, 20, 30, and 40 μg/mL concentrations of flurbiprofen (solvent is DMSO) were used to treatment of human cultured lymphocytes at two different treatment periods (24 and 48 h). Flurbiprofen had no significant genotoxic effect in any of these tests. But exposing to flurbiprofen for 24 and 48 h led to significant decrease on proliferation index, mitotic index, and nuclear division index (NDI). Also, all decreases were concentration-dependent (except NDI at 24 h treatment period). Consequently, the findings of this research showed that flurbiprofen had cytotoxic effects in human blood lymphocytes.

  15. Conformational and vibrational reassessment of solid paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Ana M.; Azevedo, Celeste; Ribeiro-Claro, Paulo J. A.

    2017-08-01

    This work provides an answer to the urge for a more detailed and accurate knowledge of the vibrational spectrum of the widely used analgesic/antipyretic drug commonly known as paracetamol. A comprehensive spectroscopic analysis - including infrared, Raman, and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) - is combined with a computational approach which takes account for the effects of intermolecular interactions in the solid state. This allows a full reassessment of the vibrational assignments for Paracetamol, thus preventing the propagation of incorrect data analysis and misassignments already found in the literature. In particular, the vibrational modes involving the hydrogen-bonded Nsbnd H and Osbnd H groups are correctly reallocated to bands shifted by up to 300 cm- 1 relatively to previous assignments.

  16. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart: Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

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    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far.

  17. Pain – Part I. Pharmaco-therapeutic management (ro.

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    Tuns, C. I.,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of pain mechanisms require different treatments that address to the different stages of pain production, transmission, modulation and control and at the same time can be individualized according to each patient. In this respect several substances with specific anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic activity,tranquilizers, etc. are successfully used in pain, they are supplemented by physical and chemical means. Treatment of pain is achieved by removing the cause that produced it. Elimination of inflammation, ischemia control, of infection or nerve compression, many times can lead to complete disappearance of pain. In thepresent referate groups of substances with implications in pain are presented. Are presented sintheticaly:amines, antihistamines group, anti-inflammatory nonsteroidic drugs (classic and modern, anesthetics and tranquilizers groups etc. Are also presented other means of pain therapy (analgesic electrotherapy: low frequency effect analgesic currents: diadynamic, Trabert, stochastic, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, pain stimulation by galvanic current.

  18. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates

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    Piotr Belniak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500 + 400. The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.: the uniformity of mass of single-dose preparation test, the softening time determination of lipophilic suppositories test, the disintegration of suppositories test, and dissolution test with flow-through apparatus. The results confirm the possibility of using starch hydrolysates as a cheap and safe addition to modify physicochemical properties of suppositories.

  19. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belniak, Piotr; Świąder, Katarzyna; Szumiło, Michał; Hyla, Aleksandra; Poleszak, Ewa

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH) on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP) a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter) and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500 + 400). The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.): the uniformity of mass of single-dose preparation test, the softening time determination of lipophilic suppositories test, the disintegration of suppositories test, and dissolution test with flow-through apparatus. The results confirm the possibility of using starch hydrolysates as a cheap and safe addition to modify physicochemical properties of suppositories.

  20. Mangifera Indica (Mango)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. PMID:22228940

  1. Physicochemical and mechanical properties of paracetamol cocrystal with 5-nitroisophthalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiendrawan, Stevanus; Veriansyah, Bambang; Widjojokusumo, Edward; Soewandhi, Sundani Nurono; Wikarsa, Saleh; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2016-01-30

    We report novel pharmaceutical cocrystal of a popular antipyretic drug paracetamol (PCA) with coformer 5-nitroisophhthalic acid (5NIP) to improve its tabletability. The cocrystal (PCA-5NIP at molar ratio of 1:1) was synthesized by solvent evaporation technique using methanol as solvent. The physicochemical properties of cocrystal were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot stage polarized microscopy (HSPM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stability of the cocrystal was assessed by storing them at 40°C/75% RH for one month. Compared to PCA, the cocrystal displayed superior tableting performance. PCA-5NIP cocrystal showed a similar dissolution profile as compared to PCA and exhibited good stability. This study showed the utility of PCA-5NIP cocrystal for improving mechanical properties of PCA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. REVIEW ARTICLE – Intravenous paracetamol in pediatrics: A global perspective

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    Muzammil Irshad, MBBS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous (IV Paracetamol is an excellent post operative analgesic and antipyretic in children. Efficacy and tolerability of IV Propacetamol have been established in pediatric practice. It is believed that paracetamol works by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzymes. Studies bring to light that therapeutic doses of IV acetaminophen are effective and tolerable in children with least chances of hepatotoxicity. However, overdose toxicity has been reported in children and drug induced hypotension in febrile critically ill patients. Therapeutic doses according to body weight of neonates and children can be administered in hospital settings. Special education of health care staff regarding precise dose and solution is necessary to assess the role of IV paracetamol preparation in pediatric practice.

  3. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

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    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  4. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné in animals

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    Thereza C. M. de Lima

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacologicalproperties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS, particularly, the sedative and analgesic properties of root crude aqueous extract of this plant in mice and rats. This extract showed an antinociceptive effect in acetic acid - acetylcholine - and hypertonic saline - induced abdominal constrictions, but not in hot-plate and tail flick tests P. alliacea did not produce any CNS depressor effect. Thus its antinociceptive action in animals can be responsible by its poplar use as an analgesic.

  5. Malignant Neuroleptic Syndrome following Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery of Globus Pallidus Pars Internus in Cerebral Palsy

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    Jae Meen Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a rare but potentially lethal outcome caused by sudden discontinuation or dose reduction of dopaminergic agents. We report an extremely rare case of NMS after deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery in a cerebral palsy (CP patient without the withdrawal of dopaminergic agents. A 19-year-old girl with CP was admitted for DBS due to medically refractory dystonia and rigidity. Dopaminergic agents were not stopped preoperatively. DBS was performed uneventfully under monitored anesthesia. Dopaminergic medication was continued during the postoperative period. She manifested spasticity and muscle rigidity, and was high fever resistant to anti-pyretic drugs at 2 h postoperative. At postoperative 20 h, she suffered cardiac arrest and expired, despite vigorous cardiopulmonary resuscitation. NMS should be considered for hyperthermia and severe spasticity in CP patients after DBS surgery, irrespective of continued dopaminergic medication.

  6. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

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    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  7. Perception of chloroquine efficacy and alternative treatments for uncomplicated malaria in children in a holoendemic area of Tanzania: implications for the change of treatment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-01-01

    Prior to policy change from chloroquine (CQ) to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P; Fansidar) we assessed the perception of CQ efficacy and the alternative treatment options for malaria in children among parents/guardians (N=527) of under-fives attending first level health facilities on account...... of fever. It was hypothesized that the long experience with CQ and its antipyretic effect (lacking in S/P) might impede acceptance of S/P for wider use as first-line drug. Malarial fevers in children were most commonly treated with CQ (92.8%), followed by quinine (60.7%) and S/P (28.7%). A 63.2% knew...

  8. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Gupta, Ghanshyam Das

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins and reducing sugar. Evaluation of pharmacological activities confirmed C. obliqua plant as antimicrobial, hypotensive, respiratory stimulant, diuretic and anti-inflammatory drug. A number of traditional activities of this plant still need scientific approval which will increase its medicinal potential. This review presents the Pharmacognostic properties, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and biological activities reported for the plant and it will be helpful to explore the knowledge about Cordia obliqua Willd. for the researchers.

  9. Consumo de medicamentos durante a amamentação e avaliação do risco ao lactente

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    Anne Fayma Lopes Chaves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate medicine consumption during breastfeeding and the risk to the infant. Methods: descriptive study, carried out in a Primary Health Care Unit with 130 infants. The data collection was done through a form with objective questions, analyzed in Epiinfo. Results: 73 (56.0% nursing mothers had used medication during breastfeeding. The most used drugs were antianemics (n=48, 66.0% and analgesic/ antipyretic drugs (n=11, 14.4%. The majority of the drugs consumed were compatible with breastfeeding (n=71, 97.2%, except for Phenobarbital (n=1, 1.4% and Losartan (n=1, 1.4%. Conclusion: it was evidenced that medicine consumption during breastfeeding was high among nursing mothers, but most of the drugs presented low risk, that is, they were drugs compatible with lactation.

  10. Prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlansky, Barry; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2009-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for their analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory properties, and aspirin is increasingly employed in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and ischemic stroke. Despite undisputed therapeutic efficacy for these indications, all NSAIDs impart a considerable risk of peptic ulcer disease and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. A growing body of evidence supports an association between non-aspirin NSAIDs and acute coronary syndromes, and an expanding understanding of the gastroduodenal effects of aspirin, COX-2 selective agents, clopidogrel, and Helicobacter pylori synergism fuel controversies in NSAID use. In this review, we discuss risk stratification of patients taking NSAIDs and the appropriate application of proven gastro-protective strategies to decrease the incidence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage based upon an individualized assessment of risk for potential toxicities. Prevention of NSAID-related gastropathy is an important clinical issue, and therapeutic strategies for both the primary and secondary prevention of adverse events are continually evolving.

  11. Current perspectives in NSAID-induced gastropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mau; Gautam, Lovely; Shukla, Prakash Kumar; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most highly prescribed drugs in the world. Their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic actions may be beneficial; however, they are associated with severe side effects including gastrointestinal injury and peptic ulceration. Though several approaches for limiting these side effects have been adopted, like the use of COX-2 specific drugs, comedication of acid suppressants like proton pump inhibitors and prostaglandin analogs, these alternatives have limitations in terms of efficacy and side effects. In this paper, the mechanism of action of NSAIDs and their critical gastrointestinal complications have been reviewed. This paper also provides the information on different preventive measures prescribed to minimize such adverse effects and analyses the new suggested strategies for development of novel drugs to maintain the anti-inflammatory functions of NSAIDs along with effective gastrointestinal protection.

  12. Current Perspectives in NSAID-Induced Gastropathy

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    Mau Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are the most highly prescribed drugs in the world. Their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic actions may be beneficial; however, they are associated with severe side effects including gastrointestinal injury and peptic ulceration. Though several approaches for limiting these side effects have been adopted, like the use of COX-2 specific drugs, comedication of acid suppressants like proton pump inhibitors and prostaglandin analogs, these alternatives have limitations in terms of efficacy and side effects. In this paper, the mechanism of action of NSAIDs and their critical gastrointestinal complications have been reviewed. This paper also provides the information on different preventive measures prescribed to minimize such adverse effects and analyses the new suggested strategies for development of novel drugs to maintain the anti-inflammatory functions of NSAIDs along with effective gastrointestinal protection.

  13. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MELOXICAM IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS AND BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES

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    Aisha Noreen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Meloxicam (MX belongs to the family of oxicams which is the most important group of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and is widely used for their analgesics and antipyretic activities. It inhibits both COX-I and COX-II enzymes with less gastric and local tissues irritation. A number of analytical techniques have been used for the determination of MX in pharmaceutical as well as in biological fluids. These techniques include titrimetry, spectrometry, chromatography, flow injection spectrometry, fluorescence spectrometry, capillary zone electrophoresis and electrochemical techniques. Many of these techniques have also been used for the simultaneous determination of MX with other compounds. A comprehensive review of these analytical techniques has been done which could be useful for the analytical chemists and quality control pharmacists.

  14. The Effect of Polymer Content on the Non-Newtonian Behavior of Acetaminophen Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Kouchak, Maryam; Salimi, Anayatollah; Bahrampour, Saeed; Handali, Somayeh

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. The aim of the study was evaluation of the effect of different polymers on rheological behavior of acetaminophen suspension. In order to achieve controlled flocculation, sodium chloride was added. Then structural vehicles such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), tragacanth, and magnesium aluminum silicate (Veegum) were evaluated individually and in combination. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume (F), redispersibility (n), and growth of crystals of the suspensions were determined. Also, the rheological properties of formulations were studied. The results of this study showed that the combination of suspending agents had the most physical stability and pseudoplastic behavior with some degree of thixotropy. Viscosity of suspensions was increased by adding NaCl 0.02%. Presence of PVP is necessary for improving rheological behavior of suspensions by NaCl. This may be related to the cross-linking between the carbonyl group in the PVP segment and Na+ ions. PMID:24109512

  15. Sleep Disruption and Proprioceptive Delirium due to Acetaminophen in a Pediatric Patient

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    Carla Carnovale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 7-year-old boy, who received acetaminophen for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, due to an infection of the superior airways. 13 mg/kg (260 mg of acetaminophen was administered orally before bedtime, and together with the expected antipyretic effect, the boy experienced sleep disruption and proprioceptive delirium. The symptoms disappeared within one hour. In the following six months, acetaminophen was administered again twice, and the reaction reappeared with similar features. Potential alternative explanations were excluded, and analysis with the Naranjo algorithm indicated a “probable” relationship between acetaminophen and this adverse reaction. We discuss the potential mechanisms involved, comprising imbalances in prostaglandin levels, alterations of dopamine, and cannabinoid and serotonin signalings.

  16. Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus

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    Daniel eStolzberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs or aging which affects ~14% of the general population. For over a quarter century, auditory scientists have used the salicylate toxicity model to investigate candidate biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying phantom sound perception. In this review, we summarize some of the intriguing biochemical and physiological effects associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus, some of which occur in the periphery and others in the central nervous system. The relevance and general utility of the salicylate toxicity model in understanding phantom sound perception in general are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (Guiné) in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, T C; Morato, G S; Takahashi, R N

    1991-01-01

    Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", "pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacological properties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS), particularly, the sedative and analgesic properties of root crude aqueous extract of this plant in mice and rats. This extract showed an antinociceptive effect in acetic acid--acetylcholine--and hypertonic saline--induced abdominal constrictions, but not in hot-plate and tail flick tests. P. alliacea did not produce any CNS depressor effect. Thus its antinociceptive action in animals can be responsible by its popular use as an analgesic.

  18. Caring for patients with rabies in developing countries - the neglected importance of palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Arnaud; Crabol, Yoann; Mahendra, Bangalore Jayakrishnappa; In, Sotheary; Barennes, Hubert; Bourhy, Hervé; Peng, Yiksing; Ly, Sowath; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Although limited publications address clinical management of symptomatic patients with rabies in intensive care units, the overwhelming majority of human rabies cases occur in the rural setting of developing countries where healthcare workers are few, lack training and drugs. Based on our experience, we suggest how clinicians in resource-limited settings can make best use of essential drugs to provide assistance to patients with rabies and their families, at no risk to themselves. Comprehensive and compassionate patient management of furious rabies should aim to alleviate thirst, anxiety and epileptic fits using infusions, diazepam or midazolam and antipyretic drugs via intravenous or intrarectal routes. Although the patient is dying, respiratory failure must be avoided especially if the family, after being informed, wish to take the patient home alive for funereal rites to be observed. Healthcare staff should be trained and clinical guidelines should be updated to include palliative care for rabies in endemic countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mothers' perceptions and knowledge on childhood malaria in the holendemic Kibaha district, Tanzania: implications for malaria control and the IMCI strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Lwihula, G K; Minjas, J N

    2000-01-01

    Prior to an intervention on improving the quality of malaria case management, we assessed mothers' abilities to recognize nonsevere and severe/complicated malaria in children when a child has fever with other physiological and behavioural symptoms associated with malaria. Malaria was mentioned...... and treatment (89.4%). Poor outcome of treatment was ascribed to incorrect diagnosis and prescription, noncompliance at home and ineffective drugs (62.1%). Most mothers (86.6%) would take antipyretic measures first when a child has fever, and subsequently the majority (92.9%) would seek care at a modern health...... of these findings for chemotherapeutic malaria control in holoendemic areas within the context of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) strategy are discussed....

  20. Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack): a review on its ethnobotany and pharmacological importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, A A

    2010-10-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack is an herbal medicinal plant of South-East Asian origin, popularly recognized as 'Tongkat Ali.' The plant parts have been traditionally used for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities, which have also been proved scientifically. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds (like eurycomaoside, eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, and pasakbumin-B) among which the alkaloids and quassinoids form a major portion. Even though toxicity and safety evaluation studies have been pursued, still a major gap exists in providing scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumer's safety. The present review aims at reviewing the research works undertaken till date, on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and for commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Polar Compounds Isolated from the Leaves of Albertisia delagoensis (Menispermaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous infusions of the leaves of the shrub Albertisia delagoensis (Menispermaceae are used in South Africa in traditional Zulu medicine to alleviate a variety of symptoms, including fever, and intestinal problems. We report the analysis of such an aqueous extract using the HPLC-NMR technique. A number of polar compounds were identified, including proto-quercitol, nicotinic acid, allantoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid, phthalic acid and the aporphine alkaloid derivative roemrefidine. Allantoic acid and roemrefidine have been fully characterised by 1H- and 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. Earlier reports of antiplasmodial activity of roemrefidine and of A. delagoensis extracts are correlated with this study and with the antipyretic properties of neutral aqueous extracts.

  2. Radix Bupleuri: A Review of Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fude; Dong, Xiaoxv; Yin, Xingbin; Wang, Wenping; You, Longtai; Ni, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Radix Bupleuri (Chaihu) has been used as a traditional medicine for more than 2000 years in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. Phytochemical studies demonstrated that this plant contains essential oils, triterpenoid saponins, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, lignans, fatty acids, and sterols. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from Radix Bupleuri exhibited various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Radix Bupleuri could also lead to hepatotoxicity, particularly in high doses and with long-term use. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive compounds (saikosaponins a, b 2 , c, and d) were absorbed rapidly in rats after oral administration of the extract of Radix Bupleuri . This review aims to comprehensively summarize the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics of Radix Bupleuri reported to date with an emphasis on its biological properties and mechanisms of action.

  3. Naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ping; Liu, Zizhen; Xie, Meng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Shen; She, Gaimei

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of non steroids anti-inflammation drug (NSAIDs), salicylate has developed from natural substance salicylic acid to natrium salicylicum, to aspirin. Now, methyl salicylate glycoside, a new derivative of salicylic acid, is modified with a -COOH group integrated one methyl radical into formic ether, and a -OH linked with a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a trisaccharide unit by glycosidic linkage. It has the similar pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic as the previous salicylates' without resulting in serious side effects, particularly the gastrointestinal toxicity. Owing to the superiority of those significant bioactivities, methyl salicylate glycosides have became a hot research area in NSAIDs for several years. This paper compiles all 9 naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides, their distribution of the resource and pharmacological mechanism, which could contribute to the new drug discovery.

  4. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burukoglu, Dilek; Baycu, Cengiz; Taplamacioglu, Fulya; Sahin, Erhan; Bektur, Ezgi

    2016-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs are the most commonly used group of drugs today. Increase in the use of standard NSAI for treating pain and inflammation was restricted by the fact that these drugs were proven to possibly cause gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Meloxicam is a NSAI that has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. This study aims to investigate the effects of meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats under light microscopy level. Based on the light microscopic observations, mononuclear cell infiltration and pseudolobular formation was established in liver samples of animals in the experimental group. Metaplasia in surface and glandular epithelia and atrophy were observed in stomach samples. Glomerular stasis-related hypertrophy and focal interstitial nephritis were found in kidneys. It was concluded in this study that meloxicam might cause hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and gastric metaplasia in rats at a used dose and duration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Ibuprofen in paediatrics: pharmacology, prescribing and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Camilla; Carroll, Will

    2016-12-01

    Ibuprofen, a propionic acid derivative, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The oral formulation is widely used in paediatric practice and after paracetamol it is one of the most common drugs prescribed for children in hospital. The treatment of fever with antipyretics such as ibuprofen is controversial as fever is the normal response of the body to infection and unless the child becomes distressed or symptomatic, fever alone should not be routinely treated. Combined treatment with paracetamol and ibuprofen is commonly undertaken but almost certainly is not helpful. This article aims to describe the indications and mode of action of the drug, outline its pharmacokinetics and highlight the important key messages regarding its use in clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Efectos nocivos de la fiebre en el niño y medidas terapéuticas

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    Lourdes B. Alpízar Caballero

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de ofrecer a los pediatras, residentes y especialistas de Medicina General Integral una información sobre las principales tendencias actuales en el manejo y conducta terapéutica en el niño febril, se analizan algunas consideraciones de interés para la aplicación del tratamiento antipirético y los métodos farmacológicos y físicos en la antipiresis. En el método farmacológico se presentan los 3 principales grupos de medicamentos antipiréticos: salicilatos, aminofenoles y derivados del ácido propiónico. De ellos se exponen las dosis, contraindicaciones y efectos adversos. Se señalan entre los efectos nocivos de la fiebre en el niño, el daño al sistema nervioso central, la afectación de otros órganos y sistemas y el malestar general.Several interesting considerations for the use of the antipyretic treatment, and of the pharmacological and physical methods in antipyresis, are analyzed with the aim of giving information to pediatricians, residents, and physicians specialized in Integral General Medicine about the main current trends in the management and therapeutic behaviour in the febrile child. In the pharmacological method the three main groups of antipyretic medicines are present: salicylates, aminophenols, and propionic acid derivatives. Doses, contraindications, and side effects of such are exposed. Adverse effects of the fever in the child, damage to the central nervous system, affectation of other organs and systems, and general indisposition, are pointed out.

  7. Body temperature is elevated and linked to fatigue in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, even without heat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Leavitt, Victoria M

    2014-07-01

    To investigate whether (1) resting body temperature is elevated in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) relative to healthy individuals and patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and (2) warmer body temperature is linked to worse fatigue in patients with RRMS. Cross-sectional study. Climate-controlled laboratory (∼22°C) within a nonprofit medical rehabilitation research center. Patients with RRMS (n=50), matched healthy controls (n=40), and patients with SPMS (n=22). Not applicable. Body temperature was measured with an aural infrared thermometer (normative body temperature for this thermometer, 36.75°C), and differences were compared across patients with RRMS and SPMS and healthy persons. Patients with RRMS completed measures of general fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS]), as well as physical and cognitive fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale [MFIS]). There was a large effect of group (Pphysical fatigue (physical fatigue subscale of the MFIS; rp=.318, P=.026), but not cognitive fatigue (cognitive fatigue subscale of the MIFS; rp=-.017, P=.909). These are the first-ever demonstrations that body temperature is elevated endogenously in patients with RRMS and linked to worse fatigue. We discuss these findings in the context of failed treatments for fatigue in RRMS, including several failed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of stimulants (modafinil). In contrast, our findings may help explain how RCTs of cooling garments and antipyretics (aspirin) have effectively reduced MS fatigue, and encourage further research on cooling/antipyretic treatments of fatigue in RRMS. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of 2 Acetaminophen Dosing Regimens in Febrile Infants and Children: A Report on 3 Legacy Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Anthony R; Zimmerman, Brenda; Gelotte, Cathy; Kuffner, Edwin K

    2017-01-01

    Compare efficacy and safety of 10 to 15 mg/kg with 20 to 30 mg/kg acetaminophen in febrile children 6 months to ≤ 11 years from 3 double-blind, randomized, single or multiple dose studies. Doses were compared on sum of the temperature differences (SUMDIFF), maximum temperature difference (MAXDIFF), temperature differences at each time point, and dose by time interactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was evaluated in the 72-hour duration study. A single dose of acetaminophen 20 to 30 mg/kg produced a greater effect on temperature decrement and duration of antipyretic effect over 8 hours than a single dose of 10 to 15 mg/kg. When equivalent total doses (i.e., 2 doses of 10 to 15 mg/kg given at 4-hour intervals and 1 dose of 20 to 30 mg/kg) were given over the initial 8-hour period, there were no significant temperature differences. Over a 72-hour period, 10 to 15 mg/kg acetaminophen administered every 4 hours maintained a more consistent temperature decrement than 20 to 30 mg/kg acetaminophen administered every 8 hours. Following doses of 60 to 90 mg/kg/day for up to 72 hours, no child had a clinically important increase in ALT from baseline. The number of children with reported adverse events was similar between doses. Data demonstrate the antipyretic effect of acetaminophen is dependent on total dose over a given time interval. These 3 studies provide clinical evidence that the recommended standard acetaminophen dose of 10 to 15 mg/kg is a safe and effective dose for treating fever in pediatric patients when administered as a single dose or as multiple doses for up to 72 hours.

  9. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Dubray, Claude; Pereira, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467) was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature), and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g) or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P memory initial thinking time were decreased ( P =0.04). All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect ( P body temperature did not change. This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance and antinociception are independent of APAP effect on thermogenesis. We suggest that cognitive performance mirrors the analgesic rather than thermic cascade of events, with possibly a central role for serotonergic and cannabinoid systems that need to be explored further in the context of pain and cognition.

  10. Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Leaves: Analysis Of Proximate, Antioxidant Activities And Inorganic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Irwan Zubairi; Nurul Shahreda Jaies

    2014-01-01

    A variety of herbal plants species has been used in traditional medicine. Most of these plants contained several potent bio-active ingredients and nutrients that could give potential positive effects to the health such as antioxidant and antipyretic. Hibiscus rosa sinensis, commonly known as Bunga raya, have similar concoction characteristic to tea which contain antioxidants that help to control cholesterol. In addition, mucilage that was found in the leaves could helps to reduce extreme body heat during fever (which potentially acts as an antipyretic). Therefore, this preliminary study on the fresh and dried H. rosa sinensis leaves was carried out to analyze and identify the nutrients content, anti-oxidants and inorganic material. Total phenolic content (TPC) method was used for both fresh and dried leaves prior to the antioxidant activities of DPPH free radicals scavenging and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) as to confirm the existence of antioxidant constituents. Meanwhile, the composition of heavy metals was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The proximate analysis of the fresh leaves showed the presence of moisture content (9.03 %), protein (10.44 %), fat (6.43 %), crude fiber (11.55 %), ash (11.22 %) and carbohydrate (51.33 %). Meanwhile, the inorganic contents are as follows: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of FRAP and DPPH showed that dried leaves of H. rosa sinensis was higher than the fresh leaves (p < 0.05) irrespective of any solvent used. The positive correlation between TPC and two other antioxidant activities of DPPH and FRAP (p < 0.05) indicates the presence of antioxidant components in the acetone and water extracts. Therefore, the high availability of essential nutritional component, anti-oxidants and low concentration of hazardous inorganic matter in H. rosa sinensis leaves enable it to be used as one

  11. Dipyrone and acetaminophen: correct dosing by parents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Bezerra Alves

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Several studies in developed countries have documented that a significant percentage of children are given inappropriate doses of acetaminophen and ibuprofen. The objective of this paper was to investigate parents’ accuracy in giving dipyrone and acetaminophen to their children, in a poor region. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the pediatric emergency department of Instituto Materno-Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira, a teaching hospital in Pernambuco. METHODS: The inclusion criteria were age between 3 and 36 months, main complaint of fever and at least one dose of dipyrone or acetaminophen given to the child during the 24 hours preceding their arrival at the emergency department. The mothers were asked for demographic information and about the antipyretic doses given, which were compared with the recommended dosage. RESULTS: Among the 200 patients studied, 117 received dipyrone and 83 received acetaminophen. Overall, 75 % received an incorrect dose of antipyretic. Of the patients who received dipyrone, 105 (89.7% were given an incorrect dose; 16 (15.2% received too little dipyrone, and 89 (84.8% received too much. Of the patients who received acetaminophen, 45 (54.2% were given an incorrect dose; 38 (84.4% received too little acetaminophen, and 7 (15.6% received too much. There were no differences in maternal and child characteristics between the groups receiving correct and incorrect doses of medication, except for the type of medication (dipyrone versus acetaminophen. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the children treated were given inappropriate doses, mainly dipyrone overdosing and acetaminophen underdosing.

  12. Alleviative Effects of a Kampo (a Japanese Herbal Medicine “Maoto (Ma-Huang-Tang” on the Early Phase of Influenza Virus Infection and Its Possible Mode of Action

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    Takayuki Nagai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Kampo medicine, maoto, has been prescribed in an early phase of influenza-like illness and used for a treatment of influenza clinically in Japan these days. However, the efficacy of maoto against the virus infection remains to be elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the alleviative effects of maoto against early phase of influenza virus infection and its preliminary mode of actions through immune systems. When maoto (0.9 and 1.6 g/kg/day was orally administered to A/J mice on upper respiratory tract infection of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 from 4 hours to 52 hours postinfection (p.i. significant antipyretic effect was shown in comparison with water-treated control. Administration of maoto (0.8 and 1.3 g/kg/day significantly decreased the virus titers in both nasal (NLF and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF at 52 hours p.i., and significantly increased the anti-influenza virus IgM, IgA, and IgG1 antibody titers in NLF, BALF, and serum, respectively. Maoto also increased significantly the influenza virus-bound IgG1 and IgM antibody titers in serum and the virus-bound IgM antibody titer in even the BALF of uninfected A/J mice. These results indicate that maoto exerts antipyretic activity in influenza virus-infected mice and virus reducing effect at an early phase of the infection through probably augmentation of the virus-bound natural antibodies.

  13. Body temperature is elevated and linked to fatigue in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, even without heat exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F.; Leavitt, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether resting body temperature is elevated and linked to fatigue in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Design Cross-sectional study investigating (a) differences in resting body temperature across RRMS, SPMS, and healthy groups, and (b) the relationship between body temperature and fatigue in RRMS patients. Setting Climate-controlled laboratory (~22°C) within a non-profit medical rehabilitation research center. Participants Fifty patients with RRMS, 40 matched healthy controls, and 22 patients with secondary-progressive MS (SPMS). Intervention None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Body temperature was measured with an aural infrared thermometer (normal body temperature for this thermometer is 36.75°C), and differences were compared across RRMS, SPMS, and healthy persons. RRMS patients completed measures of general fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale; FSS), as well as physical and cognitive fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale; MFIS). Results There was a large effect of group (ptemperature was higher in RRMS patients (37.04°C±0.27) relative to healthy controls (36.83 ± 0.33; p = .009) and SPMS patients (36.75°C±0.39; p=.001). Warmer body temperature in RRMS patients was associated with worse general fatigue (FSS; rp=.315, p=.028) and physical fatigue (pMFIS; rp=.318, p=.026), but not cognitive fatigue (cMIFS; rp=−.017, p=.909). Conclusions These are the first-ever demonstrations that body temperature is elevated endogenously in RRMS patients, and linked to worse fatigue. We discuss these findings in the context of failed treatments for fatigue in RRMS, including several failed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of stimulants (modafinil). In contrast, our findings may help explain how RCTs of cooling garments and antipyretics (aspirin) have effectively reduced MS fatigue, and encourage further research on cooling/antipyretic treatments of fatigue in RRMS. PMID:24561056

  14. Effects of electrical stimulation of ventral septal area on firing rates of pyrogen-treated thermosensitive neurons in preoptic anterior hypothalamus from rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Xie, Xin-Hua; Lu, Da-Xiang; Fu, Yong-Mei

    2007-01-09

    Although there is considerable evidence supporting that fever evolved as a host defense response, it is important that the rise in body temperature would not be too high. Many endogenous cryogens or antipyretics that limit the rise in body temperature have been identified. Endogenous antipyretics attenuate fever by influencing the thermoregulatory neurons in the preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POAH) and in adjacent septal areas including ventral septal area (VSA). Our previous study showed that intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) injection of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) affected electrophysiological activities of thermosensitive neurons in VSA regions, and electrical stimulation of POAH reversed the effect of IL-1beta. To further investigate the functional electrophysiological connection between POAH and VSA and its mechanisms in thermoregulation, the firing rates of thermosensitive neurons in POAH of forty-seven unit discharge were recorded by using extracellular microelectrode technique in New Zealand white rabbits. Our results show that the firing rates of the warm-sensitive neurons decreased significantly and those of the cold-sensitive neurons increased in POAH when the pyrogen (IL-1beta) was injected I.C.V. The effects of IL-1beta on firing rates in thermosensitive neurons of POAH were reversed by electrical stimulation of VSA. An arginine vasopressin (AVP) V1 antagonist abolished the regulatory effects of VSA on the firing rates in thermosensitive neurons of POAH evoked by IL-1beta. However, an AVP V2 antagonist had no effects. These data indicated that VSA regulates the activities of the thermosensitive neurons of POAH through AVP V1 but not AVP V2 receptor.

  15. Mechanisms of fever production and lysis: lessons from experimental LPS fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joachim; Blatteis, Clark M

    2014-10-01

    Fever is a cardinal symptom of infectious or inflammatory insults, but it can also arise from noninfectious causes. The fever-inducing agent that has been used most frequently in experimental studies designed to characterize the physiological, immunological and neuroendocrine processes and to identify the neuronal circuits that underlie the manifestation of the febrile response is lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our knowledge of the mechanisms of fever production and lysis is largely based on this model. Fever is usually initiated in the periphery of the challenged host by the immediate activation of the innate immune system by LPS, specifically of the complement (C) cascade and Toll-like receptors. The first results in the immediate generation of the C component C5a and the subsequent rapid production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The second, occurring after some delay, induces the further production of PGE2 by induction of its synthesizing enzymes and transcription and translation of proinflammatory cytokines. The Kupffer cells (Kc) of the liver seem to be essential for these initial processes. The subsequent transfer of the pyrogenic message from the periphery to the brain is achieved by neuronal and humoral mechanisms. These pathways subserve the genesis of early (neuronal signals) and late (humoral signals) phases of the characteristically biphasic febrile response to LPS. During the course of fever, counterinflammatory factors, "endogenous antipyretics," are elaborated peripherally and centrally to limit fever in strength and duration. The multiple interacting pro- and antipyretic signals and their mechanistic effects that underlie endotoxic fever are the subjects of this review.

  16. Physical methods for the treatment of fever in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Patrícia de Oliveira; Silva, Ludmila Christiane Rosa da; Silva, Priscila Marinho Aleixo; Chianca, Tânia Couto Machado

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of physical methods of reducing body temperature (ice pack and warm compression) in critically ill patients with fever. A randomized clinical trial involving 102 adult patients with tympanic temperature ≥ 38.3°C of an infectious focus, and randomized into three groups: Intervention I - ice pack associated with antipyretic; Intervention II - warm compress associated with antipyretic; and Control - antipyretic. Tympanic temperature was measured at 15 minute intervals for 3 hours. The effect of the interventions was evaluated through the Mann-Whitney test and Survival Analysis. "Effect size" calculation was carried out. Patients in the intervention groups I and II presented greater reduction in body temperature. The group of patients receiving intervention I presented tympanic temperature below 38.3°C at 45 minutes of monitoring, while the value for control group was lower than 38.3°C starting at 60 minutes, and those who received intervention II had values lower than 38.3°C at 75 minutes of monitoring. No statistically significant difference was found between the interventions, but with the intervention group I patients showed greater reduction in tympanic temperature compared to the other groups. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-2k3kbq. Avaliar o efeito de métodos físicos (bolsa de gelo e compressa morna) na redução da temperatura corporal de pacientes críticos com febre. Ensaio clínico randomizado com 102 pacientes adultos e temperatura timpânica ≥ 38,3°C de foco infeccioso, aleatorizados em três grupos: Intervenção I ‒ bolsa de gelo associada a antitérmico; Intervenção II ‒ compressa morna associada a antitérmico; e Controle ‒ antitérmico. A temperatura timpânica foi mensurada em intervalos de 15 minutos durante 3 horas. O efeito das intervenções foi avaliado pelo teste Mann-Whitney e Análise de Sobrevivência. Cálculo do "Effect size" foi procedido. Os pacientes dos grupos Intervenção I e II

  17. EXAMINATION OF THE SUNGKAI’S YOUNG LEAF EXTRACT (Peronema canescens AS AN ANTIPIRETIC, IMMUNITY, ANTIPLASMODIUM AND TERATOGENITY IN MICE (Mus.muculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Martono Hadi Putranto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research of examination extract sungkai’s young leafs as an antipyretic, immunity, anti plasmodium and teratogenity in mice (Mus. Muculus has been done. The aims of this research is examinations in infusa effectiveness extract of the young leafs in mice (Mus. Muculus. The object of this research used 50 males Webster’s species mice has 7 – 8 week olds, averages 30 gram in weight. Mice are divided into 5 groups in examination for antipyretic. Mice has been introduced the DPT-HB fever before. The first group as a negative control treated a pure water, second group as a positive control treated a paracetamol 1.08 mg/Kg w/w and rest of groups treated a young sungkai’s extract leafs in the concentration of 0.186 mg/Kg w/w, 0.375 mg/Kg w/w and 0.5625 mg/Kg w/w respectively. Measurements of the temperature toke in the duration of 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Furthermore, in the immunity examination, mice also divided into 5 groups, first as a negative control treated a pure water, second group as a positive control treated 0.07 mg/Kg imunos w/w and respectively for the rest groups treated with young sungkai’s extract leafs in the concentration of 0.186 mg/Kg w/w, 0.375 mg/Kg w/w and 0.5625 mg/Kg w/w. These treatments held in gavage system with the duration at 24 hours. In examination amount of the leukocyte number, toke from the tail of the mice, has a result the dosage in 0.5625 mg/Kg w/w extract’s young leafs of sungkai could be decrease the temperature 29%, it is better than paracetamol treatment which could be decreased only 26% of temperature. In addition, for the immunity examination, the best dosage of the young sungkai’s extract leafs is 0.567 mg/Kg w/w, which It can increase 36% amount of the leukocyte number. This dosage is better than the positive control by using Imunos, which is can increase only 23% of the temperature.

  18. Anticancer activities against cholangiocarcinoma, toxicity and pharmacological activities of Thai medicinal plants in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plengsuriyakarn, Tullayakorn; Viyanant, Vithoon; Eursitthichai, Veerachai; Picha, Porntipa; Kupradinun, Piengchai; Itharat, Arunporn; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2012-03-27

    Chemotherapy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a devastating cancer with increasing worldwide incidence and mortality rates, is largely ineffective. The discovery and development of effective chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. The study aimed at evaluating anticancer activities, toxicity, and pharmacological activities of the curcumin compound (CUR), the crude ethanolic extracts of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger: ZO) and Atractylodes lancea thung. DC (Khod-Kha-Mao: AL), fruits of Piper chaba Hunt. (De-Plee: PC), and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai formulation (a mixture of parts of 18 Thai medicinal plants: PPF) were investigated in animal models. Anti-cholangiocarcinoma (anti-CCA) was assessed using CCA-xenograft nude mouse model. The antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and anti-ulcer activities and effects on motor coordination were investigated using Rota-rod test, CODA tail-cuff system, writhing and hot plate tests, carrageenan-induced paw edema test, brewer's yeast test, and alcohol-induced gastric ulcer test, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity tests were performed according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals with modification. Promising anticancer activity against CCA in nude mouse xenograft model was shown for the ethanolic extract of AL at all oral dose levels (1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight) as well as the extracts of ZO, PPF, and CUR compound at the highest dose level (5000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively). PC produced no significant anti-CCA activity. Results from acute and subacute toxicity tests both in mice and rats indicate safety profiles of all the test materials in a broad range of dose levels. No significant toxicity except stomach irritation and general CNS depressant signs were observed. Investigation of pharmacological activities of the test materials revealed promising anti-inflammatory (ZO, PPF, and AL), analgesic (CUR and PPF), antipyretic (CUR and AL), antihypertensive (ZO

  19. Effects of Infant Formula With Human Milk Oligosaccharides on Growth and Morbidity: A Randomized Multicenter Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccio, Giuseppe; Alliet, Philippe; Cajozzo, Cinzia; Janssens, Elke; Corsello, Giovanni; Sprenger, Norbert; Wernimont, Susan; Egli, Delphine; Gosoniu, Laura; Steenhout, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of infant formula supplemented with 2 human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) on infant growth, tolerance, and morbidity. Healthy infants, 0 to 14 days old, were randomized to an intact-protein, cow's milk-based infant formula (control, n = 87) or the same formula with 1.0 g/L 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL) and 0.5 g/L lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) (test, n = 88) from enrollment to 6 months; all infants received standard follow-up formula without HMOs from 6 to 12 months. Primary endpoint was weight gain through 4 months. Secondary endpoints included additional anthropometric measures, gastrointestinal tolerance, behavioral patterns, and morbidity through age 12 months. Weight gain was similar in both groups (mean difference [95% confidence interval] test vs control: -0.30 [-1.94, 1.34] g/day; lower bound of 95% confidence interval was above noninferiority margin [-3 g/day]). Digestive symptoms and behavioral patterns were similar between groups; exceptions included softer stool (P = 0.021) and fewer nighttime wake-ups (P = 0.036) in the test group at 2 months. Infants receiving test (vs control) had significantly fewer parental reports (P = 0.004-0.047) of bronchitis through 4 (2.3% vs 12.6%), 6 (6.8% vs 21.8%), and 12 months (10.2% vs 27.6%); lower respiratory tract infection (adverse event cluster) through 12 months (19.3% vs 34.5%); antipyretics use through 4 months (15.9% vs 29.9%); and antibiotics use through 6 (34.1% vs 49.4%) and 12 months (42.0% vs 60.9%). Infant formula with 2'FL and LNnT is safe, well-tolerated, and supports age-appropriate growth. Secondary outcome findings showing associations between consuming HMO-supplemented formula and lower parent-reported morbidity (particularly bronchitis) and medication use (antipyretics and antibiotics) warrant confirmation in future studies.

  20. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gisèle Pickering,1–3 Nicolas Macian,1,2 Claude Dubray,1–3 Bruno Pereira4 1University Hospital, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique, 2Inserm, CIC 1405, UMR Neurodol 1107, 3Clermont Université, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculté de médecine, 4CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Délégation Recherche Clinique Innovation, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background: Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467 was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature, and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. Results: APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05. Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04. All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01 and body temperature did not change. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance

  1. Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zaman Ashraf,1,2 Alamgeer,3 Munazza Kanwal,1 Mubashir Hassan,2 Sahar Abdullah,3 Mamuna Waheed,3 Haseeb Ahsan,3 Song Ja Kim2 1Department of Chemistry, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Abstract: Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (–COOH was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic –OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, ­suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (P<0.001 reduced the inflammation against carrageenan and egg albumin-induced paw edema at 4 hours of study. The reduction in the size of the inflamed paw showed that most of the compounds inhibited the later phase of inflammation. The prodrug 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-ylpropanoate (4b showed significant reduction in paw licking with percentage inhibition of 58%. It also exhibited higher analgesic activity, reducing the number of writhes with a percentage of 75%, whereas flurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (P<0.001 reduction in rectal temperature was shown by all

  2. The epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Nicola; Duggan, Edel; Williams, David J P; Tracey, Joseph A

    2011-07-01

    Medication errors are widely reported for hospitalised patients, but limited data are available for medication errors that occur in community-based and clinical settings. Epidemiological data from poisons information centres enable characterisation of trends in medication errors occurring across the healthcare spectrum. The objective of this study was to characterise the epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) of Ireland. A 3-year prospective study on medication errors reported to the NPIC was conducted from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009 inclusive. Data on patient demographics, enquiry source, location, pharmaceutical agent(s), type of medication error, and treatment advice were collated from standardised call report forms. Medication errors were categorised as (i) prescribing error (i.e. physician error), (ii) dispensing error (i.e. pharmacy error), and (iii) administration error involving the wrong medication, the wrong dose, wrong route, or the wrong time. Medication errors were reported for 2348 individuals, representing 9.56% of total enquiries to the NPIC over 3 years. In total, 1220 children and adolescents under 18 years of age and 1128 adults (≥ 18 years old) experienced a medication error. The majority of enquiries were received from healthcare professionals, but members of the public accounted for 31.3% (n = 736) of enquiries. Most medication errors occurred in a domestic setting (n = 2135), but a small number occurred in healthcare facilities: nursing homes (n = 110, 4.68%), hospitals (n = 53, 2.26%), and general practitioner surgeries (n = 32, 1.36%). In children, medication errors with non-prescription pharmaceuticals predominated (n = 722) and anti-pyretics and non-opioid analgesics, anti-bacterials, and cough and cold preparations were the main pharmaceutical classes involved. Medication errors with prescription medication predominated for adults (n = 866) and the major medication

  3. The epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medication errors are widely reported for hospitalised patients, but limited data are available for medication errors that occur in community-based and clinical settings. Epidemiological data from poisons information centres enable characterisation of trends in medication errors occurring across the healthcare spectrum. AIM: The objective of this study was to characterise the epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) of Ireland. METHODS: A 3-year prospective study on medication errors reported to the NPIC was conducted from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009 inclusive. Data on patient demographics, enquiry source, location, pharmaceutical agent(s), type of medication error, and treatment advice were collated from standardised call report forms. Medication errors were categorised as (i) prescribing error (i.e. physician error), (ii) dispensing error (i.e. pharmacy error), and (iii) administration error involving the wrong medication, the wrong dose, wrong route, or the wrong time. RESULTS: Medication errors were reported for 2348 individuals, representing 9.56% of total enquiries to the NPIC over 3 years. In total, 1220 children and adolescents under 18 years of age and 1128 adults (>\\/= 18 years old) experienced a medication error. The majority of enquiries were received from healthcare professionals, but members of the public accounted for 31.3% (n = 736) of enquiries. Most medication errors occurred in a domestic setting (n = 2135), but a small number occurred in healthcare facilities: nursing homes (n = 110, 4.68%), hospitals (n = 53, 2.26%), and general practitioner surgeries (n = 32, 1.36%). In children, medication errors with non-prescription pharmaceuticals predominated (n = 722) and anti-pyretics and non-opioid analgesics, anti-bacterials, and cough and cold preparations were the main pharmaceutical classes involved. Medication errors with prescription medication predominated for

  4. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling for the determination of a cimicoxib dosing regimen in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunesse, Elisabeth C; Schneider, Marc; Woehrle, Frederique; Faucher, Mathieu; Lefebvre, Herve P; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2013-12-11

    Cimicoxib is a new coxib anti-inflammatory drug for use in the dog. To determine a preclinical dosage regimen for cimicoxib in dog, a reversible model of kaolin-induced paw inflammation was used. Dosage regimens were established using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling approach (indirect response model). Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic endpoints investigated with the inflammation model established the efficacy of cimicoxib at a dose of 2 mg/kg administered orally (single dose) in 12 beagle dogs.For both the oral and IV route of administration two groups of dogs to be identified namely Poor Metabolizers (PM) and Extensive Metabolizers (EM).The terminal half-life after oral administration was 8.0 ± 0.6 h for the PM and 4.6 ± 2.6 h for the EM groups, with the corresponding values after the IV route being 5.6 ± 1.7 h and 2.7 ± 0.9 h (mean ± SD).The main pharmacodynamic parameters (potency, efficacy, and sensitivity) were estimated for four endpoints (body temperature, creeping speed, ground vertical reaction force and clinical lameness score). The plasma concentration corresponding to half the maximum of the indirect effect were 239 μg/L for creeping speed, 284 μg/L for the lameness score, 161 μg/L for the ground reaction vertical force and 193 μg/L for the body temperature.To document possible polymorphism of the cimicoxib disposition in the target dog population, cimicoxib was administered by the intravenous route to 40 dogs (four different sized breeds). The cimicoxib half-lives in these 40 dogs were of same order of the magnitude as those of the EM beagle dogs. Thus pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters obtained from the EM beagle dogs were selected to simulate the dose-effect relationship of cimicoxib after an oral administration allowing a dosage regimen to be selected for confirmation by a clinical trial. Cimicoxib was an efficacious anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic drug and a dosage regimen of 2 mg

  5. Drug use before and during pregnancy in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odalovic, Marina; Vezmar Kovacevic, Sandra; Ilic, Katarina; Sabo, Ana; Tasic, Ljiljana

    2012-10-01

    Observation of drug use patterns during pregnancy is necessary for the recognition of potential bad practices and improvement of safe drug use in pregnancy. To investigate prescription and over the counter drug use among Serbian women in the 6 months before pregnancy and in the first 6 months of pregnancy, and to evaluate the drugs used according to the risk to a fetus. Setting Six maternity care units and five community pharmacies. A multi-center study was performed in Serbia during the period from March 2009-March 2010. A self-reporting questionnaire was used as a data source. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) risk classification system was used to determine the risk of used drugs for the fetus. Differences between subgroups were assessed using McNemar's test on paired proportions. Main outcome measure Proportion of women exposed to drugs or class of drugs. The overall drug exposure was higher in pregnancy (34.7 %) than before pregnancy (29.9 %), p > 0.05, in the cohort of 311 pregnant women. A significantly greater prescription drug use, 19.0 versus 27.3 % of women, p drugs in pregnancy, 15.1 versus 8.7 %, p drugs were musculoskeletal drugs, analgesics/antipyretics and respiratory system drugs before pregnancy (13.8, 12.5, and 6.4 % of women, respectively), and progestogens, analgesics/antipyretics, and antibiotics for the systemic use in pregnancy (9.0, 7.7, and 7.4 %, respectively). A greater exposure to drugs belonging to the FDA risk category A (3.9 vs. 60.8 %, p 0.05), C (10.0 vs. 10.3 %, p > 0.05) and D (2.9 vs. 10.9 %, p drugs belonging to category X (0.3 vs. 0 %, p > 0.05) were observed in pregnancy. Folic acid was used by 60.8 % of women in pregnancy, and by only 3.9 % before pregnancy. Besides higher overall drug use in pregnancy than before pregnancy, particularly the use of progestogens, and, subsequently, D category drugs, less selfmedication with over the counter drugs was observed in pregnancy. Insufficient use of folic acid before pregnancy

  6. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients.

  7. [Current movements of four serious adverse events induced by medicinal drugs based on spontaneous reports in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Chie; Azuma, Yu-ichiro; Maekawa, Keiko; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Sai, Kimie; Saito, Yoshiro

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous reports on suspected serious adverse events caused by medicines from manufacturing/distributing pharmaceutical companies or medical institutions/pharmacies are regulated by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law of Japan, and this system is important for post-marketing safety features. Although causal relationship between the medicine and the adverse event is not evaluated, and one incidence may be redundantly reported, this information would be useful to roughly grasp the current movements of drug-related serious adverse events, We searched open-source data of the spontaneous reports publicized by Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency for 4 serious adverse events (interstitial lung disease, rhabdomyolysis, anaphylaxis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis) from 2004 to 2010 fiscal year (for 2010, from April 1 st to January 31th). Major drug-classes suspected to the adverse events were antineoplastics for interstitial lung disease, hyperlipidemia agents and psychotropics for rhabdomyolysis, antibiotics/chemotherapeutics, antineoplastics and intracorporeal diagnostic agents for anaphylaxis (anaphylactic shock, anaphylactic reactions, anaphylactoid shock and anaphylactoid reactions), and antibiotics/chemotherapeutics, antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents/common cold drugs, and antiepileptics for Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. These results would help understanding of current situations of the 4 drug-related serious adverse events in Japan.

  8. Drimys brasiliensis essential oil as a source of drimenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Milani Zem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers is a native plant species to the Atlantic Forest, commonly known as cataia, and used as a stimulant, anti-diahrreal, antipyretic, among other properties. Dried and fresh leaves of cataia were collected in autumn/2012, submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger graduated apparatus over a period of 4 hours after reaching the boiling point, then essential oil was collected. In oil from green leaves, 49 compounds were identified, being 65.0% sesquiterpenes, 12.0% monoterpenes and 23.0% other substances. In oil from dry leaves, 40 compounds were identified, being 76.1% sesquiterpenes, 2.0% monoterpenes and 21.9% other compounds. The main constituents in green leaves were germacrene D (8.9%, bicyclegermacrene (5.3%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.1%, alpha-cadinol (6.0%, and drimenol (9.3%. In dry leaves the main constituents were germacrene D (6.3%, (E-nerodidol (5.4%, spathulenol (9.5%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.5%, alpha-cadinol (6.7%, and drimenol (11.6% Due to its composition, antibacterial, antimycotic, insectifuge and molluscicide activities are proven, together with the pharmacological properties that this species may present.

  9. Effects of lysine clonixinate on cyclooxygenase I and II in rat lung and stomach preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, A M; Di Girolamo, G; de los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Gimeno, M A

    1998-06-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a drug of antiinflammatory antipyretic and analgesic activity that produces minor digestive side-effects. This fact induced us to think that LC is possibly a weak COX-1 inhibitor. In order to investigate our hypothesis we inhibited cyclooxygenase activity with LC or indomethacin (INDO) in rat lung and stomach obtained from rats treated with lipopolysacharide (LPS) and control rats. Rat lung preparations incubated with 14C-arachidonic acid synthesise mainly PGE2. LC at 2.5 and 4.1 x 10(-5) M does not modify the basal production of PGE2 (probably COX-1) but at 6.8 x 10(-5) M significantly inhibited PGE2 production (approximately 48.5% inhibition, P<0.001). On the other hand, INDO at 10(-6) inhibited the basal production of PGE2 by around 73%. In LPS-treated rats, the production of PGE2 was significantly higher than in the lungs of control rats, probably due to the induction of COX-2. The addition of LC at 2.7 and 4.1 x 10(-5) M recovered the control values of PGE2 inhibiting, probably only from COX-2 activity. LC at higher concentrations (6.8 x 10(-5) M) and INDO 10(-6) M inhibited PGE2 formed by COX-2 and also partly by COX-1 activity.

  10. Chronic acetaminophen overdosing in children: risk assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztajnkrycer, M J; Bond, G R

    2001-04-01

    Acetaminophen is currently the pediatric analgesic and antipyretic of choice. Although children appear to tolerate single, high-dose ingestions well, the literature is replete with reports of significant morbidity and mortality after repeated supra-therapeutic dosing. Proposed risk factors for injury with chronic use include age, total dose, duration, presence of intercurrent febrile illness, starvation, co-administration of cytochrome P450-inducing drugs, underlying hepatic disease, and unique genetic makeup. Evaluation of these children should include serum acetaminophen concentration, prothrombin time, and serum bilirubin and transaminase concentrations. The Rumack-Mathew nomogram should not be used to estimate the risk of hepatotoxicity in cases of chronic ingestion. Based on history, clinical examination, and laboratory findings, patients may be placed in three categories: those without hepatic injury and with no residual acetaminophen to be metabolized, those without injury but with some acetaminophen to be metabolized, and those with hepatotoxicity. Those without injury and no residual acetaminophen need not be treated or followed. Patients with hepatotoxicity or potential for hepatotoxicity based on residual acetaminophen should be treated with N-acetylcysteine. Most importantly, because so many parents are unaware of the potential risk of inappropriate dosing, education is the key to preventing future cases.

  11. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J

    2015-11-01

    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORINGA PEREGRINA LEAVES EXTRACT ON ACETAMINOPHEN -INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Samy Abdelfatah Abdel; Abdelrahem, Mohamed Taha; Said, Mostafa Mohamed; Khattab, Alshaimaa

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a common antipyretic drug but at overdose can cause severe hepatotoxicity that may further develop into liver failure and hepatic centrilobular necrosis in experimental animals and humans. This study was undertaken to assess the ameliorative role of Moringa peregrina leaves extract against acetaminophen toxicity in rats. Induction of hepatotoxicity was done by chronic oral administration of acetaminophen (750 mg/kg bwt) for 4 weeks. To study the possible hepatoprotective effect, Moringa peregrina leaves extract (200 mg/kg bwt) or Silymarin (50 mg/kg bwt) was administered orally, for 4 weeks, along with acetaminophen. acetaminophen significantly increased serum liver enzymes and caused oxidative stress, evidenced by significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, hepatic DNA fragmentation, and significant decrease of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes in liver, blood and brain. On the other hand, administration of Moringa peregrina leaves extract reversed acetaminophen-related toxic effects through: powerful malondialdehyde suppression, glutathione peroxidase normalization and stimulation of the cellular antioxidants synthesis represented by significant increase of glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in liver, blood and brain, besides, DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased in the liver tissue. acetaminophen induced oxidative damage can be improved by Moringa peregrina leaves extract-treatment, due to its antioxidant potential.

  13. Simultaneous determination of five active compounds in chimonanthus nitens by double-development HPTLC and scanning densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Bin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chimonanthus nitens (family Calycanthaceae, Shanlamei in Chinese, is an unique species in China. The extract of dried leaves of Chimonanthus nitens has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antitussive effects. Terpenes, coumarins, and flavonoids are usually regarded as the main active components. Therefore, simultaneous determination of these compounds is very important to control the quality of Chimonanthus nitens. Results A double-development TLC method was developed for simultaneous analysis of five compounds in Chimonanthus nitens. The chromatography was performed on silica gel 60 plate with chloroform-methanol (9∶1, v/v and petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (10∶1, v/v as mobile phase for twice development. Their characteristic TLC profiles were observed under UV light at 365 nm and the bands were then revealed by reaction with 1% vanillin-H2SO4 solution. Quantification of three monoterpenes was achieved by densitometry at 545 nm (β-caryophyllene or 606 nm (cineole and linalool. Two coumarins (scopoletin and scoparone were determined by densitometry at 340 nm with filter wavelength of 370 nm. The investigated compounds had good linearity (R2 >0.99 within test ranges. Conclusions The developed double-development TLC method is helpful to control the quality of Chimonanthus nitens, which is simple and accurate.

  14. Kikuchi Fujimoto Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bishri Jamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the clinical significance of Kikuchi Fujimoto Disease (histiocytic necrotizing lymhadenitis and to review the literature available on this condition, we selected the Medicine research papers in English language published between the years 1972 to 2011. Kikuchi Fujimoto Disease (KFD is an uncommon, cosmopolitan, benign and self-limiting condition with higher Japanese and Asian prevalence. Most of the sufferers of KFD are young people who seek treatment because of having acute tender cervical lymphadenopathy, low grade fever and night sweats. Coagulative necrosis with ample karyorrhetic debris in paracortical areas of the involved lymph nodes is the characteristic histologic feature of KFD. Diagnosing KFD is crucial as it can be mistaken for malignant lymphoma and SLE. KFD was put forth first time in 1972 by Dr. Masahiro Kikuchi and by Funimoto as lymphadenitis with reticular proliferation, histiocytes and abundant nuclear debris. It is a rare benign condition of lymph nodes and most of the clinicians and pathologists are unfamiliar with it. KFD is self-limiting disease (within 1 to 4 months, however, patients should be followed up regularly as it may crop up again or progress to SLE. Analgesics and antipyretics help to ameliorate the symptoms.

  15. Fever prevalence and management among three rural communities in the North West Zone, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, R M; Alegana, V A; Amran, J; Noor, A M; Snow, R W

    2010-06-01

    Between March and August 2008 we undertook 2 cross-sectional surveys among 1375 residents of 3 randomly selected villages in the district of Gebiley in the North-West Zone, Somalia. We investigated for the presence of malaria infection and the period prevalence of self-reported fever 14 days prior to both surveys. All blood samples examined were negative for both species of Plasmodium. The period prevalence of 14-day fevers was 4.8% in March and 0.6% in August; the majority of fevers (84.4%) were associated with other symptoms including cough, running nose and sore throat; 48/64 cases had resolved by the day of interview (mean duration 5.4 days). Only 18 (37.5%) fever cases were managed at a formal health care facility: 7 within 24 hours and 10 within 24-72 hours of onset. None of the fevers were investigated for malaria; they were treated with antibiotics, antipyretics and vitamins.

  16. NSAIDs, Mitochondria and Calcium Signaling: Special Focus on Aspirin/Salicylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Suzuki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid is a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID that has long been used as an anti-pyretic and analgesic drug. Recently, much attention has been paid to the chemopreventive and apoptosis-inducing effects of NSAIDs in cancer cells. These effects have been thought to be primarily attributed to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis. However, recent studies have demonstrated unequivocally that certain NSAIDs, including aspirin and its metabolite salicylic acid, exert their anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects independently of cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. It is becoming increasingly evident that two potential common targets of NSAIDs are mitochondria and the Ca2+ signaling pathway. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding the roles of mitochondria and Ca2+ in the apoptosis-inducing effects as well as some side effects of aspirin, salicylates and other NSAIDs, and introducing the emerging role of L-type Ca2+ channels, a new Ca2+ entry pathway in non-excitable cells that is up-regulated in human cancer cells.

  17. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  18. Nimesulide has a role of radio-sensitizer against lung carcinoma A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Joo Yoon; Park, Jong Kuk; Hong, Sung Hee

    2006-01-01

    Cyclooxygenases (COX) are key enzymes in the prostaglandin synthesis. There are two isoforms of the COX enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 expression is associated with carcinogenesis in variety of cancers and to render cells resistant to apoptotic stimuli. Increased expression of COX-2 is shown in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), specifically in adenocarcinomas. Radiotherapy has been the important treatment for NSCLC. In recent studies, newer molecules that target specific pathophysiology or molecular pathways have been tested for the radiation sensitizers. COX-2 inhibitors are shown to enhanced radioresponse of cultured human cancer cell lines and immunodeficient mice. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms how NSAIDs enhance radioresponse of tumor cells. Nimesulide (methanesulfonamide, N-(4-nitro-2- phenoxyphenyl)), selective COX-2 inhibitors, is a drug with anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic properties. Nimesulide has the specific affinity to inhibit the inducible form of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) rather than the constitutive form (COX-1), and is well tolerated by adult, elderly and pediatric patients. Nimesulide was found also to have a chemopreventive activity against colon, urinary bladder, breast, tongue, and liver carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined whether nimesulide can increase radiation induced cell death and its mechanism in NSCLC cells A549

  19. Chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Kumar Pandey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance. The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz., Ocimum basilicum Linn. (alt. Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurience, Ocimum campechianum Mill., Ocimum canum Sims. (Ocimum americanum, Ocimum citriodorum, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn., Ocimum micranthum Willd., Ocimum sanctum Linn., (alt. Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn., Ocimum selloi Benth., Ocimum trichodon, Ocimum utricifolium from different geographical regions. A considerable difference in chemical composition of a particular species is found, which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic zones and changes in edaphic factors. Attention is also focused on the biological properties of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant, repellent, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal and therapeutic (anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antiulcer, analgesic, anthelmintic, anticarcinogenic, skin permeation enhancer, immunomodulatory, cardio-protective, antilipidemic agents.

  20. Escin Chemosensitizes Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Inhibits the Nuclear Factor-kappaB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rimmon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an urgent need to develop new treatment strategies and drugs for pancreatic cancer that is highly resistant to radio-chemotherapy. Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut known in Chinese medicine as a plant with anti-inflammatory, antiedema, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is Escin (C54H84O23. Objective. To evaluate the effect of Escin alone and combined with chemotherapy on pancreatic cancer cell survival and to unravel mechanism(s of Escin anticancer activity. Methods. Cell survival was measured by XTT colorimetric assay. Synergistic effect of combined therapy was determined by CalcuSyn software. Cell cycle and induction of apoptosis were evaluated by FACS analysis. Expression of NF-κB-related proteins (p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα and cyclin D was evaluated by western blot analysis. Results. Escin decreased the survival of pancreatic cancer cells with IC50 = 10–20 M. Escin combined with gemcitabine showed only additive effect, while its combination with cisplatin resulted in a significant synergistic cytotoxic effect in Panc-1 cells. High concentrations of Escin induced apoptosis and decreased NF-κB-related proteins and cyclin D expression. Conclusions. Escin decreased pancreatic cancer cell survival, induced apoptosis, and downregulated NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, Escin sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy. Further translational research is required.

  1. Advances in NSAID development: evolution of diclofenac products using pharmaceutical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Roy; Bosch, Bill; Brune, Kay; Patrignani, Paola; Young, Clarence

    2015-05-01

    Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the phenylacetic acid class with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties. Contrary to the action of many traditional NSAIDs, diclofenac inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme with greater potency than it does COX-1. Similar to other NSAIDs, diclofenac is associated with serious dose-dependent gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal adverse effects. Since its introduction in 1973, a number of different diclofenac-containing drug products have been developed with the goal of improving efficacy, tolerability, and patient convenience. Delayed- and extended-release forms of diclofenac sodium were initially developed with the goal of improving the safety profile of diclofenac and providing convenient, once-daily dosing for the treatment of patients with chronic pain. New drug products consisting of diclofenac potassium salt were associated with faster absorption and rapid onset of pain relief. These include diclofenac potassium immediate-release tablets, diclofenac potassium liquid-filled soft gel capsules, and diclofenac potassium powder for oral solution. The advent of topical formulations of diclofenac enabled local treatment of pain and inflammation while minimizing systemic absorption of diclofenac. SoluMatrix diclofenac, consisting of submicron particles of diclofenac free acid and a proprietary combination of excipients, was developed to provide analgesic efficacy at reduced doses associated with lower systemic absorption. This review illustrates how pharmaceutical technology has been used to modify the pharmacokinetic properties of diclofenac, leading to the creation of novel drug products with improved clinical utility.

  2. Consumer concerns about paracetamol: a retrospective analysis of a medicines call centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephanie M; McGuire, Treasure M; van Driel, Mieke L

    2016-06-08

    To identify consumer information needs about paracetamol, the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic worldwide. Retrospective analysis of medicines questions from the public. Australian consumer medicines call centre. Callers to National Prescribing Service Medicines Line between September 2002 and June 2010 (n=123 217). Enquiry profile: demographics, enquiry type and concurrent medicines included in paracetamol calls; question themes derived from subset of call narratives. Paracetamol comprised part of the enquiry in 5.2% of calls (n=6367). The caller age distribution for paracetamol calls was skewed towards a younger cohort, with 45.2% made by those aged 25-44 vs 37.5% in 'rest of calls'. Significantly more paracetamol-related calls were made for a child (23.7%) compared with 'rest of calls' (12.7%, pConsumers have many concerns about the use of paracetamol that may be under-recognised by healthcare providers, with the nature of enquiries differing across life stages. These concerns are not adequately addressed by available consumer information. Improving access to targeted information about paracetamol would promote the safe and effective use of this common medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol, 4-Aminophenol, 4-Chloroacetanilid, Benzyl alcohol,Benzaldehyde and EDTA by HPLC methodin paracetamol injection ampoule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Merrikhi Khosroshahi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol that is known as acetaminophen have the most consume as an analgesic and antipyretic drug in the world. That is formulated in single compound or mixture at many forms such as tablets, syrups, suspensions and drops. The last form is intravenous injections. Paracetamol derived from 4-minophenol which is synthesized by acylated the P-acetaminophenol and acetic anhydride. 4-aminophenol is the main impurity at manufacturing of paracetamol which could produce by hydrolysis during storage or synthesis under normal conditions (temperature, pH, etc.. Also, 4-chloroacetanilid may be observed as an impurity in the raw material of paracetamol synthesis. Benzyl alcohol is a preservative that used in Paracetamol for injection. It will be very important if there are analytical techniques to measuring paracetamol and its degradation products accurately and easily. Undoubtedly the most important and widely used, separation technique is chromatography. There are several reports about separation and quantitative determination of paracetamol lonely or simultaneous determination of paracetamol and 4-aminophenol. In this paper investigated simultaneous determination of paracetamol, 4-aminophenol, 4-chloroacetanilid, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and EDTA in paracetamol for injection ampoules by high performance liquid chromatography. By changing the ratio of mixing methanol and acetonitrile as mobile phase at the wavelength of 215 nm and pH=3 separation of all compounds were completely done.

  4. Study of the radioprotective efficiency of combined administration of natural antioxidants and a sulfhydryl compound in feverish irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    In the present experiments, a study of the radioprotective effects of natural antioxidants, rutin alone, vitamine E alone or each of them combined with synthetic radioprotector, cysteine have been investigated in irradiated and feverish irradiated rats. Furthermore, the oxidative stress bio markers and certain liver function tests of the irradiated and the feverish whole body irradiated rats were examined. Two main sets of animals were used: The 1st set was constructed in order to study the effect of irradiation, while the second set was used to study the effect of irradiation on feverish rats. The effect of irradiation was evaluated by exposing the whole body of rats to gamma radiation at acute single dose level of 6.5 Gy. Rutin was orally daily administered for two weeks before irradiation in a dose of 1.064 mmol/kg , vitamine E was injected intraperitoneally daily for seven days before irradiation in a dose of 50 mg/100 g. While, cysteine was intraperitoneally administered only 30 min. before irradiation in a dose of 30 mg/kg. In order to determine the antipyretic effect of the drugs, body temperature of each animal was measured before induction of hyperthermia as well as 18 hours following yeast injection. Rats were treated with the tested drugs before induction of fever then exposed to whole body gamma radiation at acute single dose level of 6.5 Gy and body temperature of each animal was measured 3 days after irradiation

  5. Paracetamol in the environment and its degradation by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shijin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Jianmeng

    2012-11-01

    Paracetamol (4'-hydroxyacetanilide, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, acetaminophen, and paracetamol) is a widely used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drug. Paracetamol and structural analogs are ubiquitous in the natural environment and easily accumulate in aquatic environment, which have been detected in surface waters, wastewater, and drinking water throughout the world. Paracetamol wastewater is mainly treated by chemical oxidation processes. Although these chemical methods may be available for treating these pollutants, the harsh reaction conditions, the generation of secondary pollutants, and the high operational cost associated with these methods have often made them not a desirable choice. Biodegradation of paracetamol is being considered as an environmentally friendly and low-cost option. The goal of this review is to provide an outline of the current knowledge of biodegradation of paracetamol in the occurrence, degrading bacteria, and proposed metabolic/biodegrading pathways, enzymes and possible intermediates. The comprehensive understanding of the metabolic pathways and enzyme systems involved in the utilization of paracetamol means will be helpful for optimizing and allowing rational design of biodegradation systems for paracetamol-contaminated wastewater.

  6. Study of the radioprotective efficiency of combined administration of natural antioxidants and a sulfhydryl compound in feverish irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, R R [Pharmacist in National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    In the present experiments, a study of the radioprotective effects of natural antioxidants, rutin alone, vitamine E alone or each of them combined with synthetic radioprotector, cysteine have been investigated in irradiated and feverish irradiated rats. Furthermore, the oxidative stress bio markers and certain liver function tests of the irradiated and the feverish whole body irradiated rats were examined. Two main sets of animals were used: The 1st set was constructed in order to study the effect of irradiation, while the second set was used to study the effect of irradiation on feverish rats. The effect of irradiation was evaluated by exposing the whole body of rats to gamma radiation at acute single dose level of 6.5 Gy. Rutin was orally daily administered for two weeks before irradiation in a dose of 1.064 mmol/kg , vitamine E was injected intraperitoneally daily for seven days before irradiation in a dose of 50 mg/100 g. While, cysteine was intraperitoneally administered only 30 min. before irradiation in a dose of 30 mg/kg. In order to determine the antipyretic effect of the drugs, body temperature of each animal was measured before induction of hyperthermia as well as 18 hours following yeast injection. Rats were treated with the tested drugs before induction of fever then exposed to whole body gamma radiation at acute single dose level of 6.5 Gy and body temperature of each animal was measured 3 days after irradiation.

  7. Degradation of Paracetamol by Photolysis Using C-N-codoped TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanny Yulia Safitri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol is generally used as analgesic and antipyretic drugs. Contamination paracetamol in the environment can occur because of waste material disposal from production site and immediate disposal of household that cause water pollution. Paracetamol is degraded by photolysis method under irradiation 10 watt UV-light (λ=365 nm, visible-light (Philips LED 13 watt 1400 lux and solar-light with and without addition C-N-codoped TiO2catalyst. The solution is analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer at λ 200-400 nm. Optimum weight of C-N-codoped TiO2 catalyst obtained is 20 mg under UV-light photolysis. Paracetamol 4 mg/L is degraded 45.48% after 120 minutes under UV-light irradiation without catalyst, and increases to be 69.31% by using 20 mg catalyst. While degradation percentage of paracetamol is 16.96 % without catalyst, the percentage increases to be 34.29% after using 20 mg catalyst for 120 minutes photolysis under visible-light. Degradation of paracetamol by solar light achieves only 12.27% in absance of catalyst for 120 minutes irradiation, but it increases significantly until 70.39% in presence of 20 mg catalyst.

  8. Degradation of paracetamol in aqueous solutions by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Yu, Liya E; Ray, Madhumita B

    2008-07-01

    In this study, photo/photocatalytic oxidation of common analgesic and antipyretic drug, paracetamol (acetaminophen), was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for degradation in water. UVA (365 nm) radiation alone degraded negligible amount of paracetamol, whereas paracetamol concentration decreased substantially under an irradiation of UVC (254 nm) with marginal changes in total organic carbon (TOC). In the presence of TiO2, much faster photodegradation of paracetamol and effective mineralization occurred; more than 95% of 2.0mM paracetamol was degraded within 80 min. The degradation rate constant decreased with an increase in the initial concentration of paracetamol, while it increased with light intensity and oxygen concentration. The degradation rate also increased with TiO2 loading until a concentration of 0.8 g L(-1). The degradation rate slowly increased between pH 3.5 and 9.5, but significantly decreased with increasing pH between 9.5 and 11.0. Based on the experimental data, a kinetic equation describing paracetamol photocatalytic degradation with various process parameters is obtained.

  9. Paracetamol - toxicity and microbial utilization. Pseudomonas moorei KB4 as a case study for exploring degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żur, Joanna; Wojcieszyńska, Danuta; Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Marchlewicz, Ariel; Guzik, Urszula

    2018-09-01

    Paracetamol, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, is currently one of the most emerging pollutants worldwide. Besides its wide prevalence in the literature only several bacterial strains able to degrade this compound have been described. In this study, we isolated six new bacterial strains able to remove paracetamol. The isolated strains were identified as the members of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Sphingomonas genera and characterized phenotypically and biochemically using standard methods. From the isolated strains, Pseudomonas moorei KB4 was able to utilize 50 mg L -1 of paracetamol. As the main degradation products, p-aminophenol and hydroquinone were identified. Based on the measurements of specific activity of acyl amidohydrolase, deaminase and hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase and the results of liquid chromatography analyses, we proposed a mechanism of paracetamol degradation by KB4 strain under co-metabolic conditions with glucose. Additionally, toxicity bioassays and the influence of various environmental factors, including pH, temperature, heavy metals at no-observed-effective-concentrations, and the presence of aromatic compounds on the efficiency and mechanism of paracetamol degradation by KB4 strain were determined. This comprehensive study about paracetamol biodegradation will be helpful in designing a treatment systems of wastewaters contaminated with paracetamol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute effects of carprofen and meloxicam on canine gastrointestinal permeability and mucosal absorptive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Melanie; Chandler, Marge L; Steiner, Jörg M; Farhadi, Ashkan; Welsh, Elizabeth; Pratschke, Kathryn; Shaw, Darren J; Williams, David A

    2007-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently prescribed to dogs for their analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Their beneficial actions can be offset by gastrointestinal (GI) toxicosis. Endoscopy has traditionally been employed to detect GI lesions, but alterations in GI permeability precede the development of mucosal damage. Carprofen and meloxicam alter GI permeability and mucosal absorptive capacity of dogs. Twenty adult dogs treated with an NSAID for >7 days were evaluated by permeability tests while receiving either carprofen (10 dogs) or meloxicam (10 dogs). Prospective, longitudinal observational study. A 6-sugar permeability test (sucrose, lactulose, rhamnose, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, and sucralose) was performed on the day before NSAID treatment, and after 3 and 8 days of treatment. There were no significant differences in the urinary recovery ratios of lactulose: rhamnose, D-xylose: 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, or sucralose recovery within either group at any time during the study. Sucrose permeability in the meloxicam group did not alter significantly over time. However, sucrose permeability in the carprofen group decreased significantly by day 3 (P = .049) and increased again by day 8 (P = .049), to a level that was not significantly different to permeability before treatment (P = .695). The absence of increased GI permeability and diminished mucosal absorptive capacity in this group of dogs does not support the development of acute GI toxicosis during treatment with either meloxicam or carprofen.

  11. Effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on the in vitro protease inhibitory activity of naproxen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmalingam, Senthil Rajan; Chidambaram, Kumarappan; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Nadaraju, Shamala, E-mail: dsenthilrajan@yahoo.co.in [School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated the effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on in vitro trypsin inhibitory activity of naproxen—a member of the propionic acid derivatives, which are a group of antipyretic, analgesic, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques were used to increase the solubility and anti-inflammatory efficacy of naproxen. The evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS) technique and the kneading methods were used to prepare the nanosuspension and inclusion complex of naproxen, respectively. We also used an in vitro protease inhibitory assay to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of modified naproxen formulations. Physiochemical properties of modified naproxen formulations were analyzed using UV, IR spectra, and solubility studies. Beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of naproxen was found to have a lower percentage of antitryptic activity than a pure nanosuspension of naproxen did. In conclusion, nanosuspension of naproxen has a greater anti-inflammatory effect than the other two tested formulations. This is because the nanosuspension formulation reduces the particle size of naproxen. Based on these results, the antitryptic activity of naproxen nanosuspension was noteworthy; therefore, this formulation can be used for the management of inflammatory disorders. (author)

  12. A New Sensor Based on Graphite Screen Printed Electrode Modified With Cu-Nanocomplex for Determination of Paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Beitollai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as an antipyretic agent for the alternative to aspirin. Conversely, the overdoses of paracetamol can cause hepatic toxicity and kidney damage. Hence, the determination of paracetamol receives much more attention in biological samples and also in pharmaceutical formulations. Here, we report a rapid and sensitive detection of the paracetamol based on screen-printed modified electrode (SPE with Cu nanocomplex (Cu in pH=7.0. The paracetamol is not stable in strong acidic and strong alkaline media, and is hydrolyzed and hydroxylated. However, it is stable in intermediate pHs due to the dimerization of paracetamol. The kinetics of the paracetamol oxidation was briefly studied and documented in the schemes. In addition, the characterization of Cu nanocomplex was probed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Moreover, the voltammetry determined the paracetamol with the linear concentration ranging from 10.0 to 1000.0 μM and the lower detection limit of 1.0 μM. This method was also successfully used to detect the concentration of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations and urine samples.

  13. The effect of filler addition and oven temperature to the antioxidant quality in the drying of Physalis angulata fruit extract obtained by subcritical water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R. F.; Christianto, G.

    2016-01-01

    Physalis angulata or ceplukan is medicinal herb, which grows naturally in Indonesia. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. It is also reported to have antimycobacterial, antileukemic, antipyretic. In this research, Pysalis angulata fruit was investigated for its antioxidant capacity. In order to avoid the toxic organic solvent commonly used in conventional extraction, subcritical water extraction method was used. During drying, filler which is inert was added to the extract. It can absorb water and change the oily and sticky form of extract to powder form. The effects of filler types, concentrations and drying temperatures were investigated to the antioxidant quality covering total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity. The results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity were improved by addition of filler because the drying time was shorter compared to extract without filler. Filler absorbs water and protects extract from exposure to heat during drying. The combination between high temperature and shorter drying time are beneficial to protect the antioxidant in extract. The type of fillers investigation showed that aerosil gave better performance compared to Microcrystalline Celullose (MCC).

  14. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities from Actinidia callosa var. callosa In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chun Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinidia callosa var. callosa has been widely used to treat antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammation, abdominal pain, and fever in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages and pawedema induced by λ-carrageenan activities of the methanol extract from A. callosa. In HPLC analysis, the fingerprint chromatogram of ethyl-acetate fraction of A. callosa (EAAC was established. EAAC showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. We evaluated that EAAC and the reference compound of catechin and caffeic acid decreased the LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of male ICR mice with EAAC significantly inhibited the numbers of acetic acid-induced writhing response and the formalin-induced pain in the late phase. Administration of EAAC showed a concentration-dependent inhibition on paw edema development after Carr treatment in mice. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of EAAC might be correlated to the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 in vitro and in vivo. Overall, the results showed that EAAC demonstrated antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activity, which supports previous claims of the traditional use for inflammation and pain.

  15. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing, virulence and biofilm formation by extracts of Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Malabika; Moulick, Soumitra; Bhattacharya, Kunal Kumar; Parai, Debaprasad; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Quorum-sensing (QS) is known to play an essential role in regulation of virulence factors and toxins during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection which may frequently cause antibiotic resistance and hostile outcomes of inflammatory injury. Therefore, it is an urgent need to search for a novel agent with low risk of resistance development that can target QS and inflammatory damage prevention as well. Andrographis paniculata, a herbaceous plant under the family Acanthaceae, native to Asian countries and also cultivated in Scandinavia and some parts of Europe, has a strong traditional usage with its known antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiviral and antioxidant properties. In this study, three different solvent extracts (viz., chloroform, methanol and aqueous) of A. paniculata were examined for their anti-QS and anti-inflammatory activities. Study was carried out to assess the effect on some selected QS-regulatory genes at transcriptional level using Real Time-PCR. In addition, ability to attenuate MAPK pathways upon P. aeruginosa infection was performed to check its potential anti-inflammatory activity. Chloroform and methanol extracts showed significant reduction (p paniculata extracts inhibit QS in P. aeruginosa and exhibit anti-inflammatory activities, therefore it represents itself as a prospective therapeutic agent against P. aeruginosa infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. "Nifedipine in the treatment of liver toxicity induced by Acetaminophen overdose in mice "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalantari H

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is an analgesic and antipyretic drug, which is widely used by public and poisoning with this drug, is common. One of the most important adverse effects of acetaminophen poisoning is centrilobullar necrosis in hepatic cells, which depends on activity of microsomal cytochrome P-450 (CYP enzymes. The aim of this investigation was to find out the protective effect of nifedipine against liver toxicity caused by acetaminophen overdose (700 mg/kg as calcium channel blocker. In this study doses of 5, 50, 100, 250, 500 mg/kg of nifedipine were administered to mice orally one hour before acetaminophen administration. The negative control group receive normal saline. The positive control group was administered with acetaminophen at a dose of 700 mg/kg one hour after nifedipine administration. After 24 hours, enzyme activity (ALT, AST, histopathological examination and liver weight were compared with the control groups. The results revealed that nifedipine at dose of 500 mg/kg was the most effective and protected damage from acetaminophen toxicity.

  17. Prevalence of self-medication among university students in Baghdad: a cross-sectional study from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ameri, Rawa J K; Abd Al-Badri, Husham J; Lafta, Riyadh K

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study is to find out the prevalence and determinants of self-medication among college students in Baghdad, Iraq. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Al-Mustansiriyah and Al-Nahrain universities, Baghdad, from January to April 2015. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted to collect data from 1435 college students using a questionnaire form. The mean age of the joining students was 19.8 years. Females form 53% of the sample. Self-medications use was prevalent among 92.4% of students. Antipyretics and antibiotics were the most used medicines. Self-medication was higher among urban residents (OR= 7.99, P resilience to self-medication (OR=0.455, P = 0.001). Despite free access to healthcare institutions, nine out of ten college students from Baghdad universities have practiced self-medication. Education of students about the safe use of medications and supervision of pharmacies are effective ways to control this malpractice.

  18. Do caffeine-containing analgesics promote dependence? A review and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, A R; Heinemann, L A; Dalessio, D; Fox, J M; Goldstein, J; Haag, G; Ladewig, D; O'Brien, C P

    2000-11-01

    Debates about the suspected association between kidney disease and use of analgesics have led to concern about whether caffeine could stimulate an undesirable overuse of phenacetin-free combined analgesics. A committee was asked to critically review the pertinent literature and to suggest guides for clinical practice and for consideration of international regulatory authorities. A group of international scientists, jointly selected by the regulatory authorities of Germany, Switzerland, and Austria and the pharmaceutical industry. All invited experts evaluated relevant literature and reports and added further information and comments. Caffeine has a synergistic effectiveness with analgesics. Although caffeine has a dependence potential, the potential is low. Experimental data regarding dependence potential for caffeine alone may not correspond to the conditions in patients with pain. Withdrawal is not likely to cause stimulation or sustainment of analgesic intake. For drug-induced headache, no single or combined analgesic was consistently identified as causative, and no evidence exists for a special role of caffeine. Strong dependence behavior was observed only in patients using phenacetin-containing preparations, coformulated with antipyretics/analgesics and caffeine. This finding may have led to the impression that caffeine stimulates overuse of analgesics. Although more experimental and long-term data would be desirable to show possible mechanisms of dependence and to offer unequivocal proof of safety, the committee concluded that the available evidence does not support the claim that analgesics coformulated with caffeine, in the absence of phenacetin, stimulate or sustain overuse.

  19. Hantavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guzmán T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives

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    Asma Agrebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several new pyrazolopyrimidine compounds were achieved from aminocyanopyarazole 1. The starting material 1 was initially coupled with orthoester at refluxed with various primary amines, ammonia, hydrazines and hydroxylamine to furnish a series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines. The reaction of imidate 2a-b with hydrazide derivatives led to the formation of pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]pyrimidines. Some of the synthesized compounds 3a and 4c were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and nociceptive activities. We start by studing the toxicity of these two molecules by measuring the corresponding DL50. The DL50 of 3a and 4c are estimated to 1333.2mg / kg and 1593.5mg / kg respectively. Pharmacological evaluation showed that compounds 3a and 4c at doses (5.5-22.2 mg / Kg, i.p exhibited anti-inflammatory activities compared to Ibuprofen (150 mg / Kg, i.p, used as a refer ence drug. Further, our study showed that the injection of derived pyrazolopyrimidines on hyperthermic animal leads to a decrease in temperature after 1 hours of treatment compared to paracetamol used as reference. In addition, the injection of derived pyrazolopyrimidines at different doses contains a potent nociceptive activity. This effect is dose-dependent compared to aspirin.

  1. Bovine Ephemeral Fever pada ternak sapi potong di Kabupaten Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta (Laporan Kasus

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    Alfarisa Nururrozi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF or three days sickness is one of the most common disease in cattle. The disease is caused by rhabdoviridae virus transmitted through mosquito as a vectors. This paper aims to determine the incidence of BEF cases in Gunungkidul district, Yogyakarta. Diagnoses BEF based on information collected through the anamnesis from owner and the results of clinical examination. 134 (48% from 277 cows were examined in the Gunungkidul district period October-November 2016 diagnosed BEF. Clinical signs were found consist of anorexia 111 cases (34%, hyperthermia 99 cases (31%, lameness 42 cases (13%, cow downer 31 cases (10%, nasal discharge 35 cases (11% and hypersalivation 6 cases (2%. Bovine Ephemeral Fever mayority reported on the second day of the disease progression by 67 cases (42%. The most common therapy used combinations of antipyretics, antibiotics and vitamins were 45 cases (33%. Based on the information from the farmers, the treatment has given good results and absence of the absence of post-treatment recurrence

  2. Mononucleosis and Epstein–Barr virus infection: treatment and medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valachis A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antonis Valachis2, Diamantis P Kofteridis11Departments of Internal Medicine-Infectious Disease Unit, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece; 2Department of Oncology, Mälarsjukhuset, Eskilstuna, SwedenAbstract: Epstein–Barr virus is a member of the human herpes virus family. Primary infection is usually asymptomatic in childhood; in adolescents and young adults, however, it leads to infectious mononucleosis with symptoms including fever, fatigue, and sore throat that can persist for months. The disease is usually self-limited and resolves over a period of weeks or months but may occasionally be complicated by a wide variety of complications. Symptomatic treatment, the cornerstone of therapy, includes adequate hydration, analgesics, antipyretics, and limitations of contact sports and activities. The role of antiviral treatment and corticosteroids is debatable and not recommended in general, while the development of vaccination is under investigation. This review concentrates on the diagnosis, the potential complications, and the therapeutic strategies in patients with infectious mononucleosis.Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus, infectious mononucleosis, EBV

  3. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Quickly Resolve Symptoms Associated with EBV-Induced Infectious Mononucleosis in Patients with Atopic Predispositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Itsuro; Miura, Chieko; Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2016-02-14

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical syndrome most commonly associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In adults, the symptoms can often be severe and prolonged, sometimes causing serious complications. Analgesic or antipyretic drugs are normally used to relieve the symptoms. However, there is no causal treatment for the disease. Two cases of adult patients with atopic predispositions developed nocturnal fever, general fatigue, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy after an exacerbation of atopic symptoms or those of allergic rhinitis. Due to the positive results for EBV viral-capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and negative results for EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) IgG, diagnoses of infectious mononucleosis induced by EBV were made in both cases. Although oral antibiotics or acetaminophen alone did not improve the deteriorating symptoms, including fever, headache and general fatigue, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as tiaramide or loxoprofen, completely improved the symptoms quickly after the initiation. In these cases, given the atopic predispositions of the patients, an enhanced immunological response was likely to be mainly responsible for the pathogenesis of the symptoms. In such cases, NSAIDs, that are known to reduce the activity of EBV, may dramatically improve the deteriorating symptoms quickly after the initiation. In the present cases, the immunosuppressive property of these drugs was considered to suppress the activity of lymphocytes and thus provide the rapid and persistent remission of the disease.

  4. Intentional and accidental paracetamol poisoning in childhood – a retrospective analysis

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    Katarzyna Kominek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol is one of the most commonly used analgesics and antipyretics available without limits as preparations of the OTC group (over the counter drugs. Overdose and poisoning with this drug always brings about the risk of acute hepatic failure. The objective of the study was a retrospective evaluation of patients hospitalized in the Paediatric Clinic during the period 2004–2012 due to poisoning with paracetamol.The analysis covered 44 patients hospitalized in the Paediatric Clinic during 2004–2012 due to poisoning with paracetamol. Patients were divided into three groups: intentional poisonings, accidental poisonings, and drug overdose.During the period of the study, 44 patients aged 2.1–17.1, poisoned with paracetamol, were hospitalized. Among these patients there were 30 (68.2% cases of intentional poisonings, 10 (22.7% of accidental poisonings, and only 4 patients (9.1% were children hospitalized after a paracetamol overdose. The majority of patients in all groups were females (93.3%.Paracetamol intoxication may occur after exceeding a single allowable dose, in the case of intentional poisoning, more rarely after exceeding the daily dose, in the case of intense pain complaints, or in the treatment of persistent fever.Based on the analysis performed, an increase was observed in the frequency of poisoning with paracetamol, especially intentional poisoning. Unlimited access to paracetamol as an OTC drug should be reconsidered.

  5. A review on versatile applications of transition metal complexes incorporating Schiff bases

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    Ahmed M. Abu-Dief

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schiff bases and their complexes are versatile compounds synthesized from the condensation of an amino compound with carbonyl compounds and widely used for industrial purposes and also exhibit a broad range of biological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antipyretic properties. Many Schiff base complexes show excellent catalytic activity in various reactions and in the presence of moisture. Over the past few years, there have been many reports on their applications in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. The high thermal and moisture stabilities of many Schiff base complexes were useful attributes for their application as catalysts in reactions involving at high temperatures. The activity is usually increased by complexation therefore to understand the properties of both ligands and metal can lead to the synthesis of highly active compounds. The influence of certain metals on the biological activity of these compounds and their intrinsic chemical interest as multidentate ligands has prompted a considerable increase in the study of their coordination behaviour. Development of a new chemotherapeutic Schiff bases and their metal complexes is now attracting the attention of medicinal chemists. This review compiles examples of the most promising applied Schiff bases and their complexes in different areas.

  6. Investigation of flurbiprofen genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in rat bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan B

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate cytogenetic effects of NSAID flurbiprofen which was used as active ingredient in some analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Genotoxic effect of flurbiprofen was investigated using in vivo chromosome aberration (CA) test and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) test. Also, oxidative stress potential of flurbiprofen was determined by measuring total oxidant and antioxidant level which occurred with flurbiprofen treatment in rat peripheral blood. For these purposes, rats were treated with three concentrations of flurbiprofen (29.25, 58.50 and 117 mg/kg, body weight) in single dose at two different treatment periods (12 and 24 h). According to the results, flurbiprofen did not affect chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells with CA test. In RAPD-PCR test, polymorphic bands were unaffected. Also, test substance did not change total oxidant and antioxidant status (except for 58.50 and 117 mg/kg, 12 h) and therefore it did not lead to significant increase on oxidative stress (again except 58.50 and 117 mg/kg, 12 h). However, flurbiprofen reduced to mitotic indexes and these reductions were dose-dependent for 12 h treatment. In summary, flurbiprofen did not show significant genotoxic effect. But it caused cytotoxicity in rat bone marrow cells.

  7. Developmental exposure to paracetamol causes biochemical alterations in medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Jawna, Katarzyna; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Wawer, Adriana; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    The effect and safety of prenatal and early life administration of paracetamol - routinely used over-the-counter antipyretic and analgesic medication on monoamines content and balance of amino acids in the medulla oblongata is still unknown. In this study we have determined the level of neurotransmitters in this structure in two-month old Wistar male rats exposed to paracetamol in the dose of 5 (P5, n=10) or 15mg/kg b.w. (P15, n=10) during prenatal period, lactation and till the end of the second month of life. Control group received drinking water (Con, n=10). Monoamines, their metabolites and amino acids concentration in medulla oblongata of rats were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 60 postnatal day (PND60). This experiment shows that prenatal and early life paracetamol exposure modulates neurotransmission associated with serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic system in medulla oblongata. Reduction of alanine and taurine levels has also been established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of environmental factors on the concentration of phenolic compounds in leaves of Lafoensia pacari

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    Bruno Leite Sampaio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, a plant from the Cerrado known as pacari or dedaleiro, is widely used as an antipyretic, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and in the treatment of gastritis and cancer. Notable among the metabolite groups identified in leaves of L. pacari are the polyphenols, such as tannins and flavonoids, related to the pharmacological activities of pacari. Studies on the influence of environmental factors over production of major groups of secondary metabolites in pacari are important because they contribute data for its cultivation and harvest, and establish quantitative parameters of secondary metabolites in the plant drug. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in the leaves of L. pacari. Compounds quantified in the leaves were: total phenols, tannins by protein precipitation, hydrolysable tannins, total flavonoids, ellagic acid and mineral nutrients, while soil fertility was also analyzed, all over a period of one year. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis, and the results suggest that metabolite concentrations in the leaves of this plant are influenced by seasonal factors, in particular the temperature and foliar micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn.

  9. Influence of environmental factors on the concentration of phenolic compounds in leaves of Lafoensia pacari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leite Sampaio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, a plant from the Cerrado known as pacari or dedaleiro, is widely used as an antipyretic, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and in the treatment of gastritis and cancer. Notable among the metabolite groups identified in leaves of L. pacari are the polyphenols, such as tannins and flavonoids, related to the pharmacological activities of pacari. Studies on the influence of environmental factors over production of major groups of secondary metabolites in pacari are important because they contribute data for its cultivation and harvest, and establish quantitative parameters of secondary metabolites in the plant drug. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in the leaves of L. pacari. Compounds quantified in the leaves were: total phenols, tannins by protein precipitation, hydrolysable tannins, total flavonoids, ellagic acid and mineral nutrients, while soil fertility was also analyzed, all over a period of one year. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis, and the results suggest that metabolite concentrations in the leaves of this plant are influenced by seasonal factors, in particular the temperature and foliar micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn.

  10. Flavone glycosides from commercially available Lophatheri Herba and their chromatographic fingerprinting and quantitation

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    Jyun-Siang Fan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lophatheri Herba (Danzhuye; LH, the dried leaves of Lophatherum gracile Brongn (Poaceae, is commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine as an antipyretic, antibacterial, and diuretic. Chemical analysis has been conducted to isolate and identify seven major flavonoid glycosides, including a new flavone C-glycoside, luteolin 6-C-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucopyranoside (1, isoorientin (2, swertiajaponin (3, luteolin 6-C-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2-α-L-arabinopyranoside (4, isovitexin (5, swertisin (6, luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7, and luteolin 6-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside (8, from commercially available LHs in Taiwan. The structure of the new compound (1, the maximum component, was determined by extensive one- (1D- and two-dimensional (2D- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and MS spectral analyses. The 1H and 13C-NMR of two rotameric pairs of 3 and 6 were also assigned. To establish the quality control platform of LH, we developed a simultaneous determination of multiple components in 10 commercially available LHs, collected from different areas of Taiwan, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, as well as quantitative measurement of the major components 1–4, and 8. All isolated major compounds showed good linear regression (R2 ≥ 0.9993 within the test ranges and high reproducibility. These methods are readily accessible for the quality control of LH.

  11. Role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on intestinal permeability and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzeri, Erika; Usai, Paolo

    2017-06-14

    The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is widespread worldwide thanks to their analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. However, even more attention is placed upon the recurrence of digestive system complications in the course of their use. Recent data suggests that the complications of the lower gastro-intestinal tract may be as frequent and severe as those of the upper tract. NSAIDs enteropathy is due to enterohepatic recycling of the drugs resulting in a prolonged and repeated exposure of the intestinal mucosa to the compound and its metabolites. Thus leading to so-called topical effects, which, in turn, lead to an impairment of the intestinal barrier. This process determines bacterial translocation and toxic substances of intestinal origin in the portal circulation, leading to an endotoxaemia. This condition could determine a liver inflammatory response and might promote the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, mostly in patients with risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and a high fat diet, which may induce a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis. This alteration of gut microbiota may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its related disorders in two ways: firstly causing a malfunction of the tight junctions that play a critical role in the increase of intestinal permeability, and then secondly leading to the development of insulin resistance, body weight gain, lipogenesis, fibrogenesis and hepatic oxidative stress.

  12. Paracetamol: overdose-induced oxidative stress toxicity, metabolism, and protective effects of various compounds in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wu, Qinghua; Liu, Aimei; Anadón, Arturo; Rodríguez, José-Luis; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Yuan, Zonghui; Martínez, María-Aránzazu

    2017-11-01

    Paracetamol (APAP) is one of the most widely used and popular over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drugs in the world when used at therapeutic doses. APAP overdose can cause severe liver injury, liver necrosis and kidney damage in human beings and animals. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the various toxicities associated with APAP, and various antioxidants were evaluated to investigate their protective roles against APAP-induced liver and kidney toxicities. To date, almost no review has addressed the APAP toxicity in relation to oxidative stress. This review updates the research conducted over the past decades into the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and oxidative stress as a result of APAP treatments, and ultimately their correlation with the toxicity and metabolism of APAP. The metabolism of APAP involves various CYP450 enzymes, through which oxidative stress might occur, and such metabolic factors are reviewed within. The therapeutics of a variety of compounds against APAP-induced organ damage based on their anti-oxidative effects is also discussed, in order to further understand the role of oxidative stress in APAP-induced toxicity. This review will throw new light on the critical roles of oxidative stress in APAP-induced toxicity, as well as on the contradictions and blind spots that still exist in the understanding of APAP toxicity, the cellular effects in terms of organ injury and cell signaling pathways, and finally strategies to help remedy such against oxidative damage.

  13. Effect of flupirtine on the growth and viability of U373 malignant glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchanathan, Elango; Ramanathan, Gnanasambandan; Lakkakula, Bhaskar Venkata Kameswara Subrahmanya

    2013-01-01

    Flupirtine is a non-opioid analgesic without antipyretic or antiphlogistic properties but with favorable tolerability in humans. This analgesic also exhibits neuroprotective activities. Furthermore, flupirtine antagonizes glutamate- and NMDA-induced intracellular levels of Ca 2+ and counteracts the effects of focal cerebral ischemia. Although flupirtine has been used to relieve pain caused by different diseases and clinical procedures, information on the safety and efficacy of flupirtine is limited. The present study was conducted to investigate the neuroprotective effects of flupirtine on U373 malignant glioma (MG) cell lines. Cell viability and cell cycle analysis was performed by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Variations in the growth of U373 MG cells in 5 mM N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), 1 mM flupirtine, and combined treatment indicated the antagonistic effects of NMDA and flupirtine on MG cell lines. The variation in the percentage of gated cell population in different cell cycle phases showed significant variations after 48 h of treatment. Flupirtine has neuroprotective effect of on U373 MG cells, which limits its use in the pain management of brain tumors. This property warrants further studies using animal models and large-scale clinical trials

  14. Hibiscus syriacus Extract from an Established Cell Culture Stimulates Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Martino, O; Tito, A; De Lucia, A; Cimmino, A; Cicotti, F; Apone, F; Colucci, G; Calabrò, V

    2017-01-01

    Higher plants are the source of a wide array of bioactive compounds that support skin integrity and health. Hibiscus syriacus , family Malvaceae, is a plant of Chinese origin known for its antipyretic, anthelmintic, and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to assess the healing and hydration properties of H. syriacus ethanolic extract (HSEE). We established a cell culture from Hibiscus syriacus leaves and obtained an ethanol soluble extract from cultured cells. The properties of the extract were tested by gene expression and functional analyses on human fibroblast, keratinocytes, and skin explants. HSEE treatment increased the healing potential of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Specifically, HSEE significantly stimulated fibronectin and collagen synthesis by 16 and 60%, respectively, while fibroblasts contractility was enhanced by 30%. These results were confirmed on skin explants, where HSEE accelerated the wound healing activity in terms of epithelium formation and fibronectin production. Moreover, HSEE increased the expression of genes involved in skin hydration and homeostasis. Specifically, aquaporin 3 and filaggrin genes were enhanced by 20 and 58%, respectively. Our data show that HSEE contains compounds capable of stimulating expression of biomarkers relevant to skin regeneration and hydration thereby counteracting molecular pathways leading to skin damage and aging.

  15. Hibiscus syriacus Extract from an Established Cell Culture Stimulates Skin Wound Healing

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    O. di Martino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants are the source of a wide array of bioactive compounds that support skin integrity and health. Hibiscus syriacus, family Malvaceae, is a plant of Chinese origin known for its antipyretic, anthelmintic, and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to assess the healing and hydration properties of H. syriacus ethanolic extract (HSEE. We established a cell culture from Hibiscus syriacus leaves and obtained an ethanol soluble extract from cultured cells. The properties of the extract were tested by gene expression and functional analyses on human fibroblast, keratinocytes, and skin explants. HSEE treatment increased the healing potential of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Specifically, HSEE significantly stimulated fibronectin and collagen synthesis by 16 and 60%, respectively, while fibroblasts contractility was enhanced by 30%. These results were confirmed on skin explants, where HSEE accelerated the wound healing activity in terms of epithelium formation and fibronectin production. Moreover, HSEE increased the expression of genes involved in skin hydration and homeostasis. Specifically, aquaporin 3 and filaggrin genes were enhanced by 20 and 58%, respectively. Our data show that HSEE contains compounds capable of stimulating expression of biomarkers relevant to skin regeneration and hydration thereby counteracting molecular pathways leading to skin damage and aging.

  16. Propagation and conservation of native forest genetic resources of medicinal use by means of in vitro and ex vitro techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharry, Sandra; Adema, Marina; Basiglio Cordal, María A; Villarreal, Blanca; Nikoloff, Noelia; Briones, Valentina; Abedini, Walter

    2011-07-01

    In Argentina, there are numerous native species which are an important source of natural products and which are traditionally used in medicinal applications. Some of these species are going through an intense extraction process in their natural habitat which may affect their genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to establish vegetative propagation systems for three native forestal species of medicinal interest. This will allow the rapid obtainment of plants to preserve the germplasm. This study included the following species which are widely used in folk medicine and its applications: Erythrina crista-galli or "seibo" (astringent, used for its cicatrizant properties and for bronchiolitic problems); Acacia caven or "espinillo" (antirheumatic, digestive, diuretic and with cicatrizant properties) and Salix humboldtiana or "sauce criollo" (antipyretic, sedative, antispasmodic, astringent). The methodology included the micropropagation of seibo, macro and micropropagation of Salix humboldtiana and the somatic embryogenesis of Acacia caven. The protocol for seibo regeneration was adjusted from nodal sections of seedlings which were obtained from seeds germinated in vitro. The macropropagation through rooted cuttings of "sauce criollo" was achieved and complete plants of this same species were obtained through both direct and indirect organogenesis using in vitro cultures. The somatic embryogenesis for Acacia caven was optimized and this led to obtain a high percentage of embryos in different stages of development. We are able to support the conservation of native forest resources of medicinal use by means of vegetative propagation techniques.

  17. Diospyros, an under-utilized, multi-purpose plant genus: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Patel, Seema; Khan, Ajmal; Halim, Sobia Ahsan; Bawazeer, Saud; Ahmad, Khalid; Muhammad, Naveed; Mubarak, Mohammad S

    2017-07-01

    The genus Diospyros from family Ebenaceae has versatile uses including edible fruits, valuable timber, and ornamental uses. The plant parts of numerous species have been in use as remedies in various folk healing practices, which include therapy for hemorrhage, incontinence, insomnia, hiccough, diarrhea etc. Phytochemical constituents such as terpenoids, ursanes, lupanes, polyphenols, tannins, hydrocarbons, and lipids, benzopyrones, naphthoquinones, oleananes, and taraxeranes have been isolated from different species of this genus. The biological activities of these plants such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, anthelmintic, antihypertensive, cosmeceutical, enzyme-inhibitory etc. have been validated by means of an in vitro, in vivo, and clinical tests. As a rich reserve of pharmacologically important components, this genus can accelerate the pace of drug discovery. Accordingly, the aim of the present review is to survey and summarize the recent literature pertaining to the medicinal and pharmacological uses of Diospyros, and to select experimental evidence on the pharmacological properties of this genus. In addition, the review also aims at identifying areas that need development to make use of this genus, especially its fruit and phytochemicals as means for economic development and for drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Anesthetic management of an 8-month-old infant with osteogenesis imperfecta undergoing liver transplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwon; Ryu, Ho-Geol; Kim, Anna; Yoo, Seokha; Shin, Seung-Yeon; Kang, Sun-Hye; Jeong, Jinyoung; Yoo, Yongjae

    2014-06-01

    Anesthetic management of pediatric liver transplantation in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) requires tough decisions and comprehensive considerations of the cascade of effects that may arise and the required monitoring. Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil was chosen as the main anesthetic strategy. Malignant hyperthermia (MH), skeletal fragility, anhepatic phase during liver transplantation, uncertainties of TIVA in children, and propofol infusion syndrome were considered and monitored. There were no adverse events during the operation. Despite meticulous precautions with regard to the risk of MH, there was an episode of high fever (40℃) in the ICU a few hours after the operation, which was initially feared as MH. Fortunately, MH was ruled out as the fever subsided soon after hydration and antipyretics were given. Although the delivery of supportive care and the administration of dantrolene are the core principles in the management of MH, perioperative fever does not always mean a MH in patients at risk for MH, and other common causes of fever should also be considered.

  19. Self-medication in academics of a public university in the south of Minas Gerais.

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    Cristina Martiniano MONTANARI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-medication is a common practice anywhere in the world and the study of drug use is recognized as an important indicator in identifying the major pathologies in specific populations, estimating the prevalence and enabling better understanding on how populations use therapeutic resources. Objective: The objective of the study was to verify the prevalence of self-medication among students of a public university in southern Minas Gerais and verify if the healthcare academics behave differently from the ones of humanities area. To this end, we performed a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 200 students, with 100 in the area of ​​Health Science (group 1 and 100 of the area of Humanities (group 2. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 96.9 % among students in group 1 and 82.6 % in group 2 (p = 0.002. The most commonly used classes of drugs were analgesics/antipyretics. The main responsible for the indication of the drug in group 1 was the pharmacist; and in group 2 relatives and friends (p = 0.002 Conclusion: The self-medication proved to be a frequent practice among academics, demonstrating the need to devise strategies to sensitize the academic community regarding this practice.

  20. Linarin Inhibits the Acetylcholinesterase Activity In-vitro and Ex-vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinchi; Wang, Xin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Linarin is a flavone glycoside in the plants Flos chrysanthemi indici, Buddleja officinalis, Cirsium setosum, Mentha arvensis and Buddleja davidii, and has been reported to possess analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. In this paper, linarin was investigated for its AChE inhibitory potential both in-vitro and ex-vivo. Ellman’s colorimetric method was used for the determination of AChE inhibitory activity in mouse brain. In-vitro assays revealed that linarin inhibited AChE activity with an IC50 of 3.801 ± 1.149 μM. Ex-vivo study showed that the AChE activity was significantly reduced in both the cortex and hippocampus of mice treated intraperitoneally with various doses of linarin (35, 70 and 140 mg/Kg). The inhibition effects produced by high dose of linarin were the same as that obtained after huperzine A treatment (0.5 mg/Kg). Molecular docking study revealed that both 4’-methoxyl group and 7-O-sugar moiety of linarin played important roles in ligand-receptor binding and thus they are mainly responsible for AChE inhibitory activity. In view of its potent AChE inhibitory activity, linarin may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of some diseases associated with AChE, such as glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, gastric motility and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26330885

  1. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

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    Shamkant B. Badgujar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  2. The Effect of Polymer Content on the Non-Newtonian Behavior of Acetaminophen Suspension

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    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. The aim of the study was evaluation of the effect of different polymers on rheological behavior of acetaminophen suspension. In order to achieve controlled flocculation, sodium chloride was added. Then structural vehicles such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, tragacanth, and magnesium aluminum silicate (Veegum were evaluated individually and in combination. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume (F, redispersibility (n, and growth of crystals of the suspensions were determined. Also, the rheological properties of formulations were studied. The results of this study showed that the combination of suspending agents had the most physical stability and pseudoplastic behavior with some degree of thixotropy. Viscosity of suspensions was increased by adding NaCl 0.02%. Presence of PVP is necessary for improving rheological behavior of suspensions by NaCl. This may be related to the cross-linking between the carbonyl group in the PVP segment and Na+ ions.

  3. Design, Synthesis and the Biological Evaluation of New 1,3-Thiazolidine-4-ones Based on the 4-Amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Apotrosoaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New thiazolidine-4-one derivatives based on the 4-aminophenazone (4-amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one scaffold have been synthesized as potential anti-inflammatory drugs. The pyrazoline derivatives are known especially for their antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, but recently there were synthesized new compounds with important antioxidant, antiproliferative, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. The beneficial effects of these compounds are explained by nonselective inhibition of cyclooxygenase izoenzymes, but also by their potential scavenging ability for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The structure of the new compounds was proved using spectroscopic methods (FR-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS. The in vitro antioxidant potential of the synthesized compounds was evaluated according to the ferric reducing antioxidant power, phosphomolydenum reducing antioxidant power, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The chemical modulation of 4-aminophenazone (6 through linkage to thiazolidine-propanoic acid derivatives 5a–l led to improved antioxidant potential, all derivatives 7a–l being more active than phenazone. The most active compounds are the derivatives 7e, and 7k, which showed the higher antioxidant effect depending on the antioxidant assay considered.

  4. Inclusion of Paracetamol into β-cyclodextrin nanocavities in solution and in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kemary, Maged; Sobhy, Saffaa; El-Daly, Samy; Abdel-Shafi, Ayman

    2011-09-01

    We report on steady-state UV-visible absorption and emission characteristics of Paracetamol, drug used as antipyretic agent, in water and within cyclodextrins (CDs): β-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl- β-CD (HP- β-CD) and 2,6-dimethyl- β-CD (Me- β-CD). The results reveal that Paracetamol forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with CD. Upon encapsulation, the emission intensity enhances, indicating a confinement effect of the nanocages on the photophysical behavior of the drug. Due to its methyl groups, the Me- β-CD shows the largest effect for the drug. The observed binding constant showing the following trend: Me- β-CD > HP- β-CD > β-CD. The less complexing effectiveness of HP- β-CD is due to the steric effect of the hydroxypropyl-substituents, which can hamper the inclusion of the guest molecules. The solid state inclusion complex was prepared by co-precipitation method and its characterization was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H NMR and X-ray diffractometry. These approaches indicated that Paracetamol was able to form an inclusion complex with CDs, and the inclusion compounds exhibited different spectroscopic features and properties from Paracetamol.

  5. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37-38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses.

  6. Suspended particle and drug ingredient concentrations in hospital dispensaries and implications for pharmacists' working environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Hioki, Atsushi; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Hiroki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the present status of working environments for pharmacists, including the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients in dispensaries. We conducted a survey on the work processes and working environment in 15 hospital dispensaries, and measured the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients using digital dust counter and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. Of 25 types of powdered drugs that were frequently handled in the 15 dispensaries surveyed, 11 could be quantitatively determined. The amounts of suspended particles were relatively high, but below the reference value, in three dispensaries without dust collectors. The sedative-hypnotic drug zopiclone was detected in the suspended particles at one dispensary that was not equipped with dust collectors, and the antipyretic and analgesic drug acetaminophen was detected in two dispensaries equipped with dust collectors. There was no correlation between the daily number of prescriptions containing powdered drugs and the concentration of suspended particles in dispensaries. On the basis of the suspended particle concentrations measured, we concluded that dust collectors were effective in these dispensaries. However, suspended drug ingredients were detected also in dispensaries with dust collectors. These results suggest that the drug dust control systems of individual dispensaries should be properly installed and managed.

  7. Induction of apoptosis by hydrolyzable tannins from Eugenia jambos L. on human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L L; Lee, C Y; Yen, K Y

    2000-08-31

    Eugenia jambos L. (Myrtaceae) is an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory herb of Asian folk medicine. A 70% acetone extract exerted the strongest cytotoxic effects on human leukemia cells (HL-60) from a preliminary screening of 15 plants. The cytotoxic principles were separated by bio-assay-guided fractionation to HL-60 cells; two hydrolyzable tannins (1-O-galloyl castalagin and casuarinin) were isolated from the 70% acetone extract. All significantly inhibited human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and showed less cytotoxicity to human adenocarcinoma cell line SK-HEP-1 and normal cell lines of human lymphocytes and Chang liver cells. Thus, these compounds were exhibited the dose-dependent manner in HL-60 cells and the IC(50) were 10.8 and 12.5 microM, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the presence of apoptotic cells with low DNA content, a decrease of cell population at G(2)/M phase, and a concomitant increase of cell population at G(1) phase. The apoptosis induced by these two compounds was also demonstrated by DNA fragmentation assay and microscopic observation. These results suggest that the cytotoxic mechanism of both antitumor principle constituents might be the induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells.

  8. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Ranking by Nondeterministic Assessments of Probabilistic Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina luiza MOLDOVEANU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With a number of common therapeutic prescriptions, common mechanisms, common pharmacological effects - analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory (acetaminophen excepted, common side effects (SE (platelet dysfunction, gastritis and peptic ulcers, renal insufficiency in susceptible patients, water and sodium retention, edemas, nephropathies, and only a few different characteristics – different chemical structures, pharmacokinetics and different therapeutic possibility, different selectivities according to cyclooxygenase pathway 1 and 2, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs similarities are more apparent than differences. Being known that in a correct treatment benefits would exceed risks, the question “Which anti-inflammatory drug presents the lowest risks for a patient?” is just natural. By the Global Risk Method (GRM and the Maximum Risk Method (MRM we have determined the ranking of fourteen NSAIDs considering the risks presented by each particular NSAID. Nimesulide, Etoricoxib and Celecoxib safety level came superior to the other NSAIDs, whereas Etodolac and Indomethacin present an increased side effects risk.

  9. Removal of Pharmaceutical Compounds from Hospital Wastewaters Using Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bagheri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, residual pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, anticonvulsants, antipyretics drugs, hormones have begun to be considered as emerging environmental pollutants due to their continuous input and persistence to aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Therefore, the development of efficient, cost-effective, and stable methods and materials for the wastewaters treatment have gained more recognition in recent years. In the path of meeting these developments, nanomaterials have attracted much attention as economical, convenient and ecofriendly tools for removing of pharmaceuticals from the hospital wastewaters because of their unique properties. The present review deals with recent advances in removal and/or destruction of residual pharmaceutical in wastewater samples using nanomaterials including metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and nanofilters. In spite of using a variety of nanomaterials to remove the residual of pharmaceuticals, there is still a dearth of successful applicability of them in industrial processes. Therefore, some defects of nanomaterials to be used for the removal of pharmaceutical contaminate in environmental samples and their impacts on human health and environment is briefly discussed.

  10. How respiratory diseases were treated at the beginning of the 19th century

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    Jacek Starzyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases were quite common in the past. A treatment procedure for an acute respiratory disorder, most probably pneumonia, in a 72-year-old man was presented based on archival source materials dating from 1801. The treatment was provided by a doctor, barber surgeon “nurse” and pharmacist, who were practicing in Koniecpol in 1801. The patient was given mucolytic, antitussive, cardiac, antipyretic and analgesic medications and appetite stimulants. From the medical point of view that prevailed at that time, the treatment was correct. The patient was also given medications recommended under the humoral theory, which was still being followed at that time. According to that theory, the human body was thought to contain four humours: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. An imbalance of humours resulted in a disease. The treatment was designed to restore the proper humoral balance by techniques such as enemas, diuretics and bloodletting. From the present medical point of view, the treatment was incorrect. It caused anaemia and disturbances in water, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. The treatment resulted in the patient’s death. However, one can hardly blame doctor Tichi, as his treatment was fully compliant with the scientific views prevailing at that time.

  11. Study of wound healing potential of Stevia rebaudiana ethanol extract in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goorani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Stevia rebaudiana has been used in medicine as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, anti-fungal, and antibacterial agent. The present study was conducted to investigate the healing effects of S. rebaudiana ethanol extracts on cutaneous wounds in rats. Methods: Full-thickness excisional wounds (2×2 cm were induced on the back of 32 rats. The rats were divided into four groups as follows; untreated (control and treated with 1 mL basal cream, 1 mL S. rebaudiana ethanol extract 10%, and 1 mL tetracycline (3% for 20 days (short term. Animals of each group were euthanized at 20 day post-injury and wounds were assessed through macroscopic and microscopic analyses. Results: During the experiment, S. rebaudiana indicated a significant reduction in the wound area compared to other groups. Parameters such as arrangement of the healing tissue, re-epithelilization and epithelial formation demonstrated considerable changes when compared to the control. In addition, treatment with S. rebaudiana decreased the total number of cells, fibrocytes/fibroblasts ratio, neutrophils, and lymphocytes and enhanced the number of blood vessels and fibroblasts at 20 day. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the wound healing activity of S. rebaudiana, lending credence to the folkloric use in the treatment of cutaneous wounds.

  12. Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxas, Mario; Jurenka, Julie

    2007-03-01

    The common cold is the leading cause of doctor visits in the United States and annually results in 189 million lost school days. In the course of one year the U.S. population contracts approximately 1 billion colds. Influenza infection is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, accounting for 20-25 million doctor visits and 36,000 deaths per year in the United States. Conventional therapies for colds and flu focus primarily on temporary symptom relief and include over-the-counter antipyretics, anti-inflammatories, and decongestants. Treatment for influenza also includes prescription antiviral agents and vaccines for prevention. This article reviews the common cold and influenza viruses, presents the conventional treatment options, and highlights select botanicals (Echinacea spp., Sambucus nigra, larch arabinogalactan, Astragalus membranaceous, Baptisia tinctoria, Allium sativa, Panax quinquefolium, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Andrographis paniculata, olive leaf extract, and Isatis tinctoria) and nutritional considerations (vitamins A and C, zinc, high lactoferrin whey protein, N-acetylcysteine, and DHEA) that may help in the prevention and treatment of these conditions.

  13. Cyto-genotoxicity and oxidative stress in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to a mixture of ibuprofen and diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Flores, Hariz; Manuel Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Michelle Sánchez-Ocampo, Esmeralda; SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Ortíz-Reynoso, Mariana; Dublán-García, Octavio

    2017-05-01

    Thirty million people worldwide consume each day nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), a heterogeneous group of pharmaceuticals used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies report high NSAID concentrations in wastewater treatment plant effluents, in surface, ground, and drinking water, and in sediments. NSAIDs are also known to induce toxicity on aquatic organisms. However, toxicity in natural ecosystems is not usually the result of exposure to a single substance but to a mixture of toxic agents, yet only a few studies have evaluated the toxicity of mixtures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity induced by diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBP), and their mixture on a species of commercial interest, the common carp Cyprinus carpio. The median lethal concentration of IBP and DCF was determined, and oxidative stress was evaluated using the following biomarkers: lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Cyto-genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus test, comet assay, and the specific activity of caspase-3. Results show that DCF, IBP, and a mixture of these pharmaceuticals induced free radical production, oxidative stress and cyto-genotoxicity in tissues of C. carpio. However, a greater effect was elicited by the mixture than by either pharmaceutical alone in some biomarkers evaluated, particularly in gill. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1637-1650, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of diclofenac using Xenopus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jeong-Pil; Park, Mi Seon; Hwang, Yoo-Seok; Min, Byung-Hwa; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Park, Mae-Ja

    2015-02-01

    Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and anti-pyretic properties. This compound is therefore used to treat pain, inflammatory disorders, and dysmenorrhea. Due to its multimodal mechanism of action and ability to penetrate placenta, diclofenac is known to have undesirable side effects including teratogenicity. However, limited data exist on its teratogenicity, and a detailed investigation regarding harmful effects of this drug during embryogenesis is warranted. Here, we analyzed the developmental toxic effects of diclofenac using Xenopus embryos according to the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) protocol. Diclofenac treatment exerted a teratogenic effect on Xenopus embryos with a teratogenic index (TI) value of 2.64 TI; if this value is higher than 1.2, the cut-off value indicative of toxicity. In particular, mortality of embryos treated with diclofenac increased in a concentration-dependent manner and a broad spectrum of malformations such as shortening and kinking of the axis, abdominal bulging, and prominent blister formation, was observed. The shape and length of internal organs also differed compared to the control group embryos and show developmental retardation on histological label. However, the expression of major tissue-specific markers did not change when analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In conclusion, diclofenac treatment can promote teratogenicity that results in morphological anomalies, but not disrupt the developmental tissue arrangement during Xenopus embryogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Proteasomal Dysfunction Induced By Diclofenac Engenders Apoptosis Through Mitochondrial Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, Ayeman; Upadhyay, Arun; Chhangani, Deepak; Joshi, Vibhuti; Mishra, Ribhav; Yamanaka, Koji; Mishra, Amit

    2017-05-01

    Diclofenac is the most commonly used phenylacetic acid derivative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that demonstrates significant analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative activity of NSAIDs and examined their apoptotic induction effects in different cancer cell lines. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which these pharmacological agents induce apoptosis and exert anti-carcinogenic properties are not well known. Here, we have observed that diclofenac treatment induces proteasome malfunction and promotes accumulation of different critical proteasome substrates, including few pro-apoptotic proteins in cells. Exposure of diclofenac consequently elevates aggregation of various ubiquitylated misfolded proteins. Finally, we have shown that diclofenac treatment promotes apoptosis in cells, which could be because of mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cytochrome c release into cytosol. This study suggests possible beneficial insights of NSAIDs-induced apoptosis that may improve our existing knowledge in anti-proliferative interspecific strategies development. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1014-1027, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Clinical implications and treatment of dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Pooja; Yadav, Amrita; Chawla, Viney

    2014-03-01

    Dengue is a common pathogenic disease often proving fatal, more commonly affecting the tropics. Aedes mosquito is the vector for this disease, and outbreaks of dengue often cause mass damage to life. The current review is an effort to present an insight into the causes, etiology, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, major organs affected, mitigation and line of treatment of this disease with special emphasis on drugs of natural origin. The disease has a potential to spread as an endemic, often claiming several lives and thus requires concerted efforts to work out better treatment options. Traditional medicine offers an alternative solution and could be explored as a safer treatment option. Development of a successful vaccine and immunization technique largely remains a challenge and a better antiviral approach needs to be worked out to complement the supportive therapy. No single synthetic molecule has found to be wholly effective enough to offer curative control and the line of treatment mostly utilizes a combination of fluid replacement and antipyretics-analgesics like molecules to provide symptomatic relief. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Piroxicam immediate release formulations: A fasting randomized open-label crossover bioequivalence study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Sally A; El-Bedaiwy, Heba M

    2014-11-01

    Piroxicam is a NSAID with analgesic and antipyretic properties, used for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two brands of piroxicam capsules (20 mg) in 24 Egyptian volunteers. The in vivo study was established according to a single-center, randomized, single-dose, laboratory-blinded, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study with a washout period of 3 weeks. Under fasting conditions, 24 healthy male volunteers were randomly selected to receive a single oral dose of one capsule (20 mg) of either test or reference product. Plasma samples were obtained over a 144-hour interval and analyzed for piroxicam by HPLC with UV detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax , tmax , AUC0-t , AUC0-∞ , Vd /F, Cl/F, and t1/2 were determined from plasma concentration-time profiles. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of log transformed values of Cmax , AUC0-t , and AUC0-∞ of the two treatments were within the acceptable range (0.8-1.25) for bioequivalence. From PK perspectives, the two piroxicam formulations were considered bioequivalent, based on the rate and extent of absorption. No adverse events occurred or were reported after a single 20-mg piroxicam and both formulations were well-tolerated. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. Advances in paediatrics in 2016: current practices and challenges in allergy, autoimmune diseases, cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nephrology, neurology, nutrition, pulmonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Di Mauro, Dora; Mastrorilli, Carla; Montella, Silvia; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2017-09-16

    This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated. New diagnostic tools are available for ascertaining brucellosis, celiac disease and viral infections. The usefulness of aCGH as first-tier test is confirmed in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. Novel information have been provided on the safety of milk for infants. Recent advances in the treatment of common disorders, including neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, hypo-glycemia in newborns, atopic dermatitis, constipation, cyclic vomiting syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, regurgitation, short stature, secretions in children with cerebral palsy have been reported. Antipyretics treatment has been updated by national guidelines and studies have excluded side effects (e.g. asthma risk during acetaminophen therapy). Vaccinations are a painful event and several options are reported to prevent this pain. Adverse effects due to metabolic abnormalities are reported for second generation antipsychotic drugs.

  19. Acetaminophen overdose associated with double serum concentration peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Papazoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic–antipyretic medication in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose, a frequent cause of drug toxicity, has been recognized as the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis. N-Acetylcysteine is the recommended antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Despite evidence on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of hepatic injury, controversy persists about the optimal duration of the therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old male with acetaminophen overdose and opioid co-ingestion who developed a second peak in acetaminophen serum levels after completing the recommended 21-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol and when the standard criteria for monitoring drug levels was achieved. Prolongation of N-acetylcysteine infusion beyond the standard protocol, despite a significant gap in treatment, was critical for successful avoidance of hepatotoxicity. Delay in acetaminophen absorption may be associated with a second peak in serum concentration following an initial declining trend, especially in cases of concomitant ingestion of opioids. In patients with acetaminophen toxicity who co-ingest other medications that may potentially delay gastric emptying or in those with risk factors for delayed absorption of acetaminophen, we recommend close monitoring of aminotransferase enzyme levels, as well as trending acetaminophen concentrations until undetectable before discontinuing the antidote therapy.

  20. Premarketing surveillance of ibuprofen suppositories in febrile children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Dan; Youngster, Ilan; Cohen, Avner; Leibovitch, Eugene; Shavit, Itai; Erez, Ilan; Uziel, Yosef; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2011-03-01

    In many countries, ibuprofen is available only in oral formulations. The authors aimed to investigate parental satisfaction and possible adverse reactions among children receiving newly marketed ibuprofen suppositories, prior to their arrival at the pharmaceutical points of distribution. Children needing antipyretic medication were recruited from 11 pediatric wards and clinics in Israel. Each patient received ibuprofen suppositories (5-10 mg/kg/dose) after completing a data collection form. After 3 to 7 days of treatment, information regarding parent satisfaction, possible adverse reactions, and concomitant use of drugs was obtained. Overall, 490 children completed the study. Parents' satisfaction was high (4.5 ± 0.47 on a scale of 1-5), and 92.2% reported that they would use the medication in the future. Adverse reactions were reported in 8 patients (1.63%, 95% confidence interval = 1.77-3.25), the most common being diarrhea. Rectal administration of ibuprofen suppositories is well tolerated and overall satisfaction and the repeated expected use were high.

  1. The impact of providing rapid diagnostic malaria tests on fever management in the private retail sector in Ghana: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, Evelyn K; Narh-Bana, Solomon; Affran-Bonful, Harriet; Bart-Plange, Constance; Cundill, Bonnie; Gyapong, Margaret; Whitty, Christopher J M

    2015-03-04

    To examine the impact of providing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on fever management in private drug retail shops where most poor rural people with fever present, with the aim of reducing current massive overdiagnosis and overtreatment of malaria. Cluster randomized trial of 24 clusters of shops. Dangme West, a poor rural district of Ghana. Shops and their clients, both adults and children. Providing rapid diagnostic tests with realistic training. The primary outcome was the proportion of clients testing negative for malaria by a double-read research blood slide who received an artemisinin combination therapy or other antimalarial. Secondary outcomes were use of antibiotics and antipyretics, and safety. Of 4603 clients, 3424 (74.4%) tested negative by double-read research slides. The proportion of slide-negative clients who received any antimalarial was 590/1854 (32%) in the intervention arm and 1378/1570 (88%) in the control arm (adjusted risk ratio 0.41 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.58), Pretail sector significantly reduced dispensing of antimalarials to patients without malaria, did not reduce prescribing of antimalarials to true malaria cases, and appeared safe. Rapid diagnostic tests should be considered for the informal private drug retail sector.Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01907672. © Ansah et al 2015.

  2. Plantago major in Traditional Persian Medicine and modern phytotherapy: a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafian, Younes; Hamedi, Shokouh Sadat; Farshchi, Masoumeh Kaboli

    2018-01-01

    Plantago major has been used widely since ancient times, to manage a wide range of diseases including constipation, coughs and wounds. The aim of this study is to review the traditional application, botanical characterization, pharmacological activities, phytochemistry effects and toxicity of Plantago major. In this review study, medicinal properties of Plantago major are collected from credible pharmacopeias, textbooks of traditional Persian medicine (TPM) belonging to the 10–18th century AD, such as “The Canon of Medicine”, “Makhzan-Al- Advia” and so on. Moreover, electronic databases including Scopus, Medline and Web of science were explored for this purpose. Plantago major has been prescribed in various forms such as roasted seeds, decoction, syrup, liniment, gargle, rectal enema, vaginal suppository, eye and nasal drop for each illness by TPM scholars. Some of its traditional properties including wound healing, antipyretic, antitussive, anti-infective, anti-hemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, laxative, astringent and hemostatic have been confirmed in recent researches. Phytochemical investigations showed that Plantago major contains volatile compounds, triterpenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Modern pharmacological studies have proven some of the traditional applications of Plantago major. Nevertheless, more investigations are required on this plant, because it has the potential to be used to produce various natural medications. PMID:29629064

  3. Novel pharmaceutical cocrystal consisting of paracetamol and trimethylglycine, a new promising cocrystal former.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yusuke; Fukami, Toshiro; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Tomono, Kazuo

    2014-10-01

    Paracetamol (APAP), a frequently used antipyretic drug, has poor compression moldability. In this study, we identified a novel cocrystal consisting of APAP and trimethylglycine (TMG) that exhibits improved tabletability. TMG was used instead of oxalic acid (OXA), which is a coformer reported previously. The cocrystal (APAP-TMG at a molar ratio of 1:1) was characterized by X-ray analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The crystal structure of APAP-TMG revealed that it was a cocrystal, since no proton was transferred between the APAP and TMG molecules. The compression and dissolution properties of APAP-TMG were similar to that of the APAP-OXA cocrystal. In addition, taste sensing measurements suggested that TMG has a sweet and umami taste, indicating that TMG should suppress the bitterness of APAP. From these results, TMG could be a safe and promising cocrystal former that could replace OXA, which can irritate tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Junjie; Chen, Chensong; Cheng, Hongsen; Wang, Ren; Ma, Linhao

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke. Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched electronically. Relevant journals and references of studies included were hand-searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT) regarding the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction and quality assessment. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software by the Cochrane Collaboration. Five studies were included. To compare the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in acute stroke, the pooled RR (Risk Ratio) and its 95% CI of body temperature reduction at 24h from the start of treatment were -0.3 (95% CI: -0.52 to -0.08), with statistical significance (P=0.007). Consistently, the pooled RR (Risk Ratio) and its 95% CI of body temperature at 24h from the start of treatment were -0.22 (-0.29, -0.15), with statistical significance (PParacetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used antipyretic drugs and has some capability to reduce body temperature through acting on central nervous system. Acetaminophen showed some capability to decrease body temperature for acute stroke. Acetaminophen could not improve functional outcome and reduce adverse events of patients with acute stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adult neurobehavioral alterations in male and female mice following developmental exposure to paracetamol (acetaminophen): characterization of a critical period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Gaëtan; Gordh, Torsten; Fredriksson, Anders; Viberg, Henrik

    2017-10-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used non-prescription drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Among pregnant women and young children, paracetamol is one of the most frequently used drugs and is considered the first-choice treatment for pain and/or fever. Recent findings in both human and animal studies have shown associations between paracetamol intake during brain development and adverse behavioral outcomes later in life. The present study was undertaken to investigate if the induction of these effects depend on when the exposure occurs during a critical period of brain development and if male and female mice are equally affected. Mice of both sexes were exposed to two doses of paracetamol (30 + 30 mg kg -1 , 4 h apart) on postnatal days (PND) 3, 10 or 19. Spontaneous behavior, when introduced to a new home environment, was observed at the age of 2 months. We show that adverse effects on adult behavior and cognitive function occurred in both male and female mice exposed to paracetamol on PND 3 and 10, but not when exposed on PND 19. These neurodevelopmental time points in mice correspond to the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy and the time around birth in humans, supporting existing human data. Considering that paracetamol is the first choice treatment for pain and/or fever during pregnancy and early life, these results may be of great importance for future research and, ultimately, for clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. TRAIL enhances paracetamol-induced liver sinusoidal endothelial cell death in a Bim- and Bid-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmann, A; Langsch, S; Keogh, A; Brunner, T; Kaufmann, T; Corazza, N

    2012-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is a universally used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Considered safe at therapeutic doses, overdoses cause acute liver damage characterized by centrilobular hepatic necrosis. One of the major clinical problems of paracetamol-induced liver disease is the development of hemorrhagic alterations. Although hepatocytes represent the main target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol overdose, perturbations within the endothelium involving morphological changes of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) have also been described in paracetamol-induced liver disease. Recently, we have shown that paracetamol-induced liver damage is synergistically enhanced by the TRAIL signaling pathway. As LSECs are constantly exposed to activated immune cells expressing death ligands, including TRAIL, we investigated the effect of TRAIL on paracetamol-induced LSEC death. We here demonstrate for the first time that TRAIL strongly enhances paracetamol-mediated LSEC death with typical features of apoptosis. Inhibition of caspases using specific inhibitors resulted in a strong reduction of cell death. TRAIL appears to enhance paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the activation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins Bid and Bim, which initiate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Taken together this study shows that the liver endothelial layer, mainly LSECs, represent a direct target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol and that activation of TRAIL receptor synergistically enhances paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. TRAIL-mediated acceleration of paracetamol-induced cell death may thus contribute to the pathogenesis of paracetamol-induced liver damage. PMID:23254290

  7. Nonprescription analgesics and their use in solid-organ transplantation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Luu, Linh

    2004-09-01

    To review the pharmacology, adverse events, drug interactions, and use of the nonprescription analgesics in solid-organ transplant recipients. Studies evaluating nonprescription analgesics in solid-organ transplantation were considered for evaluation. English-language studies were selected for inclusion. Nonprescription analgesics (aspirin, choline salicylate, magnesium salicylate, sodium salicylate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen sodium, and acetaminophen) are the most commonly purchased over-the-counter agents in the United States. These agents, although generally considered safe, have been associated with a number of toxicities. The salicylates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been associated with gastrointestinal damage, hematologic changes, liver and kidney dysfunction, and breathing difficulties. Acetaminophen has been shown to induce hematologic changes and liver and renal dysfunction. A closer look at the nonprescription analgesics reveals their potential for harm when used by solid-organ transplant recipients. In this patient population, the salicylates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should generally be avoided if possible, because of their potential toxicities, especially renal dysfunction. Low-dose aspirin, for the prevention of cardiovascular and cardiocerebral events, appears to be safe, but patients must still be followed closely. Acetaminophen is generally considered the nonprescription analgesic and antipyretic of choice in transplant recipients because of its favorable toxicity profile. However, it is imperative that patients and transplant practitioners are aware that this agent is not without toxicities and proper monitoring is advised.

  8. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

  9. Comparison of Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Bioactive for the Eurycoma longifolia jack using different Analysis Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa; Sobri Hussein; Rusli Ibrahim; Maizatul Akmam Md Nasir

    2011-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia jack (Tongkat Ali, Genus: Eurycoma; Family, Simaroubaceae) is one of the most popular tropical herbal plants. The plant contains a series of quassinoids, which are mainly responsible for its bitter taste. The plant extract, especially roots, are exclusively used (traditionally) for enhancing testosterone levels in men. The roots also have been used in indigenous traditional medicines for its unique anti-malarial, anti-pyretic, antiulcer, cytotoxic and aphrodisiac properties. As part of an on-going research on the bioactive compound of Eurycoma longifolia and evaluation for an optimized analysis method and parameter that influence in LC-MS analysis were carried out. Identification of the bioactive compounds was based on comparison of calculated retention time and mass spectral data with literature values. Examination of the Eurycoma longifolia sample showed some variations and differences in terms of parameters in LC-MS. However, combined method using methanol as the solvent with injection volume 1.0 μL and analysis in ultra scan mode and acetic acid as acidic modifier is the optimum method for LCMS analysis of Eurycoma longifolia because it successfully detected the optimum mass of compounds with good resolution and perfectly separated within a short analysis time. (author)

  10. Lichen secondary metabolites affect growth of Physcomitrella patens by allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, Michal; Antreich, Sebastian J; Bačkor, Martin; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Lang, Ingeborg

    2017-05-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites.Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth.

  11. Acute diarrhea in children

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    Radlović Nedeljko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea (AD is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child’s treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD.

  12. Distribution and chemotaxonomic significance of phenolic compounds in Spermacoce verticillata (L. G. Mey

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    Iasmim C. Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Spermacoce verticillata, known as “poaia and vassourinha de botão”, is a species widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic. It is a native species, small, upright perennial, and broadly distributed throughout Brazil. Until now, few chemical studies have focused on the phenolic composition of this species. Aims: Evaluate the phytochemical profile of phenolic compounds from Spermacoce verticillata and search new compounds that have chemotaxonomic significance. Methods: Leaves of S. verticillata were extracted using distilled water. The extract (SVL was purified by several chromatography processes. Extract and compounds were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and NMR. Results: Phytochemical analysis led to identification, for the first time, of three compounds (1-3 for the specie. Chlorogenic acid (1 was identified by HPLC-DAD compared with reported in the literature. Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin (2 and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3 were isolated from butanolic fraction and identified by spectroscopic analysis comparison with data reported in the literature. The flavonoid rutin is the major compound in SVL followed by kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and chlorogenic acid. Conclusions: This is the first report for these compounds (1-3 in S. verticillata. The presence of these three new compounds indicates chemical markers of the species for this genus and family. This information is extremely important because increases the resources for chemotaxonomic classification of these species.

  13. Hospitalized poisonings after renal transplantation in the United States

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    Viola Rebecca A

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The national incidence of and risk factors for hospitalized poisonings in renal transplant recipients has not been reported. Methods Historical cohort study of 39,628 renal transplant recipients in the United States Renal Data System between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1998. Associations with time to hospitalizations for a primary diagnosis of poisonings (ICD-9 codes 960.x-989.x within three years after renal transplant were assessed by Cox Regression. Results The incidence of hospitalized poisonings was 2.3 patients per 1000 person years. The most frequent causes of poisonings were immunosuppressive agents (25.3%, analgesics/antipyretics (14.1%, psychotropic agents (10.0%, and insulin/antidiabetic agents (7.1%. In Cox Regression analysis, low body mass index (BMI, 28.3 kg/m2, adjusted hazard ratio (AHR, 3.02, 95% CI, 1.45–6.28, and allograft rejection, AHR 1.83, 95% CI, 1.15–2.89, were the only factors independently associated with hospitalized poisonings. Hospitalized poisonings were independently associated with increased mortality (AHR, 1.54, 95% CI 1.22–1.92, p = 0.002. Conclusions Hospitalized poisonings were associated with increased mortality after renal transplantation. However, almost all reported poisonings in renal transplant recipients were due to the use of prescribed medications. Allograft rejection and low BMI were the only independent risk factors for poisonings identified in this population.

  14. Severe malaria vivax with sepsis bacterial: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, P.; Ginting, F.

    2018-03-01

    Malaria cases are often misdiagnosis by clinicians in tropical areas like Indonesia. Some cases show overlapping signs and symptoms of another infection that are common in the tropical areas such as typhoid, dengue, and leptospirosis. It can be misdiagnosed in practice and led to a wrong management that can end fatally. Severe malaria is usually caused by Plasmodium falciparum. P. vivax can also cause severe malaria but the cases reported are uncommon. Since infections with severe P. vivax that generally results in serious disease is quite uncommon in Indonesia, their identification and management are important. We report a case of severe malaria with sepsis, renal injury and hepatic impairment associated with malaria in a 70-year-old male. Clinical manifestations included anemia, sepsis, and elevated serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, and procalcitonin. The rapid diagnostic test for malaria and microscopic examination of blood smears were positive for P. vivax. The patient was treated as severe malaria with intravenous artesunate for six days, followed by oral treatment of primaquine for 14 days. Intravenous fluid therapy, antipyretic, anti-malaria and antibiotic treatment were administered. The patient was stable and then discharged from the hospital. The prognosis depends much on early diagnosis and appropriate supportive treatment.

  15. Apoptotic induction activity of Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. extracts on human lung and cervical cancer cell lines

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    Pintusorn Hansakul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. (Yaa paak khwaai and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. (Yaa teen-ka have long been used in traditional Thai medicine because of their diuretic, anti-inflamatory, and antipyretic effects. The present study examined the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of the hexane and butanolic extracts of these two grass species. All the grass extracts exhibited selective growth inhibition effect on human lung cancer (A549 and cervical cancer (HeLa cells relative to normal human lung MRC-5 fibroblasts with IC50 values in a range of 202 to 845 mg/ml. Apparently, HeLa cellswere more sensitive to the extracts than A549 cells. Moreover, all the extracts induced lethality in both cancer cell lines atconcentrations close to 1,000 mg/ml, indicating their selective cytotoxicity effects. ELISA assay showed that only the hexaneextract of D. aegyptium (L. P.B. and E. indica (L. Gaerth. significantly increased the apoptotic level in extract-treatedA549 cells. However, DNA ladder assay detected classic DNA ladder patterns, a characteristic feature of apoptosis, in both cancer cell lines treated with all the extracts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicatethat the cytotoxic activity of the grass extracts against lung and cervical cancer cells is mediated through the induction ofapoptosis.

  16. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

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    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  17. Biochemical and standard toxic effects of acetaminophen on the macrophyte species Lemna minor and Lemna gibba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Bruno; Pinto, Glória; Martins, Liliana; Gonçalves, Fernando; Antunes, Sara C

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen is globally one of the most prescribed drugs due to its antipyretic and analgesic properties. However, it is highly toxic when the dosage surpasses the detoxification capability of an exposed organism, with involvement of an already described oxidative stress pathway. To address the issue of the ecotoxicity of acetaminophen, we performed acute exposures of two aquatic plant species, Lemna gibba and Lemna minor, to this compound. The selected biomarkers were number of fronds, biomass, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation (TBARS assay), and proline content. Our results showed marked differences between the two species. Acetaminophen caused a significant decrease in the number of fronds (EC50 = 446.6 mg/L), and the establishment of a dose-dependent peroxidative damage in L. minor, but not in L. gibba. No effects were reported in both species for the indicative parameters chlorophyll content and total biomass. However, the proline content in L. gibba was substantially reduced. The overall conclusions point to the occurrence of an oxidative stress scenario more prominent for L. minor. However, the mechanisms that allowed L. gibba to cope with acetaminophen exposure were distinct from those reported for L. minor, with the likely involvement of proline as antioxidant.

  18. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

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    Raquel Kummer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus (Rutaceae includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90 μg/mL had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg also reduced TNF-α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis.

  19. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts with Allium Test

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    Tülay Aşkin Çelik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS (2⋅10−2 M has been used as a positive control. The test concentrations have been determined according to doses which are recommended for use in alternative medicine. There has been statistically significant (P<.05 inhibition of root growth depending on concentration by the extracts when compared with the control groups. All the tested extracts have been observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. I. viscosa leaf extract induces the total number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC formations in A. cepa root tip cells significantly when compared with control groups. Also, this paper shows for the first time the induction of cell death, ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and binucleated cells by extract treatment. These results suggest the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the I. viscosa leaf extracts on A. cepa.

  20. HPTLC methods for the Rapid Determination of Adhatoda vasica L. Glycyrrhiza glabbra L., Phyllanthus embelica L. and Camellia sinensis L. in a polyherbal formulation (INSTY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, Z. A.; Zahoor, A.; Shafiq, K.; Usmanghani, K.; Khan, S. S.; Khan, A.

    2015-01-01

    An Insty Granule is a polyherbal formulation, and it is widely used to treat upper respiratory tract infections. It contains expectorant, anti-inflammatory, mucolytic and anti-pyretic properties. The major active constituents are vasicine, gallic acid, caffeine and glycyrrhizin. Insty a poly herbal formulation of eight herbs were investigated for its phytochemical evaluation. Biomarkers of about four herbs both qualitatively and quantitatively were investigated. Methods: The solvent systems used were ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol, ammonia (6: 3: 1: 1) for vasicin, ethyl acetate, chloroform, formic acid (12: 15: 3) for gallic acid, ethyl acetate, methanol, water (100: 13.5: 10) for caffeine, and methanol, water, acetic acid (70: 30: 0.5) for glycyrrhizin. Results: The methods showed a good linear relationship (r/sup 2/ = 0.999) in the concentration range 25-1500 ng per spot. It was found to be linear, accurate, precise, specific, robust and can be applied for quality control and standardization. Conclusion: In present study rapid and inexpensive qualification methods for the quality control of Adhatoda vasica L. Glycyrrhiza glabbra L., Phyllanthus embelica L. and Camellia sinensis L. on thin layer chromatography (TLC) were developed and validated on silica gel. HPTLC is most suitable technique because of quantification of number of samples at low operating cost, easy sample preparation, short analysis time and analytical assurance. (author)

  1. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

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    M. S. T. Barroso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20 MPa at 323.15 K. The volatile compounds were obtained by CO2 supercritical extraction with moderate pressure (9 MPa, whereas the non-volatile compounds were extracted at higher pressure (12 to 20 MPa. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC-MS and the main compounds identified were sabinene, limonene, D-germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, and spathulenol. For the non-volatile extracts, the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Moreover, one of the goals of this study was to compare the experimental data with the simulated yields predicted by a mathematical model based on mass transfer. The model used requires three adjustable parameters to predict the experimental extraction yield curves.

  2. Lycopene pretreatment improves hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Ana Carla Balthar; da Silva, Rafaella Cecília; Rossoni, Joamyr Victor; Figueiredo, Vivian Paulino; Talvani, André; Cangussú, Silvia Dantas; Bezerra, Frank Silva; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2017-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is an antipyretic and analgesic drug that, in high doses, leads to severe liver injury and potentially death. Oxidative stress is an important event in APAP overdose. Researchers are looking for natural antioxidants with the potential to mitigate the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species in different models. Lycopene has been widely studied for its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of lycopene pretreatment in APAP-induced liver injury in C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 male mice were divided into the following groups: control (C); sunflower oil (CO); acetaminophen 500mg/kg (APAP); acetaminophen 500mg/kg+lycopene 10mg/kg (APAP+L10), and acetaminophen 500mg/kg+lycopene 100mg/kg (APAP+L100). Mice were pretreated with lycopene for 14 consecutive days prior to APAP overdose. Analyses of blood serum and livers were performed. Lycopene was able to improve redox imbalance, decrease thiobarbituric acid reactive species level, and increase CAT and GSH levels. In addition, it decreased the IL-1β expression and the activity of MMP-2. This study revealed that preventive lycopene consumption in C57BL/6 mice can attenuate the effects of APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, by improving the redox state, and thus indicating its potential antioxidant effect, lycopene was also shown to have an influence on inflammatory events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceptions and practices of self-medication among medical students in coastal South India.

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    Nithin Kumar

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a common practice worldwide and the irrational use of drugs is a cause of concern. This study assessed the prevalence of self-medication among the medical students in South India. The data was analysed using SPSS version 11.5. A total of 440 students were included in the study. The prevalence of self-medication was 78.6%. A larger number of females were self-medicating (81.2% than males (75.3%. The majority of the students self-medicated because of the illness being too trivial for consultation (70.5%. Antipyretics were most commonly self-medicated by the participants (74.8%. Only 47% of the participants opined that self-medication was a part of self-care and it needs to be encouraged. 39.3% of the participants perceived that the supply of medicine without prescription by the pharmacist can prevent the growing trend of self-medication. Easy availability and accessibility to health care facilities remains the cornerstone for reducing the practice of self-medication.

  4. [Nephropathy due to Puumala hantavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandolo, A; Prajs, N; Lizop, M

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is due to an infection by the virus of the Hantavirus genus. Rodent hosts of Hantavirus are present in restricted areas in France; consequently, there are ecological niches and microepidemics of human Hantavirus infections. A HFRS case was diagnosed in the Paris region. The 11-year-old child had an acute debut fever-persistent despite antipyretic medication-asthenia, headache, abdominal pain, myalgia, thrombocytopenia, as well as renal failure with proteinuria. The diagnosis was made with a relevant clinical history and the specific serology of Puumala hantavirus. Therefore, a kidney biopsy was not necessary. What was interesting was the diagnostic approach because of the difference between the place and time of contamination and where the child became ill and developed the symptoms. The child was infected by Puumala hantavirus in Les Ardennes, a high-risk area, but became ill in the Paris region, an area with no prevalence. We review Hantavirus infections in France and its differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel selective prostaglandin E2 synthesis inhibitor relieves pyrexia and arthritis in Guinea pigs inflammatory models

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    Ryusuke Sugita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, one of the terminal products in the cyclooxygenase pathway, plays an important role in various inflammatory responses. To determine whether selective inhibition of PGE2 may relieve these inflammatory symptoms, we synthesized a selective PGE2 synthesis inhibitor, compound A [1-(6-fluoro-5,7-dimethyl-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl-N-[(1S,2R-2-(hydroxymethylcyclohexyl]piperidine-4-carboxamide], then investigated the effects on pyrexia, arthritis and inflammatory pain in guinea pigs. In LPS-stimulated guinea pig macrophages, compound A selectively inhibited inducible PGE2 biosynthesis in a dose-dependent manner whereas enhanced the formation of thromboxane B2 (TXB2. Compound A suppressed yeast-evoked PGE2 production selectively and enhanced the production of TXB2 and 6-keto PGF1α in vivo. In addition, compound A relieved yeast-induced pyrexia and also suppressed paw swelling in an adjuvant-induced arthritis model. The effect on gastrointestinal (GI ulcer formation was also evaluated and compound A showed a lower GI adverse effect than indomethacin. However, compound A failed to relieve yeast-induced thermal hyperalgesia. These results suggest that selective inhibition of PGE2 synthesis may have anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory properties without GI side effect, but lack the analgesic efficacy.

  6. A REVIEW ON THE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS AND BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS

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    Aisha Noreen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol (PM is an active metabolite of phenacetin and belongs to p-aminophenol derivatives. It is also termed as acetaminophen. PM is one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs which is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. It is an OTC drug and is used as a common household analgesic. It is not used as a substitute of aspirin or any other NSAIDs. It is a weak cyclooxygenase (COX 1 and 2 inhibitor but may inhibit COX-3 in the central nervous system. Many analytical techniques have been used for the assay of PM in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. These techniques include spectrometry, chromatography, spectrofluorimetry, chemiluminescence, electrochemical techniques, flow injection spectrometry and chronoamperometry. In many pharmaceutical preparations PM is also used in combination with other drugs and these techniques have also been used for their simultaneous determination. A detailed review of various analytical techniques used for the assay of PM has been carried out which would be of great help to the chemists and pharmacists involved in the analysis and quality control of drugs.

  7. Uncaria rhynchophylla inhibits the production of nitric oxide and interleukin-1β through blocking nuclear factor κB, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Bae, Chang Hwan; Park, Sun Young; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, YoungHee

    2010-10-01

    The stems with hook of Uncaria rhynchophylla have been used in traditional medicine as an antipyretic, antihypertensive, and anticonvulsant in China and Korea. In this study, we investigated the mechanism responsible for anti-inflammatory effects of U. rhynchophylla in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The aqueous extract of U. rhynchophylla inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-1β secretion as well as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, U. rhynchophylla suppressed LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation, phosphorylation, and degradation of inhibitory protein IκB (IκB)-α, phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These results suggest that U. rhynchophylla has the inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO and IL-1β production in macrophages through blockade in the phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases, following IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation.

  8. Paediatric fever management: continuing education for clinical nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anne M; Edwards, Helen E; Courtney, Mary D; Wilson, Jenny E; Monaghan, Sarah J

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of level of practice, additional paediatric education and length of paediatric and current experience on nurses' knowledge of and beliefs about fever and fever management. Fifty-one nurses from medical wards in an Australian metropolitan paediatric hospital completed a self-report descriptive survey. Knowledge of fever management was mediocre (Mean 12.4, SD 2.18 on 20 items). Nurses practicing at a higher level and those with between one and four years paediatric or current experience were more knowledgeable than novices or more experienced nurses. Negative beliefs that would impact nursing practice were identified. Interestingly, beliefs about fever, antipyretic use in fever management and febrile seizures were similar; they were not influenced by nurses' knowledge, experience, education or level of practice. Paediatric nurses are not expert fever managers. Knowledge deficits and negative attitudes influence their practice irrespective of additional paediatric education, paediatric or current experience or level of practice. Continuing education is therefore needed for all paediatric nurses to ensure the latest clear evidence available in the literature for best practice in fever management is applied.

  9. The Italian contributions to the history of salicylates

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    Giampiero Pasero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the modern history of salicylates began in 1899 when the compound acetylsalicylic acid was registered and introduced commercially as “aspirin” by the Bayer Company of Germany. As a matter of fact, however, remedies made from willow bark had been used to treat fever and rheumatic complaints at least since 1763, when Edward Stone described their efficacy against malarian fever. A number of Italian scientists made significant contributions during the long period of research leading up to the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid and its widespread use in rheumatic diseases. In this paper we will review the contributions of some of these researchers, beginning with Bartolomeo Rigatelli, who in 1824 used a willow bark extract as a therapeutic agent, denominating it “salino amarissimo antifebbrile” (very bitter antipyretic salt. In the same year, Francesco Fontana described this natural compound, giving it the name “salicina” (salicin. Two other Italian chemists added considerably to current knowledge of the salicylates: Raffaele Piria in 1838, while working as a research fellow in Paris, extracted the chemical compound salicylic acid, and Cesare Bertagnini in 1855 published a detailed description of the classic adverse event associated with salicylate overdoses – tinnitus – which he studied by deliberately ingesting excessive doses himself. Bertagnini and above all Piria also played conspicuous roles in the history of Italy during the period of the Italian Risorgimento, participating as volunteers in the crucial battle of Curtatone and Montanara during the first Italian War of Independence.

  10. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. II. Aspirin

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    P. Marson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of aspirin, an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, undoubtedly represents a milestone in the history of medical therapy. Since ancient times the derivatives of willow (Salix alba were used to treat a variety of fevers and pain syndromes, although the first report dates back to 1763 when the English Reverend Edward Stone described the effect of an extract of the bark willow in treating malaria. In the XIX century many apothecaries and chemists, including the Italian Raffaele Piria and Cesare Bertagnini, developed the biological processes of extraction and chemical synthesis of salicylates, and then analyzed their therapeutic properties and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. In 1899 the Bayer Company, where Felix Hoffmann, Heinrich Dreser and Arthur Eichengrün worked, recorded acetyl-salicylic acid under the name “Aspirin”. In the XX century, besides the definition of the correct applications of aspirin in the anti-rheumatic therapy being defined, Lawrence L. Crawen identified the property of this drug as an anti-platelet agent, thus opening the way for more widespread uses in cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Constituents and biological activities of Schinus polygamus.

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    Erazo, Silvia; Delporte, Carla; Negrete, Rosa; García, Rubén; Zaldívar, Mercedes; Iturra, Gladys; Caballero, Esther; López, José Luis; Backhouse, Nadine

    2006-10-11

    The folk medicine employs Schinus polygamus to treat arthritic pain and cleansing of wounds. As no reports of pharmacological studies supporting its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, extracts of increasing polarity were assayed on the base of fever, pain and inflammation, together with its antimicrobial activity. All the extracts showed pharmacological activities. From the most active extracts different metabolites were isolated that can in part explain the antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity: beta-sitosterol, shikimic acid together with quercetin, previously reported. Also, the essential oil of leaves and fruits was obtained and compared with the oil obtained from Schinus polygamus collected in Argentine. Oils differed in composition and in antibacterial activity, where the Chilean species exhibited a wide spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and the most abundant compound found in leaves and fruits was beta-pinene, meanwhile the Argentine species showed high activity against Bacillus cereus, and the main components resulted to be alpha-phellandrene and limonene.

  12. Structural Analysis and Immuno-Stimulating Activity of an Acidic Polysaccharide from the Stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl.

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    Wang, Jun-Hui; Zuo, Shu-Rong; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2017-04-10

    Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an epiphytic herb distributed in the Southeast Asia, is used as a tonic and antipyretic herbal medicine in China. In this study, a water-soluble acidic heteropolysaccharide, DNP-W4, containing mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid, in the molar ratios of 1.0:4.9:2.5:0.5:1.0:0.9, was obtained from the stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Using methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, pectolyase treatment, NMR, and ESI-MS, the structure of DNP-W4 was elucidated. The obtained data indicated that DNP-W4 was a complex heteropolysaccharide and possessed a backbone composed of (1→4)-linked β-d-Glcp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Glcp, and (1→6)-linked β-d-Galp, with substitutes at O-4/6 of Glcp residues and O-3 of Galp. The branches of DNP-W4 were composed of terminal Manp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Manp, (1→3)-linked β-d-Glcp, β-d-Glcp, β-d-Galp, (1→4)-linked α-d-GalAp, (1→2)-linked α-L-Rhap, and Xylp. DNP-W4 had little immunological activities, but its derivatives had immuno-stimulating activities to some extent.

  13. Dendrobium: Sources of Active Ingredients to Treat Age-Related Pathologies

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    Cakova, Veronika; Bonte, Frederic; Lobstein, Annelise

    2017-01-01

    Dendrobium represents one of the most important orchid genera, ornamentally and medicinally. Dendrobiums are sympodial epiphytic plants, which is a name they are worthy of, the name coming from Greek origin: "dendros", tree, and "bios", life. Dendrobium species have been used for a thousand years as first-rate herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). They are source of tonic, astringent, analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory substances, and have been traditionally used as medicinal herbs in the treatment of a variety of disorders, such as, nourishing the stomach, enhancing production of body fluids or nourishing Yin. The Chinese consider Dendrobium as one of the fifty fundamental herbs used to treat all kinds of ailments and use Dendrobium tonic for longevity. This review is focused on main research conducted during the last decade (2006-2016) on Dendrobium plants and their constituents, which have been subjected to investigations of their pharmacological effects involving anticancer, anti-diabetic, neuroprotective and immunomodulating activities, to report their undeniable potential for treating age-related pathologies. PMID:29344419

  14. Herbal mouthwash based on Libidibia ferrea: microbiological control, sensory characteristics, sedimentation, pH and density

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    Gisely Naura Venâncio

    Full Text Available Introduction Phytotherapy is the study of herbal medicines and their applicability to cure diseases in general, being a therapeutic method which can be used for the prevention and treatment of mouth diseases. Among the herbal studied, the Libidibia ferrea, known as jucá or ironwood, is widely used in folk medicine by presenting anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antipyretic therapeutic properties. Objective To evaluate in vitro pharmacological stability of the Libidibia ferrea extract’s mouthwash (INPA - 228 022. Material and method It was held the mouthwash microbiological control by determining the total number of microorganisms and Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus; stability characteristics (color, odor, brightness and consistency, sedimentation test (centrifuge, the pH measurement (pH meter and density evaluation (pycnometer were analyzed. Result The mouthwash showed to be absent from microorganisms and no changes were observed in the organoleptics and sedimentation characteristics. The average pH values were 6.21, 6.15 and 5.85 at 0, 30 and 60 days, respectively, and 1.029, 1.033 and 1.035 g/ mL density values, respectively, without interfering with the final characteristic of the formulation. Conclusion The mouthwash presented pharmacological stability and quality conditions.

  15. [Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome induced by carbamazepine: Case report].

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    Marín, Jorge Alonso; Ortega, Mayra Alexandra; Sánchez, Isaura Pilar; Pacheco, José Armando

    2017-06-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a hypersensitivity reaction associated with a variety of drugs, mainly anticonvulsants, which is characterized by systemic symptoms and erythematous lesions, common to other toxicodermas. It is an uncommon clinical entity that requires a high suspicion by clinical staff given its varied initial presentation, and the fact that symptoms can overlap with those of other adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs. Without early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, mortality increases.We report the case of a 22-year-old patient with impaired neurodevelopment who received treatment with carbamazepine. Two months later he presented with general symptoms and skin erythematous lesions that began on his trunk. The patient received outpatient care with antihistamines and antipyretics without an appropriate response. His case progressed with increased skin lesions and systemic symptoms that met the diagnostic criteria for DRESS syndrome. He was hospitalized and received medical treatment according to recommended guidelines. The patient's condition improved as his symptoms and associated complications resolved. He was discharged with gradual clearing of the steroid therapy.

  16. Drug-related perinatal damage from the pharmacological point of view

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    Laura Cuzzolin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Medications prescribed to the mother during pregnancy make the foetus vulnerable to adverse effects and the same vulnerability is evident in the phase of adaptation to extrauterine life, particularly delicate in preterm newborns. Among different tissues, the liver and the kidney are particularly sensitive to drugs essentially because they are physiologically immature at birth and have an important role in regulating the effects of medicines inside the body with their primary detoxifying functions. In this minireview hepatic and renal risks related to prenatal and postnatal exposure to paracetamol and NSAIDs have been examined, being these drugs frequently used during pregnancy and in the neonate for their analgesic/antipyretic effects. Moreover, from an analysis of the literature several case reports of neonatal poisoning deriving from transplacentally-acquired overdoses or administration in the first period of life have been reported. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  17. Cleome viscosa (wild mustard): a review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology.

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    Mali, Ravindra G

    2010-01-01

    Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae), commonly known as "wild or dog mustard," is an annual, sticky herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and throughout the tropics of the world. The whole plant and its parts (leaves, seeds, and roots) are widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine the plant is reported to possess beneficial effects as an anthelmintic, antiseptic, carminative, antiscorbutic, sudorific, febrifuge, and cardiac stimulant. Following the various traditional claims for the use of C. viscosa (CV) as a cure of numerous diseases, considerable efforts have been made by researchers to verify its utility through scientific pharmacological screenings. The pharmacological studies have shown that CV possesses various notable biological activities such as anthelmintic, antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, antipyretic, psychopharmacological, antidiarrheal, and hepatoprotective activities. A wide variety of phytoprinciples have been isolated from the plant. The present review is an effort to consolidate traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological information available on C. viscosa.

  18. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

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    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  19. Interaction between valproic acid and aspirin in epileptic children: serum protein binding and metabolic effects.

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    Orr, J M; Abbott, F S; Farrell, K; Ferguson, S; Sheppard, I; Godolphin, W

    1982-05-01

    In five of six epileptic children who were taking 18 to 49 mg/kg/day valproic acid (VPA), the steady-state serum free fractions of VPA rose from 12% to 43% when antipyretic doses of aspirin were also taken. Mean total VPA half-life (t1/2) rose from 10.4 +/- 2.7 to 12.9 +/- 1.8 hr and mean free VPA t1/2 rose from 6.7 +/- to 2.1 to 8.9 +2- 3.0 hr when salicylate was present in the serum. The in vitro albumin binding association constant (ka) for VPA was decreased by salicylate, but the in vivo ka value was not affected. The 12-hr (trough) concentrations of both free and total VPA were higher in the presence of serum salicylate in five of six patients. Renal excretion of unchanged VPA decreased in five of six patients, but the VPA carboxyl conjugate metabolite-excretion patterns were not consistently affected. Salicylate appeared to displace VPA from serum albumin in vivo, but the increased VPA t1/2 and changes in VPA elimination patterns suggest that serum salicylate also altered VPA metabolism.

  20. Fever: Views in Anthroposophic Medicine and Their Scientific Validity

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    David D. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To conduct a scoping review to characterize how fever is viewed in anthroposophic medicine (AM and discuss the scientific validity of these views. Methods. Systematic searches were run in Medline, Embase, CAMbase, and Google Scholar. Material from anthroposophic medical textbooks and articles was also used. Data was extracted and interpreted. Results. Most of the anthroposophic literature on this subject is in the German language. Anthroposophic physicians hold a beneficial view on fever, rarely suppress fever with antipyretics, and often use complementary means of alleviating discomfort. In AM, fever is considered to have the following potential benefits: promoting more complete recovery; preventing infection recurrences and atopic diseases; providing a unique opportunity for caregivers to provide loving care; facilitating individual development and resilience; protecting against cancer and boosting the anticancer effects of mistletoe products. These views are discussed with regard to the available scientific data. Conclusion. AM postulates that fever can be of short-term and long-term benefit in several ways; many of these opinions have become evidence-based (though still often not practiced while others still need empirical studies to be validated, refuted, or modified.

  1. Quality and safety of integrated community case management of malaria using rapid diagnostic tests and pneumonia by community health workers.

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    Hamer, Davidson H; Brooks, Erin Twohig; Semrau, Katherine; Pilingana, Portipher; MacLeod, William B; Siazeele, Kazungu; Sabin, Lora L; Thea, Donald M; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo

    2012-03-01

    To assess the quality and safety of having community health workers (CHWs) in rural Zambia use rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and provide integrated management of malaria and pneumonia. In the context of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of two models for community-based management of malaria and/or non-severe pneumonia in children under 5 years old, CHWs in the intervention arm were trained to use RDTs, follow a simple algorithm for classification and treat malaria with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and pneumonia with amoxicillin. CHW records were reviewed to assess the ability of the CHWs to appropriately classify and treat malaria and pneumonia, and account for supplies. Patients were also followed up to assess treatment safety. During the 12-month study, the CHWs evaluated 1017 children with fever and/or fast/difficult breathing and performed 975 RDTs. Malaria and/or pneumonia were appropriately classified 94-100% of the time. Treatment based on disease classification was correct in 94-100% of episodes. Supply management was excellent with over 98% of RDTs, amoxicillin, and AL properly accounted for. The use of RDTs, amoxicillin, and AL was associated with few minor adverse events. Most febrile children (90%) with negative RDT results recovered after being treated with an antipyretic alone. Volunteer CHWs in rural Zambia are capable of providing integrated management of malaria and pneumonia to children safely and at high quality.

  2. Underdosing of acetaminophen by parents and emergency department utilization.

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    Goldman, Ran D; Scolnik, Dennis

    2004-02-01

    Fever is a common reason for parents to seek medical attention for their children. We conducted this study to document accuracy of parental administration of acetaminophen and to identify if parents who did not give an optimal dose would have decided not to come to the emergency department (ED) if the fever had diminished at home. A cross-sectional study including 248 caregivers of children who had a chief complaint of fever and had been given acetaminophen in the preceding 24 hours were interviewed. Enrollment was 86%. One hundred parents (47%) gave acetaminophen in the recommended dose, 26 parents (12%) gave an overdose, and 87 (41%) gave an underdose of acetaminophen. Half of the parents (54%) would not have come to the ED if the fever had subsided after using the antipyretic treatment at home. Children with significantly higher maximal temperature at home would not have been taken to the ED if fever had subsided. Parents who speak English as the primary language at home gave the recommended dose of acetaminophen more frequently than non-English-speaking parents. A significant portion of our population gives an underdose of acetaminophen, reflecting lack of knowledge or misuse. Based on parental reports, the majority of visits for fever might have been prevented, if parents had been successful in their effort to reduce temperature to below of what they considered as fever, but factors other than underdosing of acetaminophen probably encourage parents of febrile children to visit the ED.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

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    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Verbenaceae Species Growing in South America

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    Cristina M. Pérez Zamora

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Verbenaceae family includes 2600 species grouped into 100 genera with a pantropical distribution. Many of them are important elements of the floras of warm-temperature and tropical regions of America. This family is known in folk medicine, and its species are used as digestive, carminative, antipyretic, antitussive, antiseptic, and healing agents. This review aims to collect information about the essential oils from the most reported species of the Verbenaceae family growing in South America, focusing on their chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, and synergism with commercial antimicrobials. The information gathered comprises the last twenty years of research within the South American region and is summarized taking into consideration the most representative species in terms of their essential oils. These species belong to Aloysia, Lantana, Lippia, Phyla, and Stachytarpheta genera, and the main essential oils they contain are monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, such as β-caryophyllene, thymol, citral, 1,8-cineole, carvone, and limonene. These compounds have been found to possess antimicrobial activities. The synergism of these essential oils with antibiotics is being studied by several research groups. It constitutes a resource of interest for the potential use of combinations of essential oils and antibiotics in infection treatments.

  5. A status review on the pharmacological implications of Artemisia absinthium: A critically endangered plant

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    Mubashir Hussain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the nature’s gift for the humanity to treat various diseases and to spend a prosperous healthy life. There are almost 500 species of Artemisia. Among them, Artemisia absinthium (A. absinthium which is commonly known as wormwood is a well-known herb. It is mentioned in almost all the herbal medicinal books of the Western world. The aim of this review article is to gather information about A. absinthium which is currently scattered in form of various publications. Through this review article tried to attract the attention of people for therapeutic potential of A. absinthium. The present review comprises upto date information of active ingredients, up and down in absinthe, controversy, essential oil, traditional uses, in vitro production of secondary metabolites for pharmaceutical, pharmacology such as antitumor, neurotoxic, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, antimalarial, anthelminitc, antipyretic, antidepressant, antiulcer, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiprotozoal and challenges of A. absinthium. Some progress has been made, but still consistent efforts are required to explore the individual compounds isolated from A. absinthium to validate and understand its traditional uses and clinical practices. This review article provides preliminary information and gives a direction for the basic and clinical research on A. absinthium (wormwood.

  6. [Antiinflammatory activity of extracts and fractions obtained from Physalis peruviana L. calyces].

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    Franco, Luis A; Matiz, Germán E; Calle, Jairo; Pinzón, Roberto; Ospina, Luis F

    2007-03-01

    Cape gooseberry calyces (Physalis peruviana) have been used in folk medicine for their medicinal properties including anticancer, antimycobacterial, antipyretic, diuretic, immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties. The antiinflammatory effect was evaluated for extracts and fractions obtained from Physalis peruviana calyces in a mice model of acute inflammation. The fractions responsible for antiinflammatory activity were extracted for possible identification. The Physalis peruviana calyces were extracted by percolation with organic solvents. The primary hydroalcoholic fraction was purified by column chromatography. The antiinflammatory effect of extracts and fractions was evaluated using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced mouse model of ear edema. Thirty-eight secondary fractions were obtained by column chromatography of primary hydroalcoholic fraction. Six fractions, evaluated in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation assay, showed significant antiinflammatory activity (pPhysalis peruviana calyces was confirmed and validated its use in folk medicine. Fractions responsible for the antiinflammatory action were identified and seem promising for phytomedicinal development. Further studies are needed to isolate and identify the active constituents of these fractions as well as to ascertain the mechanisms involved in the antiinflammatory effect.

  7. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF SELF-MEDICATION AMONG MEDICAL COLLEGE STUDENTS IN KERALA

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    Messaline

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & RATIONALE Self-medication is defined as the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat self-recognised illness or symptoms. Practice of self-medication, especially by medical students can cause wastage of resources, bacterial resistance, drug addiction and serious adverse drug reactions. The objective of our study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of selfmedication among medical college students in Kerala. METHODS AND MATERIAL MBBS students of a private medical college were included in the study. The students filled a structured pretested questionnaire and descriptive statistics was applied to the data with SPSS version 20. RESULTS Out of 300, 264 (88% students had taken self-medication over the past 1 year. Past exposure with the same drug was the significant source of information for the drugs (49.2% and the drugs frequently self-medicated were analgesics 34.4% (91 and antipyretics 30.3% (80. More than half of the students, 66% (198 students had expressed positive and 34% (102 students had expressed negative attitude towards self-medication. Around 66% students declared that they were not aware of the dose, frequency and adverse effects of the drugs. CONCLUSION The pattern of self-medication practice from our study was similar to other studies done in various parts of India. Similar studies in future will provide adequate information to regulatory authorities to implement these results on strict drug dispensing and drug advertising policies. KEYWORDS Self-medication, Medical College Students, Kerala.

  8. Site of action of calcium channel blockers in inhibiting endogenous pyrogen fever in rats.

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    Stitt, J T; Shimada, S G

    1991-09-01

    We have demonstrated that the Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil, administered intravenously, exerts an antipyretic effect on the febrile responses of rats to intravenously injected endogenous pyrogen (EP). We have also shown that the same intravenous dose of verapamil is ineffective in blocking fevers induced by the microinjection of exogenous prostaglandin E (PGE) into the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) of rats. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the site of this verapamil antipyresis was in the OVLT itself. The febrile responses of six male Sprague-Dawley rats to EP were determined at thermoneutrality. Verapamil (10 micrograms/rat) was microinjected directly into the OVLT, and the febrile responses to the EP dose were redetermined 15-30 min later. In every case the EP fevers were attenuated after verapamil pretreatment. Intra-OVLT injections of verapamil alone were without effect on body temperature. When the same dose of verapamil was injected into the OVLT 15 min before the injection of PGE into the same site, it had no effect on the ensuing PGE-induced fever. In view of the fact that less than 1/250th of the effective systemic dose of verapamil, when injected into the OVLT, was equally effective in blocking the EP fevers, we conclude that verapamil acts within the OVLT to block fever rather than peripherally. Furthermore, because verapamil administered into the OVLT does not block PGE fevers, it is unlikely that PGE produces fever by acting as a Ca2+ ionophore on hypothalamic neurons.

  9. Direct effects of endogenous pyrogen on medullary temperature-responsive neurons in rabbits.

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    Sakata, Y; Morimoto, A; Takase, Y; Murakami, N

    1981-01-01

    The effect of endogenous pyrogen (E.P.) injected directly into the tissue near the recording site were examined on the activities of the medullary temperature-responsive (TR) neurons in rabbits anesthetized with urethane. Endogenous pyrogen prepared from rabbit's whole blood was administered by a fine glass cannula (100-200 micrometer in diameter) in a fluid volume of 1 to 4 microliter. The cannula was fixed to the manipulator in parallel with a microelectrode and their tips were less than 0.05 mm apart. In rabbits with the intact preoptic/anterior hypothalamic (PO/AH) region, 4 warm-responsive neurons out of 7 were inhibited and 6 cold-responsive neuron out of 7 were excited by the direct administration of the E.P. In rabbits with lesions of the PO/AH, 5 warm-responsive neurons out of 9 were inhibited and 6 cold-responsive neurons out of 8 were facilitated by E.P. Antipyretics administered locally after the E.P. antagonized the pyretic effect, causing a return of the discharge of TR neuron to the control rate within 2.4 +/- 1.2 (mean +/- S.D.) min. The medullary TR neuron itself has the ability to respond to the E.P. and contributes to the development of fever.

  10. Role of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP/Ca2+ signaling pathway in the pyrogenic effect of interleukin-1beta.

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    Palmi, Mitri; Meini, Antonella

    2002-04-01

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) has a wide spectrum of inflammatory, metabolic, haemopoietic, and immunological properties. Because it produces fever when injected into animals and humans, it is considered an endogenous pyrogen. There is evidence to suggest that Ca2+ plays a critical role in the central mechanisms of thermoregulation, and in the intracellular signaling pathways controlling fever induced by IL-1beta and other pyrogens. Data from different labs indicate that Ca2+ and Na+ determine the temperature set point in the posterior hypothalamus (PH) of various mammals and that changes in Ca2+ and PGE2 concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of these animals are associated with IL-1beta-induced fever. Antipyretic drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid, dexamethasone, and lipocortin 5-(204-212) peptide counteract IL-1beta-induced fever and abolish changes in Ca2+ and PGE2 concentrations in CSF. In vitro studies have established that activation of the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP (cGMP) pathway is part of the signaling cascade transducing Ca2+ mobilization in response to IL-1beta and that the ryanodine (RY)- and inositol-(1,4,5)-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive pools are the main source of the mobilized Ca2+. It is concluded that the NO/cGMP/Ca2+ pathway is part of the signaling cascade subserving some of the multiple functions of IL-1beta.

  11. Automedicação em idosos na cidade de Salgueiro-PE Self-medication in the elderly of the city of Salgueiro, State of Pernambuco

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    Mirivaldo Barros e Sá

    2007-03-01

    /355 60-70-year olds, 69.8% (247/355 of which were female, 53.1% (188/355 illiterate, 40.7% (145/355 without having finished high school, and 77.7% (276/355 retired. In the group that used medicines without medical prescription, the drugs used most often were analgesics (30% and antipyretics (29%. Of the reasons presented to justify the use of self-prescribed medicines, pain was the most frequent one (38.3%, followed by fever (24.4%, diarrhea (8.0%, hypertension (8.0% and cough (5.2%. There was association between the lack of exercise and self-medication (x² =14.44 p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: there is a high prevalence of self-medication in this group; analgesics and antipyretics are the drugs used most often; pain is the symptom that most leads to self-medication; and sedentary individuals use more self-medication than those who exercise.

  12. Synthesis, Bioevaluation and Molecular Dynamic Simulation Studies of Dexibuprofen–Antioxidant Mutual Prodrugs

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    Zaman Ashraf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dexibuprofen–antioxidant conjugates were synthesized with the aim to reduce its gastrointestinal effects. The esters analogs of dexibuprofen 5a–c were obtained by reacting its –COOH group with chloroacetyl derivatives 3a–c. The in vitro hydrolysis data confirmed that synthesized prodrugs 5a–c were stable in stomach while undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free dexibuprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2 suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to stomach than dexibuprofen. The anti-inflammatory activity of 5c (p < 0.001 is more significant than the parent dexibuprofen. The prodrug 5c produced maximum inhibition (42.06% of paw-edema against egg-albumin induced inflammation in mice. Anti-pyretic effects in mice indicated that prodrugs 5a and 5b showed significant inhibition of pyrexia (p < 0.001. The analgesic activity of 5a is more pronounced compared to other synthesized prodrugs. The mean percent inhibition indicated that the prodrug 5a was more active in decreasing the number of writhes induced by acetic acid than standard dexibuprofen. The ulcerogenic activity results assured that synthesized prodrugs produce less gastrointestinal adverse effects than dexibuprofen. The ex vivo antiplatelet aggregation activity results also confirmed that synthesized prodrugs are less irritant to gastrointestinal mucosa than the parent dexibuprofen. Molecular docking analysis showed that the prodrugs 5a–c interacts with the residues present in active binding sites of target protein. The stability of drug–target complexes is verified by molecular dynamic simulation study. It exhibited that synthesized prodrugs formed stable complexes with the COX-2 protein thus support our wet lab results. It is therefore concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities with reduced gastrointestinal adverse effects than the parent drug.

  13. Oral treatment with methanolic extract of the root bark of Condalia buxifolia Reissek alleviates acute pain and inflammation in mice: Potential interactions with PGE2, TRPV1/ASIC and PKA signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Róli Rodrigues; Dos Santos Coelho, Igor; do Espírito Santo, Caroline Cunha; Morel, Ademir Farias; Zanchet, Eliane Maria; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2016-06-05

    The Condalia buxifolia root bark infusion is used in traditional medicine in Brazil as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-dysentery. Previous data from our group showed that methanolic extract of Condalia buxifolia (MECb) produced a marked antinociceptive effect in animal models of acute pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of MECb-induced antinociception as measured by nocifensive behavior in pain induced by endogenous (prostaglandin E2) or exogenous (TRPs and ASIC agonist, and protein kinase A and C activators) chemical stimuli, and the potential role of PKA signaling and capsaicin-sensitive central C-fiber afferents. The effect of MECb administered orally (0.1-300mg/kg, i.g.) to mice on nociception induced by capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist), cinnamaldehyde (TRPA1 agonist), menthol (TRPM8 agonist), acidified saline (ASIC agonist), PMA (protein kinase C activator), PGE2 and forskolin (protein kinase A activator) was assessed. Moreover, this study also investigated the role of C-fibers desensitizing mice with a high dose of intrathecal capsaicin. Furthermore, this study performed the western blot to PKA phosphorylated on nocifensive behavior induced by forskolin. MECb was able to reduce the nociception and paw edema induced by capsaicin, acidified saline, PMA, PGE2 and forskolin, but not by cinnamaldehyde or menthol. Western blot analyses showed that MECb reduced the levels of PKA phosphorylation induced by forskolin in hind paws. Finally, ablating central afferent C-fibers abolished MECb antinociception. In accordance with its use in traditional medicine, these findings provide new evidence indicating that Condalia buxifolia reduces the acute painful behavior of animals caused by chemical stimuli. The precise mechanism of MECb antinociceptive activity is not completely understood but the results suggest involvement of PGE2, TRPV1/ASIC and PKA signaling pathways, and require integrity of the capsaicin-sensitive central C-fiber afferents

  14. Self‐medication patterns among medical students in South India

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    Nitasha Bhat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSelf-medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self-medication and the pattern of self-medication among medical students.MethodThis cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore. The participants were medical students from first to final year. Medical students were selected through convenience sampling. The data was collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions.ResultsA total of 200 students, 121 (60.5% female and 79 (39.5% male, were included in the study. Of the medical students surveyed, self-medication was reported among 92%. The respondents who used self-medication found it to be time-saving in providing relief from minor ailments. The most common ailments for which self-medication were used were: the common cold (69%, fever (63% and headache (60%. The students consulted their textbooks (39% and seniors or classmates (38% for the medications. Antipyretics (71%, analgesics (65%, antihistamines (37% and antibiotics (34% were the most common self-medicated drugs. Of the respondents, 33% were unaware of the adverse effects of the medication and 5% had experienced adverse reactions. The majority (64% of students advised medications to others, more often to family and friends.ConclusionThe prevalence of self-medication among medical students is high, facilitated by the easy availability of drugs and information from textbooks or seniors. A significant number of students are unaware of the adverse effects of the medication that they themselves take and suggest to others. Therefore, potential problems of self-medication should be emphasised to the students.

  15. Ex vivo effects of lysine clonixinate on cyclooxygenases in rat lung and stomach preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, A M; Di Girolamo, G; De los Santos, A R; Marti, M L; Gimeno, M A

    1999-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is an anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic drug with minor digestive side effects, which might suggest a weak COX-1 inhibitor. The aim of this study focused on ex vivo effects of LC 40 mg/kg ip and indomethacin (INDO) 10 mg/kg ip in lung and stomach preparations of control rats and LPS-treated rats (5 mg/kg ip). The non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs were administered concomitantly, following three hours and before one, two or three hours of LPS treatment. Tissues were weighed and incubated in 2 ml of Kress Ringer Bicarbonate buffer containing glucose (11 mM) under an atmosphere of 95% oxygen and 5% CO(2). Approximately 200 mg of tissue were used for each determination; 0.25 microCi of (14)C-arachidonic acid was added to each tube and the tissues were incubated for 60 min. Prostanoids were extracted from the incubation medium and separated by TLC. Results were expressed as a percentage of the total radioactivity of the plates (% of cpm on plate/100 mg ww). It was found that LC animals that were not given LPS did not modify the synthesis of PGE(2); in lung and stomach tissues showing that did not inhibit COX-1 activity. However, LC inhibited clearly the synthesis of PGE(2) in both preparations obtained from LPS-treated animals. The inhibition was shown when the rats were treated concomitantly, 3 h after or 1 or 2 h before the injection of LPS.

  16. In vivo and in vitro effects of lysine clonixinate on nitric oxide synthase in LPS-treated and untreated rat lung preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, A M; Di Girolamo, G; Farina, M; de los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Gimeno, M A

    2001-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that some nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) inhibited the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) without direct effect on the catalytic activity of this enzyme. This study was conducted to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of lysine clonixinate (LC) and indomethacin (INDO) on NOS activity in rat lung preparation. LC is a drug with antiinflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic action. In the in vitro experiments, rats were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and killed 6 h after treatment. Lung preparations were incubated with LC at 2.3 x 10(-5) M or 3.8 x 10(-5) M. The minimum concentration did not modify NOS activity in control or LPS-treated rats but the maximum dose inhibited increased NO production induced by LPS. Furthermore, INDO at 10(-6) M had no effect on enzymatic activity in control or LPS-treated rats. In the in vivo experiments, 40 mg/kg of LC were injected ip. Such a dose did not affect basal production of NO. When LC and LPS were injected simultaneously 6 h before sacrifice, a significant decrease in LPS-induced NOS activity was observed. INDO 10 mg/kg injected in control animals had no effect on NOS activity and did not block LPS induced stimulation of NO production when injected simultaneously. Finally, when LC (40 mg/kg) was injected 3 h after LPS, the enzymatic activity remained unchanged. Expression of iNOS was detected by Western blotting in rats treated with LPS plus 4, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of LC. The lowest dose was the only one showing no effect on LPS-induced increase of iNOS. In short, LC is a NSAID with inhibitory action on the expression of LPS-induced NOS, effect that was not seen with INDO in our experimental conditions. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Volatile oil composition of Carthamus Tinctorius L. flowers grown in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgumbayeva, Aknur Amanbekovna; Ustenova, Gulbaram Omargazieva; Yeskalieva, Balakyz Kymyzgalievna; Ramazanova, Bakyt Amanullovna; Rahimov, Kairolla Duysenbayevich; Aisa, Hajiakbar; Juszkiewicz, Konrad T

    2018-03-14

    Carthamus tinctorius L. is commonly known as Safflower. C. tinctorius extracts and oil are important in drug development with numerous pharmacological activities in the world. This plant is cultivated mainly for its seed which is used as edible oil. For a long time, C. tinctorius has been used in traditional medicines as a purgative, analgesic, antipyretic and an antidote to poisoning. It is a useful plant in painful menstrual problems, post-partum haemorrhage and osteoporosis. The subject of this study is the seeds of Kazakhstan species of 'Akmai' safflower, collected in the flowering stage in Southern Kazakhstan. Volatile oil was carry out to study the component composition of Kazakhstan 'AkMai' safflower flowers. Pale yellow oily extracts were obtain by varying the process parameters. The volatile oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the petals Carthamus tinctorius L. was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of the oil was 0.175 % (v/w). 20 compounds representing 99.81% of the oil were characterized. The volatile oil was found to be rich in undecanoic acid, octane, 2-nonen -1-ol, hexadecanal, dodecanal, dec-2-en-1-ol, nonanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, 2 pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, isobutyl-beta-phenylpropionate, 1.3-cyclohexadiene, myrtenoic acid, octadecanoic acid, heneicosanoic acid, 2(3H)-furanone, 4,4-dipropylheptane, hexcosane,1-eicosanol, as well as heptocosane. Volatile oil from the flowers of the Kazakhstan safflower species 'Ak-Mai' were investigated by GC/MS which allowed the detection of 20 compounds. Biologically active complex of the flower of the Kazakhstan safflower species 'Ak-Mai' was released for the first time by using this oil.

  18. Association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and acetaminophen (paracetamol): Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Abushouk, Abdelrahman Ibrahim; Reggi, Raffaella; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Palmery, Maura; Peluso, Ilaria

    2018-04-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol or APAP) is an analgesic and antipyretic drug that can induce oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxicity at high doses. Several studies reported that antioxidant nutraceuticals, in particular phenolic phytochemicals from dietary food, spices, herbs and algae have hepatoprotective effects. Others, however, suggested that they may negatively impact the metabolism, efficacy and toxicity of APAP. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of the association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and APAP by reviewing the in vivo evidence, with particular reference to APAP pharmacokinetics and hepatotoxicity. Results from the murine models of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity showed amelioration of liver damage with nutraceuticals coadministration, as well as reductions in tissue markers of oxidative stress, and serum levels of hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, both increased and decreased APAP plasma levels have been reported, depending on the nutraceutical type and route of administration. For example, studies showed that repeated administration of flavonoids causes down-regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes and up-regulation of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). Moreover, nutraceuticals can alter the levels of APAP metabolites, such as mercapturate glucuronide, sulfate and cysteine conjugates. Overall, the reviewed in vivo studies indicate that interactions between APAP and nutraceuticals or plant foods exist. However, the majority of data come from animal models with doses of phytochemicals far from dietary ones. Human studies should investigate gene-diet interactions, as well as ethnic variability in order to clarify the pros and cons of co-administering antioxidant nutraceuticals and APAP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The Impact of Introducing Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests on Fever Case Management: A Synthesis of Ten Studies from the ACT Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruxvoort, Katia J; Leurent, Baptiste; Chandler, Clare I R; Ansah, Evelyn K; Baiden, Frank; Björkman, Anders; Burchett, Helen E D; Clarke, Siân E; Cundill, Bonnie; DiLiberto, Debora D; Elfving, Kristina; Goodman, Catherine; Hansen, Kristian S; Kachur, S Patrick; Lal, Sham; Lalloo, David G; Leslie, Toby; Magnussen, Pascal; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Mårtensson, Andreas; Mayan, Ismail; Mbonye, Anthony K; Msellem, Mwinyi I; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Rowland, Mark W; Shakely, Delér; Staedke, Sarah G; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Webster, Jayne; Whitty, Christopher J M; Wiseman, Virginia L; Yeung, Shunmay; Schellenberg, David; Hopkins, Heidi

    2017-10-01

    Since 2010, the World Health Organization has been recommending that all suspected cases of malaria be confirmed with parasite-based diagnosis before treatment. These guidelines represent a paradigm shift away from presumptive antimalarial treatment of fever. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) are central to implementing this policy, intended to target artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to patients with confirmed malaria and to improve management of patients with nonmalarial fevers. The ACT Consortium conducted ten linked studies, eight in sub-Saharan Africa and two in Afghanistan, to evaluate the impact of mRDT introduction on case management across settings that vary in malaria endemicity and healthcare provider type. This synthesis includes 562,368 outpatient encounters (study size range 2,400-432,513). mRDTs were associated with significantly lower ACT prescription (range 8-69% versus 20-100%). Prescribing did not always adhere to malaria test results; in several settings, ACTs were prescribed to more than 30% of test-negative patients or to fewer than 80% of test-positive patients. Either an antimalarial or an antibiotic was prescribed for more than 75% of patients across most settings; lower antimalarial prescription for malaria test-negative patients was partly offset by higher antibiotic prescription. Symptomatic management with antipyretics alone was prescribed for fewer than 25% of patients across all scenarios. In community health worker and private retailer settings, mRDTs increased referral of patients to other providers. This synthesis provides an overview of shifts in case management that may be expected with mRDT introduction and highlights areas of focus to improve design and implementation of future case management programs.

  20. Phytochemical screening of Artemisia arborescens L. by means of advanced chromatographic techniques for identification of health-promoting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria; Ragusa, Salvatore; Russo, Marina; Certo, Giovanna; Franchina, Flavio A; Zanotto, Antonio; Grasso, Elisa; Mondello, Luigi; Germanò, Maria Paola

    2016-01-05

    Artemisia arborescens, also known as tree wormwood, is a typical species of the Mediterranean flora. It has been used in folk medicine for its antispasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, and abortifacient properties. In the current study, the application of multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC×GC), allowed to obtain a detailed fingerprint of the essential oil from A. arborescens aerial parts, highlighting an abundant presence of chamazulene followed by camphor, β-thujone, myrcene, and α-pinene. Moreover, flavonoids in the dichloromethane extract were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography with photodiode array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry detections (HPLC-PDA and HPLC-APCI-MS). Six polymethoxyflavones were identified and three of them, including chrysosplenetin, eupatin, and cirsilineol, were described in this species for the first time. The anti-angiogenic activity was investigated in the dichloromethane extract by two in vivo models, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and zebrafish embryos. Results showed that this extract produced a strong reduction on vessel formation, both on zebrafish (57% of inhibition, 0.1 mg/mL) and chick chorioallantoic membrane (58% of inhibition, 0.8 mg/mL). The high separation power and sensitivity of the analytical methodology applied confirmed the safety of A. arborescens essential oil for human consumption, due to the very low level of the psychotrope α-thujone determined. Moreover, the knowledge of the flavonoidic profile holds a great significance for the use of A. arborescens as a valuable source of anti-angiogenic compounds that might contribute to the valorization of the phytotherapeutic potential of this plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute kidney injury in a shepherd with severe malaria: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boushab BM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Boushab Mohamed Boushab,1 Fatim-Zahra Fall-Malick,2 Mamoudou Savadogo,3 Leonardo Kishi Basco,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Aïoun Regional Hospital, Hodh El Gharbi, Mauritania; 2National Institute of Hepatology-Virology in Nouakchott, School of Medicine, Nouakchott, Mauritania; 3Department of Infectious Diseases, University Teaching Hospital Yalgado Ouédrago, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 4Research Unit of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (Research Institute for Development, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France Abstract: Malaria is one of the main reasons for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in Mauritania. Although four Plasmodium species, ie, Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale, cause malaria in Mauritania, recent data on their frequency is ­lacking. Since infections with P. falciparum generally result in serious disease, their identification is important. We report a case of oliguric renal injury associated with malaria in a 65-year-old shepherd. Clinical manifestations included anemia, oliguria, and elevated creatinine and urea. The rapid diagnostic test for malaria and microscopic examination of blood smears were positive for P. falciparum. On the basis of this, the patient was diagnosed as having acute kidney injury as a complication of severe malaria. The patient was treated for malaria with intravenous quinine for 4 days, followed by 3 days of oral treatment. Volume expansion, antipyretic treatment, and diuretics were administered. He also had two rounds of dialysis after which he partially recovered renal function. This outcome is not always the rule. Prognosis depends much on early diagnosis and appropriate supportive treatment. Keywords: malaria, oliguric kidney injury, shepherd, quinine, dialysis

  2. Investigation into Regeneration Mechanism of Hydroalcoholic Lavender (Lavandula officianalis Extract through the Evaluation of NT3 Gene Expression after Sciatic Nerve Compression in Rats

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    Fereshteh Naderi Allaf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Retrograde transport to the alpha motoneurons causes spinal degeneration. The neurotrophic factor (NT3 increases the number of myelinated axons in the dorsal root, leads to differentiation and survival of sensory neurons, parasympathetic motoneurons and prevents cell death. Lavender is a plant in the family Lamiaceae which is reported to have antioxidant, antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-asthmatic, refrigerant, and antipyretic effects. This study examined NT3 gene expression changes after sciatic nerve compression in rats, in the presence of Lavandula officinalis extract. Materials and Methods: Lavender Soxhlet hydroalcoholic extraction was prepared. 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups including control, compression and treatment (compression group + hydroalcoholic extract of Lavender injections 75mg/kg groups. In controls the muscle was opened without damage to gain access to the sciatic nerve. In compression and treatment groups, the sciatic nerve (right leg was compressed. The extract was injected intraperitoneally in two occasions. A biopsy was taken from the spinal cord segments L4-L6 on day 28, total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized and NT3 gene expression changes were analyzed by ANOVA test by using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that NT3 gene expression had a significant reduction in compression group compared to the control group (p<0.001 and it had a significant increase in treatment group compared with the compression group (p<0.001. Conclusion: A significant increase in gene expression shows that Lavandula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract improves nerve regeneration via NT3 gene expression.

  3. Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H C; Kim, M J; Lee, B H

    2017-12-01

    Uncomplicated appendicitis may resolve spontaneously or require treatment with antibiotics or appendicectomy. The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the outcome of a non-antibiotic management strategy with that of antibiotic therapy in uncomplicated appendicitis. Patients presenting to a university teaching hospital with CT-verified uncomplicated simple appendicitis (appendiceal diameter no larger than 11 mm and without any signs of perforation) were randomized to management with a no-antibiotic regimen with supportive care (intravenous fluids, analgesia and antipyretics as necessary) or a 4-day course of antibiotics with supportive care. The primary endpoint was rate of total treatment failure, defined as initial treatment failure within 1 month and recurrence of appendicitis during the follow-up period. Some 245 patients were randomized within the trial, and followed up for a median of 19 months. The duration of hospital stay was shorter (mean 3·1 versus 3·7 days; P antibiotics. There was no difference in total treatment failure rate between the groups: 29 of 124 (23·4 per cent) in the no-antibiotic group and 25 of 121 (20·7 per cent) in the antibiotic group (P = 0·609). Eighteen patients (9 in each group) had initial treatment failure, 15 of whom underwent appendicectomy and three received additional antibiotics. Thirty-six patients (20 in the no-antibiotic group, 16 in the antibiotic group) experienced recurrence, of whom 30 underwent appendicectomy and six received further antibiotics. Treatment failure rates in patients presenting with CT-confirmed uncomplicated appendicitis appeared similar among those receiving supportive care with either a no-antibiotic regimen or a 4-day course of antibiotics. Registration number: KCT0000124 ( http://cris.nih.go.kr). © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Molecular profiling and bioactive potential of an endophytic fungus Aspergillus sulphureus isolated from Sida acuta: a medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, M; Mahendra, C; Hema, P; Rajashekar, N; Nataraju, A; Sudarshana, M S; Amruthesh, K N

    2017-12-01

    Sida acuta Burm.f. (Malvaceae) extracts are reported to have applications against malaria, diuretic, antipyretic, nervous and urinary diseases. No fungal endophytes of S. acuta are reported. Isolation, identification and evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer and haemolytic potential of fungal endophytes from the ethnomedcinal plant S. acuta. Sida acuta stem segments were placed on PDA medium to isolate endophytic fungi. The fungus was identified by genomic DNA analysis and phylogenetic tree was constructed using ITS sequences (GenBank) to confirm species. The antibacterial efficacy of Aspergillus sulphureus MME12 ethyl acetate extract was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. DPPH free radical scavenging activity, anticancer and DNA fragmentation against EAC cells, and direct haemolytic activity (100-500 μg/mL) using human erythrocytes were determined. The ethyl acetate extract of A. sulphureus (Fresen.) Wehmer (Trichocomaceae) demonstrated significant antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi compared to streptomycin. MIC against test pathogens was in the range of 15.6-62.5 μg/mL. The antioxidant results revealed significant RSA from 12.43% to 62.02% (IC 50  = 350.4 μg/mL, p ≤ 0.05). MME12 offered considerable inhibition of EAC proliferation (23% to 84%, IC 50  = 216.7 μg/mL, p ≤ 0.05) supported by DNA fragmentation studies. The extract also offered insignificant haemolysis (5.6%) compared to Triton X-100. A single endophytic fungus, A. sulphureus MME12 was isolated and identified using molecular profiling. The above-mentioned findings support the pharmacological application of A. sulphureus MME12 extract and demand for purification of the active principle(s).

  5. Radiolytic degradation of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, L [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Inst. of Isotopes; Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Toth, T [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Homlok, R; Takacs, E; Wojnarovits, L [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Inst. of Isotopes

    2011-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Paracetamol or with name acetaminophen is widely used as analgesic and antipyretic drug. Due to its heavy use it is regularly detected in the surface waters. The degradation of the compound formerly was studied in several advanced oxidation processes (UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV/TiO{sub 2}, electrochemical oxidation, ozonation). Here we report on the radiolytic degradation. In the experimental work we combined a wide variety of techniques. For the investigation of the intermediates pulse radiolysis, for end-product experiments (decolouration, mineralization) gamma irradiation were used together with UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC separation (with diode array and MS-MS detection), chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon content and toxicity measurements. {sup {center_dot}O}H radicals are the main oxidative species during irradiation. They add to the aromatic ring producing hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radicals. These radicals either transform to hydroxy-paracetamol stable products in several reaction steps, or after water elimination transform to semi-iminoquinone radical. The reaction of hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals with O{sub 2} yields peroxi radicals. The latter radicals may eliminate HO{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}} or undergo ring opening and transformation, first to different carboxylic acids, and finally (mineralization) to CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3} or NO{sub 2}. Paracetamol has a relatively low toxicity. In 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3} DCF solution after irradiation some products (e.g. hydroquinone, acetamide) are more toxic than paracetamol. By increasing the dose the toxicity suddenly decreases. It seems that the toxic products are highly sensitive to irradiation treatment.

  6. Radiolytic degradation of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, L.; Toth, T.; Homlok, R.; Takacs, E.; Wojnarovits, L.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Paracetamol or with name acetaminophen is widely used as analgesic and antipyretic drug. Due to its heavy use it is regularly detected in the surface waters. The degradation of the compound formerly was studied in several advanced oxidation processes (UV/H 2 O 2 , UV/TiO 2 , electrochemical oxidation, ozonation). Here we report on the radiolytic degradation. In the experimental work we combined a wide variety of techniques. For the investigation of the intermediates pulse radiolysis, for end-product experiments (decolouration, mineralization) gamma irradiation were used together with UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC separation (with diode array and MS-MS detection), chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon content and toxicity measurements. · OH radicals are the main oxidative species during irradiation. They add to the aromatic ring producing hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radicals. These radicals either transform to hydroxy-paracetamol stable products in several reaction steps, or after water elimination transform to semi-iminoquinone radical. The reaction of hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals with O 2 yields peroxi radicals. The latter radicals may eliminate HO 2 · or undergo ring opening and transformation, first to different carboxylic acids, and finally (mineralization) to CO 2 , H 2 O and NH 3 or NO 2 . Paracetamol has a relatively low toxicity. In 10 -3 mol dm -3 DCF solution after irradiation some products (e.g. hydroquinone, acetamide) are more toxic than paracetamol. By increasing the dose the toxicity suddenly decreases. It seems that the toxic products are highly sensitive to irradiation treatment.

  7. Medication storage and self-medication behaviour amongst female students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence, attitudes and behaviours of medication storage and self-medication amongst female students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and cluster random sampling technique was used for respondent selection. A pre-piloted questionnaire was administered to female respondents so as to collect the data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and analysis was conducted using descriptive analysis procedures.Results: Of the 481 participants (mean age; SD was 22.1; 3.3, 93.1% (n=448 students stated that they stored medicine in their rooms, while 70.7% (n=340 stated that they stopped taking a prescribed medicine without consulting a doctor. The prevalence of self-medication was 80.9% (n=389. The most common reasons for self-medication were related to their knowledge of their ailment and its treatment (58.0%, 14.4% thought it saved time and 8.5% mentioned that medication given by provider was not effective. The most common symptoms were otorhinolaryngology problems (22.5%, followed by respiratory disease (19.6%, Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT disease (18.1% and headache/fever (16.8%. Commonly used medicines were analgesics & antipyretics (30.2%, ear, nose & throat drugs (10.8%, vitamins & minerals (10.8%, GIT drugs (8.5%, anti-infections (7.3% and herbal medicines (3.5%. Prevalence of medicine storage and self-medication practice is high among educated female students in USM.Conclusions: There is a need to educate the students to ensure safe practice by increasing their awareness. Strict policies need to be implemented on the unrestricted availability of medicines so as to prevent the wastage of medicines.

  8. The Use of Analgesic and Other Pain-Relief Drugs to Manage Chronic Low Back Pain: Results from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Ramiro, Sofia; Eusébio, Mónica; Machado, Pedro M; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime C

    2017-03-01

    To analyze and characterize the intake profile of pain-relief drugs in a population-based study of adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP). EpiReumaPt was a cross-sectional Portuguese population-based study (10,661 subjects). Self-reported active CLBP was considered to be low back pain on the day of enrollment and for ≥ 90 days. Prevalence and profile of analgesic intake was characterized among those self-reporting active CLBP, taking into account the intensity of pain and the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder. We further investigated whether the presence of active CLBP was a factor independently associated with the intake of analgesics (adjusted for potential confounders). Among 1,487 subjects with active CLBP, only 18.7% were using analgesic/pain-relief drugs. Estimated prevalence was anxiolytics, 14.1%; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 12.3%; antidepressants, 10.1%; analgesic, antipyretics, 6.6%; anticonvulsants, 3.4%; central muscle relaxants, 2.6%; and analgesic opioids, 1.6%. Most subjects with severe pain were in the first step of the WHO analgesic ladder: NSAIDs plus anxiolytics (4.6%), NSAIDs plus antidepressants (3.2%), or NSAIDs plus muscle relaxants (2.5%). The presence of active CLBP was significantly associated with the intake of all therapeutic groups: antidepressants (odds ratio [OR] = 12.56; P pain-relief drug intake in patients with active CLBP was very low, even for those with severe pain. The WHO analgesic ladder was carefully followed, with an extremely conservative use of analgesic opioids even for those with severe pain. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Pediatric Epidemic of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in the Area of L’Aquila, Italy, Four Years after a Catastrophic Earthquake

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    Giovanni Nigro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Salmonella enterica epidemic occurred in children of the area of L’Aquila (Central Italy, Abruzzo region between June 2013 and October 2014, four years after the catastrophic earthquake of 6 April 2009. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory children. Routine investigations for Salmonella infection were carried out on numerous alimentary matrices of animal origin and sampling sources for drinking water of the L’Aquila district, including pickup points of the two main aqueducts. Results: Salmonella infection occurred in 155 children (83 females: 53%, aged 1 to 15 years (mean 2.10. Of these, 44 children (28.4% were hospitalized because of severe dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, and fever resistant to oral antipyretic and antibiotic drugs. Three children (1.9% were reinfected within four months after primary infection by the same Salmonella strain. Four children (2.6%, aged one to two years, were coinfected by rotavirus. A seven-year old child had a concomitant right hip joint arthritis. The isolated strains, as confirmed in about the half of cases or probable/possible in the remaining ones, were identified as S. enterica serovar Typhimurium [4,5:i:-], monophasic variant. Aterno river, bordering the L’Aquila district, was recognized as the main responsible source for the contamination of local crops and vegetables derived from polluted crops. Conclusions: The high rate of hospitalized children underlines the emergence of a highly pathogenic S. enterica strain probably subsequent to the contamination of the spring water sources after geological changes occurred during the catastrophic earthquake.

  10. Pediatric Epidemic of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in the Area of L'Aquila, Italy, Four Years after a Catastrophic Earthquake.

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    Nigro, Giovanni; Bottone, Gabriella; Maiorani, Daniela; Trombatore, Fabiana; Falasca, Silvana; Bruno, Gianfranco

    2016-05-06

    A Salmonella enterica epidemic occurred in children of the area of L'Aquila (Central Italy, Abruzzo region) between June 2013 and October 2014, four years after the catastrophic earthquake of 6 April 2009. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory children. Routine investigations for Salmonella infection were carried out on numerous alimentary matrices of animal origin and sampling sources for drinking water of the L'Aquila district, including pickup points of the two main aqueducts. Salmonella infection occurred in 155 children (83 females: 53%), aged 1 to 15 years (mean 2.10). Of these, 44 children (28.4%) were hospitalized because of severe dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, and fever resistant to oral antipyretic and antibiotic drugs. Three children (1.9%) were reinfected within four months after primary infection by the same Salmonella strain. Four children (2.6%), aged one to two years, were coinfected by rotavirus. A seven-year old child had a concomitant right hip joint arthritis. The isolated strains, as confirmed in about the half of cases or probable/possible in the remaining ones, were identified as S. enterica serovar Typhimurium [4,5:i:-], monophasic variant. Aterno river, bordering the L'Aquila district, was recognized as the main responsible source for the contamination of local crops and vegetables derived from polluted crops. The high rate of hospitalized children underlines the emergence of a highly pathogenic S. enterica strain probably subsequent to the contamination of the spring water sources after geological changes occurred during the catastrophic earthquake.

  11. Bee venom phospholipase A2 protects against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury by modulating regulatory T cells and IL-10 in mice.

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    Hyunseong Kim

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 from bee venom against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells (Treg in mice. Acetaminophen (APAP is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic, but an acute or cumulative overdose of acetaminophen can cause severe hepatic failure. Tregs have been reported to possess protective effects in various liver diseases and kidney toxicity. We previously found that bee venom strongly increased the Treg population in splenocytes and subsequently suppressed immune disorders. More recently, we found that the effective component of bee venom is PLA2. Thus, we hypothesized that PLA2 could protect against liver injury induced by acetaminophen. To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of PLA2, C57BL/6 mice or interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10-/- mice were injected with PLA2 once a day for five days and sacrificed 24 h (h after acetaminophen injection. The blood sera were collected 0, 6, and 24 h after acetaminophen injection for the analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. PLA2-injected mice showed reduced levels of serum AST, ALT, proinflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO compared with the PBS-injected control mice. However, IL-10 was significantly increased in the PLA2-injected mice. These hepatic protective effects were abolished in Treg-depleted mice by antibody treatment and in IL-10-/- mice. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the protective effects of PLA2 against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity can be mediated by modulating the Treg and IL-10 production.

  12. Association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and acetaminophen (paracetamol: Friend or foe?

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    Mohamed Abdel-Daim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (paracetamol or APAP is an analgesic and antipyretic drug that can induce oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxicity at high doses. Several studies reported that antioxidant nutraceuticals, in particular phenolic phytochemicals from dietary food, spices, herbs and algae have hepatoprotective effects. Others, however, suggested that they may negatively impact the metabolism, efficacy and toxicity of APAP. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of the association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and APAP by reviewing the in vivo evidence, with particular reference to APAP pharmacokinetics and hepatotoxicity. Results from the murine models of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity showed amelioration of liver damage with nutraceuticals coadministration, as well as reductions in tissue markers of oxidative stress, and serum levels of hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, both increased and decreased APAP plasma levels have been reported, depending on the nutraceutical type and route of administration. For example, studies showed that repeated administration of flavonoids causes down-regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes and up-regulation of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT. Moreover, nutraceuticals can alter the levels of APAP metabolites, such as mercapturate glucuronide, sulfate and cysteine conjugates. Overall, the reviewed in vivo studies indicate that interactions between APAP and nutraceuticals or plant foods exist. However, the majority of data come from animal models with doses of phytochemicals far from dietary ones. Human studies should investigate gene-diet interactions, as well as ethnic variability in order to clarify the pros and cons of co-administering antioxidant nutraceuticals and APAP. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Antioxidants, Food-drug interaction, Nutraceuticals, Paracetamol

  13. Parental and medical knowledge and management of fever in Italian pre-school children

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    Chiappini Elena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the management of fever in children have been recently published, however “fever phobia” is still spreading. To provide information which may sustain educational interventions tailored to our population we investigated the parental and medical knowledge and management of fever in preschool children. Methods A questionnaire was administered to a convenient sample of Italian parents and paediatricians. The questionnaire elicited information about definition and cause of fever, concerns about fever, method of temperature measurement, and treatment modalities. Results Overall, 388 parents and 480 paediatricians were interviewed. All the parents believed that fever could cause at least one harmful effect and 89.9% (n = 349 believed that, if left untreated, it can cause brain damage or seizures. Parents used multiple resources to obtain information about fever but 67.8% (n = 264 considered paediatricians as their primary resource. Several wrong behaviours were found in the same proportions among parents and paediatricians: 78.5% of paediatricians (n = 377 and 77.8% of parents (n = 302 used physical method to reduce fever (P = 0.867; 27.0% of paediatricians (n = 103 and 21.4% (n = 83 of parents declared to alternate ibuprofen and acetaminophen (P = 0.953. Differently, 73.1% (n = 351 of paediatricians preferred oral to rectal administration of antipyretics compared to 48.7% (n = 190 of parents (P  Conclusions Paediatricians’ attitudes greatly influence the parental behaviours and beliefs. Implementation of educational programs regarding the management of the febrile child are needed in our setting.

  14. The Influence of Efflux Pump Inhibitors on the Activity of Non-Antibiotic NSAIDS against Gram-Negative Rods.

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    Agnieszka E Laudy

    Full Text Available Most patients with bacterial infections suffer from fever and various pains that require complex treatments with antibiotics, antipyretics, and analgaesics. The most common drugs used to relieve these symptoms are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, which are not typically considered antibiotics. Here, we investigate the effects of NSAIDs on bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics and the modulation of bacterial efflux pumps.The activity of 12 NSAID active substances, paracetamol (acetaminophen, and eight relevant medicinal products was analyzed with or without pump inhibitors against 89 strains of Gram-negative rods by determining the MICs. Furthermore, the effects of NSAIDs on the susceptibility of clinical strains to antimicrobial agents with or without PAβN (Phe-Arg-β-naphtylamide were measured.The MICs of diclofenac, mefenamic acid, ibuprofen, and naproxen, in the presence of PAβN, were significantly (≥4-fold reduced, decreasing to 25-1600 mg/L, against the majority of the studied strains. In the case of acetylsalicylic acid only for 5 and 7 out of 12 strains of P. mirabilis and E. coli, respectively, a 4-fold increase in susceptibility in the presence of PAβN was observed. The presence of Aspirin resulted in a 4-fold increase in the MIC of ofloxacin against only two strains of E. coli among 48 tested clinical strains, which included species such as E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and S. maltophilia. Besides, the medicinal products containing the following NSAIDs, diclofenac, mefenamic acid, ibuprofen, and naproxen, did not cause the decrease of clinical strains' susceptibility to antibiotics.The effects of PAβN on the susceptibility of bacteria to NSAIDs indicate that some NSAIDs are substrates for efflux pumps in Gram-negative rods. Morever, Aspirin probably induced efflux-mediated resistance to fluoroquinolones in a few E. coli strains.

  15. Profile of diseases prevalent in a tribal locality in Jharkhand, India: A family medicine practitioner′s perspective

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    Sumit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of Indian population is dependent on general practitioners (GPs for medical services at primary care level in India. They are most preferred and considered to be first contact person for medical services at primary care level. But advances in medical science has put more emphasis on specialist culture and average Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS graduates who are working as general physician are gradually feeling themselves less competent because they are less exposed to latest advances in treatment of diseases. Amidst such scenario, Christian Medical College (CMC has come up with an idea: "The refer less and resolve more initiative". It has started a decentralized 2-year family medicine distance diploma course (Postgraduate Diploma in Family Medicine (PGDFM now accredited by Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, that trains the GPs to become family medicine specialist. Materials and Methods: As component of PGDFM course, this study was conducted to provide better understanding of prevalent ailments and common treatment provided by the GPs in the community at present giving key insight of current practice in rural area by a registered family medicine practitioner. Results: As part of study, among 500 patients evaluated, three most common diagnosis were upper respiratory infections (URIs; 18%, acute gastroenteritis including water-borne diseases (15.8%, and anemia (10.4%. Treatment given to these patients comprised of mostly of antipyretic, analgesic, and antimicrobial agents. Most common drug prescribed was paracetamol for fever. Other common drugs prescribed were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloroquine, artemisin derivative, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, miltefosine, cephalexin, ceftriaxone sodium, cefixime, oral rehydration salts, ranitidine, omeprazole, pantoprazole, metronidazole, albendazole, ondansetron, diclofenac sodium, piroxicam, ibuprofen, diphenhydramine, codeine-sulfate, amlodipine

  16. Paris polyphylla Suppresses Proliferation and Vasculogenic Mimicry of Human Osteosarcoma Cells and Inhibits Tumor Growth In Vivo.

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    Yao, Nan; Ren, Ke; Wang, Yimin; Jin, Qiaomei; Lu, Xiao; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Cuihua; Zhang, Dongjian; Lu, Jun; Wang, Chen; Huo, Jiege; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Paris polyphylla, a traditional antipyretic-detoxicate chinese medicinal herb, has been applied extensively in cancer treatments for nearly 2000 years. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the potential anti-osteosarcoma effects of Paris polyphylla ethanol extract (PPEE) and to investigate its underlying mechanisms. The antiproliferation activity of PPEE was tested on 143B, MG-63, U-2 OS and hFOB1.19 cells using MTT assay. The pro-apoptotic and cell cycle arrest effects of PPEE were confirmed by Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry. The antimigratory, anti-invasive and antivasculogenic mimicry (VM) effects of PPEE were investigated by wound healing, Transwell and 3D culture assays. Mouse xenograft model was used to examine its anti-osteosarcoma efficacy in vivo. Hematologic profiles and hepatorenal functions were evaluated to assess the toxicity of PPEE. PPEE evidently suppressed cell proliferation of 143B, MG-63 and U-2 OS with IC50 values of 10-60[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL, but showed little cytotoxicity against normal osteoblastic cell. PPEE promoted apoptosis in 143B cell via caspase activation, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and PARP cleavage. It also induced G2/M phase arrest associated with elevated phosphorylation of CDK1, Cdc25C, Chk2 and down-regulation of cyclin B1, CDK1, Cdc25C expression. Additionally, PPEE inhibited 143B cell migration, invasion and VM formation at noncytotoxic concentrations through decreasing the expression of FAK, Mig-7, MMP2 and MMP9. Finally, daily oral administration of PPEE for four weeks exhibits potent antitumor and anti-VM activity in 143B xenograft model with low toxicity. Taken together, these findings demonstrated PPEE possesses anti-osteosarcoma and anti-VM activity in vitro and in vivo, and therefore is a potential candidate for osteosarcoma treatment.

  17. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal.

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    Banerjee, I; Bhadury, T

    2012-01-01

    Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05%) respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21%) followed by diarrhea (68 students) (25.47%), fever (42 students) (15.73%), headache (40 students) (14.98%) and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students) (8.61%). Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09%) followed by analgesics (23.21%), antipyretics (17.98%), antiulcer agents (8.99%), cough suppressant (7.87%), multivitamins (6.37%) and antihelminthics (4.49%). Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19%) felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46%) preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73%) cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62%) preferred because of urgency. Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  18. Self-medication in academic course graduate of health in a private university of the state of Rio Grande do Sul

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    Thricy Dhamer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: The World Health Organization defi nes self-medication as the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat their illnesses or symptoms. It is considered a public health problem that deserves special attention, since it presents risks, because of adverse drug reactions, bringing serious consequences and may lead to the death. To determine the prevalence and characteristics of self-medication realized by undergraduate students enrolled in health courses in a community college, as well the symptoms that led to this practice. Methods: This study was an observational and quantitative research, where it was used structured and pre-coded questionnaires to obtains the data, among students enrolled at 5th and 6th semesters of Biology, Physical Education, Nursing, Pharmacy, Physiotherapy, Medicine, Nutrition, Dentistry and Psychology at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul. Results: 342 students were evaluated, 74% female, aged between 18 and 50, which was the most prevalent age group of 21-30 years, which were 71.4% of students. The prevalence of medicines used among those surveyed was 68.7% last month, with an average of 2 medications per student. The medications were distributed by medical prescription in 282 cases (59.1%, under self-medication in 139 cases (29.1%, oriented by a pharmaceutical in 25 cases (5.2% and no response in 31 cases (6.6%. The classes of drugs most used were analgesics/antipyretics (48.2%, NSAIDs (14.2% and antacids (9.9%. The main purpose of motivating self medication were headache (14.4%, digestive disorders (13.2%, contraception (7.2% and general pain (6.0%. Conclusion: Self medication is a common practice among students in the health area, where about a third reported conduct such practice. KEYWORDS Self-medication. Student Health Occupations. Drugs.

  19. National consumption of opioid and nonopioid analgesics in Croatia: 2007–2013

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    Krnic, Darko; Anic-Matic, Andrea; Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Draganic, Pero; Zezelic, Sasa; Puljak, Livia

    2015-01-01

    Background The increased consumption of analgesics has been documented worldwide during the last 2 decades. The aim of the study was to examine the trends in opioid and nonopioid analgesic consumption in Croatia between 2007 and 2013. Methods Data on opioid consumption were extracted from the database of the national authority. All opioid and nonopioid analgesics were included in the analysis. Data were presented as defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Adequacy of opioid consumption was calculated using adequacy of consumption measure. Results During the examined 7-year period, the total consumption and total cost of all analgesics in Croatia showed continuous increase. In the M01A group (anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, nonsteroids), ibuprofen had an exponential increasing trend, and in 2011, it overtook diclofenac consumption. Ibuprofen and diclofenac had the highest consumption also in the M02A group of topical products for joint and muscular pain. Tramadol was by far the most consumed type of opioids (N02A group) and paracetamol in the group of other analgesics and antipyretics (N02B). The adequacy of consumption measure value was 0.19, indicating that Croatia is a country with a low opioid consumption. Conclusion Between 2007 and 2013, both consumption of analgesics and their cost in Croatia had an increasing trend. Comparisons with data from other countries, based on the published literature, indicate that analgesic consumption in Croatia is still relatively low. Calculation of the adequacy of opioid consumption indicated that Croatia is a country with low opioid consumption. Further studies are necessary for establishing whether current analgesic consumption in Croatia corresponds to patient needs. PMID:26357478

  20. USE OF FRESH PARTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK – A NEW CONCEPT OF FARMING

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  1. Assessing the Perceptions and Practice of Self-Medication among Bangladeshi Undergraduate Pharmacy Students

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    Md. Omar Reza Seam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the perceptions and extent of practicing self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students. Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted over a six month period (January to June 2016 among undergraduate pharmacy students in five reputable public universities of Bangladesh. It involved face-to-face interviews regarding self-medication of 250 respondents selected by simple random sampling. Results: Self-medication was reported by 88.0% of students. Antipyretics (58.40% were mostly preferred for the treatment of fever and headaches. The major cause for self-medication was minor illness (59.60%, p = 0.73 while previous prescriptions were the main source of knowledge as well as the major factor (52.80%, p = 0.94 dominating the self-medication practice. The results also demonstrated 88.80% of students had previous knowledge on self-medication and 83.60% of students always checked the information on the label; mainly the expiry date before use (85.60%. A significant (p < 0.05 portion of the students (51% male and 43% female perceived it was an acceptable practice as they considered self-medication to be a segment of self-care. Furthermore, students demonstrated differences in their response level towards the adverse effect of drugs, the health hazard by a higher dose of drug, a physician’s help in case of side effects, taking medicine without proper knowledge, and stopping selling medicine without prescription. Conclusions: Self-medication was commonly used among pharmacy students primarily for minor illnesses using over-the-counter medications. Although it is an inevitable practice for them it should be considered an important public health problem as this practice may increase the misuse or irrational use of medicines.

  2. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of prasaprohyai formula and its components against pathogenic bacteria.

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    Sattaponpan, Chisanucha; Kondo, Sumalee

    2011-12-01

    Prasaprohyai formula is a Thai Traditional Medicine which has been used for reducing feverish in child. Fever is a symptom resulting from various infections and diseases. The major cause of fever is bacterial and viral infections. The Prasaprohyai formula and its components potentially have biological activities including antipyretic and antimicrobial activities. It is in a hope to develop the formula and its components for an alternative medicine of infectious diseases. To study antibacterial activity of Prasaprohyai formula and its components against pathogenic bacteria. Prasaprohyai formula and its components were extracted by different methods, A: maceration with 95% ethanol followed by evaporation (ET), B: ET followed by freeze drying (EF) and C: water distillation (VO). All extracts were tested against clinical isolates from Thammasat University Hospital, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Disk diffusion and broth dilution methods were performed. Crude extracts of ET had higher yield of extraction than other methods. The results showed that the crude extract from different methods of Syzygium aromaticum (Linn) Merr & Perry (Flower) was effective against all bacterial strains with the inhibition zone ranging from 9 to 19 mm. The VO extract of Prasaprohyai formula showed antibacterial activity against most of the pathogenic bacteria in the present study. The activity against Streptococcus pyogenes was found in the VO extract of some components. The ET extracts of Lepidium sativum Linn, Myristica fragrans Houtt (seed) and Myristica fragrans Houtt (aril) had no antibacterial activity against all microorganism. However the EF extracts of this formula and some components were able to mostly inhibit Gram positive bacteria. The results indicated that Prasaprohyai formula and its components were able to inhibit the growth of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria including multiresistant strains. The volatile oil extracts seemed

  3. The effect of anethole containing essentials oils on nutrients digestibility of pigs

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    Ladislav Zeman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant additives and their functional components can selectively influence the intestinal microorganism growth in positive or negative direction. If the growth promotion relates with positive microorganisms and growth elimination is connected with pathogens the results is nutrients utilization improvement, stimulation of immunologic system or positive influence of intermedial metabolism. Anethole is one of these important plant metabolites. There are described following positive effects of anethole in human medicine: vasorelaxant, antithrombotic, releasing of heart function, fytoestrogenic (it mean improving of milk secretion, menstruation, promotion of menses, birth improvement, men’s hormonal changes improving, sexual libido improving, antioxidative, antifungal, improvement of derma permeability, antihelmintic, insecticidal, yeast elimination, antibacterial, antipyretic.In our work the effect of anise and fennel essential oils on nutrients utilization in pig experiment was evaluated. The trial was organized in accredited experimental stable Žabčice of Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno. The high level efficiency of experimental animals is mentioned through general parameters (average daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion. The results of nutrients utilization rate show slightly higher digestibility of nutrients in treatment with anise oil, this improvement is not higher then 1.0 %. We can see also improvement of nitrogen retention in body mass on level of 5.6 % (anise treatment compared with control group. There is low variability between experimental animals (except nitrogen retention coefficient but we can not see any statistical significance. On base of these results we can say the used phytogenic additives do not affect negatively the nutrient utilization in used concentration (0.1 % of essential oil in feed mixture and are fully eligible for animal nutrition. These results are also supported by few

  4. Cissampelos pareira Linn: Natural Source of Potent Antiviral Activity against All Four Dengue Virus Serotypes.

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    Ruchi Sood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, poses a significant global public health risk. In tropical countries such as India where periodic dengue outbreaks can be correlated to the high prevalence of the mosquito vector, circulation of all four dengue viruses (DENVs and the high population density, a drug for dengue is being increasingly recognized as an unmet public health need.Using the knowledge of traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, we developed a systematic bioassay-guided screening approach to explore the indigenous herbal bio-resource to identify plants with pan-DENV inhibitory activity. Our results show that the alcoholic extract of Cissampelos pariera Linn (Cipa extract was a potent inhibitor of all four DENVs in cell-based assays, assessed in terms of viral NS1 antigen secretion using ELISA, as well as viral replication, based on plaque assays. Virus yield reduction assays showed that Cipa extract could decrease viral titers by an order of magnitude. The extract conferred statistically significant protection against DENV infection using the AG129 mouse model. A preliminary evaluation of the clinical relevance of Cipa extract showed that it had no adverse effects on platelet counts and RBC viability. In addition to inherent antipyretic activity in Wistar rats, it possessed the ability to down-regulate the production of TNF-α, a cytokine implicated in severe dengue disease. Importantly, it showed no evidence of toxicity in Wistar rats, when administered at doses as high as 2g/Kg body weight for up to 1 week.Our findings above, taken in the context of the human safety of Cipa, based on its use in Indian traditional medicine, warrant further work to explore Cipa as a source for the development of an inexpensive herbal formulation for dengue therapy. This may be of practical relevance to a dengue-endemic resource-poor country such as India.

  5. Burden of paediatric influenza in Western Europe: a systematic review

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    Antonova Evgeniya N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza illness in children causes significant clinical and economic burden. Although some European countries have adopted influenza immunisation policies for healthy children, the debate about paediatric influenza vaccination in most countries of the European Union is ongoing. Our aim was to summarise influenza burden (in terms of health outcomes and economic burden in children in Western Europe via a systematic literature review. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (1970-April 2011 and extracted data on influenza burden in children (defined as aged ≤ 18 years from 50 publications (13 reporting laboratory-confirmed influenza; 37 reporting influenza-like illness. Results Children with laboratory-confirmed influenza experienced hospitalisations (0.3%-20%, medical visits (1.7-2.8 visits per case, antibiotic prescriptions (7%-55%, and antipyretic or other medications for symptomatic relief (76%-99%; young children and those with severe illness had the highest rates of health care use. Influenza in children also led to absenteeism from day care, school, or work for the children, their siblings, and their parents. Average (mean or median length of absence from school or day care associated with confirmed influenza ranged from 2.8 to 12.0 days for the children, from 1.3 to 6.0 days for their siblings, and from 1.3 to 6.3 days for their parents. Influenza negatively affected health-related quality of life in children with asthma, including symptoms and activities; this negative effect was smaller in vaccinated children than in non-vaccinated children. Conclusions Influenza burden in children is substantial and has a significant direct impact on the ill children and an indirect impact on their siblings and parents. The identified evidence regarding the burden of influenza may help inform both influenza antiviral use in children and paediatric immunisation policies in

  6. Sevoflurane therapy for life-threatening acute severe asthma: a case report.

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    Ruszkai, Zoltán; Bokrétás, Gergely Péter; Bartha, Péter Töhötöm

    2014-10-01

    Acute severe asthma is a life-threatening form of bronchial constriction in which the progressively worsening airway obstruction is unresponsive to the usual appropriate bronchodilator therapy. Pathophysiological changes restrict airflow, which leads to premature closure of the airway on expiration, impaired gas exchange, and dynamic hyperinflation ("air-trapping"). Additionally, patients suffering from asthma for a prolonged period of time usually have serious comorbidities. These conditions constitute a challenge during the treatment of this disease. Therapeutic interventions are designed to reduce airway resistance and improve respiratory status. To achieve therapeutic goals, appropriate bronchodilator treatment is indispensable, and mechanical ventilation under adequate sedation may also be required. The volatile anesthetic agent, sevoflurane, meets both criteria; therefore, its use can be beneficial and should be considered. A 67-yr-old Caucasian male presented with acute life-threatening asthma provoked by an assumed upper airway infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug antipyretics, complicated by chronic atrial fibrillation and hemodynamic instability. Due to frequent premature ventricular contractions, conventional treatment was considered unsafe and discontinued, and sevoflurane inhalation was initiated via the AnaConDa (Anaesthetic Conserving Device). Symptoms of life-threatening bronchospasm resolved, and the patient's respiratory status improved within hours. Adequate sedation was also achieved without any hemodynamic adverse effects. The volatile anesthetic agent, sevoflurane, is used widely in anesthesia practice. Its utility for treatment of refractory bronchospasm has been appreciated for years; however, its administration was difficult within the environment of the intensive care unit due to the need for an anesthesia machine and a scavenging system. The introduction of the AnaConDa eliminates these obstacles and makes the use of

  7. Evaluation of antiallergic and anti-anaphylactic activity of ethanolic extract of Sanseveiria trifasciata leaves (EEST) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andhare, Rohan N; Raut, Mayuresh K; Naik, Suresh R

    2012-08-01

    The leaves and rhizomes of Sansevieria trifasciata are used in folk medicine for treating bronchitis, asthma, cough, snake bite and insect bite etc. The ethanolic extract elicited analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity. Hence, it was decided to study the antiallergic activity of ethanolic extract of S. trifasciata (EEST) on various animal models as well as in vitro conditions, and also to understand possible mechanism of action. Ethanolic extract of S. trifasciata leaves (EEST) were prepared by cold maceration followed by concentration and evaporation under reduced pressure on a rotary evaporator to obtain semisolid mass. The various phytoconstituents were analyzed. The acute toxicity study of EEST was carried out in mice. The antiallergic and anaphylactic activities were evaluated using animal models viz. milk induced eosinophilia and leukocytosis, compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation, active and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and histamine induced pedal edema. In addition, EEST effect on Shultz-Dale reaction in sensitized guinea pig ileum in ex vivo and antioxidant activity by free radical scavenging by DPPH method (in vitro) were also studied. EEST treatment at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg p.o inhibited (a) milk-induced increased eosinophilia, leukocytosis, monocytes and neutrophils. (b) Prevented passive cutaneous and active anaphylactoid reactions. (c) Prevented compound 48/80 induced degranulation of sensitized mesenteric mast cells. (d) Inhibited histamine induced pedal edema formation significantly. EEST pretreatment inhibited Shultz-Dale reaction in guinea pig ileum and also elicited potent antioxidant activity. Experimental findings demonstrate promising antiallergic and anti-anaphylactic activity of EEST and also elicited potent antioxidant activity. The antiallergic and anti-anphylactic activity might be due to inhibition of release of chemical mediators from mast cells largely by phytoconstituents like steroidal saponins, triterpenoids

  8. Pharmaceuticals as emerging organic contaminants in Umgeni River water system, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunbiade, Foluso O; Moodley, Brenda

    2014-11-01

    The occurrences of pharmaceuticals and personal care products as emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) have been reported in several countries of the world except from African countries. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the occurrence of nine antibiotics, five antipyretics, atenolol, bezafibrate, and caffeine in wastewater and surface water samples from the Umgeni River. The water samples were extracted with solid-phase extraction using hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) and C-18 cartridges for the acidic and neutral drugs, respectively. The quantification was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) using the standard addition method. The method limits of detections were in the range of 0.14-0.97 μg/L while the recoveries were between 53.8 and 108.1 %. The wastewater had 100 % occurrence of the analytes studied, with caffeine having the highest concentration at 61 ± 5 μg/L and nalidixic acid being the most observed antibiotic at 31 ± 3 μg/L. The waste treatment process reduced the influent concentrations by 43.0-94.2 % before discharge except for atenolol removal that is lower. The concentrations of the analytes were lower in the surface water with most compounds having concentrations below 10 μg/L except acetaminophen and atenolol. The estuary mouth and Blue Lagoon had the highest concentrations of some of the compounds in surface water which depict downstream load. The factors governing the fate and mobility of these compounds in this environment are not fully understood yet and will require further studies.

  9. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of nanoliposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jun Zheng; Tang, Sook Nai; Chiong, Hoe Siong; Yong, Yoke Keong; Zuraini, Ahmad; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

    2015-01-01

    Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic activities. Liposomes have been shown to improve the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated drugs. The present study was conducted to compare the antinociceptive properties between liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac in vivo via different nociceptive assay models. Liposome-encapsulated diclofenac was prepared using the commercialized proliposome method. Antinociceptive effects of liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac were evaluated using formalin test, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, Randall-Selitto paw pressure test, and plantar test. The results of the writhing test showed a significant reduction of abdominal constriction in all treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. The 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac demonstrated the highest antinociceptive effect at 78.97% compared with 55.89% in the free-form group at equivalent dosage. Both liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac produced significant results in the late phase of formalin assay at a dose of 20 mg/kg, with antinociception percentages of 78.84% and 60.71%, respectively. Significant results of antinociception were also observed in both hyperalgesia assays. For Randall-Sellito assay, the highest antinociception effect of 71.38% was achieved with 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac, while the lowest antinociceptive effect of 17.32% was recorded with 0 mg/kg liposome formulation, whereas in the plantar test, the highest antinociceptive effect was achieved at 56.7% with 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac, and the lowest effect was shown with 0 mg/kg liposome formulation of 8.89%. The present study suggests that liposome-encapsulated diclofenac exhibits higher antinociceptive efficacy in a dose-dependent manner in comparison with free-form diclofenac.

  10. Diclofenac: an update on its mechanism of action and safety profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tong J

    2010-07-01

    Diclofenac is a proven, commonly prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties, and has been shown to be effective in treating a variety of acute and chronic pain and inflammatory conditions. As with all NSAIDs, diclofenac exerts its action via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with relative equipotency. However, extensive research shows the pharmacologic activity of diclofenac goes beyond COX inhibition, and includes multimodal and, in some instances, novel mechanisms of action (MOA). Literature retrieval was performed through PubMed/MEDLINE (through May 2009) using combinations of the terms diclofenac, NSAID, mechanism of action, COX-1, COX-2, and pharmacology. Reference citations resulting from publications identified in the literature search were reviewed when appropriate. This article reviews the established, putative, and emerging MOAs of diclofenac; compares the drug's pharmacologic and pharmacodynamic properties with other NSAIDs to delineate its potentially unique qualities; hypothesizes why it has been chosen for further recent formulation enhancement; and evaluates the potential effect of its MOA characteristics on safety. Research suggests diclofenac can inhibit the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor, affect arachidonic acid release and uptake, inhibit lipoxygenase enzymes, and activate the nitric oxide-cGMP antinociceptive pathway. Other novel MOAs may include the inhibition of substrate P, inhibition of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), blockage of acid-sensing ion channels, alteration of interleukin-6 production, and inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hyperalgesia. The review was not designed to compare MOAs of diclofenac with other NSAIDs. Additionally, as the highlighted putative and emerging MOAs do not have clinical data to demonstrate that these models are

  11. Two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy applied to analyzing and identifying the extracts of Baeckea frutescens medicinal materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Adiana Mohamed; Jamaludin, Fadzureena; Kiong, Ling Sui; Hashim, Nuziah; Abdullah, Zunoliza

    2014-08-05

    Baeckea frutescens or locally known as Cucur atap is used as antibacterial, antidysentery, antipyretic and diuretic agent. In Malaysia and Indonesia, they are used as an ingredient of the traditional medicine given to mothers during confinement. A three-steps infra-red (IR) macro-fingerprinting method combining conventional IR spectra, and the secondary derivative spectra with two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) have been proved to be effective methods to examine a complicated mixture such as herbal medicines. This study investigated the feasibility of employing multi-steps IR spectroscopy in order to study the main constituents of B. frutescens and its different extracts (extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR and 2D-IR can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. The structural information of the samples indicated that B. frutescens and its extracts contain a large amount of flavonoids, since some characteristic absorption peaks of flavonoids, such as ∼1600cm(-1), ∼1500cm(-1), ∼1450cm(-1), and ∼1270cm(-1) can be observed. The macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectra can not only provide the information of main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method is rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Arenavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The infectious syndromes associated with arenaviruses in South America are four: febrile syndrome of viral origin; Haemorrhagic fevers with or without neurological involvement; Aseptic meningitis and meningo-encephalitis. Among the Arenavirus of the new world is the Tacaribe complex where the viruses are found: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Machupo (Bolivia and Sabiá (Brazil, which are characterized by hemorrhagic fevers. In Colombia the arenavirus Pichindé was isolated in 1965, from the rodent Oryzomys albigularis, in the valley of Pichindé (Valle del Cauca. This arenavirus produces a persistent infection in its host and is not pathogenic for the man. There is evidence of the circulation of the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba, but there are no cases diagnosed in humans; In Colombia, the genome of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in the brains of rodents Mus musculus. The diagnosis is based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and the suspicion of a patient with fever in endemic areas, where infections such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis, sepsis of bacterial origin and rickectomy have been excluded. Virus isolation in the feverish period is the gold standart, but it implies contact with the virus that is highly infectious, which represents a public health problem. Serology has been used for diagnosis, but there is no commercial evidence and only research groups and large public health laboratories have these tests. Most of the patients present a moderate severity, which needs adequate hydration, antipyretics and anti-inflammatories. All patients with severe signs should be aggressively treated. The use of drugs has not demonstrated a decrease in mortality but a significant reduction in viremia.

  13. Topical piroxicam in vitro release and in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects from palm oil esters-based nanocream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkarim, Muthanna F; Abdullah, Ghassan Z; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Salman, Ibrahim M; Ameer, Omar Z; Yam, Mun F; Mahdi, Elrashid S; Sattar, Munavvar A; Basri, Mahiran; Noor, Azmin M

    2010-11-04

    During recent years, there has been growing interest in use of topical vehicle systems to assist in drug permeation through the skin. Drugs of interest are usually those that are problematic when given orally, such as piroxicam, a highly effective anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, and analgesic, but with the adverse effect of causing gastrointestinal ulcers. The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic activity of a newly synthesized palm oil esters (POEs)-based nanocream containing piroxicam for topical delivery. A ratio of 25:37:38 of POEs: external phase: surfactants (Tween 80:Span 20, in a ratio 80:20), respectively was selected as the basic composition for the production of a nanocream with ideal properties. Various nanocreams were prepared using phosphate-buffered saline as the external phase at three different pH values. The abilities of these formulae to deliver piroxicam were assessed in vitro using a Franz diffusion cell fitted with a cellulose acetate membrane and full thickness rat skin. These formulae were also evaluated in vivo by comparing their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities with those of the currently marketed gel. After eight hours, nearly 100% of drug was transferred through the artificial membrane from the prepared formula F3 (phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.4 as the external phase) and the marketed gel. The steady-state flux through rat skin of all formulae tested was higher than that of the marketed gel. Pharmacodynamically, nanocream formula F3 exhibited the highest anti- inflammatory and analgesic effects as compared with the other formulae. The nanocream containing the newly synthesized POEs was successful for trans-dermal delivery of piroxicam.

  14. Piroxicam inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astani, A; Albrecht, U; Schnitzler, P

    2015-05-01

    Piroxicam is a potent, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) which also exhibits antipyretic activity. The antiviral effect of piroxicam against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was examined in vitro on RC-37 monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. Piroxicam was dissolved in ethanol or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined at 4 μg/ml and 75 μg/ml, respectively. The IC50 for the standard antiherpetic drug acyclovir was determined at 1.6 μM. At non-cytotoxic concentrations of these piroxicam solutions, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 62.4% for ethanolic piroxicam and 72.8% for piroxicam in DMSO. The mode of antiviral action of these drugs was assessed by time-on-addition assays. No antiviral effect was observed when cells were incubated with piroxicam prior to infection with HSV-1 or when HSV-1 infected cells were treated with dissolved piroxicam. Herpesvirus infection was, however, significantly inhibited when HSV-1 was incubated with piroxicam prior to the infection of cells. These results indicate that piroxicam affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, suggesting that piroxicam exerts a direct antiviral effect on HSV-1. Free herpesvirus was sensitive to piroxicam in a concentration-dependent manner and the inhibition of HSV-1 appears to occur before entering the cell but not after penetration of the virus into the cell. Considering the lipophilic nature of piroxicam, which enables it to penetrate the skin, it might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections.

  15. Profile of antibiotic consumption, sensitivity and resistance in an urban area of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripi, Sunita Bhargavi; Thadepalli, Venu Gopala Rao; Khagga, Mukkanti; Tripuraribhatla, Prasanna Krishna; Bharadwaj, Dinesh Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotics are an important category of drugs in which indiscriminate use can affect the susceptibility patterns among infectious organisms, resulting in antibiotic resistance. Data on antibiotic usage and susceptibility patterns were collected from public and private health centres in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India, through the use of questionnaires. The data collected were then coded, tabulated, computed and evaluated using statistical analysis. The consumption profile of the different categories of drugs used in public and private hospitals was as follows: nutrition and metabolism products 19.0%; gastrointestinal disorder-related drugs 18.5%; antibiotics 16.8%; anti-pyretics and anti-analgesics 20.6%. These drugs were found to be in high demand. Among the antibiotics, aminoglycosides (amikacin), quinolones (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin), tetracyclines (doxycycline), penicillin (ampicillin) and sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) were the most commonly prescribed drugs for antibiotic therapy. 46% of the culture laboratory reports were positive with the following organism profile: Escherichia coli (36%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16%), Staphylococcus aureus (29%), Enterococcus faecalis (9%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10%). In terms of the sensitivity profile of antibacterials, amikacin (66.9%) was the only antibiotic showing sensitivity patterns, while the majority of antibiotics, such as cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, amoxicillin, gentamycin and norfloxacin, had acquired a resistance rate of 55.1%-80.6%. The results of this study suggest that indiscriminate prescription and consumption of new broad-spectrum antibiotics against sensitive organisms results in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to curb the excessive use of antibiotics in local hospitals in order to control the trend of increasing antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics.

  16. Fructose diet alleviates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungjoon; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Chlipala, George; Green, Stefan; Lee, Hyunwoo; Chang, Eugene B; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic that can cause hepatotoxicity due to production of toxic metabolites via cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 1a2 and Cyp2e1. Previous studies have shown conflicting effects of fructose (the major component in Western diet) on the susceptibility to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. To evaluate the role of fructose-supplemented diet in modulating the extent of APAP-induced liver injury, male C57BL/6J mice were given 30% (w/v) fructose in water (or regular water) for 8 weeks, followed by oral administration of APAP. APAP-induced liver injury (determined by serum levels of liver enzymes) was decreased by two-fold in mice pretreated with fructose. Fructose-treated mice exhibited (~1.5 fold) higher basal glutathione levels and (~2 fold) lower basal (mRNA and activity) levels of Cyp1a2 and Cyp2e1, suggesting decreased bioactivation of APAP and increased detoxification of toxic metabolite in fructose-fed mice. Hepatic mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 was also found increased in fructose-fed mice. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the cecal samples of vehicle groups showed that the fructose diet altered gut bacterial community, leading to increased α-diversity. The abundance of several bacterial taxa including the genus Anaerostipes was found to be significantly correlated with the levels of hepatic Cyp2e1, Cyp1a2 mRNA, and glutathione. Together, these results suggest that the fructose-supplemented diet decreases APAP-induced liver injury in mice, in part by reducing metabolic activation of APAP and inducing detoxification of toxic metabolites, potentially through altered composition of gut microbiota.

  17. Clinical and virological factors associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with acute respiratory infection: a two-year prospective study in general practice medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, Laetitia; Masse, Shirley; Capai, Lisandru; Blanchon, Thierry; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; van der Werf, Sylvie; Hanslik, Thomas; Charrel, Remi; Falchi, Alessandra

    2017-11-22

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, such as diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain and nausea are not an uncommon manifestation of an acute respiratory infection (ARI). We therefore evaluated clinical and microbiological factors associated with the presence of GI symptoms in patients consulting a general practitioner (GP) for ARI. Nasopharyngeal swabs, stool specimens and clinical data from patients presenting to GPs with an ARI were prospectively collected during two winter seasons (2014-2016). Samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR for 12 respiratory pathogen groups and for 12 enteric pathogens. Two hundred and four of 331 included patients (61.6%) were positive for at least one respiratory pathogen. Sixty-nine stools (20.8%) were positive for at least one pathogen (respiratory and/or enteric). GI symptoms were more likely declared in case of laboratory confirmed-enteric infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.2-9.9]; p = 0.02) or human coronavirus (HCoV) infection (aOR = 2.7; [1.2-6.8]; p = 0.02). Consumption of antipyretic medication before the consultation seemed to reduce the risk of developing GI symptoms for patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza (aOR = 0.3; [0.1-0.6]; p = 0.002). The presence of GI symptoms in ARI patients could not be explained by the detection of respiratory pathogens in stools. However, the detection of enteric pathogens in stool samples could explained by the presence of GI symptoms in some of ARI cases. The biological mechanisms explaining the association between the presence of HCoVs in nasopharynx and GI symptoms need to be explored.

  18. Frequency of cardiac defects among children at echocardiography centre in a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.S.; Majeed, R.; Channer, M.S.; Saleem, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess frequency of cardiac defects among children from birth to 12 years of age on each Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted at echocardiography centre in coronary care unit at Bahawal Victoria Hby Paediatric Transthoracic echo probe; 2-D colour Doppler, Acuson CV-70 and Niemo-30 echocardiography machines. Mothers of children with cardiac defects were interviewed at the echocardiography centre. Variables included were A- Muscular plus Vascular defects; B- Valvular defects; C-Pericardial effusion; D- Dextrocardia and E- Congestive cardiac failure. History of children for sore throat followed by joint pains; history of mothers for drug intake (antihypertensive, antipyretic, anti-emetic, hypoglycaemic) as well as chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, anaemia) during pregnancy were surveyed. Parity of mothers, their cousin marriages, and family socio-economic status was also inquired. The results were tabulated, analyzed and finally subjected to suitable test of significant (SR of proportion) to find out statistical significant if any. Results: It was found that out of 150 patients, 76 (50.66%) were suffering from Cardiac muscular and Vascular defects, 61 (40.66%) Valvular defects, 7 (4.66%) Pericardial effusion, 2 (1.33%) Dextrocardia and 4 (2.66%) from Congestive Cardiac Failure. According to age, 54 (36%) were from birth to 3 years of age and 51 (34%) from 10 to 12 years. There was history of Rheumatic fever among 45 (30%) children. There were 106 (70.6%) children from lower socio-economic class and 79 (52.6%) parents had history of cousin marriages. Conclusion: Frequency of cardiac defects was more in children of male sex, lower socio-economic group, from birth to three years age and children from primipara mothers in our specified locality. Rheumatic fever, cousin's marriage, and prescribed drugs intake during pregnancy (for metabolic and hormonal disorders) were other contributors to cardiac defects. (author)

  19. Predictors of medication use in the Roma population in Spain: a population-based national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pérez, M; Hernández Barrera, V; López de Andrés, A; Jiménez-Trujillo, I; Jiménez-García, R; Carrasco-Garrido, P

    2015-05-01

    To describe the prevalence of prescribed and self-medicated use of medication in the Spanish Roma population, and identify the associated factors. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data from the first National Health Survey conducted on the Roma population in Spain were used. The sample comprised 1000 Spanish Roma adults of both sexes aged ≥16 years. Answers (yes/no) to the question, 'In the last two weeks have you taken the following medicines [in reference to a list of medicines that might be used by the population] and were they prescribed for you by a doctor?' were used to ascertain 'medication use'. 'Self-medication' referred to use of these medicines without medical prescription. Using multivariate logistic regression models, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to identify associated factors. The overall prevalence of medication use in the Roma population for both sexes was 69.1%, and 38.7% was self-medicated. Females reported higher use of medication than males (75.1% vs 62.3%); however, self-medication was higher among males. Analgesics and antipyretics were used most often (35.8%). Among males, the variables that were independently and significantly associated with a higher probability of medication use were: age; negative perception of health; presence of chronic disease (OR 2.81; 95% CI 1.67-4.73); and medical visits (OR 4.51; 95% CI 2.54-8.01). The variables were the same among females, except for age. A high percentage of the Spanish Roma population use medication, and a significant proportion of them self-medicate. The presence of chronic diseases, a negative perception of health and medical consultations were associated with increased use of medication in the study population. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Experience of safety monitoring in the context of a prospective observational study of artemether-lumefantrine in rural Tanzania: lessons learned for pharmacovigilance reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanywanyi Abdunoor M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To identify and implement strategies that help meet safety monitoring requirements in the context of an observational study for artemether-lumefantrine (AL administered as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in rural Tanzania. Methods Pharmacovigilance procedures were developed through collaboration between the investigating bodies, the relevant regulatory authority and the manufacturer of AL. Training and refresher sessions on the pharmacovigilance system were provided for healthcare workers from local health facilities and field recorders of the Ifakara Health Demographic Surveillance System (IHDSS. Three distinct channels for identification of adverse events (AEs and serious adverse events (SAEs were identified and implemented. Passive reporting took place through IHDSS and health care facilities, starting in October 2007. The third channel was through solicited reporting that was included in the context of a survey on AL as part of the ALIVE (Artemether-Lumefantrine In Vulnerable patients: Exploring health impact study (conducted only in March-April 2008. Results Training was provided for 40 healthcare providers (with refresher training 18 months later and for six field recorders. During the period 1st September 2007 to 31st March 2010, 67 AEs were reported including 52 under AL, five under sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, one under metakelfin, two after antibiotics; the remaining seven were due to anti-pyretic or anti-parasite medications. Twenty patients experienced SAEs; in 16 cases, a relation to AL was suspected. Six of the 20 cases were reported within 24 hours of occurrence. Discussion Safety monitoring and reporting is possible even in settings with weak health infrastructure. Reporting can be enhanced by regular and appropriate training of healthcare providers. SMS text alerts provide a practical solution to communication challenges. Conclusion Experience gained in this setting could help to improve

  1. Effect of acetaminophen on osteoblastic differentiation and migration of MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Fumio; Higashi, Sen; Ohsumi, Tomoko; Shiiba, Shunji; Watanabe, Seiji; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP, acetaminophen, paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic/antipyretic with weak inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase (COX) compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The mechanism of action of APAP is mediated by its metabolite that activates transient receptor potential channels, including transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) or the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). However, the exact molecular mechanism and target underlying the cellular actions of APAP remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of APAP on osteoblastic differentiation and cell migration, with a particular focus on TRP channels and CB1. Effects of APAP on osteoblastic differentiation and cell migration of MC3T3-E1, a mouse pre-osteoblast cell line, were assessed by the increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and both wound-healing and transwell-migration assays, respectively. APAP dose-dependently inhibited osteoblastic differentiation, which was well correlated with the effects on COX activity compared with other NSAIDs. In contrast, cell migration was promoted by APAP, and this effect was not correlated with COX inhibition. None of the agonists or antagonists of TRP channels and the CB receptor affected the APAP-induced cell migration, while the effect of APAP on cell migration was abolished by down-regulating TRPV4 gene expression. APAP inhibited osteoblastic differentiation via COX inactivation while it promoted cell migration independently of previously known targets such as COX, TRPV1, TRPA1 channels, and CB receptors, but through the mechanism involving TRPV4. APAP may have still unidentified molecular targets that modify cellular functions. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Adverse drug reactions and drug–drug interactions with over-the-counter NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas Moore,1 Charles Pollack,2 Paul Butkerait2 1Department of Pharmacology, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; 2Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Madison, NJ, USA Abstract: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such as ibuprofen have a long history of safe and effective use as both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC analgesics/antipyretics. The mechanism of action of all NSAIDs is through reversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs including gastrointestinal bleeding as well as cardiovascular and renal effects have been reported with NSAID use. In many cases, ADRs may occur because of drug–drug interactions (DDIs between the NSAID and a concomitant medication. For example, DDIs have been reported when NSAIDs are coadministered with aspirin, alcohol, some antihypertensives, antidepressants, and other commonly used medications. Because of the pharmacologic nature of these interactions, there is a continuum of risk in that the potential for an ADR is dependent on total drug exposure. Therefore, consideration of dose and duration of NSAID use, as well as the type or class of comedication administered, is important when assessing potential risk for ADRs. Safety findings from clinical studies evaluating prescription-strength NSAIDs may not be directly applicable to OTC dosing. Health care providers can be instrumental in educating patients that using OTC NSAIDs at the lowest effective dose for the shortest required duration is vital to balancing efficacy and safety. This review discusses some of the most clinically relevant DDIs reported with NSAIDs based on major sites of ADRs and classes of medication, with a focus on OTC ibuprofen, for which the most data are available. Keywords: adverse effects, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal

  3. National consumption of opioid and nonopioid analgesics in Croatia: 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnic D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Darko Krnic,1 Andrea Anic-Matic,2 Svjetlana Dosenovic,2 Pero Draganic,1 Sasa Zezelic,1 Livia Puljak2 1Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices, Zagreb, 2Laboratory for Pain Research, School of Medicine, University of Split, Split, Croatia Background: The increased consumption of analgesics has been documented worldwide during the last 2 decades. The aim of the study was to examine the trends in opioid and nonopioid analgesic consumption in Croatia between 2007 and 2013. Methods: Data on opioid consumption were extracted from the database of the national authority. All opioid and nonopioid analgesics were included in the analysis. Data were presented as defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Adequacy of opioid consumption was calculated using adequacy of consumption measure. Results: During the examined 7-year period, the total consumption and total cost of all analgesics in Croatia showed continuous increase. In the M01A group (anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, nonsteroids, ibuprofen had an exponential increasing trend, and in 2011, it overtook diclofenac consumption. Ibuprofen and diclofenac had the highest consumption also in the M02A group of topical products for joint and muscular pain. Tramadol was by far the most consumed type of opioids (N02A group and paracetamol in the group of other analgesics and antipyretics (N02B. The adequacy of consumption measure value was 0.19, indicating that Croatia is a country with a low opioid consumption. Conclusion: Between 2007 and 2013, both consumption of analgesics and their cost in Croatia had an increasing trend. Comparisons with data from other countries, based on the published literature, indicate that analgesic consumption in Croatia is still relatively low. Calculation of the adequacy of opioid consumption indicated that Croatia is a country with low opioid consumption. Further studies are necessary for establishing whether current analgesic consumption in

  4. The pharmacological profile of CGP 28238, a novel highly potent anti-inflammatory compound.

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    Wiesenberg-Boettcher, I; Schweizer, A; Green, J R; Mueller, K; Maerki, F; Pfeilschifter, J

    1989-01-01

    CGP 28238 (6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methylsulfonylamino-1-indanone ) exhibits very potent anti-inflammatory activity in rat adjuvant arthritis (ED40 = 0.05 mg/kg, p.o.) and pronounced analgesic and antipyretic activity in acute models in mice and rats (ED50 2-5 mg/kg, p.o.), but has clear advantages over reference NSAIDs with respect to gastro-intestinal tolerability. Threshold doses for gastro-intestinal ulcerogenicity in rats after single and repeated (10x) doses were found to be 30 mg/kg, p.o., and prostaglandin (PGE2) production in rat gastric and ileal mucosa was only marginally inhibited (ED50 greater than 30 mg/kg, p.o.). On the other hand, PGE2 production in rat inflammatory exudate and thromboxane synthesis in rat blood were inhibited with ED50 values of less than or equal to 2 mg/kg, p.o. Although CGP28238 does not inhibit cyclooxygenase in bovine seminal vesicle microsomal preparations (IC50 greater than 10(-3) mol/l), potent inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis was shown in various in vitro systems using human and animal cells with IC50 values of less than 10(-6) mol/l. IL-1-stimulated bone resorption and PGE2 production in murine calvarial cultures were inhibited with IC50 values of 3 x 10(-7) and 2 x 10(-8) mol/l, respectively. 5-Lipoxygenase (murine macrophages), phospholipase A2 (human PMN) and phospholipase C (human platelets) were not inhibited. CGP 28238 may represent a novel highly potent anti-inflammatory compound with improved gastro-intestinal safety.

  5. Fever Management in Parents who Have Children Aged 0-5 Year

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    S. Reshadat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Fever is very common in children and is usually due to self-limiting viral infections. Management of fever is based on culture, community and religion of people all over the world. Parental concerns arise in part because of the belief that fever is a disease rather than a symptom or sign of illness. Misconceptions about childhood fevers heighten parents' concerns leading to inappropriate use of antipyretic drugs or overdosing may cause drug toxicity and frequent use of health care services. This study aimed to identify parental views of fever management in their children aged 0-5 yr.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, 350 parents with children less than 5 years referred to various units of clinics covered by community oriented center of Kermanshah, completed the research questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were determined and the data was analyzed by SPSS Software.Results: Findings showed that the first medical care was sponging (53.1%. Sponging with saltwater was common (47.7% and Over - the - counter medications were (30%. Acetaminophen was the first drug in 90% of the cases. However, many parents express high levels of anxiety so that they seek for self-medication with antibiotic 34% of the cases. Our study showed that correlation between over concern about fever management and parents who had a positive past medical history in their children with P=0.02, parents education (P=0.018 and in employed mothers (P=0.005 was statistically significant.Conclusion: Considerable efforts will be required to educate parents about fever and its management.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(2:28-33

  6. Effects of Cornus mas L. and Morus rubra L. extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity: an electrophysiological and biochemical study.

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    Tubaş, Filiz; Per, Sedat; Taşdemir, Abdulkadir; Bayram, Ayşe Kaçar; Yıldırım, Mehmet; Uzun, Aydın; Saraymen, Recep; Gümüş, Hakan; Elmalı, Ferhan; Per, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, Morus rubra L. (Moraceae) (red mulberry) and Cornus mas L. (Cornacea) (cornelian cherry) fruits are eaten fresh and are also used in marmalades, juices, jam, natural dyes in Turkey and are believed to have beneficial effects in case of multiple health issues such as antipyretic, diarrhea and intestinal parasites. However, the effects of M. rubra and C. mas on epilepsy has not been known. This study evaluates the effects of M. rubra and C. mas extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. Sixty Wistar rats randomly divided into ten groups (n=6): control, sham, penicillin, penicillin+M. rubra extract (2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) and penicillin+C. mas extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg). Epileptiform activity was induced by using penicillin (500 IU, i.c.) and electrocorticogram records (150 min) were obtained. Also, biochemical analysis in blood samples were evaluated. According to the electrocorticogram analysis, the effective dose was detected as 10 mg/kg for both C. mas and M. rubra. This dose decreased the spike frequencies of convulsions while amplitude wasn't changed by both substances. In erythrocyte studies, there were significant differences regarding nitric oxide in the control, sham and penicillin groups. There were significant differences regarding malondialdehyde in all groups. In the plasma, there were significant differences among groups regarding xanthine oxidase in the penicillin‑C. mas and penicillin‑M. rubra groups. There were differences regarding malondialdehyde in the penicillin-C. mas and M. rubra-C. mas groups. Both extracts reduced the frequency of epileptiform activity. After administration of the extracts malondialdehyde levels decreased also in both erythrocytes and plasma.

  7. Epidemiology of acute poisoning in children presenting to the poisoning treatment center at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt, 2009–2013

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    Azab, Sonya M. S.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hayes, Bryan D.; El-Setouhy, Maged; Smith, Gordon S.; Sakr, Mahmoud Lotfy; Tawfik, Hany; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric poisonings represent a major and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Epidemiologic information about poisoning among children in many lower- and middle-income countries is scarce. This study describes the epidemiology of acute poisonings in children presenting to Ain Shams University's Poisoning Treatment Center (ASU-PTC) in Cairo and determines the causative agents and characteristics of acute poisoning in several pediatric age groups. Methods This retrospective study involved acutely poisoned patients, 0 to 18 years of age, who presented to the ASU-PTC between 1/1/2009 and 12/31/2013. Data were extracted from electronic records maintained by the ASU-PTC. Collected data included demographics, substance of exposure, circumstances of the poisoning, patient disposition, and outcome. Results During the 5-year study period, 38,470 patients meeting our criteria were treated by the ASU-PTC; 19,987 (52%) were younger than 6 years of age; 4,196 (11%) were 6 to 12 years; and 14,287 (37%) were >12 years. Unintentional poisoning accounted for 68.5% of the ingestions, though among adolescents 84.1% of ingestions were with self-harm intent. In all age groups, the most frequent causative drugs were non-opioid analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics. The most common nonpharmaceutical agents were corrosives in preschool children and pesticides in adolescents. Most patients had no/minor effects (29,174 [75.8%]); hospitalization rates were highest among adolescents. There were 119 deaths (case fatality rate of 0.3), primarily from pesticide ingestion. Conclusion Poisoning in preschool children is mainly unintentional and commonly due to nonpharmaceutical agents while poisoning in adolescents is mainly intentional (self-harm). Pesticides, mainly organophosphorous compounds and carbamates, were the most frequent agent leading to morbidity and mortality. PMID:26653953

  8. Epidemiology of acute poisoning in children presenting to the poisoning treatment center at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt, 2009-2013.

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    Azab, Sonya M S; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hirshon, John Mark; Hayes, Bryan D; El-Setouhy, Maged; Smith, Gordon S; Sakr, Mahmoud Lotfy; Tawfik, Hany; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric poisonings represent a major and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Epidemiologic information about poisoning among children in many lower- and middle-income countries is scarce. This study describes the epidemiology of acute poisonings in children presenting to Ain Shams University's Poisoning Treatment Center (ASU-PTC) in Cairo and determines the causative agents and characteristics of acute poisoning in several pediatric age groups. This retrospective study involved acutely poisoned patients, 0-18 years of age, who presented to the ASU-PTC between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. Data were extracted from electronic records maintained by the ASU-PTC. Collected data included demographics, substance of exposure, circumstances of the poisoning, patient disposition, and outcome. During the 5-year study period, 38 470 patients meeting our criteria were treated by the ASU-PTC; 19 987 (52%) were younger than 6 years of age; 4196 (11%) were 6-12 years; and 14 287 (37%) were >12 years. Unintentional poisoning accounted for 68.5% of the ingestions, though among adolescents 84.1% of ingestions were with self-harm intent. In all age groups, the most frequent causative drugs were non-opioid analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics. The most common nonpharmaceutical agents were corrosives in preschool children and pesticides in adolescents. Most patients had no/minor effects (29 174 [75.8%]); hospitalization rates were highest among adolescents. There were 119 deaths (case fatality rate of 0.3), primarily from pesticide ingestion. Poisoning in preschool children is mainly unintentional and commonly due to nonpharmaceutical agents whereas poisoning in adolescents is mainly intentional (self-harm). Pesticides, mainly organophosphorous compounds and carbamates, were the most frequent agents leading to morbidity and mortality.

  9. Parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding fever in children: an interview study

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    Maria Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms. It causes significant worry and concern for parents. Every year there are numerous cases of over- and under-dosing with antipyretics. Caregivers seek reassurance from a variety of sources including healthcare practitioners. The aim of this study was to describe parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding management of childhood fever in children aged 5 years and under. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 parents at six ante-natal clinics in the south west of Ireland during March and April 2015. The Francis method was used to detect data saturation and thereby identify sample size. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Twenty-three parents participated in the study. Five themes emerged from the data: assessing and managing the fever; parental knowledge and beliefs regarding fever; knowledge source; pharmaceutical products; initiatives. Parents illustrated a good knowledge of fever as a symptom. However, management practices varied between participants. Parents revealed a reluctance to use medication in the form of suppositories. There was a desire for more accessible, consistent information to be made available for use by parents when their child had a fever or febrile illness. Conclusion Parents indicated that further initiatives are required to provide trustworthy information on the management of fever and febrile illness in children. Healthcare professionals should play a significant role in educating parents in how to manage fever and febrile illnesses in their children. The accessible nature and location of pharmacies could provide useful support for both parents and General Practitioners.

  10. Acute pain management: acetaminophen and ibuprofen are often under-dosed.

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    Milani, Gregorio P; Benini, Franca; Dell'Era, Laura; Silvagni, Davide; Podestà, Alberto F; Mancusi, Rossella Letizia; Fossali, Emilio F

    2017-07-01

    Most children with pain are managed by either acetaminophen or ibuprofen. However, no study has so far investigated if children are prescribed adequate doses of acetaminophen or ibuprofen in emergency department. Aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence of under-dosage of these drugs in children presenting with pain in emergency department. Children initially prescribed with acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain management were included. The χ 2 automatic interaction detection method was used considering the percentage variation from the minimum of the appropriate dose as dependent variable while prescribed drug, age, gender, body weight, type of hospital (pediatric or general), and availability of internal guidelines on pediatric pain management in the emergency department as independent variables. Data on 1471 children managed for pain were available. Under-dosage was prescribed in 893 subjects (61%), of whom 577 were prescribed acetaminophen and 316 ibuprofen. The use of acetaminophen suppositories, body weight 40 kg, and the use of oral ibuprofen identified clusters of children associated with under-dosage prescription. Prescription of acetaminophen and ibuprofen was frequently under-dosed. The use of suppositories, lower and higher body weight, and the use of ibuprofen were associated with under-dosage. Under-dosing may reflect prescription of anti-pyretic doses. Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco-Observational Study Register (RSO). Registration code: PIERRE/1 What is Known: • Pain is frequent in children presented to emergency department. • International recommendations on pain management are often not implemented. What is New: • Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were frequently underdosed in children prescribed for pain in the Italian emergency departments. • Under-dosage may be related to the habit of using acetaminophen and ibuprofen in the recommended range for fever treatment.

  11. Parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding fever in children: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Maria; Sahm, Laura J; Shiely, Frances; O'Sullivan, Ronan; McGillicuddy, Aoife; McCarthy, Suzanne

    2016-07-11

    Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms. It causes significant worry and concern for parents. Every year there are numerous cases of over- and under-dosing with antipyretics. Caregivers seek reassurance from a variety of sources including healthcare practitioners. The aim of this study was to describe parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding management of childhood fever in children aged 5 years and under. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 parents at six ante-natal clinics in the south west of Ireland during March and April 2015. The Francis method was used to detect data saturation and thereby identify sample size. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Twenty-three parents participated in the study. Five themes emerged from the data: assessing and managing the fever; parental knowledge and beliefs regarding fever; knowledge source; pharmaceutical products; initiatives. Parents illustrated a good knowledge of fever as a symptom. However, management practices varied between participants. Parents revealed a reluctance to use medication in the form of suppositories. There was a desire for more accessible, consistent information to be made available for use by parents when their child had a fever or febrile illness. Parents indicated that further initiatives are required to provide trustworthy information on the management of fever and febrile illness in children. Healthcare professionals should play a significant role in educating parents in how to manage fever and febrile illnesses in their children. The accessible nature and location of pharmacies could provide useful support for both parents and General Practitioners.

  12. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa Bloodstream Infection in a Case of Duodenal Perforation

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    Rajmane

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rhodotorula species are widespread in nature and can be isolated from a variety of sources, including air, soil, seawater, plants, and the household environment. They are also widely distributed in hospitals, and their presence could be considered a risk factor for hospitalized patients. These commensal yeasts have emerged as a cause of life-threatening fungemia in patients with depressed immune systems. Case Presentation We report a case of duodenal perforation with peritonitis in a 36-year-old female who was scheduled immediately for exploratory laparotomy followed by closure of perforation and omentopexy. The peritoneal fluid was sent to the microbiology laboratory for routine investigations. On the 4th postoperative day, the patient had a fever that did not subside with antipyretics; hence, blood cultures were sent the next day. The peritoneal fluid and blood culture reports both yielded Rhodotorula mucilaginosa after 3 days of incubation. The patient was started on IV amphotericin B therapy, which resulted in a favorable outcome. Conclusions In humans, Rhodotorula species have been recovered as commensal organisms from the nails, the skin, and the respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI, and urinary tracts. Due to their presence in the GI flora, broad-spectrum antibiotics could contribute to their overgrowth in the GI tract. Localized infections, such as peritonitis, due to Rhodotorula species following infected peritoneal dialysis catheters have been reported in the literature. However, in our case, it seems possible that the fungus might have entered the bloodstream through disruption of the GI mucosa, and to prove this, further study is mandatory. It should also be noted that both amphotericin B and flucytosine have good activity against Rhodotorula in vitro, whereas fluconazole is inactive.

  13. Management of viral oral ulcers in children using Chinese herbal medicine: A report of two cases.

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    Lee, Yi-Chiao; Wang, Ting-Hao; Chen, Shih-Yu; Lin, Hsiang-Ling; Tsai, Ming-Yen

    2017-06-01

    Viral oral ulcers are common presentations in pediatric clinics. Although self-limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and lead to dehydration. Despite the widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for pediatric upper respiratory disease in Taiwan, there is little evidence for its effectiveness as an antipyretic or in aiding ulcer healing for children with viral oral ulcers. We report two cases of children who presented with viral oral ulcers to illustrate the potential efficacy of CHM treatment in recovery from herpangina (HA) and herpetic gingivostomatitis (HGS). A 10-year-old girl with HA presented with an acute febrile illness associated with small vesicular or ulcerative lesions on the posterior oropharyngeal structures. The family refused western medicine due to a prior anaphylactic skin rash when she had taken sulfa drugs. The other patient was a 4-year-old boy with complaints of painful ulcers and hemorrhagic crusts on the lips. He was diagnosed with HGS and had received ibuprofen and supportive treatments such as hydration and local anesthesia spray for days, characterized by fever, anorexia, and nausea to no effect. Because the patients were suffering from the damp-heat syndrome according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) differentiation, both were treated using the same herbal formulas powder prescription, named Liang Ge San (LGS) and Gan Lu Xiao Du Dan (GLXDD). After several days of CHM treatment, the oral ulcers were in regression. Follow-up of the frontal view in both patients showed satisfactory disappearance of the sick furred tongue. The results of these case reports show that the early prescription of CHM is an effective modality of alternative treatment for viral oral ulcers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CHM treatment hastening the recovery from febrile disease with viral oral ulcers in Taiwan. Future experimental studies to determine the definitive mechanism and clinical trials

  14. Bee venom phospholipase A2 protects against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury by modulating regulatory T cells and IL-10 in mice.

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    Kim, Hyunseong; Keum, Dong June; Kwak, Jung won; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Bae, Hyunsu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from bee venom against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells (Treg) in mice. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic, but an acute or cumulative overdose of acetaminophen can cause severe hepatic failure. Tregs have been reported to possess protective effects in various liver diseases and kidney toxicity. We previously found that bee venom strongly increased the Treg population in splenocytes and subsequently suppressed immune disorders. More recently, we found that the effective component of bee venom is PLA2. Thus, we hypothesized that PLA2 could protect against liver injury induced by acetaminophen. To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of PLA2, C57BL/6 mice or interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10-/-) mice were injected with PLA2 once a day for five days and sacrificed 24 h (h) after acetaminophen injection. The blood sera were collected 0, 6, and 24 h after acetaminophen injection for the analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). PLA2-injected mice showed reduced levels of serum AST, ALT, proinflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO) compared with the PBS-injected control mice. However, IL-10 was significantly increased in the PLA2-injected mice. These hepatic protective effects were abolished in Treg-depleted mice by antibody treatment and in IL-10-/- mice. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the protective effects of PLA2 against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity can be mediated by modulating the Treg and IL-10 production.

  15. Assessment of the effect of Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. extract on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells

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    Kakali De

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. (BM, a traditional Ayurvedic medicine, used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. BM extract have been extensively investigated by several authors for their neuropharmacological effects. In nuclear medicine, red blood cells (RBC labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc have several clinical applications. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labeling of RBC with 99mTc. As Bacopa monnieri is extensively used in medicine, we evaluated its influence on the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins using technetium-99m (99mTc. This labeling procedure depends on a reducing agent and usually stannous chloride is used. Blood was incubated with BM extracts. Stannous chloride solution and 99mTc were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P and blood cells (BC were isolated. Samples of P or BC were also precipitated, centrifuged and insoluble fraction (IF and soluble fraction (SF were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI in BC, IF-BC and IF-P were calculated. The %ATI significantly decreased on BC from 95.53±0.45 to 35.41±0.44, on IF-P from 80.20±1.16 to 7.40±0.69 and on IF-BC from 73.31±1.76 to 21.26±1.40. The morphology study of RBC revealed important morphological alterations due to treatment with BM extracts. We suggest that the BM extract effect could be explained by an inhibition of the stannous and pertechnetate ions or oxidation of the stannous ion or by damages induced in the plasma membrane.

  16. Pattern of medication selling and self-medication practices: A study from Punjab, Pakistan.

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    Aziz, Muhammad Majid; Masood, Imran; Yousaf, Mahreen; Saleem, Hammad; Ye, Dan; Fang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Access to medicines without prescription is a major contributing factor for self-medication practices. This study was designed to examine the ratio of non-prescribed medicines sales and self-medication practices in Punjab, Pakistan. This study also evaluates the reasons for self-medication within its communities. An observational study was conducted in 272 systemically selected pharmacies to analyze medicines-related sales, with or without prescription. A cross-sectional survey was performed between June 2015 and November 2016. Consumers were interviewed about their self-medication practices. Of the pharmacies surveyed, 65.3% participated in the study. A total of 4348 medicines were purchased for self-medication by 3037 consumers (15.2% of all study participants), of which 873 (28.7%) participated in an interview. Majority (81.2%) medicine purchaser, (90.9%) interview participants, and (59.4%) drug users were male. On average, each community pharmacy sold 7.9 medicines without prescription each day, to an average of 5.5 customers. Many participants (28.9%) had matriculation in their formal education. The medicines most often sold for self-medication were analgesics and antipyretics(39.4%). More than 25% of participants reported fever symptoms and 47.8% assumed their illness was too trivial to consult a doctor. Media advertisements were the most common source of information for participants (46.7%). Many types of medicines were often sold without prescription from community pharmacies. Self-medication was common practice for a wide range of illnesses. Pakistan also needs effective implementation of policies to monitor medication sales. Public education about rational medication and limits to advertising medicine are very necessary.

  17. The safety of seasonal influenza vaccines in Australian children in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nicholas J; Blyth, Chris C; Willis, Gabriela A; Richmond, Peter; Gold, Michael S; Buttery, Jim P; Crawford, Nigel; Crampton, Michael; Yin, J Kevin; Chow, Maria Yui Kwan; Macartney, Kristine

    2014-11-17

    To examine influenza vaccine safety in Australian children aged under 10 years in 2013. Active prospective surveillance study conducted with parents or carers of children who received influenza vaccine in outpatient clinics at six tertiary paediatric hospitals or from selected primary health care providers between 18 March and 19 July 2013. Parental-reported frequency of systemic reactions (fever, headache, nausea, abdominal symptoms, convulsions, rash, rigors and fatigue), injection site reactions (erythema, swelling and/or pain at the injection site), use of antipyretics or analgesics, and medical attendance or advice within 72 hours after vaccination. Of 981 children enrolled in the surveillance, 893 children aged 6 months to children received 1052 influenza vaccine doses. Fever was reported in 5.5% (95% CI, 4.1%-7.3%) and 6.5% (95% CI, 3.5%-10.9%) of children after Doses 1 and 2, respectively. One febrile convulsion occurred in a child with a known seizure disorder. Injection site reactions occurred in 21.2% (95% CI, 18.5%-24.1%) and 6.0% (95% CI, 3.1%-10.2%) after Doses 1 and 2, respectively; most were mild. Very few parents sought medical follow-up for their child's reaction: 22 (2.6%; 95% CI, 1.6%-3.9%) after Dose 1, and 11 (5.5%; 95% CI, 2.8%-9.6%) after Dose 2. These results are consistent with clinical trials and other observational studies of influenza vaccines currently registered for use in young children in Australia and can reassure parents and health care providers that influenza vaccination is safe and well tolerated.

  18. Overdosed prescription of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in a teaching hospital.

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    Charpiat, B; Henry, A; Leboucher, G; Tod, M; Allenet, B

    2012-07-01

    Paracetamol is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. Reviews of hospital use of paracetamol are scarce. Little is known about the appropriateness of the dose of paracetamol prescribed for hospitalized adults. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and the frequency of the overdosed prescription of paracetamol observed in adult patients over a 4.5-year period in a teaching hospital. Prescription analysis by pharmacists was performed once a week in six medical and three surgical departments and daily in a post-emergency unit. In cases of prescription error, the pharmacist notified the physician through an electronic alert when a computerized prescription order entry system was available or otherwise by face-to-face discussion. For each drug-related problem detected, the pharmacists recorded relevant details in a database. From October 2006 to April 2011, 44,404 prescriptions were reviewed and 480 alerts related to the overdosed prescription of paracetamol were made (1% of analyzed prescriptions). The extent of errors of dosage was within the intervals [90-120 mg/kg/d] and greater than 120 mg/kg/d for 87 and 11 patients respectively, who were prescribed a single non-combination paracetamol containing product. Sixty alerts concerned co-prescription of at least two paracetamol containing products with similar frequency for computerized (1.4/1000) or handwritten (1.2/1000) prescriptions. Prescriptions of paracetamol for hospitalized adults frequently exceed the recommended dosage. These results highlight the need for increased awareness of unintentional paracetamol overdose and support the initiation of an educational program aimed at physicians and nurses. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Patients' knowledge about paracetamol (acetaminophen): a study in a French hospital emergency department.

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    Boudjemai, Y; Mbida, P; Potinet-Pagliaroli, V; Géffard, F; Leboucher, G; Brazier, J-L; Allenet, B; Charpiat, B

    2013-07-01

    Paracetamol is the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug. In France, little is known concerning patients' knowledge and beliefs about paracetamol. To determine how much outpatients attending an emergency department know about paracetamol. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to patients consulting for non-severe medical or traumatic conditions. Thirty-three (45%) of 73 participating patients knew that paracetamol was the active ingredient of the medication they used to reduce pain and/or fever. Three patients thought 2g was the maximum recommended single dose; 25% thought that a delay between two doses ≤ 3 hours was recommended and 15% thought the maximum daily dose was > 4 g. While 8% cited liver toxicity as a side effect, 38% did not believe an excessive dose could be fatal. Two patients correctly answered all questions and five gave no correct answer. Outpatients attending an emergency department (ED) have poor knowledge about paracetamol. This situation is disturbing and our results may serve as an eye opener to healthcare professionals. They emphasize the need for research programs with the following objectives: a) to determine the actual content of the message delivered by healthcare professionals; b) to study conditions under which this message is issued; c) to analyze how patients understand key messages and what their behavioral response is. In ED patients, the level of knowledge about paracetamol is insufficient to ensure its safe use in ambulatory care. Further studies are needed to determine the causes and to permit better patient education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. PISA. The effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute stroke: Protocol for a phase II double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690

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    Kappelle Jaap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the first days after stroke, one to two fifths of the patients develop fever or subfebrile temperatures. Body temperature is a strong prognostic factor after stroke. Pharmacological reduction of temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke may improve their functional outcome. Previously, we studied the effect of high dose (6 g daily and low dose (3 g daily paracetamol (acetaminophen in a randomised placebo-controlled trial of 75 patients with acute ischemic stroke. In the high-dose paracetamol group, mean body temperature at 12 and 24 hours after start of treatment was 0.4°C lower than in the placebo group. The effect of ibuprofen, another potent antipyretic drug, on body-core temperature in normothermic patients has not been studied. Aim The aim of the present trial is to study the effects of high-dose paracetamol and ibuprofen on body temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke, and to study the safety of these treatments. Design Seventy-five (3 × 25 patients with acute ischaemic stroke confined to the anterior circulation will be randomised to treatment with either: 400 mg ibuprofen, 1000 mg acetaminophen, or with placebo 6 times daily during 5 days. Body-temperatures will be measured with a rectal electronic thermometer at the start of treatment and after 24 hours. An infrared tympanic thermometer will be used to monitor body temperature at 2-hour intervals during the first 24 hours and at 12-hour intervals thereafter. The primary outcome measure will be rectal temperature at 24 hours after the start of treatment. The study results will be analysed on an intent-to-treat basis, but an on-treatment analysis will also be performed. No formal interim analysis will be carried out.

  1. Medication use among children 0-14 years old: population baseline study

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    Maria J.B. Cruz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of medication use in children and adolescents in 20 municipalities of Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais-Brazil, showing the main groups and variables that may have influenced use. METHODS: Descriptive population-based survey sample of 555 interviews, selected by simple random cluster sampling of 137 census tracts. Inclusion criteria were age ≤ 14 years, mandatory interview with the legal guardians, and regardless of having received medications. Regarding the usage pattern, participants were divided into two groups: consumption and non-consumption of drugs. A descriptive analysis of the variables and tests of association were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of drug consumption was 56.57%, and 42.43% showed no consumption. The use of medicinal plants was 72.9% for drug users and 74.3% for non-users. The health conditions for consumption were cough, common cold, flu, nasal congestion or bronchospasm (49.7%, fever (5.4%, headache (5.4%, diarrhea, indigestion, and abdominal colic (6.7%. In cases of self-medication, 30.57% of the drugs were given by the mother, and 69.42% were prescription drugs. Self-medication was prevalent using paracetamol (30.2%, dipyrone (20.8%, and cold medicine (18.8%. There was increased use of analgesics/antipyretics, followed by respiratory medications, systemic antibiotics, histamine H1 antagonists, and vitamins/antianemics. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of drugs use in children was high, indicating the need for formulating educational programs aiming at the awareness of caregivers regarding rational use.

  2. Pattern of diseases among visitors to Mina health centers during the Hajj season, 1429 H (2008 G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abdullah G; Choudhry, Abdul Jamil; Al Mazroa, Mohammad A; Turkistani, Abdul Hafiz M; Nouman, Ghassan S; Memish, Ziad A

    2012-03-01

    While performing the Hajj, hajjis face different risks related to the environment, their behaviors and their health conditions that can result in a variety of diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of diseases among pilgrims seeking medical services in Mina primary health care centers (PHCCs) during the Hajj season in 1429 (2008). This is a descriptive study based on the medical records of a random sample of 4136 patients who attended 13 randomly selected Mina PHCCs from 8 to 12 Dhu-Alhijja, 1429 H (6-10 December 2008). The majority of the patients were men (70.7%), and most of the patients were between 45 and 64 years of age (42.8%). One-fifth (20.2%) of the patients suffered from multiple diseases. Respiratory diseases were the most common (60.8%), followed by musculoskeletal (17.6%), skin (15.0%) and gastrointestinal (13.1%) diseases. Diabetes, asthma and hypertension each constituted less than 3% of the total diseases. Respiratory diseases were the most common independent of nationality or the day of visit, while the frequency of the other diseases varied according to nationality and the day of visit. The most frequently prescribed drugs were analgesics, antipyretics, antibiotics and cough syrups. This study describes the pattern of diseases among pilgrims attending Mina PHCCs, which may aid in providing the best possible health care services to pilgrims. Copyright © 2011 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relevancy of paracetamol and Breastfeeding Post Infant Vaccination: A Systematic Review

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    Nurain Suleiman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paracetamol may be used as an antipyretic agent for the treatment of fever, as well as an analgesic in the treatment of mild to moderate pain post-vaccination in infants. The use of paracetamol during fever may be or may not be recommended since it may alter the natural human body immune response, although it may reduce fever and fussiness. Objectives: The aims of this study are to describe the effectiveness of breastfeeding in reducing pain and paracetamol in reducing fever and pain post infant vaccination. Methods: Data sources and study selection was conducted by electronic searching of six databases. Manual reference checks of all articles on paracetamol and breastfeeding post infant vaccination published in the English language between 1978 and 2017. Two levels of screening were used on 9614 citations, which include screening of abstracts and titles followed by full text screening. The data synthesis were tabulated into study characteristics, quality, and effects. Results: Systematic review of breastfeeding included three studies from 9614 database searches found significant benefit from breastfeeding in pain scores and the duration of crying, as well as behavioural changes. None of the studies stated the detriment of breastfeeding before, during, and after immunization. Systematic review of paracetamol effectiveness included four studies from 1177 database searches found significant benefit from prophylaxis paracetamol in fever, one study found significant benefit from prophylaxis paracetamol in fussiness, and one study’s results were found to be not significant. Two studies on evaluating the safety of prophylactic paracetamol in 2009 found that antibody responses to several antigens were significantly reduced, and the other study in 1988 found that antibody titres to DTP bacteria of placebo and PCM did not differ significantly. Conclusions: The relevancy of giving paracetamol post all types of vaccination may be questionable

  4. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal

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    I Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05% respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21% followed by diarrhea (68 students (25.47%, fever (42 students (15.73%, headache (40 students (14.98% and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students (8.61%. Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09% followed by analgesics (23.21%, antipyretics (17.98%, antiulcer agents (8.99%, cough suppressant (7.87%, multivitamins (6.37% and antihelminthics (4.49%. Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19% felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46% preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73% cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62% preferred because of urgency. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  5. Self-medication in Central Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacy consumers' perspectives.

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    Aljadhey, Hisham; Assiri, Ghada A; Mahmoud, Mansour A; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa; Murray, Michael

    2015-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of self-medication and assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perception of consumers toward self-medication. This cross-sectional survey was conducted over 4 weeks in May 2011 in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacies within 5 areas of the city (North, South, West, East, and Middle) were randomly selected for the study. All consumers were approached to participate in the study, with the exception of those buying cosmetic and medicinal equipments. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. A total of 538 out of 707 consumers attending community pharmacies in Riyadh city, agreed to participate in the study. Most responders were male (73%), 23-33 years old (35%), and college graduates (42%). A total of 285 medications were bought without a prescription. Of these, 149 (49%) medications should be dispensed by prescription only, and 155 (51%) were over the counter medications. The most common prescription medications dispensed without prescriptions were antibiotics (22%) and analgesics/antipyretics (19%). The most common reasons for buying medications without a prescription were that the symptoms were too minor to visit a doctor (54%), time saving (40%), and minor illnesses for which the participants knew the required treatment (40%). Overall, most participants had poor knowledge, and negative perceptions regarding self-medication. More than 68% of participants did not know whether the medicine they bought is a prescription-only or over the counter medication. Irresponsible self-medication is common in Saudi Arabia. Future studies should focus on improving the consumers' awareness of self-medication and the proper use of medications.

  6. The effect of radiation on some salicylates. 1. Steady state studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, L.R. de la.

    1975-01-01

    This work was undertaken to obtain more quantitative information on the extent and nature of the degradation of some salicylates by ionizing radiation, especially gamma rays, and to gather data that could assist in the evaluation of the use of radiation for sterilization of this group of compounds which are extensively used as antipyretics, analgesics and anti-rheumatics. Salicylamide is not only a common medicinal, but also a model for the study of the effect of radiation on biological systems. A 3200 Ci Co-60 facility was used. Three salicylates were subjected to solid phase irradiation, namely: salicylamide, phenylsalicylate, and acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin). These compounds were purified by repeated recrystallization from water, methanol and benzene, respectively, until a constant melting point was obtained. Irradiation in the solid phase was made in doses from 2.5 to 240 Krad. Irradiation in the liquid phase (solution) was carried out in doses, ranging from 2000 to as high as 270,000 rad depending on the reactivity of the solution. The degradation products were separated by thin layer chromatography using Kieselgel F254 and SIF with fluorescence scintillator (Riedel-de Haen). The products were visualized with a Camag UV Universal lamp. Irradiation of the three salicylates showed very little decomposition even at doses very much higher than those required for radiation sterilization. Salicylamide appears to be the most stable giving an initial G(-salicylamide)-0.50. For both phenylsalicylate and acetylsalicylic acid only the G values at 150 Mrad were obtained as the amounts degraded at lower doses were too low for the sensitivity of the diffused reflectance method used. A G(-phenylsalicylate)-2 and G(-acetylsalicylate)-1.2 were obtained by this method. Salicylic acid is formed when aspirin is irradiated. It is concluded that this acid is one of the degradation products. Barring any toxic property of the minute substances formed, solid phase sterilization is

  7. TRPV1 in brain is involved in acetaminophen-induced antinociception.

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    Christophe Mallet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen, the major active metabolite of acetanilide in man, has become one of the most popular over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic agents, consumed by millions of people daily. However, its mechanism of action is still a matter of debate. We have previously shown that acetaminophen is further metabolized to N-(4-hydroxyphenyl-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z -eicosatetraenamide (AM404 by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH in the rat and mouse brain and that this metabolite is a potent activator of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV(1 in vitro. Pharmacological activation of TRPV(1 in the midbrain periaqueductal gray elicits antinociception in rats. It is therefore possible that activation of TRPV(1 in the brain contributes to the analgesic effect of acetaminophen.Here we show that the antinociceptive effect of acetaminophen at an oral dose lacking hypolocomotor activity is absent in FAAH and TRPV(1 knockout mice in the formalin, tail immersion and von Frey tests. This dose of acetaminophen did not affect the global brain contents of prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 and endocannabinoids. Intracerebroventricular injection of AM404 produced a TRPV(1-mediated antinociceptive effect in the mouse formalin test. Pharmacological inhibition of TRPV(1 in the brain by intracerebroventricular capsazepine injection abolished the antinociceptive effect of oral acetaminophen in the same test.This study shows that TRPV(1 in brain is involved in the antinociceptive action of acetaminophen and provides a strategy for developing central nervous system active oral analgesics based on the coexpression of FAAH and TRPV(1 in the brain.

  8. Analysis of the phenomenon of over-the-counter drug abuse and not controlled herbs trade by polish adolescents: Part I

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    Daria Suchecka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of stupefying by the use of available over-the-counter drugs (OTC among adolescents is an essential problem in both Poland and throughout the world. Popular analgesics, cold medicine and antihistamines contain psychedelic substances, such as dextromethorphan (DXM, pseudoephedrine/ephedrine, codeine (methylmorphine, dimenhydrinate, paracetamol (acetaminophren and others. Cases of fatal addiction to dextromethorphan, one of the active substances contained in medicines, e.g., the common cold, have been reported. The test results cited by the authors clearly indicate that the use of OTC drugs, whose turnover is not controlled is a domain of females. The extent of use of drugs not prescribed by a doctor has remained for many years at a constant level. The most common poisonings with OTC drugs are caused by those that affect the respiratory system or exert analgesic or antipyretic effects. They are also used in attempted suicides, especially among females. Analyzing poisonings caused by OTC medications their seasonality has been observed. Their number increases during spring–autumn. A territorial differentiation in areas of OTC drug trade in terms of their quantities, with the predominance of southern regions is also noted. Intoxication with psychoactive substances causes the deterioration of relations between young people. In the reviewed studies there is no detailed information on the composition of non-prescription medicines. Moreover, young people have easy access to mushroom fungi, growing in nearby forests and meadows that may have hallucinogenic effects and are available in pharmacies and on the Internet. Med Pr 2017;68(3:413–422

  9. Mechanisms Involved in Toxicity of Liver Caused by Piroxicam in Mice and Protective Effects of Leaf Extract of Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis L.

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    C. R. Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam is one of the important therapeutic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory class of drugs used mainly to suppress pain and inflammation in arthritis and other musculoskeletal disorders. Besides being anti-inflammatory, these drugs are analgesic and antipyretic often used for the relief of nonspecific fever condition. Recently, piroxicam has also gained attention as an effective therapy for tumors, colorectal, and invasive bladder cancers. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of the alcoholic leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (AEH, Malvaceae, against piroxicam-induced toxicity in mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice ( Mus musculus were divided into four groups ( n = 10, which included a control group, a group treated orally with AEH (30 mg kg –1 b.w. for 15 days, a group treated orally with piroxicam (6.6 mg kg –1 b.w. for 15 days, and another group treated orally with piroxicam and AEH for 15 days. The results indicated that treatment with piroxicam alone resulted in a significant increase in the activities of serum marker enzymes, namely, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase with profound hepatic lipid peroxidation as evidenced by a marked increment in the level of thoibarbituric acid reactive substances along with a distinct diminution in reduced glutathoine content and various antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver. However, treatment with AEH during piroxicam treatment retrieved or partially antagonized the effects induced by piroxicam toward the normal values of controls. Histopathological observations also corroborate with the above findings. It can be concluded that AEH exhibited a protective action against piroxicam toxicity and effective in combating oxidative stress-induced hepatic damage.

  10. Experimental study of neuropharmacological profile of Euphorbia pulcherrima in mice and rats

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    Kundan Kr Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Euphorbia pulcherrima (EP belongs to the family: Euphorbiaceae and Genus: Euphorbia. Many species of Euphorbia have been reported as having beneficial properties like anticonvulsive effect, central analgesic properties, antipyretic action, central depressant action and strong sedative effect. However, little study has been done and published on EP. Aims: To observe and evaluate various neuropharmacological effects like antinociceptive effect, anticonvulsant effect, motor in-coordination, pentobarbital induced sleeping time and behavioral responses of EP in mice and rats. Setting and Design: Quantitative experimental study in mice and rats by various experimental models. Materials and Methods: Different experimental models were used to assess the antinociceptive effect (hotplate, tail flick and acetic acid induced writhing test, anticonvulsant effect (Maximal Electroshock Seizure test [MES] and Pentylenetetrazole induced seizures [PTZ], motor in-coordination effect (Rota rod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time and behavioral responses of EP in mice and rats after oral administration of EP crude dried extracts in three different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Statistical Analysis Used: The significance of difference with respect to control was evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. A probability (P-value level less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In MES test model, duration of tonic hind limb extension in mice treated with EP was significantly less as compared to vehicle treated group. EP was most effective in a dose of 1000 mg/kg. There was also significant increase in the latency and decrease in the incidence of convulsions with the use of EP in three different doses in PTZ induced seizure model. Conclusions: This study showed EP (crude dried extracts to possess anticonvulsant properties but no effect on motor co-ordination and anxiety.

  11. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Melanogenesis Inhibitory Properties of Pracparatum Mungo (Lu-Do Huang

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    Yu-Yu Kao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pracparatum mungo (Lu-Do Huang is a traditional Chinese functional medicine made from the natural fermentation of mung bean (綠豆 Lǜ Dòu mixed with other Chinese medicines. It has been recognized as having liver protecting and detoxifying effects. As mung beans have been verified to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, and whitening actions, the present research utilized the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental models to investigate the antioxidant and melanin inhibiting effects of P. mungo on the skin. The in vitro experiment revealed that P. mungo methanol extract (PMME and P. mungo ethanol extract (PMEE possess the capacity to clear α,α-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and inhibit tyrosinase activity. The ex vivo experiment indicated that PMEE can promote the growth of MDCK cells and increase the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase in MDCK cells. On the other hand, PMME and PMEE can suppress the proliferation of A375 cells, and PMEE can reduce the enzymatic activities of SOD and catalase in A375 cells. The in vivo results showed that P. mungo can enhance the enzymatic performance of SOD, Catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the liver. The results also showed that P. mungo has antioxidant characteristics and can inhibit tyrosinase activity, thereby promoting the growth of skin tissues and suppressing the proliferation of A375 cells, and thus enhancing the effects that the antioxidant enzymatic performance has on the liver. These results can be applied in the development of tyrosinase inhibitors or antioxidants used for the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis or for auto-oxidation in further industrial applications, particularly those relating to functional food or cosmetic compositions.

  12. Ribavirin: an effective treatment of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficiency of Ribavirin, an anti-viral drug, in patients diagnosed to have CCHF. Patients and Methods: A total of 94 cases were included in the study on high index of suspicion of CCHF. The major criteria of admission were a short history of high-grade fever associated with bleeding from more than one site, i.e., haematemesis, epistaxis etc. the mean age was 34.71 plus minus 12.81 years. All the suspected cases were kept in isolation unit of the hospital and barrier nursing was advised. Results: All the 94 cases were sent to CDC, Atlanta, USA for confirmation and 39 (41.4%) were confirmed to have CCHF. Symptomatic treatment like platelet concentration transfusions, fresh-blood transfusions and antipyretics were given to all cases. Oral Ribavirin was given only to the confirmed cases. It was started in a dose of 2 gm initially, followed by 1 gm 6 hourly for 4 days and then 500 mg 8 hours for 6 days. After a mean period of 2.30 plus minus 0.69 days to treatment with Ribavirin, the clinical as well as the laboratory parameters started improving and returned to normal level after 10 -day course of treatment. Mild anemia and thrombocytosis were seen as adverse effects in some of the patients. Conclusion: For treatment of this fatal disease, we recommended use of oral Ribavirin in all patients diagnosed to have CCHF in the above-mentioned doses, on the basis of our study results.(author)

  13. Guidelines for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso de Leciñana, M; Egido, J A; Casado, I; Ribó, M; Dávalos, A; Masjuan, J; Caniego, J L; Martínez Vila, E; Díez Tejedor, E; Fuentes, B; Álvarez-Sabin, J; Arenillas, J; Calleja, S; Castellanos, M; Castillo, J; Díaz-Otero, F; López-Fernández, J C; Freijo, M; Gállego, J; García-Pastor, A; Gil-Núñez, A; Gilo, F; Irimia, P; Lago, A; Maestre, J; Martí-Fábregas, J; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Molina, C; Morales, A; Nombela, F; Purroy, F; Rodríguez-Yañez, M; Roquer, J; Rubio, F; Segura, T; Serena, J; Simal, P; Tejada, J; Vivancos, J

    2014-03-01

    Update of Acute Ischaemic Stroke Treatment Guidelines of the Spanish Neurological Society based on a critical review of the literature. Recommendations are made based on levels of evidence from published data and studies. Organized systems of care should be implemented to ensure access to the optimal management of all acute stroke patients in stroke units. Standard of care should include treatment of blood pressure (should only be treated if values are over 185/105 mmHg), treatment of hyperglycaemia over 155 mg/dl, and treatment of body temperature with antipyretic drugs if it rises above 37.5 °C. Neurological and systemic complications must be prevented and promptly treated. Decompressive hemicraniectomy should be considered in cases of malignant cerebral oedema. Intravenous thrombolysis with rtPA should be administered within 4.5 hours from symptom onset, except when there are contraindications. Intra-arterial pharmacological thrombolysis can be considered within 6 hours, and mechanical thrombectomy within 8 hours from onset, for anterior circulation strokes, while a wider window of opportunity up to 12-24 hours is feasible for posterior strokes. There is not enough evidence to recommend routine use of the so called neuroprotective drugs. Anticoagulation should be administered to patients with cerebral vein thrombosis. Rehabilitation should be started as early as possible. Treatment of acute ischaemic stroke includes management of patients in stroke units. Systemic thrombolysis should be considered within 4.5 hours from symptom onset. Intra-arterial approaches with a wider window of opportunity can be an option in certain cases. Protective and restorative therapies are being investigated. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Randomized controlled pilot study to compare Homeopathy and Conventional therapy in Acute Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M N; Siddiqui, V A; Nayak, C; Singh, Vikram; Dixit, Rupali; Dewan, Deepti; Mishra, Alok

    2012-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of Homeopathy and Conventional therapy in Acute Otitis Media (AOM). A randomized placebo-controlled parallel group pilot study of homeopathic vs conventional treatment for AOM was conducted in Jaipur, India. Patients were randomized by a computer generated random number list to receive either individualized homeopathic medicines in fifty millesimal (LM) potencies, or conventional treatment including analgesics, antipyretics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients who did not improve were prescribed antibiotics at the 3rd day. Outcomes were assessed by the Acute Otitis Media-Severity of Symptoms (AOM-SOS) Scale and Tympanic Membrane Examination over 21 days. 81 patients were included, 80 completed follow-up: 41 for conventional and 40 for homeopathic treatment. In the Conventional group, all 40 (100%) patients were cured, in the Homeopathy group, 38 (95%) patients were cured while 02 (5%) patients were lost to the last two follow-up. By the 3rd day of treatment, 4 patients were cured in Homeopathy group but in Conventional group only one patient was cured. In the Conventional group antibiotics were prescribed in 39 (97.5%), no antibiotics were required in the Homeopathy group. 85% of patients were prescribed six homeopathic medicines. Individualized homeopathy is an effective conventional treatment in AOM, there were no significant differences between groups in the main outcome. Symptomatic improvement was quicker in the Homeopathy group, and there was a large difference in antibiotic requirements, favouring homeopathy. Further work on a larger scale should be conducted. Copyright © 2011 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors for eczema in infants born in Cuba: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Medina, Ramón; Venero-Fernández, Silvia Josefina; de la Mora-Faife, Esperanza; García-García, Gladys; Del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Fabré-Ortiz, Dania; Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Venn, Andrea; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2014-03-25

    There is a concern that allergic disease in childhood is higher than expected in Cuba. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for eczema of infants aged 12-15 months living in Havana. We used a cross-sectional epidemiological study design. Data on eczema symptoms and a wide range of lifestyle factors were collected by researcher administered questionnaires. Data were collected on 1956 children (96% response rate), of whom 672 (34%) were reported as having had eczema. Independent risk factors for eczema included young maternal age (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.98 per additional year of age; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-0.99), child's weight (OR 1.13 per additional kg; 95% CI: 1.03-1.25), insect sting allergy (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.33-3.35), rodents in the home (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.10-1.76), attendance at childcare facilities (OR 1.34: 95% CI: 1.05-1.70) and self-reported mould in the home (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07-1.41). Infant exposure to paracetamol was associated with an increased risk of eczema even after adjustment for wheeze (OR 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.46). Despite a very different culture and environment, the consistency of these findings with those from more economically developed countries suggests potential causal associations. The association with paracetamol, even after adjustment for wheeze, suggests that intervention studies are required in young infants, to ascertain if this commonly used anti-pyretic medication increases allergic disease.

  16. Antibiotictherapy and Self Medication: A Common Practice Among Students of a Biomedicine Course in a Higher Education Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Leone Rossi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication habit of antibiotics contributes to the bacterial resistance mechanism, which is a global public health problem that must be prevented. The university student, as a future health professional, is summoned to guide a conduct and report on the use of antimicrobials regarding the casual agent, the site of infection and the severity of the disease. In this study, it has been verified, through a questionnaire, the profile of freshmen and academic students who are majoring in Biomedical Science in an institution of higher education, comparing the results obtained. It is a descriptive study with quantitative data approach (relative frequency – % through a self-administered questionnaire, and containing 13 multiple choice questions stored in the database in Excel. The sample consisted of 132 undergraduate students from the Biomedical Science course from this University Center. Among the freshmen, the purchase of antibiotic is mainly influenced by previous experiences with the drug, what is not repeated by the students that are graduating and prefer to seek and follow medical advice. Thus, 91.8% of trainees believe that self-medication may be harmful to health. Regarding the use of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic before the use of antibiotics, 67% of the entering students said that they take these medications, against 70% of the senior students that also do it. Therefore, we may conclude that information on the danger of self-medication is provided in the disciplines of microbiology and pharmacology, which have not been studied by the freshmen and is unknown by the general population, that appeals to self-medication due to the lack of knowledge. To reverse this situation, it is necessary a greater media exposure on educational practices regarding the risks, the benefits, and elucidation about multi-resistant bacteria.

  17. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug without Antibiotics for Acute Viral Infection Increases the Empyema Risk in Children: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Ferroni, Agnès; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Varon, Emmanuelle; Thumerelle, Caroline; Brémont, François; Fayon, Michael J; Delacourt, Christophe; Ligier, Caroline; Watier, Laurence; Guillemot, Didier

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the risk factors of empyema after acute viral infection and to clarify the hypothesized association(s) between empyema and some viruses and/or the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A case-control study was conducted in 15 centers. Cases and controls were enrolled for a source population of children 3-15 years of age with acute viral infections between 2006 and 2009. Among 215 empyemas, 83 cases (children with empyema and acute viral infection within the 15 preceding days) were included, and 83 controls (children with acute viral infection) were matched to cases. Considering the intake of any drug within 72 hours after acute viral infection onset and at least 6 consecutive days of antibiotic use and at least 1 day of NSAIDs exposure, the multivariable analysis retained an increased risk of empyema associated with NSAIDs exposure (aOR 2.79, 95% CI 1.4-5.58, P = .004), and a decreased risk associated with antibiotic use (aOR 0.32, 95% CI 0.11-0.97, P = .04). The risk of empyema associated with NSAIDs exposure was greater for children not prescribed an antibiotic and antibiotic intake diminished that risk for children given NSAIDs. NSAIDs use during acute viral infection is associated with an increased risk of empyema in children, and antibiotics are associated with a decreased risk. The presence of antibiotic-NSAIDs interaction with this risk is suggested. These findings suggest that NSAIDs should not be recommended as a first-line antipyretic treatment during acute viral infections in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Review on Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) A. wood (Brassicaceae): ethnobotany and glucosinolate chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaut, Sabine; Bleeker, René S

    2013-09-16

    Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) A. Wood, commonly called toothwort, is a spring perennial herb belonging to the Brassicaceae family. This endemic plant of Eastern North America has been widely used by multiple American First Nations (i.e. indigenous people of North America) for food and medicine for centuries. The aim of the review is to describe the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and bioactivity of Cardamine diphylla. The review covers literature on Cardamine diphylla, and the alternative name Dentaria diphylla, from English and French language sources. Multiple traditional uses of Cardamine diphylla by American First Nations are well documented. Initial health studies showed that the tested concentrations of the extract were not toxic against brine shrimp larvae and the same extract had a weak free-radical scavenging activity. However, bioactive compounds in the form of aliphatic and indole glucosinolates and some indole alkaloids have been isolated from this plant. Ecological research regarding Cardamine diphylla-insect interactions (such as feeding and oviposition) is also available in the literature. The wide range of traditional uses by multiple American First Nations suggests that the antibacterial, antiviral, immunostimulant, analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities of this plant should be explored in in vitro and in vivo tests. Traditional modes of preparation of the plant suggest that some of the medicinal properties could certainly be attributed to glucosinolate degradation products (i.e. isothiocyanates), but a clear assignment of active molecules and mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated. The presence of glucosinolates indicates that the plant could be probed for cancer chemopreventive properties. Overall, the review shows that more investigation is necessary to determine the possible benefits of Cardamine diphylla extracts to pharmaceutical companies as a nutraceutic specialty phytotherapeutic agent against respiratory

  19. Profile of circulating levels of IL-1Ra, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL2/MCP-1 in dengue fever and parvovirosis

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    Luzia Maria de-Oliveira-Pinto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and parvovirus B19 (B19V infections are acute exanthematic febrile illnesses that are not easily differentiated on clinical grounds and affect the paediatric population. Patients with these acute exanthematic diseases were studied. Fever was more frequent in DENV than in B19V-infected patients. Arthritis/arthralgias with DENV infection were shown to be significantly more frequent in adults than in children. The circulating levels of interleukin (IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra, CXCL10/inducible protein-10 (IP-10, CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 were determined by multiplex immunoassay in serum samples obtained from B19V (37 and DENV-infected (36 patients and from healthy individuals (7. Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that circulating CXCL10/IP-10 tends to be associated with DENV infection and that IL-1Ra was significantly associated with DENV infection. Similar analysis showed that circulating CCL2/MCP-1 tends to be associated with B19V infection. In dengue fever, increased circulating IL-1Ra may exert antipyretic actions in an effort to counteract the already increased concentrations of IL-1β, while CXCL10/IP-10 was confirmed as a strong pro-inflammatory marker. Recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and upregulation of the humoral immune response by CCL2/MCP-1 by B19V may be involved in the persistence of the infection. Children with B19V or DENV infections had levels of these cytokines similar to those of adult patients.

  20. The prognostic value of midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide in patients with hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marlene; Katan, Mira; Morgenthaler, Nils G; Seiler, Marleen; Müller, Beat; Lackner, Peter; Errath, Mario; Helbok, Raimund; Pfausler, Bettina; Beer, Ronny; Schmutzhard, Erich; Broessner, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a well-known prognostic marker of outcome and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. Midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) is a stable fragment of the ANP precursor hormone. As a prognostic marker after ischemic stroke, it reliably predicts poststroke mortality and functional outcome. This study aimed to analyze the prognostic value of MR-proANP in patients with hemorrhagic stroke, i.e. subarachnoid (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). MR-proANP was analyzed in patients with spontaneous SAH or spontaneous ICH. All patients were prospectively randomized into two treatment arms: (1) a prophylactic normothermia group with a target core temperature 36.5°C using endovascular cooling, and (2) a control group with conventional stepwise predefined fever management using antipyretic medication and surface cooling. Blood samples were obtained on admission and on days 4 and 7. Measurement of MR-proANP was performed in serum using sandwich immunoassay. The primary endpoint was functional outcome [assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS)] and the secondary endpoints were mortality within 180 days after hemorrhagic stroke and influence of temperature on MR-proANP. A favorable outcome was defined as GOS 4-5, and the patients were considered to have a poor outcome with a 180-day GOS score between 1 and 3. Analysis of MR-proANP was performed in 24 patients with spontaneous SAH and 22 patients with spontaneous ICH. MR-proANP was elevated on days 4 and 7 as compared to baseline levels (p 120 pmol/l) were associated with increased mortality and poor outcome (after 180 days; p mortality after 180 days in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Endovascular temperature control had no significant influence on MR-proANP levels.

  1. Enhanced photoactivity of graphene/titanium dioxide nanotubes for removal of Acetaminophen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Hong; Liang, Xiao; Zhang, Qian; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 and graphite oxide were used as precursors of titanium dioxide nanotubes and graphene respectively. Titanium dioxide nanotube and graphene (GR-TNT) nanocomposites were synthesized through a simple hydrothermal method. • And its application to removal acetaminophen, degradation efficiency is more than 96%. • The photocatalytic degradation results indicated that the sample with 5% GO in GR-TNT nanocomposites for 3 h had the highest degradation rate. • The degradation intermediates of acetaminophen by the composites were invested by GC-MS and the possible pathways were invested. - Abstract: Acetaminophen is commonly used as an antipyretic or analgesics agent and poses threat to human health. In this research, TiO 2 and graphite oxide were used as precursors of titanium dioxide nanotubes and graphene respectively. Titanium dioxide nanotube and graphene (GR-TNT) nanocomposites were synthesized through a hydrothermal method. FT-IR, UV-Vis, XRD, and TGA were used to characterize the catalysts. The acetaminophen degradation rate can reach up to 96% under UV light irradiation for 3 h and with the 5% GR-TNT dosage of 0.1 g L −1 . Further experiments were done to probe the mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction catalyzed by the GR-TNT composite. EDTA (hole scavengers) and t-BuOH (radical scavengers) were used to detect the main active oxidative species in the system. The results showed that the holes are the main oxidation species in the photocatalytic process. This study provides a new prospect for acetaminophen degradation by using high efficiency catalysts

  2. A rare case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome presenting with serious hyperthermia treated with a non-invasive cooling device: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storm Christian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A rare side effect of antipsychotic medication is neuroleptic malignant syndrome, mainly characterized by hyperthermia, altered mental state, haemodynamic dysregulation, elevated serum creatine kinase and rigor. There may be multi-organ dysfunction including renal and hepatic failure as well as serious rhabdomyolysis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The prevalence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome is between 0.02% and 2.44% for patients taking neuroleptics and it is not necessary to fulfil all cardinal features characterizing the syndrome to be diagnosed with neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Because of other different life-threatening diseases matching the various clinical findings, the correct diagnosis can sometimes be hard to make. A special problem of intensive care treatment is the management of severe hyperthermia. Lowering of body temperature, however, may be a major clinical problem because hyperthermia in neuroleptic malignant syndrome is typically unresponsive to antipyretic agents while manual cooling proves difficult due to peripheral vasoconstriction. Case presentation A 22-year-old Caucasian man was admitted unconscious with a body temperature of 42°C, elevated serum creatine phosphokinase, tachycardia and hypotonic blood pressure. In addition to intensive care standard therapy for coma and shock, a non-invasive cooling device (Arctic Sun 2000®, Medivance Inc., USA, originally designed to induce mild therapeutic hypothermia in patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, was used to lower body temperature. After successful treatment it became possible to obtain information from the patient about his recent ambulant treatment with Olanzapin (Zyprexa® for schizophrenia. Conclusion Numerous case reports have been published about patients who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to Olanzapin (Zyprexa® medication. Frequently hyperthermia has been observed

  3. Prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in France, Germany, and the UK - a cross-sectional study including 4,270,142 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in general practices in France, Germany, and the UK. This study included all patients aged ≥18 years followed in 2016 in general practitioner practices in France, Germany and the UK. The primary outcome was the prevalence of patients receiving prescriptions for pain medications in France, Germany, and the UK in 2016. The following drugs were included in the analysis: anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, non-steroids and analgesics including opioids, antimigraine preparations, and other analgesics and antipyretics. Demographic variables included age and gender. This study included 4,270,142 patients. The prevalences of pain medication prescriptions were 57.3% in France, 29.6% in Germany, and 21.7% in the UK. Although this prevalence generally remained consistent between age groups in France (54.3%-60.3%), it increased with age in Germany (18-30 years: 23.8%; >70 years: 35.8%) and in the UK (18-30 years: 9.3%; >70 years: 43.8%). Finally, the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in women than in men in all three countries. Paracetamol was prescribed to 82.3% and 60.1% of patients receiving pain medication in France and the UK, respectively, whereas ibuprofen was prescribed to 46.5% of individuals in Germany. The prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in France than in Germany and the UK. Further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the differences in the prescription patterns between these three European countries.

  4. Fructose diet alleviates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

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    Sungjoon Cho

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic that can cause hepatotoxicity due to production of toxic metabolites via cytochrome P450 (Cyp 1a2 and Cyp2e1. Previous studies have shown conflicting effects of fructose (the major component in Western diet on the susceptibility to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. To evaluate the role of fructose-supplemented diet in modulating the extent of APAP-induced liver injury, male C57BL/6J mice were given 30% (w/v fructose in water (or regular water for 8 weeks, followed by oral administration of APAP. APAP-induced liver injury (determined by serum levels of liver enzymes was decreased by two-fold in mice pretreated with fructose. Fructose-treated mice exhibited (~1.5 fold higher basal glutathione levels and (~2 fold lower basal (mRNA and activity levels of Cyp1a2 and Cyp2e1, suggesting decreased bioactivation of APAP and increased detoxification of toxic metabolite in fructose-fed mice. Hepatic mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 was also found increased in fructose-fed mice. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the cecal samples of vehicle groups showed that the fructose diet altered gut bacterial community, leading to increased α-diversity. The abundance of several bacterial taxa including the genus Anaerostipes was found to be significantly correlated with the levels of hepatic Cyp2e1, Cyp1a2 mRNA, and glutathione. Together, these results suggest that the fructose-supplemented diet decreases APAP-induced liver injury in mice, in part by reducing metabolic activation of APAP and inducing detoxification of toxic metabolites, potentially through altered composition of gut microbiota.

  5. Acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. stem bark hydroalcoholic extract on Wistar rats

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    Gérard A. Toudji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pithecellobium dulce (PD is an annual herbaceous plant commonly used in African traditional medicine as a purgative, antipyretic, anti-ulcer and wound dressing agent. Aims: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of P. dulce stem bark hydroethanolic extract in Wistar rats. Methods: In the acute test, a single dose of 5 g/kg body weight was administered to Wistar rats afterwards they were observed individually 4 hours post-dosing, and at least once daily for 14 consecutive days. The sub-acute toxicity was evaluated by daily oral administration of 0.5 and 1 g/kg extract, for 28 days. Biochemical and hematological parameters assessment as well as body and organ weights of the rats were carried out. Results: The limit dose of 5 g/kg did not cause any mortality or signs of acute toxicity on the rats during the experimentation period. In the sub-acute test, uterus-ovary-trompe (UOT weight decreased dose-dependently: Control group (0.82 ± 0.03 g; Extract 0.5 g/kg (0.57 ± 0.06 g; Extract 1g/kg (0.48 ± 0.01 g (p ˂ 0.01. Extract lowered urea values in female group treated with 1 g/kg (p < 0.01. Lymphocytes percentage was dose dependently increased in treated male groups: Control group (53.00 ± 0.58%; extract 0.5 g/kg (58.67 ± 0.67% and extract 1 g/kg (60.67 ± 2.41%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that PD is relatively safe when administered orally in rats but is slightly atrophic for female reproductive organs.

  6. Topical piroxicam in vitro release and in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects from palm oil esters-based nanocream

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    Muthanna F Abdulkarim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Muthanna F Abdulkarim1*, Ghassan Z Abdullah1*, Mallikarjun Chitneni2, Ibrahim M Salman1, Omar Z Ameer1, Mun F Yam1,3, Elrashid S Mahdi1, Munavvar A Sattar1, Mahiran Basri4, Azmin M Noor11School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; *The First and Second Authors have Contributed Equally to this WorkIntroduction: During recent years, there has been growing interest in use of topical vehicle systems to assist in drug permeation through the skin. Drugs of interest are usually those that are problematic when given orally, such as piroxicam, a highly effective anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic, but with the adverse effect of causing gastrointestinal ulcers. The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic activity of a newly synthesized palm oil esters (POEs-based nanocream containing piroxicam for topical delivery.Methods: A ratio of 25:37:38 of POEs: external phase: surfactants (Tween 80:Span 20, in a ratio 80:20, respectively was selected as the basic composition for the production of a nanocream with ideal properties. Various nanocreams were prepared using phosphate-buffered saline as the external phase at three different pH values. The abilities of these formulae to deliver piroxicam were assessed in vitro using a Franz diffusion cell fitted with a cellulose acetate membrane and full thickness rat skin. These formulae were also evaluated in vivo by comparing their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities with those of the currently marketed gel.Results: After eight hours, nearly 100% of drug was transferred through the artificial membrane from the prepared formula F3 (phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.4 as the external phase and the marketed gel. The steady-state flux

  7. Protection afforded by pre- or post-treatment with 4-phenylbutyrate against liver injury induced by acetaminophen overdose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Daisuke; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Miyata, Keishi; Tomishima, Yoshiro; Kondo, Yuki; Irikura, Mitsuru; Iwawaki, Takao; Oike, Yuichi; Irie, Tetsumi

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol; APAP) is a widely used analgesic/antipyretic drug with few adverse effects at therapeutic doses; suicidal or unintentional overdose of APAP frequently induces severe hepatotoxicity. To explore a new and effective antidote for APAP hepatotoxicity, this study examined the effects of sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) on liver injury induced by APAP overdose in mice. Liver injury was induced in C57BL/6 male mice by intraperitoneal injection of APAP (400mg/kg). The effects of 4-PBA (100-200mg/kg) treatment at 1h before the APAP injection were evaluated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and blood ammonia levels, hepatic pathological changes, including histopathology, DNA damage, nitrotyrosine formation, and mRNA or protein expression involved in the development of hepatotoxicity, such as X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim). In addition, glutathione depletion and CYP2E1 protein expression, which are measures of the metabolic conversion of APAP to a toxic metabolite, were examined. Furthermore, we examined the effects of post-treatment with 4-PBA against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. When administered at 1h before APAP injection, 4-PBA significantly prevented the increase in serum ALT and blood ammonia levels, centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, DNA fragmentation, and nitrotyrosine formation induced by APAP in mice. 4-PBA also inhibited hepatic Xbp1 mRNA splicing and JNK phosphorylation induced by APAP, but did not suppress CHOP and Bim mRNA and protein expression. In addition, 4-PBA had little effect on hepatic glutathione depletion and CYP2E1 expression, parameters of toxic APAP metabolite production. Post-treatment with 4-PBA administration at 1 or 2h after APAP injection also attenuated the increase in serum ALT and blood ammonia levels and hepatic pathological changes in APAP

  8. Hyaluronic acid–nimesulide conjugates as anticancer drugs against CD44-overexpressing HT-29 colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo

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    Jian YS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available You-Sin Jian,1 Ching-Wen Chen,1 Chih-An Lin,2 Hsiu-Ping Yu,1 Hua-Yang Lin,3 Ming-Yuan Liao,1 Shu-Huan Wu,1 Yan-Fu Lin,1 Ping-Shan Lai1,2,4,5 1Department of Chemistry, 2PhD Program in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, 3Preclinical Development Research Department, Holy Stone Healthcare Co., Ltd., Taipei, 4Research Center for Sustainable Energy and Nanotechnology, 5Rong Hsing Research Center for Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan Abstract: Carrier-mediated drug delivery systems are promising therapeutics for targeted delivery and improved efficacy and safety of potent cytotoxic drugs. Nimesulide is a multifactorial cyclooxygenase 2 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic, antipyretic and potent anticancer properties; however, the low solubility of nimesulide limits its applications. Drugs conjugated with hyaluronic acid (HA are innovative carrier-mediated drug delivery systems characterized by CD44-mediated endocytosis of HA and intracellular drug release. In this study, hydrophobic nimesulide was conjugated to HA of two different molecular weights (360 kDa as HA with high molecular weight [HAH] and 43kDa as HA with low molecular weight [HAL] to improve its tumor-targeting ability and hydrophilicity. Our results showed that hydrogenated nimesulide (N-[4-amino-2-phenoxyphenyl]methanesulfonamide was successfully conjugated with both HA types by carbodiimide coupling and the degree of substitution of nimesulide was 1%, which was characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance 400 MHz and total correlation spectroscopy. Both Alexa Fluor® 647 labeled HAH and HAL could selectively accumulate in CD44-overexpressing HT-29 colorectal tumor area in vivo, as observed by in vivo imaging system. In the in vitro cytotoxic test, HA–nimesulide conjugate displayed >46% cell killing ability at a nimesulide concentration of 400 µM in HT-29 cells, whereas

  9. La Bixa orellana L como posible sustancia reveladora de placa dentobacteriana: a potential substance for detection of dentobacterial plaque Bixa orellana L:

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    Gemma Lauzardo García del Prado

    2009-06-01

    demonstrated that Bixa does not provokes pathologic alterations in human being and also has significant antifungal, antipyretic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-gonorrhea properties among others, and it is used in food dyeing: butter, cheeses, and oils. With this proposal, we try to increase the promotion and prevention activities of dental caries and the periodontal diseases, to raise the educational level for dental hygiene in our population, to decrease the curative treatments, thus extending the remnant teeth health.

  10. Automedicação em estudantes universitários: a influência da área de formação Self-medication among university students: the influence of the field of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayani Galato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigar a influência da área de formação de universitários na prática da automedicação. Estudo transversal com aplicação de questionários sobre o perfil dos entrevistados, a prática da automedicação e outras questões relacionadas ao manejo da saúde. Foram entrevistados 342 universitários das diferentes áreas de formação, sendo 81 da área da saúde. Destes, 37,0% referiram ter se automedicado nos últimos quinze dias. Neste período os problemas de saúde mais comuns para esta prática foram a dor em geral (90,4% adotando-se principalmente analgésicos e antitérmicos. Observou-se que ser mulher (p = 0,049 e possuir plano de saúde (p = 0,036 associaram-se significativamente a automedicação e que ser da área de saúde não está associado à prevalência desta prática (p = 0,139. Contudo, identificou-se que a influência da propaganda (p The scope of this paper was to investigate the influence of a university student's field of study upon self-medication. A cross-sectional study was conducted through the administration of questionnaires on the profile of the respondents, self-medication and other healthcare-related issues. In all, 342 students from different fields of study were interviewed, 81 of which were from the health area. Of the respondents, 37% reported self-medicating in the last fortnight. The most common health problems for self-medication in this period were general pain (90.4% and analgesics and antipyretics were the most common form of medication. It was observed that being female (p=0.049, as well as the fact of having health insurance (p=0.036, were significantly associated with self-medication and that studying in the health area was not associated with self-medication (0.139. However, it was found that the influence of advertising (p<0.001, old prescriptions (p=0.041, pharmacists or pharmacy employees (p=0.005, as well as friends, neighbors and relatives (p=0.003 were more significant among

  11. Automedicação em crianças e adolescentes Self-medication in children and adolescents

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    Francis S. V. T. Pereira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência da automedicação em crianças e adolescentes dos municípios de Limeira e Piracicaba (SP, correlacionando-a a indicadores sociodemográficos e utilização de serviços de saúde (pública ou privada. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo tipo inquérito populacional domiciliar de uma amostra aleatória simples de ambos os municípios, constituída de 772 moradores procedentes de 85 setores censitários selecionados por meio de amostragem por conglomerado. Critérios de inclusão: idade OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of self-medication in children and adolescents in the municipalities of Limeira and Piracicaba, state of São Paulo, and to correlate results with sociodemographic indicators and with the use of health care services (public or private. METHODS: Descriptive population-based study of a simple random sample from the two municipalities, comprised of 772 inhabitants from 85 urban census sectors selected through cluster sampling. Inclusion criteria: age < 18 years; interview with one parent/tutor; consumption of at least one drug in the previous 15 days. Subjects were divided into two study groups according to their pattern of drug use: self-medication (lay advice and medical prescription. Linear association tests, descriptive analysis of variables and multiple logistic regression tests were carried out to analyze data. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-medication was 56.6%. Mothers (51% and drugstore employees (20.1% were most frequently responsible for self-medication. The main groups of self-prescribed drugs were: analgesic/antipyretic and non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs (52.9%; drugs acting on the respiratory tract (15.4% and gastrointestinal drugs (9.6%; and systemic antibiotics (8.6%. The situation that most commonly motivated self-medication were respiratory diseases (17.2%, fever (15%, and headache (14%. Subjects in the age group of 7-18 years (odds ratio = 2.81 and public health care users

  12. The modulatory effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on endogenous antioxidant systems and inflammatory markers in an acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic mice model

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    Govindarajan Karthivashan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol (APAP, also known as acetaminophen, is the most commonly used over-the counter analgesic and antipyretic medication. However, its overdose leads to both liver and kidney damage. APAP-induced toxicity is considered as one of the primary causes of acute liver failure; numerous scientific reports have focused majorly on APAP hepatotoxicity. Alternatively, not many works approach APAP nephrotoxicity focusing on both its mechanisms of action and therapeutic exploration. Moringa oleifera (MO is pervasive in nature, is reported to possess a surplus amount of nutrients, and is enriched with several bioactive candidates including trace elements that act as curatives for various clinical conditions. In this study, we evaluated the nephro-protective potential of MO leaf extract against APAP nephrotoxicity in male Balb/c mice. A single-dose acute oral toxicity design was implemented in this study. Group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received a toxic dose of APAP (400 mg/kg of bw, i.p and after an hour, these groups were administered with saline (10 mL/kg, silymarin—positive control (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p, MO leaf extract (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p, and MO leaf extract (200 mg/kg bw, i.p respectively. Group 1 was administered saline (10 mL/kg during both the sessions. APAP-treated mice exhibited a significant elevation of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium and chloride levels. A remarkable depletion of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GSH-Px with elevated MDA levels has been observed in APAP treated kidney tissues. They also exhibited a significant rise in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokine level in the kidney tissues. Disorganized glomerulus and dilated tubules with inflammatory cell infiltration were clearly observed in the histology of APAP treated mice kidneys. All these pathological changes were reversed in a dose-dependent manner after MO leaf extract

  13. Fearful or functional--a cross-sectional survey of the concepts of childhood fever among German and Turkish mothers in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thorsten; Pfeifer, Miriam; Soenmez, Aynur; Tarhan, Bilge; Jeschke, Elke; Ostermann, Thomas

    2011-05-23

    -economic status are associated with the fever concept "fearful". Mothers with these attributes seem to require specific and reassuring counselling as they use antipyretic drugs extensively and out-of-hours services frequently.

  14. Fearful or functional - a cross-sectional survey of the concepts of childhood fever among German and Turkish mothers in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Turkish migrant background and a low socio-economic status are associated with the fever concept "fearful". Mothers with these attributes seem to require specific and reassuring counselling as they use antipyretic drugs extensively and out-of-hours services frequently. PMID:21605413

  15. Preliminary Study on Kinetic Solid-Liquid Extraction and Bio-Active Components Analysis of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Irwan Zubairi; Haizulizam Suradi; Syazwan Aizad Abdul Mutalib; Zetty Shafiqa Othman; Norshahida Bustaman; Wan Ros Maryana Wan Musa

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis or commonly known as 'Hibiscus' is a kind of decorative flowers which often grown in a subtropical countries. This plant is often used in the preparation of traditional medicine because of its pharmacological properties that are capable of treating number of health problems. The plant contains several essential bio-active substances and nutrients especially in its flowers and leaves. One of the bioactive substances is β-sitosterol which is abundant in the leaf crude extract. Hibiscus leaves water extract yielded mucilage which is widely used in lowering high body temperature due to fever (antipyretic). Therefore, the main objective of this paper was to determine the maximum concentration of mucilage and time of exhaustive extraction from fresh and dried leaves using a Peleq's mathematical model. Moreover, several analyses were conducted such as qualitative analysis to determine the presence of bioactive substances using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determination of functional groups by means of fourier transform infrared method (FTIR). Physical properties of the extracts were evaluated to determine its acidity and viscosity of the mucilage with respect to different shear stress. The result show that the extract of dried Hibiscus leaves exhibited high in its concentrations even though the achieved exhaustive extraction was relatively slow as compared to fresh leaves (p < 0.05). Based on the HPLC analysis, the main bio-active substances of β-sitosterol was only existed in fresh leaves samples. The absence of β-sitosterol in dried leaves extract was caused by the loss of other important bio-active substances which possess surfactant capability, due to thermal degradation of drying process or the component itself was deteriorated during the pre-preparation drying process. Furthermore, the FTIR analysis shows that the same composition of the absorption peaks for both extracts with the highest absorption of O-H bonds was

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Acetaminophen Plus Ibuprofen to Treat Fever Than any of the Two Alone in Febrile Children

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    Noor Mohammad Noori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Fever is a natural response of the host to infection and a normal part of children's infectious disease. Objectives The purpose of the study was comparison of the combined treatment of acetaminophen and ibuprofen compact with each treatment alone. Methods This Double-blind clinical trial study was done on 540 children with 38°C to 41°C as body temperature. Eligible children after considering inclusion criteria divided in three groups randomly. First group of 183 patients administrated with acetaminophen, the second and the third groups of 178 and 179 patients with ibuprofen and combination. The first dose of antipyretic drug was administered to the patient under the supervision of a physician or nurse. After explanation of benefits and marginal effects to the parents if they accepted the conditions their children were admitted to the study. Parents were free if they wish to withdraw the study before completing. Information of each patient was recorded on a form. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistic, one-way ANOVA and SPSS software version 16. Results Out of sample 60.6% were boy. The mean age of children treated with acetaminophen, ibuprofen and combination therapy was 2.21 ± 2.49, 3.00 ± 2.92 and 2.22 ± 2.33 years in the order given. The results showed statistical difference in two (F = 4.45 and P = 0.012 and four hours (F = 3.11 and P = 0.045 after taking drug. A significant difference not observed in the value of temperature decrease within 2 - 4 hours after drug intake, (F = 2.49, P=0.084 but in the time of 0-2 (P = 0.012 and 4-6 hours (P = 0.001 was observed. Conclusions The findings of this study showed that acetaminophen is more effective for a short time but the combination in the long time when ibuprofen placed in the middle position with the respect of time.

  17. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, Noboru; Kishihata, Masako; Tien, Dat Nguyen; Kamei, Kaeko; Kimura, Takeshi; Yokode, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  18. Paracetamol use (and/or misuse in children in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obu Herbert A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen is the commonest available analgesic and anti-pyretic. It is readily accessed from pharmacy, patent medicine and provision shops as over the counter drug making it a potential drug of abuse, especially in children. We sought to find its use and/or misuse in children seen at the paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. Objective To determine the dosage, formulation, and frequency of paracetamol administration to children by caregivers and factors associated with its use and/or misuse. Method An observational prospective study involving 231 children and their caregivers seen at the paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku - Ozalla, Enugu between June and November 2011 was undertaken. Data on paracetamol use before presentation to the clinic, in addition to demographic and other data were obtained from the caregivers using a structured questionnaire. Ethical consent for the study was obtained from the Hospital Ethics and Research Committee and informed consent was further obtained from the caregivers of the children. Results A total of 231 children aged six weeks to 16 years and their caregivers participated in this study. The mean ages of the children and their caregivers were 3.8 and 33.9 years, respectively. One hundred and thirty three of the children studied were males while 98 were females. Most of the children (75.6% received paracetamol at home before presenting. Paracetamol tablet alone or in combination with the syrup was mostly used (60% and this observation was made across all age groups. The commonest reason for using paracetamol tablet instead of the syrup was that it was more effective. Most caregivers relied on past experience (71.2% rather than on enclosed information leaflet to decide the appropriate dosage. Half of the children also received other medications

  19. NMR-based metabonomics study on the effect of Gancao in the attenuation of toxicity in rats induced by Fuzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Wang, Xubin; Cao, Ruili; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Qiao; Xu, Meifeng; Zhang, Ming; Du, Xiangbo; Dong, Fangting; Yan, Xianzhong

    2016-12-04

    Fuzi, the processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for its analgesic, antipyretic, anti-rheumatoid arthritis and anti-inflammation effects; however, it is also well known for its toxicity. Gancao, the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., is often used concurrently with Fuzi to alleviate its toxicity. However, the mechanism of detoxication is still not well clear. In this study, the effect of Gancao on the metabolic changes induced by Fuzi was investigated by NMR-based metabonomic approaches. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (group A: control, group B: Fuzi decoction alone, group C: Gancao decoction alone, group D: Fuzi decoction and Gancao decoction simultaneously, group E: Fuzi decoction 5h after Gancao decoction) and urine samples were collected for NMR-based metabolic profiling analysis. Statistical analyses such as unsupervised PCA, t-test, hierarchical cluster, and pathway analysis were used to detect the effects of Gancao on the metabolic changes induced by Fuzi. The behavioral and biochemical characteristics showed that Fuzi exhibited toxic effects on treated rats (group B) and statistical analyses showed that their metabolic profiles were in contrast to those in groups A and C. However, when Fuzi was administered with Gancao, the metabolic profiles became similar to controls, whereby Gancao reduced the levels of trimethylamine N-oxide, betaine, dimethylglycine, valine, acetoacetate, citrate, fumarate, 2-ketoglutarate and hippurate, and regulated the concentrations of taurine and 3-hydroxybutyrate, resulting in a decrease in toxicity. Furthermore, important pathways that are known to be involved in the effect of Gancao on Fuzi, including phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and the TCA cycle, were altered in co-treated rats. Gancao treatment mitigated the metabolic changes altered by Fuzi administration in rats

  20. A Randomized Controlled Study of a Fully Liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T Hexavalent Vaccine for Primary and Booster Vaccinations of Healthy Infants and Toddlers in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pío; Arguedas Mohs, Adriano; Abdelnour Vásquez, Arturo; Consuelo-Miranda, Maria; Feroldi, Emmanuel; Noriega, Fernando; Jordanov, Emilia; B Chir, Siham; Zambrano, Betzana

    2017-11-01

    Hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. Infants (N = 1375) received hepatitis B vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of 3 batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4 to 6 months of age, coadministered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months). A booster of either DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or control was given at 12-24 months, coadministered with PCV7. Immunogenicity was assessed by validated assays and safety from parental reports. Primary series seroprotection and vaccine response rates were equivalent for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T batches. For pooled batches, noninferiority to the control vaccine was demonstrated for each antigen. There were no descriptive differences in antibody persistence or booster response between DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T and the control. The booster responses to either vaccine following DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T primary series or to DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T following a control vaccine primary series were similar. The anti-aP component (filamentous hemagglutinin [FHA] and pertussis toxin [PT]) vaccine response and anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP) series seroprotection (≥0.15 µg/mL) rates were ≥73.0% after 2 primary series doses. Antipyretics had no effect on the immune response, and an extra (oral) polio vaccination had no effect on the antipolio booster response. Responses to PCV7 and rotavirus vaccine were similar for each coadministration. There were no safety concerns observed with any vaccine. These results confirm the suitability of the fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of infants.