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Sample records for antipyretics

  1. Antipyretic activity of diacetyl para-amino phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewak, P; Saxena, J; Dorle, A K; Grover, J K

    1989-01-01

    Diacetyl para-amino phenol (DAPAP) was generated by interaction between aspirin and paracetamol in a mechanical shaker. It revealed antipyretic activity in albino rats. The antipyretic action was found to be having the same onset of action and duration as that of aspirin. This compound lacked ulcerogenic and analgesic activity. DAPAP therefore may have safety as an antipyretic drug in patients with history of peptic ulcer.

  2. Fever and antipyretic use in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Janice E; Farrar, Henry C

    2011-03-01

    Fever in a child is one of the most common clinical symptoms managed by pediatricians and other health care providers and a frequent cause of parental concern. Many parents administer antipyretics even when there is minimal or no fever, because they are concerned that the child must maintain a "normal" temperature. Fever, however, is not the primary illness but is a physiologic mechanism that has beneficial effects in fighting infection. There is no evidence that fever itself worsens the course of an illness or that it causes long-term neurologic complications. Thus, the primary goal of treating the febrile child should be to improve the child's overall comfort rather than focus on the normalization of body temperature. When counseling the parents or caregivers of a febrile child, the general well-being of the child, the importance of monitoring activity, observing for signs of serious illness, encouraging appropriate fluid intake, and the safe storage of antipyretics should be emphasized. Current evidence suggests that there is no substantial difference in the safety and effectiveness of acetaminophen and ibuprofen in the care of a generally healthy child with fever. There is evidence that combining these 2 products is more effective than the use of a single agent alone; however, there are concerns that combined treatment may be more complicated and contribute to the unsafe use of these drugs. Pediatricians should also promote patient safety by advocating for simplified formulations, dosing instructions, and dosing devices.

  3. Antipyretic and antinociceptive activity of Diospyros lotus L. in animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdur Rauf; Ghias Uddin; Bina S Siddiqui; Naveed Muhammad; Haroon Khan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate pharmacologically the traditional use of Diospyros lotus as antipyretic and antinociceptive in various animal models.Methods: In vivo experimental models were used in this study. Antipyretic activity of extract/fractions was evaluated in brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermic mice while antinociceptive activity was studied in acetic acid induced writhing test at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.Results:The crude extract strongly ameliorated the induced pyrexia during various assessment times. Upon fractionation, the antipyretic effects were strongly augmented by the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of the plant. However, hexane and butanol fractions were insignificant in their effect as antipyretic. The extract showed marked inhibition on the noxious simulation induced by post acetic acid injection. The effect was strongly supported by other fraction expect hexane.Conclusions:In short, our study scientifically validated the traditional use of the plant as antipyretic.

  4. Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, M; Khattak, S G; Gilani, S N

    1987-01-01

    Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus.

  5. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

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    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po. showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  6. Antioxidant and antipyretic studies onPothos scandens L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thankarajan Sajeesh; Karuppusamy Arunachalam; Tangaraj Parimelazhagan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigatePothos scandensfor thein vitro antioxidant and antipyretic activity. Methods: Preliminary phytochemicals, total phenolics and flavonoid contents were analyzed in leaf, stem and root samples.In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by different assays such as2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging,2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power(FRAP)assay, phosphomolybdenum reduction assay, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide scavenging assay. The antipyretic activity of root methanol extract was studied by pyrexia induced by brewer’s yeast on Wistar albino rats at concentration of200and400 mg/kg using paracetamol as standard drug.Results: The total phenolics and tannin content were found to be higher in ethanol extract of stem, whereas total flavonoid content was higher in acetone extract of root. The methanol extract of root showed highest free radical scavenging activity in assays namelyABTS assay (8 221.5 μM TE/g extract),FRAP assay [514.4 mM Fe (Ⅱ)/g extract], hydrogen peroxide (60.3%)and nitric oxide scavenging assays(58.7%). The DPPHassay and superoxide radical assay results revealed that the ethanol extract of root has remarkable free radical scavenging capacity (IC500.284 mg/mL and 70.84%). The antipyretic studies on methanol extract of root showed significant reduction of temperature in pyrexia induced rats at200and 400 mg/kg doses. Conclusions:These findings justify thatPothos scandens can be a valuable natural antioxidant and antipyretic source which seemed to provide potential nutraceuticals for human health.

  7. A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic–analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxici...

  8. Antioxidant and antipyretic properties of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosusleaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar; Kuruba Lakshman; Jayaveera KN; Devangam Sheshadri Shekar; Avalakondarayappa Arun Kumar; Bachappa Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Methanolic extract ofAmaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus) leaves was screened for antioxidant and antipyretic activities.Methods:Antioxidant activity was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazile(DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging,2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid(ABTS) radical scavenging assays and total phenolic content was also determined. Antipyretic activity of methanolic extract ofA. spinosus was measured by yeast induced pyrexia method at concentration of200 and400 mg/kg using paracetamol as standard drug.Results: Methanolic extract ofA. spinosusshowed potent antioxidant activity. The IC50 value was(87.50 ±3.52) μg/mL, (98.80±1.40) μg/mL,(106.25±0.20)μg/mL,(88.70±0.62) μg/mL and(147.50±2.61) μg/mL forDPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl, nitric oxide andABTSradical scavenging activities. Methanolic extract ofA. spinosus showed significant(P<0.01)antipyretic activity.

  9. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Mimusops elengi Linn

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    Purnima A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy′s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer′s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer′s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity.

  10. A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mradu; Shaw, B P; Mukherjee, A

    2010-04-01

    The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic-analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxicity. Flavonoids, glycosides and tannins were later found to be present in the extract. Detailed chemical investigations were undertaken after hydrolysis of extract using spectroscopic and chromatography methods to determine its active chemical constituent. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed absorbance maxima at 220 and 276 nm, while fourier transform infra-red investigations indicated an end carboxylic O-H structure at 2940 cm(-1) suggesting the presence of glycoside-linked flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography also confirmed the possibility of at least one major and two minor compounds in this abstract. Detailed examination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of the principal component as 2-(1-oxopropyl)-benzoic acid, which is quite similar to the active compound found in the standard drug Aspirin (2-acetyl-oxybenzoic acid).

  11. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine.

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    Backhouse, N; Delporte, C; Givernau, M; Cassels, B K; Valenzuela, A; Speisky, H

    1994-10-01

    Boldine, an antioxidant alkaloid isolated from Peumus boldus, exhibits a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced guinea pig paw edema test with an oral ED50 of 34 mg/kg. Boldine also reduces bacterial pyrogen-induced hyperthermia in rabbits to an extent which varied between 51% and 98% at a dose of 60 mg/kg p.o. In vitro studies carried out in rat aortal rings revealed that boldine is an effective inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, promoting 53% inhibition at 75 microM. The latter in vitro effect may be mechanistically linked to the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine exerted in vivo.

  12. Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation for the antipyretic effect of the seeds of Saraca asoca Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasmal S; Majumdar S; Gupta M; Mukherjee A; Mukherjee PK

    2012-01-01

    To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization, physiochemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity. Methods: Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical, phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations. Also, the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in Wistar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Results: After phytochemical screening, the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin, tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia. The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin (100 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.01) antipyretic activity when compared to the control group. The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature.Conclusions:The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods.

  13. Evaluation of anti-pyretic potential of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam

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    Sutar N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the anti-pyretic effect of an ethanol extract of seeds, of Moringa oleifera Lam. belonging to the family of Moringiaceae, at normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia, in albino rats. An yeast suspension (10 ml/kg body wt. increased rectal temperature 19 hours after the subcutaneous injection. The ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera , at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt. p.o., showed significant dose-dependent reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature. The effect extended up to five hours after drug administration. The anti-pyretic effect of the ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera was comparable to that of paracetamol (150 mg/kg body wt., p.o., a standard anti-pyretic agent.

  14. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

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    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  15. MEDICINAL PLANTS AS A SOURCE OF ANTIPYRETIC AGENT IN TERAI REGION OF WESTERN NEPAL

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    Anant Gopal Singh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during 2009-2011 using semi-structured, open-ended questionnaires, informal interviews, and group discussions with traditional healers and senior citizens having thorough knowledge about plants and plant based remedies. During present study ten phytotherapeutic practices for management of different types of fever using 50 plant species as antipyretic agent were identified and documented. These species may be used for the development of new, cheap, and effective antipyretic agent of herbal origin. Further investigation of these plant species for herbal antipyretic agents will require safety and efficacy testing. There is an urgent need to formulate suitable conservation strategies for wildly growing medicinal plants to overcome their depletion from natural resources.

  16. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamger; Mazhar, Uzma; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Ahmad, Taseer; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim; Javed, Ibrahim; Ali, Haider

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan and egg albumin induced paw edema in mice, while analgesic activity was assessed using formalin induced paw licking and acetic acid induced abdominal writhing in mice. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20% yeast. All the extracts produced significant anti-inflammatory effect however, ether extract produced maximum effect 34% inhibition (p Thymus serphyllum in traditional medicine for inflammation accompanied by pain and fever.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of novel analogues of mangiferin as potent antipyretic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shashi Kant Singh; Saurabh K Sinha; SK Prasad; R Kumar; Bhawani S Bithu; S Sadish Kumar; P Singh

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To screen different analogues of mangiferin pharmacologically for antipyretic activity. Methods:The naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin was isolated by column chromatography from the ethanolic extract of stem bark ofMangifera indica. Mangiferin was further converted to5-(N-phenylamino methyleno) mangiferin,5-(N-p-chlorophenylamino methyleno) mangiferin,5-(N-2-methyl phenylamino methyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-p-methoxy phenylamino methyleno) mangiferin,5-(N, N-diphenylamino methyleno) mangiferin,5-(N-α-napthylamino methyleno) mangiferin and5-(N-4-methyl phenylamino methyleno) mangiferin analogues. The synthesized compounds were further screened for antipyretic activity along with mangiferin at a dose level of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Mangiferin and its analogues were characterized by melting point andRfvalue determination and through spectral technique likeUV, IR, and NMR spectral analysis.Results: The antipyretic activity of mangiferin as well as all analogues was found to be more significant in at higher doseie.200mg/kg which was depicted through a decrease in rectal temperature up to3 h.Conclusions:The antipyretic activity of mangiferin and its analogues may be attributed to inhibition in synthesis ofTNF-α and anti-oxidant activity associated with amelioration of inflammatory actions of cytokines.

  18. In vivo screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves for antinociceptive and antipyretic activity

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    Naveed Muhammad

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: In vivo studies of SLO showed prominent antinociceptive and antipyretic activities with ample safety profile and thus provided pharmacological base for the traditional uses of the plant in various painful conditions and pyrexia. Additional detail studies are required to ascertain its clinical application.

  19. Comparative antipyretic activity of methanolic extracts of some species of Amaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar; Kuruba Lakshman; Jayaveera KN

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific validation for the antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis (Linn.), Amaranthus caudatus (Linn.) and Amaranthus spinosus (Linn.). Methods: The antipyretic activity of methanol extracts of all three plants at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was investigated by yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Paracetamol (150 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as reference drug and control group received distilled water. Rectal temperatures of all the rats were recorded and compared at 19 h, immediately before extract or vehicle or paracetamol administration, and again at 1 h interval up to 24 h by thermal probe Eliab themistor thermometer. Results: At 400 mg/kg dose all the three methanolic extracts showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in yeast provoked elevated temperature as compared with that of standard drug paracetamol, whereas 200 mg/kg dose is less effective when compared with higher dose (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results show that methanol extract of three plants of Amaranthus possesses a significant antipyretic effect in maintaining reducing yeast-induced elevated body temperature in rats and their effects were comparable to that of the standard antipyretic drug paracetamol.

  20. Antipyretic therapy in critically ill patients with established sepsis: a trial sequential analysis.

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    Zhongheng Zhang

    Full Text Available antipyretic therapy for patients with sepsis has long been debated. The present study aimed to explore the beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy for ICU patients with sepsis.systematic review and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials.Pubmed, Scopus, EBSCO and EMBASE were searched from inception to August 5, 2014.Mortality was dichotomized as binary outcome variable and odds ratio (OR was chosen to be the summary statistic. Pooled OR was calculated by using DerSimonian and Laird method. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by using the statistic I2. Trial sequential analysis was performed to account for the small number of trials and patients.A total of 6 randomized controlled trials including 819 patients were included into final analysis. Overall, there was no beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy on mortality risk in patients with established sepsis (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.50-2.05. The required information size (IS was 2582 and our analysis has not yet reached half of the IS. The Z-curve did not cross the O'Brien-Fleming α-spending boundary or reach the futility, indicating that the non-significant result was probably due to lack of statistical power.our study fails to identify any beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy on ICU patients with established diagnosis of sepsis. Due to limited number of total participants, more studies are needed to make a conclusive and reliable analysis.

  1. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Sawadogo Wamtinga; Marius, Lompo; Noya, Somé; Innocent Pierre, Guissou; Germaine, Nacoulma-Ouedraogo Odile

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the general acute, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae). Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and croton oil-induced ear edema in rats were used for the evaluation of general acute anti-inflammatory effects. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in mice were used to evaluate the analgesic and antipyretic activities respectively. The extract at doses of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mgkg(-1) for carrageenan test and doses of 0.5 mg/ear for croton oil test induced a significant reduction (p Lepidagathis anobrya and give the scientific basis for its traditional use. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of action and the components responsible for these pharmacological effects.

  2. Antipyretic activity of seeds from Red and White type of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera in Albino Rat

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    P.K. Deepa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera (red and white types at dose rates of 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg was administered orally in rats in which pyrexia was induced with brewers yeast. The standard drug used was aspirin (100 mg/kg. The standard drug showed antipyretic effect from first hour of the study onwards. It was found that during the third hour of the study N. nucifera red and white types, 600 mg/kg showed significant decrease in body temperature. During the fourth hour of the study, all the treatment groups showed antipyretic effect. A similar decrease in body temperature was observed on fifth hour of the study also. Hence the present study revealed that the N. nucifera (red and white types at the rate of 400 and 600 mg/kg is effective in reducing body temperature in yeast induced pynexia in rats. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 213-214

  3. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Thymus linearis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Parveen, Amna; Abbas, Khizar; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous methanolic and n-hexane extract of Thymus linearis. For measuring analgesic activity, writhing test, hot plate method and formalin test were performed and abdominal writhing was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of 0.2 ml of 3% acetic acid. While in formalin test, pain was experimentally induced by injecting 25 μl of 2.5% formalin in left hind paw. In hot plate method, pain was induced thermally by keeping the animals on a hot plate with temperature of about 51°C. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan induced mice paw edema. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 15% yeast. The results showed that both the extracts had significant analgesic activity (pThymus linearis may be used against pain, pyrexia and inflammation.

  4. Analgesic, anti-inlfammatory and antipyretic activities of methanolic leaf extract ofMaerua crassifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Godwin Christian Akuodor; Augustine Dick Essien; Joseph Linus Akpan; Kingsley Chimsorom Chilaka; Kenneth Ikechukwu Nwadike; Ndubuisi Nwobodo Nwobodo; Basil Chukwuma Ezeokpo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic leaf extract ofMaerua crassifoliain mice and rats. Methods: Acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion methods were used to assess analgesic activity, while xylene and carrageenan-induced paw oedema methods were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the leaf extract. Yeast and amphetamine-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the antipyretic activity. The phytochemical analysis and oral acute toxicity of the methanolic leaf extract ofMaerua crassifolia were also evaluated. Results: The leaf extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) showed a dose dependent and significant (P Conclusions:The findings confirmed its ethnomedical use in the treatment of pains and feverish conditions.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of Kang 601 heji,a traditional Chinese oral liquid dosage form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael; Nammahime; Alolga; Sarah; Wambui; Amadi; Vitus; Onoja; Assogba; Gabin; Assanhou; Moses; Muyaba; Said; Abasse; Kassim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of Kang 601 heji(K-601) as an anti-in flammatory and antipyretic agent using appropriate animal models.Methods: Carrageenan-induced rat paw and xylene-induced ear oedemas were models used to investigate anti-in flammatory actions of K-601. Lipopolysaccharide-induced pyrexia model was used to evaluate antipyretic activity in Wistar rats. The antiin flammatory and antipyretic mechanisms were evaluated by detecting prostaglandins E2, nitric oxide, interleukin-1b and tumour necrosis factora levels using appropriate reagents and ELISA kits.Results: The results revealed that K-601 reduced the level of in flammations in both antiin flammatory models in a dose-dependent manner. The same was true for the antipyretic model. The possible mechanisms of actions were through the inhibition of prostaglandins E2, interleukin-1b, tumour necrosis factora and nitric oxide.Conclusions: K-601 has proven anti-in flammatory and antipyretic actions. The findings provide a scientific basis for the use of K-601 as anti-in flammatory and antipyretic agent in traditional Chinese medicinal practice.

  6. Anti-inlfammatory and antipyretic properties of kang 601 heji, a traditional Chinese medicine oral liquid dosage form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael Nammahime Alolga; Sarah Wambui Amadi; Vitus Onoja; Assogba Gabin Assanhou; Moses Muyaba; Said Abasse Kassim

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of Kang 601 heji (K-601) as an anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agent using appropriate animal models. Methods:Carrageenan-induced rat paw and xylene-induced ear oedemas were models used to investigate anti-inflammatory actions of K-601. Lipopolysaccharide-induced pyrexia model was used to evaluate antipyretic activity in Wistar rats. The anti-inflammatory and antipyretic mechanisms were evaluated by detecting prostaglandins E2, nitric oxide, interleukin-1βand tumor necrosis factor-αlevels using appropriate reagents and ELISA kits. Results:The results revealed that K-601 reduced the level of inflammations in both anti-inflammatory models in a dose-dependent manner. The same was true for the antipyretic model. The possible mechanisms of actions were through the inhibition of prostaglandins E2, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-αand nitric oxide. Conclusions: K-601 has proven anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions. The findings provide a scientific basis for the use of K-601 as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agent in traditional Chinese medicinal practice.

  7. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

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    Muhammad Naveed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME. Methods VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p. Results In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23% protection at 300mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90% at 150mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300mg/kg. Conclusions It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant.

  8. Antipyretic activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Moringa oleifera in rabbits.

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    Ahmad, Saeed; Shah, Syed Muhammad-Ali; Alam, Muhammad Khurshid; Usmanghani, Khan; Azhar, Iqbal; Akram, Muhammad

    2014-07-01

    Pyrexia and inflammation are indicatives of various disorders. Modern medicines are available for treatment of pyrexia, but they have few side effects. Several studies are ongoing Worldwide to search natural antipyretic agents with better efficacy and fewer or no side effects. This study was aimed at evaluating the antipyretic activity of Moringa oleifera bark in rabbits against E. coli induced pyrexia. Rectal temperature was recorded with digital thermometer at 0 h and E. coli suspension was injected. After 1 h again rectal temperature of the animals was recorded and hydro-alcoholic extract were administered to the treatment groups and paracetamol hydro-alcoholic 50 mg/kg orally to the positive control group. Then rectal temperature was recorded at the interval of one h for 4 h. After the drug administration (at h 1), the decrease in body temperature with the dose of 25mg/kg(-1) during next four h ranged between 1.9-2.6of as compared to the negative control. At the dose of 50mg/kg(-1) the decrease in temperature was 1.9-3.0 of. The decrease in body temperature at the dose of 100mg/kg(-1) was high, which ranged from 2.3-3.1of as compared to negative control. Paracetamol, a standard drug , also significantly lowered the temperature but Moringa oleifera at the concentration of 100mg/kg(-1) lowered the body temperature significantly as compared to the negative as well as positive control. Moringa oleifera bark has marked antipyretic activity in animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Moringa oleifera bark as an antipyretic plant.

  9. EVALUATION OF ANTIPYRETIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PARUSAKA (GREWIA ASIATICA LINN.: AN INDIGENOUS INDIAN PLANT

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    Das Debajyoti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the modern medical system, pyrexia is not only considered as a disease, but Jwara or pyrexia has been depicted as a cardinal disease from the period of Brihatrayee (2000B.C – 7th Century A.D. due to its severeity and worsening prognosis. The vivic classification of the disease, Jwara has been acertained in different traditional Ayurvedic texts and the treatment are being elaborately described in these texts, but most are the compond formulation pertaining to endangered species. Considering this, Parusaka (Grewia asiatica Linn. has been selected as a drug having the Jwaraghna (antipyretic action and Vedananasaka (analgesic. The basis for the pharmacological action is based on panachabhautika composition. This study was carried out to evaluate its analgesic and antipyretic activities in experimental animal model. The aqueous extract of Parusaka was administered in different doses to swiss albino mice / rats and compared for analgesic – antipyretic activity by administering aspirin. The extract (doses of 200-300mg / kg body weight showed good analgesic effect due to its inhibitory effects on pain induced by acetic acid in writhing test (Chemical stimulation and tail immersion test (Thermal stimulation. The trial drug (300mg /kg body weight also produced significant increase in the hot plate reaction time (when compared to aspirin 400mg/kg body weight in mice indicating its analgesic effects. The extract containing 400mg /kg body weight dose had significant effect than aspirin (100mg / kg body weight on reducing pyrexia, induced by administering lipopolysaccharide extract from E. Coli. This study therefore support the use of Parusaka as indigenous analgesic and antipyretic agent in India and further investigations is required to elucidate its pharmacodynamic action.

  10. Antipyretic, wound healing and antimicrobial activity of processed shell of the marine mollusc Cypraea moneta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grasian Immanuel; Berkmans Jude Thaddaeus; Muthusamy Usha; Ramasamy Ramasubburayan; Santhiyagu Prakash; Arunachalam Palavesam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Some of the products derived from marine organisms have been recommended in alternative system of medicine especially Siddha medicine for several treatments. Among the marine molluscs, Cypraea moneta shell has been used as siddha medicine from ancient days. But no systematic study has been done on its efficacy as antipyretic, wound healing and as antimicrobial agent. In the present study, the protective action of processed shell powder of C. moneta was evaluated by us in an animal model for the above treatments. Methods: C. moneta shell powder was prepared by standard method described in Siddha medicine. Then the antipyretic, wound healing as well as antimicrobial effect of the processed powder was tested in Wister albino rats. Results: By the intravenous injection of yeast cell suspension into albino rats, the antipyretic effect of the shell powder given orally was studied by various concentrations of 0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml. The body temperature of the albino rat became normal within a short duration (3h). The wound healing effect of the shell powder was very effective. In the thigh region 2 cm wound was made and the different dosages of shell powder (C -Control, SD - Single dose, DD -Double dosage and TD -Triple dose/day) were applied externally as ointment. The scar was produced in eighth day onwards in DD and TD. Antimicrobial activity was studied in three different oppurtunistic human pathogens such as Micrococcus sp., Proteus vulgaris andSalmonella abory in different concentrations (2, 3, 4 and 5% w/v) of C. moneta shell powder extract. Among these, Proteus vulgaris showed the maximum zone of inhibition (15mm size) against 5% w/v concentration, followed by Micrococcus sp. (12mm) and S. abory (10mm) against the same concentration. Conclusions: The present observation suggested that, processed C. moneta shell powder can be used as an alternative medicine, and it has antipyretic, wound healing as well as antimicrobial properties.

  11. In vivo screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves for antinociceptive and antipyretic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed Muhammad; Barkatullah; Muhammad Ibrar; Haroon Khan; Muhammad Saeed; Amir Zada Khan; Waqar Ahmad Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves (SLO) for acute toxicity, antinociceptive, antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities in various animal models. Methods: SLO were extracted using modified Clevenger type apparatus. Acute toxicity test was used in mice to observe its safety level. Antinociceptive activity of SLO was evaluated in acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests. Yeast induced hyperthermic mice and pentylenetetrazole induced convulsive mice were used for the assessment of its antipyretic and anticonvulsant profile respectively. Results: Substantial safety was observed for SLO in acute toxicity test. SLO showed a high significant activity in acetic acid induced writhing test in a dose dependent manner with maximum pain attenuation of 68.48%at 200 mg/kg i.p. However, it did not produce any relief in thermal induced pain at test doses. When challenged against pyrexia evoked by yeast, SLO manifested marked amelioration in hyperthermic mice, dose dependently. Maximum anti-hyperthermic activity (75%) was observed at 200 mg/kg i.p. after 4 h of drug administration. Nevertheless, SLO had no effect on seizures control and mortality caused by pentylenetetrazole. Conclusions:In vivo studies of SLO showed prominent antinociceptive and antipyretic activities with ample safety profile and thus provided pharmacological base for the traditional uses of the plant in various painful conditions and pyrexia. Additional detail studies are required to ascertain its clinical application.

  12. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of the earthworms extract

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    Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earthworms are the major biomass in soil. They have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. However, in the past few decades with the development of biochemical technologies the research on the pharmaceutical effects of earthworms has been commencement.Aims: Experiments were conducted to recognize the therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of biologically active extract isolated from two species of earthworm (Pheretima hawayana Rosa and Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny.Materials and methods: inflammation in the hind paw of albino rat, Rattus rattus, was induced by histamine, pyrexia was induced by Escherichia coli in rats and liver damage was induced by injection of rats with CCl4. Anti-inflammatory drug - indomethacin, anti-pyretic drug - paracetamol and antioxidant drug - silymarin plus were used as standard drug for comparison.Results: Administration of Eearthworms extract (100 mg/kg and indomethacin (10 mg/kg, paracetamol (150 mg/kg, silymarin plus (150 mg/kg as standard drugs reduced and restored to normal the changes that induced by histamine, Escherichia coli and CCl4 in rats.Conclusions: The present study conclude that both extract of earthworms gave result as anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic similar to the standard drugs. The extract of the two species showed various responds as antioxidants against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

  13. Anti-inlfammatory and antipyretic activities of artesunate in experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ette Ettebong; Emmanuel Etuk; Imaobong Sunday

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potentials of artesunate in albino mice and Wistar rats respectively. Methods: For the anti-inflammatory activity, artesunate (5 mg/kg) was administered orally against egg albumin- and xylene-induced inflammation in mice using ibuprofen (50 mg/kg) as standard drug. To assess antipyretic activity, artesunate (5 mg/kg) was administered orally against d-amphetamine- and 2, 4-dinitrophenol-induced pyrexia in rats using ibuprofen (15 mg/kg) as standard drug. Results:The result showed that artesunate significantly (P < 0.001–0.010) reduced inflammation induced by egg albumin and xylene in a time-dependent manner. It also significantly (P < 0.001–0.050) and time-dependently reduced pyrexia induced by d-amphetamine and 2, 4-dinitrophenol. These reductions were similar to those produced by the standard drug ibuprofen, and thereby demonstrating that artesunate possesses anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. Conclusions:These results further support the rationale for the use of artesunate in the treatment of malaria, a disease characterized by fever and inflammation and open up possibilities of its usefulness in other inflammatory and feverish diseases.

  14. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity on Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. Leaf

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    Richa Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. is an important medicinal plant of family Boraginaceae. Traditionally, its leaves are used to treat fever, headache, and joint pain but its medicinal activities have not been proven by research. Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of C. dichotoma G. Forst. leaf extract. Material and Methods: The various extracts of leaf powder were prepared by using soxhlet apparatus. The methanol extract was selected for pharmacological study. To evaluate analgesic activity, Eddy′s hot plate method, to study anti-inflammatory activity, carageenan-induced rat paw edema method, and to study antipyretic activity, yeast-induced pyrexia method was used. SD female rats (180-200 g were used for the study. Results: In all three tests, the methanol extract high dose (400 mg/kg was found to be highly significant as compared to standard drug. Conclusion: This study proved the traditional uses of plant leaves and concluded the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of the leaf methanol extract.

  15. Antipyretic and anticonvulsant activity of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed Muhammad; Muhammad Saeed; Haroon Khan; Naila Raziq; Syed Muhammad Ashhad Halimi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia (V. betonicifolia). Methods: The antipyretic effect was scrutinized using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia and anticonvlsion effect was tested using pentylenetetrazol and strychnine induced convulsion in mice. Results: N-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia demonstrated highly significant antipyretic activity during various assessment times (1-5 h) when challenged in yeast induced pyrexia test. The effect was in a dose dependent manner with maximum attenuation (82.50%) observed at 300 mg/kg i.p. When tested in pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion test, the 1st stage (Ear and facial twitching) and 2nd stage (Convulsive wave through the body) was 100% protected during 24 h at all the test doses (300, 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p.), while the latency time of remaining stages was significantly increased. The maximum effect was observed by n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia at 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p., as the latency time for generalized clonic-tonic seizure (5th stage) was increased up to 25.34 min. However, n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia had no protection in strychnine induced convulsion test. Conclusions:In conclusion, phytopharmacological studies provide scientific foundation to the folk uses of the plant in the treatment of pyrexia and neurological disorders.

  16. Antipyretic and anticonvulsant activity of n-hexane fraction of viola betonicifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed; Muhammad; Muhammad; Saeed; Haroon; Khan; Naila; Raziq; Syed; Muhammad; Ashhad; Halimi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia(V.betonicifolia).Methods:The antipyretic effect was scrutinized using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia and anticonvlsion effect was tested using pentylenetetrazol and strychnine induced convulsion in mice.Results:N-hexane fraction of V.betonicifolia demonstrated highly significant antipyretic activity during various assessment times(1-5 h)when challenged in yeast induced pyrexia test.The effect was in a dose dependent manner with maximum attenuation(82.50%)observed at 300 mg/kg i.p.When tested in pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion test,the 1st stage(Ear and facial twitching)and 2nd stage(Convulsive wave through the body)was 100%protected during 24 h at all the test doses(300,400 and 500 mg/kg i.p.),while the latency time of remaining stages was significantly increased.The maximum effect was observed by n-hexane fraction of V.betonicifolia at 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p.,as the latency time for generalized clonic-tonic seizure(5th stage)was increased up to 25.34 min.However,n-hexane fraction of V.betonicifolia had no protection in strychnine induced convulsion test.Conclusions:In conclusion,phytopharmacological studies provide scientific foundation to the folk uses of the plant in the treatment of pyrexia and neurological disorders.

  17. ANTIPYRETIC POTENTIAL OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF CASSIA FISTULA LINN (FABACEAE BARK

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    Jana Goutam Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotany is a multidisciplinary science defined as the interaction between plants and people. On the basis of ethnomedicinal use, antipyretic activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, methanol extract of Cassia fistula Linn (Fabaceae bark has been investigated in albino rats. Normal body temperature is regulated by a centre in the hypothalamus that ensures a balance between heat loss and production. Fever occurs when there is a disturbance of this hypothalamic ‘thermostat’, which leads to the set-point of body temperature being raised. Once there has been a return to the normal set-point, temperature regulating mechanism (dilatation of superficial blood vessels, sweating etc. operates to reduce temperature. The study was carried out by using dose of 300 mg/kg orally. Experimental results exhibited that petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, methanol extract of Cassia fistula bark, possess a significant antipyretic effect. After inducing 15% w/v suspension of yeast (1ml /100gm Body weight, temperature of experimental animal was increased. Then different extracts of the drug was induced into albino rats, which shows significant results. It was observed that methanol extract at a dose of 300 mg / kg body weight showed maximum antipyretic activity amongst other extracts which is statistically significant as the value of p<0.05.

  18. Pharmacognostical,phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation for the antipyretic effect of the seeds of Saraca asoca Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasmal; S; Majumdar; S; Gupta; M; Mukherjee; A; Mukherjee; PK

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization,physiochomical evaluation,preliminary phylochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity.Methods:Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical,phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations.Also,the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in Wislar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg.Results:After phytochemical screening,the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin,tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia.The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin(100 mg/kg)showed significant(P<0.01)antipyretic activity when compared to the control group.The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature.Conclusions:The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phylochemieal met hods.

  19. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neeraj Kumar Saini; Manmohan Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) leaves extract using different models in rats. Methods:Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 300, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 days. Analgesic activity was evaluated using tail immersion and formalin induced paw licking models in rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Antipyretic activity was evaluated using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia model in rats. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract were given at dose of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 days. This indicated that the methanol extract was safe up to a single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly increased the latency period in the tail immersion test, reduced the licking time in both the neurogenic and inflammatory phases in the formalin test. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly prevented increase in volume of paw edema. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract at the doses of (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly decreased the rectal temperature of the rats. Conclusions: This study exhibites that methanolic T.capensis leaves extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity which may be mediated by the central and peripheral mechanisms.

  20. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Pergularia daemia and Carissa carandas

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    V.H Bhaskar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The plant Pergularia daemia (Asclepiadaceae and Carissa carandas (Apocynaceae are traditionally used as a medicinal agent and they are widely distributed to tropical and subtropical region of India. In the present study the folklore uses of P. daemia and C. carandas was investigated. "nMethods: The analgesic activity was studied in mice using hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing methods, while carrageenan induced paw edema was used to access anti-inflammatory activity. The antipyretic activity was evaluated by Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats. "n Results: The ethanol and aqueous extracts from roots of P. daemia and C. carandas exhibited significant (p < 0.01 analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. In analgesic activity, the highest reaction time was observed (9.8 sec. from ethanol extracts of P.daemia at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, while highest percentage of inhibition of abdominal constriction (72.67% was observed for ethanol extracts of C.carandas at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. daemia and C. carandas were found to reduce significantly the formation of edema induced by carrageenan after 2 hrs. Both plants showed significantly competent on yeast induced hyperpyrexia in rats after 2 hrs. "nConclusion: The results of this study indicated that the ethanol and aqueous extracts from roots of P. daemia and C. carandas possess significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities in rodent models.

  1. Antipyretic and wound healing activities of moringa oleifera lam. in rats

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    Hukkeri V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative chemical tests confirmed the presence of phytosterols, glycosides, tannins, and amino acids in the various leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam., whereas its seed extracts showed the presence of phytosterols, glycosides, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and amino acids. The ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of seeds showed significant antipyretic activity in rats, whereas ethyl acetate extract of dried leaves showed significant wound healing activity (10% extracts in the form of ointment on excision, incision and dead space (granuloma wound models in rats.

  2. The effect of prophylactic antipyretic administration on post-vaccination adverse reactions and antibody response in children: a systematic review.

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    Rashmi Ranjan Das

    Full Text Available Prophylactic antipyretic administration decreases the post-vaccination adverse reactions. Recent study finds that they may also decrease the antibody responses to several vaccine antigens. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for a relationship between prophylactic antipyretic administration, post-vaccination adverse events, and antibody response in children.A systematic search of major databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out till March 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing prophylactic antipyretic treatment versus placebo post-vaccination in children ≤ 6 years of age were included. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed the studies for methodological quality, and extracted data [PROSPERO registration: CRD42014009717].Of 2579 citations retrieved, a total of 13 RCTs including 5077 children were included in the review. Prophylactic antipyretic administration significantly reduced the febrile reactions (≥ 38.0 °C after primary and booster vaccinations. Though there were statistically significant differences in the antibody responses between the two groups, the prophylactic PCM group had what would be considered protective levels of antibodies to all of the antigens given after the primary and booster vaccinations. No significant difference in the nasopharyngeal carriage rates (short-term and long-term of H. influenzae or S. pneumoniae serotypes was found between the prophylactic and no prophylactic PCM group. There was a significant reduction in the local and systemic symptoms after primary, but not booster vaccinations.Though prophylactic antipyretic administration leads to relief of the local and systemic symptoms after primary vaccinations, there is a reduction in antibody responses to some vaccine antigens without any effect on the nasopharyngeal carriage rates of S. pneumoniae & H. influenza serotypes. Future trials and surveillance programs should also aim at

  3. Antinociceptive, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antipyretic Activity of Mangrove Plants: A Mini Review

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    J. A. Shilpi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove plants are specialised plants that grow in the tidal coasts of tropic and subtropic regions of the world. Their unique ecology and traditional medicinal uses of mangrove plants have attracted the attention of researchers over the years, and as a result, reports on biological activity of mangrove plants have increased significantly in recent years. This review has been set out to compile and appraise the results on antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of mangrove plants. While the Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and PubMed were the starting points to gather information, other pieces of relevant published literature were also adequately explored for this purpose. A total of 29 reports on 17 plant species have been found to report such activities. While 19 reports were on the biological activity of the crude extracts, 10 reports identified the active compound(s of various chemical classes of natural products including terpenes, steroids, and flavonoids. This review finds that antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity appears to be widespread in mangrove plants.

  4. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potentials of marine sponge Sigmadocia pumila

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    Devaraj Isaac Dhinakaran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the pharmacological properties of Sigmadocia pumila (S. pumila, a marine sponge, through in-vivo analysis. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. The analgesic activity was analyzed by tail immersion method. Antipyretic activity was done by using Brewer’s yeast induced hyperpyrexia method. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity using methanol extracts in S. pumila at the concentrations of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, (p.o. on rats showed significant decrease in the paw thickness at the 5th h of administration. It was denoted that the S. pumila exerted more analgesic activity. As for the antipyretic activity during the 2nd and 3rd h, the 3rd and 4th group of rats showed the reduction in temperature in S. pumila at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg dosages. Conclusions: The present study concludes that the marine sponge S. pumila acts as a vital role in exhibiting pharmaceutical activities. It could be used to produce novel drugs.

  5. Assessment of antinociceptive, antipyretic and antimicrobial activity of Piper cubeba L. essential oil in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothana, Ramzi; Alsaid, Mansour; Khaled, Jamal M; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Alatar, Abdulrahman; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Ahamad, Syed Rizwan

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possible antiniciceptive, antipyretic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of Piper Cubeba (L.). To assess the antinociceptive and antipyretic activities, three doses (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, tail flick reaction and hot-plate and Brewer's yeast-induced hyperpyrexia test models in animals. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity was examined using agar diffusion method and broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The Piper Cubeba essential oil (PCEO) showed a marked antinociception (17, 30 and 54%) and an increase in reaction time in mice in the flick tailed and hot-plate tests. The brewer's yeast induced hyperpyrexia was decreased in a dose dependent manner. PCEO also exhibited a strong antimicrobial potential. These findings confirm the traditional analgesic indications of P. cubeba oil and provide persuasive evidence and support its use in Arab traditional medicine.

  6. Study on antinociceptive,antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of Traditional Medicinal plant:Urtica macrorrhiza Hand-Mazz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yongna; Reanmongkol Wantana; Bouking Pisit; Li Zhongkun; Zhang Rongping

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Pharmacological activities of the aqueous extract from the stem of U. macrorrhiza on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever,anti-inflammatory effect in carageenin induced paw edema in rats, were examined. The LD50 value of intraperitoneally injected U.

  7. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Adenema hyssopifolium G. Don in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiyalu Rajasekaran; Ramasamy Arivukkarasu; Shanmugasundaram Murugesh

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate extract of Adenema hyssopifolium (AHEAE) on normal body temperature and brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia rats. Methods:Preliminary phytochemical tests, acute toxicity tests and antipyretic evaluation were carried out in ethyl acetate extract of Adenema hyssopifolium. Two doses of the extract (300 or 600 mg/kg orally) and standard antipyretic agent, paracetamol at a dose of 150 mg/kg were administered to various group of the rats. Mean rectal temperature before and after treatment was noted. Results:The phytochemical analysis of AHEAE revealed the presence of flavonoid and iridoid glycosides as major phytoconstituents. The administration of AHEAE at a dose of 300 or 600 mg/kg produced significant reduction (P<0.001 and P<0.01) of the body temperature in normal and pyrexia rats on a dose dependent manner. The antipyretic influence of AHEAE was comparable to that of standard antipyretic agent, paracetamol (150 mg/kg), and onset of action and reduction in pyrexia towards normal body temperature was delayed when compared to paracetamol treatment. At dose of 600 mg/kg, AHEAE reduced pyrexia to normal body temperature at 4 h after its administration compared to reduction of pyrexia to normal body temperature at 2 h by standard drug. The reduction of fever was consistent in paracetamol group from 2 to 4 h after its administration to normal body temperature compared to AHEAE treatments. Conclusions:Our present results corroborate with the traditional notion of Adenema hyssopifolium G. DON that is being used as an effective cure of fever and add authenticity to claim of indigenous healers that the taxon is a potential antipyretic agent.

  8. Antipyretic efficacy and tolerability of oral ibuprofen, oral dipyrone and intramuscular dipyrone in children: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Prado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Dipyrone is a widely used over-the-counter antipyretic in Latin America, and elsewhere among Latin immigrants. Despite limited evidence, physicians often prescribe oral ibuprofen or intramuscular dipyrone as the most effective antipyretics. Our aim was to compare the antipyretic efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of oral ibuprofen, oral dipyrone or intramuscular dipyrone in febrile children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, single-blind clinical trial, at San Bartolomé Mother-Child National Teaching Hospital, Lima, Peru. METHODS: Children from six months to six years old with fever (rectal temperature: 38.3 to 39.8° C in the emergency ward between February and June 2003 were eligible. Seventy-five children were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of oral ibuprofen (10 mg/kg, oral dipyrone (15 mg/kg or intramuscular dipyrone (15 mg/kg. The primary outcome was mean temperature reduction after 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Secondary outcomes were fever-associated symptoms and clinical adverse events. RESULTS: Fever decreased by about 0.5° C after 45 minutes and by about 1.0° C after 120 minutes in all three groups. Mean temperatures were similar for the three groups at all times. There was a significant decrease in fever-associated symptoms for all groups. Six patients (four receiving oral dipyrone and two receiving ibuprofen were withdrawn because of vomiting within 20 minutes after first dose of study medication. One patient assigned to oral ibuprofen presented transient urticaria. CONCLUSIONS: Antipyretic efficacy and tolerability were similar for oral ibuprofen, oral dipyrone and intramuscular dipyrone. Oral antipyretics seem more appropriate for feverish children.

  9. Analgesic and antipyretic activity of Curcuma longa rhizome extracts in wister rats

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    S. Neha

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain analgesic and antipyretic activities of rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa in Wister rats. Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg by oral, single dose treatment for seven days revealed significant difference (P<0.05, 0.01 in reaction time in terms of analgesic activity before and after treatments which was comparable to analgin (10 mg/kg b wt. and were ineffective in reversal of brewers yeast induced pyrexia. Solvent yield of these extracts was 20 percent and color dark brown and reddish brown with solid and semisolid consistency respectively. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000: 304-306

  10. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity of spirobarbitunylphenothiazines in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Lata, S; Kumar, A; Srivastava, V K

    2002-04-01

    Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of newly synthesized spirobarbitunylphenothiazines viz 10-[7, 11-Di(4-4' dimethoxphenyl)-3-oxo-9-methylaminoimino-2, 4-diazaspiro [5.5] undecane 1, 5 dione] acetylphenothiazine (test drug A) and 10-[7, 11-Di (N.N-dimethylaminophenyl)-3-oxo-9-methylaminoimino-2, 4-diazaspiro [5, 5] undecane-1, 5 dione] acetylphenothiazine (test drug B) have been screened in Swiss mice and Wistar rats. The peripheral analgesic activity of test drugs A and B was investigated by acetic acid induced writhing test in Swiss mice while the central analgesic action was assessed by hot-wire (tail flick test) of the analgesiometer and tail-clip test in Wistar rats. Antipyretic activity was assessed on Brewer's yeast induced pyrexic model while antiinflammatory activity was seen on carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. Analgesic activity was found to be only of peripheral type as there was reduction of 66% in writhing responses by test drugs A and B in dose of 80 mg/kg in mice. No change in the tail flick responses was observed on analgesiometer or by tail clip by both the test drugs. Reduction of 1.5 to 2.0 degrees C in rectal temperature was observed in pyretic rats by test drugs A and B in dose of 80 mg/kg. 80% reduction in paw volume was noted in 80 mg/kg dose of both the test drugs which was comparable to the anti-inflammatory activity of 300 mg/kg, p.o. of phenylbutazone.

  11. Estimation of the novel antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects of silymarin in Albino rats and mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Mahmoud; Amin; Mahmoud; Soliman; Arbid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the other pharmacological actions of silymarin in Albino rats and mice such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects. Methods: Rats were injected intramuscularly with pyrogenic dose of brewer’s yeast for the antipyretic test of silymarin. Another group of rats injected with 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan solution in saline at the subplanter area of the right hind paw for the anti-inflammatory test of silymarin. Another group of mice tested by hot plate method for determination of antinociceptive effect of silymarin. Hyperlipidemia was induced using high fat diet for 2 months to estimate the antihyperlipidemic activity of silymarin. Results: Silymarin showed a significant antipyretic effect of both doses(50 and 100 mg/kg) compared with control untreated group. Moreover, silymarin elucidated a significant anti-inflammatory effect of both doses reflected on the decrease of the rat paw edema every hour interval for 4 h after administration in comparison with control positive group. By the same taken, both doses of silymarine revealed a significant antinociceptive action in hot plate method at 30 and 60 min post administration. Besides, it lowered significantly the serum levels of prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta after 2 h of silymarin administration in carrageenan induced rat paw edema besides the significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and significantly elevated high density lipoprotein after 2 weeks of silymarin administration. Conclusions: These outcomes delivered a new vision into the possible pharmacological mechanisms by which silymarin advances antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects.

  12. Plasma metabolomic profiling to reveal antipyretic mechanism of Shuang-huang-lian injection on yeast-induced pyrexia rats.

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    Xiaoyan Gao

    Full Text Available Shuang-huang-lian injection (SHLI is a famous Chinese patent medicine, which has been wildly used in clinic for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, influenza, etc. The existing randomized controlled trial (RCT studies suggested that SHLI could afford a certain anti-febrile action. However, seldom does research concern the pharmacological mechanisms of SHLI. In the current study, we explored plasma metabolomic profiling technique and selected potential metabolic markers to reveal the antipyretic mechanism of SHLI on yeast-induced pyrexia rat model using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis and pattern recognition techniques. We discovered a significant perturbance of metabolic profile in the plasma of fever rats and obvious reversion in SHLI-administered rats. Eight potential biomarkers, i.e. 1 3-hydeoxybutyric acid, 2 leucine, 3 16:0 LPC, 4 allocholic acid, 5 vitamin B2, 6 Cys-Lys-His, 7 18:2 LPC, and 8 3-hydroxychola-7, 22-dien-24-oic acid, were screened out by OPLS-DA approach. Five potential perturbed metabolic pathways, i.e. 1 valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, 2 glycerophospholipid metabolism, 3 ketone bodies synthesis and degradation, 4 bile acid biosynthesis, and 5 riboflavin metabolism, were revealed to relate to the antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI. Overall, we investigated antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI at metabolomic level for the first time, and the obtained results highlights the necessity of adopting metabolomics as a reliable tool for understanding the holism and synergism of Chinese patent drug.

  13. Reasonable application of antipyretic drugs in children%小儿退热药物的合理应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾荣; 邢海生; 李晓燕; 李利敏

    2016-01-01

    目的:发热是小儿患病常见的症状,体温过高会对身体产生不利影响。目前治疗小儿发热主要有物理降温和药物退热,其中药物退热对控制小儿发热起着重要的作用。本文通过介绍小儿常用退热药物的作用特点和注意事项,为临床上选择适合的药物治疗提供基础,避免小儿退热药物的不合理用药,保证小儿用药安全、有效。%Fever is a common symptom of childhood illness,and high body temperature will have a negative impact on the body. At present,the treatment of pediatric fever mainly include physical cooling and drug defervesce,and drug defervesce plays an important role in the control of fever in children.Through the introduction of the characteristics and matters needing attention of antipyretic drugs commonly used in children,this paper provides a basis for the selection of the appropriate medication for clinical, to avoid inappropriate use of antipyretic drugs in children,and to ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug use in children.

  14. ISOLATION OF PRELIMINARY PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LINN. LEAVES EXTRACTS

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    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present studies that Isolation of preliminary phytoconstituents and anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Calotropis gigantea linn. Leaves Extracts. Therapeutic use of plants for the treatment of human illnesses dates back over man millennia. Evidence of their effectiveness in the diagnosis, cure and prevention of disease states exists in every culture throughout the world. Today “traditional medicine,” characterized by the use of herbs and other natural products still remains a regular component of health care in countries such as China, Japan, India, South America and Egypt. The search for anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent in modern was marked by the introduction of salicin for the treatment of inflammatory swellings due to rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis. The ethanol extract and distilled water extract showed good significant reduction in paw oedema as compared to control group, where as Petroleum ether (60-800C extract, Chloroform extract, Ethyl acetate, n-Butanol has showed comparatively less significant reduction in paw oedema volume. The chloroform and n-butanol extract showed good significant reduction in rectal temperature as compare to control group, where as pet. ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and distilled water extracts showed less significant reduction in rectal temperature. Hence, to put into the active principle of Calotropis gigantea linn like glycoside, sterols, carbohydrate, flavonoids, terpenoide may be responsible for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.

  15. 清热解毒法治疗带状疱疹43例%Antipyretic and Antidotil Therapy to Treat 43 Cases of Herpes Zoster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of antipyretic and antidotal on herpes zoster disease. Methods: To adapt both oral and external antipyretic and antidotil herb to treating 43 cases of herps zoster patients. Results: Using antipyretic and antidotal herb can shorten the course of herps zoster. Conclusion: Both oral and external antipyretic and antidotil herb could inhibit either herpes' virus or caricella virus.%目的:观察和验证清热解毒类中药对带状疱疹的临床功效。方法:对43例带状疱疹患者均采用中药清热解毒内治外用。结果:清热解毒法治疗能缩短带状疱疹病程,控制临床症状。结论:清热解毒法内外综合治疗对水豆-带状疱疹病毒有杀灭,抑制作用。

  16. Fever Pathogenesis and Antipyretic Use in Children%发热及小儿解热药的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏林林; 许昂; 兰丽; 季晖

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most common symptoms in children, fever is a complex physiological response to diseases, involving elevation of body temperature mediated by cytokines, generation of acute phase reactants as well as the activation of numerous endocrinology and immunology systems. Endogenous pyrogens and mediators in the thermoregulation center comprise a complicated thermoregulatory network, contributing to the thermoregulatory balance. Given the adverse drug reactions concerning the current applied antipyretics in children, it is of great clinical significance to understand the mechanisms underlying fever and develop children antipyretics with higher safety and efficacy.%发热是对抗疾病的一种复杂生理学反应,涉及细胞因子介导的体温升高,急性期反应物的生成,内分泌和免疫学系统的激活。内生性致热原和众多体温中枢调节介质构成了一个复杂的体温调节网络,负责机体的体温调节平衡。发热是小儿临床中最常见的症状之一,目前临床中使用的小儿解热药大多具有副作用,所以了解发热的基本机制,开发安全有效的小儿解热药具有重要的临床意义。

  17. Cutaneous reactions to analgesic-antipyretics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Analysis of reports to the spontaneous reporting system of the Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    We analyzed the cutaneous reactions to systemic analgesic-antipyretics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reported to the spontaneous reporting system of the Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia (GISED). The system has been active since 1988, with periodic intensive surveillance exercises, and 202 dermatologists have collaborated. Up to December 1991, 2,137 reactions had been collected, of which 713 were reactions to systemic analgesic-antipyretics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A general profile of the reactions was identifiable. It included, in order of frequency, urticaria/angioedema, fixed eruptions, exanthemas, erythema multiforme and Stevens Johnson syndrome. Fixed eruptions and Stevens Johnson syndrome were reported with exceedingly high frequency in association with feprazone. Our system also revealed previously unreported reactions, including fixed eruption to nimesulide, fixed eruption to piroxicam and fixed eruption to flurbiprofen.

  18. Design and synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxy-6-nitrophenoxyacetylhydrazone derivatives obtained from natural safrole: new lead-agents with analgesic and antipyretic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra-Netto, Heleno J C; Lacerda, Daniel I; Miranda, Ana Luisa P; Alves, Hélio M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Fraga, Carlos A M

    2006-12-01

    In this work, we reported the synthesis and evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of new 2-(6-nitro-benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yloxy)-acetylhydrazone derivatives (3), designed exploring molecular hybridization and isosteric replacement approaches between nimesulide (1) and carbanalogue NAH series (2) developed at LASSBio. Target compounds were synthesized in very good yields exploiting abundant Brazilian natural product safrole (4) as starting material. The evaluation of the antinociceptive properties of this series led us to discover a new potent prototype of analgesic and antipyretic agent, that is, NAH derivative 3c, named LASSBio-891, which showed to be more potent than dipyrone used as standard.

  19. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves in rats

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    Wibool Ridtitid

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The results revealed that the extract at test doses produced a significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h with an inhibition of paw edema of 8.6% (P<0.05, 18.6% (P<0.01 and 24.7% (P<0.01, respectively, compared to the reference drug aspirin 200 mg/kg p.o. with an inhibition of 33.3% (P<0.01. Only the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant inhibition ofcarrageenan-induced rat paw edema beginning at 2 h of 11.8% (P<0.01 and at 3, 4 and 5 h of 24.7% (P< 0.01, 14.1% (P<0.01 and 11.9% (P<0.01, respectively, whereas the reference drug aspirin 200 mg/kg p.o. exhibited a significant inhibition of edema beginning at 1 h of 15.6% (P<0.05 and at 2, 3, 4 and 5 h of 31.8% (P<0.01, 33.3% (P<0.01, 30.4% (P<0.01 and 30.2% (P<0.01, respectively. The methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum leaves (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. did not decrease brewerís yeast-induced pyrexia in rats, whereas aspirin at the dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant antipyretic activity by reducing fever in this animal model. In acute toxicity test, the methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum leaves at the dose of 5g/kg did not produce any abnormal symptoms or mortality in rats.

  20. Evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Ammi majus seeds in albino rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Asaad, Gihan F; Megahed, Hoda A; Zahran, Hanan; Arbid, Mahmoud S

    2012-06-01

    Pharmacological and biochemical studies on the Ammi majus seeds L. (family Umbelliferae) grown in Egypt are limited. Furocoumarins are the major constituents in the plant seeds. In the present study, the evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities on albino rats and mice was done. After 2 months of administration, both the doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight [bwt], respectively) of the alcoholic extract of the A. majus seed result in a significant decrease in the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein and increase in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein. The extract was found to inhibit the rat paw edema at both the doses, which means that it exerts a significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with control-untreated groups at the intervals of 30 and 60 minutes posttreatment. The antipyretic effect of the extract was quite obvious; it showed that 100 mg/kg bwt was more potent in lowering body temperature starting after 1 hour of treatment than the lower dose (50 mg/kg bwt). It is worth to mention that the A. majus extract with its coumarin contents as well as the tested biological activities of the plant was investigated for the first time in the current study. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of the A. majus seeds had antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities that are dose dependant.

  1. Hypothermic and antipyretic effects of ACTH (1-24) and alpha-melanotropin in guinea-pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH 1-24) and alpha-melanotropin (alpha-MSH), peptides which occur naturally in brain induced dose-related hypothermia in guinea-pigs at room temperature (21 C) and also produced greater hypothermia at low (10 C) ambient temperature. However, when the experiments were repeated in a warm (30 C) environment, no effect on body temperature was observed. These results indicate that the peptides did not reduce the central set-point of temperature control. The hypothermia induced by ACTH and alpha-MSH was not mediated via histamine H1- or H2-receptors and serotonin since the H1-receptor antagonist, mepyramine, the H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine, and the serotonin antagonist, methysergide, had no antagonistic effects. The peptides were antipyretic since they reduced pyrogen-induced-fever and hyperthermia due to prostaglandin E2, norepinephrine and dibutyryl cAMP, at a dose which did not affect normal body temperature. The powerful central effects of these peptides on normal body temperature, fever and hyperthermia, together with their presence of the brain regions important to temperature control, suggest that they participate in thermoregulation.

  2. Antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of hydroethanolic extract from Macrosiphonia velame (A. St.-Hil. M. Arg. in animal models

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    Reginaldo Vicente Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae, popularly known as "velame-branco", is mainly used for treating inflammatory conditions. The antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of the hydroethanolic extract of the xylopodium from M. velame (HEMv were evaluated using several animal models. HEMv showed low acute oral toxicity with LD50 of 4.176 ± 218.5 mg/kg in mice. In tests of carrageenan and dextran-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats, and croton oil-induced cutaneous dermatitis in mice, HEMv presented systemic and topical antiinflammatory activities. In experiments of nociception induced by acetic acid, formalin and capsaicin in mice, the HEMv evidenced an antinociceptive effect, being active against both inflammatory and neurogenic pain. Additionally, the HEMv prevented brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. It is likely that the pharmacologic mechanism of HEMv may involve the inhibition of different mediators of the inflammatory response, such as histamine, serotonin, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. A preliminary phytochemical study was also undertaken on HEMv, which revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, pentacyclic triterpenoids, saponins, coumarins, catechins, tannins, and alkaloids. Taken together, these results suggest that M. velame extract has antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic properties and further validate the traditional use of this plant in inflammatory conditions.Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae, conhecida popularmente como velame-branco, é utilizada no tratamento de inflamações. Avaliou-se nesse estudo, os efeitos antiinflamatório, antinociceptivo e antipirético do extrato hidroetanólico do xilopódio de M. velame (HEMv em modelos animais. O HEMv apresentou baixa toxicidade aguda oral, com DL50= 4.176 ± 218,5 mg/kg nos camundongos. Nos testes de edema de pata por carragenina e dextrana e pleurisia por carragenina em ratos e dermatite cutânea por

  3. Antipyretic,Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Huangyu Cataplasm%黄萸巴布剂的解热、镇痛、抗炎作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石强

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To study the antipyretic, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Huangyu cataplasm ( HYC). Method: The antipyretic effects of HYC were observed on febrile animals induced by three kinds of pyrogens including dry yeast,typhoid paratyphoik A,B vaccines,and milk,correspondingly. The analgesic effect was determined by writhing and hot plate tests in mice. Anti-inflammatory action was investigated on the model of paw edema caused by egg white and the pathological model with increasing vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in mice. Result;HYC had good antipyretic effects for experimental fever rabbits induced by dry yeast, typhoid paratyphoik A, B vaccines, and milk heating method. HYC could significantly inhibit the pain responses caused by hot plate and writhing responses induced by acetic acid. HYC could significantly decrease the degree of paw edema caused by egg white in mice and notably inhibit the degree of the increase in permeability of the capillaries. Conclusion; HYC shows considerable antipyretic,analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects%目的:观察黄萸巴布剂的解热、镇痛、抗炎作用.方法:分别采用干酵母、牛奶和伤寒、副伤寒甲、乙三联菌苗致热法观察黄萸巴布剂对3种致热原所致动物发热的影响;采用扭体法和热板法观察黄萸巴布剂的镇痛作用;采用蛋清致大鼠足跖肿胀法和醋酸致小鼠腹腔毛细血管通透性增高法观察黄萸巴布剂的抗炎作用.结果:黄萸巴布剂可显著抑制干酵母、牛奶、伤寒、副伤寒甲、乙三联菌苗所致发热反应;对醋酸和热板诱发的小鼠疼痛有明显的抑制作用;可减轻蛋清所致大鼠足跖肿胀度;降低醋酸引起的小鼠腹腔毛细血管通透性增高.结论:黄萸巴布剂具有明显的解热、镇痛和抗炎作用.

  4. Spectrum-effect relationship in antipyretic effect of Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae)%黄芩解热作用的谱效关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆刚; 王微; 李强; 徐珊

    2011-01-01

    目的 明确黄芩的高效液相色谱(HPLC)图谱与解热药效的相关性,表征黄芩有效成分的药效物质基础.方法 通过干酵母造大鼠发热模型,并给予黄芩提取物.用灰色关联统计方法将HPLC图谱的各组分峰的峰面积和解热药效数据相关联,研究谱效相关性,找出黄芩解热作用的物质基础.结果 对于解热作用来讲,不可单一靠黄芩苷来表征,也应注意到黄芩素及其他黄酮类物质对解热作用有着不可忽视贡献.用灰色关联的分析方法,根据关联度大小来确定黄芩中以黄芩苷、黄芩素为代表的黄酮类物质对解热作用贡献程度.结论 研究有效组分HPLC图谱特征及谱效关系,是表征中药一药效相关性的有效途径.%Objective To clear the correlation between HPLC spectrum and antipyretic effect of Huangqin (Radix Scillellariae), and to characterize the efficacy material basis of active principles of Huangqin. Methods The rat model of fever was established with dried yeast and then was given extractive of Huangqin. The peak areas of all component peaks in HPLC spectrum were connected to the data of antipyretic effect by using grey relation statistic method. The spectrum-effect correlation was studied and the material basis of Huangqin's antipyretic effect was found out. Results The antipyretic effect was not characterized only by baicalin, and the contribution of baicalein and other flavonoids should not be neglected. The contribution degrees of flavonoids in Huangqin like baicalin and baicalein were determined by using grey correlation analysis according to the correlation degrees. Conclusion It is an effective way for characterizing Chinese medicinal-efficacy correlation to study HPLC spectrum features and spectrum-effect relationship of effective components of Chinese medicinal.

  5. Antipyretic, analgesic and muscle relaxant activities of pueraria isoflavonoids and their metabolites from Pueraria lobata Ohwi-a traditional Chinese drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Takaaki; Endo, Miwa; Kon-no, Toshiyuki; Kato, Tomoko; Mitsuzuka, Mariko; Ohsawa, Keisuke

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated the antipyretic, analgesic, and muscle relaxant activities of Pueraria isoflavonoids and their metabolites in mice. The glycosides daidzin and genistin significantly reduced fever induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Their metabolites, daidzein and p-ethylphenol, also significantly reduced fever induced by LPS. In addition, daidzin, daidzein, dihydrodaidzein, and p-ethylphenol showed analgesic activity as assessed by the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Furthermore, equol and p-ethylphenol showed muscle relaxant activity in the rotarod and horizontal wire test. These results suggest that these compounds play a major role in the therapeutic activity of Pueraria isoflavonoids.

  6. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Cariniana rubra stem bark in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson N. Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularly known as "jequitibá-vermelho'', is a large Brazilian tree whose bark is used in infusion and decoction for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of Cariniana rubra methanolic stem bark extract (EM Cr using experimental animals. Anti-inflammatory activity of EM Cr was tested on carrageenan and dextran-induced rat paw edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats and acetic acid-increase vascular permeability in mice. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, as well as brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract inhibitied carrageenan and dextran-induced edema, reduced exudate volume and leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy and on the vascular permeability increase induced by acetic acid. The EM Cr inhibited nociception on the acetic acid-induced writhing and in the second phase of formalin test, and decreased rectal temperature. It was, however, inactive against thermal nociception.Phytochemical analysis with EM Cr showed the occurrence of saponins, triterpenes, sterols and phenolic compounds. Phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, pentacyclic triterpenes (α- and β-amyrin as a mixture, arjunolic acid, a phytosterol glycoside (sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and triterpenoid saponins (28-β-glucopyranosyl-23-O-acetyl arjunolic acid; 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl arjunolic acid and 28-O-[α-L-Rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-glucopyranosyl]-23- O-acetyl arjunolic acid were the main identified compounds. It can be presumed that EM Cr caused their effects by inhibiting the liberation and/or action of different inflammatory mediators. These findings support the traditional use of Cariniana rubra preparations to treat inflammation.Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularmente conhecido como

  7. 巴中产栀子解热抗炎药理效应研究%Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Gardenia from Bazhong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄群莲; 王利国; 唐灿; 雷燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the antipyretic effect on rabbit fever induced by endotoxin and the anti-inflammatory effect on the increase of mouse abdominal cavity capillary permeability caused by 0. 6% glacial acetic acid of Bazhong gardenia. Methods:The rab-bit fever model was made by ear margin vein injection of endotoxin in physiological saline solution, and the mouse inflammation model of abdominal cavity capillary permeability increase was established by 0. 6% glacial acetic acid solution. The animals were respectively intragastrically administrated with gardenia water-soluble effective parts and 70% alcohol-soluble effective parts. The rabbit body tem-perature and mouse celiac fluid absorbance values were detected. The effects of gardenia from different habitats were studied and com-pared. Results:The antipyretic effect of water-soluble effective parts from Bazhong gardenia extract was better than that of gardenia ex-tract from Jiangxi, Hubei and Jiangjin (P0. 05). Bazhong gardenia could inhibit the increase of abdominal blood capillary permeability in mouse inflammation model, and the effect was better than the other gardenia, however without significant difference (P>0. 05). Con-clusion:Bazhong gardenia shows better antipyretic effect compared with that from other habitats.%目的::探索巴中产栀子对内毒素所致家兔发热模型的解热药理效应及其抑制0.6%冰醋酸所致小鼠腹腔毛细血管通透性增加的抗炎药理效应。方法:针对家兔耳缘静脉注射内毒素生理盐水溶液制备发热模型与0.6%冰醋酸溶液所致小鼠腹腔毛细管通透性增加的炎症模型,分别灌胃给予栀子水溶性有效部位、70%醇溶性有效部位,测定家兔体温、小白鼠腹腔液吸光度值,观察不同产地栀子的解热抗炎作用。结果:巴中产栀子提取水溶性有效部位对发热家兔的降温效果优于江西、湖北、江津产栀子(P0.05)。巴中产栀子有效性部位抑制0.6%冰

  8. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) is a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid that is gastrointestinal safe and has potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kashfi, Khosrow; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    Sulindac is chemopreventive and has utility in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties of sulindac and NOSH-sulindac administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6 h post-adm...

  9. Antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of asiaticoside in lipopolysaccharide-treated rat through up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, JingYuan; Gong, Xia; Jiang, Rong; Zhang, Zhuo; Zhang, Li

    2013-08-01

    Asiaticoside (AS), a triterpenoid isolated from Centella asiatica, has been found to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in several experimental animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we provide experimental evidences that AS dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever and inflammatory response, including serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 production, liver myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, brain cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) production. Interestingly, AS increased serum IL-10 level, liver heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression and activity. Furthermore, we found that the suppressive effects of AS on LPS-induced fever and inflammation were reversed by pretreatment with ZnPPIX, a HO-1 activity inhibitor. In summary, our results suggest that AS has the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-treated rat. These effects could be associated with the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α and IL-6 levels, COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, as well as MPO activity, which might be mediated by the up-regulation of HO-1.

  10. Study of Antipyretic Function and Mechanism of Buzhong Yiqi Tang%补中益气汤退热作用及机制的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进娜; 谢鸣; 高秀兰; 赵荣华

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨补中益气汤退热作用机制.方法:雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为正常对照组、脾虚发热组、补中益气汤组共3组,每组10只.采用饮食失节+过度疲劳+注射LPS法复制脾虚发热模型.每周测体温1次.第18天开始补中益气汤组每天ig(6.83 g·kg-1),正常组和脾虚发热组给予同体积蒸馏水,每天1次,连续5d.第22天AM 8:00脾虚发热组和补中益气汤2组大鼠ip脂多糖(LPS,80μg·kg-1)诱导发热,正常组ip等体积生理盐水.测量各组大鼠ip LPS后30,60,120,180,220 min肛温及绘制体温曲线,测定下丘脑环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)、前列腺素E2(PGE2).结果:与正常对照组相比,脾虚发热组大鼠体温曲线明显上抬,各观察点体温均明显升高,下丘脑PGE2和cAMP明显升高(P<0.05或P<0.01).与脾虚发热组比较,补中益气汤组大鼠体温曲线明显下移,下丘脑PGE2和cAMP均明显下降(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论:补中益气汤对脾虚发热模型大鼠具有明显的退热效用,其退热作用可能与降低中枢发热介质PGE2和cAMP有关.%Objective: To discuss the antipyretic mechanism of Buzhong Yiqi Tang. Method: The rats were assigned into the normal group, spleen-qi deficiency with fever group, Buzhong Yiqi Tang group, 10 rats in each group. The rats of spleen-qi deficiency with fever group and Buzhong Yiqi Tang group were treated with excess fatigue plus out of constant diet to copy spleen-qi deficiency rat model. The body temperatures were measured each week. From the 18th day, Buzhong Yiqi Tang group rats were fed with medicine 6. 83 g·kg-1 . The ones of the normal group and spleen-qi deficiency with fever group with physiological saline for 5 days. At 8 :00 am on the 22' day, the rats of Buzhong Yiqi Tang group and the spleen-qi deficiency with fever group were respectively intraperitonealy injected with lipopoly saccharide ( LPS, 80 μg·kg-1 ) to induce fever. The rats of the normal group with physiological saline. The rectal

  11. 广西融水县常见清热解毒蕨类植物的初步研究%Study of Antipyretic and Antidotal Medicinal Pteridophytes in Rongshui Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶玉华; 隆卫革; 曹书阁

    2015-01-01

    民间对清热解毒药用蕨类植物需求量大,应用较普遍,本研究通过野外调查、标本鉴定和查阅文献资料,对广西融水县清热解毒药用蕨类植物的种类、生态环境和药用状况等进行了初步的调查研究,记录常用的清热解毒的药用蕨类植物共41种,隶属于20科27属,广西融水县清热解毒药用蕨类植物资源丰富,药用的生物活性成分含量较高,具有重要的药用价值,目前已被开发利用的种类不多,很多种类有待于进一步研究和开发。%The antipyretic and antidotal medicinal pteridophytes have been in great demand and widely used in folk.The main species, ecological environment and medicinal status of Rongshui antipyretic and antidotal medic -inal pteridophytes are preliminarily studied through field investigation , specimen identification and information ac-cess in this study .The results show that there are 41 main species of antipyretic and antidotal medicinal pterido-phytes, belonging to 20 families and 27 genera in Guangxi , which are of rich bioactive components and important medicinal value .Many species are to be further studied and developed .

  12. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) is a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid that is gastrointestinal safe and has potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashfi, Khosrow; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder

    2015-12-01

    Sulindac is chemopreventive and has utility in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties of sulindac and NOSH-sulindac administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6h post-administration, number/size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs were counted. Tissue samples were frozen for PGE2, SOD, and MDA determination. Anti-inflammatory: 1h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 5h. Anti-pyretic: fever was induced by LPS (ip) an hour before administration of the test drugs, core body temperature was measured hourly for 5h. Analgesic: time-dependent analgesic effects were evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Antiplatelet: anti-aggregatory effects were studied on collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Anti-cancer: We examined the effects of NOSH-sulindac on the growth properties of 12 human cancer cell lines of six different tissue origins. Both agents reduced PGE2 levels in stomach tissue; however, NOSH-sulindac did not cause any stomach ulcers, whereas sulindac caused significant bleeding. Lipid peroxidation induced by sulindac was higher than that from NOSH-sulindac. SOD activity was significantly lowered by sulindac but increased by NOSH-sulindac. Both agents showed similar anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anti-platelet activities. Sulindac increased plasma TNFα whereas this rise was lower in the NOSH-sulindac-treated animals. NOSH-sulindac inhibited the growth of all cancer cell lines studied, with potencies of 1000- to 9000-fold greater than that of sulindac. NOSH-sulindac inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G2/M cell

  13. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Olorunfemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

  14. Experimental Study of Shuanghuanghua Granule on the Pharmacological Action of Anti-inflammatory and Antipyretic%双黄花颗粒抗炎解热药理作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林; 莫韦皓; 邓东方; 孟盼; 杨蕙; 王宇红

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察双黄花颗粒的抗炎、解热的药理作用.方法 采用足肿胀、耳肿胀及毛细血管通透性实验来观察该制剂抗炎作用;采用酵母致大鼠发热实验来观察该制剂解热作用.结果 在足肿胀实验中,双黄花高、中剂量组在药后2、4h均显著抑制角叉菜胶所致大鼠足跖肿胀.此外双黄花高剂量组能显著抑制二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀的肿胀度及小鼠腹腔毛细血管通透性的增加.在酵母致热实验中,双黄花高剂量组大鼠药后不同时间点体温值显著降低,双黄花中剂量组给药后2h体温值显著降低.结论 双黄花颗粒具有较好的抗炎、解热作用,为其临床应用提供了理论基础.%Objective:To study the pharmacologial action and antipyretic effects of Shuanghuanghua Granule with anti-inflammatory.Methods:The anti-inflammatory effects were observed by the rat metatarsal swelling,the mouse auricular swelling and the acetic acid-induced capillary permeability in abdominal cavity in mice experiments.Meanwhile,the antipyretic effect was detected by the fever rat models established by subcutaneous injection of yeast.Results:High and middle does group of Shuanghuanghua Granule significantly reduced the rate of swelling in hind paw after drug 2 and 4 hours.The high does group of Shuanghuanghua Granule obviously decreased mouse ear swelling induced by dimethyl benzene and capillary permeability in abdominal cavity induced by acetic acid-induced.Also,this group of Shuanghuanghua Granule remarkably decreased the body temperature of rats all time.The middle does groups of Shuanghuanghua Granule can significantly decrease the body temperature of rats after drug 2 hours.Conclusion:Shuanghuanghua Granule has obvious anti-inflamation and antipyretic effects.

  15. Validation method in microbial limit test for antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines%清热解毒类中成药微生物限度检查方法验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 吴虹

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究清热解毒类中成药的抑菌作用,建立其微生物限度检查方法 .方法 按照<中国药典)2010年版一部的微生物限度检查法进行验证实验.结果 8种清热解毒类中成药均对金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草芽孢杆菌有一定的抑菌作用,可以分别通过培养基稀释法和薄膜过滤法得以消除.结论 分别建立了8种清热解毒类中成药的微生物限度检查方法 ,为该类药品的微生物检查提供参考.%Objective To study the antimicrobial effect of antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines and to establish microbial limit test method for them. Methods According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 Edition,validation method in microbial limit test for the medicines was validated. Results Eight kinds of antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines all showed inhibition effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The effect could be eliminated by culture medium dilution method and filtration membrane method. Conclusion Microbial limit test methods were established for the Chinese patent medicines respectivesly. The results could give experimental evidence for the kind of Chinese patent medicines.

  16. Determinating of Acetaminophen in some Commonly Used Antipyretic Analgesics Drugs%常用解热镇痛药中对乙酰氨基酚含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晶; 薛壮

    2014-01-01

    本实验的目的是检测几种常用解热镇痛药中对乙酰氨基酚成分的含量。主要是利用高效液相色谱法及其相关手段,对5种解热镇痛药中对乙酰氨基酚成分的含量进行分析和测定。经实验证实,对乙酰氨基酚含量测定线性范围在6.25~200μg·mL-1,相关系数 r=0.9997。高效液相色谱法的分离效果灵敏度高、重复性好,可用于多种解热镇痛药中对乙酰氨基酚含量的测定。%Aim of this study was to analysis content of acetaminophen in some commonly used antipyretic analgesics drugs. Preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was used in comparative analysis of acetaminophen in 5 commonly used antipyretic analgesics drugs. Linear relationship between the absorbance and concentration of acetaminophen was obtained in the range of 6.25~200μg·mL-1, with correlative coefficients of linear as 0.9997 (r=0.9997), and linear regression equation as y=56476.96x-451.31. It showed that HPLC is an ideal method in acetaminophen content determination analysis.

  17. 通腑泄热法对脑膜炎发热大鼠退热及免疫调控作用研究%Antipyretic Effects and Immune Regulation Function of Tongfu Xiere Therapy in Fever Rats with Meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚娟; 张思超; 王晓君; 秦小云

    2015-01-01

    目的:基于脑-肠轴学说,探讨通腑泄热法对脑膜炎发热大鼠的退热效应及免疫调控作用。方法采用埃希氏大肠杆菌小脑延髓池注射建立大鼠细菌性脑膜炎发热模型。实验动物随机分为6组:正常组、模型组、大承气汤组、醒脑静注射液组、大承气汤合醒脑静注射液组、扑热息痛组。观察各组用药后的退热效果,同时检测血浆中 IFN-γ、IL-4的含量变化,及组织、血浆中P物质的含量。结果大承气汤和醒脑静注射液及大承气汤合醒脑静注射液组均能有效治疗脑膜炎发热,与模型组比较有显著的解热效果(P<0.05),能降低血浆中 IFN-γ(P<0.01)、IL-4(P<0.05)水平,下调 IFN-γ/IL-4的比值(P<0.05),并且能降低发热大鼠P物质含量(P<0.05)。结论通腑泄热法对脑膜炎发热有较好的解热效果,这可能与其通过脑肠轴元件生物介质调节机体免疫功能有密切关系。%OBJECTIVE Based on the brain-gut axis theory,to investigate the antipyretic effect and immune regulation function of Tongfu Xiere therapy in fever rats with meningitis.METHODS The rat fever model induced bacterial Meninggitis was established with inj ecting the Escherichia coli into cerebellomedullary cistern.The experimental animals were divided into six groups:the normal group,the model group,Dachengqi decoction group,Xingnaoj ing inj ection group,Dachengqi decoction+Xingnaojing injection group and paracetamol group.Antipyretic effect of each drug was observed by measuring body temper-ature after treatment.The levels of IFN-γ,IL-4 and SP in plasma were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RE-SULTS Compared to the model group,Dachengqi decoction group,Xingnaojing injection group and Dachengqi decoction+Xingnaojing injection group significantly reduced the temperature of the fever rats(P<0.05),the levels of IFN-γ(P<0.01), IL-4(P<0.05)and SP(P<0.05),and the

  18. Comparação da eficácia de doses iguais de acetaminofeno retal e oral em crianças Comparison of antipyretic effectiveness of equal doses of rectal and oral acetaminophen in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigha Akhavan Karbasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar uma dose de acetaminofeno oral e retal e avaliar a aceitabilidade do acetaminofeno retal, uma vez que o acetaminofeno oral e retal é amplamente usado como agente antipirético em crianças com febre e a eficiência comparativa dessas duas preparações não está bem estabelecida. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo de grupos paralelos, foram incluídas 60 crianças admitidas na emergência ou clínica ambulatorial pediátrica em um hospital terciário, com idade entre 6 meses e 6 anos e com temperatura retal acima de 39 °C. Os pacientes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de mesmo tamanho. O grupo 1 recebeu 15 mg/kg de acetaminofeno retal, e o grupo 2 recebeu a mesma dose oralmente. A temperatura foi registrada no tempo zero e 1 e 3 horas após administração da droga. RESULTADOS: No primeiro grupo, a redução média de temperatura, 1 e 3 horas após administração do acetaminofeno, foi de 1,07±0,16 (p 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: As preparações oral e retal de acetaminofeno têm eficácia antipirética equivalente em crianças. A via retal mostrou ser tão aceitável quanto a oral entre os pais.OBJECTIVE: To compare a dose of oral and rectal acetaminophen and to evaluate acceptability of rectal acetaminophen, since oral and rectal acetaminophen is widely used as an antipyretic agent in febrile children and the comparative effectiveness of these two preparations is not well established. METHODS: In this prospective parallel group designed study, 60 children who presented to the emergency department or outpatient pediatric clinic at a tertiary hospital and aged from 6 months to 6 years with rectal temperature over 39 °C were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to two equal-sized groups. Group 1 received 15 mg/kg acetaminophen rectally and group 2 received the same dose orally. Temperature was recorded at baseline and 1 and 3 hours after drug administration. RESULTS: In the first group, mean decrease in

  19. 金银花抗内毒素、解热、抗炎作用分析%Analysis of Honeysuckle anti Endotoxin, Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁静烨

    2016-01-01

    Honeysuckle is one of the oldest and important medicinal plants in Chinese traditional medicine. In clinical practice, it is widely used in the treatment puffiness under disease, fever, febrile disease, cancer and other diseases of toxie heat. Currently, about 1/3 of Chinese herbal preparations contain honeysuckle. This paper will review the honeysuckle anti endotoxin, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory action.%金银花是我国中药中的一味古老、重要的药物植物。在临床上,被广泛用于胀满下疾、温病发热、肿瘤、热毒等疾病的治疗中。目前来说,约有三分之一的中药制剂中含有金银花。本文将综述金银花抗内毒素、解热、抗炎作用。

  20. 右酮洛芬对实验动物的解热镇痛和抗炎作用%Antipyretic, analgesic and antiinflammatory actions of dexketoprofen in experimental animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张运芳; 李俊; 金涌; 徐叔云

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the antipyretic, analgesic and antiinflammatory actions of dexketoprofen. METHODS: Hot-plate and tail-flick models in mice, fever model in rats and rabbits induced by carrageenin or typhoid vaccine respectively, ear swelling induced by dimethylbenzene in mice; foot pad swellings induced by carrageenin and granuloma induced by cotton in rats were adopted. RESULTS: Dexketoprofen (7.5,15,30 mg*kg-1) could significantly prolong latency of analgesic in hot-plate and tail-flick models in mice and reduce carrageenin-induced fever in rats, and inhibit dimethylbenzene-induced ear swelling in mice. Dexketoprofen (1.9,3.8,7.5 mg*kg-1) could significantly inhibit typhoid vaccine-induced fever in rabbits; Dexketoprofen (3.8,7.5,15 mgkg-1) could also significantly inhibit the swelling of foot pad induced by carrageenin, and the granuloma induced by cotton in rats. CONCLUSION: Dexketoprofen has antipyretic, analgetic and antiinflammatory effect.%目的:研究右酮洛芬的解热镇痛和抗炎作用。方法:采用小鼠热板法和热辐射甩尾法;角叉菜胶诱导的大鼠和伤寒疫苗诱导的兔体温升高;二甲苯诱导的小鼠耳水肿,大鼠角叉菜胶诱导的足肿胀和大鼠棉球肉芽肿胀实验模型。结果:右酮洛芬(7.5,15,30 mg*kg-1)能明显延长小鼠热板和热辐射甩尾的痛阈时间;右酮洛芬(7.5,15,30 mg*kg-1)对角叉菜胶诱导的大鼠体温升高,右酮洛芬(1.9,3.8,7.5 mg*kg-1)对伤寒疫苗诱导的兔体温升高均有明显的降温作用;右酮洛芬(7.5,15,30 mgkg-1)对二甲苯诱导的小鼠耳水肿有显著的抑制作用;右酮洛芬(3.8,7.5,15 mgkg-1)对大鼠角叉菜胶引起的足肿胀及棉球诱导的大鼠肉芽肿均有显著的抑制作用。结论:实验结果表明,右酮洛芬具有良好的解热镇痛和抗炎作用。

  1. Screening the Effective Parts from Baihu Chengqi Tang on Antipyretic Effect%白虎承气汤解热作用有效部位群的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超云; 黄显章; 郝鹏飞; 毛秉豫

    2013-01-01

    目的:初步筛选白虎承气汤解热作用的有效部位群.方法:筛选健康大鼠104只,随机分为13组,即A,B1,B2,C1,C2,D1,D2,E1,E2,F1,F2,G1,G2组,每组8只,其中A组为正常对照组.B1,C1,D1,E1,F1,G1组分别ip脂多糖(LPS)(20 μg· kg-1),诱发动物发热,造模后2h,ig给予,C1,D1,E1,F1,G1组大鼠分别用白虎承气汤挥发油部位、石油醚部位、乙酸乙酯部位、正丁醇部位、水部位按20 mL·kg ig(折合生药为18.6 g·kg-1),B1组ig等容积的生理盐水,并于ip LPS后2,3,4,6,8h时测量体温.B2,C2,D2,E2,F2,G2组分别sc 20%干酵母混悬液(10 mL·kg-1),诱发动物发热,造模后3h,ig给予C2,D2,E2,F2,G2组大鼠分别用挥发油部位、石油醚部位、乙酸乙酯部位、正丁醇部位、水部位按20 mL·kg-1灌胃(折合生药为18.4 g·kg-1),B2组ig等容积的生理盐水,并于注射酵母菌混悬液后3,4,5,7,9h时测量体温.并通过上述方法对5个不同提取部位进行药效学筛选.结果:白虎承气汤正丁醇部位和水部位对发热大鼠具有显著解热效果(P<0.05),并能持续5h,而挥发油部位、石油醚部位、乙酸乙酯部位对此作用不显著.结论:初步排除挥发油部位、石油醚部位和乙酸乙酯部位,并初步确定白虎承气汤解热作用的有效部位群为正丁醇部位和水部位.%Objective:To screen the effective parts from Baihu Chengqi Tang for antipyretic effect.Method:The rats were allotted into 13 groups as following:A (normol group),B1,B2,C1,C2,D1,D2,E1,E2,F1,F2,G1,G2,the first rat febrile models was induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS,20 μg · kg-1) intraperitonealy and treating with five parts from Baihu Chengqi Tang (18.6 g ·kg-1) after two hours.The second rat febrile models were induced by injecting 20% fresh yeast subcutaneously 10 mL·kg-1 and treating with five parts from Baihu Chengqi Tang after two hours.Then the rectal temperature was monitored to show the differences of effect from those groups

  2. Curative Effect Analysis of Antipyretic Clear Solution Soup Combined with Western Medicine in the Treatment of Fever Caused by Exogenous Pathogens in Children%退热清解汤联合西药治疗小儿外感发热疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 刘栩; 杨恺

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the curative effect of antipyretic clear solution soup combined with western medicine in the treatment of fever caused by exogenous pathogens in children. Methods 126 cases of patients with fever patients treated in the pediatric internal medicine of our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were selected and randomly divided in-to treatment group (n=64)and control group(n=62),the causes of the control group were divided into bacterial infection and non-bacterial infection such as viruses according to the hemogram result, and they were respectively given cefaclor anti in-fection treatment and leigh bhave lin virus treatment; the treatment group were given antipyretic clear solution soup treat-ment on the basis of the treatment of the control group, the treatment effects of the two groups were observed. Results The total effective rate of the treatment group was 92.19%, and 75.81%of the control group, the difference was statistically sig-nificant (P<0.05). Conclusion The curative effect of antipyretic clear solution soup combined with western medicine was better than that of only western medicine in the treatment of fever caused by exogenous pathogens in children, which is worthy of promotion and application.%目的 探讨退热清解汤联合西药治疗小儿外感发热的疗效. 方法 整群选取该院2013年1月—2014年12月期间小儿内科发热患者126例,将其随机分成治疗组(n=64)和对照组(n=62),对照组根据血象结果分为细菌感染和非细菌性(如病毒)感染所致,分别给予头孢克洛抗感染治疗和利巴韦林抗病毒治疗;治疗组在对照组处理的基础上加用退热清解汤治疗,观察两组患儿的治疗效果. 结果 治疗组患儿总有效率为92.19%,对照组患儿总有效率为75.81%,其差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 退热清解汤联合西药治疗小儿外感发热的疗效较单纯西药治疗小儿外感发热的效果好,值得临床推广应用.

  3. Structure and Characterization of Co( Ⅱ ) Complex Synthesized with Using Antipyretic and Analgesic Ketoprofen as Ligand%以解热镇痛药酮洛芬为配体合成钴配合物的晶体结构及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王允飞

    2012-01-01

    以解热镇痛药酮洛芬为配体构筑了钴的配合物,并通过元素分析、红外、单晶X射线衍射仪对该配合物的结构进行了表征.配合物[Co(C16H13O3)2(H2O)4]·H2O属于三斜晶系,空间群为P-1,a=8.5966( 17)(A),b=8.8939( 18)(A),c=21.872(4)(A),α=92.08(3)°,β =99.69(3)°,γ=108.92(3)°.两个分子中每个钴原子位于反演中心,分别与两个酮洛芬配体中的两个羧基氧原子以及四个水分子中的四个氧原子配位,具有正八面体配位构型,且由分子内氢键和分子间氢键形成了三维氢键超分子网络结构.%The Co (Ⅱ) complex synthesized with using antipyretic and analgesic ketoprofen as ligand was synthesized and its structure was characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The complex [Co(C16H13O3)2(H2O)4]·H2O belongs to triclinic orthorhombic system, space group P -1, a = 8.5966(17)(A), b = 8.8939(18)(A), c = 21.872(4)(A), α=92.08(3)°,β=99.69(3)°, γ=108.92(3)°. Each cobalt(Ⅱ) atoms of two molecules lay on inversion centers and were six-coordinated by two carboxyl oxygen atoms of two different ketoprofen ligands and four oxygen atoms of four water molecules, forming a octahedral coordination geometry. And the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds formed a 3D supramolecular network structure.

  4. Study on the Antipyretic Effection of Qingkaitong Enema and Its Influence on the Changes of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide(VIP)and Interleukin-2 (IL-2) in Endotoxin-induced Febrile Rabbits%清开通灌肠液对内毒素性发热兔的退热效应及对血管活性肠肽、白介素-2的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚娟; 张思超; 王晓君; 孙敬昌

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察基于“脑-肠轴”学说组方的清开通灌肠液,对内毒素性发热兔的退热效应及VIP、IL-2在发热中的变化.方法:日本大耳白家兔60只,随机分成4组:正常组、模型组、清开灵组和清开通组.模型组、清开灵组及清开通组,各组经耳缘静脉注射无热源生理盐水稀释的内毒素,建立兔内毒素性发热模型.同时清开灵组、清开通组分别予以清开灵、清开通灌肠液灌肠.注射内毒素2h后,清开灵组、清开通组再予灌肠1次.4h后,各组动物随机抽取10只,采集脑、肠及外周血标本,用放射免疫法检测脑、肠及血浆中VIP、IL-2含量.持续观察每组另外5只动物体温变化情况,每间隔l0min记录1次体温,连续测温12h.结果:清开灵组和清开通组动物的体温与模型组相比都有明显降低(P<0.01),但清开通组降低比清开灵组更为显著(P<0.05).脑肠及血浆中VIP和IL-2的含量都显著低于模型组(P<0.01),尤其清开通组较清开灵组降低幅度更大,二者有显著差异(P<0.05).结论:“清开”与“通腑”合治,较单一清开法在退热及提高机体免疫方面效果更著,VIP和IL-2在发热中起正调节作用.%Objective: To investigate the antipyretic effect of Qingkaitong enema according to the theory of brain - gut axis in endotoxin - induced febrile rabbits, and observe changes of vasoactive intestinal peptide ( VIP) and interleukin - 2 (IL - 2 ) in different tissues. Methods: Sixty Japanese White Rabbits were randomly divided into following four groups: normal control group,model group,Qingkailing enema group and Qingkaitong enema group. The Escherichia coli endotoxins were injected into marginal ear veins of the rabbits of model group, Qingkailing enema group and Qingkaitong enema group to induce the rabbit febrile model. Qingkailing enema group and Qingkaitong enema group were immediately treated with Qingkailing enema and Qingkaitong enema respectively after

  5. EVALUATION OF ANTIPYRETIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PARUSAKA (GREWIA ASIATICA LINN.): AN INDIGENOUS INDIAN PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In the modern medical system, pyrexia is not only considered as a disease, but Jwara or pyrexia has been depicted as a cardinal disease from the period of Brihatrayee (2000B.C – 7th Century A.D.) due to its severeity and worsening prognosis. The vivic classification of the disease, Jwara has been acertained in different traditional Ayurvedic texts and the treatment are being elaborately described in these texts, but most are the compond formulation pertaining to endangered species. Consideri...

  6. Renal damages caused by antipyretic and anodyne%解热镇痛药导致的肾损害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓玫; 苏涛

    2003-01-01

    @@ 药物所致肾损害(drug-induced renal injury)指肾脏对治疗剂量药物的不良反应和因药物过量或不合理应用而出现的毒性反应,是由不同药物所致,具有不同临床特征和不同病理类型的一组疾病.其中,解热镇痛药引起的肾损害被称为镇痛药肾病(analgesic nephropathy),即指因长期服用解热镇痛药所致的慢性间质性肾炎.

  7. Experimental studies on antipyretic, analgesic and antibacterial effects of GK 001, a poly-prescription of traditional chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Su-yun; ZhANG Ting-ting; DING Hong-yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the anti-inflammatory effect of a poly-prescription of traditional Chinese medicine GK001. Methods 1. Inhibitory effect on pain in mice: The pain was induced by i. p. 0.2 ml of 0.6 % HAc per mouse 1 h post dosing GK001. The writhing numbers of mice were recorded in 10 minutes and the inhibitory rate of pain was calculated compared with the control group. 2. Antipyretie effect In single dose experiment 15 healthy rabbits weighing 1.7-2.8 kg with body temperature(BT) measured in the experiment day meeting to the requirements were selected for the experiment and divided into 5 groups(3 in each group), which were dosed orally with GK001 and 1 h later followed by i. p. injection of 40 EU bacterial endotoxin standard·kg-1. Then, the BT of rabbits was measured every 30 min during 1-3 h after administration. The difference between the highest BT post-dose and the average BT pre-dose was calculated. In multi-dose experiment rabbits were selected and grouped as well as received i. p. endotoxin in the same way as above, but were administered with GK001 for consecutive 5 day. 3. Bacteriostatie effect. The antibacterial activities of GK001 on Bacillus Pumilus, Bacillus Subtilis and Micrococcus Luteus were measured in vitro at concentrations of 0.125-1.0 g·mL-1. Results 1. The GK001 showed a significant and dose-dependent painsuppressant effect, with inhibitory rate being 45.2 %, 31.2 % and 20.8 % at high, medium and low dose, respectively (P< 0.05). 2. Both single and multiple administration of GK001 had no effect on rabbit pyrogen response caused by endotoxin. 3. GK001 had bacteriostatic effects on the aforementioned 3 bacteria significantly and in dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions GK001 has analgesic and in vitro antibacterial but no antipyretie effects.

  8. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... have a history of stomach problems, such as heartburn you have high blood pressure, heart disease... child has lost a lot of fluid due to vomiting or diarrhea child has high blood pressure, heart disease... heartburn user has high blood pressure, heart disease, liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease user takes...

  9. 解热镇痛药引起膜性肾病1例报道%One Reported case of Membranous Nephropathy Caused by Antipyretic Analgesics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬明阳

    2010-01-01

    回顾性分析1例非甾体类解热镇痛药引起膜性肾病病例的诊治过程.患者服用非甾体类解热镇痛药1月后,以下肢浮肿为首发症状,血浆白蛋白明显降低,血脂升高,24 h尿蛋白升高,余实验室检查无明显异常,行肾穿刺活检,活检报告为:膜性肾病(Ⅰ)期.予强的松标准疗法及雷公藤多甙片等相关治疗,症状缓解,24 h尿蛋白明显降低.非甾体类解热镇痛药引起的膜性肾病非常少见,建议应据药物安全性和患者危险因素谨慎用药.

  10. 新兽药氟尼辛葡甲胺的解热镇痛作用%Antipyretic and analgesic effects of flunixin meglumine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大健; 胡屹屹; 冯秀娟; 江善祥

    2008-01-01

    通过小鼠醋酸扭体法、家兔蛋白胨致热法对氟尼辛葡甲胺的解热、镇痛作用进行了研究.结果表明,氟尼辛葡甲胺具有明显的解热、镇痛作用.和对照组相比,氟尼辛葡甲胺4个剂量组(1.25、2.5、5、10 mg/kg)对醋酸所致的小鼠扭体反应均有极强的抑制作用,抑制率最高达100%.2.5 mg/kg的氟尼辛葡甲胺镇痛率即达82.7%,明显强于双氯芬酸钠(65.4%)和安乃近(58.7%).对蛋白胨所致家兔发热的解热效果,氟尼辛葡甲胺高剂量组(4 mg/kg) 于安乃近组(0.2 g/kg)(P(0.05)和氨基比林组(0.2 g/kg)(P<0.01).中剂量氟尼辛葡甲胺组(2 mg/kg)作用稍逊于安乃近组,但差异不显著.低剂量氟尼辛葡甲胺组(1 mg/kg)作用与氨基比林组相当.

  11. Antipyretic and analgesic effects of Flunixin Meglumine%氟尼辛葡甲铵的解热镇痛效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大健; 胡屹屹; 冯秀娟; 余祖功; 江善祥

    2007-01-01

    目的:通过小白鼠醋酸扭体法、家兔蛋白胨致热法观察氟尼辛葡甲铵的解热、镇痛作用.方法:实验于2004-03/06在南京农业大学药理及毒理教研室实验室完成.①小鼠扭体实验:取清洁级KM小鼠80只按随机数字表法分为8组,每组10只:双氯芬酸钠16.25 mg/kg组、安乃近32.5 mg/kg组、氟尼辛葡甲铵10,5,2.5,1.25,0.625 mg/kg组、生理盐水对照组.除双氯芬酸钠采取口服外,其余各组分别肌肉注射相应剂量的药品,生理盐水对照组给予等体积量的生理盐水.给药30 min后立即给各组小鼠腹腔注射1.2%的冰醋酸溶液0.2 mL/只,观察记录15 min内出现扭体反应的次数.②蛋白胨致热实验:健康家兔36只,按随机数字表法分成6组,每组6只:空白对照组(生理盐水1 mL/kg)、氟尼辛葡甲铵1,2,4 mg/kg组、安乃近0.2 g/kg组和氨基比林0.2 g/kg组.实验前测定各组兔子的直肠体温.在家兔大腿肌肉注射40%蛋白胨,剂量为2 mL/kg,然后按上述分组分别给予相应的药物.给药后8 h内每小时各测体温1次.结果:80只小鼠和36只家兔均进入结果分析,中途无脱落.①与生理盐水对照组相比,安乃近32.5 mg/kg组、氟尼辛葡甲铵10,5,2.5,1.25 mg/kg组和双氯芬酸钠16.25 mg/kg组对醋酸所致小鼠的扭体反应有显著的镇痛作用[(4.3±4.1),(10.4±5.7),(0.0±0.0),(0.9±1.9),(1.8±2.4),(3.2±4.2),(3.6±3.9)次/15 min;P<0.05,P<0.01].②与空白对照组比较,氟尼辛葡甲铵高、中剂量组及安乃近0.2 g/kg组、氨基比林0.2 g/kg组对由蛋白胨引起的家兔发热,在给药后4~8 h均有显著的抑制作用(P< 0.05),氟尼辛葡甲铵高、中剂量和安乃近0.2 g/kg组在给药后6~8 h作用极显著(P<0.01).氟尼辛葡甲铵高剂量组在给药后5~7 h显著强于安乃近0.2 g/kg组(P<0.05),与氨基比林0.2 g/kg组相比,差异极显著(P<0.01).氟尼辛葡甲铵中剂量组作用稍逊于安乃近0.2 g/kg组,差异不显著.氟尼辛葡甲铵低剂量组与氨基比林0.2 g/kg组相当.结论:氟尼辛葡甲铵具有明显的解热、镇痛作用.

  12. Pharmacodynamic studies on antipyretic and analgesic effects of flunixin meglumine%氟尼辛葡甲铵解热镇痛作用药效学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大健; 余祖功; 江善祥

    2007-01-01

    通过小白鼠醋酸扭体法、家兔蛋白胨致热法对氟尼辛葡甲铵(FM)解热、镇痛作用进行了药效学研究.结果表明:氟尼辛葡甲铵具有明显的解热、镇痛作用.与对照组相比,氟尼辛葡甲铵4个剂量组(1.25、2.5、5、10 mg/kg)对醋酸所致的小鼠扭体反应均有极强的抑制作用,抑制率最高达100 %.2.5 mg/kg的FM镇痛率即达82.7 %,明显强于双氯芬酸钠(65.4 %)和安乃近(58.7 %).对蛋白胨引起的家兔发热的解热效果,氟尼辛葡甲铵高剂量组(4 mg/kg)优于安乃近组(0.2 g/kg)(P<0.05)和氨基比林组(0.2 g/kg)(P<0.01).中剂量氟尼辛葡甲铵组(2 mg/kg)解热作用稍逊于安乃近组,但差异不显著.低剂量氟尼辛葡甲铵组(1 mg/kg)解热作用与氨基比林组相当.

  13. 清热止咳糖浆中盐酸麻黄碱含量测定%The Determination of Hydrochloric Ephedrine in Antipyretic Cough Syrup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金凤珠

    2000-01-01

    利用麻黄碱的挥发性,用水蒸气蒸馏法使其与制剂中其它组分分离后再利用溴麝香草酚蓝比色法测定清热止咳糖浆中盐酸的麻黄碱含量,方法准确,结果令人满意.

  14. 复方丹参颗粒解热、利尿作用的实验研究%Empirical study on antipyretic and diuretic effects of Fufang Danshen granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何汝帮; 杨安平

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察复方丹参颗粒的解热、利尿作用.方法 通过制造二硝基苯酚致家兔发热及大鼠利尿实验模型,观察复方丹参颗粒的解热、利尿作用.结果 复方丹参颗粒可明显抑制发热家兔体温上升及增加排泄尿量,与模型对照组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05和P<0.01);结论复方丹参颗粒具有明显解热、利尿作用.

  15. A thin-layer chromatography study on the ingredient Herba corydalis bungeanae in coryza antipyretic granules%感冒清热颗粒中苦地丁薄层色谱实验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜素兰; 杜素芳

    2004-01-01

    目的研究感冒清热颗粒中苦地丁薄层色谱(TLC)实验方法,筛选可靠的TLC鉴别方法.方法采用TLC鉴别方法.结果确定本品TLC鉴别提取方法、展开剂和薄层板类型.结论该方法灵敏、准确、可靠,获得的TLC图谱清晰、持久,可用于本品质量控制.

  16. Antipyretic effect of flunixin meglumine (FM) in pigs experimentally infected with Streptococcus spp%氟尼辛葡甲胺对猪实验性链球菌感染的解热作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁焕中; 孙永学; 曾振灵; 陈杖榴

    2008-01-01

    氟尼辛(flunixin),是美国先灵葆雅公司于20世纪90年代开发的兽用非甾体类抗炎药,主要通过抑制环氧化酶、减少前列腺素等炎性介质的生成而发挥解热、抗炎和镇痛作用。在兽医临床中,以葡甲胺(meglumine)作为增溶剂而使用氟尼辛葡甲胺(flunixin meglumine,FM)。兽医临床中,FM用于马、牛、猪、猫、犬、羊等动物感染性疾病引起的发热及急性炎症反应,还可用于缓解马肌肉骨骼系统病症和腹痛伴有的炎症反应和疼痛;用于母猪的乳腺炎-子宫炎-无乳综合征(MMA)的辅助治疗和犬的内毒素血症等。

  17. 清热解毒复方治疗膝关节骨性关节炎的研究%Study on treatment for knee osteoarthritis joint with antipyretic detoxicate compound recipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商善刚; 郭爱芹; 张慧

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨清热解毒复方治疗膝关节骨性关节炎的效果.方法 将60例符合膝关节骨性关节炎患者随机分为2组,观察组予清热解毒复方内服外用,对照组予酮洛芬外用,均治疗3周后评价疗效.j皓果治疗后2组患者膝关节临床症状明显减轻,关节功能显著改善,与治疗前比较具有显著性差异(P均<0.01).且观察组近期及远期疗效及HSS评分均明显优于对照组,有显著性差异(P均<0.01).结论 清熬解毒复方能明显改善膝关节骨性关节炎患者的临床症状和关节功能.

  18. Studies on the accumulation and physiological and biochemical effects of heavy metals on the water moss Fontinalis antipyreticaL ex Hedw.; Untersuchungen zur Akkumulation und physiologisch-biochemischen Wirkung von Schwermetallen im Wassermoos Fontinalis antipyretica L. ex Hedw.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Kristin

    2000-07-01

    Heavy-metal-induced stress poses a major problem to the system of a plant. Earlier studies based on terrestrial and aquatic mosses were limited to using these organisms as biomonitors and bioindicators for determining the heavy metal contamination of natural sites. The idea of characterising the biochemical and physiological reaction of the plant to the stressful situation attracted less interest. The present study deals with the biomonitor moss Fontinalis antipyretica. Earlier studies by Bruns had shown that this moss responds very differently to heavy metals than do higher plants. The results of this researcher were used as a basis for studying the accumulation of heavy metals and their effects on the vitality and metabolism of Fontinalis antipyretica. Furthermore, insights were sought into the mechanism of detoxification of heavy metals. [German] Schwermetall-Stress stellt ein wesentliches Problem im pflanzlichen System dar. Fruehere Studien mit terrestrischen und aquatischen Moosen beschraenkten sich jedoch oft auf die Nutzung dieser Organismen als Biomonitore und Bioindikatoren, mit denen die Schwermetallbelastung natuerlicher Standorte untersucht wurde. Die Charakterisierung der biochemisch-physiologischen Reaktion dieser Pflanzen auf die Belastungssituation war dabei von geringerem Interesse. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde mit dem Biomonitormoos Fontinalis antipyretica gearbeitet. Hier zeigten sich schon in frueheren Arbeiten von Bruns deutliche Unterschiede in der Schwermetallantwort dieses Mooses im Vergleich zur hoeheren Pflanze. Auf der Basis dieser Ergebnisse untersuchten wir die Akkumulation von Schwermetallen und deren Wirkung auf die Vitalitaet und den Stoffwechsel von Fontinalis antipyretica, wobei gleichzeitig weitere Kenntnisse ueber den Mechanismus der Detoxifikation von Schwermetallen erlangt werden sollten.

  19. A clinical observation of antipyretic effect of lingyangjiao oral solution for pregnant women with upper respiratory infection%羚羊角口服液对孕妇上感的退热效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁珊瑚; 文萍; 叶新平; 刘仕春

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察羚羊角口服液治疗孕妇上呼吸道感染合并发热的疗效.方法 选择妊娠期上呼吸道感染合并发热病例224例,随机分为治疗组和对照组各112例,在给予相同治疗的基础上,治疗组给予羚羊角口服液,对照组给予物理降温,治疗3天后,比较两组的疗效.结果 两组的总有效率分别为95.5%和86.6%,痊愈率分别为49.1%和25.0%,经比较疗效有显著性差异.结论 羚羊角口服液在治疗孕妇上呼吸道感染合并发热方面疗效较好,与西药合用可缩短病程.

  20. Drug: D08258 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08258 Drug Nefopam (INN) C17H19NO 253.1467 253.3389 D08258.gif non-opioid analgesic...NALGESICS N02B OTHER ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BG Other analgesics and antipyretics N02BG06 Nefopam D08

  1. Drug: D04019 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B OTHER ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BB Pyrazolones N02BB54 Propyphenazone, combinations excl. psycholepti...lides N02BE53 Phenacetin, combinations excl. psycholeptics D04019 Isopropylantipy

  2. Drug: D03980 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ND ANTIPYRETICS N02BB Pyrazolones N02BB54 Propyphenazone, combinations excl. psycholeptics D03980 Isopropyla...ntipyrine - allyl isopropyl acetyl urea - phenacetin - caffeine mixt N02BE Anilides N02BE53 Phenacetin, combinations

  3. Drug: D04011 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l (TN) Chondroitin sulfate sodium [DR:D04078], Sodium salicylate [DR:D00566] Anti-inflammatory Therapeutic c...ory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory

  4. Drug: D00836 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 86+4988) Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction map07039 Opioid analgesics map07...ing nervous system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesic

  5. Drug: D00498 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uroactive ligand-receptor interaction map07039 Opioid analgesics map07224 Opioid ... system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesics, anti-

  6. Drug: D01341 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m 114 Antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents 1148 Basic antiinflammatory analgesic... [BR:br08301] 1 Agents affecting nervous system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous syste

  7. Drug: D01394 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 01] 1 Agents affecting nervous system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesic...s, anti-inflammatory agents 1148 Basic antiinflammatory analgesic

  8. Drug: D01353 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available affecting nervous system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesic...s, anti-inflammatory agents 1148 Basic antiinflammatory analgesics D013

  9. Drug: D02227 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 986+4988) Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction map07039 Opioid analgesics map0...ting nervous system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesic

  10. Drug: D01762 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01762 Drug Sulpyrine hydrate (JP16); Dipyrone (USAN); Metamizole sodium salt monoh...ESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BB Pyrazolones N02BB02 Metamizole sodium D01762 Sulpyrine hydrate (JP16); Dipyrone

  11. Characterization of Momordica charantia Ussing FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Keseru

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, because earlier claim shows that the plant used as stomachic, carminative, tonic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, in rheumatoid arthritis and gout, the present investigation was carried to characterized a principal components of plant using FT-IR technique

  12. PENGARUH EKSTRAK TANAMAN OBAT ASLI TERHADAP SUHU NORMAL MENCIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wahjoedi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of screening of the medicinal plants efficacy, 19 plants have been tested to see their influence to the normal body temperature of mice. Among the 19 plants there are some medicinal plants which are used as antipyretic by the Indonesian people. Those are Ageratum conyzoides L, Brasica rugosa Prain, Euphatorium triplinerve Vahl, Messua ferrea L and Oroxylum indicum Vent. The administration is intra-peritoneally. Some extract at test dose (1/3 - 1/2 LD 50 decrease the normal body temperature more than 2°C. Most of them happened to be known as antipyretic in traditional medicines.

  13. EFEK-ANTI PIRETIK BEBERAPA TANAMAN OBAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wahjoedi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brotowali (Tinospora tuberculata Beaumae, Meniran (Phyllanthus niruri L.. Bengle (Zingiber cas-sumunar Roxb. and Tapak limau (Elephantopus scaber L. are four plants that have been known to have antipyretic property. To confirm the antipyretic property, materials obtained from The Balai Pene­litian Tanaman Obat Tawangmangu, Surakarta (Central Java were tested on fever induced rats. The fever depressing effect of 750 mg symplicium/100 g body weight on ratsdid not differ significantly that of 30 mg sodium salicylate/100g body weight. No dosage-response relationship was seen in the four symplicia, and thterefore it is not advisable to recommend the use of those symplicia as antipyretis.

  14. Pediatric acetaminophen poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán, Tatiana; Hospital Universitario San Ignacio; López, Ángelo; Hospital Universitario San Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is an important drug used in children because of its analgesic and antipyretic effects. It has a safety profile but high-dose administration can produce significant toxicity at risk of developing acute liver failure. The outcome depends on the timely recognition and starting specific therapeutic management.Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most used drugs in children, due to the efficient analgesic and antipyretic effects. It has good safety profile, but in...

  15. Drug: D00217 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 633 151.1626 D00217.gif Analgesic; Antipyretic Same as: C06804 Therapeutic category: 1141 ATC code: N02BE01 Nonsteroidal antiinflamma...tory drugs (NSAIDs) Enzyme: CYP2E1 [HSA:1571], CYP2A6 [HSA:1548], CYP3A4 [HSA:1576

  16. Drug: D04046 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available STEM N02 ANALGESICS N02B OTHER ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BA Salicylic acid and derivatives N02BA55 Salicylamide, combinations...TEMIC USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AD Phenothiazine derivatives R06AD52 Promethazine, combinations

  17. Drug: D04044 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EM N02 ANALGESICS N02B OTHER ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BA Salicylic acid and derivatives N02BA55 Salicylamide, combinations...6A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AB Substituted alkylamines R06AB54 Chlorphenamine, combinations D04044

  18. Ibuprofen versus steroids: risk and benefit, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovannini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years we have observed an upward trend in the employment of ibuprofen as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic therapy. Therefore the pediatrician has often a precious option in the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment in children instead of using steroids and paracetamol. In clinical practice ibuprofen can be used in the treatment of headache, toothache, otalgy, dysmenorrhea, neuralgia, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and fever: it is the first choice for these common diseases. However, the use of steroids is a routine, even if non-corticosteroid anti-inflammatory molecules could be useful. Certainly steroids are powerful anti-inflammatory, indicated for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders and in acute respiratory and allergic diseases. Beside, thanks to their chemical and pharmacological profile, they also provide patients with an antipyretic effect. However, the use of steroids must be reserved to cases in which other classical antipyretics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not effective. The possible side effects and risks associated with stepping down steroids must be considered. Although “steroids-phobia” should be discouraged, steroids are to be reserved only as the first indication. In all other cases the pediatrician can use ibuprofen, whose efficacy and safety are widely demonstrated by now.

  19. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di

    2013-12-01

    The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003.

  20. Drug: D07611 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [DR:D01962], Anhydrous caffeine [DR:D00528] Anti-inflammatory Therapeutic category: 1149 Therapeutic catego...entral nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents 1149 Others D07611 Simetride - anhydrous caffeine mixt PubChem: 96024450 ...

  1. Pharmacological effects of methanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni Jacq (meliaceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sruti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of medicinal plants are common ingredients of many folk and herbal medicines, and seed extracts have been reported to possess pharmacological activity including anti-inflammatory activity. In the present investigation, the methanolic extract of the dried ground seeds of Swietenia mahagoni (SMSE has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acute, sub-chronic, and chronic models of inflammation in rodents. The antipyretic and analgesic activities were evaluated in mice models. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the extract up to a dose of 1.2 g/kg intraperitoneally was nontoxic. SMSE at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. was found to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities and the effect was comparable with that produced by the standard drug, ibuprofen. The results of the experiment on arachidonic acid-induced paw edema in rat revealed that the extract produces anti-inflammatory activity through dual inhibition of the cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. SMSE also enhanced peritoneal cell exudates along with macrophage significantly. The triterpenoids present in SMSE may be responsible for these activities. SMSE possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities.

  2. Cost effectiveness of oseltamivir treatment of influenza : a critique of published methods and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J; Beardsworth, Paul; Wilschut, Jan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to determine, from a systematic assessment of published data, the cost effectiveness of the neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral medication oseltamivir in comparison with usual care (i.e. over-the-counter medication such as analgesics and antipyretics for sym

  3. Drug: D07978 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tipyretic ATC code: N02BG07 nonopioid analgesic agent N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist [HSA:2902 290...n [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02B OTHER ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BG Other analgesics

  4. Drug: D07132 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07132 Drug Buprenorphine (JAN/INN); Temgesic (TN) C29H41NO4 467.3036 467.6401 D07132.gif Opioid analgesic...(4986+4988) Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction map07039 Opioid analgesics ma...ecting nervous system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesic

  5. Drug: D00567 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00567.gif Anti-inflammatory and analgesic [cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor] [DS:H00445 H00630] Same as: C07589 ...s affecting nervous system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesic

  6. Wel of geen paracetamol bij kinderen met koorts? [Risks and benefits of paracetamol in children with fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, E.G.P.M.; Brand, P.L.P.; Dinant, G.J.; van Well, G.T.J.; Cals, J.W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, paracetamol is the most commonly used antipyretic for children and the drug of first choice for reducing fever named in the majority of practice guidelines. However, whether or not it is necessary or desirable to treat fever is questionable. The provision of accurate information on the ca

  7. Pharmacological activities of Solanum melongena Linn. (Brinjal plant)

    OpenAIRE

    Mitali Das; Nilotpal Barua

    2013-01-01

    Solanum melongena Linn. is a herbaceous plant, with coarsely lobed leaves, white to purple flowers, fruit is berry and are grown mainly for food and medicinal purposes. The plant contains flavonoids, tropane, glycoalkaloids, arginine, lanosterol, gramisterol, aspartic acid as important constituents. The plant is reported to have analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antiplatelet, intraocular pressure reducing, CNS depressant and ana...

  8. 绿原酸对内毒素致热的影响%Effect of Chlorogenic Acid on the Fever Induced by Endotoxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炳仁; 马文惠; 陈宝; 何丽钦

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether chlorogenic acid is the material basis to play the role of antipyretic effect in Shuanghuanglian and other drugs. Methods ; Rahit fever model was setup by the administration of endotoxin, then the effect of chlorogenic acid on the fever was studied. Results: Chlorogenic, acid had antipyretic effect and it's antipyretic effect showed obvious relationship between dose and time. However, it had a longer onset time. Conclusion: Chlorogenic acid is the material basis to play the role of antipyretic effect in Shuanghuanglian and other drugs.%目的:探索绿原酸是否是双黄连发挥解热作用的物质基础.方法:在给家兔静脉注入内毒素造成的发热模型上,评价绿原酸对发热家兔体温的影响.结果:绿原酸表现出退热作用,呈现明显的量效和时效关系,但起效时间较长结论:绿原酸是双黄连发挥解热作用的物质基础.

  9. Drug: D08190 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08190 Drug Dipyrone (BAN); Metamizole sodium; Vetalgin (TN) C13H16N3O4S. Na 333.07...fication [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02B OTHER ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BB Pyrazolones N02BB02 Metamiz

  10. Drug: D08149 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ; Analgesic; Antipyretic Arylpropionic acid derivatives cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase...lism Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxygenase...-1 (COX-1) [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509] Loxoprofen D08149 Loxoprofen (INN) cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) [H

  11. Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of Tactical Importance to US CENTCOM Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    nutritional therapy is essential. 0. Avoid heparin and antipyretics. E. In critically ill patients (i.e., shock, delirium, stupor, or coma): dexamethasone...dysarthria. dysphona and dysphagia . This is followed by a symmetrical, deendinsg, progressive 4 weakness of the extremities along with weakness of

  12. Side effects of pain and analgesia in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkof, Paulin

    2017-03-22

    This review highlights selected effects of untreated pain and of widely used analgesics such as opioids, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and antipyretics, to illustrate the relevance of carefully planned, appropriate and controlled analgesia for greater reproducibility in animal experiments involving laboratory rodents.

  13. Cupping Therapy for 103 Cases of High Fever due to Infection of the Upper Respiratory Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖东

    2002-01-01

    @@ The cupping therapy has remarkable antipyretic effect in the treatment of fever. In recent years, the author has treated 103 cases of high fever caused by infection of the upper respiratory tract and obtained quite satisfactory therapeutic results. A report follows.

  14. Drug: D07580 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pirin DL-lysine (JAN) N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02B OTHER ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BA Salicyl...ic acid and derivatives N02BA01 Acetylsalicylic acid D07580 Aspirin DL-lysine (JAN)

  15. Drug: D07293 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 91 206.198 D07293.gif Imidazole [CPD:C01589], Salicylic acid [DR:D00097] Analgesic; Antiinflammatory ATC cod... N02B OTHER ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BA Salicylic acid and derivatives N02B

  16. Drug: D00970 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.gif Anti-inflammatory; Analgesic; Antipyretic [DS:H00445 H00630] ATC code: G02CC02 M01AE02 M02AA12 Indications: Rheumatoid arthriti...s, Osteoarthritis, Ankylosing spondylitis, Juvenile arthritis, etc. cyclooxygenase-

  17. Introduction of Cover Picture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Cypripedium guttatum Sw is a plant of Cypripedium L. (Orchidaceae), which has biological effects such as sedation, analgesia, sweating, and antipyretic. Modern research shows that this Chinese herbal medicine can be used for the treatment of neurasthenia, epilepsy, febrile convulsion, headache, and stomachache. It is widely distributed in Northeast China, and Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, and Yunnan

  18. Prenatal and Infant Exposure to Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen and the Risk for Wheeze and Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Joanne E.; Scirica, Christina V.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Camargo, Carlos A.; Weiss, Scott T.; Gold, Diane R.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported an association between use of over-the-counter antipyretics during pregnancy or infancy and increased asthma risk. An important potential limitation of these observational studies is confounding by indication. Objectives We investigated the association of antipyretic intake, 1) during pregnancy and 2) during the first year of life (infancy), with asthma-related outcomes, before and after controlling for early life respiratory infections. Methods We included 1490 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a longitudinal pre-birth cohort study. We categorized prenatal acetaminophen exposure as the maximum intake (never, 1–9 or ≥ 10 times) in early or mid-pregnancy, and ibuprofen intake as presence or absence in early pregnancy. We expressed intakes of antipyretics in infancy as never, 1–5, 6–10, or >10 times. We examined the associations of acetaminophen and ibuprofen (per unit increase in exposure category) during pregnancy and infancy with wheeze, asthma and allergen sensitization in early (3–5 y) (n= 1419) and mid-childhood (7–10 y) (n= 1220). Results Unadjusted models showed an elevated asthma risk in early childhood for higher infant acetaminophen (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04, 1.41) and ibuprofen (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.19, 1.52) intake. Controlling for respiratory infections attenuated estimates for acetaminophen (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.88, 1.22) and ibuprofen (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05, 1.36). Prenatal acetaminophen was associated with increased asthma (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02, 1.58) in early but not mid-childhood. Conclusions Adjustment for respiratory infections in early life substantially diminished associations between infant antipyretics and early childhood asthma. Respiratory infections should be accounted for in studies of antipyretics and asthma, to mitigate bias due to confounding by indication. PMID:25441647

  19. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy in Tanzanian children gives rapid parasite clearance but slow fever clearance that is improved by chloroquine in combination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2002-01-01

    Following widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance, sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine (SP) is now the first line antimalarial drug in a number of African countries including Tanzania. Unlike CQ, SP has no antipyretic effects, a feature that might delay fever clearance, and by acting on late stage...... parasites, SP could theoretical be slow in parasite clearance. We therefore assessed the antipyretic effects of CQ in therapeutic combination with SP, and the speed of parasite clearance by SP in an open-labelled, randomized trial of CQ alone (n=39), SP alone (n=39), SP plus CQ (n=37) and SP plus...... paracetamol (PCM) (n=38) in children with uncomplicated malaria. Over 72 h, there were eight (20.5%) treatment failures in the CQ group but none in the other groups. Although not significant (P > 0.1), irrespective of resistance CQ alone had a shorter median survival time to fever clearance than SP alone (54...

  20. Bioactive phenolic derivatives from Acaena splendens methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, N; Delporte, C; Negrete, R; Feliciano, S A San; López-Pérez, J L

    2002-09-01

    Acaena splendens H. et A. has been used in Chilean folk medicine for the treatment of fever and inflammation. A description of the in vivo reduction of bacterial pyrogen-induced fever in rabbits and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in guinea pigs is presented. The methanol extract named ME-1, obtained after succesive extractions with petroleum ether and dichloromethane, showed a strong antipyretic action (45.7% of effect), though the antiinflammatory activity was only observed after submitting this extract to column fractionation, giving a crude mixture of flavonoids named C4 with both activities (55.7% and 98.9% of antiinflammatory and antipyretic effect respectively at a dose of 600 mg/kg). The bioassay-guided fractionation by column chromatography afforded the active fraction, which contained (-,-)-epicatechin, tiliroside, 7-O-acetyl-3-O-beta-D-glucosyl-kaempferol and 7-beta-D-glucosyloxy-5-hydroxy-chromone.

  1. Long-term toxicological effects of paracetamol in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Majeed,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The analgesic and antipyretic properties of paracetamol were first described in 1893, then it has been widely available as a non-prescription drug, with a therapeutic profile that reflects widespread safety and efficacy as well as paracetamol became the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. It is the most frequently used over-the counter medicine in young children and is nearly universally used in infants. The drug is used by millions of children every day. The study was designed to study the toxicological effect of therapeutic dose of paracetamol after oral administration for three months in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicous on the heart, kidney and liver. Results showed oral administration of the paracetamol for three months in laboratory rats showed that this drug has a severe damaging effect on most of the vital organs in the body like kidney, liver and heart.

  2. [Observations and research on an extract of Inula viscosa Ait ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, L; Rolih, C

    1990-09-01

    The folk medical tradition ascribes to Inula viscosa (a suffrutescent plant of Compositae widely spread along the Mediterranean basin) balsamic, antipyretic, antiphlogistic and antiseptic properties. Pharmacological test on rabbits, made hyperpyretic in laboratory, gave satisfactory antipyretic results. Gas chromatographical separation from a high-boiling fraction of seven azulenes, two of them identified as 1,4-dimethyl-azulene (about 50% and chamazulene (32%), confirmed the antiphlogistic action ascribed to the plant. By the present research (solvent extraction, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography are described in detail) eucalyptol was identified in a fraction of essential oil obtained from fresh leaves of the plant. This datum supports the balsamic and antiseptic properties of Inula viscosa Ait.

  3. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ichnocarpus frutescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narendra Kumar Singh; V.P. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Ichnocarpusfrutescens R.Br.(Apocynaceae),is a woody climbing shrub,found almost in all parts of India.In India,tribes used this plant as a substitute of Indian Sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus) for the treatment of atrophy,convulsions,cough,delirium,dysentery,measles,splenomegaly,tuberculosis,tumor,diabetes as a lactogogue,antipyretic,demulcent,diaphoretic and in skin diseases.Phytochemical investigations indicate that 28 compounds reported from the plant belong to various chemical category viz.phytosterol,triterpenes,flavonoids and various other phenolic compounds.Pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant reported include antiurolithiatic,hepatoprotective,antioxidant,analgesic,antipyretic,anti-inflammatory,antidiabetic,antihyperlipidemic and antitumor activity.In the present review the literature data on the phytochemical and biological investigations on the I.frutescens are summarized up to March 2011.

  4. Use of nimesulide in rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Il'ina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the basic mechanisms of action of nimesulide, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities in a broad spectrum of morbid states. It shows the rate of effect occurrence after administration of different nimesulide formulations in gouty arthritis and considers the aspects of its safety and tolerability in rheumatic diseases.

  5. Use of nimesulide in rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Il'ina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the basic mechanisms of action of nimesulide, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities in a broad spectrum of morbid states. It shows the rate of effect occurrence after administration of different nimesulide formulations in gouty arthritis and considers the aspects of its safety and tolerability in rheumatic diseases.

  6. Niflumic acid and cutaneous reactions in children

    OpenAIRE

    Menniti-Ippolito, F; Sagliocca, L; Da Cas, R; Saggiomo, G; Di, N; Traversa, G; the, S

    2001-01-01

    In a case control study of adverse drug reactions in children, the odds ratio of developing a serious mucocutaneous event among users of niflumic acid, adjusted for concomitant use of all other drugs, was 4.9 (95% CI 1.9 to 12.8). Given the availability of safer analgesics and antipyretics, there is no indication, in our opinion, that requires the prescription of substances which bear an increased risk.



  7. Niflumic acid and cutaneous reactions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menniti-Ippolito, F; Sagliocca, L; Da Cas, R; Saggiomo, G; Di Nardo, R; Traversa, G

    2001-05-01

    In a case control study of adverse drug reactions in children, the odds ratio of developing a serious mucocutaneous event among users of niflumic acid, adjusted for concomitant use of all other drugs, was 4.9 (95% CI 1.9 to 12.8). Given the availability of safer analgesics and antipyretics, there is no indication, in our opinion, that requires the prescription of substances which bear an increased risk.

  8. Chemistry and biological activities of the genus Dalbergia - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Neeru Vasudeva; Manisha Vats; Sharma, S.K.; Satish Sardana

    2009-01-01

    Dalbergia is a genus of trees, shrubs and woody climbers widely distributed in tropical and sub- tropical regions. It possesses immense traditional application. Various species are widely used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-spermicidal, larvicidal and mosquito repellant in the traditional system of medicines. Chemical investigation has resulted in characterization and isolation of various phytoconstituents. This review is co...

  9. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF EFFERVESCENT TABLET OF PARACETAMOL AND IBUPROFEN

    OpenAIRE

    Hiren K. Patel; Pankaj V. Chauhan; Kunal N. Patel; Bhavana A. Patel; Poras A. Patel

    2012-01-01

    Recently, fast-dissolving drug delivery system have started gaining popularity and acceptance as newdrug delivery system, because they are easy to administer and lead to better compliance. Usually, elderlypeople experience difficulty in swallowing the tablet. Paracetamol having analgesic, antipyretic effect,they inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme involved in prostaglandin (PG) synthesis but not in peripheraltissue while Ibuprofen inhibit prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in peripheral tissue so in this...

  10. Formulation Development of Mouth Dissolving Film of Etoricoxib for Pain Management

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Etoricoxib is a potent, orally active, and highly selective COX-2 inhibitor that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. The present research was undertaken to develop mouth dissolving films of etoricoxib to have rapid onset of action. Mouth dissolving film (MDF) is a better alternate to oral disintegrating tablets due to its novelty, ease of use, and the consequent patient compliance. Solubility enhancement and taste masking of etoricoxib were the two challenges so...

  11. A comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of two Artemisia species found in Nilgiris biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, J; Elango, K; Dhanabal, S P; Paramakrishnan, N; Suresh, B

    2007-10-01

    Artemisia pallens Wall. ex DC commonly known as "Davana" in Kannada and Artemisia abrotanum Linn. known as "Southernwood" (Asteraceae) are aromatic herbs, erect in habit, upto 60 cm tall, leaves are very small, much divided, bluish green. These plants find use in traditional systems of medicine viz., anthelmintic, tonic and antipyretic properties. Since, these species have not been scientifically evaluated; the present study was aimed to bring these plants under a suitable pharmacognostical scheme.

  12. Paracetamoldosering til børn--anderledes end til voksne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaspar Buus; Dalhoff, Kim P

    2005-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) has become the most widely used antipyretic and analgesic drug for children in Denmark. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the consumption of the drug and our knowledge of children's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Dosage, therapeutic intervals and toxic...... potential are different for children and adults. In this review we look at the published guidelines for treating children with paracetamol and the evidence supporting them....

  13. Determinação dos mecanismos de ação envolvidos no efeito antiulcerogênico, antidiarreico e anti-inflamatório da Insulina Vegetal (Cissus sicyoides Linneu) em modelos animais

    OpenAIRE

    Beserra, Fernando Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Cissus sicyoides (Linneu) belongs to the Vitaceae family is a plant native to the Caribbean, South America and especially in Brazil, where it is known as vegetable insulin. The tea from leaves of this species is popularly used as anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, antipyretic, antidiabetic, antirheumatic, against respiratory infections, dyslipidemia, gastrointestinal disorders and indigestion, for anemia, cerebral tremors and as an activator of circulation blood. The phytochemical analysis...

  14. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-ulcerogenic Activities of Chantaleela Recipe

    OpenAIRE

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Khonsung, Parirat; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Nanna, Urarat; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Chantaleela recipe is indicated for relieving fever in Thai traditional folk medicine. In the present study, Chantaleela recipe was investigated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-ulcerogenic activities. In preliminary investigation Chantaleela recipe was found to exert an inhibitory activity on the acute phase of inflammation as seen in ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema as well as in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. The results suggest that the anti-infl...

  15. Study of drug use in outdoor pediatric patients of upper respiratory tract infections in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Joshi

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The study revealed that the majority of children were below 5 years of age. The most common class of drugs prescribed was antihistaminics and expectorant combinations followed by analgesics and antipyretics. Although the majority of the patients received antibiotics, 40.55% of patients received symptomatic treatment. This is a welcome step as inappropriate use of the antibiotics can potentiate to the increasing trend of antimicrobial resistance. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(5.000: 1004-1008

  16. Advances in NSAID Development: Evolution of Diclofenac Products Using Pharmaceutical Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, Roy; Bosch, Bill; Brune, Kay; Patrignani, Paola; Young, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the phenylacetic acid class with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties. Contrary to the action of many traditional NSAIDs, diclofenac inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme with greater potency than it does COX-1. Similar to other NSAIDs, diclofenac is associated with serious dose-dependent gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal adverse effects. Since its introduction in 1973, a number of different diclofen...

  17. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Kadam, P. V.; K.N. Yadav; F.A. Patel; F.A. Karjikar; M J Patil

    2013-01-01

    Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy,...

  18. Drug: D01879 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01879 Drug Eptazocine hydrobromide (JAN); Sedapain (TN) C15H21NO. HBr 311.0885 312...l nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents 1149 Others D01879 Eptazocine hydrobromide...ed receptors Rhodopsin family Opioid mu-opioid receptor [HSA:4988] [KO:K04215] Eptazocine D01879 Eptazocine hydrobromide... (JAN) kappa-opioid receptor [HSA:4986] [KO:K04214] Eptazocine D01879 Eptazocine hydrobromide (J

  19. Bryophytes: Hoard of remedies, an ethno-medicinal review

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Satish; Chandra, Dinesh; Barh, Anupam; Pankaj,; Pandey, Raj Kumar; Sharma, Ishwar Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes are the second largest group of land plants after angiosperms. There is very less knowledge available about medicinal properties of these plants. Bryophytes are popular remedy among the tribal people of different parts of the world. Tribal people use these plants to cure various ailments in their daily lives. Bryophytes are used to cure hepatic disorders, skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, used as antipyretic, antimicrobial, wound healing and many more other ailments by differ...

  20. A Review of the Ethnobotany and Pharmacological Importance of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    John Prosper Kwaku Adotey; Genevieve Etornam Adukpo; Yaw Opoku Boahen; Frederick Ato Armah

    2012-01-01

    Alstonia boonei De Wild is a herbal medicinal plant of West African origin, popularly known as God's tree or “Onyame dua”. Within West Africa, it is considered as sacred in some forest communities; consequently the plant parts are not eaten. The plant parts have been traditionally used for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and antipyretic activities, which have also been proved scientifically. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds such as echitamidi...

  1. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2001-01-01

    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  2. Effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on the in vitro protease inhibitory activity of naproxen

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmalingam, Senthil Rajan; Chidambaram, Kumarappan; Ramamurthy, Srinivasan; Nadaraju,Shamala

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on in vitro trypsin inhibitory activity of naproxen—a member of the propionic acid derivatives, which are a group of antipyretic, analgesic, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques were used to increase the solubility and anti-inflammatory efficacy of naproxen. The evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS) technique and the kneading metho...

  3. A review on versatile applications of transition metal complexes incorporating Schiff bases

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Dief, Ahmed M.; Ibrahim M.A. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Schiff bases and their complexes are versatile compounds synthesized from the condensation of an amino compound with carbonyl compounds and widely used for industrial purposes and also exhibit a broad range of biological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antipyretic properties. Many Schiff base complexes show excellent catalytic activity in various reactions and in the presence of moisture. Over the past few year...

  4. Role of a proprietary propolis-based product on the wait-and-see approach in acute otitis media and in preventing evolution to tracheitis, bronchitis, or rhinosinusitis from nonstreptococcal pharyngitis

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pierro F.; Zanvit A; Colombo M

    2016-01-01

    Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alberto Zanvit,2 Maria Colombo3 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, 2Biological Dentistry Department, Italian Stomatology Institute, 3ATS, District 5, Milan, Italy Abstract: Antipyretics and/or anti-inflammatory drugs along with a wait-and-see approach are the only treatments recommended in early acute otitis media (AOM) or viral pharyngitis. Propolis has been widely investigated for its antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties and could perhaps b...

  5. Fever and feverish illness in children under five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Penny; Harrison, Maureen

    This article discusses the causes and management of fever in children. In line with guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, it explores the importance of identifying children at risk of serious illness and those that can be managed safely at home. The article also identifies the skills and knowledge required by paediatric and general nurses working with children, alongside the need to offer parents guidance on antipyretics and how to care for their child at home.

  6. Survey in the Emergency Department of Parents’ Understanding of Cough and Cold Medication Use in Children Younger Than 2 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    children gave various drug classes including analgesics, antihistamines , antipyretics, cough suppressants, expectorants, and decongestants. One hundred...FACEP,*Þ Vikhyat S. Bebarta, MD, FACEP, FACMT,*þ Rebecca L. Pitotti, MSN, RN,§ and Toni E. Vargas, PA-C§ Objectives: In August 2007, the Food and Drug ...CCM use in children younger than 2 years. Most thought CCMs were safe and effective. KeyWords: cough and cold medications, Food and Drug

  7. Drug: D07262 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L PRODUCTS FOR JOINT AND MUSCULAR PAIN M02AA Antiinflammatory preparations, non-steroids for topical use M02...D07262 Drug Mofebutazone (INN); Monazone (TN) C13H16N2O2 232.1212 232.2783 D07262.gif Analgesic; Antiinflamm...atory; Antipyretic ATC code: M01AA02 M02AA02 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)

  8. Drug: D08103 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f Antiinflammatory; Analgesic; Antipyretic [DS:H00630] ATC code: M01AE03 M02AA10 Arylpropionic acid derivatives cyclooxygenase...-1 (COX-1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [HSA:5743]...08310] Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509] Ketoprofen [ATC:M02AA10] D08103 Ketoprofen sodium cycl...ooxygenase-2 (COX-2) [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] Ketoprofen [

  9. Drug: D08363 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 07 D08363.gif Antiinflammatory; Analgesic; Antipyretic ATC code: M01AA01 M02AA01 Pyrazolon derivative cyclooxygenase...-1 (COX-1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [HSA:5743] [KO:K1198...ed classification of drugs [BR:br08310] Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxygenase-1 ...(COX-1) [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509] Phenylbutazone [ATC:M01AA01 M02AA01] D08363 Phenylbutazone calcium cyclooxygenase

  10. Drug: D08102 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 81 D08102.gif Antiinflammatory; Analgesic; Antipyretic ATC code: M01AE03 M02AA10 Arylpropionic acid derivatives cyclooxygenase...-1 (COX-1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [HSA:5743]...n D08102 Ketoprofen lysine Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxygenase...-1 (COX-1) [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509] Ketoprofen [ATC:M02AA10] D08102 Ketoprofen lysine cyclooxygenase-2

  11. Drug: D07443 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Analgestic; Antipyretic Phenylacetic acid derivatives nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cyclooxygenase...-1 (COX-1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] ...s Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) [HSA:57...42] [KO:K00509] Amfenac D07443 Amfenac (INN) cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] Amfenac D07443

  12. Drug: D08364 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 364.gif Antiinflammatory; Analgesic; Antipyretic ATC code: M01AA01 M02AA01 Pyrazolon derivative cyclooxygenase...-1 (COX-1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] hsa...ification of drugs [BR:br08310] Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) ...[HSA:5742] [KO:K00509] Phenylbutazone [ATC:M01AA01 M02AA01] D08364 Phenylbutazone sodium cyclooxygenase-2 (C

  13. Fever and the use of paracetamol during IL-2-based immunotherapy in metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køstner, Anne Helene; Ellegaard, Mai-Britt Bjørklund; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2015-01-01

    Fever is frequently observed in conjunction with interleukin-2 (IL-2)-based immunotherapy. Traditionally, fever has been regarded as an undesirable side effect and treated with fever-lowering drugs. However, new insights in tumor immunology suggest that elevated temperature may facilitate a more......-reducing drugs during immunotherapy can therefore be questioned. More studies are needed to evaluate the role of fever and the use of antipyretics during cytokine-based immunotherapy....

  14. [Clinical analysis of 410 cases of drug eruption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Bao-han

    2003-02-01

    An clinical analysis was conducted among a cohort of 410 patients drug eruption with treated in our department from January 1995 to December 2001. We found that the common drugs likely to lead to anaphylactic reactions included cephalosporins, ampicillin types, antipyretic analgesic types, rabies vaccine, sulfonamides, tetracyclines types, etc. The drug eruption mostly presents diverse clinical features resembling the rashes as seen in cases of scarlet fever, measles, urtica, or mucosal edema or ulceration.

  15. Pharmacology of ketoprofen administered orally to pigs : an experimental and clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug belonging to the 2-arylpropionic acid group. It has been widely used in domestic animals because of its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic actions. Ketoprofen is a chiral compound existing in two enantiomeric forms, S (+) and R (-) ketoprofen. Each enantiomer has different pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. The commercial products in veterinary medicine are 50:50 racemic mixtures of both enantiomers. Ketoprofen underg...

  16. Chemical and Pharmacological Researches on Hyoscyamus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; SHI Ji; YU Xin-wen; SUN Jing-kuan; MEN Qi-ming; KANG Ting-guo

    2011-01-01

    The reports on chemical constituents of Hyoscyamus niger were summarized. The compounds include alkaloids, saponins, lignans, coumarinolignans, flavonoids, and some other nonalkaloidal compounds. TLC, HPLC, and GC were used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of some chemical constituents in H. niger. Modern pharmacological experiments showed that H. niger had the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory, bronchodilatory, urinary bladder relaxant, hypotensive, cardiosuppressant, vasodilator, antitumor, and feeding deterrent properties. In addition, the toxicities of this medicinal plant were also described.

  17. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) efficacy and safety in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzolin, Laura; Antonucci, Roberto; Fanos, Vassilios

    2013-02-01

    Neonates can perceive pain, therefore an adequate analgesic therapy is a major issue not only from an ethical perspective but also to improve short- and long-term outcome. Fever during the neonatal period requires hospitalization and needs a treatment with an antipyretic agent because of the high risk of severe complications. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), the most commonly prescribed drug in paediatric patients for its analgesic and antipyretic effects, is the only agent recommended for use as an antipyretic in the newborn and has been recently proposed as a supplement therapy to opioids for postoperative analgesia. This article aims to give an updated overview on the use of paracetamol in newborns by presenting its pharmacological profile (mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics), recommendations for dosing regimens (oral or rectal administration: 25-30 mg/kg/day in preterm neonates of 30 weeks' gestation, 45 mg/kg/day in preterm neonates of 34 weeks' gestation, 60 mg/kg/day in term neonates; i.v. administration: indicatively 20-40 mg/kg/day depending on gestational age, with some differences among various guidelines) and clinical uses (more commonly as analgesic/antipyretic by oral or rectal route, but also i.v. in anaesthesia for postoperative analgesia and painful procedures in Neonatal Intensive Care Units). Moreover, drug tolerability is discussed in the light of its potential hepatotoxicity and the unique characteristics of the newborn patient. By analyzing the available literature and the dosing guidelines, a mismatch exists between the current clinical use of paracetamol and the recommendations, suggesting a cautious approach particularly in extremely preterm neonates.

  18. Drug: D00810 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LGESICS N02B OTHER ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BA Salicylic acid and derivatives N02BA03 Choline salicyla...eductases cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509] Salicylic acid [ATC:D01...AE12 N02BA04 S01BC08] D00810 Choline salicylate (JAN/USAN/INN) cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] Salicylic

  19. Is fever suppression involved in the etiology of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Anthony R

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There appears to be a significant increase in the prevalence rate of autism. Reasons for the increase are unknown, however, there is a substantial body of evidence that suggests the etiology involves infections of the pregnant mother or of a young child. Most infections result in fever that is routinely controlled with antipyretics such as acetaminophen. The blocking of fever inhibits processes that evolved over millions of years to protect against microbial attack. Immune mechanisms in the central nervous system are part of this protective process. Hypothesis The blockage of fever with antipyretics interferes with normal immunological development in the brain leading to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism in certain genetically and immunologically disposed individuals. Testing the hypothesis Epidemiological studies to determine associations between the use of antipyretics and neurodevelopmental disorders should be undertaken. Biochemical tests will involve the examination of fluids/serum by mass spectrometry and the determination of cytokine/chemokine levels in serum and cell culture fluids after stimulation with fever-inducing molecules from bacteria, viruses and yeast. Postmortem brain can be examined by immunohistochemistry or other methods such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH to determine altered expression levels of chemokines/cytokines and other molecules. Implications of the hypothesis 1 The use of antipyretics during pregnancy or in young children may be reserved for more severe fevers. 2 The perplexing genetic findings in autism may be better understood by categorizing genes along functional pathways. 3 New treatments based on immune, cell, pharmacological or even heat therapies may be developed.

  20. Preconcentration and Determination of Mefenamic Acid in Pharmaceutical and Biological Fluid Samples by Polymer-grafted Silica Gel Solid-phase Extraction Following High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri Sadeghi, Hayedeh; Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Mahabadi, Mahsa; Moniri, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Mefenamic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has analgesic, anti-infammatory and antipyretic actions. It is used to relieve mild to moderate pains. Solid-phase extraction of mefenamic acid by a polymer grafted to silica gel is reported. Poly allyl glycidyl ether/iminodiacetic acid-co-N, N-dimethylacrylamide was synthesized and grafted to silica gel and was used as an adsorbent for extraction of trace mefenamic acid in pharmaceutical and biological samples. Different fa...

  1. Trikatu, a herbal compound that suppresses monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in rats, an experimental model for acute gouty arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murunikkara, Vachana; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2014-01-01

    Gout is an inflammatory joint disorder characterized by hyperuricaemia and precipitation of monosodium urate crystals in the joints. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of trikatu, a herbal compound in monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in rats, an experimental model for acute gouty arthritis. Paw volume and levels/activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and histopathological examination of ankle joints were determined in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced rats. In addition, analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing response), anti-pyretic (yeast-induced pyrexia) and gastric ulceration effects were tested. The levels of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation and paw volume were significantly increased, and anti-oxidant status was found to be reduced in monosodium urate crystal-induced rats, whereas the biochemical changes were reverted to near normal levels upon trikatu (1000 mg/kg b.wt) administration. The trikatu has also been found to exhibit significant analgesic and anti-pyretic effects with the absence of gastric damage. In conclusion, the present results clearly indicated that trikatu exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect against monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in rats in association with analgesic and anti-pyretic effects in the absence of gastrointestinal damage.

  2. Pharmacological effects of ethanol extract of Egyptian Artemisia herba-alba in rats and mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heba Mohammed Ibrahim Abdallah; Nawal E.L. Sayed Gomaa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate some pharmacological effects including gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and in vitro antioxidant effects of Artemisia herba-alba extract in different experimental models. Methods: Inflammation was induced in rat paw by subcutaneous injection of 1% (v/v) carrageenan solution. Writhes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6%(v/v) acetic acid solution. Pyrexia was induced using Brewer's yeast suspension. Gastric lesion was induced in rats by oral administration of 99% ethanol. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and gastroprotective activities of Artemisia herba-alba extract were investigated respectively. In vitro antioxidant effect was investigated using DPPH free radical. Results: The plant extract showed anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, analgesic effect against acetic acid-induced writhing, and antipyretic ac-tivity in Brewer's yeast model of pyrexia. Besides, it was shown to be a gastroprotective agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. The plant also exhibited a free radical scavenging potential in an in vitro antioxidant study using DPPH. Conclusions: The results validate the use of the investigated plant in traditional medicine for different ailments.

  3. Medicaments as the possible cause of urticaria in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Jagoda

    2002-09-01

    Medicaments are reported as the most common cause of urticaria. The objective of this study was to determine, by retrospective analysis of 132 pediatric patients treated at the Pulmonology and Allergology ward of the Department of Pediatrics, Banja Luka, over a 5-year period, the scope to which medicaments act as the possible cause of urticaria. Results of the study showed that the disease manifested mostly in male children (59.8), mainly of pre-school and school age rather than <1 year age group. Acute urticaria predominated, and it was recorded in 91.7% of cases. A medicament as the possible etiologic factor of acute urticaria was found in 29.8% of cases. Regarding chronic urticaria, in most cases the cause of disease remained unknown (63.6%), whereas a medicament and infection as the possible causal factors were found in 9.1% of cases. Before the occurrence of urticaria, 37 (28%) children took some medicament. Usually, these were antibiotics (45.9%), antipyretics (35.1%), or a combination of antibiotics and antipyretics (16.2%). Penicillin V, G or ampicillin were the most frequently used antibiotics (88.2%), whereas acetylsalicylic acid was the most frequently used antipyretic (53.8%). In 28% of the children suffering from acute urticaria, apart from taking some medicament, clinically manifested infection was also recorded, mostly of the respiratory system, so it could not be stated for sure whether the medicament or infection was the etiologic factor for the occurrence of disease. In only two cases it could be stated for sure that a medicament was the cause of urticaria, one acute and chronic urticaria each

  4. Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities of Chantaleela recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Khonsung, Parirat; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Nanna, Urarat; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Chantaleela recipe is indicated for relieving fever in Thai traditional folk medicine. In the present study, Chantaleela recipe was investigated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-ulcerogenic activities. In preliminary investigation Chantaleela recipe was found to exert an inhibitory activity on the acute phase of inflammation as seen in ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema as well as in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. The results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of Chantaleela recipe may be due to an inhibition via cyclooxygenase pathway. In the analgesic test, Chantaleela recipe showed a significant analgesic activity in both the early and late phases of formalin test, but exerted the most pronounced effect in the late phase. The analgesic activity of Chantaleela recipe may act via mechanism at peripheral and partly central nervous system. In antipyretic test, Chantaleela recipe significantly decreased rectal temperature of brewer's yeast-induced hyperthermia rats, probably by inhibiting synthesis and/or release of prostaglandin E₂ in the hypothalamus. Therefore, the key mechanism of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activity of the Chantaleela recipe likely involves the inhibition of the synthesis and/or release of inflammatory or pain mediators, especially prostaglandins. The oral administration of the Chantaleela recipe reduced ulcer formation in acute gastric ulcer models (EtOH/HCl-, indomethacin-, and stress-induced gastric lesions). In contrast, this recipe did not reduce the secretory rate, total acidity, and increase pH in rat stomach. These results indicated that Chantaleela seem to possess anti-ulcerogenic effect. This activity may be due to the increase of gastric mucosal resistance or potentiation of defensive factors and/or the decrease of aggressive factors but did not associate the anti-secretory activity. Moreover, the high oral doses treated did not cause acute toxicity in rats and the

  5. Toyne combined cooling paste for clinical observation of children with high fever%托恩联合降温贴用于小儿高热降温的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗儒英; 王丽红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the curative effect of combined with cooling paste used for tone of children with high fever. Methods in our hospital in 2010 January ~2012 year in December 160 cases, divided into tone and cooling with the combined treatment group 80 cases and single antipyretic therapy tone control group of 80 cases. And Its Antipyretic efficacy and adverse reactions were observed. Results the total efficiency of antipyretic difference between the two groups no significant (P > 0.05), but in 40min to 2h, A group antifebrile speed and better than group B. Results the tone combined with cooling paste for better curative effect of children with high fever.%目的:研究托恩与降温贴联合用于小儿高热的疗效。方法选取我院2010年1月~2012年12月160例患儿,分成托恩与降温贴联合用药组80例及单用托恩的退热治疗对照组80例。并观察其退热疗效及不良反应。结果退热总有效率两组差异无显著性(P>0.05),但是在用药后40min至2h内,A组退热速度和效果明显优于B组。结果托恩与降温贴联合用于小儿高热的疗效较好。

  6. Adamantyl analogues of paracetamol as potent analgesic drugs via inhibition of TRPA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Fresno

    Full Text Available Paracetamol also known as acetaminophen, is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic agent. We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of adamantyl analogues of paracetamol with important analgesic properties. The mechanism of nociception of compound 6a/b, an analog of paracetamol, is not exerted through direct interaction with cannabinoid receptors, nor by inhibiting COX. It behaves as an interesting selective TRPA1 channel antagonist, which may be responsible for its analgesic properties, whereas it has no effect on the TRPM8 nor TRPV1 channels. The possibility of replacing a phenyl ring by an adamantyl ring opens new avenues in other fields of medicinal chemistry.

  7. Administration of over-the-counter medication to children at home--a survey of parents from community health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Colleen; Rolfe, Paula; Brennan-Hunter, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Parents (n = 135) were surveyed in relation to administering antipyretic/analgesic medications to their children (2 months-6 years) at home. Parents usually chose acetaminophen, calculated dosages based on weight but did not always know the child's weight, administered medications with a dropper, and reported having a sick child was moderately stressful. Many children were medicated for pain and/or fever during the week prior to immunization and many weighed more than the age/weight recommended dosages on the label. Community health nurses can facilitate safe administration of medications by integrating knowledge of parents' pain and fever management practices into discussions and anticipatory planning during clinic visits.

  8. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 12, Number 3, April 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Other complications of procedures, nec 159 15.5 Asthma 45 12.2 By analgesics, antipyretics, antirheumatics 73 7.1 Chronic disease of tonsils and...adenoids 31 8.4 Fracture of ankle 63 6.1 Peritonsillar abscess 29 7.8 Complications of specific procedures 63 6.1 Acute tonsillitis 22 5.9...breast disorders 15,434 (57) 8,736 (58) 436 (69) Kidney stones 15,173 (58) 6,228 (64) 1,409 (41) Nephritis, nephrosis 4,007 (81) 1,306 (86) 745 (56

  9. Introducing a rare form of PFAPA from the Marshal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFever is considered a common symptom in children. Periodic fever with less luadeuce produces additional complications. In this study, we present a rare periodic fever syndrome which contains; aphthus stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA in a 3 year old child with typical symptoms. His fever was present for 2-4 days (100%, in addition, cervical adenitis & pharyngitis associated arthritis (only one tries was observed. The sedimentation rate was increased. Its treatment consisted of antipyretic and corticosteroids. This lead to a good prognosis and with the passage of time had a complete resolution.

  10. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Kadam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy, Cytomorphology, Physical constants and Photochemical study of fruit. All parameters were studied according to the WHO and Pharmacopoeial guidelines to standardize the Piper nigrum.

  11. Ibuprofen: Synthesis, production and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in 1969, ibuprofen has become one of the most common painkillers in the world. Ibuprofen in an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and like other drugs of its class it possesses analgetic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. While ibuprofen is a relatively simple molecule, there is still sufficient structural complexity to ensure that a large number of different synthetic approaches are possible. Since the introduction of pharmaceutical products containing ibuprofen, industrial and academic scientists have developed many potential production processes. This paper describes the history, synthesis and production, as well as the properties and stability of ibuprofen.

  12. ANTIOXIDANT, IMMUNOMODULATORY AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis (Amla is traditionally used for several diseases, and it is believed to increase the defense against diseases. It is particularly used for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, liver disorders, heart disease, ulcer, snake venom, haemorrhage, diarrhea, dysentery, anaemia and ophthalmic disorders. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, cytoprotective, analgesic, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antitussive and gastroprotective are the important properties of amla. Vitamin C, tannins and flavaniods present in amla have very powerful antioxidant activities. Due to rich vitamin C, amla is successfully used in the treatment of human scurvy.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia causing diarrhea leading to mortality:an unusual disease course in a 10 month old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepa balachandran; WANG Suo-ying; SUN Bing-wei; LI Yu-qin; Krishna kumar.A

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ten months old female infant was admitted with three days history of fever and loose stools. The patient was initially treated with suspicion of viral infection. Interferon 10 μg was given IM and antipyretics were prescribed before the patient was brought to our hospital. Previous investigation showed neutropenia[WBC 7.88×109 /L, Neutrophils 0.39×109 /L, Lymphocytes 6.26×109 /L, PLT 264×109 /L, Hemoglobin level 108.10 g/L].

  14. Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol with Microwave Assisted Alkaline Hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunli Xu; Wei Liu; Baoxin Li

    2003-01-01

    @@ Paracetamol (N-acetyl-4-amino-phenol) is a popular analgesic and antipyretic medication that is readily absorbed after administration and has few side effects and little toxicity when used in recommended dose. After ingestion of an overdose quantity of paracetamol, the accumulation of toxic metabolites may cause severe and sometimes fatal hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. So, the accurate determination of paracetamol in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids has appeared especially attractive. For its measurement, many me thods have been developed, such as fluorometry, electrochemical method, nuclear magnetic resonance-mass spectrometry,chromatography method, and capillary electrophoresis

  15. The effect of magnetic field on the shape of etch pits of paracetamol crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchenko, V.E. [Kemerovo State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Research and Educational Center, Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Boldyrev, V.V.; Shakhtshneider, T.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zakharov, Yu.A.; Krasheninin, V.I. [Kemerovo State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ermakov, A.E. [Institute of Physics of Metals, Ural Branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2002-04-01

    In the present study we investigate the effect of magnetic field on the shape of etch pits of the crystals of p-hydroxyacetanilide (paracetamol), which is widely used in pharmacy as antipyretic, antiphlogistic medicine. It was discovered that the magnetic field (H=0.5 T, {tau}=15 min) changes the morphology of etch pits and shifts dislocations in paracetamol crystal. Activation energy of the changes induced by the action of the magnetic field was determined to be 63 kJ/mol, which is comparable with the energy of hydrogen bonds in crystal lattice. (orig.)

  16. Fever's glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, P A; Boulant, J A

    1996-03-01

    The importance of an upper limit of the febrile response has been recognized since the time of Hippocrates. Although the precise temperature defining this limit varies according to the site at which body temperature is measured, human core temperature is almost never permitted to rise above 41 degrees C-42 degrees C during fever. There are compelling physiological reasons for such an upper limit of regulated body temperature. The mechanisms by which the limit is maintained are most likely complex and involve special properties of thermoregulatory neurons themselves, circulating endogenous antipyretics (such as arginine vasopressin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone), and soluble receptors for the (pyrogenic) cytokine mediators of the febrile response.

  17. MULTI FACETED SAXIFRAGA LIGULATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kantivan Goswami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Saxifraga ligulata belongs to family saxifragaceae, is an accepted source of ayurvedic medicine Pashanabheda. This plant has been already recognized for its role in dissolving kidney stone. This review supports all updated information on its chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, traditional uses and scientific approach. The chemical entities of this plant have been used as an Antibacterial, Antiviral, Antipyretic, Antidiabetic, Anti inflammatory, Diuretic, Antiurolithiatic, Antioxidant, Antitussive and Hepatoprotective. This review is studied for the further development of various formulations for their traditional use and Pharmacological activities.

  18. Drug: D00827 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available N) C14H10MgO6. 4H2O 370.075 370.5917 D00827.gif Analgesic; Antipyretic; Antirheumatic cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-...1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] hsa00590(5742...P) Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) [HSA:5...742] [KO:K00509] Magnesium salicylate D00827 Magnesium salicylate (USP) cyclooxygenase

  19. Drug: D08059 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a 228.1126 228.2626 D08059.gif Antiinflammatory; Analgesic; Antipyretic ATC code: M01AE01 M02AA13 cyclooxygenase...-1 (COX-1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] h...rofen sodium Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxygenase-1 (COX...-1) [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509] Ibuprofen [ATC:C01EB16 G02CC01 M01AE01 M02AA13] D08059 Ibuprofen sodium cyclooxygenase

  20. Drug: D07516 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 516.gif Antiinfalmmatory; Analgesic; Antipyretic ATC code: A01AD02 G02CC03 M01AX07 M02AA05 cyclooxygenase-1 ...(COX-1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] hsa00590... Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509] Benzydam...ine [ATC:A01AD02 G02CC03 M01AX07 M02AA05] D07516 Benzydamine (INN) cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) [HSA:5743] [KO:K

  1. Drug: D07579 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .gif Analgesic; Antiinflammatory; Antipyretic ATC code: A01AD05 N02BA01 cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor [...d classification of drugs [BR:br08310] Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) [HSA:5742] [KO:K0050...9] Acetylsalicylic acid [ATC:A01AD05 B01AC06 N02BA01] D07579 Aspirin calcium salt cyclooxygenase...HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] hsa00590(5742+5743) Arachid

  2. Drug: D08058 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18 D08058.gif Antiinflamatory; Analgesic; Antipyretic ATC code: M01AE01 The target of Ibprofen is cyclooxygenase. cyclooxygenase...-1 (COX-1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [HSA:574... Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509] Ibuprofen [ATC:C01EB16 G02CC01 M01A...E01 M02AA13] D08058 Ibuprofen arginine salt cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] Ibuprofen [ATC:C

  3. Drug: D07581 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 581.gif Analgesic; Anticoagulant, platelet aggregation inhibitor; Antiinflammatory; Antipyretic ATC code: N02BA01 cyclooxygenase...-1 (COX-1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [HSA:574...BA01] D07581 Aspirin magnesium salt cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] Acetylsalicylic acid [AT...spirin magnesium salt Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxyge...nase-1 (COX-1) [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509] Acetylsalicylic acid [ATC:A01AD05 B01AC06 N02

  4. Therapeutic misadventure with paracetamol in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivbalan So

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol (acetaminophen, though considered a safe, "over the counter" analgesic and antipyretic, can cause liver injury with overdose. Therapeutic misadventure is a unique problem where the existing nomogram used for acute poisoning is not applicable. In this context, early initiation of N-acetylcysteine even before a biochemical evidence of liver injury may be beneficial. A series of 6 children with this type of paracetamol overdose are presented here to increase the awareness and understanding of this problem since no such data is available from India.

  5. NQO2 is a reactive oxygen species generating off-target for acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Teemu P; Björklund, Mikael

    2014-12-01

    The analgesic and antipyretic compound acetaminophen (paracetamol) is one of the most used drugs worldwide. Acetaminophen overdose is also the most common cause for acute liver toxicity. Here we show that acetaminophen and many structurally related compounds bind quinone reductase 2 (NQO2) in vitro and in live cells, establishing NQO2 as a novel off-target. NQO2 modulates the levels of acetaminophen derived reactive oxygen species, more specifically superoxide anions, in cultured cells. In humans, NQO2 is highly expressed in liver and kidney, the main sites of acetaminophen toxicity. We suggest that NQO2 mediated superoxide production may function as a novel mechanism augmenting acetaminophen toxicity.

  6. Mesenteric Panniculitis Demonstrated on 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Domenico; Bosio, Giovanni; Bertagna, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis is an underdiagnosed inflammatory condition of unknown etiology that involves the mesenteric adipose tissue. Clinical symptoms are not specific (fever, abdominal pain, or nausea), so diagnosis is not simple. We report a case of 48-year-old man with abdominal pain and fever not responsive to antipyretics and antibiotics for 2 months, who underwent an F-FDG PET/CT after a nondiagnostic CT scan. PET/CT has proven to be a useful method for the diagnosis of mesenteric panniculitis in this patient, showing a uniformly high uptake of FDG in the mesenteric adipose tissue of the mesocolon, mesoappendix, mesosigmoid, and mesorectum.

  7. POTENSI LICHEN SEBAGAI SUMBER BAHAN OBAT: SUATU KAJIAN PUSTAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIS SEPTIANA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen is a plant with many benefits. Its abundant existence in an area may indicate that air pollution levels are still low. Besides as indicator of air quality, lichen is also used as traditional medicine. Until present time, application of lichens for arthritis, constipation, chemotherapy, external wound, microbial infection, worm and infestation are still done in some countries. It is due to active chemical compounds contain in lichen that has activities as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoa, analgesic and antipyretic, and anthelmintic. With its potential and efforts to provide sustainable materials, lichen has good prospect to be developed become modern medicine.

  8. Yamogenin 3-O--D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 4)-O--D-xylopyranoside from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Saxena; Albert Shalem

    2004-03-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum (NO - Leguminosae) is cultivated in many parts of India. It has been found to possess significant medicinal value. Its leaves are used both internally and externally to reduce swelling, prevent falling of hair and in treating burns. Its seeds are carminative, antipyretic, anthelmintic and diuretic, and are also useful in treatment of dropsy, chronic cough, heart diseases, bronchitis, piles and small pox. This plant also possesses antidiabetic property. The present communication deals with the isolation and identification of steroidal saponin SA-III, characterised as yamogenin 3-O--D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 4)-O--D-xylopyranoside, which was isolated from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum.

  9. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts with Allium Test

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanes...

  10. Drug: D00566 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509] Salicylic acid [ATC:D01AE12 N02BA04 S01BC08] D00566 Sodium s...alicylate (JP16/USP) cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] Salicylic acid [ATC:D01AE12 N02BA04 S01...icylic acid and derivatives N02BA04 Sodium salicylate D00566 Sodium salicylate (JP1...erapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02B OTHER ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BA Sal

  11. Chromatography as Method for Analytical Confirmation of Paracetamol in Postmortem Material Together with Psychoactive Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Biscevic-Tokic, Jasmina; Tokic, Nedim; Ibrahimpasic, Elma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in addition to aspirin is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic medication by millions of patients worldwide. It is an example that paracetamol as medicine that in the world is provided without a doctor’s prescription, can lead to death. Today paracetamol became an integral part of a heroin mixture and is very popular at the street market. The main reason for this is that it can be obtained without a prescription, it is cheap, and by most p...

  12. Overdose effect of aconite containing Ayurvedic Medicine ('Mahashankha Vati').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Debnath, Saroj Kumar

    2010-07-01

    There are chances that the use of larger than recommended dose of Ayurvedic medicines containing aconite can produce drug reactions. Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox Wall.) is a very well-known ingredient of Ayurvedic formulations and is prescribed as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic, appetizer and digestive. The recommended dose of purified Vatsanabha (A. ferox Wall.) root is 15 mg. We present a case of hypotension and bradycardia due to aconite poisoning caused by overdosing of an Ayurvedic medicine (Mahashankha Vati), which was primarily managed by Ayurvedic treatment.

  13. TREATMENT OF 30 CASES OF INFANTILE HIGH FEVER WITH ERJIAN-POINT BLOOD-LETTING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赛玲; 朱军

    2001-01-01

    High fever is referred to that the body temperature exceeds 39℃. Due to aplasia of the cerebral nerve system during infantile stage, continuous high fever may induce temporary functional disturbance of the brain, manifesting as sudden and transient loss of consciousness and local or general muscular spasm that is termed as infantile convulsion. The authors find in clinical practice that sometimes, administration of antipyretics as compound aspirin (APC), compound aminopyrine, etc. has no effect on infantile high fever, if treated with Erjian (MA-H 6) bleeding method, the body temperature may be decreased by 0.5~1.0℃. Here is the report.

  14. New Flavonoid Glycoside and Pharmacological Activities of Pteranthus dichotomus Forssk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad, M. Atta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Luteolin 6-rhamnosyl (1``` 4`` rhamnoside was isolated from Pteranthus dichotomus for the first time as a natural product along with eight compounds; kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin-7-glucoside, isoorientin, orientin-7-methoxide, luteolin, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside-7-glucouronic acid and myricetin-3-glucoside. The plant contained phenol, protocatechuic, p-hydroxy benzoic, gallic, p-coumaric and o-coumaric acids; they were identified by HPLC, the flavonoid compounds were purified by chromatographic methods, identified by chemical and physical methods including UV, 1H, 13C and 2D- NMR. The tested extract was highly safe as LD 50 (4 g/kg b.wt., it has anti-inflammatory, moderate analgesic effect and caused increase in urine volume, it also had no effect on liver functions of animals. Kidney functions were impaired after large dose (100 mg/kg -1. It has Anti-tumor activity against Ehrlish Ascites Carcinoma. The new isolated compound showed antipyretic effect and increased the urine volume while the tested extract had moderate antipyretic activity in rats.

  15. Total nutritional capacity and inflammation inhibition effect of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex wild—An unexplored wild leafy vegetable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Ponnusamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the nutritional as well as trace elements of a wild leafy vegetable, Acalypha alnifolia, and evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of acetone and methanol leaf extracts are the main objectives of the present study. The powdered A. alnifolia leaf sample was subjected to nutritional and mineral analysis. Plant leaves were extracted (using the Soxhlet apparatus as successive solvent extractions. The extract doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of acetone and methanol extracts were used for pharmacology study. The analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic experiments were carried out by using animal models. The obtained result proves that the plant possesses essential nutritive values and useful biological properties. The higher dose of acetone extract has significant potency when compared with methanol extract at p < 0.005. On the whole, the plant is rich in minerals and has good biological properties; hence, this plant is suggested for cultivation and regular use for nutritional supplement.

  16. Pharmacology and Toxicology of Extract from Arcangelisia gusanlung

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hai-zhen; DONG Zhi; ZHU Yi; CHEN Guo-biao

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the pharmacology and toxicology of the extracts from Arcangelisia gusanlung (EAG).Methods The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated using various inflammatory models including ear edema induced by xylene in mice,paw edema induced by carrageenan,and cotton pellet granuloma in rats.The analgesic effect was observed in hot-plate test and writhing test in mice and the antipyretic effect was observed in rat fever model induced by yeast.The antitussive action was tested in mice by sequential method and expectorant action was evaluated by tracheal excretion of phenol red.The antidiarrhea function was observed on normal intestinal propulsion of mouse model of diarrhea induced by decoction of Sennae Folium.The toxicity was measured by toxicological experiment.Results Each dose of EAG could significantly inhibit the paw edema,cotton pellet granuloma,and intestinal propulsion.EAG significantly reduced writhing times and amount of wet manure.Obvious antipyretic action to fevered rat was observed.EAG obviously increased the tracheal excretion of phenol red and prolonged the latency of cough.No toxic reaction was shown in the observed period,and the maximum tolerance dose of mice was equivalent to 1360 times of common-used dose in human.Conclusion The clinical dosage of EAG is safe,and its anti-inflammatory,analgesia,antipyresis,antitussive,expectorant,and antidiarrhea effects are significant.

  17. Emblica officinalis (Amla: A review of potential therapeutic applications

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    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, is perhaps the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Several parts of the plant are used to treat a variety of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. Many ailments are treated by the fruit which is used either alone or in combination with other plants. These include common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. E. officinalis possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemic, antihypercholesterolemic, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties as demonstrated in numerous preclinical studies. Furthermore, experimental studies have reported that E. officinalis and some of its phytochemicals also exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. E. officinalis is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities. These properties are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research establishing its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans.

  18. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Dsouza, Jason Jerome

    2011-05-01

    Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or amla, is arguably the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Various parts of the plant are used to treat a range of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. The fruit is used either alone or in combination with other plants to treat many ailments such as common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. Preclinical studies have shown that amla possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemia, antihypercholesterolemia, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties. In addition, experimental studies have shown that amla and some of its phytochemicals such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, pyrogallol, some norsesquiterpenoids, corilagin, geraniin, elaeocarpusin, and prodelphinidins B1 and B2 also possess antineoplastic effects. Amla is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities, properties that are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children: a cross sectional study

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    Demir Figen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80. The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3% in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3% stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.

  20. Role of a proprietary propolis-based product on the wait-and-see approach in acute otitis media and in preventing evolution to tracheitis, bronchitis, or rhinosinusitis from nonstreptococcal pharyngitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Colombo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Antipyretics and/or anti-inflammatory drugs along with a wait-and-see approach are the only treatments recommended in early acute otitis media (AOM) or viral pharyngitis. Propolis has been widely investigated for its antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties and could perhaps be administered as an add-on therapy during watchful waiting in AOM or for better control of symptoms in nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. However, propolis has well-known problems of poor solubility and low oral bioavailability. We therefore analyzed a proprietary propolis-based product (Propolisina®) developed to overcome these limitations, in a retrospective, open-label, controlled study of Streptococcus pyogenes-negative children with a diagnosis of AOM or pharyngitis. Our results show that the use of propolis supplement for 72 hours lessens the severity of AOM and viral pharyngitis, reduces the use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatory drugs, and decreases the rate of evolution to tracheitis, bronchitis, and rhinosinusitis. Our study shows that propolis could be used as a safe add-on therapy in case of AOM and/or viral pharyngitis. PMID:27956842

  1. Open study of the clinical effect of suprofen drops in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippl, G; Baerlocher, K; Michos, N

    1986-06-01

    Antipyretic effect, tolerability, and acceptance of alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienyl-carbonyl)phenylacetic acid (suprofen, Suprol) drops were tested within the scope of an open study including a total of 111 children with fever of various etiology; two investigational centers participated in this study. The initial mean rectal temperature averaged 39.3 degrees C. The dosage of suprofen drops depended upon the patient's body weight and age; the drug was administered up to q.i.d., for 4 days at the longest. Body temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were recorded prior to administration and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after first administration of the drug. The antipyretic effect of the treatment was appreciated good in 89% of the cases. Reduction in temperature was statistically significant at all rating times after first administration of the drops as compared with the initial values. Adverse drug experiences such as vomiting and loose stools were seen in only 5 cases. The tolerability was considered good in 96% and the acceptance in 94% of the cases.

  2. Role of a proprietary propolis-based product on the wait-and-see approach in acute otitis media and in preventing evolution to tracheitis, bronchitis, or rhinosinusitis from nonstreptococcal pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Colombo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Antipyretics and/or anti-inflammatory drugs along with a wait-and-see approach are the only treatments recommended in early acute otitis media (AOM) or viral pharyngitis. Propolis has been widely investigated for its antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties and could perhaps be administered as an add-on therapy during watchful waiting in AOM or for better control of symptoms in nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. However, propolis has well-known problems of poor solubility and low oral bioavailability. We therefore analyzed a proprietary propolis-based product (Propolisina(®)) developed to overcome these limitations, in a retrospective, open-label, controlled study of Streptococcus pyogenes-negative children with a diagnosis of AOM or pharyngitis. Our results show that the use of propolis supplement for 72 hours lessens the severity of AOM and viral pharyngitis, reduces the use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatory drugs, and decreases the rate of evolution to tracheitis, bronchitis, and rhinosinusitis. Our study shows that propolis could be used as a safe add-on therapy in case of AOM and/or viral pharyngitis.

  3. Role of a proprietary propolis-based product on the wait-and-see approach in acute otitis media and in preventing evolution to tracheitis, bronchitis, or rhinosinusitis from nonstreptococcal pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alberto Zanvit,2 Maria Colombo3 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, 2Biological Dentistry Department, Italian Stomatology Institute, 3ATS, District 5, Milan, Italy Abstract: Antipyretics and/or anti-inflammatory drugs along with a wait-and-see approach are the only treatments recommended in early acute otitis media (AOM or viral pharyngitis. Propolis has been widely investigated for its antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties and could perhaps be administered as an add-on therapy during watchful waiting in AOM or for better control of symptoms in nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. However, propolis has well-known problems of poor solubility and low oral bioavailability. We therefore analyzed a proprietary propolis-based product (Propolisina® developed to overcome these limitations, in a retrospective, open-label, controlled study of Streptococcus pyogenes-negative children with a diagnosis of AOM or pharyngitis. Our results show that the use of propolis supplement for 72 hours lessens the severity of AOM and viral pharyngitis, reduces the use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatory drugs, and decreases the rate of evolution to tracheitis, bronchitis, and rhinosinusitis. Our study shows that propolis could be used as a safe add-on therapy in case of AOM and/or viral pharyngitis. Keywords: pediatric infections, cogrinding, bioavailability, propolis

  4. Why Fever Phobia Is Still Common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Suzan; Usak, Esma; Koksal, Tulin; Canbal, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is a reliable sign of illness, but it also evokes fear and anxiety. It is not the fever itself but the fear of possible complications and accompanying symptoms that is important for pediatricians and parents. Objectives We aimed to investigate maternal understanding of fever, its potential consequences, and impacts on the treatment of children. Patients and Methods A questionnaire was use to explore the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of mothers of 861 children brought to four medical centers in different regions of Turkey in 2012, with fever being the chief complaint. All the children were aged 3 months - 15 years. Results Among the 861 mothers, 92.2% favored antipyretics for fever, either alone or in addition to external cooling measures. Most favored paracetamol or ibuprofen. In this study, the appropriate use of antipyretics was 75.2%, which was higher than that reported in the literature. In common with previous reports, seizures and brain damage were perceived as the most frightening and harmful effects of fever. All the mothers expressed concerns about fever, but they were most common among the highly educated or those with one child. Conclusions Fever phobia remains common, not only among low socioeconomic status mothers but also among those of high socioeconomic status. Healthcare providers should take fever phobia into account and provide correct information to caregivers about fever at all visits. PMID:27781110

  5. A Novel Selective Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis Inhibitor Relieves Pyrexia and Chronic Inflammation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Ryusuke; Kuwabara, Harumi; Sugimoto, Kotaro; Kubota, Kazufumi; Imamura, Yuichiro; Kiho, Toshihiro; Tengeiji, Atsushi; Kawakami, Katsuhiro; Shimada, Kohei

    2016-04-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a terminal prostaglandin in the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. Inhibition of PGE2 production may relieve inflammatory symptoms such as fever, arthritis, and inflammatory pain. We report here the profile of a novel selective PGE2 synthesis inhibitor, compound A [N-[(1S,3S)-3-carbamoylcyclohexyl]-1-(6-methyl-3-phenylquinolin-2-yl)piperidine-4-carboxamide], in animal models of pyrexia and inflammation. The compound selectively suppressed the synthesis of PGE2 in human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells and rat macrophages. In the lipopolysaccharide-induced pyrexia model, this compound selectively reduced PGE2 production in cerebrospinal fluid and showed an anti-pyretic effect. In the adjuvant-induced arthritis model, compound A therapeutically decreased foot swelling in the established arthritis. Our data demonstrates that selective suppression of PGE2 synthesis shows anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting that selective PGE2 synthesis inhibitors can be applied as an alternative treatment to nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or COX-2-selective inhibitors.

  6. POLA PERSEDIAAN DAN PENGGUNAAN OBAT BERDASAR RESEP DAN NON RESEP OLEH ANGGOTA RUMAH TANGGA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharni Raharni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug resources and health enforcement are essential to each effort to ensure the availability of high quality drugs in the market, as well as easy and equity acces to them. Along with health awareness, they foster community health Drug and health awareness problems are so complex, because related to some aspects, such as quality, policy, on price performance, safety, availability and value for money. From this point of view, it is interesting to conduct a research on the pattern of drug availability in households representing the community. The analysis aims to identify the pattern of drug availability in housholds, either prescribed or non prescribed. Results shows that the highest percentage (23% of prescribed drugs belong to analgesic, antipyretic, and antinflammatory therapy class, followed by anti infection and (respiratory medicine for 13% and 10%, respectively. For non prescribed drugs, the highest percentage is analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory (5%, followed by traditional herbs/medicines and respiratory medicines and digestive medicines, for 10%, 10%, and 8%,respectively. For joint diseases, accidents, and asthma, a majority of non prescribed drugs are used. While for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, most of drugs used are prescribed drugs. It concluded that drugs belong to analgesic, antipiretic,and antinflammatory therapy class are widely used for chronic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and other diseases, either prescribed or non prescribed. Key words: drugs, therapy class, prescribed - non prescribed drugs

  7. Intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Sean T; Scott, Lesley J

    2009-01-01

    Intravenous paracetamol (rINN)/intravenous acetaminophen (USAN) is an analgesic and antipyretic agent, recommended worldwide as a first-line agent for the treatment of pain and fever in adults and children. In double-blind clinical trials, single or multiple doses of intravenous paracetamol 1 g generally provided significantly better analgesic efficacy than placebo treatment (as determined by primary efficacy endpoints) in adult patients who had undergone dental, orthopaedic or gynaecological surgery. Furthermore, where evaluated, intravenous paracetamol 1 g generally showed similar analgesic efficacy to a bioequivalent dose of propacetamol, and a reduced need for opioid rescue medication. In paediatric surgical patients, recommended doses of intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg were not significantly different from propacetamol 30 mg/kg for the treatment of pain, and showed equivocal analgesic efficacy compared with intramuscular pethidine 1 mg/kg in several randomized, active comparator-controlled studies. In a randomized, noninferiority study in paediatric patients with an infection-induced fever, intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg treatment was shown to be no less effective than propacetamol 30 mg/kg in terms of antipyretic efficacy. Intravenous paracetamol was well tolerated in clinical trials, having a tolerability profile similar to placebo. Additionally, adverse reactions emerging from the use of the intravenous formulation of paracetamol are extremely rare (<1/10 000). [table: see text].

  8. Acute acetaminophen (paracetamol) ingestion improves time to exhaustion during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Alexis R; Taylor, Lee; Harding, Christopher; Wright, Benjamin; Foster, Josh; Castle, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic and has previously been shown to improve exercise performance through a reduction in perceived pain. This study sought to establish whether its antipyretic action may also improve exercise capacity in the heat by moderating the increase in core temperature. On separate days, 11 recreationally active participants completed two experimental time-to-exhaustion trials on a cycle ergometer in hot conditions (30°C, 50% relative humidity) after ingesting a placebo control or an oral dose of acetaminophen in a randomized, double-blind design. Following acetaminophen ingestion, participants cycled for a significantly longer period of time (acetaminophen, 23 ± 15 min versus placebo, 19 ± 13 min; P = 0.005; 95% confidence interval = 90-379 s), and this was accompanied by significantly lower core (-0.15°C), skin (-0.47°C) and body temperatures (0.19°C; P 0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate that an acute dose of acetaminophen can improve cycling capacity in hot conditions, and that this may be due to the observed reduction in core, skin and body temperature and the subjective perception of thermal comfort. These findings suggest that acetaminophen may reduce the thermoregulatory strain elicited from exercise, thus improving time to exhaustion.

  9. 中药复方灌注剂治疗奶牛乳房炎的药效与应用安全性研究%The Effecacy and Safety of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Compoud Filler for Dairy Cattle with Mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆娟; 冯士彬; 李志明; 王希春; 韩春杨; 邹松阳; 刘琦山; 吴金节

    2011-01-01

    治疗奶牛乳房炎的中药复方灌注剂由瓜子金、紫花地丁、鸡血藤和黄芪等11味中药组方制成.以兔子、小白鼠和豚鼠为试验动物,从镇痛、抗炎、解热、异常毒性、热源检查、溶血与凝集和过敏反应等方面进行了药效与应用安全性研究.试验显示,该中药复方灌注剂对小白鼠镇痛和抗炎效果以及对伤寒-副伤寒二联菌苗致家兔发热反应的解热效果极显著(P<0.01).通过安全性试验,未发现该中药复方灌注剂引起异常毒性、热敏、溶血与凝集反应和过敏反应.结果表明,该中药复方灌注剂镇痛、消炎和解热效果显著,安全性较高,可用于临床试验.%The compound filler was composed of 11 kinds of the traditional Chinese herbs such as Polygala japonica, Viola yedoensis Makino, Spatholobus suberectrus and Astragalus membranaceus, etc. Rabbits, small mice and guinea pigs were selected to investigate the effecacy and safety of the compound filler through analgesic test, antiinflammation test, antipyretic test,abnormal toxicity and pyrogen test, hemolysis and agglutination reaction, and allergic reaction, etc. The results showed that the analgesic and antiinflammation effect of the compound filler in small mice and the antipyretic effect on the fever of rabbits induced by typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine were extremely significant(P<O.O1). The security test revealed that the compound filler did not cause abnormal toxicity, temperature sensitivity, hemolysis and agglutination, and allergic reactions. The results indicated that the compound filler was very effective for analgesic, antiinflammation and antipyretic, and it was safe in clinical application.

  10. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Offringa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects of continuous antiepileptic drugs. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antiepileptic and antipyretic drugs used prophylactically to treat children with febrile seizures. METHODS Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011. Issue 3; MEDLINE (1966 to May 2011; EMBASE (1966 to May 2011; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE (May 2011. No language restrictions were imposed. We also contacted researchers in the field to identify continuing or unpublished studies. Selection criteria: Trials using randomized or quasi-randomized patient allocation that compared the use of antiepileptic or antipyretic agents with each other, placebo or no treatment. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors (RN and MO independently applied pre-defined criteria to select trials for inclusion and extracted the pre-defined relevant data, recording methods for randomization, blinding and exclusions. Outcomes assessed were seizure recurrence at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 months and at age 5 to 6 years in the intervention and non-intervention groups, and adverse medication effects. The presence of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. MAIN RESULTS Thirty-six articles describing 26 randomized trials with 2740 randomized participants were included. Thirteen interventions of continuous or intermittent prophylaxis and their control treatments were analyzed. Methodological quality was moderate to poor in most studies. We could not do a meta-analysis for 8 of the 13 comparisons due to insufficient numbers of trials. No significant benefit for valproate, pyridoxine

  11. Use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the prevention of streptococcal and viral pharyngotonsillitis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Colombo, Maria; Zanvit, Alberto; Risso, Paolo; Rottoli, Amilcare S

    2014-01-01

    Background Streptococcus salivarius K12 is an oral probiotic strain releasing two lantibiotics (salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B) that antagonize the growth of S. pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans also affected by episodes of acute otitis media. S. salivarius K12 successfully colonizes the oral cavity, and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. We tested its preventive role in reducing the incidence of both streptococcal and viral pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis in children. Materials and methods We enrolled 61 children with a diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal disorders. Thirty-one of them were enrolled to be treated daily for 90 days with a slow-release tablet for oral use, containing no less than 1 billion colony-forming units/tablet of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®), and the remaining 30 served as the untreated control group. During treatment, they were all examined for streptococcal infection. Twenty children (ten per group) were also assessed in terms of viral infection. Secondary end points in both groups were the number of days under antibiotic and antipyretic therapy and the number of days off school (children) and off work (parents). Results The 30 children who completed the 90-day trial with Bactoblis® showed a significant reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (>90%), as calculated by comparing the infection rates of the previous year. No difference was observed in the control group. The treated group showed a significant decrease in the incidence (80%) of oral viral infections. Again, there was no difference in the control group. With regard to secondary end points, the number of days under antibiotic treatment of the treated and control groups were 30 and 900 respectively, days under antipyretic treatment 16 and 228, days of absence from school 16 and 228, and days of absence from work 16 and 228. The product was well tolerated by the subjects, with no side effects

  12. Is fever a predictive factor in the autism spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megremi, Amalia S F

    2013-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display such a marked increase in recent decades that researchers speak of "epidemic outbreak" of the disease. Although the diagnostic framework has been expanded and thus more disorders now fall within the autistic spectrum, no one disputes the increased incidence of autism in modern societies, making it a major public health problem. On the other hand, heterogeneity is a major feature of the disorder, both in terms of the etiopathogenesis as well as to the phenotypic expression, natural history and evolution. Consequently, there is considerable research interest in determining factors which are etiopathogenetically, prognostically, preventively or/and therapeutically associated with the disorder. Literature data indicate that probably there are differences in susceptibility to various infections between normal and autistic children. In addition, some autistic children show improvement in the characteristics of their autistic behavior during febrile incident and repression of fever (through antipyretics) might be associated with the onset of autistic disorder. Since fever has been associated with mental illness since the time of Hippocrates already and the presence of fever is associated with a favorable outcome in various pathologic conditions, it is assumed that there are probably two subgroups of autistic children: those who have the possibility to develop acute febrile incidents and those who develop acute incidents without fever. If this is the case, it is important to know whether there are differences between the two subgroups in various biological markers (cytokines/chemokines, autoantibodies), neuroimaging findings, personal and family history of these children (use of drugs, vaccinations, history of autoimmunity, etc.) and, if the first subgroup consists of autistic people of higher functionality and better outcome, or not. If such a classification is real, is there a possibility for the fever to be used as a predictor of

  13. Management of upper respiratory tract infections by different medical practices, including homeopathy, and consumption of antibiotics in primary care: the EPI3 cohort study in France 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiae Grimaldi-Bensouda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prescribing of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI varies substantially in primary care. OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare antibiotic and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs use, URTI symptoms' resolution and occurrence of potentially-associated infections in patients seeking care from general practitioners (GPs who exclusively prescribe conventional medications (GP-CM, regularly prescribe homeopathy within a mixed practice (GP-Mx, or are certified homeopathic GPs (GP-Ho. METHOD: The EPI3 survey was a nationwide population-based study of a representative sample of 825 GPs and their patients in France (2007-2008. GP recruitment was stratified by self-declared homeopathic prescribing preferences. Adults and children with confirmed URTI were asked to participate in a standardized telephone interview at inclusion, one-, three- and twelve-month follow up. Study outcomes included medication consumption, URTI symptoms' resolution and potentially-associated infections (sinusitis or otitis media/externa as reported by patients. Analyses included calibration to account for non-respondents and groups were compared using multivate analyses adjusting for baseline differences with a propensity score. RESULTS: 518 adults and children with URTI (79.3% rhinopharyngitis were included (36.9% response rate comparable between groups. As opposed to GP-CM patients, patients in the GP-Ho group showed significantly lower consumption of antibiotics (Odds ratio (OR = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.27-0.68 and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.38-0.76 with similar evolution in related symptoms (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.64-2.10. An excess of potentially-associated infections (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 0.90-3.20 was observed in the GP-Ho group (not statistically significant. No difference was found between GP-CM and GP-Mx patients. CONCLUSION: Patients who chose to consult GPs certified in homeopathy used

  14. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP Induced by Cetirizine in a Child A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunseli Pancar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP, is a rare cutaneous rash characterized by widespread sterile non-follicular pustules. AGEP is a rare disease in childhood and it is often due to drugs. Antibiotics, sulphanamides and antipyretic-analgesics are the main reasons of this drug reaction . Cetirizine is a second generation antihistamine is often used in the treatment of angioedema, atopic dermatitis and urticaria in children. Cetirizine induced AGEP was not reported in the literature. In this case a twelve year old child was admitted with urticarial plaques located on her trunk. She developed maculopapular lesions and pustular eruption with Cetirizine (once a day treatment. Cetirizine was stopped and the nonfollicular pustules cleared with a desquamation. The result of the oral challenge test was positive. We present this rare case to show that the antihistamines (cetirizine may cause AGEP in childhood.

  15. Aspectos químicos, biológicos e etnofarmacológicos do gênero Cassia

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    Cláudio Viegas Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of Cassia are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world, and have been extensively investigated chemically and pharmacologically.They are known to be a rich source of phenolic derivatives, most of them with important biological and pharmacological properties. Some Asian, African and Indian tribes use these species as a laxative, purgative, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antiviral and anti-inflammatory agent. Among a number of other classes of secondary metabolites, such as anthracene derivatives, antraquinones, steroids and stilbenoids, biologically active piperidine alkaloids are an especially important bioactive class of compounds that showed to be restricted to a small group of Cassia species. In this paper we present an overview of the chemical, biological and ethnopharmacological data on Cassia piblished in the literature.

  16. A review of traditional use, phytoconstituents and biological activities of Himalayan yew, Taxus wallichiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hitender Sharma; Munish Garg

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize certain phytoconstituents for their protection, which, because they are not of primary need, are known as secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites of plants, have often been found to have medicinal uses for human beings. One such gymnosperm having secondary metabolites of medicinal potential for humans is Taxus wal ichiana (Himalayan yew). Besides being the source of taxol, this plant has been investigated for its essential oil, diterpenoids, lignans, steroids, sterols and bifavonoids. Traditional y, it is used to treat disorders of the digestive, respiratory, nervous and skeletal systems. Although pharmacological y underexplored, it has been used for antiepileptic, anti-infammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, analgesic, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. The present review compiles traditional uses, phytochemical constituents (speciifcal y the secondary metabolites) pharmacological activities and the toxicity of T. wal ichiana.

  17. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

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    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  18. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview

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    Nitin Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichosanthes , a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc.

  19. Safety of Ketoprofen in Cow calves following repeated intravenous administration

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    R. D. Singh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ketoprofen is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID used for its anti-inflammatory,analgesic and antipyretic properties in Veterinary Medicine. The present study was planned to assess safety of ketoprofen (3 mg.kg-1 after repeated intravenous administration at 24 hours interval for five days in six crossbred cow calves (6-12 months age and weighing between 60-122 kg. Ketoprofen in calves was found safe based on evaluation of haematological (Hb, PCV, TLC and DLC, blood biochemical (AKP, ACP, AST, ALT, LDH, Total bilirubin, Serum Creatinine, BUN, Serum total protein, Serum albumin and Blood glucose parameters. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 105-107

  20. Malignant Neuroleptic Syndrome following Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery of Globus Pallidus Pars Internus in Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Meen Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a rare but potentially lethal outcome caused by sudden discontinuation or dose reduction of dopaminergic agents. We report an extremely rare case of NMS after deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery in a cerebral palsy (CP patient without the withdrawal of dopaminergic agents. A 19-year-old girl with CP was admitted for DBS due to medically refractory dystonia and rigidity. Dopaminergic agents were not stopped preoperatively. DBS was performed uneventfully under monitored anesthesia. Dopaminergic medication was continued during the postoperative period. She manifested spasticity and muscle rigidity, and was high fever resistant to anti-pyretic drugs at 2 h postoperative. At postoperative 20 h, she suffered cardiac arrest and expired, despite vigorous cardiopulmonary resuscitation. NMS should be considered for hyperthermia and severe spasticity in CP patients after DBS surgery, irrespective of continued dopaminergic medication.

  1. Sleep Disruption and Proprioceptive Delirium due to Acetaminophen in a Pediatric Patient

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    Carla Carnovale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 7-year-old boy, who received acetaminophen for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, due to an infection of the superior airways. 13 mg/kg (260 mg of acetaminophen was administered orally before bedtime, and together with the expected antipyretic effect, the boy experienced sleep disruption and proprioceptive delirium. The symptoms disappeared within one hour. In the following six months, acetaminophen was administered again twice, and the reaction reappeared with similar features. Potential alternative explanations were excluded, and analysis with the Naranjo algorithm indicated a “probable” relationship between acetaminophen and this adverse reaction. We discuss the potential mechanisms involved, comprising imbalances in prostaglandin levels, alterations of dopamine, and cannabinoid and serotonin signalings.

  2. Novel application of hydrotropic solubilizing additives in the estimation of aspirin in tablets

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    Maheshwari R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated aqueous solutions of various hydrotropic agents like sodium benzoate, sodium salicylate, sodium acetate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide and sodium ascorbate have been observed to enhance aqueous solubilities of a large number of poorly water-soluble drugs. In the present investigation hydrotropic solubilization technique has been employed to solubilize poorly water-soluble aspirin (analgesic and antipyretic drug by 0.5 M ibuprofen sodium solution to carry out titrimetric analysis of aspirin in tablet dosage form. Results of analysis by proposed method and Phamacopoeial method are very comparable. Proposed method is new, rapid, simple, accurate, and reproducible. Statistical data proved the accuracy, reproducibility and the precision of proposed method.

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STATUS OF DATURA FASTUOSA LINN

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    Dhiman Anju

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants constitute an effective source of traditional and modern medicines. Traditional system of medicine enlightened the importance of Datura fastuosa Linn (Solanaceae to have a great medicinal value. The roots, dried leaves and flowering tops have been used in India for their narcotic and antispasmodic properties in the treatment of numerous ailments and conditions. The juice of fresh leaves, or a poultice of them, is used to relieve painful swellings earache. The seeds and root possess antidiarrhoeal, antipyretic properties and are used to treat insanity and fever. The present paper enlightens the chemical profile and pharmacological potential of D. fastuosa and encourages the traditional use to find new therapeutic effects, but under the guidance of a qualified practitioner.

  4. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF OXAZINE AND ITS DERIVATIVES: A REVIEW

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    SINDHU T J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxazine derivatives are an important class of heterocycles, which has attracted much synthetic interest due to their wide range of biological activities. Oxazine is a heterocyclic compound can be formally derived from benzene, and its reduction products, by suitable substitution of carbon (and hydrogen atoms by nitrogen and oxygen. In the last few years oxazine derivatives have proved to be valuable synthetic intermediates and also possess important biological activities like sedative, analgesic, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antitumour, antimalarial and antimicrobial. In these days, development of drug resistance is a major problem and to overcome this situation, it is necessary to synthesize new classes of compounds. The aim of the article is to review the generalization of the collected data about the synthesis of oxazine derivatives and their activities. We hope that this work will be a definite interest for researchers concerned with azines in generally and oxazines in particular.

  5. Lemon grass oil for improvement of oral health

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    Ruckmani Rajesvari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon grass essential oil has been used for decades to treat respiratory infections, sinusitis, bladder infections, high cholesterol, digestive problem, varicose veins and also for regeneration of connective tissue. It has anti spasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, insect repellent, sedative, vasodilator and flavoring properties. In china, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver diseases and also to treat rheumatism. Since lemon grass oil possess various pharmacological actions, it is also quite useful in dentistry. Hence, the objective of this article is to highlight various uses of lemon grass oil in the dental field and in the medical field in order to aid the professionals for future research.

  6. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  7. 药疹伴药物性肝损害72例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 72 cases of drug eruptions complicated with drug-induced liver dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蔚凌; 赵巍; 毕志刚

    2001-01-01

    对72例药疹伴药物性肝损害患者进行了回顾性分析,发现致敏药物以解热镇痛药(19/72)和镇静抗癫痫药(17/72)最多,且不同种类致敏药物引起的药疹病例中肝损害的发生率有所不同,值得临床予以重视。%Seventy-two cases of drug eruptions complicated with drug-inducedliver dysfunction were retrospectively analyzed. The result showed that the drugs most commonly involved were antipyretic-analgesics(19/72) and sedative-anticonvulsants(17/72), and the incidence of liver dysfunction in the drug eruptions caused by different kinds of drugs was different, it is noteworthy in clinical practice.

  8. Variation in Morphological Characteristics and Andrographolide Content in Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees of Central India

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    A.K. Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (king of bitters, commonly known as Kalmegh is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines for a number of ailments related to digestion, hepatoprotection, hypoglycemic, and as anti-bacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, vermicidal and antipyretic. A. paniculata collected from five locations of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh were studies for their morphological characteristics and diterpene contents to find out superior genotype. The average amount of dry weight per individual was between 16.58 to 18.92 g. The average andrographolide content varied from 1.07 to 2.24 percent in dried leaves. The differences in growth characteristics among the plants collected from different locations were not significant. However, andrographolide content among the plants from different locations were statistically significant. The results indicated that those populations are potentially important sources for breeding, improvement of cultivars and best sources for obtaining higher drug yield.

  9. Effectively managing intractable central hyperthermia in a stroke patient by bromocriptine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Yu-Hui; Lin, Chien-Lin; Hong, Chang-Zern; Chou, Li-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Central hyperthermia is characterized by a rapid onset, high temperature, marked temperature fluctuation, and poor response to antipyretics and antibiotics. Although poststroke central hyperthermia is common, prolonged instances are rare. We report a case of prolonged central fever after an intracranial hemorrhage. Before the accurate diagnosis and management of central fever, the patient underwent long-term antibiotic use that led to pseudomembranous colitis. Bromocriptine was used to treat the prolonged central hyperthermia, after which the fever did not exceed 39°C. A week later, the body temperature baseline was reduced to 37°C and a low-grade fever with minor temperature fluctuation occurred only a few times. No fever occurred in the month following the treatment. After the fever subsided, the patient could undergo an aggressive rehabilitation program.

  10. Regimen analysis of children infected by macrolide-resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae%耐药肺炎支原体感染患儿的用药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王穗琼; 王豫; 邓文喻; 张琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the regimen of children infected by macrolide - resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae. Methods The regimens were analyzed of children whose throat swab mycoplasma pneumoniae cultures were positive, from November 2010 to May 2012 in our hospital. And the courses of medications were returned visits. Results There were 116 children whose throat swab mycoplasma pneumoniae cultures were positive. All of them took macrolide antibacterial agents. In addition to three children combined (3-lactam antibacterials, there were 49 children in the drug - resistant group of 52 children infected by macrolide - resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae. There were 64 children in the drug - susceptive group. No significant differences were found in sex, age, usage rates of macrolide antibacterial agents, antipyretic drugs, antihistamines and phlegm drugs, P > 0. 05. Compared to drug - susceptive group, the courses of macrolide antibacterial agents were shorter, and antipyretic drugs, antihistamine drugs and apophlegmatisants were longer in the drug -resistant group, P < 0. 05. Conclusions The children infected by macrolide - resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae treated by antipyretic drugs, antihistamine drugs and apophlegmatisants. Compared to the children infected by macrolide - susceptive mycoplasma pneumoniae, the children infected by macrolide - resistant had shorter course of macrolide antibacterial agents, and longer courses of antipyretic drugs, antihistamine drugs and apophlegmatisants.%目的 探讨耐大环内酯类抗菌药的肺炎支原体感染患儿的用药方案.方法 分析2010年11月至2012年5月广东省妇幼保健院收治的咽拭子肺炎支原体培养阳性患儿的用药方案,并回访用药疗程.结果 MP培养阳性患儿116例均使用了大环内酯类抗菌药抗感染治疗,其中耐药52例,除去3例联合了β内酰胺类抗菌药,耐药组为49例;敏感组为64例,没有联合β内酰胺类抗菌药病例.两组

  11. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP Induced by Cetirizine in a Child A Case Report

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    Gunseli Pancar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP, is a rare cutaneous rash characterized by widespread sterile non-follicular pustules. AGEP is a rare disease in childhood and it is often due to drugs. Antibiotics, sulphanamides and antipyretic-analgesics are the main reasons of this drug reaction . Cetirizine is a second generation antihistamine is often used in the treatment of angioedema, atopic dermatitis and urticaria in children. Cetirizine induced AGEP was not reported in the literature. In this case a twelve year old child was admitted with urticarial plaques located on her trunk. She developed maculopapular lesions and pustular eruption with Cetirizine (once a day treatment. Cetirizine was stopped and the nonfollicular pustules cleared with a desquamation. The result of the oral challenge test was positive. We present this rare case to show that the antihistamines (cetirizine may cause AGEP in childhood.

  12. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates

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    Piotr Belniak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500 + 400. The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.: the uniformity of mass of single-dose preparation test, the softening time determination of lipophilic suppositories test, the disintegration of suppositories test, and dissolution test with flow-through apparatus. The results confirm the possibility of using starch hydrolysates as a cheap and safe addition to modify physicochemical properties of suppositories.

  13. Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Spilanthes acmella: A Review

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    Suchita Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spilanthes acmella is an important medicinal plant, found in tropical and subtropical countries mainly India and South America. Popularly, it is known as toothache plant which reduces the pain associated with toothaches and can induce saliva secretion. Various extracts and active metabolites from various parts of this plant possess useful pharmacological activities. Literature survey proposed that it has multiple pharmacological actions, which include antifungal, antipyretic, local anaesthetic, bioinsecticide, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, analgesic, pancreatic lipase inhibitor, antimicrobial, antinociception, diuretic, vasorelaxant, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, toothache relieve and anti-inflammatory effects. This review is elaborately describing the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of this plant. This review would assist researchers to search scientific information in the future.

  14. Current Perspectives in NSAID-Induced Gastropathy

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    Mau Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are the most highly prescribed drugs in the world. Their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic actions may be beneficial; however, they are associated with severe side effects including gastrointestinal injury and peptic ulceration. Though several approaches for limiting these side effects have been adopted, like the use of COX-2 specific drugs, comedication of acid suppressants like proton pump inhibitors and prostaglandin analogs, these alternatives have limitations in terms of efficacy and side effects. In this paper, the mechanism of action of NSAIDs and their critical gastrointestinal complications have been reviewed. This paper also provides the information on different preventive measures prescribed to minimize such adverse effects and analyses the new suggested strategies for development of novel drugs to maintain the anti-inflammatory functions of NSAIDs along with effective gastrointestinal protection.

  15. Current Perspectives in NSAID-Induced Gastropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mau; Gautam, Lovely; Shukla, Prakash Kumar; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most highly prescribed drugs in the world. Their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic actions may be beneficial; however, they are associated with severe side effects including gastrointestinal injury and peptic ulceration. Though several approaches for limiting these side effects have been adopted, like the use of COX-2 specific drugs, comedication of acid suppressants like proton pump inhibitors and prostaglandin analogs, these alternatives have limitations in terms of efficacy and side effects. In this paper, the mechanism of action of NSAIDs and their critical gastrointestinal complications have been reviewed. This paper also provides the information on different preventive measures prescribed to minimize such adverse effects and analyses the new suggested strategies for development of novel drugs to maintain the anti-inflammatory functions of NSAIDs along with effective gastrointestinal protection. PMID:23576851

  16. POLA PENGOBATAN SENDIRI OLEH MASYARAKAT (SURVAI KESEHATAN RUMAH TANGGA 1980

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    L. Ratna Budiarso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pattern on self-treatment was studied from Household Health Survey in 1980. The major disease symptoms identified by lay-men were cough 15.2%, fever 12.9% and running-nose 9.4%. Thirty-four percent of the people being ill, had self treatment as their first action taken. Modem medication were used by 84.6% of those having self-treatment, and antipyretic-analgesics were most frequently used (52,1 %. Traditional medicine was utilized by 20% cases having self-treatment. The subjective outcome of self-treatment, showed that 76.4% cases had improved or were cured. The final result of self-treat­ment did not show very much difference as compared to medical treatment.

  17. Modern Research and Application Characteristics of Gegen%葛根现代研究及应用特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程博琳; 苗明三

    2014-01-01

    葛根含有异黄酮类、葛根苷类、三萜皂苷类及其他化合物,具有解热、抗氧化、解酒、益智、抗肿瘤等药理作用,可用于治疗心脑血管疾病。未来葛根的食疗及在心脑血管系统、糖尿病方面的应用将是研究、应用的重点。%Gegen contains Isoflavones,Puerarin glycosides,triterpenoid saponin and other compound. Gegen has Antipyretic,Antioxi-dant,alleviating a hangover,growing in intelligence,antitumor and other pharmacological effects. Meanwhile,it has clinical application in cerebrovascular disease. Gegen diet and the application in cerebrovascular disease and diabetes will be the focus of research and ap-plication in the future.

  18. Therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.)-An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shahedur; Parvin, Rashida

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.

  19. REVIEW ARTICLE – Intravenous paracetamol in pediatrics: A global perspective

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    Muzammil Irshad, MBBS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous (IV Paracetamol is an excellent post operative analgesic and antipyretic in children. Efficacy and tolerability of IV Propacetamol have been established in pediatric practice. It is believed that paracetamol works by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzymes. Studies bring to light that therapeutic doses of IV acetaminophen are effective and tolerable in children with least chances of hepatotoxicity. However, overdose toxicity has been reported in children and drug induced hypotension in febrile critically ill patients. Therapeutic doses according to body weight of neonates and children can be administered in hospital settings. Special education of health care staff regarding precise dose and solution is necessary to assess the role of IV paracetamol preparation in pediatric practice.

  20. Current issues with paracetamol induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinc Cakir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol (acetaminophen; APAP, a commonly-used analgesic and anti-pyretic drug, is usually safe when administered at therapeutic doses in children. However, at overdoses, APAP has the potential for causing fulminant hepatic necrosis and nephrotoxicity in both humans and animals. In pre-school children, many poisonings are due to chemical or pharmaceutical preparations like APAP which is an important example for poisoning with pharmaceutics. Liver has an important role in the metabolism of toxic chemicals, certain drugs and environmental pollutants. Using the cytochrome P450 pathway, APAP is converted to a highly toxic metabolite, namely N–acetyl–p–benzoquinamine (NAPQI. By this way, ... [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(3.000: 165-166

  1. Pharmacological activities of Solanum melongena Linn. (Brinjal plant

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    Mitali Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum melongena Linn. is a herbaceous plant, with coarsely lobed leaves, white to purple flowers, fruit is berry and are grown mainly for food and medicinal purposes. The plant contains flavonoids, tropane, glycoalkaloids, arginine, lanosterol, gramisterol, aspartic acid as important constituents. The plant is reported to have analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antiplatelet, intraocular pressure reducing, CNS depressant and anaphylactic reaction inhibitory activities. Traditional herbal medicine existed before the application of modern scientific method to health care and even today majority of the world population depends on herbal health care practices. This review gives an overview mainly on the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of Solanum melongena.

  2. Synthesis and activity evaluation of 2-(1-naphtho[2,1- b ]furan-2-yl-carbonyl-3,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaraswamy M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl naphtho[2,1- b ]furan-2-carboxylate (2 on reaction with hydrazine hydrate in presence of acid catalyst in ethanol medium affords naphtho[2,1-b]furan-2-carbohydrazide (3. The reaction of substituted acetophenones (4a-c with aromatic aldehydes (5a-e produces chalcones (6a-o via the Claisen condensation. The reaction of naphtho[2,1- b ]furan-2-carbohydrazide (3 with chalcones (6a-6o in presence of acetic acid as catalyst in dioxane produces 1-(naphtho[2,1- b ]furan-2-yl-carbonyl-3,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles (7a-o. The structures of newly synthesized compounds have been established by elemental analysis and spectral studies. The compounds 7a-o have been evaluated for their antimicrobial activity and some selected compounds evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic, anthelmintic, diuretic and antipyretic activities.

  3. Mangifera Indica (Mango

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    K A Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted.

  4. Management of acute fever in children: guideline for community healthcare providers and pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robin; Jeena, Prakash; Kotze, Shane; Lewis, Humphrey; Webb, David; Wells, Mike

    2013-09-03

    Fever is a normal physiological response to illness that facilitates and accelerates recovery. Although it is often associated with a self-limiting viral infection in children, it may also be a presenting symptom of more serious conditions requiring urgent medical care. Therefore, it is essential to distinguish between a child with fever who is at high risk of serious illness and who requires specific treatment, hospitalisation or specialist care, and those at low risk who can be managed conservatively at home. This guideline aims to assist pharmacists, primary healthcare workers and general practitioners in risk-stratifying children who present with fever, deciding on when to refer, the appropriate use of antipyretic medication and how to advise parents and caregivers. 

  5. [Risks and benefits of paracetamol in children with fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bont, Eefje G P M; Brand, Paul L P; Dinant, Geert-Jan; van Well, Gijs T J; Cals, Jochen W L

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, paracetamol is the most commonly used antipyretic for children and the drug of first choice for reducing fever named in the majority of practice guidelines. However, whether or not it is necessary or desirable to treat fever is questionable. The provision of accurate information on the causes and treatment of fever can decrease the help-seeking behaviour of parents. Paracetamol is both effective and advisable when there is a combination of fever and pain. Fever on its own does not require treatment and doctors should therefore show caution about advising paracetamol for children who have just this symptom. The effect of paracetamol on the general well-being of children with fever on its own has not been unequivocally proven. Treatment with paracetamol for the prevention of febrile convulsions has been proven ineffective. There are indications that inhibiting fever through paracetamol can adversely affect the immune response. The use of paracetamol can produce mild side effects and hepatotoxicity.

  6. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné in animals

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    Thereza C. M. de Lima

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacologicalproperties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS, particularly, the sedative and analgesic properties of root crude aqueous extract of this plant in mice and rats. This extract showed an antinociceptive effect in acetic acid - acetylcholine - and hypertonic saline - induced abdominal constrictions, but not in hot-plate and tail flick tests P. alliacea did not produce any CNS depressor effect. Thus its antinociceptive action in animals can be responsible by its poplar use as an analgesic.

  7. Total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents in different extracts of Artemisia absinthium

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    Rajeev Singh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The A. absinthium is commonly known as wormwood having antipyretic, antimicrobial, antifungal, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties. Natural bioactive compounds like phenols and flavonoids are the important secondary metabolites in plant posses high scavenging ability of free radical and reactive oxygen species produced in mammals. To maximize these agents in the extract different solvents viz. aqueous, ethanolic and chloroform are used for the extraction procedure (among these different extractions. Current study was aimed to determine the levels of total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents. Observations suggested that ethanolic extract has significantly high (P<0.05 concentration of flavonoids, phenolic and tannin contents as compared to aqueous and chloroform extracts. Therefore, ethanolic extract of A. absinthium has greater potential to scavenge free radicals/ ROS and can produce more beneficial effects as compared to aqueous and chloroform extracts. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 101-104

  8. Drug: D00118 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available genase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509]; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibit...proxen D00118 Naproxen (JP16/USP/INN) Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] Enzymes Oxidoreductases cyclooxygenase...-1 (COX-1) [HSA:5742] [KO:K00509] Naproxen [ATC:G02CC02 M01AE02 M02AA12] D00118 Naproxen (JP16/USP/INN) cyclooxygen...8.gif Anti-inflammatory; Analgesic; Antipyretic Same as: C01517 Therapeutic category: 1149 ATC code: G02CC02 M01AE02 M02AA12 cyclooxy...ase-2 (COX-2) [HSA:5743] [KO:K11987] Naproxen [ATC:G02CC

  9. Garenoxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia

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    Biswanath Biswas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a major cause of adult mortality in Asia. Empirical use of antibiotics depends on the pathogens that are commonly responsible. Evolution of resistant pathogens in CAP has added to the burden of treating physicians. Microbiological culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing are helpful for the treatment of such respiratory tract infections. Klebsiella pneumoniae though uncommon pathogen of CAP has been reported in many cases. Garenoxacin a newer fl uoroquinolone has found its utility in the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Providing symptomatic relief to the patient with the use of analgesics, antipyretics and cough preparations are also an essential part of the management. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1093-1095

  10. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

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    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  11. ETHNOMEDICOBOTANICAL STUDY ON OCIMUM SANCTUM L. (TULSI - A REVIEW

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    BIPLAB KUMAR DASH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicobotanical study of different plant parts of Ocimum sanctum L., belonging to the family Lamiaceae, popular for its medicinal and religious value in Hinduism of Bangladesh. Methods and materials: This review has been conducted to pile up information that is available in different scientific literatures and this update compendium documentation has focused on some of the traditional and pharmacological aspects and phytochemical constituents. Results: From the result it reveals that wide numbers of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant e.g. aesculectin, orientin, vallinin, eugenol, alkanoids and is proved to have potential for medical effects like hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, chemopreventive, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiulcer, antiinflammatory, antipyretic and various other important medicinal properties. Conclusion: The effects of O. sanctum may delay the development some life threating complications and this work stimulates the researchers for further research on the potential use of this medicinal plants having pharmaceutical potential.

  12. Clinical effect of rectal application of suprofen in children. An open controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weydert, A; Gugler, E; Michos, N; Höbel, W; Martinek, G

    1985-01-01

    Antipyretic effect, tolerability, and acceptance of alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-phenyl acetic acid (suprofen, Suprol) suppositories were tested in an open study including 90 hospitalized children with fever of various etiology. The mean rectal temperature prior to treatment was 39.3 degrees C. The dose regimen was chosen depending upon the body weight: Up to 4 suppositories were administered for maximally 4 days. Body temperature as well as pulse and respiratory rates were recorded prior to insertion of the suppository and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h following first application of the preparation. Regardless of sex and age the temperature was reduced in 85.5% of the cases; as compared to the initial values this reduction was after first application statistically significant at all rating times. The only adverse reaction - vomiting - was seen in 3 cases.

  13. 我院251例药品不良反应报告分析%Analysis of 251 cases of adverse drug reactions in our hospital report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐锦辉

    2013-01-01

      purpose: to understand adverse drug reactions in our hospital (Adverse Drug Reaction) the incidence and relevant factors, provide reference for rational drug use, avoid the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Methods: 251 cases on our 2011 colection statistics, analysis of ADR reports. Results 251 cases ADR report total involved 16 class drugs, vein drops note is caused ADR of main to drug way (201 cases); antibiotics occurred rate Supreme (142 cases), second is proprietary Chinese medicines (28 cases), and antipyretic analgesia drug (20 cases), and anti-tumor drug (16 cases), and effect blood and hematopoietic system of drug (12 cases); clinical performance main for skin and damage (99 cases), accounted for 39.44%, digestive system of of damage (75 cases) accounted for 29.88%. Conclusion: ADR is related to many factors relevant to clinical ADR monitoring work should be strengthened to reduce or avoid the occurrence of ADR.

  14. Effect of 70-nm silica particles on the toxicity of acetaminophen, tetracycline, trazodone, and 5-aminosalicylic acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Kondoh, M; Watari, A; Hasezaki, T; Isoda, K; Tsutsumi, Y; Yagi, K

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to nano-sized particles is increasing because they are used in a wide variety of industrial products, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Some animal studies indicate that such nanomaterials may have some toxicity, but their synergistic actions on the adverse effects of drugs are not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether 70-nm silica particles (nSP70), which are widely used in cosmetics and drug delivery, affect the toxicity of a drug for inflammatory bowel disease (5-aminosalicylic acid), an antibiotic drug (tetracycline), an antidepressant drug (trazodone), and an antipyretic drug (acetaminophen) in mice. Co-administration of nSP70 with trazodone did not increase a biochemical marker of liver injury. In contrast, co-administration increased the hepatotoxicity of the other drugs. Co-administration of nSP70 and tetracycline was lethal. These findings indicate that evaluation of synergistic adverse effects is important for the application of nano-sized materials.

  15. Hesperidin alleviates acetaminophen induced toxicity in Wistar rats by abrogation of oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Arjumand, Wani; Nafees, Sana; Seth, Amlesh; Ali, Nemat; Rashid, Summya; Sultana, Sarwat

    2012-01-25

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, but at high dose it leads to undesirable side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The present study demonstrates the comparative hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of hesperidin (HD), a naturally occurring bioflavonoid against APAP induced toxicity. APAP induces hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity as was evident by abnormal deviation in the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, APAP induced renal damage by inducing apoptotic death and inflammation in renal tubular cells, manifested by an increase in the expression of caspase-3, caspase-9, NFkB, iNOS, Kim-1 and decrease in Bcl-2 expression. These results were further supported by the histopathological examination of kidney. All these features of APAP toxicity were reversed by the co-administration of HD. Therefore, our study favors the view that HD may be a useful modulator in alleviating APAP induced oxidative stress and toxicity.

  16. Current pharmacological and phytochemical studies of the plant Alpinia galanga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Dhirender; Yadav, Jyoti; Kaushik, Pawan; Sacher, Disha; Rani, Ruby

    2011-10-01

    Traditional medicine systems consist of large numbers of plants with medicinal and pharmacological importance and hence represent an invaluable reservoir of new bioactive molecules. Alpinia galanga (family Zingiberaceae) is commonly known as galangal and has been used for its emmenagogue, aphrodisiac, abortifacient, carminative, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory qualities and used in the treatment of various diseases such as bronchitis, heart diseases, chronic enteritis, renal calculus, diabetes, rheumatism and kidney disorders. It was reported to contain, among other components, essential oils, tannins, phenol, glycosides, monoterpenes and carbohydrates. In the last few years, new compounds such as gallic acid glycoside, galangoisoflavonoid,β-sitosterol, galangin, alpinin, zerumbone and kampferide have been isolated from various parts of A. galanga. Therefore, the present review is aimed to summarize the information regarding A. galanga concerning the new phytoconstituents and pharmacological uses that have appeared in recent years.

  17. Assessment of in vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen on human cultured lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan Basri; Dordu, Tuba; Husunet, Mehmet Tahir; Tazehkand, Mostafa Norizadeh; Valipour, Ebrahim; Topaktas, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is commonly used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the study was to explore the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen in human cultured lymphocytes by sister chromatid exchange, chromosome aberration, and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus tests. 10, 20, 30, and 40 μg/mL concentrations of flurbiprofen (solvent is DMSO) were used to treatment of human cultured lymphocytes at two different treatment periods (24 and 48 h). Flurbiprofen had no significant genotoxic effect in any of these tests. But exposing to flurbiprofen for 24 and 48 h led to significant decrease on proliferation index, mitotic index, and nuclear division index (NDI). Also, all decreases were concentration-dependent (except NDI at 24 h treatment period). Consequently, the findings of this research showed that flurbiprofen had cytotoxic effects in human blood lymphocytes.

  18. Choosing an Appropriate Method for Sustained Release Flurbiprofen Pellet Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zenginer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flurbiprofen is a slightly water soluble, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory active ingredient with analgesic and antipyretic activity. The purpose of this study was to develop an appropriate pellet production method for pH independent sustained release pellet formulation of flurbiprofen. Flurbiprofen pellets were produced by three different production methods; Suspension Layering, Extrusion Spherization, Rotagranulation. Although the simple and fast processing properties of Extrusion Spheronization and Rotagranulation methods, according to visual control and comparative dissolution profiles, Suspension Layering method was found more suitable for Flurbiprofen SR (Sustained Release having high drug load for each single dose. Beginning with the spherical core has brought great advantage to Suspension Layering method, since ideal sphericity could not be reached at Extrusion Spheronization and Rotagranulation methods due to limited microcrystalline cellulose amount.

  19. Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus

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    Daniel eStolzberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs or aging which affects ~14% of the general population. For over a quarter century, auditory scientists have used the salicylate toxicity model to investigate candidate biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying phantom sound perception. In this review, we summarize some of the intriguing biochemical and physiological effects associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus, some of which occur in the periphery and others in the central nervous system. The relevance and general utility of the salicylate toxicity model in understanding phantom sound perception in general are discussed.

  20. Ethnobotanical and phytopharmacological review of Scindapsus officinalis (“Gajapippali”

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    Kuljeet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scindapsus officinalis (S. officinalis holds a reputed position in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It has been ethanobotanically used to treat diarrhea (“atisara”, worm infestation (“krmiroga”, and as antipyretic. Literature survey on S. officinalis was carried out via electronic search in PubMed, SciFinder, Scirus, Google Scholar, Agricola and Web of Science and a library search. Results revealed that a very specific botanical description of the plant is still not available. The plant is mistaken within the hybrids and other plants of genus Scindapsus and family Araceae. Since ethnobotanically the plant is of much importance, chemistry of the plant yet needs to be fully explored. Thus the need of the hour is to comprehend the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of S. officinalis which could help in the correct identification of the sample and avoid adulteration due to mistaken identity.

  1. Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) as a herbal healer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Tehranizadeh, Zeinab; Baratian, Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:Elaeagnus spp. is one in the family of riparian trees growing near the rivers or water corridors. In this family, Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) is famous because of its medical applications. Methods: A comprehensive review was performed to extract the related data from published literature. Results: Traditionally, it has been used as an analgesic, antipyretic and diuretic herbal medicine. A large number of compounds have been derived from Russian olive and made this plant a source of flavonoids, alkaloids, minerals and vitamins. Although the purpose of most studies is to use this plant for preparation of herbal medicines and as an ingredient for drug formulation, there is no available drug dosage form commercially. Conclusion: This review aimed to provide the most important documentary information on the active components of Elaeagnus spp. and their relation to the pharmacological properties and compare them with reported medicinal effects.

  2. Plant germination and production of callus from the yellow hornpoppy (Glaucium flavum): the first stage of micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M E; Arafa, A M; Soliman, S S; Eldahmy, S I

    2014-09-01

    The yellow hornpoppy, Glaucium flavum Cr. (Fam. Papaveraceae) is a perennial herb, distributed in the Mediterranean region, including Egypt. The plant contains many benzyl isoquinoline alkaloids from the aporphine type such as glaucine, isoboldine, 1-chelidonine, 1-norchelidonine and 3-O-methylarterenol, making it to display various medicinal activities including antitussive, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, hypoglycemic, analgesic, antipyretic, bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. The plant is now rare and endangered in the Egyptian flora due to urban sprawl. The present study looks into Glaucium flavum seeds' in vitro germination as well as the ability of the explants taken from the growing seedlings to form stable callus lines in order to enable micropropagation as a way to save the rare plant. The study also scans the production of different medicinally valuable alkaloids, particularly glaucine, in produced callus.

  3. Near-fatal infection following an elective ankle-fracture fixation: less risk should not mean less vigilance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giada Bianchi; Dingxin Qin; Joseph A.Dearani; Qi Qian

    2011-01-01

    Surgical fixation of closed ankle fracture is traditionally viewed as having low risk for post-operative infection. Only a few cases of surgical-site confined infection have been reported. Because of the low infection risk, the necessity for perioperative prophylaxis has been questioned. We report a case of fulminant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis occurring shortly after an elective ankle fixation surgery in an elderly woman with chronic rheumatoid arthritis. Because systemic infection was unexpected, she had been given antipyretics for postoperative fever until just before rapid clinical deterioration. A nearly fatal hematogenous infection occurred after such a procedure, indicating the necessity for being on high alert and considering the possibility of bloodstream infection.

  4. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn. & Unani Description– A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Shahzad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn. is a marshy perennial herb and rhizomes which has been traditionally used as medicine, against different diseases viz; Nisyan (dementia, Zofe Dimagh (Alzheimers disease, Humma (fever, Zeequn Nafs (asthama, Sual Muzmin (chronic cough, Ziabetus (ziabetes, Dyslipidemia, Quroohe Muzmina (chronic ulcer and mainly for digestive problems such as Dyspepsia (Zofe Hazm, Sue Hazm and Tukhma. A large number of chemical constituents such as phenyl propanoids, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes as well as xanthone glycosides, flavones, lignans, steroids obtained from the Vaj have been proved to show various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, nootropic, antipyretic, anti-asthamatic, hypoglycaemic, hepato-protective, cardioprotective, cytotoxic activity etc. The aim of this review is to provide information regarding Unani description in classical texts and scientific studies at current scenario which will motivate the research scholars on the basis of current scientific updates in their field of research.

  5. Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A; Borrelli, F

    2005-04-01

    Bacopa monniera (BM), a traditional Ayurvedic medicine, used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. The plant, plant extract and isolated bacosides (the major active principles) have been extensively investigated in several laboratories for their neuropharmacological effects and a number of reports are available confirming their nootropic action. In addition, researchers have evaluated the anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic and other pharmacological effects of BM preparations/extracts. Therefore, in view of the important activities performed by this plant, investigation must be continued in the recently observed actions described in this paper. Moreover, other clinical studies have to be encouraged, also to evidence any side effects and possible interactions between this herbal medicine and synthetic drugs.

  6. Pharmacological Research of Tetrandrine and Fangchinoline, the Major Components of Stephania Tetrandrae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永鹤; 方莲花; 库宝善; 姚海燕

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The root of the Chinese herbal remedy Han Fang Ji ( Radix of Stephania Tetrandrae) has been used since antiquity by Chinese physicians as an ahtihypertenion, antirheumatic, analgesic and antipyretic agent. Tetrandrine (TET) and fangchinoline (FAN), the bisbenzylisoquinolide alkaloids, are the major components of Han Fang Ji. TET has been well known as a natural occurred non - specific calcium channel blocker. However, the effects of TET on the cardiovascular system are not fully understood, and that a few of researches about FAN, an another major constituent of Han Fang Ji, are reported. Thus, we have done these studies to investigate and compare the effects of TET and FAN on cardiovascular system,CNS and multi - drug resistance to anticancer drugs for several years.

  7. PHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIALS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Kumar Biswas et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this literature review was to provide advance research information for the future scientists to discover new drug molecules from the medicinal plant, Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae. The plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol and kaempferol. In addition to its high nutritional value, Moringa oleifera Lam is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine. This review gives the scientific information regarding pharmacological potentials of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae.

  8. Pain – Part I. Pharmaco-therapeutic management (ro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuns, C. I.,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of pain mechanisms require different treatments that address to the different stages of pain production, transmission, modulation and control and at the same time can be individualized according to each patient. In this respect several substances with specific anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic activity,tranquilizers, etc. are successfully used in pain, they are supplemented by physical and chemical means. Treatment of pain is achieved by removing the cause that produced it. Elimination of inflammation, ischemia control, of infection or nerve compression, many times can lead to complete disappearance of pain. In thepresent referate groups of substances with implications in pain are presented. Are presented sintheticaly:amines, antihistamines group, anti-inflammatory nonsteroidic drugs (classic and modern, anesthetics and tranquilizers groups etc. Are also presented other means of pain therapy (analgesic electrotherapy: low frequency effect analgesic currents: diadynamic, Trabert, stochastic, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, pain stimulation by galvanic current.

  9. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience show that hypothermia protects the brain from damage during ischaemia. There is a growing hope that the prevention of fever in stroke will improve outcome and that hypothermia may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. Body temperature...... is directly related to stroke severity and outcome, and fever after stroke is associated with substantial increases in morbidity and mortality. Normalisation of temperature in acute stroke by antipyretics is generally recommended, although there is no direct evidence to support this treatment. Despite its...... obvious therapeutic potential, hypothermia as a form of neuroprotection for stroke has been investigated in only a few very small studies. Therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in acute stroke but owing to serious side-effects--such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia--it is still thought...

  10. Antioxidant Capacity and Lipophilic Constitution of Alternanthera bettzickiana flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.A. Petrus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel Nicolson is an erect herb and an ornamental pot plant, which is recorded to be useful in purifying and nourishing blood. It is also claimed to be a soft laxative, a galactagogue and an antipyretic in addition to its wound healing property. The leaves are reported to be used like spinach and in soups. The lipophilic acetone extract of the fresh flowers exhibited in vitro antioxidant/radical scavenging (ABTS•+ and FRAP assays and metal (Ferrous ion chelating capacities. The extract has been analysed to contain eighteen saturated and four unsaturated hydrocarbons, ten saturated, three monounsaturated and one polyunsaturated esters of fatty acid, in addition to a saturated and an unsaturated higher alcohol and a fatty aldehyde, together with a monoterpene and nine acyclic diterpenes and a steroid. γ-Tocopherol and α-tocopherol-β-D-mannoside are the principal vitamin E identified in combination with pairs of cyclohexenones and benzofuranones as well as five phthalates.

  11. Simultaneous estimation of aceclofenac, paracetamol and chlorzoxazone in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of aceclofenac, paracetamol and chlorzoxazone is emerging as one of the widely prescribed combination in single dosage form. Aceclofenac is a typical Cox-2 inhibitor in combination with muscle relaxant chlorzoxazone and a traditional antipyretic drug paracetamol. Literature revealed that there is no single method for the simultaneous estimation of all these drugs in tablet dosage forms, which prompted us to develop a simple, rapid, accurate, economical and sensitive spectrophotometric method. The simultaneous estimation method is based on the additivity of absorbances, for the determination of aceclofenac, paracetamol and chlorzoxazone in tablet formulation. The absorption maxima of the drugs found to be at 276 nm, 282 nm and 248 nm respectively for aceclofenac, chlorzoxazone and paracetamol in methanol. All three drugs obeyed the Beer Lambert′s law in the concentration range of 2-20 µg /ml. The accuracy and reproducibility of the proposed method was statistically validated by recovery studies.

  12. Chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhay Kumar Pandey; Pooja Singh; Nijendra Nath Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance. The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz., Ocimum basilicum Linn. (alt. Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurience), Ocimum campechianum Mill., Ocimum canum Sims. (Ocimum americanum), Ocimum citriodorum, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn., Ocimum micranthum Willd., Ocimum sanctum Linn., (alt. Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn.), Ocimum selloi Benth., Ocimum trichodon, Ocimum utricifolium from different geographical regions. A considerable difference in chemical composition of a particular species is found, which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic zones and changes in edaphic factors. Attention is also focused on the biological properties of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant, repellent, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal and therapeutic (anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antiulcer, analgesic, anthelmintic, anticarcinogenic, skin permeation enhancer, immunomodulatory, cardio-protective, antilipidemic) agents.

  13. Research Progress on Extraction and Measurement of Piperine%胡椒碱的提取工艺及分析方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍萍; 吕岱竹; 吴南村

    2012-01-01

    Piperine used as an important drugs exhibited a variety of pharmacological activities, e.g. anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antineoplastic. It has received widely attention by researchers around the world in the recent years because of its medicinal properties. Current advances in the study of piperine are reviewed, including the main methods of extraction and measurement of piperine, so as to provide reference for the further utilization of piperine.%查阅近年来国内外有关胡椒碱的文献资料.介绍胡椒碱主要的提取方法和检测技术等方面的研究进展为胡椒碱的进一步开发利用提供参考。

  14. Development of an Isotope-Dilution Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Method for the Accurate Determination of Acetaminophen in Tablets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Ju; Kim, Byung Joo; Lee, Joon Hee; Hwang, Eui Jin [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) is one of the most popular analgesic and antipyretic drugs. An isotope dilution mass spectrometric method based on LC/MS was developed as a candidate reference method for the accurate determination of acetaminophen in pharmaceutical product. After spiking an isotope labeled acetaminophen (acetyl-{sup 13}C{sub 2}, {sup 15}Nacetaminophen) as an internal standard, tablet extracts were analyzed by LC/MS in a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode to detect ions at m/z 152→110 and m/z 155→111 for acetaminophen and acetyl-{sup 13}C{sub 2}, {sup 15}N-acetaminophen, respectively. The repeatability and reproducibility of the developed ID/LC-MS method were tested for the validation and assessment of metrological quality of the method.

  15. Complications of blood transfusion. How to recognize and respond to noninfectious reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloop, G D; Friedberg, R C

    1995-07-01

    Severe transfusion reactions occur much less often than minor reactions, but it is difficult to discriminate clinically between impending severe reactions and minor reactions. Therefore, whenever a reaction occurs, the transfusion should be discontinued and a laboratory workup initiated to rule out an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. At a minimum, a direct antiglobulin (Coombs') test should be performed, and specimens obtained before and after transfusion should be assayed for hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria. If the product transfused included red blood cells, then typing and crossmatching should be repeated on a posttransfusion blood specimen. Routine premedication with antipyretics is not recommended, since they may mask early signs and symptoms of more severe reactions and their efficacy is questionable. Recent insights into the mechanisms of transfusion reactions have suggested interventions that may help minimize or prevent potentially serious sequelae.

  16. Environmental effect on essential oil composition of Aloysia citriodora from Corrientes (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Gabriela; Torres, Ana Maria; Bubenik, Ana Laura; Ricciardi, Armando; Lorenzo, Daniel; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    Lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora Palau) is indigenous to South America and was introduced into Europe. It is cultivated mainly due to the lemon-like aroma emitted from its leaves, which are utilized for the preparation of herbal tea reputed to have antispasmodic, antipyretic, sedative and digestive properties. In this work we introduce the enantiomeric distribution of sabinene and limonene by bidimensional gas chromatography (chiral GC-GC) as a genuine quantitative parameter in order to improve the knowledge so far available on A. citriodora oil. Multivariate analysis afforded information on the similarities and differences of wild and cultivated A. citriodora populations during different seasons in the same environmental conditions. The results indicated that it was possible to discard the environmental and seasonal effect on the chemical composition of A. citriodora for wild and cultivated materials belonging to the same genetic origin.

  17. The therapeutic voyage of pyrazole and its analogs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohemmed Faraz; Alam, Mohammad Mumtaz; Verma, Garima; Akhtar, Wasim; Akhter, Mymoona; Shaquiquzzaman, Mohammad

    2016-09-14

    Pyrazole, a five membered heteroaromatic ring with two nitrogen atoms is of immense significance. Presence of this nucleus in the pharmacological agents of diverse therapeutic categories viz. antianxiety, anti-inflammatory, antipsychotic, anticancer, antiobesity, analgesic, antipyretic etc. has made it an indispensable anchor for design and development of new pharmacological agents. Owing to the development of novel and new pyrazole based therapeutic agents at a faster pace, there is a need to couple the latest information with previously available information to understand status of this moiety in medicinal chemistry research. The review herein highlights the therapeutic worth of pyrazole derivatives. Several therapeutically active pyrazole based derivatives developed by numerous scientists across the globe are reported here.

  18. Therapeutic outlook of pyrazole analogs: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Swastika; Sony Jacob, K

    2015-11-19

    Pyrazole is one of the excellent structural motifs in medicinal chemistry. Various physiological and therapeutic possibilities have been exploited by incorporating different pharmacophoric groups in the pyrazole moiety. This has opened a new arena of pyrazole analogs that can be developed into medicinal agents such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antiviral, antibacterial, anticancer, anticonvulsant, hypoglycemic, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, mono amino oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, etc. Though, pyrazole analogs have proven their clinical efficacy as different pharmacological agents, a few of them have been withdrawn from the market due to their side effects. Thus, research on potential new drug candidates bearing the pyrazole moiety with lesser side effects has fairly increased over the last few years. This review explores diverse pharmacological activities exhibited by pyrazole analogs reported recently, which may be of great help for researchers in the area of drug discovery to understand the current scenario of pyrazole based compounds and to design and develop newer drug candidates with improved efficacy.

  19. Drug eruptions: An 8-year study including 106 inpatients at a dermatology clinic in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Akpinar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few clinical studies are found in the literature about patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of cutaneous drug eruption. Aims: To determine the clinical types of drug eruptions and their causative agents in a hospital-based population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in the Dermatology Department of Haseki General Hospital. Through 1751 patients hospitalized in this department between 2002 and 2009, inpatients diagnosed as drug eruption were evaluated according to WHO causality definitions. 106 patients composed of probable and possible cases of cutaneous drug eruptions were included in this study. Results: Seventy one females and 35 males were evolved. Mean age was 44.03±15.14. Duration between drug intake and onset of reaction varied from 5 minutes to 3 months. The most common clinical type was urticaria and/or angioedema in 48.1% of the patients, followed by maculopapular rash in 13.2%, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in 8.5%. Drugs most frequently associated with cutaneous drug eruptions were antimicrobial agents in 40.5% of the patients, followed by antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics in 31.1%, and antiepileptics in 11.3%. Conclusion: Urticaria and/or angioedema and maculopapular rash comprised majority of the drug eruptions. Rare reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, sweet syndrome, oral ulceration were also found. Antimicrobial agents and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics were the most commonly implicated drugs. Infrequently reported adverse reactions to myorelaxant agents, newer cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were also detected. We suppose that studies on drug eruptions should continue, because the pattern of consumption of drugs is changing in every country at different periods and many new drugs are introduced on the market continuously.

  20. Treatment of febrile seizures with intermittent clobazam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manreza, M L; Gherpelli, J L; Machado-Haertel, L R; Pedreira, C C; Heise, C O; Diament, A

    1997-12-01

    Fifty children, 24 female and 26 male, with ages varying from 6 to 72 months (mean = 23.7 m.) that experienced at least one febrile seizure (FS) entered a prospective study of intermittent therapy with clobazam. Cases with severe neurological abnormalities, progressive neurological disease, afebrile seizures, symptomatic seizures of other nature, or seizures during a central nervous system infection were excluded. Seizures were of the simple type in 25 patients, complex in 20 and unclassified in 5. The mean follow-up period was 7.9 months (range = 1 to 23 m.), and the age at the first seizure varied from 5 to 42 months (mean = 16.8 m.). Clobazam was administered orally during the febrile episode according to the child's weight: up to 5 kg, 5 mg/day; from 5 to 10 kg, 10 mg/day; from 11 to 15 kg, 15 mg/day, and over 15 kg, 20 mg/day. There were 219 febrile episodes, with temperature above 37.8 degrees C, in 40 children during the study period. Twelve children never received clobazam and 28 received the drug at least once. Drug efficacy was measured by comparing FS recurrence in the febrile episodes that were treated with clobazam with those in which only antipyretic measures were taken. Ten children (20%) experienced a FS during the study period. Of the 171 febrile episodes treated with clobazam there were only 3 recurrences (1.7%), while of the 48 episodes treated only with antipyretic measures there were 11 recurrences (22.9%), a difference highly significant (p diazepam in the intermittent treatment of FS recurrence.

  1. The effect of preoperative intravenous paracetamol administration on postoperative fever in pediatrics cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hasan Abdollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-operative fever is a common complication of cardiac operations, which is known to be correlated with a greater degree of cognitive dysfunction 6 weeks after cardiac surgery. The aim of the present study was to examine efficacy and safety of single dose intravenous Paracetamol in treatment of post-operative fever in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 80 children, aged 1-12 years, presenting for open heart surgery were entered in the trial and randomly allocated into two groups: Placebo and Paracetamol. After induction of anaesthesia, 15 mg/kg intravenous Paracetamol solution was infused during 1 h in the Paracetamol group. Patients in placebo group received 15 mg/kg normal saline infusion during the same time. Since the end of operation until next 24 h in intensive care unit, axillary temperature of the two group patients was recorded in 4-h intervals. Any fever that occurred during this period had been treated with Paracetamol suppository (125 mg and the amount of antipyretic drug consumption for each patient had been recorded. In order to examine the safety of Paracetamol, patients were evaluated for drug complication at the same time. Results: Mean axillary temperature during first 24 h after operation was significantly lower in Paracetamol group compared with placebo group (P = 0.001. Overall fever incidence during 24 h after operation was higher in placebo group compared with Paracetamol group (P = 0.012. Of Paracetamol group patients, 42.5% compared with 15% of placebo group participants had no consumption of antipyretic agent (Paracetamol suppository during 24 h after operation (P = 0.001. Conclusion: This study suggests that single dose administration of intravenous Paracetamol before paediatric cardiac surgeries using cardiopulmonary bypass; reduce mean body temperature in the first 24 h after operation.

  2. Pharmacological characteristics of metamizole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiecka, A; Maślanka, T; Jaroszewski, J J

    2014-01-01

    Metamizole (dipyrone) is a popular analgetic, non-opioid drug, commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. In some cases, this agent is still incorrectly classified as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Metamizole is a pro-drug, which spontaneously breaks down after oral administration to structurally related pyrazolone compounds. Apart from its analgesic effect, the medication is an antipyretic and spasmolytic agent. The mechanism responsible for the analgesic effect is a complex one, and most probably rests on the inhibition of a central cyclooxygenase-3 and activation of the opioidergic system and cannabinoid system. Metamizole can block both PG-dependent and PG-independent pathways of fever induced by LPS, which suggests that this drug has a profile of antipyretic action distinctly different from that of NSAIDs. The mechanism responsible for the spasmolytic effect of metamizole is associated with the inhibited release of intracellular Ca2+ as a result of the reduced synthesis of inositol phosphate. Metamizole is predominantly applied in the therapy of pain of different etiology, of spastic conditions, especially affecting the digestive tract, and of fever refractory to other treatments. Co-administration of morphine and metamizole produces superadditive, antinociceptive effects. Metamizole is a relatively safe pharmaceutical preparation although it is not completely free from undesirable effects. Among these side-effects, the most serious one that raises most controversy is the myelotoxic effect. It seems that in the past the risk of metamizole-induced agranulocytosis was exaggerated. Despite the evidence showing no risk of teratogenic and embryotoxic effects, the drug must not be administered to pregnant women, although it is allowed to be given to pregnant and lactating animals. This paper seeks to describe the characteristics of metamizole in the light of current knowledge.

  3. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Dubray, Claude; Pereira, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467) was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Methods Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature), and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g) or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. Results APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05). Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04). All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01) and body temperature did not change. Conclusion This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance and antinociception are independent of APAP effect on thermogenesis. We suggest that cognitive performance mirrors the analgesic rather than thermic cascade of events, with possibly a central role for serotonergic and cannabinoid systems that need to be explored further in the context of pain and cognition. PMID:27980393

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihantola-Vormisto, A; Summanen, J; Kankaanranta, H; Vuorela, H; Asmawi, Z M; Moilanen, E

    1997-12-01

    Leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica L. have been used for the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment of rural populations in its growing areas in subtropical and tropical parts of China, India, Indonesia, and the Malay Peninsula. In the present study, leaves of Ph. emblica were extracted with ten different solvents (n-hexane, diethyl ether, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, acetic acid, dichloromethane, 1,4-dioxane, toluene, chloroform, and water). The inhibitory activity of the extracts against human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) and platelet functions was studied. Methanol, tetrahydrofuran, and 1,4-dioxane extracts (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited leukotriene B4-induced migration of human PMNs by 90% and N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced degranulation by 25-35%. The inhibitory activity on receptor-mediated migration and degranulation of human PMNs was associated with a high proportion of polar compounds in the extracts as assessed by normal phase thin layer chromatography. Diethyl ether extract (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited calcium ionophore A23187-induced leukotriene B4 release from human PMNs by 40%, thromboxane B2 production in platelets during blood clotting by 40% and adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation by 36%. Ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin, all compounds isolated earlier from Ph. emblica, could not explain these inhibitory activities on PMNs or platelets by Ph. emblica extracts. These results show that the leaves of Ph. emblica have inhibitory activity on PMNs and platelets, which confirm the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of this plant as suggested by its use in traditional medicine. The data suggest that the plant leaves contain as yet unidentified polar compound(s) with potent inhibitory activity on PMNs and chemically different apolar molecule(s) which inhibit both prostanoid and leukotriene synthesis.

  5. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from the Red Sea soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens

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    R Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The Red Sea soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens has been investigated concerning its secondary metabolites. Analysis of H. fuscescens has led to the isolation of 6-hydroxy -α- muurolene (1, gorgosten-5(E-3 β-ol (2, 1-nonadecyloxy-2,3-propanediol (3 and (2S,3R,4E,8E-N-hexadecanoyl-2-amino 4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol (4 and sarcoaldosterol A (5. The isolated compounds were reported from several marine organisms and are identified for the first time from the soft coral H. fuscescens collected from the Red Sea. The activity of the alcoholic extract as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, anti oxidant is reported. The activity of the isolated compounds against several pathogenic microbes has been also reported. Industrial Relevance: A huge number of secondary metabolites are produced by soft bodied marine organisms to get over predation and infection. Compounds produced by soft bodied marine organisms are different from those produced by terrestrial organisms, and therefore may yield novel lead for antimicrobial drugs. With the diversity in the secondary metabolites and the new activities and mechanism of action marine animals considered an excellent source for new pharmaceuticals. This work is concerned with the isolation of secondary metabolites isolated form the Heteroxenia fuscescens from the red sea and the evaluation of some biological activities. The alcoholic extract of Heteroxenia fuscescens was found to possess antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity. 6-hydroxy -α- muurolene was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with MIC of 19 µg/ml. The alcoholic extract of the organism under study is none toxic so we believe its sterol content could be a good source for safer anti-inflammatory drugs and also the 6-hydroxy -α- muurolene (compound 1 will be a good candidate for more derivatisation studies to optimize its activity and selectivity as antimicrobial.

  6. Flurbiprofen-antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Zaman; Alamgeer; Kanwal, Munazza; Hassan, Mubashir; Abdullah, Sahar; Waheed, Mamuna; Ahsan, Haseeb; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen-antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (-COOH) was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic -OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (P<0.001) reduced the inflammation against carrageenan and egg albumin-induced paw edema at 4 hours of study. The reduction in the size of the inflamed paw showed that most of the compounds inhibited the later phase of inflammation. The prodrug 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (4b) showed significant reduction in paw licking with percentage inhibition of 58%. It also exhibited higher analgesic activity, reducing the number of writhes with a percentage of 75%, whereas flurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (P<0.001) reduction in rectal temperature was shown by all prodrugs at all times of assessment. The results of ulcerogenic activity showed that all prodrugs produced less GI irritation than flurbiprofen. Molecular docking and simulation studies were carried out with cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) proteins, and it was observed that our prodrugs have more potential to selectively bind to COX-2 than to COX-1. It is concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities with

  7. Self-medication practices among female students of higher educational institutions in Selangor, Malaysia: A quantitative insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Wong, Pei Se; Yi, Heng Chin; Yun, Gan Siaw; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization has defined self-medication as the selection and use of medications (including herbal and traditional product) by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The prevalence of self-medication is reported to be higher among female students. Objective: To investigate the awareness and self-medication practices among female students of higher education institutions in Malaysia. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in four higher education institutes of Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to collect data from a sample 475 students. A “pretested” questionnaire was used as a study instrument. Results: A total of 461 questionnaires were returned (response rate 97.05%). The prevalence of self-medication among female students in higher educational institutions was 57.2% (n = 262). The most common source of self-prescribed medicine was a pharmacy or clinics (n = 206; 45%). It was found that antipyretics were the most common medications used without doctor's consultation (n = 212; 89.1%). Analgesics and antipyretics (n = 79; 62.7%) were highly recommended by students to their family and friends. The common reason for self-medication was prior successful experience (n = 102, 81.0%). The majority of respondents (n = 280; 61.1%) reported that they believed over-the-counter medications were as effective as medications prescribed by a doctor. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication practice among female students in the sample of the four higher education institutions was moderate. More studies are required to generalize these findings across Malaysia. PMID:27413350

  8. Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Zaman; Alamgeer; Kanwal, Munazza; Hassan, Mubashir; Abdullah, Sahar; Waheed, Mamuna; Ahsan, Haseeb; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (–COOH) was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic –OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (P<0.001) reduced the inflammation against carrageenan and egg albumin-induced paw edema at 4 hours of study. The reduction in the size of the inflamed paw showed that most of the compounds inhibited the later phase of inflammation. The prodrug 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (4b) showed significant reduction in paw licking with percentage inhibition of 58%. It also exhibited higher analgesic activity, reducing the number of writhes with a percentage of 75%, whereas flurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (P<0.001) reduction in rectal temperature was shown by all prodrugs at all times of assessment. The results of ulcerogenic activity showed that all prodrugs produced less GI irritation than flurbiprofen. Molecular docking and simulation studies were carried out with cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) proteins, and it was observed that our prodrugs have more potential to selectively bind to COX-2 than to COX-1. It is concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities

  9. Use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the prevention of streptococcal and viral pharyngotonsillitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Maria Colombo,2 Alberto Zanvit,3 Paolo Risso,4 Amilcare S Rottoli5 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milan, 2Pediatric Department, University of Parma, Parma, 3Stomatology Institute, Milan, 4Laboratory of Epidemiology and Social Psychiatry, Mario Negri Institute, Milan, 5Pediatric Department, Uboldo Hospital, Cernusco sul Naviglio, Italy Background: Streptococcus salivarius K12 is an oral probiotic strain releasing two lantibiotics (salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B that antagonize the growth of S. pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans also affected by episodes of acute otitis media. S. salivarius K12 successfully colonizes the oral cavity, and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. We tested its preventive role in reducing the incidence of both streptococcal and viral pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis in children. Materials and methods: We enrolled 61 children with a diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal disorders. Thirty-one of them were enrolled to be treated daily for 90 days with a slow-release tablet for oral use, containing no less than 1 billion colony-forming units/tablet of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®, and the remaining 30 served as the untreated control group. During treatment, they were all examined for streptococcal infection. Twenty children (ten per group were also assessed in terms of viral infection. Secondary end points in both groups were the number of days under antibiotic and antipyretic therapy and the number of days off school (children and off work (parents. Results: The 30 children who completed the 90-day trial with Bactoblis® showed a significant reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (>90%, as calculated by comparing the infection rates of the previous year. No difference was observed in the control group. The treated group showed a significant decrease in the incidence (80% of oral viral infections. Again

  10. 地震救援药品供应数据分析%Analysis of Drugs Supply during Earthquake Relief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储文功; 黄文龙; 冯名海; 陈盛新

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the drug supply during earthquake relief, and to provide reference for the establishment of Reserve Directory of Earthquake Relief Drugs. METHODS: Data obtained from a storehouse of Chengdu regarding drugs supply following the Wenchuan earthquake was collected for one month and classified in respect of DDDs. The statistical results were compared with the spectrum of disease and drug use reported in the literatures in Wenchuan earthquake. RESULTS: One month after Wenchuan earthquake, disinfectant/dermatologic drag/drugs for features, anti-infectious agent and antipyretic analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents took up a great proportion of 16 categories supplied. The DDDs of antipyretic analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents, antibiotics and vitamin ranked the first place among 8 categories, which can be caculated by DDD. Top 30 drugs in the list of DDDs among 8 categories accounted for 80.17% of total DDDs. Top 3 drugs were Longhu rendan mini-pills, Qutong tablets and Multivitamin and minerals tablet (21). CONCLUSION: It is recommended to include 12 varieties of antipyretic analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, 19 varieties of anti-infection drugs, 8 varieties of vitamins, 9 varieties of cardiovascular and central stimulants drugs, 6 varieties of sedative and anti-allergic drugs, 7 varieties of digestive system drugs, 5 varieties of respiratory system, 1 variety of parasitic resistance in Reserve Directory of Earthquake Relief Drugs.%目的:探讨地震救棱药品供应情况,为制定《地震救援药材储备目录》提供参考.方法:收集汶川地震发生后1个月内成都某药品仓库药品供应品种和数量,分类统计各药品的使用频度(DDDs),并与文献报道的汶川地震疾病谱和用药情况进行对比分析.结果:地震后1个月内仓库供应的16大类药中消毒/皮肤/五官类、抗感染类和解热镇痛抗炙类品种数最多;适合采用限定日剂量(DDD)值计算的8类药中,解热镇痛

  11. Drug intervention effects on thrombocytopenia due to Plasmodium berghei infection in mice%鼠疟原虫引起血小板减少药物干预效果的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区德锦; 韦海艳; 邹春燕; 崔立旺; 黄亚铭

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the common antipyretics,antibiotics and corticosteroids on thrombocytopenia due to Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Methods Healthy Kunming mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with Plasmodium berghei and treated with β -Iactams,quinolones, antipyretics and corticosteroids at dose of 10 times that of human dose for 3 days by irrigation or intramuscular injection when platelet count markedly below normal value.Then blood samples were obtained for every 12 hours and platelet count was recorded. Observation group consisted of five mice and each drug was tested in a group and with control group. Results The normal mice platelet count averaged for 256 × 109/L and the platelet count dropped to an average count of 90 ×109/L in each group 8 days after infection with Plasmodium berghei. The platelet count returned to 201 × 109/L in azithromycin-treated group only 3 days after treated with various antibiotics and muscular injection of aminophenazone and dexamethasone.and other antibiotics, antipyretic and corticosteroids showed no effect on thrombocytopenia recovery in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Conclusions Except azithromycin,aminophenazone,amoxicillin,levofloxacin and dexamethasone showed on effects on platelet recovery in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.%目的 了解退烧药、抗生素及激素对感染鼠疟原虫引起的血小板减少是否具有恢复的效果.方法 健康昆明小鼠腹腔接种感染伯氏鼠疟原虫,当感染鼠血小板明显低于正常值后,分别采用临床常用的大环内酯类、β内酰胺类和喹诺酮类抗生素、退烧药及激素类药物按照人体治疗量的10倍灌服或肌注方法给药3d,每12h采血1次做血小板计数观察.每5只小鼠为一个观察试验组,每种药物采用一组小鼠试验观察取平均数据,并设正常对照组. 结果 正常鼠血小板平均计数为256 × 109/L.健康鼠感染鼠疟原虫后第8d,各组感

  12. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic approach vs. a dose titration for the determination of a dosage regimen: the case of nimesulide, a Cox-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, P L; Cester, C C; Haak, T; Laroute, V

    2001-02-01

    The present experiment was designed to determine a dosage regimen (dose, interval of administration) in the dog for nimesulide, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with in vitro selectivity for the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (Cox-2), using a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) approach. The PK/PD results were compared with those obtained using a classical dose titration study. In the PK/PD experiment, 11 dogs were subjected to Freund's adjuvant arthritis characterized by permanent hyperthermia. Nimesulide (5 mg/kg, oral route) was tested during the secondary phase of the inflammatory response. In the dose titration study, nimesulide (0, 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg, oral route) was tested in eight other dogs using a reversible urate crystal arthritis in a 4-period crossover design. Different PD endpoints (including lameness assessed by force plate and hyperthermia) were regularly measured during the PK/PD experiment, and plasma samples were obtained to determine the plasma nimesulide concentration. The data were modeled using an indirect effect model. The IC50 of nimesulide for lameness was 6.26 +/- 3.01 microg/mL, which was significantly higher than the EC50 value obtained for antipyretic effect (2.72 +/- 1.29 microg/mL). The ED50 estimated from the classical dose titration study were 1.34 mg/kg (lameness) and 3.0 mg/kg (skin temperature). The PK/PD parameters were used to simulate different dosage regimens (dose, interval of administration). The antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects were calculated from the model for the recommended dosage regimen (5 mg/kg/24 h). It was apparent from this approach, that this dosage regimen enabled 76% of the theoretical maximal drug efficacy to be obtained for pyresis and 43% for lameness. It was concluded from the comparison of in vivo and in vitro IC50, that nimesulide is a potent NSAID for which some Cox-1 inhibition is required to obtain clinically relevant efficacy.

  13. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gisèle Pickering,1–3 Nicolas Macian,1,2 Claude Dubray,1–3 Bruno Pereira4 1University Hospital, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique, 2Inserm, CIC 1405, UMR Neurodol 1107, 3Clermont Université, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculté de médecine, 4CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Délégation Recherche Clinique Innovation, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background: Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467 was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature, and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. Results: APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05. Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04. All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01 and body temperature did not change. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance

  14. Effects of Tufu Decoction Rectal Medication on Body Temperature and Gastrointestinal Function of Fushi Syndrome Rats%通腑方直肠滴入对腑实证大鼠体温及胃肠功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶冬兰

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过观察不同剂量通腑方直肠滴入对腑实证大鼠体温及胃肠动力的影响,探讨相关作用机理.方法 以中药灌服制备大鼠腑实证模型,各治疗组均从造模成功后第2日开始连续3d给药,观察各组大鼠体温、胃肠蠕动、胃泌素水平.结果 与模型组比较,通腑方有一定的解热作用,并且其解热作用比阳性药物作用更持久.通腑方能促进胃动素、胃泌素产生,对肠蠕动均有推动作用,中剂量组与高剂量组无明显差异.结论 通腑方有一定的解热作用,其对胃排空有一定的促进作用,且能促进胃动素和胃泌素的产生,对消化功能有着积极的作用.%Objective: To explore the mechanism of tongfu decoction treating pediatric related disease by the way observing of Effects Tufu Decoction rectal medication on body temperature and gastrointestinal function of Fushi Syndrome rats. Methods: Empirical model of Fushi Pattern rats were set by Chinese traditional irrigation . Each treatment group were given Tongfu decoction from the second day after the success of the Setting model for three consecutive days,and the rats body temperature,gastrointestinal peristalsis,gastrin were observed in every group.Result: Compared with model group,the tongfu Decoction had antipyretic effect,and itsantipyretic effect is more lasting than positive drug effect. The Tongfu decoction were role to bowel movements. There were no obvious difference between the dose group and high dose group.The dose and high dose group could promote motilin,gastrin produce,and there were no obvious difference in the dose and high dose group. Conclusion:The Tongfu Decoction has antipyretic effect, gastric emptying effect, gastrointestinal peristalsis promotion effect, motilin and gastrin generation promotion effect,which contributs positively to digestion.

  15. Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling

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    Ashraf Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zaman Ashraf,1,2 Alamgeer,3 Munazza Kanwal,1 Mubashir Hassan,2 Sahar Abdullah,3 Mamuna Waheed,3 Haseeb Ahsan,3 Song Ja Kim2 1Department of Chemistry, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Abstract: Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (–COOH was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic –OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, ­suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (P<0.001 reduced the inflammation against carrageenan and egg albumin-induced paw edema at 4 hours of study. The reduction in the size of the inflamed paw showed that most of the compounds inhibited the later phase of inflammation. The prodrug 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-ylpropanoate (4b showed significant reduction in paw licking with percentage inhibition of 58%. It also exhibited higher analgesic activity, reducing the number of writhes with a percentage of 75%, whereas flurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (P<0.001 reduction in rectal temperature was shown by all

  16. Anticancer activities against cholangiocarcinoma, toxicity and pharmacological activities of Thai medicinal plants in animal models

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    Plengsuriyakarn Tullayakorn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA, a devastating cancer with increasing worldwide incidence and mortality rates, is largely ineffective. The discovery and development of effective chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. Methods/Design The study aimed at evaluating anticancer activities, toxicity, and pharmacological activities of the curcumin compound (CUR, the crude ethanolic extracts of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger: ZO and Atractylodes lancea thung. DC (Khod-Kha-Mao: AL, fruits of Piper chaba Hunt. (De-Plee: PC, and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai formulation (a mixture of parts of 18 Thai medicinal plants: PPF were investigated in animal models. Anti-cholangiocarcinoma (anti-CCA was assessed using CCA-xenograft nude mouse model. The antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and anti-ulcer activities and effects on motor coordination were investigated using Rota-rod test, CODA tail-cuff system, writhing and hot plate tests, carrageenan-induced paw edema test, brewer's yeast test, and alcohol-induced gastric ulcer test, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity tests were performed according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals with modification. Results Promising anticancer activity against CCA in nude mouse xenograft model was shown for the ethanolic extract of AL at all oral dose levels (1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight as well as the extracts of ZO, PPF, and CUR compound at the highest dose level (5000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. PC produced no significant anti-CCA activity. Results from acute and subacute toxicity tests both in mice and rats indicate safety profiles of all the test materials in a broad range of dose levels. No significant toxicity except stomach irritation and general CNS depressant signs were observed. Investigation of pharmacological activities of the test materials revealed promising anti-inflammatory (ZO, PPF, and AL, analgesic (CUR and

  17. The epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medication errors are widely reported for hospitalised patients, but limited data are available for medication errors that occur in community-based and clinical settings. Epidemiological data from poisons information centres enable characterisation of trends in medication errors occurring across the healthcare spectrum. AIM: The objective of this study was to characterise the epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) of Ireland. METHODS: A 3-year prospective study on medication errors reported to the NPIC was conducted from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009 inclusive. Data on patient demographics, enquiry source, location, pharmaceutical agent(s), type of medication error, and treatment advice were collated from standardised call report forms. Medication errors were categorised as (i) prescribing error (i.e. physician error), (ii) dispensing error (i.e. pharmacy error), and (iii) administration error involving the wrong medication, the wrong dose, wrong route, or the wrong time. RESULTS: Medication errors were reported for 2348 individuals, representing 9.56% of total enquiries to the NPIC over 3 years. In total, 1220 children and adolescents under 18 years of age and 1128 adults (>\\/= 18 years old) experienced a medication error. The majority of enquiries were received from healthcare professionals, but members of the public accounted for 31.3% (n = 736) of enquiries. Most medication errors occurred in a domestic setting (n = 2135), but a small number occurred in healthcare facilities: nursing homes (n = 110, 4.68%), hospitals (n = 53, 2.26%), and general practitioner surgeries (n = 32, 1.36%). In children, medication errors with non-prescription pharmaceuticals predominated (n = 722) and anti-pyretics and non-opioid analgesics, anti-bacterials, and cough and cold preparations were the main pharmaceutical classes involved. Medication errors with prescription medication predominated for

  18. [Acute otitis media in children. Comparison between conventional and homeopathic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H; Kruse, S; Moeller, H

    1996-08-01

    Within a prospective group study of five practicing otorhinolaryngologists, conventional therapy of acute otitis media in children was compared with homeopathic treatments. Group A (103 children) was primarily treated with homeopathic single remedies (Aconitum napellus, Apis mellifica, Belladonna, Capsicum, Chamomilla, Kalium bichromicum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius solubilis, Okoubaka, Pulsatilla, Silicea). Group B (28 children) was treated by decongestant nose-drops, antibiotics, secretolytics and/or antipyretics. Comparisons were done by symptoms, physical findings, duration of therapy and number of relapses. The children of the study were between 1 and 11 years of age. The difference in numbers was explained by the children with otitis media being primarily treated by pediatricians using conventional methods. The median duration of pain in group A was 2 days and in group B 3 days. Median therapy in group A lasted 4 days and in group B 10 days. Antibiotics were given over a period of 8-10 days, while homeopathic treatments were stopped after healing. In group A 70.7% of the patients were free of relapses within 1 years and 29.3% had a maximum of three relapses. Group B had 56.5% without relapses and 43.5% a maximum of six relapses. Five children in group A were given antibiotics and 98 responded solely to homeopathic treatments. No side effects of treatment were found in either group.

  19. Preconcentration and Determination of Mefenamic Acid in Pharmaceutical and Biological Fluid Samples by Polymer-grafted Silica Gel Solid-phase Extraction Following High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri Sadeghi, Hayedeh; Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Mahabadi, Mahsa; Moniri, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Mefenamic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has analgesic, anti-infammatory and antipyretic actions. It is used to relieve mild to moderate pains. Solid-phase extraction of mefenamic acid by a polymer grafted to silica gel is reported. Poly allyl glycidyl ether/iminodiacetic acid-co-N, N-dimethylacrylamide was synthesized and grafted to silica gel and was used as an adsorbent for extraction of trace mefenamic acid in pharmaceutical and biological samples. Different factors affecting the extraction method were investigated and optimum conditions were obtained. The optimum pH value for sorption of mefenamic acid was 4.0. The sorption capacity of grafted adsorbent was 7.0 mg/g. The best eluent solvent was found to be trifluoroacetic acid-acetic acid in methanol with a recovery of 99.6%. The equilibrium adsorption data of mefenamic acid by grafted silica gel was analyzed by Langmuir model. The conformation of obtained data to Langmuir isotherm model reveals the homogeneous binding sites of grafted silica gel surface. Kinetic study of the mefenamic acid sorption by grafted silica gel indicates the good accessibility of the active sites in the grafted polymer. The sorption rate of the investigated mefenamic acid on the grafted silica gel was less than 5 min. This novel synthesized adsorbent can be successfully applied for the extraction of trace mefenamic acid in human plasma, urine and pharmaceutical samples. PMID:26330865

  20. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEPIDAGATHIS CRISTATA WILLD LEAF EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purma Aravinda Reddy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to screen the Lepidagathis cristata Willd, leaf extracts for analgesic activity, because the plant was screened only for immunosuppressive, antipyretic activities only, now in the present study the analgesic activity of leaf extracts were performed. The ethanolic, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts were prepared and are used for analgesic activity in two dose level that is 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight per oral in two screening methods, one is Hot Plate (n=5, another is Tail Immersion method (n=5, and the leaf extracts are showed significant analgesic activity. The plant extracts did not exhibit any mortality up to the dose level 4000 mg/kg. The methanol, Chloroform and Ethyl acetate extracts of leaf was evaluated for analgesic activity. . The 400mg/kg dose of leaf chloroform extract has highest activity in both the experimental models with 62.5% protection after 30min and 47.3% after 60 min with the significance of p< 0.001 when compared with 0 time interval and after 90 min it was shown 50% of protection and all the extracts has graded dose response.

  1. Physicians' perspectives on the diagnosis and management of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Kalpana; Li, Suzanne C; Hausmann, Jonathan S; Amarilyo, Gil; Barron, Karyl; Kim, Hanna; Nativ, Simona; Lionetti, Geraldina; Zeft, Andrew; Goldsmith, Donald; Kimberlin, David; Edwards, Kathryn; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Lapidus, Sivia

    2017-03-07

    To assess the practice patterns of pediatric rheumatology and infectious diseases subspecialists in the diagnosis and treatment of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome. An online survey assessing diagnostic and treatment approaches was sent to 424 members of the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) and 980 members of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society (PIDS). 277 physicians (123 from CARRA and 154 from PIDS representing 21% of the total membership) completed the survey. To diagnose PFAPA, most respondents agreed that patients must have the following features of the diagnostic criteria: stereotypical fever episodes (95%), asymptomatic intervals between episodes (93%), and normal growth and development (81%). However, 71% of the respondents did not require age of onset <5 years, 33% did not require regular intervals between episodes, and 79% did not require the concomitant signs of aphthous stomatitis, adenitis, or pharyngitis during episodes as long as episodes were regular. Over half (58%) considered episode resolution with steroids to be diagnostic of PFAPA. Corticosteroids, antipyretics, tonsillectomy, and cimetidine were the most commonly prescribed treatments, while steroids and tonsillectomy were most effective. Subspecialists in pediatric rheumatology and infectious diseases showed limited adherence to the complete published criteria for diagnosing PFAPA suggesting heterogeneity in the characteristics of patients diagnosed with the disorder. These findings emphasize the need to develop consensus diagnostic and treatment guidelines in well-characterized patient populations.

  2. Cocos nucifera (L. (Arecaceae: A phytochemical and pharmacological review

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    E.B.C. Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocos nucifera (L. (Arecaceae is commonly called the “coconut tree” and is the most naturally widespread fruit plant on Earth. Throughout history, humans have used medicinal plants therapeutically, and minerals, plants, and animals have traditionally been the main sources of drugs. The constituents of C. nucifera have some biological effects, such as antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities. Our objective in the present study was to review the phytochemical profile, pharmacological activities, and toxicology of C. nucifera to guide future preclinical and clinical studies using this plant. This systematic review consisted of searches performed using scientific databases such as Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, SciVerse, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. Some uses of the plant were partially confirmed by previous studies demonstrating analgesic, antiarthritic, antibacterial, antipyretic, antihelminthic, antidiarrheal, and hypoglycemic activities. In addition, other properties such as antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardioprotective, antiseizure, cytotoxicity, hepatoprotective, vasodilation, nephroprotective, and anti-osteoporosis effects were also reported. Because each part of C. nucifera has different constituents, the pharmacological effects of the plant vary according to the part of the plant evaluated.

  3. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Ranking by Nondeterministic Assessments of Probabilistic Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina luiza MOLDOVEANU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With a number of common therapeutic prescriptions, common mechanisms, common pharmacological effects - analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory (acetaminophen excepted, common side effects (SE (platelet dysfunction, gastritis and peptic ulcers, renal insufficiency in susceptible patients, water and sodium retention, edemas, nephropathies, and only a few different characteristics – different chemical structures, pharmacokinetics and different therapeutic possibility, different selectivities according to cyclooxygenase pathway 1 and 2, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs similarities are more apparent than differences. Being known that in a correct treatment benefits would exceed risks, the question “Which anti-inflammatory drug presents the lowest risks for a patient?” is just natural. By the Global Risk Method (GRM and the Maximum Risk Method (MRM we have determined the ranking of fourteen NSAIDs considering the risks presented by each particular NSAID. Nimesulide, Etoricoxib and Celecoxib safety level came superior to the other NSAIDs, whereas Etodolac and Indomethacin present an increased side effects risk.

  4. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients.

  5. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method to determine anti-allergic compound in Thai traditional remedy called Benjalokawichien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakpakdeejaroen, Intouch; Juckmeta, Thana; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Benjalokawichien (BLW) or Ya-Ha-Rak (HR) is a traditional remedy in the Nationaldrug list of herbal medicinal products AD 2012 of Thailand. For traditional use, BLW is used as antipyretic agent. It also has anti-allergic effect, particularly treating allergic rash. The ethanolic extract of BLW exhibited anti-allergic activity via inhibitory effect against a release ofbeta-hexosaminidase in RBL-2H3 cell line. Pectolinarigenin has been identified as the active compound ofBLW extract. In this study, a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed in order to control quality ofpreparation in three aspects such as chemical fingerprint, quantification and stability of the ethanolic extract. The RP-HPLC was performed with a gradient mobile phase composed of 0.1% ortho phosphoric acid and acetronitrile, and peaks were detected at 331 nm. Based on validation results, this analytical method is precise, accurate and stable for quantitative determination ofpectolinarigenin. The amount ofpectolinarigenin in Benjalokawichien extract determined by this method was 18.50 mg/g ofextract. Therefore, this method could be consideredfor quality control ofBLWextract.

  6. Flavone glycosides from commercially available Lophatheri Herba and their chromatographic fingerprinting and quantitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyun-Siang Fan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lophatheri Herba (Danzhuye; LH, the dried leaves of Lophatherum gracile Brongn (Poaceae, is commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine as an antipyretic, antibacterial, and diuretic. Chemical analysis has been conducted to isolate and identify seven major flavonoid glycosides, including a new flavone C-glycoside, luteolin 6-C-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucopyranoside (1, isoorientin (2, swertiajaponin (3, luteolin 6-C-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2-α-L-arabinopyranoside (4, isovitexin (5, swertisin (6, luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7, and luteolin 6-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside (8, from commercially available LHs in Taiwan. The structure of the new compound (1, the maximum component, was determined by extensive one- (1D- and two-dimensional (2D- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and MS spectral analyses. The 1H and 13C-NMR of two rotameric pairs of 3 and 6 were also assigned. To establish the quality control platform of LH, we developed a simultaneous determination of multiple components in 10 commercially available LHs, collected from different areas of Taiwan, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, as well as quantitative measurement of the major components 1–4, and 8. All isolated major compounds showed good linear regression (R2 ≥ 0.9993 within the test ranges and high reproducibility. These methods are readily accessible for the quality control of LH.

  7. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease

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    Guilabert Antonio

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD is a benign and self-limited disorder, characterized by regional cervical lymphadenopathy with tenderness, usually accompanied with mild fever and night sweats. Less frequent symptoms include weight loss, nausea, vomiting, sore throat. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is an extremely rare disease known to have a worldwide distribution with higher prevalence among Japanese and other Asiatic individuals. The clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features appear to point to a viral etiology, a hypothesis that still has not been proven. KFD is generally diagnosed on the basis of an excisional biopsy of affected lymph nodes. Its recognition is crucial especially because this disease can be mistaken for systemic lupus erythematosus, malignant lymphoma or even, though rarely, for adenocarcinoma. Clinicians' and pathologists' awareness of this disorder may help prevent misdiagnsois and inappropriate treatment. The diagnosis of KFD merits active consideration in any nodal biopsy showing fragmentation, necrosis and karyorrhexis, especially in young individuals presenting with posterior cervical lymphadenopathy. Treatment is symptomatic (analgesics-antipyretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and, rarely, corticosteroids. Spontaneous recovery occurs in 1 to 4 months. Patients with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease should be followed-up for several years to survey the possibility of the development of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  8. 老年人慎用的药物%The drugs used with caution in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映志

    2014-01-01

    随着社会的发展,老年人用药越来越受到重视。老年人是个特殊的群体,根据老年人身体、生理等特点,在使用某些药物时,应特别慎重,以防不良反应发生。老年人慎用的药物包括泻药、利尿药、抗生素、降血压药、心脑血管药、安眠药、解热镇痛药、激素类药等。%With the development of society,more and more attention is paid to the drug use in the elderly.The elderly are a special group of people.According to the physical and physiological characteristics of the elderly,in the use of certain drugs, people should be particularly careful in order to prevent adverse reaction.The elderly careful drugs including laxatives, diuretic, antibiotics, blood pressure medicine, cardiovascular drugs, sleeping pills, antipyretic analgesics, hormonal drugs, etc.

  9. Effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on the in vitro protease inhibitory activity of naproxen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmalingam, Senthil Rajan; Chidambaram, Kumarappan; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Nadaraju, Shamala, E-mail: dsenthilrajan@yahoo.co.in [School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated the effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on in vitro trypsin inhibitory activity of naproxen—a member of the propionic acid derivatives, which are a group of antipyretic, analgesic, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques were used to increase the solubility and anti-inflammatory efficacy of naproxen. The evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS) technique and the kneading methods were used to prepare the nanosuspension and inclusion complex of naproxen, respectively. We also used an in vitro protease inhibitory assay to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of modified naproxen formulations. Physiochemical properties of modified naproxen formulations were analyzed using UV, IR spectra, and solubility studies. Beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of naproxen was found to have a lower percentage of antitryptic activity than a pure nanosuspension of naproxen did. In conclusion, nanosuspension of naproxen has a greater anti-inflammatory effect than the other two tested formulations. This is because the nanosuspension formulation reduces the particle size of naproxen. Based on these results, the antitryptic activity of naproxen nanosuspension was noteworthy; therefore, this formulation can be used for the management of inflammatory disorders. (author)

  10. Apoptotic induction activity of Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. extracts on human lung and cervical cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintusorn Hansakul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. (Yaa paak khwaai and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. (Yaa teen-ka have long been used in traditional Thai medicine because of their diuretic, anti-inflamatory, and antipyretic effects. The present study examined the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of the hexane and butanolic extracts of these two grass species. All the grass extracts exhibited selective growth inhibition effect on human lung cancer (A549 and cervical cancer (HeLa cells relative to normal human lung MRC-5 fibroblasts with IC50 values in a range of 202 to 845 mg/ml. Apparently, HeLa cellswere more sensitive to the extracts than A549 cells. Moreover, all the extracts induced lethality in both cancer cell lines atconcentrations close to 1,000 mg/ml, indicating their selective cytotoxicity effects. ELISA assay showed that only the hexaneextract of D. aegyptium (L. P.B. and E. indica (L. Gaerth. significantly increased the apoptotic level in extract-treatedA549 cells. However, DNA ladder assay detected classic DNA ladder patterns, a characteristic feature of apoptosis, in both cancer cell lines treated with all the extracts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicatethat the cytotoxic activity of the grass extracts against lung and cervical cancer cells is mediated through the induction ofapoptosis.

  11. Ibuprofen-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanau, Radu M; Neuman, Manuela G

    2010-06-01

    Ibuprofen is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID). With the aging of the population, there will be a significant increase in the prevalence of painful degenerative and inflammatory rheumatic conditions. This increase likely will lead to a parallel increase in the use of NSAIDs, including ibuprofen. The primary effect of the NSAIDs is to inhibit cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin synthase), thereby impairing the ultimate transformation of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, prostacyclin, and thromboxanes. Although in the majority of cases it is safe, this NSAID, ibuprofen, can produce an unpredictable, idiosyncratic, type B reaction that may pose a major concern in clinical practice. Type B reactions are known to occur in susceptible individuals. The true hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) is a systemic disease defined by the triad of fever, rash, and internal organ involvement that starts 1 day to 12 weeks after the initiation of therapy. HSR has limited the therapeutic use of many drugs, including ibuprofen. Hypersensitivity syndrome associated with ibuprofen is a host-dependent drug reaction that is idiosyncratic in nature. This reaction likely is caused by a combination of metabolic and immunologic factors. Immune mediated components, such as T-cell and their products cytokines and chemokines, can exacerbate cellular responses and create complex pathways that lead to a variety of clinical manifestations. Our review presents an ibuprofen-induced clinical manifestation of hypersensitivity syndrome and the necessity of wisely monitoring the patients clinically and by laboratory investigations when prescribing this drug.

  12. Formulation Development of Mouth Dissolving Film of Etoricoxib for Pain Management

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    K. Senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Etoricoxib is a potent, orally active, and highly selective COX-2 inhibitor that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. The present research was undertaken to develop mouth dissolving films of etoricoxib to have rapid onset of action. Mouth dissolving film (MDF is a better alternate to oral disintegrating tablets due to its novelty, ease of use, and the consequent patient compliance. Solubility enhancement and taste masking of etoricoxib were the two challenges solved by formulating drug-inclusion complex with beta-cyclodextrin (BCD. MDF prepared by solvent casting etoricoxib-BCD complex along with HPMC as film forming polymer was found to possess desirable physicomechanical properties. In vitro release of etoricoxib from MDF in simulated salivary fluid and 0.1 N HCl was more than 95% within 2 minutes. Taste masking and in vivo disintegration were in acceptable range as assessed by human volunteers. Etoricoxib MDF was further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The index of analgesia shown by etoricoxib MDF was comparable to that of immediate release tablets (100% activity within 40 minutes in animal studies. Conclusively, the present study documents the development of a commercially viable formula for an MDF of etoricoxib with rapidity in pain management.

  13. Venous Thromboembolism Following Dantrolene Treatment for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Hao; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chieh-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is one of the most severe iatrogenic emergencies in clinical service. The symptoms including sudden consciousness change, critical temperature elevation and electrolytes imbalance followed by mutli-organ system failure were common in NMS. In addition to aggressive interventions with intravenous fluid resuscitation and antipyretics, several antidotes have been suggested to prevent further progression of the muscle damage. Dantrolene has been reported to be one of the most effective treatments for NMS. However, the adverse effects of dantrolene treatment for NMS have not yet been evaluated thoroughly. Here we report a young male patient with bipolar I disorder who developed NMS after rapid tranquilization with haloperidol. Dantrolene was given intravenously for the treatment of NMS. However, fever accompanied with local tenderness, hardness with clear border and swelling with heat over the patient’s left forearm occurred on the sixth day of dantrolene treatment. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) over intravenous indwelling site at the patient’s forearm was noted and confirmed by Doppler ultrasound. The patient’s VTE recovered after heparin and warfarin thrombolytic therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report demonstrating the possible relationship between dantrolene use and VTE in a patient with antipsychotic treatment. Although the causal relationship and the underlying pathogenesis require further studies, dantrolene should be used with caution for patients with NMS. PMID:27776396

  14. Acute and subacute oral toxicity assessment of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart ex Spreng. pulp fruit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas de Lima, Fernando; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Menegati, Sara Emilia Lima Tolouei; Santos, Ariany Carvalho Dos; Souza, Roosevelt Isaias Carvalho; de Oliveira, Vinícius Soares; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida; Vieira, Maria do Carmo

    2017-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., popularly known as "bacuri", is a native plant from the brazilian Cerrado and used in folk medicine as a pulmonary decongestant, an anti-inflammatory for joints and antipyretic. There is an expectation about the use in chronic disease of the Attalea phalerata oil since its composition is high in carotenoids and beneficial fatty acids. The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxicological profile of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. pulp (APO). Acute and subacute toxicity studies were performed in male and female Wistar rats according to the OECD - Guidelines 425 and 407. For the acute toxicity, one single dose of the APO (2000mg/kg) was administered by gavage to five female rats. In the subacute toxicity, four different doses (125, 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) of the APO were administered to male and female rats for 28 consecutive days. No deaths or behavioral changes were observed during both experiments as well as no changes in organ weights, hematological, histopathological parameters. The biochemical parameters showed changes in phosphatase alkaline and albumin levels, however these values are within the normal range for the species. A significant reduction in cholesterol and triglycerides was also observed in some of the animals treated with the APO. Therefore, the LD50 is higher than 2000mg/kg and the APO oil can be considered safe at the doses tested in rats. However, further assessments are required in order to proceed to clinical studies in humans.

  15. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  16. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of infusions from leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Annamaria; Bombelli, Raffaella; Luini, Alessandra; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosentino, Marco; Lecchini, Sergio; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2009-04-01

    Plants are the main source of molecules with antioxidant and radical scavenging properties that aid the natural defence systems of cells and may be involved in the preservation of human health, particularly preventing all the physiopathological conditions where oxidative damage is a hallmark. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. is a medicinal plant of the Achillea millefolium aggregate (yarrow) traditionally used, particularly in mountain areas, as an infusion or alcohol extract for its digestive, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and cytoprotective activity against oxidative stress of infusions obtained from the leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb., assessed by chemical (free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and Folin Ciocalteu assay) and biological assays (in vitro model of cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in PC12 cells line). Infusions of leaves had the highest antioxidant properties and cytoprotective activity. The antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with the total phenolic content but not with the cytoprotective profile. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. has good antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, suggesting further investigations on its chemical composition and potential health value, particularly for traditionally prepared infusions of leaves.

  17. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. II. Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of aspirin, an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, undoubtedly represents a milestone in the history of medical therapy. Since ancient times the derivatives of willow (Salix alba were used to treat a variety of fevers and pain syndromes, although the first report dates back to 1763 when the English Reverend Edward Stone described the effect of an extract of the bark willow in treating malaria. In the XIX century many apothecaries and chemists, including the Italian Raffaele Piria and Cesare Bertagnini, developed the biological processes of extraction and chemical synthesis of salicylates, and then analyzed their therapeutic properties and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. In 1899 the Bayer Company, where Felix Hoffmann, Heinrich Dreser and Arthur Eichengrün worked, recorded acetyl-salicylic acid under the name “Aspirin”. In the XX century, besides the definition of the correct applications of aspirin in the anti-rheumatic therapy being defined, Lawrence L. Crawen identified the property of this drug as an anti-platelet agent, thus opening the way for more widespread uses in cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Proteasomal Dysfunction Induced By Diclofenac Engenders Apoptosis Through Mitochondrial Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, Ayeman; Upadhyay, Arun; Chhangani, Deepak; Joshi, Vibhuti; Mishra, Ribhav; Yamanaka, Koji; Mishra, Amit

    2017-05-01

    Diclofenac is the most commonly used phenylacetic acid derivative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that demonstrates significant analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative activity of NSAIDs and examined their apoptotic induction effects in different cancer cell lines. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which these pharmacological agents induce apoptosis and exert anti-carcinogenic properties are not well known. Here, we have observed that diclofenac treatment induces proteasome malfunction and promotes accumulation of different critical proteasome substrates, including few pro-apoptotic proteins in cells. Exposure of diclofenac consequently elevates aggregation of various ubiquitylated misfolded proteins. Finally, we have shown that diclofenac treatment promotes apoptosis in cells, which could be because of mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cytochrome c release into cytosol. This study suggests possible beneficial insights of NSAIDs-induced apoptosis that may improve our existing knowledge in anti-proliferative interspecific strategies development. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1014-1027, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 柴胡皂苷类药效分子机制研究最新进展%The latest progress on the molecular mechanisms of pharmacological activity of saikosaponins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玉鹏; 马爱萍; 陈琦; 林进华; 李天聪; 李弘琨

    2016-01-01

    柴胡皂苷为齐墩果烷型三萜皂苷,是传统中药柴胡的主要化学和生物活性成分,具有解热、镇静、止痛、镇咳等作用。近期,柴胡皂苷药效分子机制的新研究成果不断涌现,所以总结了现代药理药效学关于柴胡皂苷在逆转多药耐药、防治肝病和保护肝脏、抗炎、抗肿瘤方面的分子机制研究最新进展情况,为其在临床的进一步应用提供参考。%The main bioactive chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine Bupleurum are saikos-aponins, oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, which are applied in the functions of antipyretic, sepative, analgesic, antibechic. The molecular mechanisms of pharmacological activity of saikosaponins have constantly been revealed. This article reviews recent advances in the effects of saikosaponins on reversing multiple drug resistance (MDR), hepatopretection, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor. It will provide reference for further application of saikos-aponins in clinical practice.

  20. CREBH determines the severity of sulpyrine-induced fatal shock.

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    Naganori Kamiyama

    Full Text Available Although the pyrazolone derivative sulpyrine is widely used as an antipyretic analgesic drug, side effects, including fatal shock, have been reported. However, the molecular mechanism underlying such a severe side effect is largely unclear. Here, we report that the transcription factor CREBH that is highly expressed in the liver plays an important role in fatal shock induced by sulpyrine in mice. CREBH-deficient mice were resistant to experimental fatal sulpyrine shock. We found that sulpyrine-induced expression of cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B family genes, which are involved in sulpyrine metabolism, in the liver was severely impaired in CREBH-deficient mice. Moreover, introduction of CYP2B in CREBH-deficient liver restored susceptibility to sulpyrine. Furthermore, ectopic expression of CREBH up-regulated CYP2B10 promoter activity, and in vivo knockdown of CREBH in wild-type mice conferred a significant resistance to fatal sulpyrine shock. These data demonstrate that CREBH is a positive regulator of CYP2B in response to sulpyrine administration, which possibly results in fatal shock.

  1. PFAPA syndrome: a rare cause of periodic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtaran, Hanifi; Karadağ, Ahmet; Catal, Ferhat; Aktaş, Davut

    2004-01-01

    PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, adenopathy) is characterized by abrupt onset of fever, malaise, aphthous stomatitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenopathy. The age of onset of the disease is four years, with a range of 6 months to 7 years. The syndrome is sporadic and nonhereditary. Long-term sequelae do not develop. A nine- year-old boy presented with sore throat, fever and oral aphthae. After taking a throat culture, he was prescribed oral antipyretic and was called for a follow-up visit the next day. As the culture result was negative, he was given a single dose prednisolone with the suspected diagnosis of PFAPA. Twenty-four hours later his temperature was 36.8 degrees C, with all his complaints regressed. Twenty-two days later the patient was again admitted to our hospital with the same complaints. Again, single dose oral prednisolone was given after a throat culture. On the next day the patient was free of all symptoms and the culture was again normal. To our knowledge this is the first PFAPA case report from Turkey in the literature.

  2. Experience of Dazhui Scraping in Adjuvant Treatment of Infantile Fever 35 Cases%大椎穴刮痧辅助治疗小儿外感发热35例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓倩

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察大椎穴刮痧治疗小儿外感发热的疗效。方法将71例外感发热患儿随机分为治疗组35例和对照组36例,在原有抗感染治疗的基础上,对照组予布洛芬混悬液口服,治疗组给予大椎穴刮痧。结果治疗组总有效率为94.28%,对照组为75.00%,差异均有显著性意义(<0.05)。结论大椎穴刮痧退热效果优于口服布洛芬混悬液。%Objective To observe the curative ef ect of Dazhui Guasha treatment of infantile fever. Methods 71 cases with sense fever patients were randomly divided into treatment group (35 cases) and control group (36 cases), in the original anti infection treatment based on, the control group was treated with ibuprofen oral suspension, the treatment group given Dazhui acupoint scraping. Results The total ef ective rate of the treatment group was 94.28%, and the control group was 75%, the dif erence was significant ( <0.05). Conclusion Dazhui acupoint scraping antipyretic ef ect is bet er than oral Ibuprofen Suspension.

  3. ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION; VERTICAL TRANSMISSION AND FOETAL CONGENITAL ANOMALIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Aziz-un-Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to flaviviridae family that includes Dengue, West Nile, and Yellow Fever among others. Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 in Zika forest of Uganda. It is a vector borne disease, which has been sporadically reported mostly from Africa, Pacific islands and Southeast Asia since its discovery. ZIKV infection presents as a mild illness with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after the bite of an infected mosquito. Majority of the patients have low grade fever, rash, headaches, joints pain, myalgia, and flu like symptoms. Pregnant women are more vulnerable to ZIKV infection and serious congenital anomalies can occur in foetus through trans-placental transmission. The gestation at which infection is acquired is important. Zika virus infection acquired in early pregnancy poses greater risk. There is no evidence so far about transmission through breast milk. Foetal microcephaly, Gillian Barre syndrome and other neurological and autoimmune syndromes have been reported in areas where Zika outbreaks have occurred. As infection is usually very mild no specific treatment is required. Pregnant women may be advised to take rest, get plenty of fluids. For fever and pain they can take antipyretics like paracetamol. So far no specific drugs or vaccines are available against Zika Virus Infection so prevention is the mainstay against this diseases. As ZIKV infection is a vector borne disease, prevention can be a multi-pronged strategy. These entail vector control interventions, personal protection, environmental sanitation and health education among others.

  4. The effect of filler addition and oven temperature to the antioxidant quality in the drying of Physalis angulata fruit extract obtained by subcritical water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R. F.; Christianto, G.

    2016-01-01

    Physalis angulata or ceplukan is medicinal herb, which grows naturally in Indonesia. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. It is also reported to have antimycobacterial, antileukemic, antipyretic. In this research, Pysalis angulata fruit was investigated for its antioxidant capacity. In order to avoid the toxic organic solvent commonly used in conventional extraction, subcritical water extraction method was used. During drying, filler which is inert was added to the extract. It can absorb water and change the oily and sticky form of extract to powder form. The effects of filler types, concentrations and drying temperatures were investigated to the antioxidant quality covering total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity. The results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity were improved by addition of filler because the drying time was shorter compared to extract without filler. Filler absorbs water and protects extract from exposure to heat during drying. The combination between high temperature and shorter drying time are beneficial to protect the antioxidant in extract. The type of fillers investigation showed that aerosil gave better performance compared to Microcrystalline Celullose (MCC).

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY BETWEEN ACETONE AND ETHANOLIC STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF SPONDIAS PINNATA (LINN.F KURZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda B.K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Spondias Pinnata (Linn.F Kurz is found in tribal area of Mayurbhanj district and extensively used traditionally by the tribal people as Anthelmintic, Anti-inflammatory, Regulate menstruation, Anti-pyretic, Anti-tumor and Anti-bacterial activity1-6. The present study is attempted to explore the anthelmintic activity of acetone and ethanol extract of bark of plant Spondias Pinnata in a comparative study. The various doses of acetone and ethanol extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activities on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima postuma. All extracts of both the solvents were able to show anthelmintic activity at (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml concentration. The activities are well comparable with standard drugs, Piperazine citrate and Albendazole (10 mg/ml.All the doses of acetone and ethanol extract of Spondias Pinnata showed better anthelmintic activities than the standard drugs. When the dose of extract is increased, a gradual increase in anthelmintic activity was observed. Ethanol extract showed better anthelmintic activity in comparison to the acetone extract of Spondias Pinnata. The data was verified as statistically significance by using ANOVA at 5% level of significance (P< 0.05.

  6. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAJOGHLI Shirin MD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepamin febrile seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy ofintermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age rangeof 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female were studied. Children with ahistory of psychomotor delay, abnormal neurological examination, a history ofantiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excluded from thestudy. Patients received a single dose of prophylactic Clonazepam (0.05 mg/kg/day on the first day of febrile illness and twice daily during the course of fever.An antipyretic medication (Acetaminophen was advised if fever exceeded38oC. Patients were followed up for one year after the study inclusion date.ResultsThree patients were excluded from study since they didnot follow the tritmentand three patients experienced afebrile seizures. Twenty four patients had 162febrile episodes during the course of the study and all patients were seizure-freeafter 1 year.ConclusionClonazepam was 100% effective but lethargy and ataxia were common sideeffects in patients. Fortunately, their parents continued treatment because theyhad prior awareness of the possible side effects of clonazepam. Clonazepam isefficacious as an intermittent therapy for febrile seizures if parents are informedof its side effects.

  7. Pharmacology and biochemistry ofPolygonatum verticillatum:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saboon; Yamin Bibi; Muhammad Arshad; Sidra Sabir; Muhammad Shoaib Amjad; Ejaz Ahmed; Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Polygonatum verticillatum (Linn.) All. syn.Convallaria verticillata Linn. is a valuable medicinal plant, distributed in the temperate Himalaya at the elevations 2 400 to 2 800 m. It is a perennial rhizomatous herb and contains various pharmacologically important secondary metabolites among which the most important areα-bulnesene, linalyl acetate, eicosadienoic, pentacosane, piperitone, docasane, diosgenin, santonin and calarene. It also possesses antimalarial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, lipoxygenase, urease inhibition, diuretic, tracheorelaxant, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, antifungal, antibacterial and bronchodilator activities. The plant also got importance in traditional systems of medicine due to its broad therapeutic potential especially of its rhizome. But in the past few years, over exploitation of plant parts caused the decline in the frequency of this species due to which it became threatened, endangered and vulnerable in different parts of the world. So efforts are being made in certain regions of the world for bothex-situ and in-situ conservation. This paper briefly reviewed the botanical, traditional, phytochemical, pharmacological and conservation related aspects of this plant.

  8. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuneerub, Pravaree; Limpanasithikul, Wacharee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-01-01

    Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae) has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE) dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root.

  9. Effectively managing intractable central hyperthermia in a stroke patient by bromocriptine: a case report

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    Yu KW

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kuo-Wei Yu,1,* Yu-Hui Huang,2,3 Chien-Lin Lin,1,4,* Chang-Zern Hong,5 Li-Wei Chou1,41Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 4School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Physical Therapy, Hungkuang University, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Central hyperthermia is characterized by a rapid onset, high temperature, marked temperature fluctuation, and poor response to antipyretics and antibiotics. Although poststroke central hyperthermia is common, prolonged instances are rare. We report a case of prolonged central fever after an intracranial hemorrhage. Before the accurate diagnosis and management of central fever, the patient underwent long-term antibiotic use that led to pseudomembranous colitis. Bromocriptine was used to treat the prolonged central hyperthermia, after which the fever did not exceed 39°C. A week later, the body temperature baseline was reduced to 37°C and a low-grade fever with minor temperature fluctuation occurred only a few times. No fever occurred in the month following the treatment. After the fever subsided, the patient could undergo an aggressive rehabilitation program.Keywords: bromocriptine, central hyperthermia, fever, stroke

  10. NSAIDs, Mitochondria and Calcium Signaling: Special Focus on Aspirin/Salicylates

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    Yoshihiro Suzuki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid is a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID that has long been used as an anti-pyretic and analgesic drug. Recently, much attention has been paid to the chemopreventive and apoptosis-inducing effects of NSAIDs in cancer cells. These effects have been thought to be primarily attributed to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis. However, recent studies have demonstrated unequivocally that certain NSAIDs, including aspirin and its metabolite salicylic acid, exert their anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects independently of cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. It is becoming increasingly evident that two potential common targets of NSAIDs are mitochondria and the Ca2+ signaling pathway. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding the roles of mitochondria and Ca2+ in the apoptosis-inducing effects as well as some side effects of aspirin, salicylates and other NSAIDs, and introducing the emerging role of L-type Ca2+ channels, a new Ca2+ entry pathway in non-excitable cells that is up-regulated in human cancer cells.

  11. Perceived causes, diagnosis and treatment of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle by livestock farmers in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    P.J. Masika

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceived causes, diagnosis and treatment of redwater (babesiosis and gallsickness (anaplasmosis in cattle by livestock farmers in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape Province were investigated by means of participatory methods, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey. Most livestock owners relate the causes of these diseases to excessive grazing of lush green grass, which is thought to bring about an accumulation of bile in the body. The majority of livestock owners diagnose gallsickness and redwater on the basis of presenting signs and post mortem findings. Eighty nine percent of a total of 343 livestock owners participating in the study claimed to administer herbal remedies to treat the 2 tick-borne diseases; 75 % of these combine herbal remedies with conventional medicines and 25 % use herbal remedies only. Application of herbal remedies was reportedly aimed mainly at the removal of excess bile. However, some plant species used to prepare herbal remedies are reported to possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-pyretic and purgative, and may be effective in the treatment of gallsickness and redwater. A lack of understanding of the causes and transmission of gallsickness and redwater, leading to ill-directed treatment, and widespread deviation from the directions of use when administering conventional medicines, were identified as problems that could be addressed by farmer training and the supply of appropriate information.

  12. Characterization of inflammatory response induced by Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Louise F; Prezotto-Neto, José P; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Jared, Simone Gs; Santoro, Marcelo L; Barbaro, Katia C

    2014-05-01

    Freshwater stingray accidents cause intense pain followed by edema, erythema, and necrosis formation. Treatment for stingray envenomation is based on administration of analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory drugs. This report evaluated the local inflammatory reaction-including edema formation, leukocyte recruitment, release of inflammatory mediators, and histopathological changes-after the intraplantar injection of Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom in mice. Edema was observed as soon as 15 min after venom injection, peaking at 30 min, and lasted up to 48 h. In addition, P. motoro venom increased neutrophil counts in the site of injection, at all time periods and venom doses analyzed. Increased eosinophil and lymphocyte counts were detected mainly at 24 h. Moreover, monocytes/macrophages were observed in large amounts at 24 and 48 h. Microscopically, the venom induced leukocyte migration to the injured tissue, edema, mast cell degranulation, angiogenesis, and epidermal damage. Inflammatory mediator release (IL-6, MCP-1 and KC) was detected as soon as 1 h after venom injection, and it increased significantly at 4 h. At 24 h, the venom induced only the production of MCP-1. These results show that this stingray venom evokes a complex inflammatory reaction, with rapid and persistent edema formation, leukocyte recruitment, and release of cytokines and chemokines.

  13. OPERCULINA TURPETHUM AS A PANORAMIC HERBAL MEDICINE: A REVIEW

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    Veena Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O. turpethum is the source of the drug known as Turpeth or Indian Jalap and it is widely grown throughout India and it is occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornament. It has been used as a traditional medicine in many countries. The root is prescribed in scorpion sting and snake bite. The roots are bitter,acrid, sweet, thermogenic, purgative, carminative, antihelmintic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatic, stimulant and hydragogue. They are useful in colic constipation, dropsy, vitiated conditions of vata, paralysis, myalgia, arthralgia, pectoralgia, bronchitis, obesity, helminthiasis, gastropathy, ascites, inflammations, intermittent fever, leucoderma, puritus, ulcers, erysepelas, haemorrhoids, tumors, jaundice, ophthalmia, employed in drug formulations, dropsical effusions and rheumatism. Some of the Ayurvedic preparations are Trivritaadi ghrita, Trivritadi kwaatha, Abhyarishta, Kaishorgugglu and Chandraprabha vati. It is the best amongst the herbs used for Virechana (i.e. therapeutic purgation, one of the procedures of Ayurvedic Panchakarma therapy. This review comprehensively incorporates the medicinal uses, and pharmacology of O. turpethum. The plant,Operculina turpethum is endangered so it also prompts attention to protect it from extinction

  14. Effect of Temperature and Light on Phytochemical Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Andrographis paniculata

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    B. Jaikumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae is an annual herb. It is found in Sri Lanka, and throughout the plains of India especially Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Orissa. Various medicinal properties like cholevetic, antidiarrheal, immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory have been attributed to this plant in the traditional system of Indian medicine. Further reported activities are hepatoprotective, antimalarial, anticancer, antihypertensive, antipyretic, antithrombotic and antidote for snake bites. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-microbial activity for the isopropanol extract of A. paniculata against different bacterial strains such as E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. vulgaris, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus by determining inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition. Minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition values and the high bioactive metabolites production was observed in different extracts of A. paniculata under different physical stress (Light and temperatures. The results revealed that, the isopropanol extract of A. paniculata is potent for inhibiting bacterial growth and various secondary metabolites production in dark condition at 37°C than other tested parameters.

  15. Ethnomedicinal, pharmaceutical and pesticidal uses of Calotropis procera (Aiton (Family: Asclepiadaceae

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    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloropis procera is a multipurpose plant that is extensively used by traditional folk healers and local people for preparation of different drugs and ailments of choice to treat different diseases and disorders. Plant contains diverse phyto-chemicals which show various pharmaceutical and ethno-medicinal properties. Two related species are of Asclepiadaceae, Caloropis procera and Calotropis gigantea, and both possess enormous disease curing potential against various infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans and worms; and are widely used for treatment of different diseases and physiological disorders. Active components of Calotropis procera displayed cytostatic, cytotoxic, wound healing, procogulant, analgesic, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-fertility, antipyretic, anti-coccidial, anticancer, antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Natural Calotropis latex in preserved and concentrated forms finds many pharmaceutical applications and may be more useful in interventional therapies, complementary and alternative medicine to cure different types of cancers. Latex can be used for preparation of various herbal drugs and drug templates which might be non-steroidal and show wider cancer suppressing efficacy in patients. Plant can become a future source of therapeutic drugs, pesticides and industrial products. It can be used for phyto-extraction of toxic chemicals and reclamation of polluted derelict lands.

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

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    M. S. T. Barroso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20 MPa at 323.15 K. The volatile compounds were obtained by CO2 supercritical extraction with moderate pressure (9 MPa, whereas the non-volatile compounds were extracted at higher pressure (12 to 20 MPa. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC-MS and the main compounds identified were sabinene, limonene, D-germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, and spathulenol. For the non-volatile extracts, the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Moreover, one of the goals of this study was to compare the experimental data with the simulated yields predicted by a mathematical model based on mass transfer. The model used requires three adjustable parameters to predict the experimental extraction yield curves.

  17. The Effect of Polymer Content on the Non-Newtonian Behavior of Acetaminophen Suspension

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    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. The aim of the study was evaluation of the effect of different polymers on rheological behavior of acetaminophen suspension. In order to achieve controlled flocculation, sodium chloride was added. Then structural vehicles such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, tragacanth, and magnesium aluminum silicate (Veegum were evaluated individually and in combination. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume (F, redispersibility (n, and growth of crystals of the suspensions were determined. Also, the rheological properties of formulations were studied. The results of this study showed that the combination of suspending agents had the most physical stability and pseudoplastic behavior with some degree of thixotropy. Viscosity of suspensions was increased by adding NaCl 0.02%. Presence of PVP is necessary for improving rheological behavior of suspensions by NaCl. This may be related to the cross-linking between the carbonyl group in the PVP segment and Na+ ions.

  18. UV-induced photocatalytic degradation of aqueous acetaminophen: the role of adsorption and reaction kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Shaik; Keane, David; Nolan, Kieran; Oelgemöller, Michael; Lawler, Jenny; Tobin, John M; Morrissey, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Nanostructured titania supported on activated carbon (AC), termed as integrated photocatalytic adsorbents (IPCAs), were prepared by ultrasonication and investigated for the photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen (AMP), a common analgesic and antipyretic drug. The IPCAs showed high affinity towards AMP (in dark adsorption studies), with the amount adsorbed proportional to the TiO2 content; the highest adsorption was at 10 wt% TiO2. Equilibrium isotherm studies showed that the adsorption followed the Langmuir model, indicating the dependence of the reaction on an initial adsorption step, with maximum adsorption capacity of 28.4 mg/g for 10 % TiO2 IPCA. The effects of initial pH, catalyst amount and initial AMP concentration on the photocatalytic degradation rates were studied. Generally, the AMP photodegradation activity of the IPCAs was better than that of bare TiO2. Kinetic studies on the photocatalytic degradation of AMP under UV suggest that the degradation followed Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetics, with an adsorption rate constant (K) that was considerably higher than the photocatalytic rate constant (k r), indicating that the photocatalysis of AMP is the rate-determining step during the adsorption/photocatalysis process.

  19. Bioprospecting of Moringa (Moringaceae: Microbiological Perspective

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    Harpreet Kaur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce primary and secondary metabolites which encompass a wide array of functions. Some of these have been subsequently exploited by humans for their beneficial role in a diverse array of applications. However, out of 750,000 species available on earth, only 1 to 10 % is being potentially used. Moringa is one such genus belonging to the family of Moringaceae, a monotypic family of single genera with around 33 species. Most of these species have not been explored fully despite the enormous bioactivity reports concerning various potentials such as: cardiac and circulatory stimulants; anti-tumor; antipyretic; antiepileptic; anti-inflammatory; antiulcer; antispasmodic; diuretic antihypertensive; cholesterol lowering; antioxidant; antidiabetic; hepato protective; antibacterial and antifungal activities. They are claimed to treat different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine. Surprisingly, some of the species have been reported to be extinct from the face of earth before their exploration and exploitation for economic benefits. This review focuses on the bio-prospects of Moringa particularly on relatively little explored area of their microbiological applications.

  20. Early detection of influenza like illness through medication sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socan, Maja; Erculj, Vanja; Lajovic, Jaro

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring sales of medications is a potential candidate for an early signal of a seasonal influenza epidemic. To test this theory, the data from a traditional, consultation-oriented influenza surveillance system were compared to medication sales and a predictive model was developed. Weekly influenza-like incidence rates from the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System were compared to sales of seven groups of medications (nasal decongestants, medicines for sore throat (MST), antitussives, mucolytics, analgo-antipyretics, non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), betalactam antibiotics, and macrolide antibiotics) to determine the correlation of medication sales with the sentinel surveillance system - and therefore their predictive power. Poisson regression and regression tree approaches were used in the statistical analyses. The fact that NSAIDs do not exhibit any seasonality and that prescription of antibiotics requires a visit to the doctor's office makes the two medication groups inappropriate for predictive purposes. The influenza-like illness (ILI) curve is the best matched by the mucolytics and antitussives sales curves. Distinct seasonality is also observed with MST and decongestants. The model including these four medication groups performed best in prediction of ILI incidence rate using the Poisson regression model. Sales of antitussives proved to be the best single predictive variable for regression tree model. Sales of medication groups included in the model were demonstrated to have a predictive potential for early detection of influenza season. The quantitative information on medication sales proves to be a useful supplementary system, complementing the traditional consultation-oriented surveillance system.

  1. Fever prevalence and management among three rural communities in the North West Zone, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, R M; Alegana, V A; Amran, J; Noor, A M; Snow, R W

    2010-06-01

    Between March and August 2008 we undertook 2 cross-sectional surveys among 1375 residents of 3 randomly selected villages in the district of Gebiley in the North-West Zone, Somalia. We investigated for the presence of malaria infection and the period prevalence of self-reported fever 14 days prior to both surveys. All blood samples examined were negative for both species of Plasmodium. The period prevalence of 14-day fevers was 4.8% in March and 0.6% in August; the majority of fevers (84.4%) were associated with other symptoms including cough, running nose and sore throat; 48/64 cases had resolved by the day of interview (mean duration 5.4 days). Only 18 (37.5%) fever cases were managed at a formal health care facility: 7 within 24 hours and 10 within 24-72 hours of onset. None of the fevers were investigated for malaria; they were treated with antibiotics, antipyretics and vitamins.

  2. Acute diarrhea in children

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    Radlović Nedeljko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea (AD is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child’s treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD.

  3. Research on Synthesis of Isopropyl Chloroacetate%氯乙酸异丙酯的合成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; 李敢

    2016-01-01

    Isopropyl chloroacetate is indispensable as a kind of organic synthesis intermediates in the pharmaceutical industry, and is widely used in the synthesis of non steroid body anti-inflammatory antipyretic analgesic drug naproxen and ibuprofen raw materials, demand is great. So bescuse more and more peoples are researching on isopropyl chloroacetate, the choice of high efficiency catalyst should not be underestimated. The literatures about synthesizing isopropyl chloroacetate in recent years were consulted, the advantages and disadvantages in the process of using inorganic salt, solid super acid and functionalized ionic liquid as catalysts were found.%氯乙酸异丙酯是医药工业不可或缺的一种有机合成的中间体,被广泛用于合成非甾体类消炎解热镇痛药物萘普生和布洛芬的原料,需求量较大。因此对于氯乙酸异丙酯的研究越来越多,高效催化剂的选择不容小觑。参考近几年有关氯乙酸异丙酯合成的文献,发现无机盐、固体超强酸、功能化离子液体等催化剂在使用中的优缺点。

  4. The incredible queen of green: Nutritive value and therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

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    Muhammad Shoaib Amjad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera, rightly called as the miracle tree, is the extensively grown and highly valuable species of Moringaceae family. The tree has a pantropical distribution with nativity to Indian subcontinent. Nutritionally and therapeutically, it is a highly valued plant. Vitamins, proteins, β-carotene, aminoacids and various phenolics such as β-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and zeatin with potential for nutritional and therapeutic applications are enriched in different plant parts. Different plant parts of this plant such as roots, leaves, bark, flowers, fruit of immature pods and seeds possess a number of therapeutic properties such as diuretic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antitumor, antiulcer, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activities, and are being operational in various traditional medicine system for curing different health problems. Moringa is higly beneficial in depression, malnutrition, general weakness and osteoporosis. The present review is intended to emphasize the phytochemical constitution, traditional medicinal uses along pharmacological properties with the purpose to create public awareness regarding therapeutic and nutritive potential of this multipurpose tree as well as to facilitate the pharmacists and the researchers to fill the gap by exploring novel therapeutic compounds that will, of course, be in favor of humanity.

  5. [Traveling with small children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, C

    1997-01-01

    Traveling with children especially in the tropics requires special planning. Contraindications are rare but care providers should obtain information about medical and transfusional facilities at the destination. Children should receive all vaccinations required for international travel and for specific countries, taking into account age, location, duration of stay, and purpose of trip. A first aid kit should be packed containing a thermometer, bandages, antiseptic agents, a total sunscreen preparation, a mosquito net, sterile compresses, tablets for water disinfection, and indispensable medications (antimalarial agents, antipyretics, oral rehydration solutions, antiemetics, and eye wash). The main indication for chemoprophylaxis is malaria. Chloroquine is recommended for most locations but proguanil may be necessary in areas of resistance. Special attention must be paid to skin care in infants: maintaining cleanliness, avoiding cuts insofar as possible, and treating any wounds. Clothing must be carefully laundered and adequate to prevent overexposure to sunlight and insect bites. Insect bites must also be prevented by applying repellents, using mosquito nets, and wearing insecticide-treated garments. Handwashing by people who prepare meals and by the children before eating is important to prevent food poisoning. Breast feeding is advisable for infants. Thorough cooking of meats, rinsing of fresh produce, drinking of bottled beverages, and sterilization of water are also important food safety measures. These precautions are usually adequate to allow safe travel with children.

  6. Bryophytes: Hoard of remedies, an ethno-medicinal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Satish; Chandra, Dinesh; Barh, Anupam; Pankaj; Pandey, Raj Kumar; Sharma, Ishwar Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes are the second largest group of land plants after angiosperms. There is very less knowledge available about medicinal properties of these plants. Bryophytes are popular remedy among the tribal people of different parts of the world. Tribal people use these plants to cure various ailments in their daily lives. Bryophytes are used to cure hepatic disorders, skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, used as antipyretic, antimicrobial, wound healing and many more other ailments by different tribal communities of Africa, America, Europe, Poland, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Turkey, Japan, Taiwan, Pakistan, China, Nepal and different parts of South, North and Eastern India. Apart from ethno-medicinal uses some bryophytes possesses antitumor activities against different cancer cell lines and this property of bryophytes needs to be more focused in the future. Compile information about medicinal properties and anticancer properties of bryophytes is lacking till date. In the present review, the authors tried to compile all the ethno-medicinal and other related information of bryophytes and fill the knowledge lacuna in this particular field. Some published reviews are available but the information is segregated. This manuscript will help people doing research in the bryophytes.

  7. Alhagi: a plant genus rich in bioactives for pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Gulzar; Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Alhagi, a plant genus from family Fabaceae, is widely distributed in many countries of Asia, Australia and Europe. Commonly known as camel thorn, Alhagi has many species famous for feed and folk medicinal uses. Different species of Alhagi such as Alhagi pseudalhagi, A. graecorum, A. sparsifolia, A. kirgisorum, A. maurorum, A. camelorum and A. persarum have been explored for their antioxidant potential and nutritive value along with various medicinal properties. A wide array of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids (alhacidin and alhacin), steroids, pseudalhagin A, phospholipids and polysaccharides have been reported from different parts of Alhagi species. A broad range of biological activities such as antioxidant, cardiovascular, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, antibacterial and antifungal have been ascribed to different parts of Alhagi. In addition, Alhagi plants are also valued as a rich source of digestible protein and important minerals. This review focuses on the medicinal applications and detailed profile of high-value bioactive phytochemicals along with pharmacological attributes and therapeutic potential of these multi-purpose plants.

  8. Ethnopharmacology of the plants of genus Ajuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israili, Zafar H; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2009-10-01

    The plants of genus Ajuga are evergreen, clump-forming rhizomatous perennial or annual herbaceous flowering species, with Ajuga being one of the 266 genera of the family Lamiaceae. There are at least 301 species of the genus Ajuga with many variations. These plants, growing in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and North America, are used in gardens as ground cover or border for their foliage and beautiful flowers. Many of these plants have been used in traditional medicine as a remedy for fever, toothache, dysentery, malaria, high blood pressure, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, as anthelmintic, diuretic and antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antimycobacterial agents. They are also used as insect growth inhibitor s. A large number of compounds have been isolated from the Ajuga plants, including phytoecdysteroids, neo-clerodane-diterpenes and diterpenoids, triterpenes, sterols, anthocyanidin-glucosides and iridoid glycosides, withanolides, flavonoids, triglycerides and essential oils. These compounds possess a broad spectrum of biological, pharmacological and medicinal properties, such as anabolic, analgesic, antibacterial, antiestrogenic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antileukemic, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antioxidant, antipyretic, cardiotonic, cytotoxic, hypoglycemic, and vasorelaxing activity, as well as antifeedant and insect growth-inhibitory properties. Thus, genus Ajuga has significant medicinal and economic importance.

  9. Say No to Indiscriminate usage of NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Say No to Indiscriminate usage of NSAIDsIt will be our tradition to start every issue with a topic which demands attention of peopleespecially pharma professionals and of course the researchers. NSAIDs are proved to be verybeneficial as analgesic, antipyretic and anti inflammatory agents. Their usage is becoming moreand more as they are available as OTC drugs. Its worth to remember that they too possessesnumber of side effects, including GI side effects, Nephropathy, liver failure and prolongedbleeding after an injury or surgery. It is now reported NSAIDs causes dementia and showsnegative effect on protein synthesis. Their cardiovascular risk was in the head lines for severalmonths. One more fact is that no NSAID should be taken for more than 10 days, unless a doctorhas prescribed otherwise. Unnecessary and indiscriminate usage of NSAIDS increasingalarmingly (Green, 2001 and should be taken care of. They often take along with prescriptiondrugs and there are several incidences of drug interactions. For example concomitant usage ofanticoagulants or oral glucocorticoids should be avoided. (Ibuprofen, Clinical Pharmacologywww.clinicalpharmacology.com. So, indiscriminate usage of NSAIDs should be regulated.

  10. Clinical implications and treatment of dengue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chawla Pooja; Yadav Amrita; Chawla Viney

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a common pathogenic disease often proving fatal, more commonly affecting the tropics. Aedes mosquito is the vector for this disease, and outbreaks of dengue often cause mass damage to life.The current review is an effort to present an insight into the causes, etiology, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, major organs affected, mitigation and line of treatment of this disease with special emphasis on drugs of natural origin.The disease has a potential to spread as an endemic, often claiming several lives and thus requires concerted efforts to work out better treatment options. Traditional medicine offers an alternative solution and could be explored as a safer treatment option. Development of a successful vaccine and immunization technique largely remains a challenge and a better antiviral approach needs to be worked out to complement the supportive therapy.No single synthetic molecule has found to be wholly effective enough to offer curative control and the line of treatment mostly utilizes a combination of fluid replacement and antipyretics-analgesics like molecules to provide symptomatic relief.

  11. Piroxicam immediate release formulations: A fasting randomized open-label crossover bioequivalence study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Sally A; El-Bedaiwy, Heba M

    2014-11-01

    Piroxicam is a NSAID with analgesic and antipyretic properties, used for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two brands of piroxicam capsules (20 mg) in 24 Egyptian volunteers. The in vivo study was established according to a single-center, randomized, single-dose, laboratory-blinded, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study with a washout period of 3 weeks. Under fasting conditions, 24 healthy male volunteers were randomly selected to receive a single oral dose of one capsule (20 mg) of either test or reference product. Plasma samples were obtained over a 144-hour interval and analyzed for piroxicam by HPLC with UV detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax , tmax , AUC0-t , AUC0-∞ , Vd /F, Cl/F, and t1/2 were determined from plasma concentration-time profiles. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of log transformed values of Cmax , AUC0-t , and AUC0-∞ of the two treatments were within the acceptable range (0.8-1.25) for bioequivalence. From PK perspectives, the two piroxicam formulations were considered bioequivalent, based on the rate and extent of absorption. No adverse events occurred or were reported after a single 20-mg piroxicam and both formulations were well-tolerated.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of whole plant of Pergularia daemia linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip A. Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short lived and self limiting disorders are not normally treated with phytomedicines, but recently the use of some botanical preparations for chronic inflammatory conditions has become increasingly wide spread. Pergularia daemia Linn. belonging to family Asclepiadaeceae. Widely distributed in the old World tropics and sub-tropics from southern and tropical Africa through Arabia to Afghanistan, India and Shri-lanka. It consists of Coroglaucigenin, calactin, oleanolic acid, putranjivadione, calacin, calotropin and β-sitosterol etc. The plant is pungent, cooling, anthelmintic, laxative, antipyretic, cures biliousness, “kapha”, asthma, “tridosha” ulcers,useful in eye troubles. The present studied has shown that ethanol extract is good significant (p<0.001reduction in paw oedema to the extent of 44.18% and reduced the granuloma formation to the extent of 19.87% at 200mg/kg concentration, when compared to control group by Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method and cotton pellet granuloma method in rats respectively.

  13. Paracetamol Supplementation Does Not Alter The Antitumor Activity and Lung Toxicity of Bleomycin

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    Ghada M. Suddek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin (BLM is well known by its antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, pulmonary fibrosis has been considered the dose limiting toxicity of the drug. Hyperpyrexia following injection of BLM was reported thus, paracetamol is sometimes administered with BLM as antipyretic drug. Actually, paracetamol was found to interfere with cytotoxicity of some drugs. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of paracetamol administration on the antitumor and lung toxicity of BLM. The antitumor activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC cells. Paracetamol did not alter the antitumor effect of BLM in vitro or in vivo. The lung toxicity of BLM was evidenced by decrease in the body weight, increase in the lung/body weight ratio, decrease in the response of pulmonary arterial rings to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and increase in the contractility of tracheal smooth muscles induced by acetylcholine (ACh. The toxicity was also confirmed biochemically by marked increases in hydroxyproline and lipid peroxidation in rat lung and the decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH level. Pretreatment with paracetamol did not significantly change lipid peroxidation, GSH level, percent survival of rats or the response of pulmonary arterial rings and tracheal smooth muscles to 5-HT and ACh respectively. The results of the present study indicated that paracetamol neither modified the antitumor effect of BLM nor changed drug-induced lung toxicity.

  14. In Vitro antibacterial activity of ibuprofen and acetaminophen

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    Ali Abdul Hussein S AL-Janabi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ibuprofen and acetaminophen are common chemical agents that have anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activity. Aims: To detect any potential antibacterial effects of ibuprofen and acetaminophen on pathogenic bacteria. Materials and methods: Ibuprofen and acetaminophen were tested for antibacterial activity against seven isolates of bacteria including gram positive bacteria (Staphylococci aureus and Bacillus subtilis and gram negative bacteria (E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella typhi and Paracoccus yeei. Spectrophotometer assay was applied to determine the antibacterial activities of ibuprofen and acetaminophen. Three controls were included in this study: Ampicilline sodium (20 μg/ml; cefotaxime sodium (20 μg/ml and chemical free medium. Results: Staphylococcus aureus and Paracoccus yeei were susceptible to lower concentrations of ibuprofen and acetaminophen (MIC=1.25 mg/ml, while two strains of Enterobacter exhibited resistance to these agents. Conclusions: Ibuprofen and acetaminophen showed a potential antibacterial effect on isolated strains of bacteria. They had the same ability to inhibit bacterial growth.

  15. Structural Elucidation of two Compounds from the Fruit of Medicinally Important Plant, Basella Rubra

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    Swarnali Nath Choudhury

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Basella rubra is a medicinal plant species found in India and other parts of Asia and tropical Africa. It improves the appetite, useful in biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers and it has antiviral and antipyretic activity. The red pigment from the fruit has good colouring ability. It is bright purple at pH 3-7. It is a good additive and a safe, non-poisonous colorant. At present, the dyestuff industry has grown rapidly because of the vital role played by small – scale sector, which is responsible for the production of azo, acids, basics and direct dyes. But such synthetic dyes have toxic effect and hence may not be useful in edible substances. Therefore keeping this in mind the structure of two separated compounds from the fruit pigment of medicinally important plant Besella rubra were elucidated. The structures of the compounds have been characterized on the basis of spectral data such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectral studies.

  16. Perceptions and practices of self-medication among medical students in coastal South India.

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    Nithin Kumar

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a common practice worldwide and the irrational use of drugs is a cause of concern. This study assessed the prevalence of self-medication among the medical students in South India. The data was analysed using SPSS version 11.5. A total of 440 students were included in the study. The prevalence of self-medication was 78.6%. A larger number of females were self-medicating (81.2% than males (75.3%. The majority of the students self-medicated because of the illness being too trivial for consultation (70.5%. Antipyretics were most commonly self-medicated by the participants (74.8%. Only 47% of the participants opined that self-medication was a part of self-care and it needs to be encouraged. 39.3% of the participants perceived that the supply of medicine without prescription by the pharmacist can prevent the growing trend of self-medication. Easy availability and accessibility to health care facilities remains the cornerstone for reducing the practice of self-medication.

  17. Le caratteristiche linguistiche del foglietto illustrativo

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    Silvia Giumelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nell’articolo si affronta il problema della comprensibilità del foglietti illustrativi (i bugiardini” allegati ai medicinali, di cui indicano posologia, modalità d’uso ed effetti indesiderati (FI nel testo. Linguisticamente il testo dei FI si pone nel più ampio contesto dei linguaggi specialistici, ma si distingue per alcune particolarità (il destinatario e la funzione che ricopre. Attraverso l’analisi del FI presente in un comune antipiretico, Tachipirina 1000 ®, si mettono in evidenza le strategie comunicative messe in atto dall’estensore e il grado di comprensione da parte del presunto destinatario. L’analisi mette inoltre in luce le caratteristiche comuni di questo tipo di testi altamente specialistici con il linguaggio settoriale della medicina.  Language features of medicine packaging leaflets This article addresses the problem of the comprehensibility of the leaflets in medicine packaging which indicate dosage, method of use and side effects (FI in the text. Linguistically, the text of the FI is placed in the broader context of specialist languages, but it is characterized by some peculiarities (the recipient and the role it plays. By analyzing the FI of a common antipyretic, paracetamol 1000 ®, we highlight the communicative strategies put in place by the author and the degree of understanding on the part of the intended recipient. The analysis also highlights the common features of this type of highly specialized text with the technical language of medicine.

  18. Therapeutic and adverse effects of flunixin-meglumine in adult and young cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kenji; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we elucidated the difference in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sensitivities between young and adult cats on therapeutic and adverse effects. In the prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using flunixin-meglumine, young (12 months old) cats of both sexes were given LPS (0.3 µg/kg, i.v.), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered 30 min before the LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pre-treatment with flunixin in both adult and young cats. In addition, flunixin showed almost the same antipyretic effects in both young and adult cats. The animals were administered flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days, and sacrificed 24 hr later to examine the gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. In adult cats, flunixin caused many severe lesions in the small intestine. In contrast, very few gastrointestinal lesions were produced by flunixin in young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of flunixin, plasma concentrations of flunixin were analysed using a high performance liquid chromatography. There were no significant differences in plasma concentration of flunixin between young and adult cats from 0.5 to 4 hr after the injection. These results demonstrated that NSAIDs could be used more safely in young than in adult cats from the points of gastrointestinal adverse effects. Furthermore, this difference in gastrointestinal lesions between adult and young cats was not related with the plasma concentration of flunixin.

  19. The incredible queen of green:Nutritive value and therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad ShoaibAmjad; Huma Qureshi; MuhammadArshad; Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari; Maria Masood

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, rightly called as the miracle tree, is the extensively grown and highly valuable species of Moringaceae family. The tree has a pantropical distribution with nativity to Indian subcontinent. Nutritionally and therapeutically, it is a highly valued plant. Vitamins, proteins, β-carotene, aminoacids and various phenolics such as β-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and zeatin with potential for nutritional and therapeutic applications are enriched in different plant parts. Different plant parts of this plant such as roots, leaves, bark, flowers, fruit of immature pods and seeds possess a number of therapeutic properties such as diuretic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antitumor, antiulcer, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activities, and are being operational in various traditional medicine system for curing different health problems. Moringa is higly beneficial in depression, malnutrition, general weakness and osteoporosis. The present review is intended to emphasize the phytochemical constitution, traditional medicinal uses along pharmacological properties with the purpose to create public awareness regarding therapeutic and nutritive potential of this multipurpose tree as well as to facilitate the pharmacists and the researchers to fill the gap by exploring novel therapeutic compounds that will, of course, be in favor of humanity.

  20. Molecular structure activity on pharmaceutical applications of Phenacetin using spectroscopic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanagopal, A.; Periandy, S.; Gayathri, P.; Ramalingam, S.; Xavier, S.

    2017-01-01

    The pharmaceutical compound; Phenacetin was investigated by analyzing FT-IR, FT-Raman and 1H &13C NMR spectra. The hybrid efficient computational calculations performed for computing physical and chemical parameters. The cause of pharmaceutical activity due to the substitutions; carboxylic, methyl and amine groups in appropriate positions on the pedestal compound was deeply investigated. Moreover, 13C NMR and 1H NMR chemical shifts correlated with TMS standard to explain the truth of compositional ratio of base and ligand groups. The bathochromic shift due to chromophores over the energy levels in UV-Visible region was strongly emphasized the Anti-inflammatory chemical properties. The chemical stability was pronounced by the strong kubo gap which showed the occurring of charge transformation within the molecule. The occurrence of the chemical reaction was feasibly interpreted by Gibbs free energy profile. The standard vibrational analysis stressed the active participation of composed ligand groups for the existence of the analgesic as well as antipyretic properties of the Phenacetin compound. The strong dipole interaction energy utilization for the transition among non-vanishing donor and acceptor for composition of the molecular structure was interpreted.

  1. The chemistry, pharmacologic, and therapeutic applications of Polyalthia longifolia

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    K V Katkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are nature′s gift to human beings to lead a disease-free, healthy life. They play a vital role in preserving our health. India is one of the most medicoculturally diverse countries in the world, where the medicinal plant sector is part of a time-honored tradition that is respected even today. Medicinal plants are believed to be much safer and proved as elixir in the treatment of various ailments. In our country, more than 2000 medicinal plants are recognized. Polyalthia longifolia cv. pendula (Annonaceae is native to the drier regions of India and is locally known as "Ashoka" and is commonly cultivated in Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This plant is used as an antipyretic agent in indigenous systems of medicine. Pharmacologic studies on the bark and leaves of this plant show effective antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic function, antiulcer activity, hypoglycemic activity, and hypotensive effect. The present article includes the detailed exploration of pharmacologic properties of P. longifolia in an attempt to provide a direction for further research.

  2. A review on versatile applications of transition metal complexes incorporating Schiff bases

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    Ahmed M. Abu-Dief

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schiff bases and their complexes are versatile compounds synthesized from the condensation of an amino compound with carbonyl compounds and widely used for industrial purposes and also exhibit a broad range of biological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antipyretic properties. Many Schiff base complexes show excellent catalytic activity in various reactions and in the presence of moisture. Over the past few years, there have been many reports on their applications in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. The high thermal and moisture stabilities of many Schiff base complexes were useful attributes for their application as catalysts in reactions involving at high temperatures. The activity is usually increased by complexation therefore to understand the properties of both ligands and metal can lead to the synthesis of highly active compounds. The influence of certain metals on the biological activity of these compounds and their intrinsic chemical interest as multidentate ligands has prompted a considerable increase in the study of their coordination behaviour. Development of a new chemotherapeutic Schiff bases and their metal complexes is now attracting the attention of medicinal chemists. This review compiles examples of the most promising applied Schiff bases and their complexes in different areas.

  3. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

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    Shamkant B. Badgujar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  4. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  5. Acaricide activity of leaves extracts of Sambucus australis Schltdl. (Caprifoliaceae at 2% on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Felipe da Silva Krawczak

    Full Text Available Parasite infections caused by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus are responsible for the most of economic losses in producing-cattle countries in tropical and subtropical areas. Indiscriminate uses of chemical acaricides have contributed with the appearance of tick resistance to many drugs available in the marketplace, and it is a serious problem in the tick control. Flowers of Sambucus australis (South America, called "sabugueiro-from-Brazil", are used on infusions or decoctions forms in the folk medicine with diuretic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and laxative purpose, also employed for treating respiratory diseases in human. The main goal of this study was to evaluate in vitro potential of S. australis leaves extracts as an acaricide agent. Ethanol extract at 70% has been dehydrated and a fraction was suspended in 70% ethanol or in distillated water at final concentration of 2% (0.2mg-1. Using the immersion test of engorged females the efficiency results were obtained in 34% and 66% with the leaves extract diluted in water and 70% ethanol, respectively. This study is the first report on acaricidal activity of S. australis against cattle tick. Further studies to determine the active metabolites in different stages of S. australis could aid to identify suitable extracts to be tested in the R. (B. microplus control.

  6. New fatty acids from the Red Sea sponge Mycale euplectellioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gamal A; Abd-Elrazek, Ali E E; Hassanean, Hashim A; Alahdal, Abdulrahman M; Almohammadi, Ameen; Youssef, Diaa T A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the Red Sea sponge Mycale euplectellioides afforded two new compounds; hexacosa-(6Z,10Z)-dienoic acid methyl ester (1) and hexacosa-(6Z,10Z)-dienoic acid (2), along with two known compounds: icosa-(8Z,11Z)-dienoic acid methyl ester (3) and β-sitosterol (4). The structures were elucidated by the interpretation of their spectral data. The total methanol extract (TME) of the sponge exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the different strains at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. All tested fractions did not exhibit any activity against Serratia marcescens and tested fungal strains. The TME and different fractions displayed anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg compared with indomethacin (8 mg). The TME exhibited a remarkable hepato-protective effect in CCl4-induced liver damage compared with silymarin. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 displayed weak activity against A549 non-small cell lung cancer, the U373 glioblastoma and the PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines.

  7. Acetaminophen overdose associated with double serum concentration peaks

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    Cristian Papazoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic–antipyretic medication in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose, a frequent cause of drug toxicity, has been recognized as the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis. N-Acetylcysteine is the recommended antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Despite evidence on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of hepatic injury, controversy persists about the optimal duration of the therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old male with acetaminophen overdose and opioid co-ingestion who developed a second peak in acetaminophen serum levels after completing the recommended 21-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol and when the standard criteria for monitoring drug levels was achieved. Prolongation of N-acetylcysteine infusion beyond the standard protocol, despite a significant gap in treatment, was critical for successful avoidance of hepatotoxicity. Delay in acetaminophen absorption may be associated with a second peak in serum concentration following an initial declining trend, especially in cases of concomitant ingestion of opioids. In patients with acetaminophen toxicity who co-ingest other medications that may potentially delay gastric emptying or in those with risk factors for delayed absorption of acetaminophen, we recommend close monitoring of aminotransferase enzyme levels, as well as trending acetaminophen concentrations until undetectable before discontinuing the antidote therapy.

  8. Central nervous system activity of Leucas inflata Benth. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yousuf, M H; Ali, B H; Bashir, A K; Tanira, M O M; Blunden, G

    2002-09-01

    The analgesic activity of the methanol and acetone extracts of Leucas inflata L. (family Labiatae) was evaluated in mice using different experimental models. The effect of the two extracts on pentobarbitone-sleeping time, motor activity, sensorimotor coordination, carrageen induced inflammation, and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia has also been investigated. The two crude extracts have been phytochemically analyzed and some constituents isolated and characterized. These included stigmasterols, a chromone and coumarins. Extracts of L. inflata L., given at single oral doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg, significantly and dose-dependently, reduced formalin-induced pain, acetic acid induced abdominal constrictions and increased the reaction time in the hot-plate test. Both extracts caused significant and dose-related impairment in the sensorimotor control and ambulatory and total motor activity of treated mice. Both extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory action by reducing paw edema of treated mice. The extracts did not significantly affect the rectal temperature of normothermic mice. However, they were effective in preventing Brewers yeast induced pyrexia. It is concluded that the crude methanol and acetone extract of L. inflata has CNS depressant properties, manifested as antinociception and sedation. Both extracts have anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions.

  9. Optimising the management of fever and pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Anker, J N

    2013-01-01

    Fever and pain in children, especially associated with infections, such as otitis media, are very common. In paediatric populations, ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) are both commonly used over-the-counter medicines for the management of fever or mild-to-moderate pain associated with sore throat, otitis media, toothache, earache and headache. Widespread use of ibuprofen and paracetamol has shown that they are both effective and generally well tolerated in the reduction in paediatric fever and pain. However, ibuprofen has the advantage of less frequent dosing (every 6-8 h vs. every 4 h for paracetamol) and its longer duration of action makes it a suitable alternative to paracetamol. In comparative trials, ibuprofen has been shown to be at least as effective as paracetamol as an analgesic and more effective as an antipyretic. The safety profile of ibuprofen is comparable to that of paracetamol if both drugs are used appropriately with the correct dosing regimens. However, in the overdose situation, the toxicity of paracetamol is not only reached much earlier, but is also more severe and more difficult to manage as compared with an overdose of ibuprofen. There is clearly a need for advanced studies to investigate the safety of these medications in paediatric populations of different ages and especially during prolonged use. Finally, the recently reported association between frequency and severity of asthma and paracetamol use needs urgent additional investigations.

  10. Experience of Professor ZHANG Da-ning treating chronic renal failure%张大宁教授治疗慢性肾功能衰竭的经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦剑

    2015-01-01

    This article introduced the experience of Professor ZHANG Da-ning treating chronic renal failure. Professor ZHANG regards it as the pathogenesis of chronic renal failure that the root cause is kidney weakness and stasis of blood, that the symptom is damp poison in body. He advocates that we should apply the therapeutic principle of tonifying the kidney and activating blood circulation, dispelling dampness and sending down the advers flow. The therapeutic principle includes many methods:tonifying the spleen and kidney together, tonifying the kidney by warm medicines, improving blood circulation by enriching energy, tonifying the liver and kidney at the same time, rising clear substance and sending down dampness, antipyretic method and removing dampness, traditional Chinese medincine active carbon adsorbing poisonous substance, and so on.%介绍了张大宁教授治疗慢性肾功能衰竭的经验。张大宁教授认为,慢性肾功能衰竭的病机为“肾虚血瘀为本,湿毒内蕴为标”,运用补肾活血和降逆排毒法治疗。具体方法有脾肾双补、温补肾阳、益气活血、肝肾同治、升清降浊、清利湿热、炭剂吸附等。

  11. Development of pH sensitive polyacrylamide grafted pectin hydrogel for controlled drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutar, Prashant B; Mishra, Rakesh K; Pal, Kunal; Banthia, Ajit K

    2008-06-01

    In the present study an attempt was made to graft polyacrylamide on pectin. The grafted polymer was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Rheological property of pectin solution was compared with the product solution. The grafted polymer was cross-linked with varying amount of glutaraldehyde. The swelling properties of the cross-linked product were also studied. The salicylic acid, an antipyretic drug, was incorporated in the cross-linked gel as a model drug and the drug release studies were done in a modified Franz's diffusion cell. The effect of cross-linking density on the release property of salicylic acid was studied through the cross-linked product. The product showed better film forming property and gelling property than pectin. The comparative rheological properties of pectin and grafted copolymer indicated change in the property of the product. FTIR studies indicated incorporation of amide group. Differential scanning calorimetry and XRD suggested formation of a new polymer. Swelling study indicated pH dependent swelling of the cross-linked hydrogel. Salicylic acid release indicated pH dependent release from the hydrogel.

  12. Premarketing surveillance of ibuprofen suppositories in febrile children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Dan; Youngster, Ilan; Cohen, Avner; Leibovitch, Eugene; Shavit, Itai; Erez, Ilan; Uziel, Yosef; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2011-03-01

    In many countries, ibuprofen is available only in oral formulations. The authors aimed to investigate parental satisfaction and possible adverse reactions among children receiving newly marketed ibuprofen suppositories, prior to their arrival at the pharmaceutical points of distribution. Children needing antipyretic medication were recruited from 11 pediatric wards and clinics in Israel. Each patient received ibuprofen suppositories (5-10 mg/kg/dose) after completing a data collection form. After 3 to 7 days of treatment, information regarding parent satisfaction, possible adverse reactions, and concomitant use of drugs was obtained. Overall, 490 children completed the study. Parents' satisfaction was high (4.5 ± 0.47 on a scale of 1-5), and 92.2% reported that they would use the medication in the future. Adverse reactions were reported in 8 patients (1.63%, 95% confidence interval = 1.77-3.25), the most common being diarrhea. Rectal administration of ibuprofen suppositories is well tolerated and overall satisfaction and the repeated expected use were high.

  13. Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Bangpungtongsung-San, a Traditional Herbal Prescription

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    In-Sik Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangpungtongsung-san (BPS is a traditional Korean herbal formula used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiobesity, and choleretic agent, which consists of 18 herbs. As part of a safety evaluation of BPS, the present study evaluated the potential genotoxicity of an aqueous BPS extract using a standard battery of tests, including, the Ames test, chromosomal aberration test, and mouse micronucleus test. The BPS extract was not found to be genotoxic under the conditions of the Ames test. In micronucleus test, oral administration of BPS at doses up to 2,000 mg/kg did not increases the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte. The chromosomal aberration test showed that the BPS extract induced an increase in the number of structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in the group treated with BPS at high dose levels (2,500 and 4,000 μg/mL for 6 h, in the presence of the metabolic activation system (S-9 mix, compared with the vehicle control. In conclusion, these results indicate that BPS extract may act as a genotoxic agent.

  14. Inclusion of Paracetamol into β-cyclodextrin nanocavities in solution and in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kemary, Maged; Sobhy, Saffaa; El-Daly, Samy; Abdel-Shafi, Ayman

    2011-09-01

    We report on steady-state UV-visible absorption and emission characteristics of Paracetamol, drug used as antipyretic agent, in water and within cyclodextrins (CDs): β-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl- β-CD (HP- β-CD) and 2,6-dimethyl- β-CD (Me- β-CD). The results reveal that Paracetamol forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with CD. Upon encapsulation, the emission intensity enhances, indicating a confinement effect of the nanocages on the photophysical behavior of the drug. Due to its methyl groups, the Me- β-CD shows the largest effect for the drug. The observed binding constant showing the following trend: Me- β-CD > HP- β-CD > β-CD. The less complexing effectiveness of HP- β-CD is due to the steric effect of the hydroxypropyl-substituents, which can hamper the inclusion of the guest molecules. The solid state inclusion complex was prepared by co-precipitation method and its characterization was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H NMR and X-ray diffractometry. These approaches indicated that Paracetamol was able to form an inclusion complex with CDs, and the inclusion compounds exhibited different spectroscopic features and properties from Paracetamol.

  15. Feasibility of clinoptilolite application as a microporous carrier for pH-controlled oral delivery of aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondar, Mahdi; Parsa, Mohammad Javad; Yousefpour, Yaser; Sharifi, Ali Mohammad; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite which due to high surface area/volume ratio has found many applications in industries and medicine. Aspirin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is currently used as an anticoagulant, antinociceptive, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory drug. It is an acidic drug which induces gastric irritation due to inhibition of cyclooxygenase I located in gastric mucosa. In the present work, adsorption and desorption of aspirin on Iranian clinoptilolite micronized particles were studied in acidic and relatively alkaline pHs. Effect of particle size of clinoptilolite was also investigated on adsorption and desorption of aspirin. Specific surfaces, particle sizes, and zeta potentials of clinoptilolite particles were also determined. Scanning electron micrograph was used to study the morphology and crystallinity of clinoptilolite particles. The results showed that adsorption and desorption of aspirin on clinoptilolite are particle size- and pH-dependent. The present work proposes clinoptilolite as an inexpensive, efficient, and non-toxic natural available microporous material for aspirin oral delivery.

  16. Linarin Inhibits the Acetylcholinesterase Activity In-vitro and Ex-vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinchi; Wang, Xin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Linarin is a flavone glycoside in the plants Flos chrysanthemi indici, Buddleja officinalis, Cirsium setosum, Mentha arvensis and Buddleja davidii, and has been reported to possess analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. In this paper, linarin was investigated for its AChE inhibitory potential both in-vitro and ex-vivo. Ellman's colorimetric method was used for the determination of AChE inhibitory activity in mouse brain. In-vitro assays revealed that linarin inhibited AChE activity with an IC50 of 3.801 ± 1.149 μM. Ex-vivo study showed that the AChE activity was significantly reduced in both the cortex and hippocampus of mice treated intraperitoneally with various doses of linarin (35, 70 and 140 mg/Kg). The inhibition effects produced by high dose of linarin were the same as that obtained after huperzine A treatment (0.5 mg/Kg). Molecular docking study revealed that both 4'-methoxyl group and 7-O-sugar moiety of linarin played important roles in ligand-receptor binding and thus they are mainly responsible for AChE inhibitory activity. In view of its potent AChE inhibitory activity, linarin may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of some diseases associated with AChE, such as glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, gastric motility and Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Histopathological study of the hepatic and renal toxicity associated with the co-administration of imatinib and acetaminophen in a preclinical mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Inthisham; Pasupati, Thanikachalam; Judson, John Paul; Segarra, Ignacio

    2010-06-01

    Imatinib, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the first line treatment against chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Several fatal cases have been associated with imatinib hepatotoxicity. Acetaminophen, an over-the-counter analgesic, anti-pyretic drug, which can cause hepatotoxicity, is commonly used in cancer pain management. We assessed renal and hepatic toxicity after imatinib and acetaminophen co-administration in a preclinical model. Four groups of male ICR mice (30-35 g) were fasted overnight and administered either saline solution orally (baseline control), imatinib 100 mg/kg orally (control), acetaminophen 700 mg/kg intraperitoneally (positive control) or co-administered imatinib 100 mg/kg orally and acetaminophen 700 mg/kg intraperitoneally (study group), and sacrificed at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h post-administration (n = 4 per time point). The liver and kidneys were harvested for histopathology assessment. The liver showed reversible cell damage like feathery degeneration, microvesicular fatty change, sinusoidal congestion and pyknosis, when imatinib or acetaminophen were administered separately. The damage increased gradually with time, peaked at 2 h but resolved by 4 h. When both drugs were administered concurrently, the liver showed irreversible damage (cytolysis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) which did not resolve by 6 h. Very minor renal changes were observed. Acetaminophen and imatinib co-administration increased hepatoxicity which become irreversible, probably due to shared P450 biotransformation pathways and transporters in the liver.

  18. Co-administration of N-Acetylcysteine and Acetaminophen Efficiently Blocks Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owumi, Solomon E; Andrus, James P; Herzenberg, Leonard A; Herzenberg, Leonore A

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical Research Although acetaminophen (APAP) is an effective analgesic and anti-pyretic, APAP overdose is the most frequent cause of serious, often lethal, drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) within 8 hours of APAP overdose effectively mitigates APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, preventing APAP toxicity before it occurs by formulating APAP with NAC is logical and, as we show here in a mouse model, is effective in preventing APAP toxicity. Thus, toxic oral APAP doses sufficient to cause severe widespread liver damage do not cause significant damage when administered concurrently with equal amounts of NAC, that is, in the NAC-APAP treated animals, hepatic transaminases increase only marginally and liver architecture remains fully intact. Thus, we conclude that concomitant oral dosing with APAP and NAC can provide a convenient and effective way of preventing toxicity associated with large dosage of APAP. From a public health perspective, these findings support the concept that a co-formulation of APAP plus NAC is a viable over-the-counter (OTC) alternative to the current practice of providing APAP OTC and treating APAP toxicity if/when it occurs. In essence, our findings indicate that replacing the current OTC APAP with a safe and functional APAP/NAC formulation could prevent the accidental and intentional APAP toxicity that occurs today.

  19. Cytoprotective effects of silafibrate, a newly-synthesised siliconated derivative of clofibrate, against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafisi, Sara; Heidari, Reza; Ghaffarzadeh, Mohammad; Ziaee, Mojtaba; Hamzeiy, Hossein; Garjani, Alireza; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2014-06-01

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl para amino phenol, APAP) is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic drug responsible for various drug-induced liver injuries. This study evaluated APAP-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes alongside the protective effects of silafibrate and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Hepatocytes were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats by collagenase enzyme perfusion via the portal vein. This technique is based on liver perfusion with collagenase after removing calcium ions (Ca2+) with a chelator. Cells were treated with different concentrations of APAP, silafibrate, and NAC. Cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarisation were measured as toxicity markers. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation occurred after APAP administration to rat hepatocytes. APAP caused mitochondrial depolarisation in isolated cells. Administration of silafibrate (200 μmol L-1) and/or NAC (200 μmol L-1) reduced the ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarisation caused by APAP. Cytotoxicity induced by APAP in rat hepatocytes was mediated by oxidative stress. In addition, APAP seemed to target cellular mitochondria during hepatocyte damage. The protective properties of silafibrate and/or NAC against APAP‑induced hepatic injury may have involved the induction of antioxidant enzymes, protection against oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, and alteration in cellular glutathione content.

  20. "Nifedipine in the treatment of liver toxicity induced by Acetaminophen overdose in mice "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalantari H

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is an analgesic and antipyretic drug, which is widely used by public and poisoning with this drug, is common. One of the most important adverse effects of acetaminophen poisoning is centrilobullar necrosis in hepatic cells, which depends on activity of microsomal cytochrome P-450 (CYP enzymes. The aim of this investigation was to find out the protective effect of nifedipine against liver toxicity caused by acetaminophen overdose (700 mg/kg as calcium channel blocker. In this study doses of 5, 50, 100, 250, 500 mg/kg of nifedipine were administered to mice orally one hour before acetaminophen administration. The negative control group receive normal saline. The positive control group was administered with acetaminophen at a dose of 700 mg/kg one hour after nifedipine administration. After 24 hours, enzyme activity (ALT, AST, histopathological examination and liver weight were compared with the control groups. The results revealed that nifedipine at dose of 500 mg/kg was the most effective and protected damage from acetaminophen toxicity.

  1. AM404 inhibits NFAT and NF-κB signaling pathways and impairs migration and invasiveness of neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Francisco J; Soler-Torronteras, Rafael; Lara-Chica, Maribel; García, Victor; Fiebich, Bernd L; Muñoz, Eduardo; Calzado, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    N-Arachidonoylphenolamine (AM404), a paracetamol lipid metabolite, is a modulator of the endocannabinoid system endowed with pleiotropic activities. AM404 is a dual agonist of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and the Cannabinoid Receptor type 1 (CB₁) and inhibits anandamide (AEA) transport and degradation. In addition, it has been shown that AM404 also exerts biological activities through TRPV1- and CB₁ -independent pathways. In the present study we have investigated the effect of AM404 in the NFAT and NF-κB signaling pathways in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. AM404 inhibited NFAT transcriptional activity through a CB₁- and TRPV1-independent mechanism. Moreover, AM404 inhibited both the expression of COX-2 at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and the synthesis of PGE₂. AM404 also inhibited NF-κB activation induced by PMA/Ionomycin in SK-N-SH cells by targeting IKKβ phosphorylation and activation. We found that Cot/Tlp-2 induced NFAT and COX-2 transcriptional activities were inhibited by AM404. NFAT inhibition paralleled with the ability of AM404 to inhibit MMP-1, -3 and -7 expression, cell migration and invasion in a cell-type specific dependent manner. Taken together, these data reveal that paracetamol, the precursor of AM404, can be explored not only as an antipyretic and painkiller drug but also as a co-adjuvant therapy in inflammatory and cancer diseases.

  2. Investigation of flurbiprofen genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in rat bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan B

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate cytogenetic effects of NSAID flurbiprofen which was used as active ingredient in some analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Genotoxic effect of flurbiprofen was investigated using in vivo chromosome aberration (CA) test and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) test. Also, oxidative stress potential of flurbiprofen was determined by measuring total oxidant and antioxidant level which occurred with flurbiprofen treatment in rat peripheral blood. For these purposes, rats were treated with three concentrations of flurbiprofen (29.25, 58.50 and 117 mg/kg, body weight) in single dose at two different treatment periods (12 and 24 h). According to the results, flurbiprofen did not affect chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells with CA test. In RAPD-PCR test, polymorphic bands were unaffected. Also, test substance did not change total oxidant and antioxidant status (except for 58.50 and 117 mg/kg, 12 h) and therefore it did not lead to significant increase on oxidative stress (again except 58.50 and 117 mg/kg, 12 h). However, flurbiprofen reduced to mitotic indexes and these reductions were dose-dependent for 12 h treatment. In summary, flurbiprofen did not show significant genotoxic effect. But it caused cytotoxicity in rat bone marrow cells.

  3. Effects of caffeine and paracetamol alone or in combination with acetylsalicylic acid on prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in rat microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebich, B L; Lieb, K; Hüll, M; Aicher, B; van Ryn, J; Pairet, M; Engelhardt, G

    2000-08-23

    Paracetamol has mild analgesic and antipyretic properties and is, along with acetylsalicylic acid, one of the most popular "over the counter" analgesic agents. However, the mechanism underlying its clinical effects is unknown. Another drug whose mechanism of action is unknown is caffeine, which is often used in combination with other analgesics, augmenting their effect. We investigated the inhibitory effect of paracetamol and caffeine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)- and prostaglandin (PG)E(2)-synthesis in primary rat microglial cells and compared it with the effect of acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid, and dipyrone. Furthermore, combinations of these drugs were used to investigate a possible synergistic inhibitory effect on PGE(2)-synthesis. Both paracetamol (IC(50)=7.45 microM) and caffeine (IC(50)=42.5 microM) dose-dependently inhibited microglial PGE(2) synthesis. In combination with acetylsalicylic acid (IC(50)=3.12 microM), both substances augmented the inhibitory effect of acetylsalicylic acid on LPS-induced PGE(2)-synthesis. Whereas paracetamol inhibited only COX enzyme activity, caffeine also inhibited COX-2 protein synthesis. These results are compatible with the view that the clinical activity of paracetamol and caffeine is due to inhibition of COX. Furthermore, these results may help explain the clinical experience of an adjuvant analgesic effect of caffeine and paracetamol when combined with acetylsalicylic acid.

  4. Presentation and treatment of acute maxillary sinusitis in general practice: a French observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klossek, J M; Mesbah, K

    2011-03-01

    This survey-based study was conducted to determine the characteristics that influence the diagnosis and treatment patterns of acute maxillary sinusitis among general practitioners in France. Questionnaires were sent to 467 physicians and requested to be completed for the next 4 adult (≥ 15 years) patients diagnosed with acute maxillary sinusitis. A total of 397 physicians responded with eligible data on 1585 patients (57.5% female; mean age, 42.3 years). The most common presenting signs and symptoms were moderate-to-severe nasal obstruction (80.4%), pain on sinus palpitation (76.8%), facial pain (74.5%), rhinorrhea (70.4%), and headache (63.6%). Local treatments were prescribed in 93.2% of cases, including nasal lavage (52.1%), vasoconstrictors (42.2%), and intranasal corticosteroids (38.7%). Almost all patients (99%) were prescribed oral treatment including antibiotics (86.5%), analgesics (56.3%), antipyretics (53.7%), and expectorants/mucolytics (45.6%). Symptoms were indicated as having a moderate to very significant effect on quality of life areas including activities of daily living (71.6% of patients), leisure (63.1%), and professional/school activities (59.2%). The diagnosis and management patterns of acute maxillary sinusitis among general practitioners in France are generally consistent with the 2007 European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP3OS) guidelines.

  5. Pro-drugs for indirect cannabinoids as therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, John

    2008-10-01

    Medicinal cannabis, cannabis extracts, and other cannabinoids are currently in use or under clinical trial investigation for the control of nausea, emesis and wasting in patients undergoing chemotherapy, the control of neuropathic pain and arthritic pain, and the control of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis. The further development of medicinal cannabinoids has been challenged with problems. These include the psychoactivity of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists and the lack of availability of highly selective cannabinoid receptor full agonists (for the CB1 or CB2 receptor), as well as problems of pharmacokinetics. Global activation of cannabinoid receptors is usually undesirable, and so enhancement of local endocannabinoid receptor activity with indirect cannabimimetics is an attractive strategy for therapeutic modulation of the endocannabinoid system. However, existing drugs of this type tend to be metabolized by the same enzymes as their target endocannabinoids and are not yet available in a form that is clinically useful. A potential solution to these problems may now have been suggested by the discovery that paracetamol (acetaminophen) exerts its analgesic (and probably anti-pyretic) effects by its degradation into an anandamide (an endocannabinoid) reuptake inhibitor (AM404) within the body, thus classifying it as pro-drug for an indirect cannabimimetic. Given the proven efficacy and safety of paracetamol, the challenge now is to develop related drugs, or entirely different substrates, into pro-drug indirect cannabimimetics with a similar safety profile to paracetamol but at high effective dose titrations.

  6. Drimys brasiliensis essential oil as a source of drimenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Milani Zem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers is a native plant species to the Atlantic Forest, commonly known as cataia, and used as a stimulant, anti-diahrreal, antipyretic, among other properties. Dried and fresh leaves of cataia were collected in autumn/2012, submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger graduated apparatus over a period of 4 hours after reaching the boiling point, then essential oil was collected. In oil from green leaves, 49 compounds were identified, being 65.0% sesquiterpenes, 12.0% monoterpenes and 23.0% other substances. In oil from dry leaves, 40 compounds were identified, being 76.1% sesquiterpenes, 2.0% monoterpenes and 21.9% other compounds. The main constituents in green leaves were germacrene D (8.9%, bicyclegermacrene (5.3%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.1%, alpha-cadinol (6.0%, and drimenol (9.3%. In dry leaves the main constituents were germacrene D (6.3%, (E-nerodidol (5.4%, spathulenol (9.5%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.5%, alpha-cadinol (6.7%, and drimenol (11.6% Due to its composition, antibacterial, antimycotic, insectifuge and molluscicide activities are proven, together with the pharmacological properties that this species may present.

  7. Comparative evaluation of the cytotoxic and apoptotic potential of Poecilocerus pictus and Calotropis gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathen, Caroline; Peter, Shiney Mary; Hardikar, Bhagyashree P

    2011-01-01

    Calotropis gigantea, the giant milkweed, is traditionally used for the treatment of cancer and in Ayurvedic medicine as an anti-helminthic, anti-pyretic, and anti-malarial agent. Poecilocerus pictus, an orthopteran insect, feeds on C. gigantea and both are known to possess cardiac glycosides. The increasing reports on the specific cytotoxicity of cardiac glycosides on human tumor cell lines led us to attempt characterization and comparative evaluation of cardenolides in both the insect and plant extracts for their anti-tumor and apoptotic potential.Chemical characterization using high-performance thin layer chromatography, ultraviolet and infrared spectra analysis confirmed the presence of cardiac glycosides, but differences in the components of the insect extract were indicative of biotransformation. The cytotoxicity studies revealed a more potent trend for the insect extract compared with the plant extract on A549 and COLO205 cells. There was a considerably lesser measure of toxicity on WI38 cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes, whereas B16F1 remained unaffected by both extracts. DNA ploidy analysis on COLO205 indicated that both extracts induced dose-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, both the insect and the plant extracts differentiate between human cancer cells and normal cells and exhibit species specificity. Further investigations are necessary to establish these extracts as promising lead candidates for anti-neoplastic activity.

  8. Chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Kumar Pandey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance. The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz., Ocimum basilicum Linn. (alt. Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurience, Ocimum campechianum Mill., Ocimum canum Sims. (Ocimum americanum, Ocimum citriodorum, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn., Ocimum micranthum Willd., Ocimum sanctum Linn., (alt. Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn., Ocimum selloi Benth., Ocimum trichodon, Ocimum utricifolium from different geographical regions. A considerable difference in chemical composition of a particular species is found, which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic zones and changes in edaphic factors. Attention is also focused on the biological properties of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant, repellent, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal and therapeutic (anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antiulcer, analgesic, anthelmintic, anticarcinogenic, skin permeation enhancer, immunomodulatory, cardio-protective, antilipidemic agents.

  9. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zerumbone against Mono-Iodoacetate-Induced Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yi Chien

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The fresh rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Zingiberaceae is used as a food flavoring and also serves as a folk medicine as an antipyretic and for analgesics in Taiwan. Zerumbone, a monocyclic sesquiterpene was isolated from the rhizome of Z. zerumbet and is the major active compound. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of zerumbone on arthritis were explored using in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that zerumbone inhibited inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expressions, and NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production, but induced heme oxygenase (HO-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. When zerumbone was co-treated with an HO-1 inhibitor (tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, the NO inhibitory effects of zerumbone were recovered. The above results suggest that zerumbone inhibited iNOS and COX-2 through induction of the HO-1 pathway. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13 and COX-2 expressions of interleukin (IL-1β-stimulated primary rat chondrocytes were inhibited by zerumbone. In an in vivo assay, an acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice was significantly reduced by treatment with zerumbone. Furthermore, zerumbone reduced paw edema and the pain response in a mono-iodoacetate (MIA-induced rat osteoarthritis model. Therefore, we suggest that zerumbone possesses anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects which indicate zerumbone could be a potential candidate for osteoarthritis treatment.

  10. Advances in NSAID development: evolution of diclofenac products using pharmaceutical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Roy; Bosch, Bill; Brune, Kay; Patrignani, Paola; Young, Clarence

    2015-05-01

    Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the phenylacetic acid class with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties. Contrary to the action of many traditional NSAIDs, diclofenac inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme with greater potency than it does COX-1. Similar to other NSAIDs, diclofenac is associated with serious dose-dependent gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal adverse effects. Since its introduction in 1973, a number of different diclofenac-containing drug products have been developed with the goal of improving efficacy, tolerability, and patient convenience. Delayed- and extended-release forms of diclofenac sodium were initially developed with the goal of improving the safety profile of diclofenac and providing convenient, once-daily dosing for the treatment of patients with chronic pain. New drug products consisting of diclofenac potassium salt were associated with faster absorption and rapid onset of pain relief. These include diclofenac potassium immediate-release tablets, diclofenac potassium liquid-filled soft gel capsules, and diclofenac potassium powder for oral solution. The advent of topical formulations of diclofenac enabled local treatment of pain and inflammation while minimizing systemic absorption of diclofenac. SoluMatrix diclofenac, consisting of submicron particles of diclofenac free acid and a proprietary combination of excipients, was developed to provide analgesic efficacy at reduced doses associated with lower systemic absorption. This review illustrates how pharmaceutical technology has been used to modify the pharmacokinetic properties of diclofenac, leading to the creation of novel drug products with improved clinical utility.

  11. THE NATURE'S GIFT TO MANKIND: NEEM

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    Upma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is popularly known as the miracle tree. It is known as ‘Nimba’ in India. The Sanskrit name of neem is ‘Arishtha’ meaning the reliever of the sickness. Neem also holds medicinal value. Each and every part of neem is used in the medicines. It has been used in Ayurvedic medicines for more than 4000 years. Its important phytoconstituents are nimbin, nimbinene acetylnimbinase, nimbandial, nimbolide and quercentin. Medicinal uses are purgative, antihemorrhoidal, antihelminthic, antileprotic and antipoisonous in nature. Neem bark is cool, astringent, acrid and refrigerant. It is useful in tiredness, cough, fever, loss of appetite, worm infestation. Nimibidin present in used as antipyretic and non-irritant, and it has found to be effective in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, furunculosis, arsenical dermatitis, burn ulcers, herpes labialis, scabies and seborrheic dermatitis. Nimbidin and sodium nimbidmate contained in bark are reported to possess spermicidal and anti-inflammatory activity. So it is a tree that has a long history of use by humans. It is said to have medicinal, cosmetic and insecticidal potential.

  12. Traditional use of the genus Renealmia and Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) Maas (Zingiberaceae)-a review in the treatment of snakebites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Betancur, Isabel; Benjumea, Dora

    2014-09-01

    Renealmia alpinia (R. alpinia) typically occurs in the tropical rainforests of Mexico to Peru, Brazil through the Antilles, Guyana, Suriname, Colombia and Venezuela. It has traditionally been used against snakebite in Colombia. In addition to the common local use for pain, R. alpinia has been used as an antipyretic and antiemetic to treat wounds, malignant ulcers, epilepsy and fungal infections. The species of the Zingiberaceae family are famous for their use as spices and herbs. This review provides information on the traditional use of plants in the Zingiberaceae family, Renealmia genus, and specifically R. alpinia. We conducted a narrative review in English and Spanish in electronic databases, such as ScienceDirect, Napralert, PubMed, ScFinder, SciElo, during August 2011 to March 2013. We were interested in their applications in ethnomedicine and their chemical components, providing a major and methodical revision. We found 120 sources, 98 of which were selected as they contained essential information. This study has stimulated the development of a new work, which aims to isolate and evaluate metabolites from R. alpinia leads toward the development of a phytotherapeutic product, which might be accessible to the population. Studies on the toxicity and safety of R. alpinia are insufficient to provide information on the ethnomedical use of this species. Thus, the present review summarizes information about R. alpinia and proposes possible scope of future research to fill gaps identified in this narrative review.

  13. 肉桂的化学、药理及应用特点%Discussion on the Chemical,Pharmacology and Application Characteristics of Cinnamon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 苗明三

    2015-01-01

    肉桂中主要含有挥发油、多糖类、多酚类、香豆素以及无机元素等化学成分;具有抗胃溃疡、抗炎、抗菌、抗肿瘤、预防糖尿病以及镇静、解痉、解热等药理作用。肉桂具有较高的药用价值,对其活性成分进行深入地开发研究,特别是在糖尿病、肿瘤等方面有望发现活性先导化合物或创新药物,而对于开发肉桂保健食品也具有广阔的前景。%Cinnamon mainly contains the chemical constituents of the essential oil,polysaccharides,polyphenols,coumarin and inorganic elements in;with anti gastric ulcer,anti-inflammatory,antibacterial,antitumor,prevent diabetes and sedative,antispasmodic,antipyretic and pharmacological effects. Cinnamon has a high medicinal value. The active component were deeply research and development,espe-cially in diabetes,cancer,and so may be found active lead compounds or innovative drugs as well as a broad prospect for the develop-ment of cinnamon health care food.

  14. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

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    Bruno da Cruz Pádua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetaminophen (APAP is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose.

  15. [Investigation of Predisposition Biomarkers to Identify Risk Factors for Drug-induced Liver Injury in Humans: Analyses of Endogenous Metabolites in an Animal Model Mimicking Human Responders to APAP-induced Hepatotoxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Akio; Kondo, Kazuma; Sugai, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a main reason of regulatory action pertaining to drugs, including restrictions to clinical indications and withdrawal from the marketplace. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used and effective analgesic/antipyretic agent and relatively safe drug even in long-term treatment. However, it is known that APAP at therapeutic doses may cause hepatotoxicity in some individuals. Hence great efforts have been made to identify risk factors for APAP-induced chronic hepatotoxicity. We investigated the contribution of undernourishment to susceptibility to APAP-induced chronic hepatotoxicity using an animal model. We employed daytime restricted fed (RF) rats as a modified-nutritional state model for human APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. RF and ad libitum fed (ALF) rats were given APAP at 0, 300, and 500 mg/kg for 3 months. Plasma and urinary glutathione-related metabolomes and liver function parameters were measured during the dosing period. Endogenous metabolites forming at different levels between the RF and ALF rats could be potential predisposition biomarkers for APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. In addition, RF rats were considered a useful model to estimate the contribution of nutritional state of patients to APAP-induced chronic hepatotoxicity. In this article we report our current research focusing on nutritional state as risk factor for APAP-induced chronic hepatotoxicity and our findings of hepatotoxicity biomarkers.

  16. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Kummer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus (Rutaceae includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90 μg/mL had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg also reduced TNF-α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis.

  17. Antimicrobial Properties of α-MSH and Related Synthetic Melanocortins

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    A. Catania

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural antimicrobial peptides are ancient host defense effector molecules, present in organisms across the evolutionary spectrum. Several properties of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH suggested that it could be a natural antimicrobial peptide. α-MSH is a primordial peptide that appeared during the Paleozoic era, long before adaptive immunity developed and, like natural antimicrobial molecules, is produced by barrier epithelia, immunocytes, and within the central nervous system. α-MSH was discovered to have antimicrobial activity against two representative pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The candidacidal influences of α-MSH appeared to be mediated by increases in cell cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. The cAMP-inducing capacity of α-MSH likely interferes with the yeast's own regulatory mechanisms of this essential signaling pathway. It is remarkable that this mechanism of action in yeast mimics the influences of α-MSH in mammalian cells in which the peptide binds to G-protein-linked melanocortin receptors, activates adenylyl cyclase, and increases cAMP. When considering that most of the natural antimicrobial peptides enhance the local inflammatory reaction, the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of α-MSH confer unique properties to this molecule relative to other natural antimicrobial molecules. Synthetic derivatives, chemically stable and resistant to enzymatic degradation, could form the basis for novel therapies that combine anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.

  18. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

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    Garg Nitika

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glycosides, tannins, flavanoid, b-sitosterol and lupeol. The present study deals with phytochemical investigations of Bombax ceiba root including determination of loss on drying, ash values, TLC and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of powdered drug was also carried out. The qualitative chemical examinations revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents like flavanoid, terpenoid saponins, phenolic compounds and mucilage’s in the extracts. The study revealed specific identities for the particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

  19. Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses.

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    Anwar, Farooq; Latif, Sajid; Ashraf, Muhammad; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2007-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolics. The Moringa plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol. In addition to its compelling water purifying powers and high nutritional value, M. oleifera is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine, particularly in South Asia. This review focuses on the detailed phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose tree.

  20. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

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    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  1. Degradation of phenazone in aqueous solution with ozone: influencing factors and degradation pathways.

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    Miao, Heng-Feng; Cao, Meng; Xu, Dan-Yao; Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhao, Ming-Xing; Huang, Zhen-Xing; Ruan, Wen-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation kinetics and degradation pathways of phenazone (an analgesic and antipyretic drug) upon reaction with O3 were investigated. Kinetic studies on degradation of phenazone were carried out under different operating conditions such as temperature, pH, anions and H2O2 addition. Results showed that the degradation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The reaction rate constant (kobs) of phenazone reached the maximum at 20 °C (9.653×10(-3) s(-1)). The presence of NO3(-) could enhance the degradation rate, while the addition of HCO3(-), SO4(2)(-), Cl(-) and the rise of pH showed negative effects on the ozonation of phenazone. H2O2 addition increased the phenazone degradation efficiency by 45.9% with the optimal concentration of 0.135 mM. Reaction by-products were evaluated by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, which allowed the identification of a total of 10 by-products. The transformation pathways of phenazone ozonation consisted mainly of electrophilic addition and substitution, pyrazole ring opening, hydroxylation, dephenylization and coupling. The toxicity of these intermediate products showed that they are expected not to be more toxic than phenazone, with the exception of P7 (aniline) and P10 (1,5-dimethyl-4-((1-methyl-2-phenylhydrazinyl)methoxy)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one).

  2. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

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    Najmeh Mokhber-Dezfuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species, there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation.

  3. 防风的中药学研究%Research on Chinese Medicine: Saposhnikovia divaricata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轶雯; 韩忠明; 李岳桦; 王少江; 韩梅

    2011-01-01

    Research on pharmacology and clinical effects ofSaposhnikovia divaricata as Chinese medicine. Literatures about S. divaricata published in the recent years were searched and analyzed. There is positive effects on pharmacology including antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-tumor, and anti-convulsant. Furthermore, there is significant effects on the clinical treatment in cold,headache, digestive system disease, respiratory system disease and skin disease. S. divaricata has a tremendous medicinal value. In this paper we put forward some suggestions and considerations for further study.%综述了防风作为传统要药在药理作用及临床应用方面的研究.查阅近几年有关防风研究的文献资料并加以分析.防风在解热、镇痛、抗炎、抗菌、抗肿瘤、抗惊厥等药理方面有着积极的作用,并在感冒、头痛、消化系统疾病、呼吸系统疾病、皮肤病等临床治疗方面有着显著的疗效.防风蕴藏巨大的药用价值,对进一步深入研究提出了建议和思考.

  4. Preformulation Characterisation, Designing and Formulation of Aceclofenac Loaded Microparticles

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    B. Jayanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to systematically investigate some of the important physicochemical properties of Aceclofenac loaded micro particles.Aceclofenac is a potent analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the management of moderate-to-severe pain and in rheumatoid disorder, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylities. Almost all drugs are marketed as tablets, capsules or both. Prior to the development of these major dosage forms, it is essential that pertain fundamental physical and chemical properties of the drug molecule and other divided properties of the drug powder are determined. This information decides many of the subsequent events and approaches in formation development.A per oral extended release micro particles of aceclofenac was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method using polymer ethyl cellulose as well as eudragit RSPO and dispersion carrier as Aerosil. So before selection of excipients, the Preformulation study of drug aceclofenac is completed for successful formulation of per oral extended release micro particles. Preformulation studies included solubility, pKa, dissolution, melting point, assay development,, stability in solid state; bulk density, flow properties, excipient compatibility, entrapment efficiency, release profile of micro particles and Marketed brands of modified release product were investigated.

  5. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS LEAVES

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    Choudhury Antara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physiochemical and phytochemical details about the plant Amaranthus spinosus. The physiochemical result obtained can be used for the identification of powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening, different types of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. Phytoconstituents like fixed oils, fats, carbohydrates, glycosides, gum and mucilage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, amino acids and saponins showed positive tests in the extracts. Amaranthus spinosus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. It is commonly known as Spiny amaranth or Pig weed and found throughout the world. In India it is found at roadsides, waste places and fields. The whole plant is used as a laxative. Traditionally it has been used as diuretic, antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-snake venom, antileprotic, anti-gonorrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and immunomodulatory. The root paste of the plant is used to cure skin disease. A red pigment obtained from the plant is used for colouring foods and medicines.

  6. Mononucleosis and Epstein–Barr virus infection: treatment and medication

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    Valachis A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antonis Valachis2, Diamantis P Kofteridis11Departments of Internal Medicine-Infectious Disease Unit, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece; 2Department of Oncology, Mälarsjukhuset, Eskilstuna, SwedenAbstract: Epstein–Barr virus is a member of the human herpes virus family. Primary infection is usually asymptomatic in childhood; in adolescents and young adults, however, it leads to infectious mononucleosis with symptoms including fever, fatigue, and sore throat that can persist for months. The disease is usually self-limited and resolves over a period of weeks or months but may occasionally be complicated by a wide variety of complications. Symptomatic treatment, the cornerstone of therapy, includes adequate hydration, analgesics, antipyretics, and limitations of contact sports and activities. The role of antiviral treatment and corticosteroids is debatable and not recommended in general, while the development of vaccination is under investigation. This review concentrates on the diagnosis, the potential complications, and the therapeutic strategies in patients with infectious mononucleosis.Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus, infectious mononucleosis, EBV

  7. Empyema associated with community-acquired pneumonia: A Pediatric Investigator's Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC study

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    Le Saux Nicole

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the incidence of serious morbidity with childhood pneumonia has decreased over time, empyema as a complication of community-acquired pneumonia continues to be an important clinical problem. We reviewed the epidemiology and clinical management of empyema at 8 pediatric hospitals in a period before the widespread implementation of universal infant heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada. Methods Health records for children Results 251 children met inclusion criteria; 51.4% were male. Most children were previously healthy and those ≤ 5 years of age comprised 57% of the cases. The median length of hospitalization was 9 days. Admissions occurred in all months but peaked in winter. Oxygen supplementation was required in 77% of children, 75% had chest tube placement and 33% were admitted to an intensive care unit. While similarity in use of pain medication, antipyretics and antimicrobial use was observed, a wide variation in number of chest radiographs and invasive procedures (thoracentesis, placement of chest tubes was observed between centers. The most common organism found in normally sterile samples (blood, pleural fluid, lung biopsy was Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusion Empyema occurs most commonly in children under five years and is associated with considerable morbidity. Variation in management by center was observed. Enhanced surveillance using molecular methods could improve diagnosis and public health planning, particularly with regard to the relationship between immunization programs and the epidemiology of empyema associated with community-acquired pneumonia in children.

  8. Lichen secondary metabolites affect growth of Physcomitrella patens by allelopathy.

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    Goga, Michal; Antreich, Sebastian J; Bačkor, Martin; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-09-19

    Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites.Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth.

  9. Effects of three Chinese herbal medicines on plasma and liver lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

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    Nakayama, Tohru; Suzuki, Satoe; Kudo, Hideki; Sassa, Shuji; Nomura, Makoto; Sakamoto, Shinobu

    2007-01-19

    Chinese herbal medicines, Inchinko-to, Bofu-tsusho-san and Dai-saiko-to, containing 3, 18 and 8 components, respectively, have since long been used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, choleretic and diuretic agent for liver disorders and jaundice, as an anti-obesity agent, a hypocholesterolemic agent for liver disorders and a therapeutic and/or preventive agent for cholesterol gallstone disease with hypertriglycerid-emia in China and Japan, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the effects of these three herbal medicines in young male mice fed a high-fat diet. Plasma levels of lipids and the numbers of the fatty droplets in the liver cytoplasm were markedly lowered by the diets supplemented with three herbal medicines. The liver weights and the body growth were reduced by the diet supplemented with Dai-saiko-to, which slightly affected the concentrations of total protein, albumin, creatinine or calcium, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Thus, Dai-saiko-to, besides Bofu-tsusho-san, seems effective in the activities of anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperlipids in liver cytoplasm, when used carefully.

  10. IMLII: A CRAZE LOVELY

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    Dhamija Isha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Every part of Tamarind tree, from roots to leaf tips has been utilized to meet different human needs. Tamarindus indica (Caesalpiniaceae, popularly known as imli is a perennial evergreen tree with a spreading crown, feathery evergreen foliage and fragrant flowers. Tamarindus indica is one of the auspicious, versatile tree species in the Indian subcontinent. The pulp of Tamarind finds important place in chutneys, pickles, jams, curries, sauces, ice cream, sharbat and “tamarind fish”. It is extensively used in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh cuisines, particularly in the preparation of Rassam and Sāmbhar. Traditionally, Tamarindus indica has been used as an antidiabetic, digestive, expectorant, anti-pyretic and anti-malarial agent. This review article summarizes the phytoconstituents, pharmacological actions, drug interactions encountered and safety profile with the use of Tamarind.I first fell in love with tamarind fruit, during school summer vacations. There was an elderly lady in my village, who carried delightful tamarind balls. Her tamarind balls were made up of tamarind pulp, sugar, a pinch of salt and ginger. We, children would break the balls apart and suck on the pieces. We'd suck the entire tamarind piece until there was nothing left except the seed to discard. Our craze had nothing to do with the nutritional or medicinal content of the fruit.

  11. Kinetics of acetaminophen degradation by Fenton oxidation in a fluidized-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luna, Mark Daniel G; Briones, Rowena M; Su, Chia-Chi; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen (ACT), an analgesic and antipyretic substance, is one of the most commonly detected pharmaceutical compound in surface waters and wastewaters. In this study, fluidized-bed Fenton (FB-Fenton) was used to decompose ACT into its final degradation products. The 1.45-L cylindrical glass reactor had inlet, outlet and recirculating sections. SiO(2) carrier particles were supported by glass beads with 2-4 mm in diameter. ACT concentration was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). During the first 40 min of reaction, a fast initial ACT removal was observed and the "two-stage" ACT degradation conformed to a pseudo reaction kinetics. The effects of ferrous ion dosage and [Fe(2+)]/[H(2)O(2)] (FH ratio) were integrated into the derived pseudo second-order kinetic model. A reaction pathway was proposed based on the intermediates detected through SPME/GC-MS. The aromatic intermediates identified were hydroquinone, benzaldehydes and benzoic acids while the non-aromatic substances include alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Rapid initial ACT degradation rate can be accomplished by high initial ferrous ion concentration and/or low FH ratio.

  12. Biological assessment (antiviral and antioxidant and acute toxicity of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis

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    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drimys presents the widest geographical distribution of the Winteraceae family, which comprises seven genera and about 120 species. In Brazil, the genus is found from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul and occur in two species, Drimys angustifolia Miers, and D. brasiliensis Miers, Winteraceae, popularly known as "casca-de-anta", characterized by the presence of flavonoids and essential oils. It is used in folk medicine as an antiscorbutic, stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, antipyretic, antibacterial, and against asthma and bronchitis, besides having insecticidal properties. In addition to the known biological activities, it is very important to explore new applications in the treatment of physiological disorders or diseases caused by parasites. Based on this information, in this study we propose to evaluate volatile oils of the species D. brasiliensis and D. angustifolia, as an antioxidant, using the model of the DPPH radical as an antiviral against human herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1 and acute toxicity in vivo. The two species were not able to reduce the DPPH radical and showed interesting antiviral activity, significantly reducing the virus titers in vitro assays. Regarding the in vivo toxicity in female Wistar rats, treatment with the two species showed interesting signs in animals such as salivation, ptosis, tremor, decreased motor activity. In addition the oils of D. brasiliensis to other signs, some animals showed increased urination and diarrhea.

  13. Biological assessment (antiviral and antioxidant and acute toxicity of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis

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    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drimys presents the widest geographical distribution of the Winteraceae family, which comprises seven genera and about 120 species. In Brazil, the genus is found from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul and occur in two species, Drimys angustifolia Miers, and D. brasiliensis Miers, Winteraceae, popularly known as "casca-de-anta", characterized by the presence of flavonoids and essential oils. It is used in folk medicine as an antiscorbutic, stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, antipyretic, antibacterial, and against asthma and bronchitis, besides having insecticidal properties. In addition to the known biological activities, it is very important to explore new applications in the treatment of physiological disorders or diseases caused by parasites. Based on this information, in this study we propose to evaluate volatile oils of the species D. brasiliensis and D. angustifolia, as an antioxidant, using the model of the DPPH radical as an antiviral against human herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1 and acute toxicity in vivo. The two species were not able to reduce the DPPH radical and showed interesting antiviral activity, significantly reducing the virus titers in vitro assays. Regarding the in vivo toxicity in female Wistar rats, treatment with the two species showed interesting signs in animals such as salivation, ptosis, tremor, decreased motor activity. In addition the oils of D. brasiliensis to other signs, some animals showed increased urination and diarrhea.

  14. Sensitive method for rapid estimation of Lornoxicam in bulk and its dosage form by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prajapati Prajesh; Vaghela Vipul; Baraiya Dharmendra

    2013-01-01

    Lornoxicam (6-chloro-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridyl-2H-thieno-[2,3-e]-1,2-thiazine-3-carboxamide-1,1-dioxide)is persist as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the oxicam class with analgesic,anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties.A fast,accurate and sensitive chromatographic method for estimation of Lomoxicam was developed as no official method available for detection.The chromatographic separation employs isocratic elution by utilizing an inertsil ODS-C18,250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm columns.Mobile phase consisting of solvent (40 mL acetonitrile and 60 mL 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 was adjusted with triethylamine)) endowed at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min.The analyte was detected and quantified at 290 nm using UV detector.The method was validated according to ICH guidelines,illustrating to be accurate (recovery 99.08%-101.13%) and precise (intraday (0.27-1.32) and interday (0.59-1.59))within the corresponding linear range (10-60 μg/mL) with r2 0.9992.

  15. Lycopene pretreatment improves hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Ana Carla Balthar; da Silva, Rafaella Cecília; Rossoni, Joamyr Victor; Figueiredo, Vivian Paulino; Talvani, André; Cangussú, Silvia Dantas; Bezerra, Frank Silva; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2017-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is an antipyretic and analgesic drug that, in high doses, leads to severe liver injury and potentially death. Oxidative stress is an important event in APAP overdose. Researchers are looking for natural antioxidants with the potential to mitigate the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species in different models. Lycopene has been widely studied for its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of lycopene pretreatment in APAP-induced liver injury in C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 male mice were divided into the following groups: control (C); sunflower oil (CO); acetaminophen 500mg/kg (APAP); acetaminophen 500mg/kg+lycopene 10mg/kg (APAP+L10), and acetaminophen 500mg/kg+lycopene 100mg/kg (APAP+L100). Mice were pretreated with lycopene for 14 consecutive days prior to APAP overdose. Analyses of blood serum and livers were performed. Lycopene was able to improve redox imbalance, decrease thiobarbituric acid reactive species level, and increase CAT and GSH levels. In addition, it decreased the IL-1β expression and the activity of MMP-2. This study revealed that preventive lycopene consumption in C57BL/6 mice can attenuate the effects of APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, by improving the redox state, and thus indicating its potential antioxidant effect, lycopene was also shown to have an influence on inflammatory events.

  16. THE IN-VIVO EFFECTS OF PARTIALLY PURIFIED SUB-FRACTION (TAF2 OF THE CRUDE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA ROOTS ON THE HAEMATOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGY PARAMETERS

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    Narazah Mohd Yusoff et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia Jack has been widely used in traditional medicine for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, anti-pyretic and anticancer activities. As yet, no study has been done on biosafety of partially purified sub-fraction (TAF2 of the crude methanolic extract of E. longifolia roots. This study aims to evaluate, in vivo, the effects of TAF2 on the haematological, biochemical and histology parameters in nude mice. Male nude mice were treated orally with TAF2 (200 mg/Kg/mouse every other day for 16 days. Untreated mice were used as controls. Blood samples were collected by intra-cardiac puncture and haematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed by using animal blood counter and automated chemistry analyzer, respectively. Hematoxylin-eosin stain (H&E was used to evaluate the histopathology changes. Blood cells morphology was assessed by Wright stain of the thin blood films. The results showed normal blood haematology and clinical chemistry. Histological examination of TAF2 treated vital organs (kidney, liver and spleen of mice showed no apparent change with the dose used. In conclusion, E. longifolia root methanolic extract is safe on short-term exposur.

  17. Sarcandra glabra Extract Reduces the Susceptibility and Severity of Influenza in Restraint-Stressed Mice

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    Hui-Juan Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcandra glabra, as a type of “antipyretic-detoxicate drugs”, has always been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. The Sarcandra glabra extract (SGE is applied frequently as anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious drug in folk medicine. However, relative experiment data supporting this effective clinical consequence was limited. In order to mimic the physiological conditions of the susceptible population, we employed restraint stress mouse model to investigate the effect of SGE against influenza. Mice were infected with influenza virus three days after restraint, while SGE was orally administrated for 10 consecutive days. Body weight, morbidity, and mortality were recorded daily. Histopathologic changes, susceptibility genes expressions and inflammatory markers in lungs were determined. Our results showed that restraint stress significantly increased susceptibility and severity of influenza virus. However, oral administration of SGE could reduce morbidity, mortality and significantly prolonged survival time. The results further showed that SGE had a crucial effect on improving susceptibility markers levels to recover the balance of host defense system and inhibiting inflammatory cytokines levels through down-regulation of NF-κB protein expression to ameliorate the lung injury. These data showed that SGE reduced the susceptibility and severity of influenza.

  18. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities from Actinidia callosa var. callosa In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Jung-Chun Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinidia callosa var. callosa has been widely used to treat antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammation, abdominal pain, and fever in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages and pawedema induced by λ-carrageenan activities of the methanol extract from A. callosa. In HPLC analysis, the fingerprint chromatogram of ethyl-acetate fraction of A. callosa (EAAC was established. EAAC showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. We evaluated that EAAC and the reference compound of catechin and caffeic acid decreased the LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of male ICR mice with EAAC significantly inhibited the numbers of acetic acid-induced writhing response and the formalin-induced pain in the late phase. Administration of EAAC showed a concentration-dependent inhibition on paw edema development after Carr treatment in mice. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of EAAC might be correlated to the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 in vitro and in vivo. Overall, the results showed that EAAC demonstrated antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activity, which supports previous claims of the traditional use for inflammation and pain.

  19. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zerumbone against Mono-Iodoacetate-Induced Arthritis.

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    Chien, Ting-Yi; Huang, Steven Kuan-Hua; Lee, Chia-Jung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2016-02-18

    The fresh rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Zingiberaceae) is used as a food flavoring and also serves as a folk medicine as an antipyretic and for analgesics in Taiwan. Zerumbone, a monocyclic sesquiterpene was isolated from the rhizome of Z. zerumbet and is the major active compound. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of zerumbone on arthritis were explored using in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that zerumbone inhibited inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressions, and NO and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production, but induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. When zerumbone was co-treated with an HO-1 inhibitor (tin protoporphyrin (SnPP)), the NO inhibitory effects of zerumbone were recovered. The above results suggest that zerumbone inhibited iNOS and COX-2 through induction of the HO-1 pathway. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and COX-2 expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated primary rat chondrocytes were inhibited by zerumbone. In an in vivo assay, an acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice was significantly reduced by treatment with zerumbone. Furthermore, zerumbone reduced paw edema and the pain response in a mono-iodoacetate (MIA)-induced rat osteoarthritis model. Therefore, we suggest that zerumbone possesses anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects which indicate zerumbone could be a potential candidate for osteoarthritis treatment.

  20. Bioactive constituents from Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. and Rhus coriaria L

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    Marawan M Shabana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The leaf ethanol extract of Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. has evidenced medicinal value due to its hepatoprotective activity. It demonstrated inhibitory effects on test standard microbes approximated to 40% the potency of ofloxacin and fluconazole. The same extract evidenced in vitro cytotoxicity on human cell lines, liver carcinoma HEPG2, larynx carcinoma HEP2, and colon carcinoma HCT116 cell lines when compared to doxorubicin. Materials and Methods: Fractionation of the leaf ethanol extract led to the isolation of the polyphenols, ethyl gallate, and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, a hydrocarbon, hendecane, the fatty acid ester, methyl linoleate, and four triterpenoids, betulonic acid, 3-acetyl-methyl betulinate, lupenone and lupeol for the first time, in addition to the previously reported phenol acids and flavonoids, gallic acid, methyl gallate, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-galactoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside. Results: The ethanol extract of the fruit of the genetically related Rhus coriaria L., known as sumac, afforded protocatechuic acid, isoquercitrin, and myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside from the fruits for the first time, in addition to the previously reported phenol acids and flavonoids, gallic acid, methyl gallate, kaempferol, and quercetin. Conclusion: The leaf ethanol extract of H. caffrum Bernh. exhibited variable anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities, besides the hepatoprotective, in vitro cytotoxic and anti-microbial activities.

  1. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts with Allium Test

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    Tülay Aşkin Çelik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS (2⋅10−2 M has been used as a positive control. The test concentrations have been determined according to doses which are recommended for use in alternative medicine. There has been statistically significant (P<.05 inhibition of root growth depending on concentration by the extracts when compared with the control groups. All the tested extracts have been observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. I. viscosa leaf extract induces the total number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC formations in A. cepa root tip cells significantly when compared with control groups. Also, this paper shows for the first time the induction of cell death, ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and binucleated cells by extract treatment. These results suggest the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the I. viscosa leaf extracts on A. cepa.

  2. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Inula viscosa leaf extracts with Allium test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşkin Celik, Tülay; Aslantürk, Ozlem Sultan

    2010-01-01

    I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) (2 * 10(-2) M) has been used as a positive control. The test concentrations have been determined according to doses which are recommended for use in alternative medicine. There has been statistically significant (P viscosa leaf extract induces the total number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC) formations in A. cepa root tip cells significantly when compared with control groups. Also, this paper shows for the first time the induction of cell death, ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and binucleated cells by extract treatment. These results suggest the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the I. viscosa leaf extracts on A. cepa.

  3. Physical methods used by Sudanese mothers in rural settings to manage a child with fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Hanadi M E; Elnimeiri, Mustafa K

    2014-01-01

    Although the mainstays of antipyretic treatments are drugs such as paracetamol and ibuprofen, physical methods are also used. These include tepid sponging, removing clothes, and cooling the environment with fans to improve ventilation. The objective of this study is to assess the physical methods used by Sudanese rural mothers to manage a child with fever. A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed and conducted within 6 months; it involved 332 mothers of children under five. The data were collected through using a standardized administered questionnaire and focus group discussion and analyzed by statistical package for social science version 15.0 (SPSS). Tepid sponging was used by 47% of the interviewed mothers. 15% of the mothers increased fluid intake, 7% bathed the child and 5% put the child in light clothes. 59% of mothers applied tepid sponging on head, 33.9% on all the body, 3.7% and 2.2% on groin area and axilla, respectively. The majority of mothers (86%) used water from refrigerator or zeir [water clay pot] for applying tepid sponging, 9% used tap water, and 3% used ice water. In conclusion, this study revealed that the common physical treatment method for fever used by mothers was tepid sponging with inappropriate application.

  4. Escin Chemosensitizes Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Inhibits the Nuclear Factor-kappaB Signaling Pathway

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    A. Rimmon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an urgent need to develop new treatment strategies and drugs for pancreatic cancer that is highly resistant to radio-chemotherapy. Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut known in Chinese medicine as a plant with anti-inflammatory, antiedema, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is Escin (C54H84O23. Objective. To evaluate the effect of Escin alone and combined with chemotherapy on pancreatic cancer cell survival and to unravel mechanism(s of Escin anticancer activity. Methods. Cell survival was measured by XTT colorimetric assay. Synergistic effect of combined therapy was determined by CalcuSyn software. Cell cycle and induction of apoptosis were evaluated by FACS analysis. Expression of NF-κB-related proteins (p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα and cyclin D was evaluated by western blot analysis. Results. Escin decreased the survival of pancreatic cancer cells with IC50 = 10–20 M. Escin combined with gemcitabine showed only additive effect, while its combination with cisplatin resulted in a significant synergistic cytotoxic effect in Panc-1 cells. High concentrations of Escin induced apoptosis and decreased NF-κB-related proteins and cyclin D expression. Conclusions. Escin decreased pancreatic cancer cell survival, induced apoptosis, and downregulated NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, Escin sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy. Further translational research is required.

  5. chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhay; Kumar; Pandey; Pooja; Singh; Nijendra; Nath; Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance.The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz.,Ocimum basilicum Linn.(alt.Ocimum basilicum var.minimum,Ocimum basilicum var.purpurience).Ocimum campechianum Mill.,Ocimum canum Sims.(Ocimum americanum),Ocimum citriodorum,Ocimum gratissimum Linn.,Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn..Ocimum micranthum Willd.,Ocimum sanctum Linn.,(alt.Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn.),Ocimum selloi Benth..Ocimum trichodon,Ocimum utricifolium from different geographical regions.A considerable difference in chemical composition of a particular species is found,which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic zones and changes in edaphic factors.Attention is also focused on the biological properties of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial,antioxidant,repellent,insecticidal,larvieidal,nematicidal and therapeutic(anti-inflammatory,antinociceptive,antipyretic,antiulcer,analgesic,anthelmintic,anticarcinogenic,skin permeation enhancer,immunomodulatory,cardio-protective,antilipidemic) agents.

  6. The Italian contributions to the history of salicylates

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    Giampiero Pasero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the modern history of salicylates began in 1899 when the compound acetylsalicylic acid was registered and introduced commercially as “aspirin” by the Bayer Company of Germany. As a matter of fact, however, remedies made from willow bark had been used to treat fever and rheumatic complaints at least since 1763, when Edward Stone described their efficacy against malarian fever. A number of Italian scientists made significant contributions during the long period of research leading up to the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid and its widespread use in rheumatic diseases. In this paper we will review the contributions of some of these researchers, beginning with Bartolomeo Rigatelli, who in 1824 used a willow bark extract as a therapeutic agent, denominating it “salino amarissimo antifebbrile” (very bitter antipyretic salt. In the same year, Francesco Fontana described this natural compound, giving it the name “salicina” (salicin. Two other Italian chemists added considerably to current knowledge of the salicylates: Raffaele Piria in 1838, while working as a research fellow in Paris, extracted the chemical compound salicylic acid, and Cesare Bertagnini in 1855 published a detailed description of the classic adverse event associated with salicylate overdoses – tinnitus – which he studied by deliberately ingesting excessive doses himself. Bertagnini and above all Piria also played conspicuous roles in the history of Italy during the period of the Italian Risorgimento, participating as volunteers in the crucial battle of Curtatone and Montanara during the first Italian War of Independence.

  7. Prospective cohort study of febrile neutropenia in breast cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy: CSPOR-BC FN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Narui, Kazutaka; Kaise, Hiroshi; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Mukai, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of adjuvant chemotherapy for treating early breast cancer, febrile neutropenia management has become crucial. Guidelines for febrile neutropenia management are mostly based on a Caucasian population survey although ethnic differences are reported in terms of adverse events. We survey the current status of febrile neutropenia and risk factors in Japanese female breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens potential for febrile neutropenia. Subsequently, we plan to conduct a multicenter prospective cohort study involving 1000 patients with operable breast cancer. With the current state of oral antibiotics being routinely prescribed without hematology tests, we survey febrile neutropenia based on two different definitions, namely, true febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and Grade 4 neutropenia, and surrogate febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and oral antibiotic and antipyretic intake. The comparison of true febrile neutropenia and surrogate febrile neutropenia incidences is anticipated to provide information on the safety and feasibility of chemotherapy management without performing blood tests.

  8. Iridoid glycosides from the root of Acanthus sennii

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    Etagegnehu Assefa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acanthus sennii is a plant traditionally used for the treatment of antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antioxidant, insecticidal, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-platelet aggregation and anti-viral potential. Aims: To investigate the phytochemical constituents of roots of Acanthus sennii. Methods: Phytochemical screening tests were conducted to identify the class of compounds present in the root extract. Silica gel column chromatographic technique was applied to separate the constituents of the extracts. Various spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-135, COSY, gHSQC, and gHMBC were applied to determine the structures of isolated compounds. Results: Phytochemical screening of the dichloromethane/methanol (1:1 and methanol (100% root extract of the plant revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, steroids, flavonoids, and terpenes. Chromatographic separation of dichloromethane/methanol (1:1 root extract of Acanthus sennii yielded two iridoid glycosides (1, 2. Conclusions: The roots of Acanthus senni contain various class of constituents such as flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, tannins, and iridoid glycosides identified through phytochemical screening test and purification process, which might be responsible for the traditional use of the plant. To the best of our knowledge, these compounds are isolated for the first time from this genus.

  9. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL & PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS LEAVES

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    Hiremath G. Urmila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physicochemical and phytochemical detail about the plant Amaranthus caudatus. The physicochemical results obtained can be used for the identification of the powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening different type of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. The results revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, proteins, amino acids, tannins, and phenolic compounds in the plant. Amaranthus caudatus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae .The Amaranthus plants are spread throughout the world, growing under a wide range of climatic conditions and they are able to produce grains and leaves edible vegetables. Traditionally it has been used nutritionally for infants, children, pregnant and lactating woman, as it is comparable to the properties of milk; it was also used in countering heavy menstrual bleeding and vaginal discharge. It helps control dysentery and diarrhea. The roots were used to cure kidney stones, leaves used to cure cuts, leprosy, boils, burns, fever and decoction of the stem used in jaundice. The plant has cooling effect, laxative, diuretic, stomachic and antipyretic, anti-diarrheal, anti-hemorrhagic. The leaves, roots, bark, stem, seeds have medicinal value.

  10. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

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    Touran MAHMOUDIAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepam in febrile  seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy of intermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age range of 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female were studied. Children with a history of psychomotor delay, abnormal  neurological examination, a history of antiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excluded from the study. Patients received a single dose of prophylactic Clonazepam (0.05 mg/kg/ day on the first day of febrile illness and twice daily during the course of fever.An antipyretic medication (Acetaminophen was advised if fever exceeded 38oC. Patients were followed up for one year after the study inclusion date.ResultsThree patients were excluded from study since they didnot follow the tritment and three patients experienced afebrile seizures. Twenty four patients had 162 febrile episodes during the course of the study and all patients were seizure-free after 1 year.ConclusionClonazepam was 100% effective but lethargy and ataxia were common side effects in patients. Fortunately, their parents continued treatment because they had prior awareness of the  possible side effects of clonazepam. Clonazepam is efficacious as an intermittent therapy for febrile seizures if parents are informed of its side effects.Keywords: recurrent febrile seizures, clonazepam, intermittent prophylaxis

  11. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome triggered by a combination of clobazam, lamotrigine and valproic acid in a 7-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, A K; Fidanci, M K; Kilic, S; Balamtekin, N; Mutluay Arslan, M; Yavuz, S T; Kalman, S

    2014-09-30

    Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are diseases within the spectrum of severe cutaneous adverse reactions affecting skin and mucous membranes. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used in combination, leading to potential pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions, causing more adverse effects than might occur when the AED is taken as monotherapy. Here, we report a rare case of SJS triggered by a combination of clobazam, lamotrigine and valproic acid in a 7-year-old boy. Because of inadequate seizure control, lorazepam was replaced with clobazam. Four weeks after the addition of clobazam, the patient developed SJS with a generalized rash, fever, with liver and kidney involvement, and eosinophilia one week after the initiation of treatment. All antiepileptic drugs were discontinued, and intravenous methylprednisolone, prophylactic systemic antibiotics, intravenous fluid supplement, antipyretic, special wound care, and supportive medical care for SJS were administered. He was discharged in a stable condition on the 18th day. Our case suggests that a drug-drug interaction between valproate, lamotrigine and clobazam contributed to the development of SJS. When the clobazam was added to valproic acid and lamotrigine co-medication, the lamotrigine dose should have been decreased.

  12. Inhibitory Effect on β-Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders

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    Thana Juckmeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW, a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list. Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies.

  13. Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae): A phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, E B C; Sousa, C N S; Meneses, L N; Ximenes, N C; Santos Júnior, M A; Vasconcelos, G S; Lima, N B C; Patrocínio, M C A; Macedo, D; Vasconcelos, S M M

    2015-11-01

    Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae) is commonly called the "coconut tree" and is the most naturally widespread fruit plant on Earth. Throughout history, humans have used medicinal plants therapeutically, and minerals, plants, and animals have traditionally been the main sources of drugs. The constituents of C. nucifera have some biological effects, such as antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities. Our objective in the present study was to review the phytochemical profile, pharmacological activities, and toxicology of C. nucifera to guide future preclinical and clinical studies using this plant. This systematic review consisted of searches performed using scientific databases such as Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, SciVerse, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. Some uses of the plant were partially confirmed by previous studies demonstrating analgesic, antiarthritic, antibacterial, antipyretic, antihelminthic, antidiarrheal, and hypoglycemic activities. In addition, other properties such as antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardioprotective, antiseizure, cytotoxicity, hepatoprotective, vasodilation, nephroprotective, and anti-osteoporosis effects were also reported. Because each part of C. nucifera has different constituents, the pharmacological effects of the plant vary according to the part of the plant evaluated.

  14. Dual effects of acetylsalicylic acid on ERK signaling and Mitf transcription lead to inhibition of melanogenesis.

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    Nishio, Takashi; Usami, Mai; Awaji, Mizuki; Shinohara, Sumire; Sato, Kazuomi

    2016-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as an analgesic/antipyretic drug. It exhibits a wide range of biological effects, including preventative effects against heart attack and stroke, and the induction of apoptosis in various cancer cells. We previously found that ASA inhibits melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. However, the mechanisms of how ASA down-regulates melanin synthesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of ASA on melanogenic pathways, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) transcription. ASA significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner without oxidative stress and cell death. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the inhibitory effect of ASA might be due to the inhibition of Mitf gene transcription. Interestingly, ASA also induced ERK phosphorylation. Additionally, treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, abolished the anti-melanogenic effect of ASA. These results suggest that the depigmenting effect of ASA results from down-regulation of Mitf, which is induced by both the induction of ERK phosphorylation and the inhibition of Mitf transcription.

  15. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

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    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  16. Effect of the derivatives of andrographolide on the morphology of Bacillus subtilis.

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    Aromdee, Chantana; Sriubolmas, Nongluksna; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Suebsasna, Supawadee; Khunkitti, Watcharee

    2011-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata has been reported to have antiviral, antipyretic and anticancer activities. Andrographolide, an ent-labdane diterpene, is an active constituent in this plant. In this study, andrographolide (1) and its natural derivative 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (2) and 5 other semisynthetic derivatives were tested for their activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. Only derivatives bearing a 14-acetyl group showed activity, and this activity was only against Gram-positive bacteria. 14-Acetylandrographolide showed the highest potency against Bacillus subtilis; the other 14-acetylandrographolides with additional substitution at the 3- and 19-hydroxyl groups showed lower activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The morphology of B. subtilis after being treated with 14-acetylandrographolide was investigated with TEM. This is the first report on 14-acetylandrographolide's quantified antibacterial activity, and the crucial functional group of this ent-labdane that plays an important role in perturbing the morphogenesis of B. subtilis leading to cell death.

  17. Adverse Drug Reactions for Medicines Newly Approved in Japan from 1999 to 2013: Hypertension and Hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Takashi; Nishida, Minoru; Hizue, Masanori; Ogino, Yamato; Fujiyoshi, Masato

    2016-04-01

    In this survey, the correlation between adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in human and animal toxicities was investigated for 393 medicines which were approved in Japan from September 1999 to March 2013. ADRs were collected from each Japanese package insert. Comparable animal toxicities with ADRs were collected by thorough investigation of common technical documents. The results of this survey show that hypertension and/or hypotension were mainly observed in medicines affecting the central nervous system. Hypertension was also observed in antipyretics, analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, vasoconstrictors and agents using antibody. Concordance between human ADRs and animal toxicities was analysed. True-positive rate for hypertension and hypotension is 0.29 and 0.52, respectively. Positive likelihood ratio and inverse negative likelihood ratio are 1.98 and 1.21, respectively, in hypertension and 1.67 and 1.44, respectively, in hypotension. Concordance between human ADRs and animal toxicities is not so high in hypertension and hypotension. Identified mechanisms as on-target for hypertension and hypotension are 29.8% and 30.5%, respectively. More than half of the causative factors of hypertension and hypotension were unable to be elucidated. Our results show that the intake of medicines is often linked to blood pressure variations that are not predicted in animal toxicity studies. Improvement of drug development processes may be necessary to provide safer medicines because current animal toxicity studies are insufficient to predict all ADRs in human beings.

  18. Study on the literature information of laws of medication about sores per-ifocal area%基于文献整理的疮疡四畔用药规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张幼雯; 刘明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore suitable for the herbs and external treatment prescriptions of sores perifocal area, based on the modern traditional Chinese medicine surgical literature information. Methods Taking"Superstar electronic books database"and"China Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Database"as an information platform, drug databas-es of sores perifocal area was built. The laws of medication about sores perifocal was discussed by data mining of fre-quency analysis, cluster analysis. Results Through sorting 237 literatures, according to the frequency in descending or-der, the frequency of the top 10 herbal medicine were cortex phellodendri, borneol, rhubarb, radix angelica dahurica, calomel, dragon's blood, angelica, frankincense, sesame oil, coptis, which showed that the drug use was concentrated;the main class was antipyretic drugs, blood circulation drugs. Supporting role was played by poison attack insect an-tipruritic drug, purgating drug, resuscitation drugs; cluster analysis resulted that five categories of external treatment prescriptions were represented for Jinhuangsan and Wuweixiaoduyin. Conclusion The base herbs are antipyretic drugs, blood circulation drugs. Jinhuangsan and Wuweixiaoduyin represent for external treatment prescriptions. Through data mining techniques, overall grasps the drug laws of sores perifocal area provides the basis for clinical research.%目的:基于现代中医外科文献,探讨适用于疮疡四畔的常用药物及外治方剂。方法以“超星电子图书数据库”和“中国中医药期刊数据库”作为信息平台,建立疮疡四畔外治药物数据库,应用频数分析、聚类分析等挖掘疮疡四畔的潜方用药规律。结果通过对237篇文献的整理,使用频数最多的前10味药物,按频率递减顺序排列分别为黄柏、冰片、大黄、白芷、轻粉、血竭、当归、乳香、麻油、黄连,可见文献中的药物使用比较集中;主要药类为清热药

  19. 141例药物性肝衰竭临床特征及预后分析%Clinical features and prognosis of 141 patients with drug-induced liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕光菊; 李保森; 张伟; 孙颖; 常彬霞; 李矫捷; 赵军; 田辉; 尚丽丹; 邹正升

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨药物性肝衰竭的病因、临床特征及预后.方法 回顾性总结我院2002年1月-2011年4月收治的141例药物性肝衰竭(drug-induced liver failure,DILF)的临床资料,分析其药物种类、并发症、预后等相关指标.结果 女性发生DILF比例高于男性,发病年龄以青中年为主.急性DILF41例(29.1%),亚急性DILF84例(59.6%),慢性DILF16例(11.3%).前3位基础疾病是皮肤病、结核病和上呼吸道感染.引起DILF的前4位药物分别是中药、抗生素、解热镇痛药和抗结核药.141例中,治愈21例(14.9%),好转33例(23.4%),无效72例(51.1%),死亡15例(10.6%).前3位最常见的并发症是胸腹水、电解质紊乱和肝性脑病.影响预后的并发症为肝性脑病、低钠血症、脑水肿、消化道出血、感染性休克和失血性休克.结论 DILF类型以亚急性肝衰竭为主.DILF病死率较高,预后较差.临床应用中药、抗生素、解热镇痛药及抗结核药时,必须定期临测肝功能.%Objective To investigate the etiology, clinical features and prognosis of patient with drug-induced liver failure (DILF). Methods Clinical data of 141 DILF patients admitted to our hospital from Jan. 2002 to Apr. 2011 were reviewed and drug use, complications and prognosis of those patients were analyzed. Results The female patients with DILF were more than the males. DILF mainly occurred in young and middle-aged persons. Among 141 patients, 41 (29.1%) suffered from acute DILF, 84 (59.6%) sub-acute DILF and 16 (11.3%) chronic DILF, respectively. The three top underlying diseases were skin disease, tuberculosis and upper respiratory infection. The 4 kinds of drugs causing DILF were herbal medicines, antibiotics, antipyretic and analgesic drugs and anti-tuberculosis drugs. Twenty-one patients (14.9%) were cured, 33 (23.4%) improved, 72 (51.1%) were ineffective and 15 (10.6%) died. The 3 most commonly seen complications were pleura] effusion and ascites, electrolyte disorder and

  20. Anti-salmonella enteritidis and anti-endotoxin effect of volatile oil of white paederia scandens in broilers%白鸡屎藤挥发油抗肠炎沙门菌及其内毒素的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强; 崔恒敏; 李英伦; 郁建生

    2012-01-01

    The anti-Salmonella enteritidis and anti-endotoxin effect of the white paederia scandens volatile oil. were e- valuated in broilers. Meanwhile, qualitative and quantitative analysis for white paederia scandens volatile oil were done to explore its main ingredients pharmacokinetic characteristics. The results showed that the white paederia scandens volatile oil including eugenol, camphor, borneol, methyl salicylate and other active ingredients showed in vitro inhibition bacterial effect in middle-dose (100 mL/L) and high-dose (150 mL/L),the inactivated endotoxin above 25 mL/L the volatile oil, and a significant antipyretic effect at 2-4 h. These results suggest that the white paederia scandens volatile oil has anti-Salmonella enteritidis ,anti-endotoxin and antipyretic effects, and can be used for the treatment against Salmonella enteritidis in broilers.%雏鸡肠炎沙门菌病是肠炎沙门菌及其内毒素共同作用的结果。为了研究白鸡屎藤挥发油抗肠炎沙门菌及其内毒素的作用,本试验测定了白鸡屎藤挥发油抗肠炎沙门菌的效果,进一步提取了肠炎沙门菌内毒素并测试了白鸡屎藤挥发油对肠炎沙门菌内毒素的体外灭活作用和对肠炎沙门菌内毒素致热的解热作用,同时本试验还对白鸡屎藤挥发油进行了定性定量分析并测试了白鸡屎藤挥发油及其主要药理活性成分的药动学特征。结果显示,白鸡屎藤挥发油包括丁香酚、樟脑、龙脑、水杨酸甲酯等活性成分,在中剂量(100mL/L)、高剂量(150mL/L)均表现出较强的体外抑菌效果,25mL/L以上浓度即可表现出较强的灭活内毒素作用,并且2~4h大部活性成分进入血液循环,表现出显著的解热作用。结果表明,白鸡屎藤挥发油具有一定的抗菌、抗内毒素和解热作用,可以用于雏鸡肠炎沙门菌感染性发热病的治疗。

  1. 发热门诊患者对流行性感冒知识、态度、行为的调查%Febrile outpatients' basic knowledge, attitude and behavior to Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩红; 林可可

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查发热门诊患者对流行性感冒的基本知识、态度和行为。方法:方便取样,采用自设问卷对在某院发热门诊首次就诊的200名患者进行调查。结果:患者流行性感冒基本知识得分最低分为20.00分,最高分为96.00分,总均分为(66.48±13.75)分;在被调查对象中有21.0%一发热就吃退热药,13.0%使用退热药体温不降时会马上再用退热药,25.0%得知自己患的是流行性感冒还会坚持要求医生给予抗生素治疗,22.5%会坚持要求医生给予输液治疗,52.0%不会每年接种一次流行性感冒疫苗,42.5%不会正确佩戴口罩。结论:被调查对象对流行性感冒基本知识了解不够全面,对药物使用存在错误认识,对静脉输液认知存在误区,接种流感疫苗的行为不够积极,戴口罩的方法存在欠缺。%Objective:To investigate febrile outpatients' basic knowledge, attitude and behavior to lfu. Methods:Totally 200 febrile outpatients by convenience sampling were investigated with self-designed questionnaire. Results:The lowest score and the highest score of basic knowledge were 20.00 and 96.00 respectively;the average score was 66.48±13.75. About 21.0%outpatients took antipyretic when they had a fever, and 13.0%would immediately take antipyretic again when it did not appear to lower the temperature. There were 25.0%outpatients would insist to ask doctors to prescribe antibiotics and 22.5%outpatients would require transfusion treatment when learned that they had the lfu. About 52.0%outpatients wouldn't take inlfuenza vaccine each year;42.5%wouldn't wear mask rightly. Conclusion:Outpatients' knowledge to lfu is not very comprehensive, existing misunderstanding to drug use and transfusion treatment, and the behavior to inlfuenza vaccine is not active and the methods to wear mask have defects.

  2. The diagnosis value for Reye’s syndrome on CT findings%瑞氏综合征CT表现诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长波; 宋立江

    2014-01-01

    目的:提高对瑞氏综合征的认识,探讨瑞氏综合征CT表现的诊断价值。方法:回顾性分析自2006年以来我院确诊的12例瑞氏综合征患儿,对比105例临床诊断“急性脑中毒”的患儿,综合分析各自CT表现,实验室检查及临床表现。结果:瑞氏综合征CT检查观察到不同程度对称性脑水肿甚至弥漫性脑水肿,实验室检查肝肾功能降低,大多数患儿出现意识障碍前有服用水杨酸类退热药的病史,其它的”急性脑中毒”的患儿CT检查可以观察到不同程度脑水肿,对称性及弥漫性少见或罕见,极少数会有肝肾功能的降低。结论:瑞氏综合征CT表现具备一定的特异性,CT观察到对称性脑水肿或弥漫性脑水肿,实验室检查肝肾功能降低,出现意识障碍前服用过水杨酸类退热药,笔者认为,在排除其它“急性脑中毒”疾病的前提下,具备1、2项或1、2、3项可以诊断瑞氏综合征,其中1项可以作为瑞氏综合征诊断的重要线索。%Objective: To improve the understanding of Reye’s syndrome, probe the clinic emphasis of CT findings.Methods:A retrospective analysis was taken for the 12 cases kids diagnosed Reye’s syndrome, compared to 105 cases of clinically diagnosed acute cerebral poisoning in kids since 2006, at the same time a comprehensive analysis of each CT manifestations, laboratory tests and clinical manifestations was taken.Results: Cases for Reye’s syndrome CT examination were observed varying degrees of symmetry brain edema or diffuse cerebral edema, in laboratory tests, liver and kidney function is reduced, the majority of children with impaired consciousness taking salicylic acid antipyretics before, other children with acute cerebral intoxication CT examination could be observed in varying degrees of cerebral edema, symmetry and diffuse uncommon or rare, very few have reduced live and kidney function.Conclusion: CT ifndings of

  3. Methisoprinol for children with early phase dengue infection: a pilot study

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    Melissa G. Ompico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Dengue fever is associated with many health complications and medical costs. Furthermore, there is currently no approved dengue antiviral medication or vaccine. Empiric evidence has suggested that patients who received supplemental methisoprinol therapy had faster recovery times and fewer complications. Objective To determine the effects of oral methisoprinol on the clinical course and laboratory findings of children with early phase dengue infection. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind study from June to September 2012 on 22 children aged 2.7-16.8 years with laboratory-confirmed early dengue infection. Subjects had not previously received antithrombotic agents, nor did they have bleeding disorders or immunodeficiency. We randomized the subjects to receive either oral methisoprinol (100 mg/kg BW/day, divided into four doses or placebo for 72 hours, with 11 subjects per group. The primary endpoint was fever clearance time (FCT, and secondary endpoints were platelet nadir, white blood cell (WBC nadir, maximum hemoconcentration, length of hospital stay, and development of complications. Results The mean decrease in WBC count was less with methisoprinol than with placebo [1.14 (SD 0.84 vs 2.60 (SD 3.12 x 109/L; P=0.004]. In addition, the mean decrease in platelet count was less in patients on methisoprinol [38.36 (SD 58.3 vs. 50.46 (SD 73.42 x 109/L; P=0.046]. No significant differences between the two groups were found for FCT (P=0.158, length of hospital stay (P=0.511, hemoconcentration, or dengue complications. Conclusion Methisoprinol initiated at an early phase in dengue infection reduced the anticipated leukopenia by 56% and thrombocytopenia by 24%. Hence it can be used along with standard approved fluid and antipyretic therapy. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:320-7.].

  4. The homoeopathic treatment of otitis media in children--comparisons with conventional therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H; Kruse, S; Lüdtke, R; Moeller, H

    1997-07-01

    In a prospective observational study carried out by 1 homoeopathic and 4 conventional ENT practitioners, the 2 methods of treating acute pediatric otitis media were compared. Group A received treatment with homoeopathic single remedies (Aconitum napellus, Apis mellifica, Belladonna, Capsicum, Chamomilla, Kalium bichromicum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius solubilis, Okoubaka, Pulsatilla, Silicea), whereas group B received nasal drops, antibiotics, secretolytics and/or antipyretics. The main outcome measures were duration of pain, duration of fever, and the number of recurrences after 1 year, whereby alpha < 0.05 was taken as significance level. The secondary measures were improvement after 3 hours, results of audiometry and tympanometry, and necessity for additional therapy. These parameters were only considered descriptively. The study involved 103 children in group A and 28 children in group B, aged between 6 months and 11 years in both groups. For duration of pain, the median was 2 days in group A and 3 days in group B. For duration of therapy, the median was 4 days in group A and 10 days in group B: this is due to the fact that antibiotics are usually administered over a period of 8-10 days, whereas homoeopathics can be discontinued at an earlier stage once healing has started. Of the children treated, 70.7% were free of recurrence within a year in group A and 29.3% were found to have a maximum of 3 recurrences. In group B, 56.5% were free of recurrence, and 43.5% had a maximum of 6 recurrences. Out of the 103 children in group A, 5 subsequently received antibiotics, though homoeopathic treatment was carried through to the healing stage in the remaining 98. No permanent sequels were observed in either group.

  5. Fever Management in Parents who Have Children Aged 0-5 Year

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    S. Reshadat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Fever is very common in children and is usually due to self-limiting viral infections. Management of fever is based on culture, community and religion of people all over the world. Parental concerns arise in part because of the belief that fever is a disease rather than a symptom or sign of illness. Misconceptions about childhood fevers heighten parents' concerns leading to inappropriate use of antipyretic drugs or overdosing may cause drug toxicity and frequent use of health care services. This study aimed to identify parental views of fever management in their children aged 0-5 yr.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, 350 parents with children less than 5 years referred to various units of clinics covered by community oriented center of Kermanshah, completed the research questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were determined and the data was analyzed by SPSS Software.Results: Findings showed that the first medical care was sponging (53.1%. Sponging with saltwater was common (47.7% and Over - the - counter medications were (30%. Acetaminophen was the first drug in 90% of the cases. However, many parents express high levels of anxiety so that they seek for self-medication with antibiotic 34% of the cases. Our study showed that correlation between over concern about fever management and parents who had a positive past medical history in their children with P=0.02, parents education (P=0.018 and in employed mothers (P=0.005 was statistically significant.Conclusion: Considerable efforts will be required to educate parents about fever and its management.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(2:28-33

  6. Burden of paediatric influenza in Western Europe: a systematic review

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    Antonova Evgeniya N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza illness in children causes significant clinical and economic burden. Although some European countries have adopted influenza immunisation policies for healthy children, the debate about paediatric influenza vaccination in most countries of the European Union is ongoing. Our aim was to summarise influenza burden (in terms of health outcomes and economic burden in children in Western Europe via a systematic literature review. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (1970-April 2011 and extracted data on influenza burden in children (defined as aged ≤ 18 years from 50 publications (13 reporting laboratory-confirmed influenza; 37 reporting influenza-like illness. Results Children with laboratory-confirmed influenza experienced hospitalisations (0.3%-20%, medical visits (1.7-2.8 visits per case, antibiotic prescriptions (7%-55%, and antipyretic or other medications for symptomatic relief (76%-99%; young children and those with severe illness had the highest rates of health care use. Influenza in children also led to absenteeism from day care, school, or work for the children, their siblings, and their parents. Average (mean or median length of absence from school or day care associated with confirmed influenza ranged from 2.8 to 12.0 days for the children, from 1.3 to 6.0 days for their siblings, and from 1.3 to 6.3 days for their parents. Influenza negatively affected health-related quality of life in children with asthma, including symptoms and activities; this negative effect was smaller in vaccinated children than in non-vaccinated children. Conclusions Influenza burden in children is substantial and has a significant direct impact on the ill children and an indirect impact on their siblings and parents. The identified evidence regarding the burden of influenza may help inform both influenza antiviral use in children and paediatric immunisation policies in

  7. AN UPDATED REVIEW ON MOLECULAR GENETICS, PHYTOCHEMISTRY, PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF BLACK NIGHTSHADE (SOLANUM NIGRUM

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    Ashwani Kumar*, S. Sagwal, Niketa and S. Rani

    2012-09-01

    , neuroprotective, cytoprotective, antimicrobial, antinociceptive and antipyretic properties.

  8. Molecular dynamics in liquid and glassy states of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug: ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailaja, U; Shahin Thayyil, M; Krishna Kumar, N S; Govindaraj, G

    2013-05-13

    Ketoprofen is a well known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic effects. It acts by inhibiting the body's production of prostaglandin. The molecular mobility of amorphous ketoprofen has been investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) covering wide temperature and frequency range. Multiple relaxation processes were observed. Besides the primary α-relaxation, one secondary relaxation, γ-have been identified. The γ-process visible in the dielectric spectra at very low temperature is non-JG relaxation, and has an activation energy E=37.91 kJ/mol typical for local mobility. Based on Ngai's coupling model smaller n or a larger Kohlrausch exponent (1-n) of the α-relaxation associated with larger τβ (Tg). In the case of ketoprofen we conclude that the secondary relaxation (β) emerging from intermolecular motions, is hidden under the dominant α-peak. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time of the α-process can be described over the entire measured range by a single Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation. From VFT fits, the glass transition temperature (Tg) was estimated as 267.07 K, and a fragility or steepness index m=86.57 was calculated, showing that ketoprofen is a fragile glass former. Our differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study shows that ketoprofen is a non-crystallizing compound. To confirm the hydrogen bond patterns of ketoprofen FTIR spectroscopy was applied in both crystalline and amorphous phases. Solubility test performed at 37 °C proved that amorphous phase is more soluble than the crystalline phase.

  9. Profile of circulating levels of IL-1Ra, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL2/MCP-1 in dengue fever and parvovirosis

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    Luzia Maria de-Oliveira-Pinto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and parvovirus B19 (B19V infections are acute exanthematic febrile illnesses that are not easily differentiated on clinical grounds and affect the paediatric population. Patients with these acute exanthematic diseases were studied. Fever was more frequent in DENV than in B19V-infected patients. Arthritis/arthralgias with DENV infection were shown to be significantly more frequent in adults than in children. The circulating levels of interleukin (IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra, CXCL10/inducible protein-10 (IP-10, CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 were determined by multiplex immunoassay in serum samples obtained from B19V (37 and DENV-infected (36 patients and from healthy individuals (7. Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that circulating CXCL10/IP-10 tends to be associated with DENV infection and that IL-1Ra was significantly associated with DENV infection. Similar analysis showed that circulating CCL2/MCP-1 tends to be associated with B19V infection. In dengue fever, increased circulating IL-1Ra may exert antipyretic actions in an effort to counteract the already increased concentrations of IL-1β, while CXCL10/IP-10 was confirmed as a strong pro-inflammatory marker. Recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and upregulation of the humoral immune response by CCL2/MCP-1 by B19V may be involved in the persistence of the infection. Children with B19V or DENV infections had levels of these cytokines similar to those of adult patients.

  10. USE OF FRESH PARTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK – A NEW CONCEPT OF FARMING

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  11. A rare case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome presenting with serious hyperthermia treated with a non-invasive cooling device: a case report

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    Storm Christian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A rare side effect of antipsychotic medication is neuroleptic malignant syndrome, mainly characterized by hyperthermia, altered mental state, haemodynamic dysregulation, elevated serum creatine kinase and rigor. There may be multi-organ dysfunction including renal and hepatic failure as well as serious rhabdomyolysis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The prevalence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome is between 0.02% and 2.44% for patients taking neuroleptics and it is not necessary to fulfil all cardinal features characterizing the syndrome to be diagnosed with neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Because of other different life-threatening diseases matching the various clinical findings, the correct diagnosis can sometimes be hard to make. A special problem of intensive care treatment is the management of severe hyperthermia. Lowering of body temperature, however, may be a major clinical problem because hyperthermia in neuroleptic malignant syndrome is typically unresponsive to antipyretic agents while manual cooling proves difficult due to peripheral vasoconstriction. Case presentation A 22-year-old Caucasian man was admitted unconscious with a body temperature of 42°C, elevated serum creatine phosphokinase, tachycardia and hypotonic blood pressure. In addition to intensive care standard therapy for coma and shock, a non-invasive cooling device (Arctic Sun 2000®, Medivance Inc., USA, originally designed to induce mild therapeutic hypothermia in patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, was used to lower body temperature. After successful treatment it became possible to obtain information from the patient about his recent ambulant treatment with Olanzapin (Zyprexa® for schizophrenia. Conclusion Numerous case reports have been published about patients who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to Olanzapin (Zyprexa® medication. Frequently hyperthermia has been observed

  12. The Role of RAAS Inhibition by Aliskiren on Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity Model in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcioglu, Saliha Sena; Palabiyik, Saziye Sezin; Bayir, Yasin; Karakus, Emre; Mercantepe, Tolga; Halici, Zekai; Albayrak, Abdulmecit

    2016-03-01

    Paracetamol is one of the most popular and widely used analgesic and antipyretic agents, but an overdose can cause hepatotoxicity and lead to acute liver failure. Aliskiren directly inhibits renin which downregulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Recent findings suggest that RAAS system takes part in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. We aimed to reveal the relationship between hepatotoxicity and the RAAS by examining paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were separated into five groups as follows: control, 100 mg/kg aliskiren (p.o.), 2 g/kg paracetamol (per os (p.o.)), 2 g/kg paracetamol + 50mg/kg aliskiren (p.o.), and 2 g/kg paracetamol + 100 mg/kg aliskiren(p.o.). Samples were analyzed at the biochemical, molecular, and histopathological levels. Paracetamol toxicity increased alanine aminotransferases (ALT), aspartate aminotransferases (AST), renin, and angiotensin II levels in the serum samples. In addition, the SOD activity and glutathione (GSH) levels decreased while Lipid Peroxidation (MDA) levels increased in the livers of the rats treated with paracetamol. Paracetamol toxicity caused a significant increase in TNF-α and TGF-β. Both aliskiren doses showed an improvement in ALT, AST, oxidative parameters, angiotensin II, and inflammatory cytokines. Only renin levels increased in aliskiren treatment groups due to its pharmacological effect. A histopathological examination of the liver showed that aliskiren administration ameliorated the paracetamol-induced liver damage. In immunohistochemical staining, the expression of TNF-α in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes was increased in the paracetamol group but not in other treatment groups when compared to the control group. In light of these observations, we suggest that the therapeutic administration of aliskiren prevented oxidative stress and cytokine changes and also protected liver tissues during paracetamol toxicity by inhibiting the RAAS.

  13. Melatonin prevents acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem; Ozbek, Emin; Cekmen, Mustafa; Somay, Adnan; Ozcan, Levent; Otünctemur, Alper; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Mete, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a major complication of acetaminophen (APAP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, and there is no specific treatment for APAP-induced renal damage. It has been reported that reactive oxygen metabolites or free radicals are important mediators of APAP toxicity. In this study, the protective role of melatonin (MLT) on APAP-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated in rats. For this purpose, nephrotoxicity was induced in male Wistar albino rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of a single dose of 1,000 mg/kg APAP. Some of these rats also received i.p. melatonin (10 mg/kg) 20 min after administration of APAP. The rats were sacrificed 24 h after administration of APAP. Urea and creatinine levels were measured in the blood, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were determined in renal tissue. Serum urea and creatinine levels increased significantly as a result of APAP nephrotoxicity. A significant increase in MDA and decreases in GSH level and GSH-Px, CAT, and SOD activity indicated that APAP-induced renal damage was mediated through oxidative stress. Significant beneficial changes were noted in serum and tissue oxidative stress indicators in rats treated with MLT. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of kidney sections, which revealed that MLT also reduced the severity of APAP-induced histological alterations in the kidney. These results indicate that administration of APAP causes oxidative stress to renal tissue and that MLT protects against the oxidative damage associated with APAP.

  14. Is COX-2 a perpetrator or a protector? Selective COX-2 inhibitors remain controversial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng LUO; Ming-liang HE; Lars BOHLIN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: COX-2(cyclooxygenase-2) has sparked a surge in pharmaceutical interest since its discovery at the beginning of the 1990s. Several COX-2 selective inhibitors that avoid gastrointestinal side effects have been successfully launched into the market in recent years. The first selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, entered the market in December 1999. However, there are a few organs that physiologically and functionally express COX-2, particularly the glomeruli of the kidney and the cortex of the brain. Inhibition of COX-2 expression in these organs possibly causes heart attack and stroke in long-term COX-2 inhibitor users. Recently, a USA Food and Drug Agency (FDA) advisory panel re-evaluated COX-2 inhibitors and unanimously concluded that the entire class of COX-2 inhibitors increase the risk of cardiovascular problems. Thus the use of COX-2 inhibitors is still controversial, and there is a challenge for not only pharmacologists, but also the pharmaceutical industry, to develop improved painkilling and anti-inflammatory drugs. This may involve exploring a new generation of COX-2 inhibitors with different inhibitory mechanisms through computer-aided design, screening different sources of inhibitors with lower Selectivity, or seeking completely new targets.Synthetic COX-2 inhibitors have high selectivity and the advantage of irreversible inhibition, whereas naturally derived COX-2 inhibitors have lower selectivity and fewer side effects, with the medical effects in general not being as striking as those achieved using synthetic inhibitors. This review discusses the mechanism of COX-2 inhibitor therapy and a possible new way of exploration in the development of anti-inflammatory, analgetic, and antipyretic drugs.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Tacca integrifolia in rodents

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    Thatree Autsavakitipong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This is a preliminary investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia (TIE for the analgesic activity using writhing response in mice, tail flick test in rats and for anti-inflammatory activity using ethyl phenyl propiolate (EPP-induced ear edema, carrageenan- and arachidonic acid-induced hind paw edema, as well as cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. The results showed that TIE (200 mg/kg, PO significantly inhibited pain caused by acetic acid injection (65.9% but did not exhibit effect in tail flick test in rats. These findings suggest that analgesic mechanism of TIE may act via peripherally pathway. The study of anti-inflammatory effect showed that TIE significantly inhibited ear edema induced by EPP. TIE (200 mg/kg, PO inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (55.5% and arachidonic acid (48.6% but had no effect on cotton-induced granuloma formation in rats. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate extract of leaf of T. integrifolia possessed anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation and analgesic activity.Industrial relevant. Plants of the genus Tacca have been reported to possess many activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and, antipyretic activities. Many species have been used to treat high blood pressure, burn, gastric ulcer, and hepatitis. The scientific studies supporting the traditional uses of Tacca integrifolia for some of the alleged activities are still lacking. The screening test for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia provides scientific data to confirm the potentials of T. integrifolia as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory medicinal plant. In addition, the outcomes may be useful to develop a new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in the future. Key words. Tacca integrifolia; Taccaceae; ethyl acetate extract; analgesic activity; anti-inflammatory activity

  16. Infrared spectroscopic studies to understand the effect of drugs at molecular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Gautam, Rekha; Chandrasekar, Bhagawat; Rakshit, Srabanti; Kumar B. N., Vinay; Boopathy, Sivaraman; Nandi, Dipankar; Somasundaram, Kumaravel; Umapathy, Siva

    2012-06-01

    In the recent past, there have been enormous efforts to understand effect of drugs on human body. Prior to understand the effect of drugs on human body most of the experiments are carried out on cells or model organisms. Here we present our study on the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs on cancer cells and the acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity in mouse model. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) have attracted attention as potential drug molecules for the treatment of cancer. These are the chemotherapeutic drugs which have indirect mechanistic action against cancer cells via acting against histone deacetylases (HDAC). It has been known that different HDAC enzymes are over-expressed in various types of cancers for example; HDAC1 is over expressed in prostate, gastric and breast carcinomas. Therefore, in order to optimise chemotherapy, it is important to determine the efficacy of various classes of HDAC inhibitor drugs against variety of over-expressed HDAC enzymes. In the present study, FTIR microspectroscopy has been employed to predict the acetylation and propionylation brought in by HDIs. The liver plays an important role in cellular metabolism and is highly susceptible to drug toxicity. APAP which is an analgesic and antipyretic drug is extensively used for therapeutic purposes and has become the most common cause of acute liver failure (ALF). In the current study, we have focused to understand APAP induced hepatotoxicity using FTIR microspectroscopy. In the IR spectrum the bands corresponding to glycogen, ester group and were found to be suitable markers to predict liver injury at early time point (0.5hr) due to APAP both in tissue and serum in comparison to standard biochemical assays. Our studies show the potential of FTIR spectroscopy as a rapid, sensitive and non invasive detection technique for future clinical diagnosis.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of inactivated virosomal subunit influenza vaccination in children aged 3-14 years from the provider and societal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, E; Salleras, L; Domínguez, A; Ibáñez, D; Prat, A; Sentís, J; Garrido, P

    2007-04-20

    The costs and benefits of vaccinating a theoretical cohort of 1000 preschool and school age children (3-14 years) with one dose of inactivated virosomal subunit influenza vaccine in primary health care centers of the Catalan Health Service during the fall annual health examination were compared with the current strategy of no routine vaccination. The economic analysis was carried out from the provider perspective (cost-effectiveness analysis) and from the societal perspective (cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis). The time horizon of the study was established at 6 months. In the base case (cost of vaccination of euro 9.425, cost of paediatric visit plus antibiotic and antipyretic treatment of euro 42.50, cost of 1 day of hospital stay of euro 454.25, cost of the work lost by the mother to take care of her ill child of euro 29.2 and cost of 1 year of quality adjusted life year lost of euro 10,662), the vaccination does not save money from the provider perspective (net present value=euro-1460.51), but the cost-effectiveness ratios are very reasonable (euro 5.80 per episode of acute febrile respiratory process avoided and euro 18.26 per quality adjusted life year saved). From the societal perspective, the vaccination saves money (net present value=euro+7587.03) and the benefit-cost ratio is 1.80, meaning that euro 0.80 is saved per euro invested. Our study shows that vaccination of children 3-14 years old with a single dose of inactivated subunit influenza vaccine in primary health care centers during the fall annual health examination provides socioeconomic benefits to the society in addition to substantial health benefits for the child.

  18. Characteristic Analysis of the Elsholtzia's Chemistry and Pharmacology in Clinical Application%香薷的化学、药理与临床应用特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 苗明三

    2015-01-01

    香薷含有挥发油类、黄酮类、香豆素类等多种活性成分,具有抗病原微生物、消炎、解热、镇痛、解痉、增强免疫等药理作用,临床上常用于发汗解暑,行水散湿,温胃调中,夏月感寒饮冷,头痛发热,恶寒无汗,胸痞腹痛,呕吐腹泻,水肿,脚气等。香薷作为药食同源的植物具有广泛的应用性和广阔的应用前景,积极研究香薷的药用价值具有重要意义。%Elsholtzia includes many active ingredients,such as essential oil,flavonoid,coumarins,and so on. The pharmacologic action of elsholtzia is resistant microorganisms,anti-inflammatory,antipyretic and analgesic,spasmolysis,enhance immunity. In clinic,the elsholt-zia was used for diaphoresis relieving summer-heat,flowing water and dispersing damp,warm the stomach,in summer have a cold,have a headache and fever,aversion to cold and adiapneustia,feeling of stuffiness in chest and abdominal pain,vomit and diarrhea,edema, beriberi. Elsholtzia has extensive applicability and wide application prospect as a plant of homology of medicine and food. It has signifi-cant for study the medicinal value of elsholtzia.

  19. Self-medication in academic course graduate of health in a private university of the state of Rio Grande do Sul

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    Thricy Dhamer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: The World Health Organization defi nes self-medication as the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat their illnesses or symptoms. It is considered a public health problem that deserves special attention, since it presents risks, because of adverse drug reactions, bringing serious consequences and may lead to the death. To determine the prevalence and characteristics of self-medication realized by undergraduate students enrolled in health courses in a community college, as well the symptoms that led to this practice. Methods: This study was an observational and quantitative research, where it was used structured and pre-coded questionnaires to obtains the data, among students enrolled at 5th and 6th semesters of Biology, Physical Education, Nursing, Pharmacy, Physiotherapy, Medicine, Nutrition, Dentistry and Psychology at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul. Results: 342 students were evaluated, 74% female, aged between 18 and 50, which was the most prevalent age group of 21-30 years, which were 71.4% of students. The prevalence of medicines used among those surveyed was 68.7% last month, with an average of 2 medications per student. The medications were distributed by medical prescription in 282 cases (59.1%, under self-medication in 139 cases (29.1%, oriented by a pharmaceutical in 25 cases (5.2% and no response in 31 cases (6.6%. The classes of drugs most used were analgesics/antipyretics (48.2%, NSAIDs (14.2% and antacids (9.9%. The main purpose of motivating self medication were headache (14.4%, digestive disorders (13.2%, contraception (7.2% and general pain (6.0%. Conclusion: Self medication is a common practice among students in the health area, where about a third reported conduct such practice. KEYWORDS Self-medication. Student Health Occupations. Drugs.

  20. A comparative study on phytochemical investigation and pharmacological screening of Platycladus orientalis and Ocimum canum

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    Jhansee Mishra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In ayurveda, plants have been used for the treatment of so many diseases. Herbal drugs are easily available and have fewer side effects. So, many people are attracted towards the herbal drugs. Platycladus orientalis is one of the useful plant in Indian & Chinese medicine. It is used in treatment of so many diseases like diuretic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, stomachic, antipyretic, analgesic and anthelmintic etc. In Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa Platycladus orientalis is grown as an ornamental. The essential oils extracted from leaves, cones and wood are important in body care products used in the Western world.Platycladus orientalis (Commonly- Morpankhi, Family- Cupressaceae is an evergreen, monoecious trees or shrubs used in various forms of traditional medicines and homeopathy in various ways. In traditional practices Thuja is used for treatment of bronchial catarrh, enuresis, cystitis, psoriasis, uterine carcinomas, amenorrhea and rheumatism. Recent re-searches in different parts of the world have shown that p. orientalis and its active component thujone have the great potential against a various health problemsThe medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant of Ocimum canum Linn (known as  kalaTulsi in Hindi, a small herb seen throughout India, have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis, painful eye diseases, chronic fever, insect bite etc. The Ocimum canum L. has also been suggested to possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic,adaptogenic and diaphoretic actions.

  1. Medication use among children 0-14 years old: population baseline study

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    Maria J.B. Cruz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of medication use in children and adolescents in 20 municipalities of Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais-Brazil, showing the main groups and variables that may have influenced use. METHODS: Descriptive population-based survey sample of 555 interviews, selected by simple random cluster sampling of 137 census tracts. Inclusion criteria were age ≤ 14 years, mandatory interview with the legal guardians, and regardless of having received medications. Regarding the usage pattern, participants were divided into two groups: consumption and non-consumption of drugs. A descriptive analysis of the variables and tests of association were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of drug consumption was 56.57%, and 42.43% showed no consumption. The use of medicinal plants was 72.9% for drug users and 74.3% for non-users. The health conditions for consumption were cough, common cold, flu, nasal congestion or bronchospasm (49.7%, fever (5.4%, headache (5.4%, diarrhea, indigestion, and abdominal colic (6.7%. In cases of self-medication, 30.57% of the drugs were given by the mother, and 69.42% were prescription drugs. Self-medication was prevalent using paracetamol (30.2%, dipyrone (20.8%, and cold medicine (18.8%. There was increased use of analgesics/antipyretics, followed by respiratory medications, systemic antibiotics, histamine H1 antagonists, and vitamins/antianemics. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of drugs use in children was high, indicating the need for formulating educational programs aiming at the awareness of caregivers regarding rational use.

  2. Are febrile seizures an indication for intermittent benzodiazepine treatment, and if so, in which cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol

    2014-10-09

    Febrile seizures occur in ∼4% of children. After a first febrile seizure, the risk of recurrence is ∼40%, but excellent studies document that febrile seizures do not cause brain damage or deficits in cognition or behaviour. The risk of subsequent epilepsy is 2-4%. Prolonged febrile seizures are of concern because a child may later develop mesial temporal sclerosis and intractable epilepsy in rare cases. Most prolonged febrile seizures represent the first febrile seizure and cannot be anticipated. A first prolonged febrile seizure does not increase the risk of recurrence, but if there is a recurrence, it is more likely to be prolonged. Prevention of recurrent febrile seizures is difficult. Antipyretics are ineffective. Daily AED treatment is not often justified. Intermittent oral diazepam at the time of illness is not very successful and has significant side effects. The most optimistic study found that the number of subjects required to treat in order to prevent one recurrence was 14. Intermittent clobazam has fewer side effects than diazepam and may be somewhat effective. Rescue benzodiazepines given outside health care facilities may be effective in selected patients to prevent prolonged recurrences, although this has not been proven with rectal diazepam which has been more extensively studied than buccal or nasal midazolam. Currently, we suggest that, for children with febrile seizures, candidates for consideration for rescue benzodiazepines are those with a prolonged febrile seizure or poor access to medical care. It is possible that the use of a rescue benzodiazepine may alleviate severe parental anxiety, but this remains to be established.

  3. Tramadol versus ketorolac in the treatment of postoperative pain following maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankariah, Manjunath; Mishra, Madan; Kamath, Rajay A D

    2012-09-01

    Pain plagues daily activity and hence its management would require alleviation at both the mental and physical planes, thus, bringing about comfort. It includes delivering analgesics in parenteral or oral form, or patches depending on the intensity and availability. Best analgesic regimens are ones that offer broad coverage, easy to administer, safe and economical. A drug seemingly appropriate to treat moderate to severe pain would be Tramadol hydrochloride, a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic with lower opiate-like dependence than Morphine. Ketorolac, a pyrrolo-pyrrole derivative, possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activity would also appear equally suitable. Fifty adult ASA grade I and II patients undergoing surgery under GA in the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, were included. Ketorolac (30 mg IM) for 25 patients and Tramadol (100 mg IM) for 25 patients were administered at the time of skin closure and repeated after 8 and 16 h from the conclusion of surgery. Pain, using the VAS at the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 12th and 24th post-operative hour, was assessed and compared using χ(2)-test. Vitals were monitored and adverse events were looked for. Though both the drugs resulted in significant decrease in pain intensity from the 2nd to 24th post-operative hour, Tramadol always resulted in better pain control than Ketorolac at every post-operative hour (P < 0.050). To conclude, intramuscular Tramadol seemed useful in controlling pain following surgery, with better levels of tolerance than intramuscular Ketorolac. However, both the drugs produced mild side effects but did not appear to influence the outcome.

  4. 阿司匹林与心脑血管疾病%Aspirin, Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴皎; 周刚; 李燕辉

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases is the most fatal diseases in the world.The prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are both basic and clinical focus.Aspirin has been used as a prevention medicine in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases for over a century, which is the longest one in history.Aspirin use is estimated at 100 billion tablets annually as an analgesic, antipyretic and antiplatelet drugs.However, there are still many new findings about aspirin, such as aspirin resistance and aspirin hydrolase.This paper reviews the current research advances and future directions of aspirin in cardiovascular and cerebravascwlar diseases, mainly focuses on aspirin resistance and personalized medication.%心脑血管疾病为人类死亡原因之首,其预防与治疗始终为医学关注的焦点。阿司匹林作为心脑血管疾病的防治疗药物已经有一个世纪之久,是历史最长,同时也是用量最多的药物。每年大约有1000亿片阿司匹林被用于解热镇痛和心脑血管疾病。人们对阿司匹林的研究和认识还在不断加深,如阿司匹林抵抗的出现以及阿司匹林水解酶的鉴定。本文综述了阿司匹林在心脑血管疾病预防方面的研究热点以及未来的研究方向,主要包括阿司匹林抵抗以及个体化用药。

  5. Medication storage and self-medication behaviour amongst female students in Malaysia

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    Ali SE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence, attitudes and behaviours of medication storage and self-medication amongst female students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and cluster random sampling technique was used for respondent selection. A pre-piloted questionnaire was administered to female respondents so as to collect the data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and analysis was conducted using descriptive analysis procedures.Results: Of the 481 participants (mean age; SD was 22.1; 3.3, 93.1% (n=448 students stated that they stored medicine in their rooms, while 70.7% (n=340 stated that they stopped taking a prescribed medicine without consulting a doctor. The prevalence of self-medication was 80.9% (n=389. The most common reasons for self-medication were related to their knowledge of their ailment and its treatment (58.0%, 14.4% thought it saved time and 8.5% mentioned that medication given by provider was not effective. The most common symptoms were otorhinolaryngology problems (22.5%, followed by respiratory disease (19.6%, Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT disease (18.1% and headache/fever (16.8%. Commonly used medicines were analgesics & antipyretics (30.2%, ear, nose & throat drugs (10.8%, vitamins & minerals (10.8%, GIT drugs (8.5%, anti-infections (7.3% and herbal medicines (3.5%. Prevalence of medicine storage and self-medication practice is high among educated female students in USM.Conclusions: There is a need to educate the students to ensure safe practice by increasing their awareness. Strict policies need to be implemented on the unrestricted availability of medicines so as to prevent the wastage of medicines.

  6. Economic Evaluation of Health Services Costs During Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 Pdm09 Infection in Pregnant and Non-Preg¬nant Women in Spain

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    María MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The healthcare and socio-economic burden resulting from influenza A (H1N1 pdm09 in Spain was considerable. Our aim was to estimate and compare the management (resource utilization and economic healthcare impact in an at-risk group of unvaccinated pregnant women with an unvaccinated group of non-pregnant woman of childbearing age (15-44 yr old.Methods: We addressed this question with a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study. Inputs were the requirements in managing both groups of women. Outcome measures were healthcare costs. Direct healthcare (including medical utilisation, prescriptions of antivirals, medication, diagnostic tests, and hospitalisation costs and indirect (productivity loss costs were considered. Unit of cost was attributed to the frequency of health service resources utilisation. The mean cost per patient was calculated in this group of women.Results: We found that the influenza clinical pattern was worse in non-pregnant women as they had a high medical risk of 20.4% versus 6.1% of pregnant women. Non-pregnant required more antipyretics and antibiotics, and needed more health service resource utilisation (338 medical visits in non-pregnant women vs. 42 in pregnant women. The total cost of non-pregnant women was higher (€4,689.4/non-pregnant and €2,945.07/pregnant.Conclusions: Cost per (H1N1 pdm09 was lower for pregnant women, probably due to more preventive measures adopted for their protection in Spain. The highest costs were incurred by hospitalisations/day and work absenteeism for non-pregnant than for pregnant women. These data will allow better future pandemic influenza planning. Keywords: Pandemic influenza A (H1N1, Costs, Health services, Pregnant women, Spain

  7. Pediatric Epidemic of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in the Area of L’Aquila, Italy, Four Years after a Catastrophic Earthquake

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    Giovanni Nigro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Salmonella enterica epidemic occurred in children of the area of L’Aquila (Central Italy, Abruzzo region between June 2013 and October 2014, four years after the catastrophic earthquake of 6 April 2009. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory children. Routine investigations for Salmonella infection were carried out on numerous alimentary matrices of animal origin and sampling sources for drinking water of the L’Aquila district, including pickup points of the two main aqueducts. Results: Salmonella infection occurred in 155 children (83 females: 53%, aged 1 to 15 years (mean 2.10. Of these, 44 children (28.4% were hospitalized because of severe dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, and fever resistant to oral antipyretic and antibiotic drugs. Three children (1.9% were reinfected within four months after primary infection by the same Salmonella strain. Four children (2.6%, aged one to two years, were coinfected by rotavirus. A seven-year old child had a concomitant right hip joint arthritis. The isolated strains, as confirmed in about the half of cases or probable/possible in the remaining ones, were identified as S. enterica serovar Typhimurium [4,5:i:-], monophasic variant. Aterno river, bordering the L’Aquila district, was recognized as the main responsible source for the contamination of local crops and vegetables derived from polluted crops. Conclusions: The high rate of hospitalized children underlines the emergence of a highly pathogenic S. enterica strain probably subsequent to the contamination of the spring water sources after geological changes occurred during the catastrophic earthquake.

  8. Synthesis, Bioevaluation and Molecular Dynamic Simulation Studies of Dexibuprofen–Antioxidant Mutual Prodrugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Zaman; Alamgeer; Rasool, Raqiqatur; Hassan, Mubashir; Ahsan, Haseeb; Afzal, Samina; Afzal, Khurram; Cho, Hongsik; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-01-01

    Dexibuprofen–antioxidant conjugates were synthesized with the aim to reduce its gastrointestinal effects. The esters analogs of dexibuprofen 5a–c were obtained by reacting its –COOH group with chloroacetyl derivatives 3a–c. The in vitro hydrolysis data confirmed that synthesized prodrugs 5a–c were stable in stomach while undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free dexibuprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2 suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to stomach than dexibuprofen. The anti-inflammatory activity of 5c (p < 0.001) is more significant than the parent dexibuprofen. The prodrug 5c produced maximum inhibition (42.06%) of paw-edema against egg-albumin induced inflammation in mice. Anti-pyretic effects in mice indicated that prodrugs 5a and 5b showed significant inhibition of pyrexia (p < 0.001). The analgesic activity of 5a is more pronounced compared to other synthesized prodrugs. The mean percent inhibition indicated that the prodrug 5a was more active in decreasing the number of writhes induced by acetic acid than standard dexibuprofen. The ulcerogenic activity results assured that synthesized prodrugs produce less gastrointestinal adverse effects than dexibuprofen. The ex vivo antiplatelet aggregation activity results also confirmed that synthesized prodrugs are less irritant to gastrointestinal mucosa than the parent dexibuprofen. Molecular docking analysis showed that the prodrugs 5a–c interacts with the residues present in active binding sites of target protein. The stability of drug–target complexes is verified by molecular dynamic simulation study. It exhibited that synthesized prodrugs formed stable complexes with the COX-2 protein thus support our wet lab results. It is therefore concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities with reduced gastrointestinal adverse effects than the parent drug. PMID:28009827

  9. Advancement of potent narcotic anaIgesics:combination of oxycodone%强效镇痛药羟考酮复方的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董国明

    2014-01-01

    阿片受体激动剂羟考酮是强效麻醉性镇痛药,其镇痛作用强,但其耐受性、依赖性及其抑制胃肠道平滑肌蠕动等不良反应限制了其临床应用。自20世纪末,研究者开始分别将解热镇痛药、阿片受体激动剂、阿片受体拮抗剂、多巴胺受体拮抗剂等药物与羟考酮以不同比例进行组方,在增强镇痛作用的同时能降低羟考酮的用量并减少其不良反应,从而达到限制其滥用的目的。本文仅就羟考酮复方的发展进行较为系统的综述,以期为进一步促进其临床应用提供依据。%Oxycodone,an opioid receptor agonist,is one of potent narcotic analgesics. Despite its potent analgesic effect,the tolerant and dependent liability of oxycodone as well as its inhibition on gas-trointestinal motility strongly restricts its clinical application. Since the end of the last century,antipyretic, opioid receptor agonist,opioid receptor antagonist and dopamine receptor antagonist have been used to in combination with oxycodone at different ratios as complex prescriptions,the aim of which is to enhance the effect of oxycodone,decrease the dosage of oxycodone,and prevent the adverse effect and the tendency for misuse. Here we reviewed the development of oxycodone compositions in the recent years,hoping to provide more data for its potential clinical application.

  10. Self‐medication patterns among medical students in South India

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    Nitasha Bhat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSelf-medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self-medication and the pattern of self-medication among medical students.MethodThis cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore. The participants were medical students from first to final year. Medical students were selected through convenience sampling. The data was collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions.ResultsA total of 200 students, 121 (60.5% female and 79 (39.5% male, were included in the study. Of the medical students surveyed, self-medication was reported among 92%. The respondents who used self-medication found it to be time-saving in providing relief from minor ailments. The most common ailments for which self-medication were used were: the common cold (69%, fever (63% and headache (60%. The students consulted their textbooks (39% and seniors or classmates (38% for the medications. Antipyretics (71%, analgesics (65%, antihistamines (37% and antibiotics (34% were the most common self-medicated drugs. Of the respondents, 33% were unaware of the adverse effects of the medication and 5% had experienced adverse reactions. The majority (64% of students advised medications to others, more often to family and friends.ConclusionThe prevalence of self-medication among medical students is high, facilitated by the easy availability of drugs and information from textbooks or seniors. A significant number of students are unaware of the adverse effects of the medication that they themselves take and suggest to others. Therefore, potential problems of self-medication should be emphasised to the students.

  11. Effect of lumiracoxib on proliferation and apoptosis of human nonsmall cell lung cancer cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Ji-qing; LI Qi; XU Shu-ping; SHEN Yu-xian; SUN Gen-yun

    2008-01-01

    Background Lumiracoxib is a highly selective cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2)inhibitor with antiinflammatory,analgesic and antipyretic activities comparable with class specific drugs,but with much improved gastrointestinal safety.No studies have examined lumiracoxib for antitumorigenic activity on human nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines in vitro or its possible molecular mechanisms.Methods The antiproliferative effect of lumiracoxib alone or combined with docetaxol on A549 and NCI-H460 lines was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT)assay.Drug-drug interactions were analyzed using the coefficient of drug interaction(CDI)to characterize the interactions as synergism,additivity or antagonism.Morphological changes were observed by acridine orange fluorescent staining.Extent of apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry.Results Lumiracoxib(15-240 μmol/L)has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of A549 and NCI-H460 celllines in concentration- and time-dependent manners with the IC50 values of 2597 μmol/L and 833 pmol/L,respectively.The synergistic effect was prominent when lumiracoxib(15-240 μmol/L)was combined with docetaxol(0.2-2 μmol/L)(CDI <1).Fluorescent staining showed that lumiracoxib could induce apoptosis in A549 and NCI-H460 cells.Lumiracoxib treatment also caused an increase of the sub-G1 fraction in each cell line and resulted in an increase of G0/G1-phase cells and a decrease of S-phase cells.Conclusions Lumiracoxib had antiproliferative effect on the human nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines A549 and NCI-H460 and had a significant synergy with docetaxol,which may be related to apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest.

  12. Pharmacokinetic profiles of the active metamizole metabolites in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, M; Aupanun, S; Lee, H-K; Poapolathep, A; Rychshanova, R; Vullo, C; Faillace, V; Laus, F

    2017-04-01

    Metamizole (MT) is an analgesic and antipyretic drug labelled for use in humans, horses, cattle, swine and dogs. MT is rapidly hydrolysed to the active primary metabolite 4-methylaminoantipyrine (MAA). MAA is formed in much larger amounts compared with other minor metabolites. Among the other secondary metabolites, 4-aminoantipyrine (AA) is also relatively active. The aim of this research was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of MAA and AA after dose of 25 mg/kg MT by intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) routes in healthy horses. Six horses were randomly allocated to two equally sized treatment groups according to a 2 × 2 crossover study design. Blood was collected at predetermined times within 24 h, and plasma was analysed by a validated HPLC-UV method. No behavioural changes or alterations in health parameters were observed in the i.v. or i.m. groups of animals during or after (up to 7 days) drug administration. Plasma concentrations of MAA after i.v. and i.m. administrations of MT were detectable from 5 min to 10 h in all the horses. Plasma concentrations of AA were detectable in the same range of time, but in smaller amounts. Maximum concentration (Cmax ), time to maximum concentration (Tmax ) and AUMC0-last of MAA were statistically different between the i.v. and i.m. groups. The AUCIM /AUCIV ratio of MAA was 1.06. In contrast, AUC0-last of AA was statistically different between the groups (P < 0.05) with an AUCIM /AUCIV ratio of 0.54. This study suggested that the differences in the MAA and AA plasma concentrations found after i.m. and i.v. administrations of MT might have minor consequences on the pharmacodynamics of the drug.

  13. Antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic screening of ethnopharmacologically selected Peruvian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Reina, Matías; Sáenz, Claudia; Lacret, Rodney; Ruiz-Mesia, Lastenia; Arán, Vicente J; Sanz, Jesús; Martínez-Díaz, Rafael A

    2012-04-01

    Extracts (34) from eight plant species of the Peruvian Amazonia currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine, mostly as antileishmanial remedies and also as painkiller, antiseptic, antipyretic, anti-inflamatory, antiflu, astringent, diuretic, antipoison, anticancerous, antiparasitic, insecticidal, or healing agents, have been tested for their antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic activity. Plant species were selected based on interviews conducted with residents of rural areas. The different plant parts were dried, powdered, and extracted by maceration with different solvents (hexane, chloroform, and 70% ethanol-water). These extracts were tested on promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum strain PB75, epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi strain Y, and the mammalian CHO cell line. Parasite viability and nonspecific cytotoxicity were analyzed by a modified MTT colorimetric assay method. The isolation and identification of pure compounds from selected extracts were performed by column chromatography, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS; mixtures), spectroscopic techniques [MS, infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV)], and mono and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR; COSY, HSQC, NOESY) experiments. Chondodendron tomentosum bark and Cedrela odorata were the most active extracts against Leishmania, while C. odorata and Aristoloquia pilosa were the most active against Trypanosoma, followed by Tabebuia serratifolia, Tradescantia zebrina, and Zamia ulei. Six compounds and two mixtures were isolated from Z. ulei [cycasin (1)], T. serratifolia {mixtures 1-2, and naphthoquinones 2-acetyl-4H,9H-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (2) and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-4H,9H-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (3)}, and C. tomentosum [chondrocurine (4); (S,S')-12-O-methyl(+)-curine (5); and cycleanine (6)]. Four compounds and the two mixtures exhibited significant activity.

  14. Analysis of the Use of TCM Decoction Pieces in Our Hospital during 2008-2011%我院2008-2011年中药饮片应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱育凤; 张倩; 金叶妹

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide reference for rationce use of TCM decoction piele and purchase plan. METHODS: Excel software was used to analyze the amount, consumption sum and sequences of TCM decoction pieces in our hospital during forn yeans. RESULTS: During four years, top 5 drugs in the list of amount were tonics, antipyretics, blood-activating and stasis-removing drug, water-removing remedy, phlegm-reducing cough-relieving and anti-asthma. Among top 30 drugs in the list of consumption sum, tonics took up the first place. CONCLUSION: The amount and consumption sum of TCM decoction pieces are increasing in our hospital, and the turnover rate of it are increasing continuously.%目的:为临床合理应用中药饮片和计划采购提供参考.方法:利用Excel软件统计分析我院4年中药饮片的用量、销售金额与排序.结果:4年中,用量居前5位的分别是补益、清热、活血祛瘀、利水渗湿与化痰止咳平喘类中药饮片.在单品种销售金额排序前30位中,补益药占最大份额.结论:我院中药饮片使用量和销售金额在不断上升,库存周转率在不断提高.

  15. Assessment of disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns of health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehijie F.O. Enato

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have systematically characterized drug-prescribing patterns, particularly at the primary care level in Nigeria, a country disproportionately burdened with disease. The aim of this study was to assess the disease profiles and drug-prescribing pattern in two health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. The medical records of 495 patients who attended a primary or secondary health care facility in Owan-East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between June and November 2009 were reviewed. Disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns were assessed. Data were analyzed based on the World Health Organization Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and core drug prescribing indicators. Five hundred and twelve clinical conditions were identified. Infectious disease was most prevalent (38.3%, followed by disorder of the alimentary tract (16.4%. Malaria was responsible for 55.6% of the infectious diseases seen, and 21.3% (109/512 of the total clinical conditions managed at the two health facilities during the study period. Consequently, anti-infective medications were the most frequently prescribed medicines (21.5%, followed by vitamins (18.2%. Use of artesunate monotherapy at both facilities (15.7%, and chloroquine at the primary health facility (24.9% were common. Paracetamol (41.8% and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (24.9% were the most frequently used analgesic/antipyretic. At the primary health care facility, dipyrone was used in 21.6% of cases. The core drug prescribing use indicators showed inappropriate prescribing, indicating poly-pharmacy, overuse of antibiotics and injectio. Inappropriate drug use patterns were identified at both health care facilities, especially with regard to the use of ineffective antimalarial drugs and the use of dipyrone.

  16. A NATURAL WAY TO KEEP DEPRESSION MILES AWAY

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    Dhamija Isha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Depression matters because depressive victims matter’. Tamarindus indica (Caesalpiniaceae, popularly known as Imli, is a perennial evergreen tree with a spreading crown, feathery evergreen foliage and fragrant flowers. Traditionally, Tamarind fruit is used as a digestive, laxative, expectorant, antipyretic and antimalarial agent. In the light of above, the present study was undertaken to test the anti-depressant potential of Tamarindus indica. Tamarindus indica pulp was administered along with diet at various concentrations ranging from 2%-8% w/w orally to Swiss mice, once daily for 14 successive days. The anti-depressant activity was measured using Forced Swim Test and Tail Suspension Test. Tamarindus indica pulp significantly (p<0.01 reduced the despair behavior of mice in Forced swim test and immobility duration in Tail suspension test. The anti-depressant efficacy of Tamarindus indica pulp was found to be comparable to that of fluoxetine (5-HT reuptake inhibitor and imipramine (Tricyclic anti-depressant. The combination of Tamarindus indica pulp either with sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p. or prazosin (62.5 µg/kg i.p. or p-CPA (100 mg/kg, i.p. reversed the enhanced immobility duration in TST model. The reduction in immobility duration produced by Tamarind fruit in the present study reflects its anti-depressant potential. Furthermore, Tamarindus indica pulp inhibited the monoamine oxidase (MAO enzyme, which metabolizes 5-HT and norepinephrine in brain, thereby elevating 5-HT and norepinephrine levels. These findings suggest that Tamarindus indica pulp possessed useful anti-depressant activity, which needs to be confirmed clinically.

  17. Evaluation of the antioxidant and melanogenesis inhibitory properties of pracparatum mungo (lu-do huang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Yu; Chuang, Tien-Fu; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Yang, Jo-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Pracparatum mungo (Lu-Do Huang) is a traditional Chinese functional medicine made from the natural fermentation of mung bean (Lǜ Dòu) mixed with other Chinese medicines. It has been recognized as having liver protecting and detoxifying effects. As mung beans have been verified to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, and whitening actions, the present research utilized the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental models to investigate the antioxidant and melanin inhibiting effects of P. mungo on the skin. The in vitro experiment revealed that P. mungo methanol extract (PMME) and P. mungo ethanol extract (PMEE) possess the capacity to clear α,α-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and inhibit tyrosinase activity. The ex vivo experiment indicated that PMEE can promote the growth of MDCK cells and increase the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in MDCK cells. On the other hand, PMME and PMEE can suppress the proliferation of A375 cells, and PMEE can reduce the enzymatic activities of SOD and catalase in A375 cells. The in vivo results showed that P. mungo can enhance the enzymatic performance of SOD, Catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver. The results also showed that P. mungo has antioxidant characteristics and can inhibit tyrosinase activity, thereby promoting the growth of skin tissues and suppressing the proliferation of A375 cells, and thus enhancing the effects that the antioxidant enzymatic performance has on the liver. These results can be applied in the development of tyrosinase inhibitors or antioxidants used for the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis or for auto-oxidation in further industrial applications, particularly those relating to functional food or cosmetic compositions.

  18. Studies on Chemical Constituents From Artabotrys Hainanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guangying; SONG Xiao-Ping; HAN Chang-ri

    2004-01-01

    Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries are plants of the Annonaccac family artabotrys genus,which includes an estimated 100 types of plants distributed mainly in the tropical zone and the subtropics areas. Four types of the plants are discovered in our country, two of which, A.Hongkongensis Hance and A. hexapetalus (Linn. F.) Bhandari, in Guangdong Province, and the other two, A. Pilosus and A. Hainanensis R.E. Fries, in Hainan Province. The latter are widely distributed in Hainan Island with very rich reserves. They have long been used among the ordinary people as medicinal plants with antipyretic, antidotal, antiphlogistic and analgesic effects and are often used for malaria. Scholars from home and abroad have paid much attention to the plants of the Annonaccac family for their containing anti-tumor activities, and after early or late research of the chemical constituents of the root, stem (derm), leaf and fruit of many types of plants of Artabotrys genus, more than 40 compounds including alkaloid, flavone and terpenoid have been isolated and obtained. Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries are Hainan endemic plants and there has been no report on the research of their chemical constituents and biological activities so far. In order to find new constituents of pharmacologic activity, we have researched the chemical constituents of the leaf and stem.The crude drugs were collected from Hainan Jianfeng Mountain and were identified as Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries of the Annonaccac family artabotrys genus. Its sample specimen is now kept in Chemistry Department of Hainan Normal University.After isolation and identification of constituent, six compounds were isolated from the leaf of Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries and elucidated as β -sitosterol (Ⅰ), catechin (Ⅱ), mangiferin (Ⅲ),(Ⅳ), (Ⅴ), (Ⅵ). All the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time. Compounds Ⅱ, Ⅲ,Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ were obtained from the genus of Artabotrys for the first time.

  19. Cytotoxicity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Cucurbita pepo and Solanum nigrum on HepG2 and CT26 cancer cell lines

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    M Shokrzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are used worldwide for the treatment of diseases, and novel drugs continue to be developed through research from plants. There are more than 20,000 species of plants used in traditional medicines, and these are all potential reservoirs for new drugs. Cucurbita pepo has been used in traditional folk medicine to treat cold and alleviate ache. Previous pharmacological tests have shown that it possesses antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Also, Solanum nigrum has been used as a diuretic and an antipyretic agent and it has also been used to cure inflammation, edema, mastitis and hepatic cancer. In this investigation, cytotoxicity of specific concentrations of hydro-alcoholic extracts of C. pepo and S. nigrum was studied on normal [Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO and rat fibroblast] and cancer (HepG2 and CT26 cell lines. The cytotoxic effects and IC 50 of the extracts on the selected cell lines were studied followed by colonogenic assay method. The results showed that IC 50 of S. nigrum extract was significantly lower than that of the C. pepo extract on all four cell lines (P < 0.05. On the other hand, IC 50 of S. nigrum extract was significantly higher than the extract of Taxus baccata and Cisplatin, herbal and chemical control positive anticancer compounds, respectively, on all four cell lines (P < 0.05. As a result, it is concluded that the extract of S. nigrum has almost similar cytotoxicity to the extract of T. baccata on cancer cells.

  20. BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF TWO ORAL FORMULATIONS OF METAMIZOLE 500 MG IN HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

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    Dhaneshwar Shep *, Rakesh Ojha , Rajeshwari Rathod , Sweta Patel , Manish Nivsarkar , Sanjay Maroo and Harish Padh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metamizole (Dipyrone is widely used and has effective analgesic, antipyretic, and antispasmodic properties. After oral or intravenous administration, dipyrone is rapidly hydrolyzed to the active moiety 4-methylaminoantipyrine. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of 2 oral formulations of Metamizole 500 mg. Methods: This double blind, randomized, single-dose, 2-period crossover study in healthy Indian adult volunteers was conducted at PERD Centre, Ahmedabad. Subjects received Metamizole 500 mg of either test or reference formulation with a washout period of 7 days. After study drug administration, serial blood samples were collected over a period of 24 hours. Plasma concentration of 4-methylaminoantipyrine was measured by pre-validated LC-MS method. Pharmacokinetic (PK parameters Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and kel, were determined for test and reference formulations. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were within the predetermined bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%. Results: A total of 14 subjects were enrolled. No significant differences were found based on analysis of variance, with mean values and 90% confidence intervals of test/reference ratios for these parameters as follows: Cmax, 18.24 versus 18.44 μg/mL (92.68 - 106.61; AUC0-t, 92.97 Versus 91.37 μg.hr/mL (89.49 - 113.09; and AUC0-∞, 96.64 Versus 94.65 μg.hr/mL (92.31 - 111.63. Conclusion: Since the 90% confidence intervals for Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0−∞ were within the interval of 80-125%, it was concluded that both formulations were bioequivalent, according to both the rate and extent of absorption.