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Sample records for antipyretics

  1. Antipyretic activity of Radix paeoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Motwani, Sapna; Malviya, Neelesh; Goel, R. K.; Dutt, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    The acetone extracts of Radix paeoniae (Paeonaceae) root (100 and 200 mg/kg orally) were tested in brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats to assess their antipyretic activity. The pyrexia in rats was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) compared to that of control. These results indicate that the extracts possess antipyretic properties. The root extract showed significant reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature comparable to that of standard antipyretic drug p...

  2. ANTIPYRETIC POTENTIAL OF GALEGA PURPUREA ROOT

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    Periyasamy Gomathi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of the roots of Galega purpurea (MEGP was investigated for its antipyretic activity in rats. Hyperpyrexia was induced by subcutaneous administration of Brewer’s yeast suspension. The extracts were screened for alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins ans saponins. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids and steroids in MEGP. The administration of MEGP (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o showed significant antipyretic activity in the tested animals. The results obtained were dose-dependent and it was comparable to that of the standard drug paracetamol.

  3. ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITIES OF SOME SPECIES OF ANDROGRAPHIS WALL

    OpenAIRE

    Balu, S.; Boopathi, C. Alagesa; Elango, V.

    1993-01-01

    The antipyretic activities of the alcoholic extracts of three species of Andrographis Wall, were assayed at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight in pyrogenic polysaccharide – induced hyperpyrexia in male albino rats. All the extracts were found to be effective in the inhibition of pyrexia. The maximal antipyretic activity was found with the alcoholic extract of Andrographis alata Nees.

  4. Antipyretic and antinociceptive activity of Diospyros lotus L. in animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdur Rauf; Ghias Uddin; Bina S Siddiqui; Naveed Muhammad; Haroon Khan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate pharmacologically the traditional use of Diospyros lotus as antipyretic and antinociceptive in various animal models.Methods: In vivo experimental models were used in this study. Antipyretic activity of extract/fractions was evaluated in brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermic mice while antinociceptive activity was studied in acetic acid induced writhing test at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.Results:The crude extract strongly ameliorated the induced pyrexia during various assessment times. Upon fractionation, the antipyretic effects were strongly augmented by the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of the plant. However, hexane and butanol fractions were insignificant in their effect as antipyretic. The extract showed marked inhibition on the noxious simulation induced by post acetic acid injection. The effect was strongly supported by other fraction expect hexane.Conclusions:In short, our study scientifically validated the traditional use of the plant as antipyretic.

  5. Effect of antipyretic analgesics on immune responses to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ezzeldin; Moody, M Anthony; Walter, Emmanuel B

    2016-09-01

    While antipyretic analgesics are widely used to ameliorate vaccine adverse reactions, their use has been associated with blunted vaccine immune responses. Our objective was to review literature evaluating the effect of antipyretic analgesics on vaccine immune responses and to highlight potential underlying mechanisms. Observational studies reporting on antipyretic use around the time of immunization concluded that their use did not affect antibody responses. Only few randomized clinical trials demonstrated blunted antibody response of unknown clinical significance. This effect has only been noted following primary vaccination with novel antigens and disappears following booster immunization. The mechanism by which antipyretic analgesics reduce antibody response remains unclear and not fully explained by COX enzyme inhibition. Recent work has focused on the involvement of nuclear and subcellular signaling pathways. More detailed immunological investigations and a systems biology approach are needed to precisely define the impact and mechanism of antipyretic effects on vaccine immune responses. PMID:27246296

  6. Fever and antipyretic use in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Janice E; Farrar, Henry C

    2011-03-01

    Fever in a child is one of the most common clinical symptoms managed by pediatricians and other health care providers and a frequent cause of parental concern. Many parents administer antipyretics even when there is minimal or no fever, because they are concerned that the child must maintain a "normal" temperature. Fever, however, is not the primary illness but is a physiologic mechanism that has beneficial effects in fighting infection. There is no evidence that fever itself worsens the course of an illness or that it causes long-term neurologic complications. Thus, the primary goal of treating the febrile child should be to improve the child's overall comfort rather than focus on the normalization of body temperature. When counseling the parents or caregivers of a febrile child, the general well-being of the child, the importance of monitoring activity, observing for signs of serious illness, encouraging appropriate fluid intake, and the safe storage of antipyretics should be emphasized. Current evidence suggests that there is no substantial difference in the safety and effectiveness of acetaminophen and ibuprofen in the care of a generally healthy child with fever. There is evidence that combining these 2 products is more effective than the use of a single agent alone; however, there are concerns that combined treatment may be more complicated and contribute to the unsafe use of these drugs. Pediatricians should also promote patient safety by advocating for simplified formulations, dosing instructions, and dosing devices.

  7. ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF TBR-002, A HERBAL FORMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam, A.; Pushpangadan, P.; Rajasekharan, S; Latha, P G

    1995-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of a herbal formulation, TBR-002 was compared with that of andrographis paniculata, andrographis elongate and paracetamol in yeast-induced pyrexia in male albino rats, TBR-oo2 was found to be effective at an oral dose of 100 mg/kg in the inhibition if pyrexia. Its efficacy was almost comparable to that of paracetamol as well as andrographis elongate, the antipyretic activity of andrographis paniculata, the well known antipyretic herb, was found to be less than that of...

  8. Symptomatic intravenous antipyretic therapy: efficacy of metamizol, diclofenac, and propacetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborilová, Andrea; Mayer, Jirí; Pospísil, Zdenek; Korístek, Zdenek

    2002-12-01

    Fever is a common symptom in cancer patients. The most frequent causes of fever are infections, malignancy itself, various medications, transfusions, and allergy. Although it is necessary to treat the cause of fever, if possible, symptomatic fever management is also important. Surprisingly, little attention is paid to this topic in the medical literature, despite the fact that it is a very frequent problem. In order to support symptomatic fever therapy, we wanted to study the patients' discomfort accompanying fever and the beneficial effects of the symptomatic fever management. To the best of our knowledge, there is an absence of studies in this area, despite the fever discomfort can be an important reason for the antipyretic treatment, mainly in cancer patients. In this non-randomized open label pilot study, three intravenous antipyretics were tested in five groups of patients: diclofenac (75 mg, brief intravenous [IV] infusion) vs. metamizol (2500 mg or 1000 mg, brief IV infusion) vs. propacetamol (2000 mg or 1000 mg, slow IV injection or brief IV infusion). The study included 254 febrile episodes mainly in hemato-oncological patients with axillary temperature at least 38 degrees C. The main study endpoints were: changes in axillary temperature, improvement in patient comfort, and number and nature of adverse events. To support justification for symptomatic fever management in febrile patients, we asked the first 45 study subjects to fill in a questionnaire concerning their opinions about fever, fever-associated discomfort, and relief upon antipyretic therapy. All study medications had a significant antipyretic effect. However, metamizol at the dose 2500 mg was considered as the most effective, while propacetamol at the dose 1000 mg showed the lowest antipyretic efficacy. Concerning tolerability and adverse events, there were significant differences among the treatment groups. Diclofenac and metamizol (both 2500 mg and 1000 mg) were tolerated at best. All tested

  9. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

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    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po. showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  10. Measurement of antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and paracetamol in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, U K; Gupta, K; Paul, T; Pispati, P K

    1980-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of ibuprofen (Brufen) and paracetamol (Crocin) was compared in 22 children with pyrexia who received either ibuprofen or paracetamol in syrup form. Both axillary and rectal temperatures were recorded prior to drug administration and 1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 12 hours after dosing. Analysis of the results in terms of rate of temperature decrease and degree and duration of decrease in temperature indicated that both drugs produced significant reduction in temperature and in the rate of temperature decrease. The maximum effect of the two drugs was similar. However, ibuprofen was more effective than paracetamol at 6 and 8 hours after administration, and its duration of action was longer. The associated antipyretic and antiinflammatory features of ibuprofen could provide an advantage in the control of exudative forms of upper respiratory tract infections. PMID:6971880

  11. Antioxidant and antipyretic studies onPothos scandens L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thankarajan Sajeesh; Karuppusamy Arunachalam; Tangaraj Parimelazhagan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigatePothos scandensfor thein vitro antioxidant and antipyretic activity. Methods: Preliminary phytochemicals, total phenolics and flavonoid contents were analyzed in leaf, stem and root samples.In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by different assays such as2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging,2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power(FRAP)assay, phosphomolybdenum reduction assay, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide scavenging assay. The antipyretic activity of root methanol extract was studied by pyrexia induced by brewer’s yeast on Wistar albino rats at concentration of200and400 mg/kg using paracetamol as standard drug.Results: The total phenolics and tannin content were found to be higher in ethanol extract of stem, whereas total flavonoid content was higher in acetone extract of root. The methanol extract of root showed highest free radical scavenging activity in assays namelyABTS assay (8 221.5 μM TE/g extract),FRAP assay [514.4 mM Fe (Ⅱ)/g extract], hydrogen peroxide (60.3%)and nitric oxide scavenging assays(58.7%). The DPPHassay and superoxide radical assay results revealed that the ethanol extract of root has remarkable free radical scavenging capacity (IC500.284 mg/mL and 70.84%). The antipyretic studies on methanol extract of root showed significant reduction of temperature in pyrexia induced rats at200and 400 mg/kg doses. Conclusions:These findings justify thatPothos scandens can be a valuable natural antioxidant and antipyretic source which seemed to provide potential nutraceuticals for human health.

  12. Antipyretic Activity of Peperomia pellucida Leaves in Rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Alam; RAHMAN, Moizur; Islam, Shariful

    2008-01-01

    Antipyretic effects of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of ethanol extract of the leaves of Peperomia pellucida (Linn.) HBK (Fam. Piperaceae) were investigated. Intraperitoneal administration of boiled milk at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight in albino rabbit leads to pyrexia. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of ethanol extract of the leaves of P. pellucida at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the...

  13. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan Patel; Naveen Mahobia; Nitin Upwar; Naheed Waseem; Hetal Talaviya; Zalak Patel

    2010-01-01

    Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the pre...

  14. A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Mradu; Shaw, B. P; Mukherjee, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic–analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxici...

  15. Antioxidant and antipyretic properties of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosusleaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar; Kuruba Lakshman; Jayaveera KN; Devangam Sheshadri Shekar; Avalakondarayappa Arun Kumar; Bachappa Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Methanolic extract ofAmaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus) leaves was screened for antioxidant and antipyretic activities.Methods:Antioxidant activity was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazile(DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging,2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid(ABTS) radical scavenging assays and total phenolic content was also determined. Antipyretic activity of methanolic extract ofA. spinosus was measured by yeast induced pyrexia method at concentration of200 and400 mg/kg using paracetamol as standard drug.Results: Methanolic extract ofA. spinosusshowed potent antioxidant activity. The IC50 value was(87.50 ±3.52) μg/mL, (98.80±1.40) μg/mL,(106.25±0.20)μg/mL,(88.70±0.62) μg/mL and(147.50±2.61) μg/mL forDPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl, nitric oxide andABTSradical scavenging activities. Methanolic extract ofA. spinosus showed significant(P<0.01)antipyretic activity.

  16. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Mimusops elengi Linn

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    Purnima A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy′s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer′s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer′s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity.

  17. 75 FR 50770 - Guidance for Industry on Organ-Specific Warnings: Internal Analgesic, Antipyretic, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ..., Antipyretic, and Antirheumatic Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Use; Final Monograph'' (74 FR 19385, April... accordance with the Small Business Regulatory Fairness Act. \\1\\ As amended November 25, 2009 (74 FR 61512... Analgesic, Antipyretic, and Antirheumatic Drug Products for Over-the- Counter Human Use--Small...

  18. 21 CFR 201.322 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients; required alcohol warning. 201.322 Section 201.322 Food and Drugs... containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients; required alcohol warning. (a) People who... internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients may cause similar adverse effects. FDA concludes that...

  19. A Study On Antipyretic Activity Of Capparis zeylanica Linn. Plant Methanolic Extract

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    Amiya Ranjan Padhan,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The objective of the present work was to study the antipyretic activity of plant Capparis zeylanica Linn. belonging to family Capparaceae, known as “Karambha” in Sanskrit & “Asadhua” in Oriya. Materials & Methods - The Methanolic extract was taken for the study and evaluated for antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in Wister strain albino rats. The methanolic extract at a dose of 100mg/kg & 200mg/kg were evaluated for antipyretic activity. Result - The extract of C. zeylanica plant showed a significant (P < 0.01 dose dependent antipyretic effect in yeast induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. Conclusion - The Methanolic extract of Capparis. zeylanica Linn. plant have significant antipyretic activity when compared with the standard drug. So. It can be recommended for further studies.

  20. Study of Antipyretic Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats

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    V.I. Borikar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to screen the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. as per the method discribed by Bhalla et.al, (1971. Thirty six healthy rats weighing between 200-250gms were divided into six groups of six animals each, with 50% sex ratio. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 3 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 15% of brewer’s yeast and 2% gum acacia in normal saline sub-cutaneously below the nape of neck @ 1ml/100gm of animal weight. The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The extract showed marked antipyretic activity in a dose dependent manner. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 215-216

  1. Antipyretic therapy. Comparison of rectal and oral paracetamol.

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    Keinänen, S; Hietula, M; Similä, S; Kouvalainen, K

    1977-08-17

    The absorption of paracetamol from syrup, tablet and two different suppository bases was compared in six adult volunteers using urinary excretion measurements. The total amount of paracetamol and its metabolites excreted and the peak excretion rates were lower from the suppository bases than from the oral dosage forms. Absorption was a little better from a polyethylene glycol suppository base than from a triglyceride base. The antipyretic efficacy of a paracetamol syrup and suppository at a dose of 10 mg/kg was compared in 30 children between the age of 4 months and 12 years, who had infections and a rectal temperature above 38.5 degrees C. Both dosage forms produced a significant decrease in temperature, the greatest fall being about 2 hours earlier with the oral dosage form. The syrup also seemed to be significantly (p less than 0.05) more effective (maximum fall of temperature 1.58 degrees C) in reducing fever than the suppository, which produced its greatest fall of temperature (1.24 degrees C) six hours after insertion of the suppository. From the practical point of view both forms can be regarded as safe and effective antipyretics. PMID:332506

  2. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine.

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    Backhouse, N; Delporte, C; Givernau, M; Cassels, B K; Valenzuela, A; Speisky, H

    1994-10-01

    Boldine, an antioxidant alkaloid isolated from Peumus boldus, exhibits a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced guinea pig paw edema test with an oral ED50 of 34 mg/kg. Boldine also reduces bacterial pyrogen-induced hyperthermia in rabbits to an extent which varied between 51% and 98% at a dose of 60 mg/kg p.o. In vitro studies carried out in rat aortal rings revealed that boldine is an effective inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, promoting 53% inhibition at 75 microM. The latter in vitro effect may be mechanistically linked to the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine exerted in vivo. PMID:7879695

  3. Antipyretic and antimicrobial potential of Sida spinosa linn. aqueous root extract

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    Basheer Ahmed Mannasaheb

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antipyretic and antimicrobial potential of Sida spinosa Linn. Aqueous root extract was evaluated using aspirin and chloramphenicol as standard drugs.Materials and methods: Roots were collected and extracted with water. The doses of the extract selected were 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w, according to OECD guidelines. Antipyretic potential was evaluated in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in rats along with Antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion technique.Results: Aqueous extract demonstrated highly significant (P<0.01 antipyretic activity during various assessment times (1-5 h when challenged in yeast induced pyrexia test. Maximum attenuation (65.73% at 3h was observed at 400mg/kg o.p.Antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and S. aeruginosa, was carried out. All microbes were sensitive and activity was concentration dependent.Conclusion: Sida spinosa Linn. root possesses potent antipyretic and antimicrobial activity and has therapeutic potential.

  4. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis Linn. in different experimental models

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    Kumar Ashok B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of the whole plant extract of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV was screened for antinociceptive activity using the acetic acid writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice and for antipyretic activity using the yeast-induced pyrexia method in rats, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Significant (p<0.01 dose-dependent antinociceptive and antipyretic properties were observed with 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  5. Electron attachment to antipyretics: Possible implications of their metabolic pathways

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    Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A.; Modelli, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    The empty-level structures and formation of negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0-15 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals in a series of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), namely aspirin, paracetamol, phenacetin, and ibuprofen, were investigated in vacuo by electron transmission and dissociative electron attachment (DEA) spectroscopies, with the aim to model the behavior of these antipyretic agents under reductive conditions in vivo. The experimental findings are interpreted with the support of density functional theory calculations. The negative and neutral fragments formed by DEA in the gas phase display similarities with the main metabolites of these commonly used NSAIDs generated in vivo by the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes, as well as with several known active agents. It is concluded that xenobiotic molecules which possess pronounced electron-accepting properties could in principle follow metabolic pathways which parallel the gas-phase dissociative decay channels observed in the DEA spectra at incident electron energies below 1 eV. Unwanted side effects as, e.g., hepatoxicity or carcinogenicity produced by the NSAIDs under study in human organism are discussed within the "free radical model" framework, reported earlier to describe the toxic action of the well-known model toxicant carbon tetrachloride.

  6. Pharmacological and phytochemical evaluation of Ocimum sanctum root extracts for its antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities

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    Anant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs increases risk of having a range of gastrointestinal problems. Therefore, new anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic drugs having lesser side effects are being searched all over the world as alternatives to NSAIDs. Aims: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic profile of Ocimum sanctum root extracts. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory profile of hexane (STH, chloroform (STC, ethyl acetate (STE, butanol (STB and water (STW extracts of OS was carried out by using carrageenan induced paw edema. STE a most active extract was further validated in dose dependent manner for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity as well as oral toxicity profile in small laboratory animals. Identification of bioactives flux and chemical signature of most active fraction STE was developed by using the high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting. Results: An ethyl acetate fraction (STE exhibit most potent anti-inflammatory activity followed by STB, STW, STC and STH. Dose response study of STE showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic potential in dose-dependent manner without any toxic effect at dose 2000 mg/kg. Chemical fingerprint revealed the presence of flavanoids. Conclusions: The present research revealed that STE possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic properties. However, future research is advocated to evaluate the pharmacological properties of isolated bioactive compounds.

  7. Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation for the antipyretic effect of the seeds of Saraca asoca Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasmal S; Majumdar S; Gupta M; Mukherjee A; Mukherjee PK

    2012-01-01

    To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization, physiochemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity. Methods: Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical, phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations. Also, the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in Wistar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Results: After phytochemical screening, the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin, tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia. The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin (100 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.01) antipyretic activity when compared to the control group. The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature.Conclusions:The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods.

  8. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  9. Comparative evaluation of antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin in children with pyrexia of varied aetiology.

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    Kandoth, P W; Joshi, M K; Joshi, V R; Satoskar, R S

    1984-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin was compared in sixteen children with pyrexia due to upper respiratory tract infection and in twelve with fever due to other causes. All 28 children received ibuprofen (7 mg/kg of body-weight) and aspirin (15 mg/kg of body-weight) in a single dose on 2 consecutive days in a crossover manner. Rectal temperature was recorded prior to and at regular intervals up to 8 hours after drug administration. Analysis of the results indicate that ibuprofen and aspirin effectively lower temperature and the two drugs are comparable in their antipyretic activity. In conclusion, significant antipyretic activity, good tolerance profile and availability in syrup form make ibuprofen a useful substitute for aspirin in children with fever. PMID:6500169

  10. Evaluation of antipyretic potential of Clitoria ternatea L. extract in rats.

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    Parimaladevi, B; Boominathan, R; Mandal, Subhash C

    2004-01-01

    The methanol extract of Clitoria ternatea L. root (MECTR) blue flowered variety (Family: Fabaceae), was evaluated for its anti-pyretic potential on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rats. Yeast suspension (10 ml/kg body wt.) increased rectal temperature after 19 hours of subcutaneous injection. The extract, at doses of 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body wt., p.o., produced significant reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature in a dose-dependent manner. The effect extended up to 5 hours after the drug administration. The anti-pyretic effect of the extract was comparable to that of paracetamol (150 mg/kg body wt., p.o.), a standard anti-pyretic agent. PMID:15185845

  11. MEDICINAL PLANTS AS A SOURCE OF ANTIPYRETIC AGENT IN TERAI REGION OF WESTERN NEPAL

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    Anant Gopal Singh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during 2009-2011 using semi-structured, open-ended questionnaires, informal interviews, and group discussions with traditional healers and senior citizens having thorough knowledge about plants and plant based remedies. During present study ten phytotherapeutic practices for management of different types of fever using 50 plant species as antipyretic agent were identified and documented. These species may be used for the development of new, cheap, and effective antipyretic agent of herbal origin. Further investigation of these plant species for herbal antipyretic agents will require safety and efficacy testing. There is an urgent need to formulate suitable conservation strategies for wildly growing medicinal plants to overcome their depletion from natural resources.

  12. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethanolic extract of plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. belongs to the family of "Lamiaceae," which is widely available in Tamil Nadu. Traditionally, plant extract is used to treat fever and common cold for children. The plant has not been yet studied pharmacologically for antipyretic activity. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the bark of plant G. prostratum (L. Benth. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 healthy white albino rats weighing 200 to 250 g were taken and divided into four groups of six animals each. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 4 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 12% of brewer′s yeast (at the dose 1 ml/100 g of animal weight in normal saline subcutaneously below the nape of neck. Ethanolic extract was given orally to groups II and III at the dose 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results are presented as mean΁SEM. Statistical analysis of data was performed using Dunnett′s test to study the difference among the mean. Results: The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The present results showed that ethanolic extract of bark of G. prostratum plant possess a significant antipyretic effect in yeast-induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. It was revealed that the extract showed dose-dependent antipyretic activity. At a dose of 200 mg/kg, it showed significant antipyretic activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of G. prostratum (L. Benth. plant has significant antipyretic activity when compared with the standard drug. So, it can be recommended for further studies.

  13. [On the antipyretic effect of paracetamol. Clinical investigation with two different forms of application (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götte, R; Liedtke, R

    1978-01-01

    144 children, aged between 15 days and 12 years, suffering from febrile condition of various etiology, were treated with differentiated single doses of paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) in form of syrup, suppositories and a combination of syrup with the antihistamine doxylaminsuccinate. During investigation periods of four hours, applying reduced doses, the syrup application showed the same antipyretic effects as those obtained with paracetamol suppositories. When administering the combination with doxylaminsuccinate, the antipyretic effect was reduced and the psychomotoric superactivity did not improve. A control of the actual rectal dosage scheme for repetitive applications is recommended and the combination of paracetamol with sedatives is to be discussed. PMID:304522

  14. Antipyretic therapy in critically ill patients with established sepsis: a trial sequential analysis.

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    Zhongheng Zhang

    Full Text Available antipyretic therapy for patients with sepsis has long been debated. The present study aimed to explore the beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy for ICU patients with sepsis.systematic review and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials.Pubmed, Scopus, EBSCO and EMBASE were searched from inception to August 5, 2014.Mortality was dichotomized as binary outcome variable and odds ratio (OR was chosen to be the summary statistic. Pooled OR was calculated by using DerSimonian and Laird method. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by using the statistic I2. Trial sequential analysis was performed to account for the small number of trials and patients.A total of 6 randomized controlled trials including 819 patients were included into final analysis. Overall, there was no beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy on mortality risk in patients with established sepsis (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.50-2.05. The required information size (IS was 2582 and our analysis has not yet reached half of the IS. The Z-curve did not cross the O'Brien-Fleming α-spending boundary or reach the futility, indicating that the non-significant result was probably due to lack of statistical power.our study fails to identify any beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy on ICU patients with established diagnosis of sepsis. Due to limited number of total participants, more studies are needed to make a conclusive and reliable analysis.

  15. In vivo screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves for antinociceptive and antipyretic activity

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    Naveed Muhammad

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: In vivo studies of SLO showed prominent antinociceptive and antipyretic activities with ample safety profile and thus provided pharmacological base for the traditional uses of the plant in various painful conditions and pyrexia. Additional detail studies are required to ascertain its clinical application.

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of novel analogues of mangiferin as potent antipyretic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shashi Kant Singh; Saurabh K Sinha; SK Prasad; R Kumar; Bhawani S Bithu; S Sadish Kumar; P Singh

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To screen different analogues of mangiferin pharmacologically for antipyretic activity. Methods:The naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin was isolated by column chromatography from the ethanolic extract of stem bark ofMangifera indica. Mangiferin was further converted to5-(N-phenylamino methyleno) mangiferin,5-(N-p-chlorophenylamino methyleno) mangiferin,5-(N-2-methyl phenylamino methyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-p-methoxy phenylamino methyleno) mangiferin,5-(N, N-diphenylamino methyleno) mangiferin,5-(N-α-napthylamino methyleno) mangiferin and5-(N-4-methyl phenylamino methyleno) mangiferin analogues. The synthesized compounds were further screened for antipyretic activity along with mangiferin at a dose level of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Mangiferin and its analogues were characterized by melting point andRfvalue determination and through spectral technique likeUV, IR, and NMR spectral analysis.Results: The antipyretic activity of mangiferin as well as all analogues was found to be more significant in at higher doseie.200mg/kg which was depicted through a decrease in rectal temperature up to3 h.Conclusions:The antipyretic activity of mangiferin and its analogues may be attributed to inhibition in synthesis ofTNF-α and anti-oxidant activity associated with amelioration of inflammatory actions of cytokines.

  17. Comparative antipyretic activity of methanolic extracts of some species of Amaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar; Kuruba Lakshman; Jayaveera KN

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific validation for the antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis (Linn.), Amaranthus caudatus (Linn.) and Amaranthus spinosus (Linn.). Methods: The antipyretic activity of methanol extracts of all three plants at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was investigated by yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Paracetamol (150 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as reference drug and control group received distilled water. Rectal temperatures of all the rats were recorded and compared at 19 h, immediately before extract or vehicle or paracetamol administration, and again at 1 h interval up to 24 h by thermal probe Eliab themistor thermometer. Results: At 400 mg/kg dose all the three methanolic extracts showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in yeast provoked elevated temperature as compared with that of standard drug paracetamol, whereas 200 mg/kg dose is less effective when compared with higher dose (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results show that methanol extract of three plants of Amaranthus possesses a significant antipyretic effect in maintaining reducing yeast-induced elevated body temperature in rats and their effects were comparable to that of the standard antipyretic drug paracetamol.

  18. Antipyretic and antibacterial activity of Chloranthus erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verdcourt leaf extract: A popular folk medicine of Arunachal Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Tag, Hui; Nima D Namsa; Mandal, M; Kalita, P; Das, AK; Mandal, SC

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this work was to study the antipyretic and antibacterial activity of C. erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verdcourt leaf extract in an experimental albino rat model. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of C. erectus leaf (MECEL) was evaluated for its antipyretic potential on normal body temperature and Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rat’s model. While the antibacterial activity of MECEL against five Gram (−) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains and antimy...

  19. Early antipyretic exposure does not increase mortality in patients with gram-negative severe sepsis: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, Nicholas; Skrupky, Lee; Fuller, Brian; Moy, Hawnwan; Alunday, Robert; Wallendorf, Michael; Micek, Scott; Fagley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Existing data suggest that antipyretic medications may have deleterious effects on immune function and may increase mortality in human infection. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antipyretic therapy on 28-day in-hospital mortality when administered early in the course of gram-negative severe sepsis or septic shock. This study was a single-center retrospective cohort study at a 1,111-bed academic medical center of all febrile patients with gram-negative bacteremia hospitalized...

  20. The Effect of Prophylactic Antipyretic Administration on Post-Vaccination Adverse Reactions and Antibody Response in Children: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Ranjan Das; Inusha Panigrahi; Sushree Samiksha Naik

    2014-01-01

    Background Prophylactic antipyretic administration decreases the post-vaccination adverse reactions. Recent study finds that they may also decrease the antibody responses to several vaccine antigens. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for a relationship between prophylactic antipyretic administration, post-vaccination adverse events, and antibody response in children. Methods A systematic search of major databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out till March 2014. ...

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of Kang 601 heji,a traditional Chinese oral liquid dosage form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael; Nammahime; Alolga; Sarah; Wambui; Amadi; Vitus; Onoja; Assogba; Gabin; Assanhou; Moses; Muyaba; Said; Abasse; Kassim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of Kang 601 heji(K-601) as an anti-in flammatory and antipyretic agent using appropriate animal models.Methods: Carrageenan-induced rat paw and xylene-induced ear oedemas were models used to investigate anti-in flammatory actions of K-601. Lipopolysaccharide-induced pyrexia model was used to evaluate antipyretic activity in Wistar rats. The antiin flammatory and antipyretic mechanisms were evaluated by detecting prostaglandins E2, nitric oxide, interleukin-1b and tumour necrosis factora levels using appropriate reagents and ELISA kits.Results: The results revealed that K-601 reduced the level of in flammations in both antiin flammatory models in a dose-dependent manner. The same was true for the antipyretic model. The possible mechanisms of actions were through the inhibition of prostaglandins E2, interleukin-1b, tumour necrosis factora and nitric oxide.Conclusions: K-601 has proven anti-in flammatory and antipyretic actions. The findings provide a scientific basis for the use of K-601 as anti-in flammatory and antipyretic agent in traditional Chinese medicinal practice.

  2. Anti-inlfammatory and antipyretic properties of kang 601 heji, a traditional Chinese medicine oral liquid dosage form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael Nammahime Alolga; Sarah Wambui Amadi; Vitus Onoja; Assogba Gabin Assanhou; Moses Muyaba; Said Abasse Kassim

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of Kang 601 heji (K-601) as an anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agent using appropriate animal models. Methods:Carrageenan-induced rat paw and xylene-induced ear oedemas were models used to investigate anti-inflammatory actions of K-601. Lipopolysaccharide-induced pyrexia model was used to evaluate antipyretic activity in Wistar rats. The anti-inflammatory and antipyretic mechanisms were evaluated by detecting prostaglandins E2, nitric oxide, interleukin-1βand tumor necrosis factor-αlevels using appropriate reagents and ELISA kits. Results:The results revealed that K-601 reduced the level of inflammations in both anti-inflammatory models in a dose-dependent manner. The same was true for the antipyretic model. The possible mechanisms of actions were through the inhibition of prostaglandins E2, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-αand nitric oxide. Conclusions: K-601 has proven anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions. The findings provide a scientific basis for the use of K-601 as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agent in traditional Chinese medicinal practice.

  3. Analgesic, anti-inlfammatory and antipyretic activities of methanolic leaf extract ofMaerua crassifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Godwin Christian Akuodor; Augustine Dick Essien; Joseph Linus Akpan; Kingsley Chimsorom Chilaka; Kenneth Ikechukwu Nwadike; Ndubuisi Nwobodo Nwobodo; Basil Chukwuma Ezeokpo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic leaf extract ofMaerua crassifoliain mice and rats. Methods: Acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion methods were used to assess analgesic activity, while xylene and carrageenan-induced paw oedema methods were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the leaf extract. Yeast and amphetamine-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the antipyretic activity. The phytochemical analysis and oral acute toxicity of the methanolic leaf extract ofMaerua crassifolia were also evaluated. Results: The leaf extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) showed a dose dependent and significant (P Conclusions:The findings confirmed its ethnomedical use in the treatment of pains and feverish conditions.

  4. Evaluation of analgesic and antipyretic activities of Centratherum anthelminticum (L kuntze seed

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    Purnima A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate analgesic and antipyretic activities of petroleum ether and alcohol extracts of Centratherum anthelminticum (L Kuntze (family: Asteraceae seeds (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. in brewer′s yeast-induced fever model in rats, acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy′s hot plate methods in mice. Both petroleum ether and alcohol extracts showed significant decrease in number of writhes in acetic acid-induced writhing and increase in paw licking time to heat stimuli in the hot plate method. The maximum analgesic activity was observed at 90 min after dosing when compared to control. Both the extracts showed significant inhibition of elevated body temperature when compared to corresponding control. These results suggested that the petroleum ether and alcohol extracts possessed analgesic and antipyretic activities.

  5. Antipyretic activity of seeds from Red and White type of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera in Albino Rat

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    P.K. Deepa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera (red and white types at dose rates of 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg was administered orally in rats in which pyrexia was induced with brewers yeast. The standard drug used was aspirin (100 mg/kg. The standard drug showed antipyretic effect from first hour of the study onwards. It was found that during the third hour of the study N. nucifera red and white types, 600 mg/kg showed significant decrease in body temperature. During the fourth hour of the study, all the treatment groups showed antipyretic effect. A similar decrease in body temperature was observed on fifth hour of the study also. Hence the present study revealed that the N. nucifera (red and white types at the rate of 400 and 600 mg/kg is effective in reducing body temperature in yeast induced pynexia in rats. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 213-214

  6. Experimental evaluation of antipyretic and analgesic activities of Amalakyadi Gana: An Ayurvedic formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Timbadiya, Manoj J.; Nishteswar, K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In Ayurvedic classics, the symptom fever is considered as a separate disease called Jwara. Acharya Sushruta has mentioned Amalakyadi Gana for treatment of all types of Jwara, which contains four drugs namely Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz.), Pippali (Piper longum L.), and Chitraka (Plumbago zeylenica L.). Aims: To evaluate the antipyretic and analgesic activity of Amalakyadi Gana in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Decoction ...

  7. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Naveed; Saeed Muhammad; Khan Haroon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME). Methods VBME was employe...

  8. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

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    Muhammad Naveed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME. Methods VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p. Results In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23% protection at 300mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90% at 150mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300mg/kg. Conclusions It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant.

  9. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Yousef A.; Samud, Awatef M.; El-Taher, Fathy E.; ben-Hussin, Ghazala; Elmezogi, Jamal S.; Badryia F. Al-Mehdawi; Salem, Hanan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache.Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice.Methods: Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer’s-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to ...

  10. Antinociceptive and Antipyretic Activities of Amaranthus Viridis Linn in Different Experimental Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok; Lakshman, Kuruba; Jayaveera, Korala Konta Narsimha; Shekar, Devangam Sheshadri; Muragan, Chinna Swamy Vel; Manoj, Bachappa

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV), was screened for antinociceptive activity using acetic acid induced writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice. In a similar way a screening exercise was carried out to determine the antipyretic potential of the extract using yeast induced pyrexia method in rats. Administration of the extracts was applied to both laboratory animals at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The results of th...

  11. Studies of anticancer and antipyretic activity of Bidens pilosa whole plant

    OpenAIRE

    Sundararajan, Parimalakrishnan; Dey, Akalanka; Smith, Anton; Doss, Arul Gana; Rajappan, Manavalan; Natarajan, Sridhar

    2006-01-01

    Screening of different extracts and fractions from the plant Bidens pilosa Linn. var. (Asteraceae) has been conducted using the in - vitro comet assay for anticancer and the antipyretic action, which was done with in - vivo models. The extract from whole plant was extracted with n - hexane, chloroform and methanol extract (E1 – E3). The extracts were fractioned by column chromatography method and fractioned with ethyl acetate, acetone and water (F1 – F3). All the extracts and fractions were t...

  12. Antipyretic, wound healing and antimicrobial activity of processed shell of the marine mollusc Cypraea moneta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grasian Immanuel; Berkmans Jude Thaddaeus; Muthusamy Usha; Ramasamy Ramasubburayan; Santhiyagu Prakash; Arunachalam Palavesam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Some of the products derived from marine organisms have been recommended in alternative system of medicine especially Siddha medicine for several treatments. Among the marine molluscs, Cypraea moneta shell has been used as siddha medicine from ancient days. But no systematic study has been done on its efficacy as antipyretic, wound healing and as antimicrobial agent. In the present study, the protective action of processed shell powder of C. moneta was evaluated by us in an animal model for the above treatments. Methods: C. moneta shell powder was prepared by standard method described in Siddha medicine. Then the antipyretic, wound healing as well as antimicrobial effect of the processed powder was tested in Wister albino rats. Results: By the intravenous injection of yeast cell suspension into albino rats, the antipyretic effect of the shell powder given orally was studied by various concentrations of 0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml. The body temperature of the albino rat became normal within a short duration (3h). The wound healing effect of the shell powder was very effective. In the thigh region 2 cm wound was made and the different dosages of shell powder (C -Control, SD - Single dose, DD -Double dosage and TD -Triple dose/day) were applied externally as ointment. The scar was produced in eighth day onwards in DD and TD. Antimicrobial activity was studied in three different oppurtunistic human pathogens such as Micrococcus sp., Proteus vulgaris andSalmonella abory in different concentrations (2, 3, 4 and 5% w/v) of C. moneta shell powder extract. Among these, Proteus vulgaris showed the maximum zone of inhibition (15mm size) against 5% w/v concentration, followed by Micrococcus sp. (12mm) and S. abory (10mm) against the same concentration. Conclusions: The present observation suggested that, processed C. moneta shell powder can be used as an alternative medicine, and it has antipyretic, wound healing as well as antimicrobial properties.

  13. Antipyretic activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Moringa oleifera in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saeed; Shah, Syed Muhammad-Ali; Alam, Muhammad Khurshid; Usmanghani, Khan; Azhar, Iqbal; Akram, Muhammad

    2014-07-01

    Pyrexia and inflammation are indicatives of various disorders. Modern medicines are available for treatment of pyrexia, but they have few side effects. Several studies are ongoing Worldwide to search natural antipyretic agents with better efficacy and fewer or no side effects. This study was aimed at evaluating the antipyretic activity of Moringa oleifera bark in rabbits against E. coli induced pyrexia. Rectal temperature was recorded with digital thermometer at 0 h and E. coli suspension was injected. After 1 h again rectal temperature of the animals was recorded and hydro-alcoholic extract were administered to the treatment groups and paracetamol hydro-alcoholic 50 mg/kg orally to the positive control group. Then rectal temperature was recorded at the interval of one h for 4 h. After the drug administration (at h 1), the decrease in body temperature with the dose of 25mg/kg(-1) during next four h ranged between 1.9-2.6of as compared to the negative control. At the dose of 50mg/kg(-1) the decrease in temperature was 1.9-3.0 of. The decrease in body temperature at the dose of 100mg/kg(-1) was high, which ranged from 2.3-3.1of as compared to negative control. Paracetamol, a standard drug , also significantly lowered the temperature but Moringa oleifera at the concentration of 100mg/kg(-1) lowered the body temperature significantly as compared to the negative as well as positive control. Moringa oleifera bark has marked antipyretic activity in animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Moringa oleifera bark as an antipyretic plant.

  14. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of the earthworms extract

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    Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earthworms are the major biomass in soil. They have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. However, in the past few decades with the development of biochemical technologies the research on the pharmaceutical effects of earthworms has been commencement.Aims: Experiments were conducted to recognize the therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of biologically active extract isolated from two species of earthworm (Pheretima hawayana Rosa and Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny.Materials and methods: inflammation in the hind paw of albino rat, Rattus rattus, was induced by histamine, pyrexia was induced by Escherichia coli in rats and liver damage was induced by injection of rats with CCl4. Anti-inflammatory drug - indomethacin, anti-pyretic drug - paracetamol and antioxidant drug - silymarin plus were used as standard drug for comparison.Results: Administration of Eearthworms extract (100 mg/kg and indomethacin (10 mg/kg, paracetamol (150 mg/kg, silymarin plus (150 mg/kg as standard drugs reduced and restored to normal the changes that induced by histamine, Escherichia coli and CCl4 in rats.Conclusions: The present study conclude that both extract of earthworms gave result as anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic similar to the standard drugs. The extract of the two species showed various responds as antioxidants against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity on Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. is an important medicinal plant of family Boraginaceae. Traditionally, its leaves are used to treat fever, headache, and joint pain but its medicinal activities have not been proven by research. Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of C. dichotoma G. Forst. leaf extract. Material and Methods: The various extracts of leaf powder were prepared by using soxhlet apparatus. The methanol extract was selected for pharmacological study. To evaluate analgesic activity, Eddy′s hot plate method, to study anti-inflammatory activity, carageenan-induced rat paw edema method, and to study antipyretic activity, yeast-induced pyrexia method was used. SD female rats (180-200 g were used for the study. Results: In all three tests, the methanol extract high dose (400 mg/kg was found to be highly significant as compared to standard drug. Conclusion: This study proved the traditional uses of plant leaves and concluded the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of the leaf methanol extract.

  16. Antipyretic and anticonvulsant activity of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed Muhammad; Muhammad Saeed; Haroon Khan; Naila Raziq; Syed Muhammad Ashhad Halimi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia (V. betonicifolia). Methods: The antipyretic effect was scrutinized using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia and anticonvlsion effect was tested using pentylenetetrazol and strychnine induced convulsion in mice. Results: N-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia demonstrated highly significant antipyretic activity during various assessment times (1-5 h) when challenged in yeast induced pyrexia test. The effect was in a dose dependent manner with maximum attenuation (82.50%) observed at 300 mg/kg i.p. When tested in pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion test, the 1st stage (Ear and facial twitching) and 2nd stage (Convulsive wave through the body) was 100% protected during 24 h at all the test doses (300, 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p.), while the latency time of remaining stages was significantly increased. The maximum effect was observed by n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia at 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p., as the latency time for generalized clonic-tonic seizure (5th stage) was increased up to 25.34 min. However, n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia had no protection in strychnine induced convulsion test. Conclusions:In conclusion, phytopharmacological studies provide scientific foundation to the folk uses of the plant in the treatment of pyrexia and neurological disorders.

  17. In vivo screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves for antinociceptive and antipyretic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed Muhammad; Barkatullah; Muhammad Ibrar; Haroon Khan; Muhammad Saeed; Amir Zada Khan; Waqar Ahmad Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves (SLO) for acute toxicity, antinociceptive, antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities in various animal models. Methods: SLO were extracted using modified Clevenger type apparatus. Acute toxicity test was used in mice to observe its safety level. Antinociceptive activity of SLO was evaluated in acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests. Yeast induced hyperthermic mice and pentylenetetrazole induced convulsive mice were used for the assessment of its antipyretic and anticonvulsant profile respectively. Results: Substantial safety was observed for SLO in acute toxicity test. SLO showed a high significant activity in acetic acid induced writhing test in a dose dependent manner with maximum pain attenuation of 68.48%at 200 mg/kg i.p. However, it did not produce any relief in thermal induced pain at test doses. When challenged against pyrexia evoked by yeast, SLO manifested marked amelioration in hyperthermic mice, dose dependently. Maximum anti-hyperthermic activity (75%) was observed at 200 mg/kg i.p. after 4 h of drug administration. Nevertheless, SLO had no effect on seizures control and mortality caused by pentylenetetrazole. Conclusions:In vivo studies of SLO showed prominent antinociceptive and antipyretic activities with ample safety profile and thus provided pharmacological base for the traditional uses of the plant in various painful conditions and pyrexia. Additional detail studies are required to ascertain its clinical application.

  18. Antipyretic and anticonvulsant activity of n-hexane fraction of viola betonicifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed; Muhammad; Muhammad; Saeed; Haroon; Khan; Naila; Raziq; Syed; Muhammad; Ashhad; Halimi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia(V.betonicifolia).Methods:The antipyretic effect was scrutinized using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia and anticonvlsion effect was tested using pentylenetetrazol and strychnine induced convulsion in mice.Results:N-hexane fraction of V.betonicifolia demonstrated highly significant antipyretic activity during various assessment times(1-5 h)when challenged in yeast induced pyrexia test.The effect was in a dose dependent manner with maximum attenuation(82.50%)observed at 300 mg/kg i.p.When tested in pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion test,the 1st stage(Ear and facial twitching)and 2nd stage(Convulsive wave through the body)was 100%protected during 24 h at all the test doses(300,400 and 500 mg/kg i.p.),while the latency time of remaining stages was significantly increased.The maximum effect was observed by n-hexane fraction of V.betonicifolia at 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p.,as the latency time for generalized clonic-tonic seizure(5th stage)was increased up to 25.34 min.However,n-hexane fraction of V.betonicifolia had no protection in strychnine induced convulsion test.Conclusions:In conclusion,phytopharmacological studies provide scientific foundation to the folk uses of the plant in the treatment of pyrexia and neurological disorders.

  19. ANTIPYRETIC POTENTIAL OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF CASSIA FISTULA LINN (FABACEAE BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Goutam Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotany is a multidisciplinary science defined as the interaction between plants and people. On the basis of ethnomedicinal use, antipyretic activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, methanol extract of Cassia fistula Linn (Fabaceae bark has been investigated in albino rats. Normal body temperature is regulated by a centre in the hypothalamus that ensures a balance between heat loss and production. Fever occurs when there is a disturbance of this hypothalamic ‘thermostat’, which leads to the set-point of body temperature being raised. Once there has been a return to the normal set-point, temperature regulating mechanism (dilatation of superficial blood vessels, sweating etc. operates to reduce temperature. The study was carried out by using dose of 300 mg/kg orally. Experimental results exhibited that petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, methanol extract of Cassia fistula bark, possess a significant antipyretic effect. After inducing 15% w/v suspension of yeast (1ml /100gm Body weight, temperature of experimental animal was increased. Then different extracts of the drug was induced into albino rats, which shows significant results. It was observed that methanol extract at a dose of 300 mg / kg body weight showed maximum antipyretic activity amongst other extracts which is statistically significant as the value of p<0.05.

  20. Evaluation of the antipyretic effect of ketorolac, acetaminophen, and placebo in endotoxin-induced fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, R; Maneatis, T; Bynum, L; Peterson, C; McMahon, F G

    1994-08-01

    The authors studied the antipyretic effect of three intramuscular doses of ketorolac (15, 30, and 60 mg), acetaminophen 650 mg PO, and placebo in healthy male volunteers using an endotoxin-induced fever model. In this double-blind, double-dummy, parallel study, subjects were assigned randomly with equal probability to one of the above treatment groups. Thirty minutes after study medication administration, a 20 unit per kilogram dose of reference standard endotoxin (RSE) was administered intravenously, and temperature was determined every 15 minutes for an 8-hour period. Compared with placebo, all active treatment groups demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in both adjusted area under the temperature-by-time curve (AAUC) and the maximum increase over baseline temperature (dTmax). Furthermore, the 30 mg intramuscular dose of ketorolac demonstrated approximately the same antipyretic activity as the 650 mg oral dose of acetaminophen, and there was a statistically significant dose response across the three ketorolac doses studied (P < .0001). The majority of side effects reported during this study were symptoms associated with fever, including chills, headache, myalgia, and dizziness, all of which are effects of RSE. The frequency of side effects tended to be less in the treatment groups with the greatest antipyretic activity. PMID:7962674

  1. Pharmacognostical,phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation for the antipyretic effect of the seeds of Saraca asoca Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasmal; S; Majumdar; S; Gupta; M; Mukherjee; A; Mukherjee; PK

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization,physiochomical evaluation,preliminary phylochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity.Methods:Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical,phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations.Also,the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in Wislar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg.Results:After phytochemical screening,the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin,tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia.The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin(100 mg/kg)showed significant(P<0.01)antipyretic activity when compared to the control group.The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature.Conclusions:The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phylochemieal met hods.

  2. Plasma metabolomics combined with lipidomics profiling reveals the potential antipyretic mechanisms of Qingkailing injection in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lingling; Zhang, Zhixin; Guo, Mingxing; Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhiwei; Zhao, Huizhen; Liu, Yuehong; Fu, Shuang; Wang, Meiling; Gao, Xiaoyan

    2016-07-25

    Qingkailing injection (QKLI) has a notable antipyretic effect and is widely used in China as a clinical emergency medicine. To elucidate the pharmacological action thoroughly, following the investigation of the urine metabolome and hypothalamus metabolome, plasma metabolomics combined with lipidomics profiling of the QKLI antipyretic effect in a rat model is described in this paper. Compared with pure metabolomics profiling, this non-targeted plasma metabolomics combined with lipidomics profiling based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS) could be used for a large-scale detection of features in plasma samples. The results showed that 15 metabolites at the 1 h time point and 19 metabolites at the 2 h time point after QKLI administration were associated with the antipyretic effect of QKLI, including amino acid, phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine. The metabolism pathway analysis revealed that the potential biomarkers, which were important for the antipyretic mechanism of QKLI, were closely responsible for correcting the perturbed pathways of amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, the use of complementary UPLC Q-TOF/MS based metabolomics and lipidomics allows for the discovery of new potential plasma biomarkers in the QKLI antipyretic process and the associated pathways, and aided in advancing the understanding of the holism and synergism of the Chinese drug. PMID:27208622

  3. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neeraj Kumar Saini; Manmohan Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) leaves extract using different models in rats. Methods:Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 300, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 days. Analgesic activity was evaluated using tail immersion and formalin induced paw licking models in rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Antipyretic activity was evaluated using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia model in rats. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract were given at dose of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 days. This indicated that the methanol extract was safe up to a single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly increased the latency period in the tail immersion test, reduced the licking time in both the neurogenic and inflammatory phases in the formalin test. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly prevented increase in volume of paw edema. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract at the doses of (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly decreased the rectal temperature of the rats. Conclusions: This study exhibites that methanolic T.capensis leaves extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity which may be mediated by the central and peripheral mechanisms.

  4. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmal Kumar Subedi; S. M. Abdur Rahman; Mohammad Ahsanul Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) inhibition of writhing responses ...

  5. Antipyretic activity of the extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Wantana Reanmongkol; Arunporn Itharat

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. (H. sabdariffa) on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were examined. Anti-inflammatory activity was also investigated on carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats. No acute toxicity was observed in mice after oral administration of the ethanol and aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa calyces at the dose of 15 g/kg. Oral administration of th...

  6. Antipyretic and wound healing activities of moringa oleifera lam. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hukkeri V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative chemical tests confirmed the presence of phytosterols, glycosides, tannins, and amino acids in the various leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam., whereas its seed extracts showed the presence of phytosterols, glycosides, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and amino acids. The ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of seeds showed significant antipyretic activity in rats, whereas ethyl acetate extract of dried leaves showed significant wound healing activity (10% extracts in the form of ointment on excision, incision and dead space (granuloma wound models in rats.

  7. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITIES OF THE AQUEOUS METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BERBERIS CALLIOBOTRYS IN ALBINO MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgeer; Naz, Huma; Rasool, Shadid; Raza, Sayed Atif; Ahmad, Taseer; Ahsan, Haseeb; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Asif, Hira; Khan, Zahid; Noor, Nabeela; Utra, Ambreen Malik; Umme-Habiba-Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The aqueous methanolic extract of stem part of Berberis calliobotiys (AMEBC) was evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in albino mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using carrageenan and albumin induced paw edema, while the analgesic effect was assessed by using formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acid induced abdominal writhing in mice. The brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia model was used for antipyretic investigation. Ibuprofen (40 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug in all the three models. The aqueous methanolic extract at both (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) doses, showed highly significant (p antipyretic activity against yeast induced pyrexia. The maximum effect was observed in all the three parameters at 500 mg/kg dose. The results suggest a potential benefit of the aqueous methanolic extract of Berbeis calliobotrys in treating conditions associated with inflammation, pain and fever. PMID:27505907

  8. The effect of prophylactic antipyretic administration on post-vaccination adverse reactions and antibody response in children: a systematic review.

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    Rashmi Ranjan Das

    Full Text Available Prophylactic antipyretic administration decreases the post-vaccination adverse reactions. Recent study finds that they may also decrease the antibody responses to several vaccine antigens. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for a relationship between prophylactic antipyretic administration, post-vaccination adverse events, and antibody response in children.A systematic search of major databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out till March 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing prophylactic antipyretic treatment versus placebo post-vaccination in children ≤ 6 years of age were included. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed the studies for methodological quality, and extracted data [PROSPERO registration: CRD42014009717].Of 2579 citations retrieved, a total of 13 RCTs including 5077 children were included in the review. Prophylactic antipyretic administration significantly reduced the febrile reactions (≥ 38.0 °C after primary and booster vaccinations. Though there were statistically significant differences in the antibody responses between the two groups, the prophylactic PCM group had what would be considered protective levels of antibodies to all of the antigens given after the primary and booster vaccinations. No significant difference in the nasopharyngeal carriage rates (short-term and long-term of H. influenzae or S. pneumoniae serotypes was found between the prophylactic and no prophylactic PCM group. There was a significant reduction in the local and systemic symptoms after primary, but not booster vaccinations.Though prophylactic antipyretic administration leads to relief of the local and systemic symptoms after primary vaccinations, there is a reduction in antibody responses to some vaccine antigens without any effect on the nasopharyngeal carriage rates of S. pneumoniae & H. influenza serotypes. Future trials and surveillance programs should also aim at

  9. Metabolomics of the Antipyretic Effects of Bubali Cornu (Water Buffalo Horn) in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Huang, Qiong; Shan, Jinjun; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Zhenhua; Liu, Pei; Bian, Yong; Shang, Er-Xin; Qian, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Bubali Cornu (water buffalo horn, WBH) has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as an effective treatment for heat. In the present study, we have carried out a metabolomics profiling study on plasma and urine samples to explore potential biomarkers and determine how WBH exerts its antipyretic effects in yeast-induced pyrexia at a metabolomic level. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), together with multivariate statistical analysis, was used to detect and identify potential biomarkers associated with pyrexia and with WBH treatment. In total, sixteen endogenous metabolites were identified in plasma samples and twenty-one metabolites were detected in urine samples. The biomarkers identified in this study, using metabolic pathway analysis (MetPA), are involved in glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid, amino acid, sphingolipid, and purine metabolism, all of which are disturbed in rats with pyrexia. As a result, WBH affect arachidonic acid metabolism and oxidative stress in yeast-induced pyrexia rats chiefly. The present study determines the important substances underlying the antipyretic efficacy of WBH at a metabolic level. It might pave the way for further investigations into the mechanisms of action of other animal horn-derived traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). PMID:27384078

  10. Anti-inlfammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potentials of marine spongeSigmadocia pumila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devaraj Isaac Dhinakaran; Aaron Premnath Lipton

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the pharmacological properties ofSigmadocia pumila(S. pumila), a marine sponge, throughin-vivoanalysis. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. The analgesic activity was analyzed by tail immersion method. Antipyretic activity was done by using Brewer’s yeast induced hyperpyrexia method. Results:The anti-inflammatory activity using methanol extracts inS. pumila at the concentrations of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, (p.o.) on rats showed significant decrease in the paw thickness at the 5th h of administration. It was denoted that theS. pumila exerted more analgesic activity. As for the antipyretic activity during the 2nd and 3rd h, the 3rd and 4th group of rats showed the reduction in temperature inS. pumila at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg dosages. Conclusions:The present study concludes that the marine spongeS. pumila acts as a vital role in exhibiting pharmaceutical activities. It could be used to produce novel drugs.

  11. Central mediators involved in the febrile response: effects of antipyretic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampronio, Aleksander R; Soares, Denis M; Souza, Glória E P

    2015-01-01

    Fever is a complex signal of inflammatory and infectious diseases. It is generally initiated when peripherally produced endogenous pyrogens reach areas that surround the hypothalamus. These peripheral endogenous pyrogens are cytokines that are produced by leukocytes and other cells, the most known of which are interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Because of the capacity of these molecules to induce their own synthesis and the synthesis of other cytokines, they can also be synthesized in the central nervous system. However, these pyrogens are not the final mediators of the febrile response. These cytokines can induce the synthesis of cyclooxygenase-2, which produces prostaglandins. These prostanoids alter hypothalamic temperature control, leading to an increase in heat production, the conservation of heat, and ultimately fever. The effect of antipyretics is based on blocking prostaglandin synthesis. In this review, we discuss recent data on the importance of prostaglandins in the febrile response, and we show that some endogenous mediators can still induce the febrile response even when known antipyretics reduce the levels of prostaglandins in the central nervous system. These studies suggest that centrally produced mediators other than prostaglandins participate in the genesis of fever. Among the most studied central mediators of fever are corticotropin-releasing factor, endothelins, chemokines, endogenous opioids, and substance P, which are discussed herein. Additionally, recent evidence suggests that these different pathways of fever induction may be activated during different pathological conditions. PMID:27227071

  12. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potentials of marine sponge Sigmadocia pumila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaraj Isaac Dhinakaran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the pharmacological properties of Sigmadocia pumila (S. pumila, a marine sponge, through in-vivo analysis. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. The analgesic activity was analyzed by tail immersion method. Antipyretic activity was done by using Brewer’s yeast induced hyperpyrexia method. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity using methanol extracts in S. pumila at the concentrations of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, (p.o. on rats showed significant decrease in the paw thickness at the 5th h of administration. It was denoted that the S. pumila exerted more analgesic activity. As for the antipyretic activity during the 2nd and 3rd h, the 3rd and 4th group of rats showed the reduction in temperature in S. pumila at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg dosages. Conclusions: The present study concludes that the marine sponge S. pumila acts as a vital role in exhibiting pharmaceutical activities. It could be used to produce novel drugs.

  13. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Nirmal Kumar; Rahman, S M Abdur; Akbar, Mohammad Ahsanul

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P < 0.001) after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. PMID:26977173

  14. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Subedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P<0.001 and P<0.05 inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P<0.001 after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins.

  15. Metabolomics of the Antipyretic Effects of Bubali Cornu (Water Buffalo Horn) in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jinjun; Duan, Jin-ao; Zhu, Zhenhua; Liu, Pei; Bian, Yong; Shang, Er-xin; Qian, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Bubali Cornu (water buffalo horn, WBH) has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as an effective treatment for heat. In the present study, we have carried out a metabolomics profiling study on plasma and urine samples to explore potential biomarkers and determine how WBH exerts its antipyretic effects in yeast-induced pyrexia at a metabolomic level. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), together with multivariate statistical analysis, was used to detect and identify potential biomarkers associated with pyrexia and with WBH treatment. In total, sixteen endogenous metabolites were identified in plasma samples and twenty-one metabolites were detected in urine samples. The biomarkers identified in this study, using metabolic pathway analysis (MetPA), are involved in glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid, amino acid, sphingolipid, and purine metabolism, all of which are disturbed in rats with pyrexia. As a result, WBH affect arachidonic acid metabolism and oxidative stress in yeast-induced pyrexia rats chiefly. The present study determines the important substances underlying the antipyretic efficacy of WBH at a metabolic level. It might pave the way for further investigations into the mechanisms of action of other animal horn-derived traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). PMID:27384078

  16. Antipyretic activity of the extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantana Reanmongkol

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. (H. sabdariffa on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were examined. Anti-inflammatory activity was also investigated on carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats. No acute toxicity was observed in mice after oral administration of the ethanol and aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa calyces at the dose of 15 g/kg. Oral administration of the ethanol extract at the dose of 800 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of contortions and stretchings induced by acetic acid in mice. The aqueous extracts had no effect on this test. Neither the ethanol nor aqueous extract had an effect in the formalin and hot plate tests in mice. The ethanol and the vacuum dried extract of H. sabdariffa calyces (200-800 mg/kg, p.o. decreased the yeast-induced fever in rats. The H. sabdariffa extract had no effect on carrageenininduced paw edema in rats. These results suggest that the ethanol and aqueous extract (vacuum dry of H. sabdariffa calyces possess antipyretic action through mechanisms that are different from that of aspirin.

  17. Study on antinociceptive,antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of Traditional Medicinal plant:Urtica macrorrhiza Hand-Mazz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yongna; Reanmongkol Wantana; Bouking Pisit; Li Zhongkun; Zhang Rongping

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Pharmacological activities of the aqueous extract from the stem of U. macrorrhiza on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever,anti-inflammatory effect in carageenin induced paw edema in rats, were examined. The LD50 value of intraperitoneally injected U.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Pyretic Activity of the Leaf, Root and Saponin Fraction from Vernonia amygdalina

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    P.C. Adiukwu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that Vernonia amygdalina possess saponin as one of the bitter phyto-constituents. This study was aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of the aqueous extract of the leaf, root and saponin fraction from the herb. Standard procedures using ear thickness measurement in xylene induced inflammation and anal temperature readings in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced pyrexia in rats were followed. Data indicated significant (p≤0.05 inhibitory activity for all the dose levels of the extracts in the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic evaluations. Saponin fraction at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg with 10.5 and 19.6% inhibition respectively, showed significant (p≤0.05 anti-inflammatory activity. The antipyretic evaluation of the saponin fraction showed no anal temperature reduction at 50 mg/kg dose level. Finding suggests the antipyretic and non-steroid like anti-inflammatory activity of the saponin fraction. This may partly explain the observed activity of the herbal extract which has found use traditionally as remedy for similar ailments.

  19. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Adenema hyssopifolium G. Don in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiyalu Rajasekaran; Ramasamy Arivukkarasu; Shanmugasundaram Murugesh

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate extract of Adenema hyssopifolium (AHEAE) on normal body temperature and brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia rats. Methods:Preliminary phytochemical tests, acute toxicity tests and antipyretic evaluation were carried out in ethyl acetate extract of Adenema hyssopifolium. Two doses of the extract (300 or 600 mg/kg orally) and standard antipyretic agent, paracetamol at a dose of 150 mg/kg were administered to various group of the rats. Mean rectal temperature before and after treatment was noted. Results:The phytochemical analysis of AHEAE revealed the presence of flavonoid and iridoid glycosides as major phytoconstituents. The administration of AHEAE at a dose of 300 or 600 mg/kg produced significant reduction (P<0.001 and P<0.01) of the body temperature in normal and pyrexia rats on a dose dependent manner. The antipyretic influence of AHEAE was comparable to that of standard antipyretic agent, paracetamol (150 mg/kg), and onset of action and reduction in pyrexia towards normal body temperature was delayed when compared to paracetamol treatment. At dose of 600 mg/kg, AHEAE reduced pyrexia to normal body temperature at 4 h after its administration compared to reduction of pyrexia to normal body temperature at 2 h by standard drug. The reduction of fever was consistent in paracetamol group from 2 to 4 h after its administration to normal body temperature compared to AHEAE treatments. Conclusions:Our present results corroborate with the traditional notion of Adenema hyssopifolium G. DON that is being used as an effective cure of fever and add authenticity to claim of indigenous healers that the taxon is a potential antipyretic agent.

  20. Analgesic and antipyretic activity of Curcuma longa rhizome extracts in wister rats

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    S. Neha

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain analgesic and antipyretic activities of rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa in Wister rats. Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg by oral, single dose treatment for seven days revealed significant difference (P<0.05, 0.01 in reaction time in terms of analgesic activity before and after treatments which was comparable to analgin (10 mg/kg b wt. and were ineffective in reversal of brewers yeast induced pyrexia. Solvent yield of these extracts was 20 percent and color dark brown and reddish brown with solid and semisolid consistency respectively. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000: 304-306

  1. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of extracts and fractions from Dracaena loureiri in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisit Bouking

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Dried coarsely powdered material from the stem woods of Dracaena loureiri Gagnep (D loureiri has extracted with hexane and methanol to give hexane and methanol extracts, respectively. The methanol extract was roughly separated into four fractions. They were methanol, methanol + water, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions. The effects of the methanol extract, hexane extract, methanol fraction, methanol + water fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and chloroform fraction on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were examined. General behavior was also examined using pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. The LD5 0 value of intraperitoneally injected the methanol extract, hexane extract, methanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and chloroform fraction in mice was 1.67 g/kg, >7 g/kg, 739.73 mg/kg, 489.77 mg/kg and 1.67 g/kg, respectively. Oral administration of the methanol extract and methanol fraction of D. loureiri (100-400 mg/kg dose de- pendently decreased the number of writhings and stretchings induced by acetic acid and licking activity of the late phase in the formalin test. All extracts or fractions of D. loureiri had no effects on heat-induced pain in mice. Only the methanol fraction of D. loureiri suppressed yeast-induced fever in rats. Neither extracts nor fractions affected paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats. The methanol extract of D. loureiri (100- 400 mg/kg, p.o. prolonged the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. These results suggest that the methanol extract and the methanol fraction of D. loureiri possess analgesic effect. Only the methanol fraction of the extract exhibited antipyretic effect.

  2. Phytochemical screening, anti-pyretic and antidiarrhoeal activities of the n-hexane and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Aegle marmelos

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed M. A; Faheem Amir, Koay Yen Chin; Shaheedha Fathima

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The n-hexane and aqueous extracts of the leaves ofAegle marmelos have been examined anti-pyretic andantidiarrhoeal activities, and phytochemical screening.Materials and methods: Yeast-induced hyperthermia test wasused for antipyretic activity. For both the extracts, rectaltemperatures were measured at fixed intervals. Castor oilinduceddiarrhoea test was used for antidiarrhoeal activity. Forboth the extracts, the droppings were collected at fixedintervals. The phytochemical screenin...

  3. Analysis of Adverse Reaction of Analgesics, Antipyretics and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Prescribed by Physicians of Health Care Facilities in Podilskyi Region during 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Stepaniuk, N. H.; Hladkykh, F. V.; Basarab, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of medicines rational use exists all over the world. It concerns particularly analgesics, antipyretics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In Ukraine the side effects caused by non-steroidal antiphlogistics rank the second place according to the prevalence among all registered cases.The objective of the research was to analyze adverse drug reaction report forms concerning adverse reactions caused by the use of NSAIDs, analgesics, antipyretics, and were submitted du...

  4. 中药退热机制研究进展%Research Progress of Antipyretic Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩庆荣; 张永科; 刘明云

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Tò summarize the antipyretic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine.Methods:Retrieve and analyze relevant literature about antifebrile by traditional Chinese medicine.Results:Single traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese medicine formula have certain superiority in the treatment of febrile disease.Chinese medicine for antipyretic is variety in resources.Conclusion:The antifebrile effect of traditional Chinese medicine is better.%目的:探讨中药的退热机制.方法:检索有关中医药退热方面的文献,并进行分析.结果:单味中药、中药组方对于发热疾病的治疗有一定的优越性,中药解热药种类繁多,资源丰富.结论:中医药退热效果较好.

  5. Antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of hydroethanolic extract from Macrosiphonia velame (A. St.-Hil.) M. Arg. in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Vicente Ribeiro; Regilane Matos da Silva; Joaquim Corsino da Silva Lima; Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins

    2010-01-01

    Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae), popularly known as "velame-branco", is mainly used for treating inflammatory conditions. The antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of the hydroethanolic extract of the xylopodium from M. velame (HEMv) were evaluated using several animal models. HEMv showed low acute oral toxicity with LD50 of 4.176 ± 218.5 mg/kg in mice. In tests of carrageenan and dextran-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats, and croton oil-induced...

  6. Estimation of the novel antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects of silymarin in Albino rats and mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Mahmoud; Amin; Mahmoud; Soliman; Arbid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the other pharmacological actions of silymarin in Albino rats and mice such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects. Methods: Rats were injected intramuscularly with pyrogenic dose of brewer’s yeast for the antipyretic test of silymarin. Another group of rats injected with 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan solution in saline at the subplanter area of the right hind paw for the anti-inflammatory test of silymarin. Another group of mice tested by hot plate method for determination of antinociceptive effect of silymarin. Hyperlipidemia was induced using high fat diet for 2 months to estimate the antihyperlipidemic activity of silymarin. Results: Silymarin showed a significant antipyretic effect of both doses(50 and 100 mg/kg) compared with control untreated group. Moreover, silymarin elucidated a significant anti-inflammatory effect of both doses reflected on the decrease of the rat paw edema every hour interval for 4 h after administration in comparison with control positive group. By the same taken, both doses of silymarine revealed a significant antinociceptive action in hot plate method at 30 and 60 min post administration. Besides, it lowered significantly the serum levels of prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta after 2 h of silymarin administration in carrageenan induced rat paw edema besides the significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and significantly elevated high density lipoprotein after 2 weeks of silymarin administration. Conclusions: These outcomes delivered a new vision into the possible pharmacological mechanisms by which silymarin advances antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects.

  7. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wibool Ridtitid; Peerati Ruangsang; Wantana Reanmongkol; Malinee Wongnawa

    2007-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The results revealed that the extract at test doses produced a significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h with an inhibition of paw edema of 8.6% (P

  8. STUDIES OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY, ANTIPYRETIC AND ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TRADITIONAL HERBAL DRUG ON RODENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Mradu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of combination of stems of Tinospora cordifolia, fruits of Emblica officinalis and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus has been used as traditional herbal drug in Indian medicine system for treatment of fever, body ache, joint pain and inflammation. The collected botanicals were subject to physiochemical, pharmacognostical & phytochemical screening before animal experiments. After acute toxicity studies, anti-inflammatory effect was assessed using carrageen induced paw oedema test and antipyretic effect using yeast induced pyrexia method. Tail immersion, hot plate and writhings test were used for determining the analgesic properties. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of polyphenolic flavonoids, tannin and saponins. Significant anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties were noticed in dose dependant manner after aqueous extract administration especially at 600 mg/kg dose. These test drug activities were sustained and comparable to the standard drugs while exhibiting no acute toxicity. Aqueous extract of test drug possesses significantly high anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties without any acute toxicity possibly due to presence of flavonoids.

  9. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A. Taher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache. Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice. Methods: Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity and the antipyretic effects, respectively. The oil was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. at a dose of 33 mg/kg body weight and the effects were compared with reference drugs. Results: In the antinociceptive test, mice treated with clove oil exhibited significantly decreased acetic-acid-induced writhing movements by a maximum of 87.7% (p<0.01 compared with a decrease of 77.7% (p<0.01 in response to aspirin injection (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.. Similarly, in the hot plate test, clove oil significantly increased the reaction latency to pain after 60 min by 82.3% (p<0.05 compared with morphine value of 91.7% (p<0.01. In addition, clove oil and indomethacin produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by respectively 50.6% (p<0.05 and 70.4% (p<0.01 inhibition of mouse paw edema induced by carrageenan. Furthermore, clove oil significantly attenuated the hyperthermia induced by yeast at ΔT-max by 2.7°C (p<0.001, and time of peak effects was 30–180 min compared with a paracetamol value ΔT-max of 3.2°C (p<0.001. The estimated i.p. LD50 of clove oil was 161.9 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the oil showed the presence of eugenol. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate the potential pharmacological properties of clove oil and provide further a support for its reported use in folk medicine.

  10. Plasma metabolomic profiling to reveal antipyretic mechanism of Shuang-huang-lian injection on yeast-induced pyrexia rats.

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    Xiaoyan Gao

    Full Text Available Shuang-huang-lian injection (SHLI is a famous Chinese patent medicine, which has been wildly used in clinic for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, influenza, etc. The existing randomized controlled trial (RCT studies suggested that SHLI could afford a certain anti-febrile action. However, seldom does research concern the pharmacological mechanisms of SHLI. In the current study, we explored plasma metabolomic profiling technique and selected potential metabolic markers to reveal the antipyretic mechanism of SHLI on yeast-induced pyrexia rat model using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis and pattern recognition techniques. We discovered a significant perturbance of metabolic profile in the plasma of fever rats and obvious reversion in SHLI-administered rats. Eight potential biomarkers, i.e. 1 3-hydeoxybutyric acid, 2 leucine, 3 16:0 LPC, 4 allocholic acid, 5 vitamin B2, 6 Cys-Lys-His, 7 18:2 LPC, and 8 3-hydroxychola-7, 22-dien-24-oic acid, were screened out by OPLS-DA approach. Five potential perturbed metabolic pathways, i.e. 1 valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, 2 glycerophospholipid metabolism, 3 ketone bodies synthesis and degradation, 4 bile acid biosynthesis, and 5 riboflavin metabolism, were revealed to relate to the antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI. Overall, we investigated antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI at metabolomic level for the first time, and the obtained results highlights the necessity of adopting metabolomics as a reliable tool for understanding the holism and synergism of Chinese patent drug.

  11. Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, and Anti-pyretic Effects of Origanum majorana Ethanolic Extract in Experimental Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation, various biological studies (toxicological, pharmacological, biochemical and histopathological) were carried out on Origanum majorana ethanolic extract. The acute toxicity study revealed that 0. majorana ethanolic extract is quietly safe. Both doses (0.25 and 0.5 g/kg b.wt.) of 0. majorana ethanolic extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory (acute and systemic), analgesic, and anti-pyretic effect. Moreover, histopathological findings of stomach and intestine of irradiated rats revealed that both doses of tested extract possess a gastrointestinal protective effect against radiation induced gastritis and enteritis

  12. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Lerdvuthisopon, Nusiri; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Khonsung, Parirat; Boonraeng, Supot; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. are herbaceous plants in the Piperaceae family. The ethanol extract of P. interruptum and P. chaba inhibited ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Both extracts reduced transudative and granuloma weights as well as body weight gain and thymus weight of the chronic inflammatory model using cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. Moreover, both extracts exhibited analgesic activity on both early phase and late phase of formalin test in mice and also showed antipyretic activity on yeast-induced hyperthermia in rats. PMID:22530143

  13. Reasonable application of antipyretic drugs in children%小儿退热药物的合理应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾荣; 邢海生; 李晓燕; 李利敏

    2016-01-01

    目的:发热是小儿患病常见的症状,体温过高会对身体产生不利影响。目前治疗小儿发热主要有物理降温和药物退热,其中药物退热对控制小儿发热起着重要的作用。本文通过介绍小儿常用退热药物的作用特点和注意事项,为临床上选择适合的药物治疗提供基础,避免小儿退热药物的不合理用药,保证小儿用药安全、有效。%Fever is a common symptom of childhood illness,and high body temperature will have a negative impact on the body. At present,the treatment of pediatric fever mainly include physical cooling and drug defervesce,and drug defervesce plays an important role in the control of fever in children.Through the introduction of the characteristics and matters needing attention of antipyretic drugs commonly used in children,this paper provides a basis for the selection of the appropriate medication for clinical, to avoid inappropriate use of antipyretic drugs in children,and to ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug use in children.

  14. Study on Antipyretic Effect of Chuanxiong Chatiao Powder%川芎茶调散解热作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Proof of Chuanxiong Chatiao Powder antipyretic effect is good. Methods:Antipyretic effect method to con-struct rabbit fever model on Chuanxiongchatiao pulvis of Pharmacodynamics Study. Results:Experimental results show that the high dose of Chuanxiong Chatiao Powder adjust scattered group could obviously decrease the degree of elevated due to bacterial endotoxin fever in rabbits and effect is obviously better than that of Shuanghuanglian preparation contents.%目的:证明川芎茶调散解热作用效果优良。方法:构建家兔发热模型的方法对川芎茶调散的解热作用进行了药效学研究。结果:实验表明,高剂量川芎茶调散组能明显降低因细菌内毒素导致的家兔体温升高的程度,效果明显优于双黄连制剂的内容物。结论:川芎茶调散有良好的解热作用。

  15. ISOLATION OF PRELIMINARY PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LINN. LEAVES EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present studies that Isolation of preliminary phytoconstituents and anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Calotropis gigantea linn. Leaves Extracts. Therapeutic use of plants for the treatment of human illnesses dates back over man millennia. Evidence of their effectiveness in the diagnosis, cure and prevention of disease states exists in every culture throughout the world. Today “traditional medicine,” characterized by the use of herbs and other natural products still remains a regular component of health care in countries such as China, Japan, India, South America and Egypt. The search for anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent in modern was marked by the introduction of salicin for the treatment of inflammatory swellings due to rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis. The ethanol extract and distilled water extract showed good significant reduction in paw oedema as compared to control group, where as Petroleum ether (60-800C extract, Chloroform extract, Ethyl acetate, n-Butanol has showed comparatively less significant reduction in paw oedema volume. The chloroform and n-butanol extract showed good significant reduction in rectal temperature as compare to control group, where as pet. ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and distilled water extracts showed less significant reduction in rectal temperature. Hence, to put into the active principle of Calotropis gigantea linn like glycoside, sterols, carbohydrate, flavonoids, terpenoide may be responsible for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.

  16. 清热解毒法治疗带状疱疹43例%Antipyretic and Antidotil Therapy to Treat 43 Cases of Herpes Zoster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of antipyretic and antidotal on herpes zoster disease. Methods: To adapt both oral and external antipyretic and antidotil herb to treating 43 cases of herps zoster patients. Results: Using antipyretic and antidotal herb can shorten the course of herps zoster. Conclusion: Both oral and external antipyretic and antidotil herb could inhibit either herpes' virus or caricella virus.%目的:观察和验证清热解毒类中药对带状疱疹的临床功效。方法:对43例带状疱疹患者均采用中药清热解毒内治外用。结果:清热解毒法治疗能缩短带状疱疹病程,控制临床症状。结论:清热解毒法内外综合治疗对水豆-带状疱疹病毒有杀灭,抑制作用。

  17. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic properties of the aqueous extract of Clematis brachiata leaf in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Mohammad; Appidi, Jaipal R; Yakubu, Musa T; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2010-06-01

    Clematis brachiata Thunb. (Ranunculaceae) is used as a folk remedy for the treatment of pain, fever and inflammatory ailments. Aqueous extract of Clematis brachiata leaf was screened for its phytochemical constituents. The anti-inflammatory investigations were carried out using carrageenan and histamine-induced edema models; acetic acid writhing, formalin-induced pain and tail immersion models were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity while a Brewer's yeast-induced hyperthermia model was employed for the antipyretic experiment. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. The extract at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight significantly (PClematis brachiata leaves can be employed in the management of inflammation, pain and fever. These activities may be due in part to the flavonoid content of the extract. PMID:20645742

  18. Fever Pathogenesis and Antipyretic Use in Children%发热及小儿解热药的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏林林; 许昂; 兰丽; 季晖

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most common symptoms in children, fever is a complex physiological response to diseases, involving elevation of body temperature mediated by cytokines, generation of acute phase reactants as well as the activation of numerous endocrinology and immunology systems. Endogenous pyrogens and mediators in the thermoregulation center comprise a complicated thermoregulatory network, contributing to the thermoregulatory balance. Given the adverse drug reactions concerning the current applied antipyretics in children, it is of great clinical significance to understand the mechanisms underlying fever and develop children antipyretics with higher safety and efficacy.%发热是对抗疾病的一种复杂生理学反应,涉及细胞因子介导的体温升高,急性期反应物的生成,内分泌和免疫学系统的激活。内生性致热原和众多体温中枢调节介质构成了一个复杂的体温调节网络,负责机体的体温调节平衡。发热是小儿临床中最常见的症状之一,目前临床中使用的小儿解热药大多具有副作用,所以了解发热的基本机制,开发安全有效的小儿解热药具有重要的临床意义。

  19. Design and synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxy-6-nitrophenoxyacetylhydrazone derivatives obtained from natural safrole: new lead-agents with analgesic and antipyretic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra-Netto, Heleno J C; Lacerda, Daniel I; Miranda, Ana Luisa P; Alves, Hélio M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Fraga, Carlos A M

    2006-12-01

    In this work, we reported the synthesis and evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of new 2-(6-nitro-benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yloxy)-acetylhydrazone derivatives (3), designed exploring molecular hybridization and isosteric replacement approaches between nimesulide (1) and carbanalogue NAH series (2) developed at LASSBio. Target compounds were synthesized in very good yields exploiting abundant Brazilian natural product safrole (4) as starting material. The evaluation of the antinociceptive properties of this series led us to discover a new potent prototype of analgesic and antipyretic agent, that is, NAH derivative 3c, named LASSBio-891, which showed to be more potent than dipyrone used as standard.

  20. Cutaneous reactions to analgesic-antipyretics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Analysis of reports to the spontaneous reporting system of the Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    We analyzed the cutaneous reactions to systemic analgesic-antipyretics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reported to the spontaneous reporting system of the Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia (GISED). The system has been active since 1988, with periodic intensive surveillance exercises, and 202 dermatologists have collaborated. Up to December 1991, 2,137 reactions had been collected, of which 713 were reactions to systemic analgesic-antipyretics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A general profile of the reactions was identifiable. It included, in order of frequency, urticaria/angioedema, fixed eruptions, exanthemas, erythema multiforme and Stevens Johnson syndrome. Fixed eruptions and Stevens Johnson syndrome were reported with exceedingly high frequency in association with feprazone. Our system also revealed previously unreported reactions, including fixed eruption to nimesulide, fixed eruption to piroxicam and fixed eruption to flurbiprofen.

  1. Screening Study on the antipyretic Fraction from Peristrophe japonica(Thumb)Brem%九头狮子草乙酸乙酯部位的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洁; 刘香

    2012-01-01

      目的观察九头狮子草醇提乙酸乙酯部位的解热、止咳作用。方法采用系统溶剂法对九头狮子草醇提物进行初步分离。采用用酵母人工发热模型,测量大鼠体温变化;采用氨水引咳法,研究九头狮子草乙酸乙酯部位的解热止咳作用。结果九头狮子草醇提乙酸乙酯萃取部位有明显的解热作用,九头狮子草乙酸乙酯部位中、高剂量组可明显减少浓氨水引起的咳嗽次数。结论九头狮子草乙酸乙酯部位具有较强的解热止咳作用%  Objective: To investigate antipyretic and anti-tussive activities of The ethanol-extracted acetoacetate-abstraction group of Peristrophe japonica(Thumb)Brem.. Methods:Systematic solvent method is used to separate the ethanol extract of Peristrophe japonica(Thumb)Brem. Fever model induced by dry yeast in mice was used to screen the valid target of the antipyretic effect. Anti-tussive activity was evaluated using ammonia-induced mice coughing. Results: The ethanol-extracted acetoacetate-abstraction group showed marked antipyretic effect on the yeast-induced fever. The acetoacetate-abstraction group could significantly inhibit mice's frequency of cough induced by ammonia and inhibit frequency of cough. Conclusion: The ethanol-extracted acetoacetate-abstraction group of Peristrophe japonica(Thumb)Brem. is most propably the valid target of antipyretic and anti-tussive activities.

  2. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of the extracts from Smilax corbularia Kunth rhizomes in mice and rats (in vivo)

    OpenAIRE

    Wantana Reanmongkol; Pisit Bouking; Arunporn Itharat

    2007-01-01

    The effects of either ethanol or aqueous extract from rhizomes of Smilax corbularia Kunth (S. corbularia) on anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced edema in rats, antinociceptive activity using writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever were examined. Oral administration of the ethanol extract of S. corbularia rhizomes significantly suppressed the paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats while the aqueous extract had no effect...

  3. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the extracts from the rhizome of Dioscorea membranacea Pierre in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Pisit Bouking; Wantana Reanmongkol; Arunporn Itharat

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the ethanol and aqueous extracts from the rhizome of Dioscorea membranacea Pierre (D. membranacea) on inflammatory response using carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats, were examined. Antinociceptive activity using writhing, hot plate and formalin test in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were also examined. Oral administration of the ethanol extract at the dose of 1600 mg/kg significantly decreased the paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats. T...

  4. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the extracts from the rhizome of Dioscorea membranacea Pierre in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisit Bouking

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ethanol and aqueous extracts from the rhizome of Dioscorea membranacea Pierre (D. membranacea on inflammatory response using carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats, were examined. Antinociceptive activity using writhing, hot plate and formalin test in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were also examined. Oral administration of the ethanol extract at the dose of 1600 mg/kg significantly decreased the paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats. The aqueous extract (1600 mg/kg also significantly suppressed the carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats. The ethanol extract had no significant effects on antinociceptive response in writhing, formalin and hot plate tests and antipyretic activities in yeast-induced fever in rats. No significant effects on writhing test and yeast-induced fever were observed after oral administration of the aqueous extract in experimental animals. These results suggest that the ethanol and aqueous extracts of D. membranacea rhizome possess anti-inflammatory action but no analgesic or antipyretic actions and their anti-inflammatory action may act at some site(s of action or inhibit of some inflammatory mediators, which is different from the action of aspirin.

  5. Antipyretic, Anti-inflammatory and Antitussive Effects of Jinchai Kanggan Capsule%金柴抗感胶囊解热抗炎止咳作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬姗; 何开勇; 潘望平; 吕晓君; 邹瑞; 刘赵云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antitussive effects of jinchai kanggan capsules. Methods The antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antitussive activities of the preparation were observed in the yeast induced fever in rats, croton oil induced auricular edema in mice, and aqua ammoniae induced cough in mice, respectively. Results The jinchai kanggan capsules reduced body temperature elevation in rats between 3 ~ 6 h, alleviated auricular edema and prolonged cough incubation in mice. Conclusion The jinchai kanggan capsule has antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and antitussive effects.%目的 观察金柴抗感胶囊的解热抗炎止咳作用.方法 通过大鼠干酵母致发热模型观察金柴抗感胶囊解热作用;通过小鼠巴豆油致耳廓肿胀模型观察金柴抗感胶囊抗炎作用;通过小鼠氨水引咳模型观察金柴抗感胶囊止咳作用.结果 金柴抗感胶囊能显著降低大鼠第3~6小时体温升高值;减轻小鼠耳廓肿胀度;延长小鼠咳嗽潜伏期.结论 金柴抗感胶囊具有解热抗炎止咳作用.

  6. A Research on the Risk of Intervention in Antipyretics for Children%儿童退热药风险干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊; 赵频; 武志昂

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the varieties, usage situations and adverse reactions of Antipyretics for children and analyses the sources of risk of the drugs for children. The registration schemes and interventions in the adverse reactions of drugs for children in USA and Europe have been concluded by scanning the official websites of FDA and EMEA. At the end of the paper, the advice related with the risk of antipyretic for children are brought up to contribute to safe use of antipyretics for children in China.%介绍了我国儿童退热药的种类、使用情况及其不良反应,并对儿童用药的风险来源进行分析.经查阅美国食品药品监督局及欧洲药品评价局等官方网站,得出欧美等国关于儿童药物的注册方案及不良反应的干预措施.最后提出降低小儿退热药用药风险的相关建议,以促进我国小儿退热药的安全使用.

  7. Evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Ammi majus seeds in albino rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Asaad, Gihan F; Megahed, Hoda A; Zahran, Hanan; Arbid, Mahmoud S

    2012-06-01

    Pharmacological and biochemical studies on the Ammi majus seeds L. (family Umbelliferae) grown in Egypt are limited. Furocoumarins are the major constituents in the plant seeds. In the present study, the evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities on albino rats and mice was done. After 2 months of administration, both the doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight [bwt], respectively) of the alcoholic extract of the A. majus seed result in a significant decrease in the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein and increase in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein. The extract was found to inhibit the rat paw edema at both the doses, which means that it exerts a significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with control-untreated groups at the intervals of 30 and 60 minutes posttreatment. The antipyretic effect of the extract was quite obvious; it showed that 100 mg/kg bwt was more potent in lowering body temperature starting after 1 hour of treatment than the lower dose (50 mg/kg bwt). It is worth to mention that the A. majus extract with its coumarin contents as well as the tested biological activities of the plant was investigated for the first time in the current study. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of the A. majus seeds had antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities that are dose dependant.

  8. LIG抗炎,解热活性的研究%Anti-inflammatory and Antipyretic Activities of Z-ligustilide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚尧; 杜俊蓉; 白波; 汪成远; 钱忠明

    2006-01-01

    本文研究了当归提取物LIG的抗炎,解热活性.研究发现LIG(2.5,5,10 mg/kg)对角叉菜和右旋糖苷诱导的足肿胀的抑制率分别为22.2%,49.4%,76.5%和20.8%,44.2%,75.3%(P<0.001);对棉球肉芽肿的抑制率为29.2%,44.9%,58.8%(P<O.001);对小鼠白细胞迁移的抑制率为20.7%,35.6%,48.2%(P<0.001).此外,LIG可降低啤酒酵母导致的高热(P<0.001).并且,LIG的抗炎,解热作用均成剂量依赖性.以上结果显示LIG具有非常强的抗炎,解热活性.%In this study, the anti-inflammatory,analgesic and antipyretic effects of Z-ligustilide (LIG) extracted from Radix angelicae sinensis were investigated. The effects of LIG (2.5,5 and 10 mg/kg, ig) on acute and chronic phases of inflammation were studied in carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma, respectively. Antipyretic activity of LIG was evaluated in yeast-induced hyperpyrexia model in rats. In the anti-inflammatory studies, LIG showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of 22.2%,49.4% and 76.5% and 20.8%,44.2% and 75.3% in carrageenan-and dextran-induced paw edema,and 29.2% ,44.9% and 58.8% in cotton pellet-induced granuloma, respectively ( P < 0.001 ). LIG also exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition of peritoneal leukocyte migration in mice at the inhibition rate of 20.7,35.6 and48.2% ( P < 0.001 ). Oral administration of LIG significantly reduced the elevated temperature in rats ( P < 0.001) .The results suggest that LIG possesses potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

  9. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibool Ridtitid

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The results revealed that the extract at test doses produced a significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h with an inhibition of paw edema of 8.6% (P<0.05, 18.6% (P<0.01 and 24.7% (P<0.01, respectively, compared to the reference drug aspirin 200 mg/kg p.o. with an inhibition of 33.3% (P<0.01. Only the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant inhibition ofcarrageenan-induced rat paw edema beginning at 2 h of 11.8% (P<0.01 and at 3, 4 and 5 h of 24.7% (P< 0.01, 14.1% (P<0.01 and 11.9% (P<0.01, respectively, whereas the reference drug aspirin 200 mg/kg p.o. exhibited a significant inhibition of edema beginning at 1 h of 15.6% (P<0.05 and at 2, 3, 4 and 5 h of 31.8% (P<0.01, 33.3% (P<0.01, 30.4% (P<0.01 and 30.2% (P<0.01, respectively. The methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum leaves (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. did not decrease brewerís yeast-induced pyrexia in rats, whereas aspirin at the dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant antipyretic activity by reducing fever in this animal model. In acute toxicity test, the methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum leaves at the dose of 5g/kg did not produce any abnormal symptoms or mortality in rats.

  10. Literature re-evaluation on antipyretic effect of Chinese heat-clearing herbs%清热药解热作用的文献再评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涓; 李晓会; 马丽娜; 张恩户

    2014-01-01

    Literally re-evaluate the antipyretic effect of heat-clearing herbs. Choose 20 taste heat-clearing herbs from the Chinese Medicine materials(China press of traditional Chinese medicine,2009)as evaluation objects,through the consulting,induction,sorting the literatures about heat-clearing herbs antipyretic effect published before 2013. According to repeating and integrating evaluation prin-ciples,Chinese medicine antipyretic role of assessment standard is self-made. Literally re-evaluate the heat-clearing herbs of antipyretic role in order to determine its reliability. The functions of radix scutellariae,bupleurum,artemisia annua,radix isatidis,honeysuckle,and forsythia are exact. Experiments on the basis of Rhizoma coptidis,barbed skullcap herb,cortex lycii radicis,honeysuckle,radix scrophu-lariae,gypsum,folium isatidis,cortex moutan and gardenia are inadequate. Cortex phellodendri doesn’t have antipyretic effect. There is no related research literature of rhizoma anemarrhenae,sophora,dandelion,radix rehmanniae,and radix paeoniae rubra.%对清热药药理作用中的解热作用进行文献再评价。选择《中药学》(中国中医药出版社,2009)教材中20味清热药作为评价对象,通过查阅、归纳、整理2013年以前公开发表的有关清热药解热作用的研究文献,根据重复和综合评价等原则,自拟中药解热作用的评定标准,对清热药的解热作用进行文献再评价,以确定其可靠性。黄芩、柴胡、青蒿、板蓝根、金银花、连翘作用确切;黄连、半枝莲、地骨皮、忍冬、玄参、石膏、大青叶、牡丹皮、栀子实验依据不足;黄柏无解热作用;知母、苦参、蒲公英、生地黄、赤芍未见相关研究文献。

  11. 金银花解热抗炎作用的实验研究%Study on Antipyretic and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Lonicera Japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建华

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察金银花的解热、抗炎作用.方法 采用干酵母致热法制造发热模型大白鼠,采用二甲苯致耳廓肿胀法制造炎性模型小鼠,观察金银花对发热模型大白鼠、炎性模型小鼠的解热、抗炎作用;对干酵母所致大鼠发热的影响;金银花对小鼠耳肿胀的抗炎作用等.结果 金银花各剂量组均有不同程度的解热、抗炎作用,有防止体温升高和消除炎症的作用,其中尤以高剂量组最为明显.金银花各剂量组与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 金银花解热、抗炎作用强度与剂量的大小有关,剂量大者其解热、抗炎作用更加明显.%Objective Observe the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect of lonicera japonica.Methods SD rats with fever caused by dried yeast were chosen,and the mice with inflaming swelling ear induced by xylene were chosen.And then observe the antipyretic and antiinflammatory effect of lonicera japonica on the rats and mice.Results According to the observation,lonicera japonica had the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect in each group, especially in the group with high dosage,there was statistical difference between the groups with lonicera japonica and the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion The honeysuckle large,medium,low dose group have a certain antipyretic,antiinflammatory effects,and there was a certain doseeffect relationship,in which highdose group antipyretic,anti-inflammatory effect is most obvious.

  12. Antipyretic effect of ibuprofen in Gabonese children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necek Magdalena

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antipyretic drugs are widely used in children with fever, though there is a controversy about the benefit of reducing fever in children with malaria. In order to assess the effect of ibuprofen on fever compared to placebo in children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Gabon, a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial, was designed. Methods Fifty children between two and seven years of age with uncomplicated malaria were included in the study. For the treatment of fever, all patients "received" mechanical treatment when the temperature rose above 37.5°C. In addition to the mechanical treatment, continuous fanning and cooling blanket, patients were assigned randomly to receive ibuprofen (7 mg/kg body weight, every eight hours or placebo. Results The fever clearance time using a fever threshold of 37.5°C was similar in children receiving ibuprofen compared to those receiving placebo. The difference was also not statistically significant using a fever threshold of 37.8°C or 38.0°C. However, the fever time and the area under the fever curve were significantly smaller in the ibuprofen group compared to the placebo group. Conclusion Ibuprofen is effective in reducing the time with fever. The effect on fever clearance is less obvious and depends on definition of the fever threshold. Trial registration The trial registration number is: NCT00167713

  13. Hypothermic and antipyretic effects of ACTH (1-24) and alpha-melanotropin in guinea-pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH 1-24) and alpha-melanotropin (alpha-MSH), peptides which occur naturally in brain induced dose-related hypothermia in guinea-pigs at room temperature (21 C) and also produced greater hypothermia at low (10 C) ambient temperature. However, when the experiments were repeated in a warm (30 C) environment, no effect on body temperature was observed. These results indicate that the peptides did not reduce the central set-point of temperature control. The hypothermia induced by ACTH and alpha-MSH was not mediated via histamine H1- or H2-receptors and serotonin since the H1-receptor antagonist, mepyramine, the H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine, and the serotonin antagonist, methysergide, had no antagonistic effects. The peptides were antipyretic since they reduced pyrogen-induced-fever and hyperthermia due to prostaglandin E2, norepinephrine and dibutyryl cAMP, at a dose which did not affect normal body temperature. The powerful central effects of these peptides on normal body temperature, fever and hyperthermia, together with their presence of the brain regions important to temperature control, suggest that they participate in thermoregulation.

  14. Anthropogenic and temporal components in a complex trigger of type 1 diabetes suggest the active participation of antipyretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veteikis, Darijus

    2016-08-01

    Tremendous efforts in research without a conclusion on the cause of type 1 diabetes allow the presumption that there is still a blind spot in the development of T1D that is not covered by current hypotheses. The review of geographical knowledge suggests that there is a well-expressed anthropogenic element within the complex environmental trigger of T1D. On the other hand, the initiation of T1D's directed autoimmunity is temporally related to the organism's immune response, induced by entero-viruses, most expectedly. Consequently, the searched for anthropogenic environmental factor is a player temporally linked to enteroviral infections. This paper discusses the participation of antipyretic medicines, and especially paracetamol, with a whole century's history of growing sales and popularity, including indirect influence through phenacetin during the first half of the 20th century. As proposed by several independent studies, the use of pharmaceuticals to reduce fever may counteract with the protective features of the immune system and create favourable conditions for a virus to spread within the organism and damage specific tissue. A preliminary comparison of paracetamol sales with the incidence of T1D data in Lithuania and the other countries in the North-eastern Baltic region supports this hypothesis. PMID:27372871

  15. Antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of hydroethanolic extract from Macrosiphonia velame (A. St.-Hil. M. Arg. in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Vicente Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae, popularly known as "velame-branco", is mainly used for treating inflammatory conditions. The antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of the hydroethanolic extract of the xylopodium from M. velame (HEMv were evaluated using several animal models. HEMv showed low acute oral toxicity with LD50 of 4.176 ± 218.5 mg/kg in mice. In tests of carrageenan and dextran-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats, and croton oil-induced cutaneous dermatitis in mice, HEMv presented systemic and topical antiinflammatory activities. In experiments of nociception induced by acetic acid, formalin and capsaicin in mice, the HEMv evidenced an antinociceptive effect, being active against both inflammatory and neurogenic pain. Additionally, the HEMv prevented brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. It is likely that the pharmacologic mechanism of HEMv may involve the inhibition of different mediators of the inflammatory response, such as histamine, serotonin, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. A preliminary phytochemical study was also undertaken on HEMv, which revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, pentacyclic triterpenoids, saponins, coumarins, catechins, tannins, and alkaloids. Taken together, these results suggest that M. velame extract has antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic properties and further validate the traditional use of this plant in inflammatory conditions.Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae, conhecida popularmente como velame-branco, é utilizada no tratamento de inflamações. Avaliou-se nesse estudo, os efeitos antiinflamatório, antinociceptivo e antipirético do extrato hidroetanólico do xilopódio de M. velame (HEMv em modelos animais. O HEMv apresentou baixa toxicidade aguda oral, com DL50= 4.176 ± 218,5 mg/kg nos camundongos. Nos testes de edema de pata por carragenina e dextrana e pleurisia por carragenina em ratos e dermatite cutânea por

  16. Nimesulide antipyretic efficacy observed in the treatment of acute fever%尼美舒利治疗急性发热的退热疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明辉; 胡广奋

    2012-01-01

    目的探讨尼美舒利在急性发热的退热疗效观察.方法病例选自我院2005-2012年门急诊发热病人730人,随机分为两组,治疗组400人,对照组330人,治疗组给予尼美舒利100mg口服,对照组给安痛定2ml肌注.结果本组显示尼美舒利的退热作用效果迅速而显著,尼美舒利组的总有效率为99.5%,而安痛定组则为78.78%,两组对照则有显著差异性,P<0.05.结论尼美舒利的退热疗效显著,可做为门急诊临床的一线用药,值得广泛推广应用.%Objective:To investigate the nimesulide antipyretic efficacy observed in patients with acute fever. Method:case selected from the hospital from 2005 to 2012 outpatient and emergency department patients with fever of 730, were randomly divided into two groups, the treatment group of 400 people, 330 in the control group, treatment group received nimesulide 100mg orally, the control group to Antongding 2ml intramuscularly. Results: The antipyretic effect of nimesulide rapidly and significantly, the nimesulide group, the total effective rate was 99.5%, compared to 78.78% Antongding group, two groups of control is a significant difference,P<0.05. Conclusion: nimesulide antipyretic effect is significant, can be widely conducted as a first-line treatment for outpatient and emergency clinical.

  17. 分类管理解热镇痛类药品的用药分析%Analysis of Drug-use of Antipyretic Analgesics Under Sort Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左笑丛; 谢冰玲; 李兵

    2001-01-01

    目的:了解分类管理解热镇痛类药品的用药现状及发展趋势,以引导其合理应用和开发国产新药。方法:对湖南12家医院1997年~1999年度的解热镇痛类药品品种、数量和金额进行归类统计、分析和比较。结果:3年来,解热镇痛类OTC药品的总金额在逐年增加,对乙酰氨基酚制剂的药品金额处于首位;一些副作用大的处方药用量在下降。进口和合资企业生产的解热镇痛类OTC药品的金额占较大比例。结论:药品分类管理具有重大现实意义。%OBJECTIVE: To keep abreast of the current situation anddeveloping trend of drug- use of antipyretic analgesics under sort management,so as to guide rational drug- use and to develop domestic new drugs.METHODS: The kinds,quantity and sum of money of antipyretic analgesics used in 12 hospitals of Hunan Province were classified,analysed and compared.RESULTS: In past three years,the sum of money of OTC antipyretic analgesics increased year by year,of which,acetaminophens ranked first.The consumed amount of those prescription drugs with severe adverse reactions was decreased.The imported and joint venture produced OTC drugs constituted a large proportion of the sum of money.CONCLUSION: Sort management of drugs has practical significance.

  18. Spectrum-effect relationship in antipyretic effect of Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae)%黄芩解热作用的谱效关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆刚; 王微; 李强; 徐珊

    2011-01-01

    目的 明确黄芩的高效液相色谱(HPLC)图谱与解热药效的相关性,表征黄芩有效成分的药效物质基础.方法 通过干酵母造大鼠发热模型,并给予黄芩提取物.用灰色关联统计方法将HPLC图谱的各组分峰的峰面积和解热药效数据相关联,研究谱效相关性,找出黄芩解热作用的物质基础.结果 对于解热作用来讲,不可单一靠黄芩苷来表征,也应注意到黄芩素及其他黄酮类物质对解热作用有着不可忽视贡献.用灰色关联的分析方法,根据关联度大小来确定黄芩中以黄芩苷、黄芩素为代表的黄酮类物质对解热作用贡献程度.结论 研究有效组分HPLC图谱特征及谱效关系,是表征中药一药效相关性的有效途径.%Objective To clear the correlation between HPLC spectrum and antipyretic effect of Huangqin (Radix Scillellariae), and to characterize the efficacy material basis of active principles of Huangqin. Methods The rat model of fever was established with dried yeast and then was given extractive of Huangqin. The peak areas of all component peaks in HPLC spectrum were connected to the data of antipyretic effect by using grey relation statistic method. The spectrum-effect correlation was studied and the material basis of Huangqin's antipyretic effect was found out. Results The antipyretic effect was not characterized only by baicalin, and the contribution of baicalein and other flavonoids should not be neglected. The contribution degrees of flavonoids in Huangqin like baicalin and baicalein were determined by using grey correlation analysis according to the correlation degrees. Conclusion It is an effective way for characterizing Chinese medicinal-efficacy correlation to study HPLC spectrum features and spectrum-effect relationship of effective components of Chinese medicinal.

  19. 活犀角与犀角解热作用的比较研究%Comparison of the Antipyretic Effects between Living Rhino Horn and Rhino Horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯润东; 曹蕾; 刘蕊; 宋冰雪; 刘静; 曹永孝

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the difference in antipyretic effects between living rhino horn and rhino horn by the comparative research method. Methods The antipyretic effect of the living rhino horn was evaluated in rabbit fever model by subcutaneous injection of bacterial endotoxin, and in rat fever model by subcutaneous injection of dried yeast. Results The living rhino horn of 50, 100 and 200 mg·kg -1 significantly reduced the temperature of fever rabbits. The living rhino horn of 220 and 440 mg·kg-1 significantly prevented the body temperature from rising in rats. There was no significant difference in antipyretic effects between the traditional rhino horn and the living rhino horn at the same dose. Conclusion The antipyretic effect of living rhino horn is equal to that of the traditional rhino horn, and the living rhino horn can be used as a substitute of rhino horn.%目的:比较活犀角与犀角的解热作用有无明显差异,判断活犀角是否可以作为犀角的代用品。方法采用细菌内毒素家兔致热模型,研究活犀牛角对家兔发热的预防作用;采用干酵母致大鼠发热模型,研究活犀牛角对发热大鼠的解热作用。结果活犀角50、100、200 mg·kg-1能明显预防细菌内毒素致热家兔的发热体温,活犀角220、440 mg·kg-1能明显降低干酵母引起的大鼠体温升高,相同剂量的犀角和活犀角比较,降温作用无明显差异。结论活犀角的解热作用与犀角相同,在解热作用方面可以作为犀角的代用品使用。

  20. Antipyretic,Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Huangyu Cataplasm%黄萸巴布剂的解热、镇痛、抗炎作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石强

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To study the antipyretic, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Huangyu cataplasm ( HYC). Method: The antipyretic effects of HYC were observed on febrile animals induced by three kinds of pyrogens including dry yeast,typhoid paratyphoik A,B vaccines,and milk,correspondingly. The analgesic effect was determined by writhing and hot plate tests in mice. Anti-inflammatory action was investigated on the model of paw edema caused by egg white and the pathological model with increasing vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in mice. Result;HYC had good antipyretic effects for experimental fever rabbits induced by dry yeast, typhoid paratyphoik A, B vaccines, and milk heating method. HYC could significantly inhibit the pain responses caused by hot plate and writhing responses induced by acetic acid. HYC could significantly decrease the degree of paw edema caused by egg white in mice and notably inhibit the degree of the increase in permeability of the capillaries. Conclusion; HYC shows considerable antipyretic,analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects%目的:观察黄萸巴布剂的解热、镇痛、抗炎作用.方法:分别采用干酵母、牛奶和伤寒、副伤寒甲、乙三联菌苗致热法观察黄萸巴布剂对3种致热原所致动物发热的影响;采用扭体法和热板法观察黄萸巴布剂的镇痛作用;采用蛋清致大鼠足跖肿胀法和醋酸致小鼠腹腔毛细血管通透性增高法观察黄萸巴布剂的抗炎作用.结果:黄萸巴布剂可显著抑制干酵母、牛奶、伤寒、副伤寒甲、乙三联菌苗所致发热反应;对醋酸和热板诱发的小鼠疼痛有明显的抑制作用;可减轻蛋清所致大鼠足跖肿胀度;降低醋酸引起的小鼠腹腔毛细血管通透性增高.结论:黄萸巴布剂具有明显的解热、镇痛和抗炎作用.

  1. Evaluation of the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn. in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantana Reanmongkol

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ethanol and dichloromethane extracts from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn.(G. mangostana on nociceptive response using writhing and hot plate tests in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeastinduced fever in rats, were examined. Anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats was also investigated. The ethanol extract (400, 800 mg/kg, p.o. significantly suppressed the writhings induced by acetic acid. The dichloromethane extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o. also decreased acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Neither theethanol extract nor dichloromethane extract had significant effects on antinociceptive response in the hot plate test. No significanteffects on yeast-induced fever were observed after oral administration of the ethanol and dichloromethane extractsin rats. Either oral administration (800 mg/kg of the ethanol extract or dichloromethane extract significantly decreased therat paw edema induced by carrageenin. These results suggest that the ethanol and dichloromethane extracts from the fruithull of G. mangostana possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions but no antipyretic action and one mechanism of action of the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts may involve in cyclooxygenase (COX inhibition.

  2. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Cariniana rubra stem bark in animal models

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    Edson N. Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularly known as "jequitibá-vermelho'', is a large Brazilian tree whose bark is used in infusion and decoction for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of Cariniana rubra methanolic stem bark extract (EM Cr using experimental animals. Anti-inflammatory activity of EM Cr was tested on carrageenan and dextran-induced rat paw edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats and acetic acid-increase vascular permeability in mice. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, as well as brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract inhibitied carrageenan and dextran-induced edema, reduced exudate volume and leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy and on the vascular permeability increase induced by acetic acid. The EM Cr inhibited nociception on the acetic acid-induced writhing and in the second phase of formalin test, and decreased rectal temperature. It was, however, inactive against thermal nociception.Phytochemical analysis with EM Cr showed the occurrence of saponins, triterpenes, sterols and phenolic compounds. Phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, pentacyclic triterpenes (α- and β-amyrin as a mixture, arjunolic acid, a phytosterol glycoside (sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and triterpenoid saponins (28-β-glucopyranosyl-23-O-acetyl arjunolic acid; 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl arjunolic acid and 28-O-[α-L-Rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-glucopyranosyl]-23- O-acetyl arjunolic acid were the main identified compounds. It can be presumed that EM Cr caused their effects by inhibiting the liberation and/or action of different inflammatory mediators. These findings support the traditional use of Cariniana rubra preparations to treat inflammation.Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularmente conhecido como

  3. 黄金菊药效组分解热的生物效应%Biological Effects on Active Antipyretic Components Alignment of Huangjinju

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑璐璐; 张贵君; 张春晖; 王晶娟

    2011-01-01

    目的:验证和进一步确定黄金菊解热的药效组分,为建立与其临床疗效对应的质量标准提供科学依据.方法:在HPLC分析法确定初步药效组分基础上,采用大鼠的酵母致热实验,对发热模型进行连续10 h的体温检测,设立了黄金菊水煎剂组、药效组分的低中高剂量组、阳性组与模型组进行比较,同时选用同类病症常用药双黄连口服液进行同步对照.结果:空白组与模型组相比,统计学差异显著(P<0.01),用药各组与模型组相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),黄金菊的低、中、高药效组分组的大鼠体温在2~6 h的发热期内均低于模型组体温,具有明显的解热作用.结论:黄金菊的药效组分(黄芩苷、绿原酸、荭草苷和牡荆苷)可以作为黄金菊的解热药效组分.%Objective: To verify and further define the active components alignment of antipyretic and provide the scientific basis date for the clinical curative effect of quality standards on Huangjinju. Method:On the basis of determining the active components alignment by HPLC analysis about classic prescription, take the fever model rats were made by dry yeast and provide the model of the fever for 10 hours of temperature detection,and set up the Huangjinju decoction group and the active components alignment group (high,middle and low dose) and the Positive group to compare with the model group, while similar symptoms common drugs used to synchronize the control Shuanghuanglian oral. Result: Comparing with the model group,there was significant difference( P < 0.01 ) among the control group and the treatment group ( P < 0.05 ). the active components alignment ( high, middle and low dose) groups when body temperature in rats 2-6 hours after treatment temperature were lower than the model group,with significant antipyretic effect. Conclusion:The active components alignment of Huangjinju (baicalin,Chlorogenic acid,orientin and vitexin)really have significant

  4. Studies on Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Tylophora ovata%光叶娃儿藤解热抗炎作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超燕; 陈艳芬; 陶曙红; 唐春萍; 崔红花

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察光叶娃儿藤的解热和抗炎作用.方法:SD大鼠随机分为生理盐水对照组,阿司匹林组(0.1 g·kg-1),光叶娃儿藤低、中、高剂量组(6,12,24 g·kg-1).分别采用酵母混悬液复制大鼠发热模型和角叉菜胶致大鼠足趾肿胀法,观察光叶娃儿藤的解热和抗炎作用,同时紫外分光光度法测定大鼠角叉菜胶致炎足渗出物中的前列腺素E2(PGE2)的含量.结果:与生理盐水组比较,光叶娃儿藤中、高剂量组(12,24 g·kg-1)能显著降低酵母菌致大鼠发热模型的体温(P<0.05),并能显著抑制角叉菜胶致大鼠的足肿胀度(P<0.05)和足组织中的前列腺素E2(PGE2)的合成(P<0.05).结论:光叶娃儿藤具有明显的解热和抗炎作用,其机制可能与抑制PGE2等炎症介质合成有关.%Objective: To explore the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of Tylophora ovata. Method: SD rats were divided into 5 groups randomly: physiological saline group, positive control group, the water extract of T. ovata low-dose group (6 g·kg-1 ) , middle-dose group (12 g ·kg-1 ) and high-dose group (24 g ·kg-1). The fever model with high temperature was established induced by yeast in rats, and the inflammatory model with foot edema was established by carrageenan in rats. The antipyretic and the anti-inflammatory effects of T. ovata were observed, the content of prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) in paw tissue were tested by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Result: Compared with the saline group, the water extract of T. ovata middle-dose group and high-dose group showed significant antipyretic activity in rats with high temperature induced by yeast ( P < 0. 05 ) , and appeared significant anti-inflammatory activity in rats with foot edema induced by carrageenin ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion: T. ovata had notable effects of antipyretic and anti-inflammatory, the anti-inflammatory mechanism might be related to inhibition of PGE2 biosynthesis.

  5. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of the extracts from Smilax corbularia Kunth rhizomes in mice and rats (in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantana Reanmongkol

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of either ethanol or aqueous extract from rhizomes of Smilax corbularia Kunth (S. corbularia on anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced edema in rats, antinociceptive activity using writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever were examined. Oral administration of the ethanol extract of S. corbularia rhizomes significantly suppressed the paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats while the aqueous extract had no effect. Neither the ethanol extract nor aqueous extract significantly affected the antinociceptive tests in mice and yeast-induced fever in rats. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of S. corbularia rhizomes possess anti-inflammatory activity, and that its actions on the inflammation may be different from those of aspirin.

  6. Study on Antipyretic Effect and Its Mechanism of Gentianine%龙胆碱的解热作用及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学伟; 曹敏; 刘树民

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the antipyretic effect and the mechanism of gentianine by comparing with variances of the antipyretic effect among from water extract of Centianae Radix Et Rhizoma, gentianine and gentiopcroside. Method; The rat febrile models induced by injecting fresh yeast subcutaneously and treated with gentianine,gentiopcroside intraperitoneally and fed with water extract of Centianae Radix Et Rhizoma, then the rectal temperature was monitored to show the differences of effect from those groups. The contents of tumor necrosis factor(TNF-a), interleukin-1 (IL-1 ) , interleukin-6 (IL-6) in blood serum and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) ,prostaglandin E2(PGE2) in the hypothalamus were measured by radioimmunoassav (RIA) .respectively. Result; Three drug administration groups(including gentianine, gentiopcroside and water extract of Gentianae Radix Et Rhizoma) showed marked antipyretic effect on the yeast-induced fever(P <0. 05) and the effects were stronger on the getianine group than other treated groups. Each treatment group showed remarkable decreased the contents of IL-6 in blood serum and PGE2 in the hypothalamus of febrile rats. Conclusion; Gentianine, gentiopcroside and water extract of Gentianae Radix Et Rhizoma all have obvious antipyretic effect, but the effect of gentianine is strongest ofthem and probably plays a more direct role in the antipyretic effect from Centianae Radix Et Rhizoma,which might be related with decreasing the levels of IL-6 in serum and the interferencing the content of PGE2 in the hypothalamus.%目的:比较龙胆水提液,龙胆碱及龙胆苦苷解热作用的差异,初步探讨龙胆碱的解热作用机制.方法:雄性SD大鼠,经筛选后随机分为空白对照组、发热模型组、龙胆碱组,龙胆苦苷组及龙胆水提组,采用干酵母皮下注射方法制备发热模型,于模型制备后6h,分别ip龙胆碱溶液(100 mg·kg-1)、龙胆苦苷溶液( 200 mg· kg -1)及ig龙胆水煎液(4 000 mg· kg-1)

  7. 巴中产栀子解热抗炎药理效应研究%Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Gardenia from Bazhong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄群莲; 王利国; 唐灿; 雷燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the antipyretic effect on rabbit fever induced by endotoxin and the anti-inflammatory effect on the increase of mouse abdominal cavity capillary permeability caused by 0. 6% glacial acetic acid of Bazhong gardenia. Methods:The rab-bit fever model was made by ear margin vein injection of endotoxin in physiological saline solution, and the mouse inflammation model of abdominal cavity capillary permeability increase was established by 0. 6% glacial acetic acid solution. The animals were respectively intragastrically administrated with gardenia water-soluble effective parts and 70% alcohol-soluble effective parts. The rabbit body tem-perature and mouse celiac fluid absorbance values were detected. The effects of gardenia from different habitats were studied and com-pared. Results:The antipyretic effect of water-soluble effective parts from Bazhong gardenia extract was better than that of gardenia ex-tract from Jiangxi, Hubei and Jiangjin (P0. 05). Bazhong gardenia could inhibit the increase of abdominal blood capillary permeability in mouse inflammation model, and the effect was better than the other gardenia, however without significant difference (P>0. 05). Con-clusion:Bazhong gardenia shows better antipyretic effect compared with that from other habitats.%目的::探索巴中产栀子对内毒素所致家兔发热模型的解热药理效应及其抑制0.6%冰醋酸所致小鼠腹腔毛细血管通透性增加的抗炎药理效应。方法:针对家兔耳缘静脉注射内毒素生理盐水溶液制备发热模型与0.6%冰醋酸溶液所致小鼠腹腔毛细管通透性增加的炎症模型,分别灌胃给予栀子水溶性有效部位、70%醇溶性有效部位,测定家兔体温、小白鼠腹腔液吸光度值,观察不同产地栀子的解热抗炎作用。结果:巴中产栀子提取水溶性有效部位对发热家兔的降温效果优于江西、湖北、江津产栀子(P0.05)。巴中产栀子有效性部位抑制0.6%冰

  8. 布洛芬栓塞肛对小儿发烧降温疗效的研究%Antipyretic effect of embolization by Ibuprofen on fever in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马周建; 聂玉光; 路朝勋

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the antipyretic effect of of embolization by Ibuprofen on fever in children. Methods: A total of 323 children with hyperpyrexia were assigned into 3 groups with different treatments by ibuprofen via embolization, oral administration and enema. Body temperatures were measured 1 h, 2 h and 4 h before and after therapy, and then the antipyretic effect were compared among three groups. Results: There was no significant difference in antipyretic effect among three groups (P>0.05);Compared to enema group and embolization group, the antipyretic effect of oral administration group was lower at 1 h (P<0.05). Conclusions: Embolization by Ibuprofen is effective on fever, especially on fever in children.%目的:观察布洛芬栓塞肛对小儿发烧降温疗效的影响.方法:323例高热患儿分别接受不同方式布洛芬治疗,即口服、灌肠和栓塞肛治疗;于治疗前及治疗后1 h、2 h和4 h分别测定患儿体温,比较不同组的退热效果.结果:布洛芬口服组、灌肠组及栓塞肛组之间退热效果无明显差别(P>0.05);对灌肠组和栓塞肛组,布洛芬口服组1 h退热程度低(P<0.05).结论:布洛芬栓塞肛能有效治疗高热,适合临床治疗小儿高热.

  9. Studies on antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of Qingyan Oral Liquid%清咽口服液的解热抗炎作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑女; 冀满丰; 黎康发

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the antipyretic and anti -inflammatory effects of Qingyan Oral Liquid. Methods: Qingyan Oral Liquid was used as the research object. The antipyretic activity of Qingyan Oral Liquid was observed in fever rats caused by 2,4-dinitrophenol, and the inflammatory activity was observed in ear edema mice caused by xylen and paw swelling rats caused by carrageenin. Results: Compared with the blank control group (physiological saline group), Qingyan 0 -ral Liquid showed significant antipyretic activity in rats with high temperature induced by 2,4-dinitrophenol (P<0.05), and significant anti-inflammatory activity in rats with paw swelling induced by carrageenin and mice with ear edema induced by xylene (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Qingyan Oral Liquid has notable effects of antipyretic and anti-inflammatory.%目的:观察清咽口服液的解热抗炎作用.方法:以清咽口服液为研究对象,采用2,4-二硝基苯酚致大鼠发热法研究其解热作用,采用二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀法和角叉菜胶致大鼠足肿胀法研究其抗炎作用.结果:与空白对照组(生理盐水组)比较,清咽口服液能显著降低2,4-二硝基苯酚致大鼠发热模型的体温(P<0.05),对二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀及角叉菜胶致大鼠足肿胀均有显著的抑制作用(均P<0.05).结论:清咽口服液具有明显的解热、抗炎作用.

  10. 加拿大一枝黄花与一枝黄花解热镇痛抗炎作用比较%Comparation of Solidago Canadensis and Solidago Decurrens in Antipyretic Analgesics and Anti-inflammatory Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许金国; 赵晓莉; 崔小兵

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察加拿大一枝黄花与中药一枝黄花对小鼠的解热镇痛抗炎作用的影响.方法:用热板法测定小鼠的痛觉反应时间,二甲苯耳肿胀法.结果:加拿大一枝黄花与中药一枝黄花具有解热镇痛抗炎作用.结论:加拿大一枝黄花的解热镇痛作用相较于中药一枝黄花的作用相当,加拿大一枝黄花的抗炎作用相较于一枝黄花的作用要强.%Objective:Observation of the mice solidago canadensis and Solidago decurrens antipyretic, analgesics anti-inflammatory effect. Methods : Using hot-plate tests for determination of mice pain reaction time, Xylene auricular swelling. Results: Solidago canadensis and Solidago decurrens have antipyretic, analgesics anti-inflammatory effect. Conclusion : Solidago canadensis is equal to Solidago decurrens in antipyretic, analgesics and anti-inflammatory effect, Solidago canadensis anti-inflammatory effects compared with Solidago decurrens is stronger.

  11. 生物活性测定法评价银黄注射液解热质量的实验研究%Establishment of Bioactivity Assay for Yinhuang Injection by Antipyretic Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝清芬; 国明; 郝玲玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立银黄注射液生物活性测定法的质量标准.方法 用内毒素造成家兔发热模型,观察银黄注射液的解热作用,以采用生物活性测定法评价药品质量.结果 静脉注射细菌内毒素可引起家兔稳定的发热,银黄注射液对细菌内毒素所致家兔体温升高有明显抑制作用.结论 可以采用药物对细菌内毒素所致家兔发热模型的影响评价银黄注射液的生物活性.%Objective To establish the criteria of bioactivity assay for Yinhuang Injection. Methods The endotoxin-induced febrile New Zealand rabbits were chosen as experimental models. The antipyretic effect of Yinhuang Injection was observed and the bioactivity assay was used to estimate the quality of this drug. Results The fever model of rabbits was well established by intravenous injection of endotoxin. Yinhuang Injection had obvious antipyretic effect on the endotoxin-induced febrile rabbits. Conclusion The antipyretic effect of Yinhuang Injection on endotoxin-induced febrile rabbits can be used to estimate the quality of this drug as a bioactivity assay.

  12. Antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of asiaticoside in lipopolysaccharide-treated rat through up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, JingYuan; Gong, Xia; Jiang, Rong; Zhang, Zhuo; Zhang, Li

    2013-08-01

    Asiaticoside (AS), a triterpenoid isolated from Centella asiatica, has been found to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in several experimental animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we provide experimental evidences that AS dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever and inflammatory response, including serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 production, liver myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, brain cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) production. Interestingly, AS increased serum IL-10 level, liver heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression and activity. Furthermore, we found that the suppressive effects of AS on LPS-induced fever and inflammation were reversed by pretreatment with ZnPPIX, a HO-1 activity inhibitor. In summary, our results suggest that AS has the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-treated rat. These effects could be associated with the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α and IL-6 levels, COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, as well as MPO activity, which might be mediated by the up-regulation of HO-1.

  13. Comparative study on anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects between Dao-di herb and non Dao-di herb of Huangqin%道地与非道地黄芩的药效比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴再旺; 王喆明; 卢月; 王丹; 钱瑞琴; 尚明英; 王璇; 蔡少青

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较道地与非道地黄芩的解热和抗炎作用,为对道地药材的药性特征认识和临床应用提供实验依据.方法:采用酵母致小鼠发热模型、二甲苯致小鼠耳廓肿胀实验评价不同产地黄芩的解热、抗炎作用.结果:10个产地的道地与非道地黄芩对酵母致热模型体温均有抑制作用,道地黄芩对体温的抑制率在61% ~53%,非道地黄芩在53% ~43%,其中6个道地产区黄芩对体温的抑制率均优于4个非道地产区.10个产地的道地与非道地黄芩均有抑制鼠耳肿胀作用,道地黄芩的肿胀抑制率在73% ~ 54%,非道地黄芩的肿胀抑制率在53%~ 34%,其中6个道地产区黄芩的肿胀抑制率均优于4个非道地产区.道地性排序分析表明,古代道地与现代道地黄芩的解热、抗炎作用均优于非道地黄芩,现代道地黄芩解热、抗炎作用强于古代道地黄芩.结论:不同产地黄芩均有解热、抗炎的作用,但作用强度不同,道地产区黄芩优于非道地产区黄芩,表明黄芩具有一定的道地性.%Objective: To do some comparative study on anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects between the Dao-di herb and non Dao-di herb of Huangqin (the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis ) and provide thinking and evidence for study on geoherbalism and clinical usage of Huangqin, Method: The anti-inflammatory action was assessed by auricular swelling induced by dimethylbenzene in mice and the antipyretic action was monitored by dried yeast-induced mice fever. Result: All samples of both Dao-di and non Dao-di herbs of Huangqin showed antipyretic effect. The Dao-di Huangqin samples showed antipyretic effect between 61% to 53% , whereas the non Dao-di Huangqin samples between 53% to 43%, Six Dao-di Huangqin samples showed better antipyretic effect than four non Dao-di Huangqin samples. All samples of both Dao-di and non Dao-di Huangqin showed anti-inflammatory effect Dao-di Huangqin showed anti

  14. Study of Antipyretic Function and Mechanism of Buzhong Yiqi Tang%补中益气汤退热作用及机制的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进娜; 谢鸣; 高秀兰; 赵荣华

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨补中益气汤退热作用机制.方法:雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为正常对照组、脾虚发热组、补中益气汤组共3组,每组10只.采用饮食失节+过度疲劳+注射LPS法复制脾虚发热模型.每周测体温1次.第18天开始补中益气汤组每天ig(6.83 g·kg-1),正常组和脾虚发热组给予同体积蒸馏水,每天1次,连续5d.第22天AM 8:00脾虚发热组和补中益气汤2组大鼠ip脂多糖(LPS,80μg·kg-1)诱导发热,正常组ip等体积生理盐水.测量各组大鼠ip LPS后30,60,120,180,220 min肛温及绘制体温曲线,测定下丘脑环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)、前列腺素E2(PGE2).结果:与正常对照组相比,脾虚发热组大鼠体温曲线明显上抬,各观察点体温均明显升高,下丘脑PGE2和cAMP明显升高(P<0.05或P<0.01).与脾虚发热组比较,补中益气汤组大鼠体温曲线明显下移,下丘脑PGE2和cAMP均明显下降(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论:补中益气汤对脾虚发热模型大鼠具有明显的退热效用,其退热作用可能与降低中枢发热介质PGE2和cAMP有关.%Objective: To discuss the antipyretic mechanism of Buzhong Yiqi Tang. Method: The rats were assigned into the normal group, spleen-qi deficiency with fever group, Buzhong Yiqi Tang group, 10 rats in each group. The rats of spleen-qi deficiency with fever group and Buzhong Yiqi Tang group were treated with excess fatigue plus out of constant diet to copy spleen-qi deficiency rat model. The body temperatures were measured each week. From the 18th day, Buzhong Yiqi Tang group rats were fed with medicine 6. 83 g·kg-1 . The ones of the normal group and spleen-qi deficiency with fever group with physiological saline for 5 days. At 8 :00 am on the 22' day, the rats of Buzhong Yiqi Tang group and the spleen-qi deficiency with fever group were respectively intraperitonealy injected with lipopoly saccharide ( LPS, 80 μg·kg-1 ) to induce fever. The rats of the normal group with physiological saline. The rectal

  15. 双黄连口服液解热抗炎实验30例%Experiments to Antipyretic and Anti-infIammatory of ShuanghuangIian oraI for 30 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨双黄连口服液解热抗炎作用的实验分析。方法采用2,4-二硝基苯酚所致的发热大鼠模型探讨双黄连口服液的解热效果,采用二甲苯所致的小鼠耳肿胀模型探讨双黄连口服液的抗炎作用。结果与空白对照组比较,双黄连口服液能显著降低2,4-二硝基苯酚致大鼠发热模型的体温,能显著抑制二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀的炎症反应。结论双黄连口服液具有显著的解热、抗炎作用,值得在临床上推广和应用。%Objective To investigate the experimental analysis of Shuanghuanglian oral antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects.Methods To ob-served Antipyretic effects through Shuanghuanglian Oral treating fever caused by 2,4-dinitrophenol in rats,and observed anti-inflammatory effects through Shuanghuanglian Oral treating ear edema model in rat caused by Xylene.Results Compared with the control group,Shuanghuan-glian Oral can significantly reduce body temperature and Inhibit inflammation.Conclusion Shuanghuanglian Oral have a significant antipyretic, anti-inflammatory effects,it is worthy of promotion and application in clinical practice.

  16. 金花葵花总黄酮解热抗炎作用的实验研究%Experimental Study of Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Total Flavonoids in Abelmoschus Manihot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of total flavonoids in Abelmoschus manihot. Methods Intravenous injection of E. Coli liquid into rabbits resulted in fever model of rabbits and its antipyretic effect was observed. Xylene was used to induce ear swelling and resulted in acute inflammation model,and the anti-inflammatory effect was observed. Results Oral intake of total flavonoids in abelmoschus manihot on the dosage of 60 mg/kg or 120 mg/kg significantly inhibited E. Coli-induced fever of rabbits,and lowered the peak temperature; Topical application of total flavonoids could reduce the swelling rate of external ear in mice. Conclusion The total flavonoids in abelmoschus manihot have some antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects.%目的 研究金花葵花总黄酮的解热和抗炎作用.方法 采用大肠杆菌液静脉注射家兔的方法,制成家兔发热模型,观察其解热作用;采用二甲苯致小鼠耳片肿胀的方法,造成急性炎症模型,观察其抗炎作用.结果 金花葵花总黄酮60 mg/kg、120mg/kg灌胃能明显抑制大肠杆菌所致的家兔体温升高,使体温峰值降低;局部涂抹能降低二甲苯致炎小鼠耳廓肿胀率.结论金花葵花总黄酮具有一定的解热和抗炎作用.

  17. Comparative study on the antipyretic and analgesic effects between Bupleurum chinense DC.and Bupleurum marginatum Wall.ex DC%竹叶柴胡与北柴胡解热镇痛作用的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜士明; 杜婷; 王刚; 叶方; 孙荣进; 陈科力

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较竹叶柴胡与北柴胡解热镇痛作用的差异.方法:采用2,4-二硝基苯酚致热大鼠模型比较2种柴胡水煎液的解热作用;采用醋酸扭体试验及热板法比较2种柴胡水煎液及醇提液的镇痛作用.结果:竹叶柴胡和北柴胡的水煎液均具有明显的解热作用,两者解热作用没有显著性差异(P>0.05);醋酸扭体试验的结果表明竹叶柴胡和北柴胡的水煎液、醇提液均有镇痛作用,且两者差异没有显著性;热板法试验结果表明2种柴胡的水煎液有镇痛作用且无明显差异(P>0.05),但醇提液无明显镇痛作用.结论:竹叶柴胡与北柴胡解热镇痛作用相似.%OBJECTIVE To compare the antipyretic and analgesic effects between Bupleurum chinense DC. and Bupleurum marginatum Wall, ex DC. METHODS The antipyretic effects of Bupleurum decoction were observed by 2,4- dinitrophenol-induced rat pyrexia, and the analgesic effect was verified by the test of HAc-induced writhing response in mice and hot-plate. RESULTS The decoction of Bupleurum chinense DC. and Bupleurum marginatum Wall, ex DC. all showed significant antipyretic effects, and there was no significant difference between them (P>0. 05); Both the decoction and alcohol extract of Bupleurum chinense DC. and Bupleurum marginatum Wall, ex DC. possessed the analgesic effect in the test of HAc-induced writhing response; The decoction of Bupleurum chinense DC. and Bupleurum marginatum Wall, ex DC. all showed the analgesic effect in the test of hot-plate and there were no significant differences (P>0. 05), but alcohol extracts of them had no significant analgesic effect. CONCLUSION There were similar antipyretic and analgesic effects between Bupleurum chinense DC. and Bupleurum marginatum Wall, ex DC.

  18. A clinical study on treating exopathic fever in children with antipyretic mixture by rectal administration%退热合剂直肠给药治疗小儿外感发热的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑道海; 智国防; 王俊华

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical efficacy of antipyretic mixture by rectal administration on infantile fever. Methods: 150 patients with exopathic fever of the Fengre type in our hospital were selected, and were randomly divided into two groups. The control group (50 cases) was given antipyretic suppository by anus; the observation group was treated with antipyretic mixture by rectal administration. Effcacy in two groups was observed; defervescence time and main symptoms were compared in two groups. Blood routine, liver and kidney function of in the observation group were analyzed. Results: The total effciency in the observation group (95%) was signiifcantly higher than 76% in the control group; and the effcacy of main symptoms was better than the control group (P0.05). There were not toxic side effects. Conclusion: Antipyretic mixture by rectal administration on exopathic fever in children can quickly defervesce, improve blood routine, and show a signiifcant effect, is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:研究退热合剂直肠给药治疗小儿外感发热的临床疗效。方法:选取我院诊断为风热型小儿外感发热患者150例,随机分为两组,对照组50例患儿采用小儿退热栓塞肛进行退热,观察组100例患儿应用退热合剂直肠给药进行退热,观察两组患者治疗效果,比较两组退热时间、主要症状,并分析观察组治疗前后的血常规、肝肾功能等。结果:观察组总有效率(95%)明显高于对照组(76%),且主要症状疗效均优于对照组(P0.05),并未发现毒副作用。结论:退热合剂直肠给药治疗小儿外感发热,其退热效果快,改善血常规,疗效显著,值得临床推广。

  19. Study on Isolation of α-Cyperone and Its Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects%α-香附酮的分离及其解热镇痛作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓远辉; 刘瑜彬; 罗淑文; 黎雄; 邓金宝

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究香附有效成分α-香附酮的解热镇痛作用.方法 通过乙醇提取、硅胶柱层析分离、核磁共振等手段进行结构解析,确定中药香附中具有解热镇痛作用的有效成分为α-香附酮.再采用内毒素致家免发热模型、小鼠醋酸扭体法、热板法实验,考察α-香附酮的药效作用.结果 与模型组比较,α-香附酮能降低内毒素致家兔发热的体温(P<0.05),对醋酸所致的小鼠扭体反应有抑制作用(P<0.05),但是对热板法所致的小鼠痛阈反应时间无明显作用(P>0.05).结论 α-香附酮是香附发挥解热镇痛作用的有效成分之一,α-香附酮可能通过外周机制发挥镇痛作用.%Objective To study the antipyretic and analgesic constituents from Rhizoma Cyperi. Methods After effective fraction extraction by petroleum ether, compound isolation by silica gel column chromatography, and structures identification mainly by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), α-cyperone was confirmed as the active antipyretic and analgesic ingredient. The antipyretic and analgesic actions of α-cyperone were investigated by applying endotoxin-induced fever rabbit model, writhing method in mice, and thermal stimulation method in mice. Results Compared with the model group, α-cyperone had significant antipyretic effect on rabbits with endotoxin -induced fever(P 0.05). Conclusion α-Cyperone is one of the main bioactive ingredients in Rhizoma Cyperi, and may be play analgesic effects through peripheral regulation.

  20. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) is a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid that is gastrointestinal safe and has potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashfi, Khosrow; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder

    2015-12-01

    Sulindac is chemopreventive and has utility in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties of sulindac and NOSH-sulindac administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6h post-administration, number/size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs were counted. Tissue samples were frozen for PGE2, SOD, and MDA determination. Anti-inflammatory: 1h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 5h. Anti-pyretic: fever was induced by LPS (ip) an hour before administration of the test drugs, core body temperature was measured hourly for 5h. Analgesic: time-dependent analgesic effects were evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Antiplatelet: anti-aggregatory effects were studied on collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Anti-cancer: We examined the effects of NOSH-sulindac on the growth properties of 12 human cancer cell lines of six different tissue origins. Both agents reduced PGE2 levels in stomach tissue; however, NOSH-sulindac did not cause any stomach ulcers, whereas sulindac caused significant bleeding. Lipid peroxidation induced by sulindac was higher than that from NOSH-sulindac. SOD activity was significantly lowered by sulindac but increased by NOSH-sulindac. Both agents showed similar anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anti-platelet activities. Sulindac increased plasma TNFα whereas this rise was lower in the NOSH-sulindac-treated animals. NOSH-sulindac inhibited the growth of all cancer cell lines studied, with potencies of 1000- to 9000-fold greater than that of sulindac. NOSH-sulindac inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G2/M cell

  1. Assessment of the safety and feasibility of administering anti-pyretic therapy in critically ill adults: study protocol of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niven Daniel J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is one of the most commonly observed abnormal signs in patients with critical illness. However, there is a paucity of evidence to guide the management of febrile patients without acute brain injury and little is known about the biologic response to treatment of fever. As such, observational studies suggest that the treatment of fever is inconsistent. This pilot clinical trial will assess the safety and feasibility of treating febrile critically ill adult patients with an aggressive versus a permissive temperature control strategy. The biologic response to these two different temperature control strategies will also be assessed through analysis of a panel of inflammatory mediators. Findings The study population will include febrile adult patients admitted to one of two general medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Patients will be randomized to either an aggressive or permissive fever treatment strategy. The aggressive group will receive acetaminophen 650 mg enterally every 6 hours upon reaching a temperature ≥ 38.3°C and external cooling will be initiated for temperatures ≥ 39.5°C, whereas the permissive group will receive acetaminophen 650 mg every 6 hours upon reaching a temperature ≥ 40.0°C and external cooling for temperatures ≥ 40.5°C. The study will take place over 12 months with the goal of enrolling 120 patients. The primary outcome will be 28-day mortality after study enrolment, with secondary outcomes that will include markers of feasibility (e.g. the enrolment rate, and the number of protocol violations, and levels of select inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Discussion Results from this study will lead to a better understanding of the inflammatory effects of anti-pyretic therapy and will evaluate the feasibility of a future clinical trial to establish the best treatment of fever observed in nearly one half of patients admitted to adult ICUs. Trial

  2. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Olorunfemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

  3. Application of antipyretic analgesics in rural areas in West Liaoning province, survey of 1 358 cases%辽西农村使用解热镇痛抗炎药1358例相关因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进先; 张晓萌; 梁秀艳; 张华; 潘喜贵

    2003-01-01

    目的了解辽宁省西部农民使用解热镇痛药的情况.方法采用问卷调查和面对面访谈的方式调查了辽宁省西部建平县两个乡镇, 10个自然村 1 808例农民使用解热镇痛药的情况.结果 1 808例中有 1 358例使用解热镇痛抗炎药.女性用药者 778例( 57.29%),男性用药者 580例 (42.71% ,P0.05). 883 drug-takers(66.02% )used them to treat common cold, fever, pain,and rheumatism,475(35.96% ) to alleviate fatigue and to feel comfortable.One to five kinds of antipyretic analgesics had been used. The most used drugs included Somiton, enteric-coated aspirin, paracetamol, indomethacin, etc. Conclusion The abuse of antipyretic analgesics is very serious in west Liaoning Province.Health education on OTC use needs to be strengthened among the villagers.

  4. 中药退热颗粒剂治疗小儿外感高热临床观察%Observation of TCM Antipyretic Granules in Pediatric Exopathic High Fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解玲芳; 胡晓丹; 张琼

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察中药退热颗粒剂治疗小儿外感高热的疗效.方法:患儿188例随机分为治疗组与对照组,分别用中药颗粒剂和布洛芬混悬液治疗.结果:治疗组疗效与对照组近似,其体温下降情况优于对照组.结论:中药退热颗粒治疗小儿外感高热疗效满意.%[Abstract] Objective:To observe the therapeutic effect of TCM antipyretic granules in the pediatric exopathic high fever. Methods: 188 cases were randomly divided into the treatment group with TCM antipyretic granules and the control group with ibuprofen suspension. Results:The effect of the treatment group was similar to that of the control group. In the treatment group,the degree of temperature decline was better than that in the control group.Conclusion :The effect of TCM antipyretie granules is satisfied in the pediatric exopathic high fever.

  5. Clinical experience and results of treatment with suprofen in pediatrics. 3rd communication: Antipyretic effect and tolerability of repeat doses of suprofen and paracetamol syrup in hospitalized children/A single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippl, G; Michos, N; Sundal, E J; Stocker, H

    1985-01-01

    Antipyretic effect and tolerability of alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-phenyl acetic acid (suprofen, Suprol), syrup and paracetamol (acetaminophen) were compared within the scope of the present randomized single-blind study; the test population included a total of 115 children ranging in age from 6 months to 12 years. All patients were admitted to the hospital with an average temperature of 39.3 degrees C, their disease being caused by bacterial or viral infections. The dose levels for treatment with syrup depended upon the children's age and body weight. Treatment was in most cases given for two days; a three-times-a-day schedule was used. The (rectal) temperature as well as pulse and respiratory rates were measured prior to treatment and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 h after first administration of the test preparations. The results showed that the antipyretic effect of suprofen was in both age groups at all rating times statistically significantly superior to that of paracetamol. Pulse and respiratory rates dropped in both age groups after treatment; the means were within the normal range at all rating times. Adverse drug reactions were seen in 5 patients on suprofen and in 3 cases on paracetamol. It is, however, questionable whether such reactions are drug-dependent. PMID:3911963

  6. Clinical experience and results of treatment with suprofen in pediatrics. 5th communication: a single-blind study on antipyretic effect and tolerability of suprofen syrup versus metamizole drops in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, M; Longhi, R; Besana, R; Michos, N; Sarchi, C

    1986-06-01

    In a single-blind study, 60 children in two age groups (30 patients: 6 months to 3 years; 30 patients: 3 years to 12 years), were orally treated with either alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienyl-carbonyl)phenylacetic acid (suprofen, Suprol), syrup 10 mg/ml or metamizole drops 50% for a maximum period of 4 days, up to 4 times a day. The children presented with high fever due to bacterial or virus infections. Body temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were evaluated at the beginning and then 30 min, 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first administration of the respective drug. Significant differences between the drugs were found for all variables; this demonstrated that with suprofen the antipyretic effect set in more rapidly than with the reference drug. No side-effects were observed in children treated with suprofen syrup. Two patients showed adverse effects, i.e. sweating and hypotension, during the treatment with metamizole. Due to its good antipyretic effect and good tolerability, suprofen appears to be particularly useful for symptomatic treatment of pediatric patients with fever caused by bacterial or virus infections. PMID:3527181

  7. 基于GC-MS代谢组学技术的狭叶柴胡解热作用研究%Antipyretic effect of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium based on GC-MS metabonomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东琴; 李晓伟; 张福生; 邢婕; 李震宇; 秦雪梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antipyretic effect of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium based on GC-MS metabolomics and explore its mechanism. Methods Rats were randomly divided into control, model, high-, mid-, low-dose B. scorzonerifolium extract (40, 20, and 10 g/kg), and Aspirin (100 mg/kg) positive control groups. The fever rats induced by yeast were administered twice. The body temperature changes of rats were observed at the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th hours after modeling; Meanwhile, plasma samples were collected at the 10th hour and subjected to GC-MS analysis to find potential biomarkers of fever. Results Aspirin showed antipyretic effect well. The temperature showed no significant difference compared with the control group 2 h after administration (P > 0.05). Different doses of extract from B. scorzonerifolium showed the antipyretic effect at varying degrees, which presented the obvious dose-dependent antipyretic effect. The high-dose group had a faster onset, and there was a significant difference (P 0.05). Compared with the model group, low-dose group showed no significant differences at each time point. The body temperature showed a large fluctuation, indicating the drugs could interfere with the increase of body temperature but did not reach a significant antipyretic effect. Seventeen potential biomarkers were identified from the loading plot based on the metabolomics and the different doses of B. scorzonerifolium extract could regulate the biomarkers. Conclusion B. scorzonerifolium has the significant antipyretic effect in a dose-dependent manner and the antipyretic role may be related to the synergism of enzyme inhibition, neurotransmitter, glucose and lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism with the multi-targets.%目的 采用GC-MS代谢组学技术研究狭叶柴胡的解热作用,并初步探讨其作用机制.方法 SD大鼠随机分为对照组,模型组,狭叶柴胡提取物高、中、低剂量(生药40、20、10 g

  8. Experimental Study of Shuanghuanghua Granule on the Pharmacological Action of Anti-inflammatory and Antipyretic%双黄花颗粒抗炎解热药理作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林; 莫韦皓; 邓东方; 孟盼; 杨蕙; 王宇红

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察双黄花颗粒的抗炎、解热的药理作用.方法 采用足肿胀、耳肿胀及毛细血管通透性实验来观察该制剂抗炎作用;采用酵母致大鼠发热实验来观察该制剂解热作用.结果 在足肿胀实验中,双黄花高、中剂量组在药后2、4h均显著抑制角叉菜胶所致大鼠足跖肿胀.此外双黄花高剂量组能显著抑制二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀的肿胀度及小鼠腹腔毛细血管通透性的增加.在酵母致热实验中,双黄花高剂量组大鼠药后不同时间点体温值显著降低,双黄花中剂量组给药后2h体温值显著降低.结论 双黄花颗粒具有较好的抗炎、解热作用,为其临床应用提供了理论基础.%Objective:To study the pharmacologial action and antipyretic effects of Shuanghuanghua Granule with anti-inflammatory.Methods:The anti-inflammatory effects were observed by the rat metatarsal swelling,the mouse auricular swelling and the acetic acid-induced capillary permeability in abdominal cavity in mice experiments.Meanwhile,the antipyretic effect was detected by the fever rat models established by subcutaneous injection of yeast.Results:High and middle does group of Shuanghuanghua Granule significantly reduced the rate of swelling in hind paw after drug 2 and 4 hours.The high does group of Shuanghuanghua Granule obviously decreased mouse ear swelling induced by dimethyl benzene and capillary permeability in abdominal cavity induced by acetic acid-induced.Also,this group of Shuanghuanghua Granule remarkably decreased the body temperature of rats all time.The middle does groups of Shuanghuanghua Granule can significantly decrease the body temperature of rats after drug 2 hours.Conclusion:Shuanghuanghua Granule has obvious anti-inflamation and antipyretic effects.

  9. 连花柴芩可溶性粉解热镇痛止咳祛痰作用的研究%Study on Antipyretic, Analgesic, Antitussive and Expectorant Effects of Lian-hua-chai-qin Soluble Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双双; 张俊; 杜芳芳; 李晓; 胡安君; 赵雅; 王学兵; 张红英

    2015-01-01

    为评价连花柴芩可溶性粉的解热、镇痛、止咳、祛痰作用,采用LP S致大鼠发热法、醋酸致小鼠扭体法、小鼠氨水引咳法、小鼠气管段酚红排泌法,观察连花柴芩可溶性粉的解热、镇痛、止咳、祛痰作用。结果显示,连花柴芩可溶性粉抑制大鼠发热效果显著( P<0.05);减少小鼠扭体反应次数( P<0.05),镇痛率分别为34.81%、32.59%和27.31%;减少小鼠咳嗽次数( P<0.05),抑制率分别为36.82%、31.48%和20.37%;能增强小鼠对酚红的排泌( P<0.05)。表明连花柴芩可溶性粉具有明显的解热、镇痛、止咳、祛痰的作用。%To study the antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive and expectorant effects of Lian-hua-chai-qin Soluble Powder ( LHCQSP ) to provide reasonable experimental reference for clinical. The antipyretic activity was evidenced in fever rats induced by LPS. Analgesic activity was tested in mice induced by acetic acid. Antitussive effect was examined in mice induced by ammonia, the tracheal phenol red secretion test in mice was for expectorant activity. LHCQSP obviously depressed the temperature of fever rats ( P<0.05) , decreased twist times of mice by 34.81%, 32.59% and 27.31%, respectively (P<0.05), reduced cough times of mice by 36.82%, 31.48%and 20.37% , respectively (P<0.05), increased the amount of secreting phenol red (P<0.05). This experiment shows that LHCQSP possess antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive and expectorant effects in model animal.

  10. 民族药九头狮子草解热有效部位的筛选%Study on the antipyretic effects of active extracts of Peristrophe japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃容贵; 范菊娣; 龙庆德; 秦拴梅; 周镁

    2012-01-01

    目的:筛选九头狮子草解热作用有效部位.方法:雄性SD大鼠,经筛选后随机分为正常对照组、模型对照组、石油醚组、醋酸乙酯组、正丁醇组、水组和水提组,采用干酵母皮下注射方法制备发热模型,于模型制备后5h,分别ip石油醚部位(0.4 g·kg-1)、醋酸乙酯部位(0.4 g·kg-1)、正丁醇部位(0.4 g·kg-1)、水部位(1.4g·kg-1)、水提液(8g·kg-1)后分别于各个时间点监测直肠温度,比较各部位对大鼠发热曲线、直肠温度及最大发热高度(△T℃)、体温反应指数(TRI9)的影响.结果:九头狮子草水提液,石油醚部位及水部位均能降低发热模型大鼠体温,其差异具有显著性(P<0.05).三者对TRI9的影响分别为(10.2±0.8),(8.2±0.6),(10.1±0.5),与模型组比较,差异具有显著性(P<0.05).结论:九头狮子草水提液,石油醚部位及水部位均具有解热作用,石油醚部位及水部位解热作用强于九头狮子草水提液,为九头狮子草解热有效部位.%OBJECTIVE To study the antipyretic effects of active extracts of Peristrophe japonica. METHODS The rat febrile models induced by injecting fresh yeast subcutaneously were treated with water extract of Peristrophe japonica and four fractions (including ligarine fraction, Et Ac fraction, n-butanol fraction and water fraction), then the rectal temperature was monitored to show the differences of effect from those groups. RESULTS Three drug administration groups (including water extract of Peristrophe japonica, ligarine fraction and water fraction) showed marked antipyretic effect on the yeast-induced fever (P<0. 05) and the effects were stronger in the ligarine fraction and water fraction groups than in the water extract of Peristrophe japonica group. CONCLUSION The water extract of Peristrophe japonica, ligarine fraction and water fraction all have obvious antipyretic effect,but the effect of ligarine fraction and water fraction are stronger than that of water

  11. 清瘟败毒合剂解热抗炎抗菌作用的实验研究%Studies on antipyretic,anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of Qingwenbaidu Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 杨艳平

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨清瘟败毒合剂的解热抗炎抗菌作用。方法:采用2,4-二硝基苯酚致大鼠发热法研究清瘟败毒合剂的解热作用,采用二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀法和蛋清致大鼠足肿胀法研究清瘟败毒合剂的抗炎作用。采用琼脂稀释法测定清瘟败毒合剂对4种菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)。结果:与空白对照组比较,清瘟败毒合剂对2,4-二硝基苯酚引起的大鼠体温升高具有良好的解热作用( P<0.05);并能显著抑制二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀及蛋清致大鼠足跖肿胀的炎症反应( P<0.05)。金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、绿脓杆菌、白念珠菌对清瘟败毒合剂均敏感。结论:清瘟败毒合剂具有解热、抗炎作用,同时对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、绿脓杆菌、白念珠菌均具有体外抑菌作用。%Objective: To study the antipyretic ,anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of Qingwenbaidu Mixture.Methods: The antipyretic activity of Qingwenbaidu Mixture was studied in rats with 2,4-dinitrophenol,and the inflammatory activity was studied in rats with foot edema induced by plain white,mice with ear edema induced by the xylene. Agar dilution method were used to measure of minimum inhibitory concentration of four kinds of bacteria.Results: Compared with the control group,Qingwenbaidu Mixture showed significant antipyretic activity in rats with high temperature induced by 2,4-dinitrophenol ( P<0. 05) ,and showed significant anti- inflammatory activity in rats with foot edema induced by plain white,mice with ear edema induced by the xylene ( P<0. 05) . Staphylococcus aureus,Escherichia coli,Bacil us subtilis and Candida albicans had sensitivity for Qingwenbaidu Mixture.Conclusion: Qingwenbaidu Mixture has notable effects of antipyretic and anti-inflammatory.The results showed that Qingwenbaidu Mixture have antibacterial effect on S. aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans in vitro.

  12. Validation method in microbial limit test for antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines%清热解毒类中成药微生物限度检查方法验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 吴虹

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究清热解毒类中成药的抑菌作用,建立其微生物限度检查方法 .方法 按照<中国药典)2010年版一部的微生物限度检查法进行验证实验.结果 8种清热解毒类中成药均对金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草芽孢杆菌有一定的抑菌作用,可以分别通过培养基稀释法和薄膜过滤法得以消除.结论 分别建立了8种清热解毒类中成药的微生物限度检查方法 ,为该类药品的微生物检查提供参考.%Objective To study the antimicrobial effect of antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines and to establish microbial limit test method for them. Methods According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 Edition,validation method in microbial limit test for the medicines was validated. Results Eight kinds of antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines all showed inhibition effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The effect could be eliminated by culture medium dilution method and filtration membrane method. Conclusion Microbial limit test methods were established for the Chinese patent medicines respectivesly. The results could give experimental evidence for the kind of Chinese patent medicines.

  13. Determinating of Acetaminophen in some Commonly Used Antipyretic Analgesics Drugs%常用解热镇痛药中对乙酰氨基酚含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晶; 薛壮

    2014-01-01

    本实验的目的是检测几种常用解热镇痛药中对乙酰氨基酚成分的含量。主要是利用高效液相色谱法及其相关手段,对5种解热镇痛药中对乙酰氨基酚成分的含量进行分析和测定。经实验证实,对乙酰氨基酚含量测定线性范围在6.25~200μg·mL-1,相关系数 r=0.9997。高效液相色谱法的分离效果灵敏度高、重复性好,可用于多种解热镇痛药中对乙酰氨基酚含量的测定。%Aim of this study was to analysis content of acetaminophen in some commonly used antipyretic analgesics drugs. Preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was used in comparative analysis of acetaminophen in 5 commonly used antipyretic analgesics drugs. Linear relationship between the absorbance and concentration of acetaminophen was obtained in the range of 6.25~200μg·mL-1, with correlative coefficients of linear as 0.9997 (r=0.9997), and linear regression equation as y=56476.96x-451.31. It showed that HPLC is an ideal method in acetaminophen content determination analysis.

  14. Study on Spectrum-effect Relationship of Antipyretic Effect of Radix Bupleuri Injection%柴胡注射液解热作用的谱-效关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏春萌; 唐嘉熙; 罗阳; 王朝霞; 李婷婷

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study the spectrum-effect relationship of the antipyretic effect of Radix Bupleuri injection. METH-ODS:HPLC method was used to establish the fingerprint of Radix Bupleuri injection. The antipyretic effect of 10 batches of Radix Bupleuri injection on fever rats induced by dried yeast were determined respectively. The fingerprint peaks were screened,along with the temperature value of different time points(0,10,15,30,40,55,70 min). The principal components were extracted by principal component method and the indirect relationship between the fingerprint and antipyretic effect was analyzed,depending on the principal component correlation coefficient matrix. RESULTS:There were 39 common peaks in fingerprint(similarity>0.85), No. 8,12,14,19,26,31,34,35 and 39 common peaks with large peak area were included in the study. Four principal compo-nents were extracted by principal component analysis(87% of total variant). First principal component showed that the active com-ponents of the 12th peak may be related to the antipyretic effect of 6 to 13 hours. The second principal component showed that the active components of the 26th peak may be related to the antipyretic effect of 0.5 to 5 hours. The third principal component showed that the similar effect of the active components could be caused by 34th,35th and 39th peaks. The fourth principal component sug-gested that there were some similarities between the 14th and the 31st peaks. CONCLUSIONS:Radix Bupleuri injection have obvi-ous improvement for fever rats. There is certain corresponding relation between HPLC fingerprint and antipyretic effect of Radix Bu-pleuri injection .%目的:研究柴胡注射液解热作用的谱-效关系.方法:采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)法建立柴胡注射液的指纹图谱,测定10批柴胡注射液对干酵母致热大鼠的解热作用,筛选指纹图谱主峰与不同时点(0、10、15、30、40、55、70 min)温度值.采用主成分法提取主成分,依托主成分相

  15. 通腑泄热法对脑膜炎发热大鼠退热及免疫调控作用研究%Antipyretic Effects and Immune Regulation Function of Tongfu Xiere Therapy in Fever Rats with Meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚娟; 张思超; 王晓君; 秦小云

    2015-01-01

    目的:基于脑-肠轴学说,探讨通腑泄热法对脑膜炎发热大鼠的退热效应及免疫调控作用。方法采用埃希氏大肠杆菌小脑延髓池注射建立大鼠细菌性脑膜炎发热模型。实验动物随机分为6组:正常组、模型组、大承气汤组、醒脑静注射液组、大承气汤合醒脑静注射液组、扑热息痛组。观察各组用药后的退热效果,同时检测血浆中 IFN-γ、IL-4的含量变化,及组织、血浆中P物质的含量。结果大承气汤和醒脑静注射液及大承气汤合醒脑静注射液组均能有效治疗脑膜炎发热,与模型组比较有显著的解热效果(P<0.05),能降低血浆中 IFN-γ(P<0.01)、IL-4(P<0.05)水平,下调 IFN-γ/IL-4的比值(P<0.05),并且能降低发热大鼠P物质含量(P<0.05)。结论通腑泄热法对脑膜炎发热有较好的解热效果,这可能与其通过脑肠轴元件生物介质调节机体免疫功能有密切关系。%OBJECTIVE Based on the brain-gut axis theory,to investigate the antipyretic effect and immune regulation function of Tongfu Xiere therapy in fever rats with meningitis.METHODS The rat fever model induced bacterial Meninggitis was established with inj ecting the Escherichia coli into cerebellomedullary cistern.The experimental animals were divided into six groups:the normal group,the model group,Dachengqi decoction group,Xingnaoj ing inj ection group,Dachengqi decoction+Xingnaojing injection group and paracetamol group.Antipyretic effect of each drug was observed by measuring body temper-ature after treatment.The levels of IFN-γ,IL-4 and SP in plasma were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RE-SULTS Compared to the model group,Dachengqi decoction group,Xingnaojing injection group and Dachengqi decoction+Xingnaojing injection group significantly reduced the temperature of the fever rats(P<0.05),the levels of IFN-γ(P<0.01), IL-4(P<0.05)and SP(P<0.05),and the

  16. Comparação da eficácia de doses iguais de acetaminofeno retal e oral em crianças Comparison of antipyretic effectiveness of equal doses of rectal and oral acetaminophen in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigha Akhavan Karbasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar uma dose de acetaminofeno oral e retal e avaliar a aceitabilidade do acetaminofeno retal, uma vez que o acetaminofeno oral e retal é amplamente usado como agente antipirético em crianças com febre e a eficiência comparativa dessas duas preparações não está bem estabelecida. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo de grupos paralelos, foram incluídas 60 crianças admitidas na emergência ou clínica ambulatorial pediátrica em um hospital terciário, com idade entre 6 meses e 6 anos e com temperatura retal acima de 39 °C. Os pacientes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de mesmo tamanho. O grupo 1 recebeu 15 mg/kg de acetaminofeno retal, e o grupo 2 recebeu a mesma dose oralmente. A temperatura foi registrada no tempo zero e 1 e 3 horas após administração da droga. RESULTADOS: No primeiro grupo, a redução média de temperatura, 1 e 3 horas após administração do acetaminofeno, foi de 1,07±0,16 (p 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: As preparações oral e retal de acetaminofeno têm eficácia antipirética equivalente em crianças. A via retal mostrou ser tão aceitável quanto a oral entre os pais.OBJECTIVE: To compare a dose of oral and rectal acetaminophen and to evaluate acceptability of rectal acetaminophen, since oral and rectal acetaminophen is widely used as an antipyretic agent in febrile children and the comparative effectiveness of these two preparations is not well established. METHODS: In this prospective parallel group designed study, 60 children who presented to the emergency department or outpatient pediatric clinic at a tertiary hospital and aged from 6 months to 6 years with rectal temperature over 39 °C were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to two equal-sized groups. Group 1 received 15 mg/kg acetaminophen rectally and group 2 received the same dose orally. Temperature was recorded at baseline and 1 and 3 hours after drug administration. RESULTS: In the first group, mean decrease in

  17. 多种教学方法在解热镇痛抗炎药教学中的应用%The Application of Multiple Teaching Methods in the Teach-ing of Antipyretic Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨薪正

    2014-01-01

    药理学是一门桥梁学科,是多学科的融合。药品种类繁多、作用机制复杂、理论性强、不易理解、难记忆。本文通过比较法、图片演示法、歌诀法、教学简笔画法等教学方法在解热镇痛抗炎药教学中的应用,阐述灵活掌握教学方法对引导学生主动学习,提高药理学教学质量的重要性。%Pharmacology is a subject just like a bridge, as it is multidisciplinary integration. It includes variety of drugs, complex mechanism of drug action, and a higher theoretical level, so it is difficult in understanding and remembering. Through adopting comparison method, image presentation method, method of for-mulas and stick figure method in the teaching of antipyretic anal-gesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, it proves a view that master-ing the teaching methods flexibly plays a significant role in in-structing students' active study and improving the quality of pharmacology teaching.

  18. 金银花抗内毒素、解热、抗炎作用分析%Analysis of Honeysuckle anti Endotoxin, Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁静烨

    2016-01-01

    Honeysuckle is one of the oldest and important medicinal plants in Chinese traditional medicine. In clinical practice, it is widely used in the treatment puffiness under disease, fever, febrile disease, cancer and other diseases of toxie heat. Currently, about 1/3 of Chinese herbal preparations contain honeysuckle. This paper will review the honeysuckle anti endotoxin, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory action.%金银花是我国中药中的一味古老、重要的药物植物。在临床上,被广泛用于胀满下疾、温病发热、肿瘤、热毒等疾病的治疗中。目前来说,约有三分之一的中药制剂中含有金银花。本文将综述金银花抗内毒素、解热、抗炎作用。

  19. 滨蒿总黄酮抗炎、镇咳、解热作用的实验研究%Effects of total flavonoids from Artemisia Scoparia on anti-inflammatory, relieving cough and antipyretic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史银基; 司丽君; 刘燕; 杨巧丽; 姚华; 史玉柱; 王雪; 顾政一; 黄华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of total flavonoids fromArtemisia Scoparia on anti-inflamma-tory,relieving cough and antipyretic.Methods Through the tests of ear conch induced by xylene and gla-cial acetic acid-induced mouse peritoneal capillary inflammatory exudate model,we observed the anti-in-flammatory effects of total flavonoids from Artemisia Scoparia .Relieving cough caused by the irritation of ammonia water in mice and cough model induced by citric acid in guinea pigs were used to observe the antitussive action.The models of dry yeast-induced fevered rats was used to study the antipyretic effects. Results Total flavonoids from Artemisia Scoparia could inhibit the degree of ear conch induced by xylene,dose of 0.2 g/kg,0.4 g/kg could inhibit the mice auricle inflammatory swelling inhibition rate was 29.37%;Inhibit the degree of glacial acetic acid-induced mouse peritoneal capillary inflammatory exudate model also,dose of 0.4 g/kg inflammatory swelling inhibition rate was 29.9%;The mice cough response inhibition rate was 22.2% and 35.6%,with dose of 0.2 g/kg and 0.4 g/kg of total flavonoids from Artemisia Scoparia ;Dose of 0.1 g/kg,0.2 g/kg,0.4 g/kg of total flavonoids from Artemisia Scoparia to guinea pig cough caused by citric acid inhibition rates were 32.1%,41.3% and 49.0% respectively;Total flavonoids from Artemisia Scoparia have obvious antipyretic effect,dose of 0.2 g/kg,0.4g/kg of total fla-vonoids from Artemisia Scoparia had best cooling effect that rats fever model induced after 5.5h to 7h (I.e.,2.5 to 4 hours after administration).Conclusion The total flavonoids from Artemisia Scoparia had better effect on anti-inflammatory,relieving cough and antipyretic.%目的:研究滨蒿总黄酮的抗炎、镇咳、解热作用。方法通过二甲苯致小鼠耳廓肿胀模型和冰醋酸致小鼠腹腔毛细血管炎性渗出模型,观察滨蒿总黄酮的抗炎作用;采用氨水引咳法和枸橼酸引咳法,观察其镇咳作用;通过干酵

  20. 右酮洛芬对实验动物的解热镇痛和抗炎作用%Antipyretic, analgesic and antiinflammatory actions of dexketoprofen in experimental animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张运芳; 李俊; 金涌; 徐叔云

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the antipyretic, analgesic and antiinflammatory actions of dexketoprofen. METHODS: Hot-plate and tail-flick models in mice, fever model in rats and rabbits induced by carrageenin or typhoid vaccine respectively, ear swelling induced by dimethylbenzene in mice; foot pad swellings induced by carrageenin and granuloma induced by cotton in rats were adopted. RESULTS: Dexketoprofen (7.5,15,30 mg*kg-1) could significantly prolong latency of analgesic in hot-plate and tail-flick models in mice and reduce carrageenin-induced fever in rats, and inhibit dimethylbenzene-induced ear swelling in mice. Dexketoprofen (1.9,3.8,7.5 mg*kg-1) could significantly inhibit typhoid vaccine-induced fever in rabbits; Dexketoprofen (3.8,7.5,15 mgkg-1) could also significantly inhibit the swelling of foot pad induced by carrageenin, and the granuloma induced by cotton in rats. CONCLUSION: Dexketoprofen has antipyretic, analgetic and antiinflammatory effect.%目的:研究右酮洛芬的解热镇痛和抗炎作用。方法:采用小鼠热板法和热辐射甩尾法;角叉菜胶诱导的大鼠和伤寒疫苗诱导的兔体温升高;二甲苯诱导的小鼠耳水肿,大鼠角叉菜胶诱导的足肿胀和大鼠棉球肉芽肿胀实验模型。结果:右酮洛芬(7.5,15,30 mg*kg-1)能明显延长小鼠热板和热辐射甩尾的痛阈时间;右酮洛芬(7.5,15,30 mg*kg-1)对角叉菜胶诱导的大鼠体温升高,右酮洛芬(1.9,3.8,7.5 mg*kg-1)对伤寒疫苗诱导的兔体温升高均有明显的降温作用;右酮洛芬(7.5,15,30 mgkg-1)对二甲苯诱导的小鼠耳水肿有显著的抑制作用;右酮洛芬(3.8,7.5,15 mgkg-1)对大鼠角叉菜胶引起的足肿胀及棉球诱导的大鼠肉芽肿均有显著的抑制作用。结论:实验结果表明,右酮洛芬具有良好的解热镇痛和抗炎作用。

  1. Screening the Effective Parts from Baihu Chengqi Tang on Antipyretic Effect%白虎承气汤解热作用有效部位群的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超云; 黄显章; 郝鹏飞; 毛秉豫

    2013-01-01

    目的:初步筛选白虎承气汤解热作用的有效部位群.方法:筛选健康大鼠104只,随机分为13组,即A,B1,B2,C1,C2,D1,D2,E1,E2,F1,F2,G1,G2组,每组8只,其中A组为正常对照组.B1,C1,D1,E1,F1,G1组分别ip脂多糖(LPS)(20 μg· kg-1),诱发动物发热,造模后2h,ig给予,C1,D1,E1,F1,G1组大鼠分别用白虎承气汤挥发油部位、石油醚部位、乙酸乙酯部位、正丁醇部位、水部位按20 mL·kg ig(折合生药为18.6 g·kg-1),B1组ig等容积的生理盐水,并于ip LPS后2,3,4,6,8h时测量体温.B2,C2,D2,E2,F2,G2组分别sc 20%干酵母混悬液(10 mL·kg-1),诱发动物发热,造模后3h,ig给予C2,D2,E2,F2,G2组大鼠分别用挥发油部位、石油醚部位、乙酸乙酯部位、正丁醇部位、水部位按20 mL·kg-1灌胃(折合生药为18.4 g·kg-1),B2组ig等容积的生理盐水,并于注射酵母菌混悬液后3,4,5,7,9h时测量体温.并通过上述方法对5个不同提取部位进行药效学筛选.结果:白虎承气汤正丁醇部位和水部位对发热大鼠具有显著解热效果(P<0.05),并能持续5h,而挥发油部位、石油醚部位、乙酸乙酯部位对此作用不显著.结论:初步排除挥发油部位、石油醚部位和乙酸乙酯部位,并初步确定白虎承气汤解热作用的有效部位群为正丁醇部位和水部位.%Objective:To screen the effective parts from Baihu Chengqi Tang for antipyretic effect.Method:The rats were allotted into 13 groups as following:A (normol group),B1,B2,C1,C2,D1,D2,E1,E2,F1,F2,G1,G2,the first rat febrile models was induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS,20 μg · kg-1) intraperitonealy and treating with five parts from Baihu Chengqi Tang (18.6 g ·kg-1) after two hours.The second rat febrile models were induced by injecting 20% fresh yeast subcutaneously 10 mL·kg-1 and treating with five parts from Baihu Chengqi Tang after two hours.Then the rectal temperature was monitored to show the differences of effect from those groups

  2. HP LC-P DA法测定兽药中非法添加四种解热镇痛抗炎类药物%Determination of Four Kinds of Illegal Additives Antipyretic-analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Veterinary Drugs by HPLC-PDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧素; 杜红鸽; 吴宁鹏; 臧和英; 付盼盼

    2014-01-01

    A method was established for the determination of four kinds of illegal additives antipyretic-analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs in veterinary drug by the high performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array detector. It was tested with C18 column, using gradient elution with sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer-methanol(80 ∶ 20,V/V) as the mobile phase. The extract wavelength was 240 nm from the full scan, peak purity test and spectral similarity were helped to identify the four kinds of target analytes. Results showed that four kinds of target analytes were finely separated, and all the compounds showed good linearity in the concentration range of detection. The mean recovery of four antipyretics were 73.5%~119.2%,RSD were 0.1%~5.8%. In conclusion, the method was accurate and reproducible, and provided a reliable way for detecting antipyretic- analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs adulterated in veterinary drug.%建立了7种兽药中非法添加对乙酰氨基酚、安乃近、地塞米松和地塞米松磷酸钠药物的HPLC-PDA法。采用十八烷基键合硅胶为填充剂,磷酸二氢钠缓冲液(磷酸二氢钠3.0 g加水至1000 mL,加三乙胺1 mL,用氢氧化钠调pH值至7.0±0.2)-甲醇(80∶20)为流动相,梯度洗脱,二极管阵列检测器进行全扫描和240 nm波长测定,并采用峰纯度检查和光谱相似度检查辅助对照品比对方法,对四种目标分析物进行确证。结果显示,4种解热镇痛抗炎药物与其他物质峰分离良好,在测定范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率为73.5%~119.2%,RSD为0.1%~5.8%。本方法准确、可靠、重现性好,可用于兽药制剂中非法添加四种解热镇痛抗炎药物的定性和定量检测。

  3. Curative Effect Analysis of Antipyretic Clear Solution Soup Combined with Western Medicine in the Treatment of Fever Caused by Exogenous Pathogens in Children%退热清解汤联合西药治疗小儿外感发热疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 刘栩; 杨恺

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the curative effect of antipyretic clear solution soup combined with western medicine in the treatment of fever caused by exogenous pathogens in children. Methods 126 cases of patients with fever patients treated in the pediatric internal medicine of our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were selected and randomly divided in-to treatment group (n=64)and control group(n=62),the causes of the control group were divided into bacterial infection and non-bacterial infection such as viruses according to the hemogram result, and they were respectively given cefaclor anti in-fection treatment and leigh bhave lin virus treatment; the treatment group were given antipyretic clear solution soup treat-ment on the basis of the treatment of the control group, the treatment effects of the two groups were observed. Results The total effective rate of the treatment group was 92.19%, and 75.81%of the control group, the difference was statistically sig-nificant (P<0.05). Conclusion The curative effect of antipyretic clear solution soup combined with western medicine was better than that of only western medicine in the treatment of fever caused by exogenous pathogens in children, which is worthy of promotion and application.%目的 探讨退热清解汤联合西药治疗小儿外感发热的疗效. 方法 整群选取该院2013年1月—2014年12月期间小儿内科发热患者126例,将其随机分成治疗组(n=64)和对照组(n=62),对照组根据血象结果分为细菌感染和非细菌性(如病毒)感染所致,分别给予头孢克洛抗感染治疗和利巴韦林抗病毒治疗;治疗组在对照组处理的基础上加用退热清解汤治疗,观察两组患儿的治疗效果. 结果 治疗组患儿总有效率为92.19%,对照组患儿总有效率为75.81%,其差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 退热清解汤联合西药治疗小儿外感发热的疗效较单纯西药治疗小儿外感发热的效果好,值得临床推广应用.

  4. Research on Anti-influenza A H1N1 Virus in Vitro and Antipyretic Experiments of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule%大青龙汤颗粒剂体外抗甲型H1N1流感病毒实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田连起; 黄鹤归; 叶晓川; 廖鹏程; 黄婕; 周爱军; 刘焱文

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the effect of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule in anti-influenza A H1N1 virus in Vitro and its antipyretic influences to fever rats caused by lipopolysaccharide. Methods: MDCK infected by anti-influenza A H1N1 virus, and combined cytopathic effect ( CPE ) with MTT colorimetric assay, and the drug effect of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule inhibiting the biosynthesis of A H1N1 influenza virus,the absorption to influenza virus,the blocking of the accession to cells and killing influenza virus were inspected. Lipopolysaccharide duplicated fever models of rats were used,and rectal temperatures of rats of different groups in different times were measured,curves were drawn,and antipyretic effects were analyzed. Results:The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule killing influenza AH1N1 was 12.40 mg·mL-1 ,the therapeutic index (TI) was 1.8. The IC50 of Ribavirin Injection in the same administration route was 0. 45 mg·mL-1 and TI was 1.0. The temperature of the model group had already rised at 1 h after establishing models, reached peak at 5 h, and sustained for 8 h. Compared to the model group, the Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule of high-dose group and low-dose group had significant differences at 4 - 8 hour. Compared to aspirin group, the Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule of high-dose group and low-dose group, the range of cooling the temperature was smaller at 1 - 3 hours,and was equal at 4 - 5 hour, but was larger than that of aspirin group at 6 - 8 hour. The difference between Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule of high-dose group and low-dose group was not significant. Conclusion: Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule shows certain effect of anti-influenza A H1N1 virus in cell level,and the function form is direct inactivation in a dose dependent manner;but the effect of Major Decoction of Green Dragon Granule in inhibiting the biosynthesis of influenza virus

  5. Effect of Antipyretic Oral Application on Antipyretic Function and Anti-inflammation%退热灵口服液的解热抗炎作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锡芳; 张文; 邱君

    2001-01-01

    目的:研究退热灵口服液的解热抗炎作用。方法:给小鼠左耳涂二甲苯,大鼠足后足趾注射角叉菜胶,分别计算其抑制率、肿胀率。结果:退热灵口服液大剂量组效果显著,与蒸馏水对照组比较有明显差异优于阿斯匹林组。结论:退热灵口服液对小鼠耳廓、大鼠足趾肿胀、致热家兔有明显的抗炎、解热作用。

  6. 77 FR 39710 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Organ-Specific Warnings: Internal Analgesic, Antipyretic, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ..., 2006 (71 FR 77314), FDA published a proposed rule on organ-specific warnings and related labeling for OTC IAAA drug products. In the Federal Register of April 29, 2009 (74 FR 19385), FDA published the final rule (2009 final rule). In the Federal Register of November 25, 2009 (74 FR 61512), FDA...

  7. Febrile seizures Familial risk factors, outcome and preventive use of antipyretic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Esch (Adrianus)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractFebrile seizures (FS) occur in early childhood during a febrile illness. A typical or simple FS is characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness with either stiffening and myoclonic jerking or total loss of muscle tone. During a short initial tonic phase of the seizure, the child may s

  8. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties of Clitoria ternatea root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, B Parimala; Boominathan, R; Mandal, Subhash C

    2003-06-01

    Clitoria ternatea roots methanol extract when given by oral route to rats was found to inhibit both the rat paw oedema caused by carrageenin and vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in rats. Moreover, the extract exhibited a significant inhibition in yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. In the acetic acid-induced writhing response, the extract markedly reduced the number of writhings at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.) in mice. PMID:12781804

  9. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... have a history of stomach problems, such as heartburn you have high blood pressure, heart disease... child has lost a lot of fluid due to vomiting or diarrhea child has high blood pressure, heart disease... heartburn user has high blood pressure, heart disease, liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease user takes...

  10. Experimental studies on antipyretic, analgesic and antibacterial effects of GK 001, a poly-prescription of traditional chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Su-yun; ZhANG Ting-ting; DING Hong-yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the anti-inflammatory effect of a poly-prescription of traditional Chinese medicine GK001. Methods 1. Inhibitory effect on pain in mice: The pain was induced by i. p. 0.2 ml of 0.6 % HAc per mouse 1 h post dosing GK001. The writhing numbers of mice were recorded in 10 minutes and the inhibitory rate of pain was calculated compared with the control group. 2. Antipyretie effect In single dose experiment 15 healthy rabbits weighing 1.7-2.8 kg with body temperature(BT) measured in the experiment day meeting to the requirements were selected for the experiment and divided into 5 groups(3 in each group), which were dosed orally with GK001 and 1 h later followed by i. p. injection of 40 EU bacterial endotoxin standard·kg-1. Then, the BT of rabbits was measured every 30 min during 1-3 h after administration. The difference between the highest BT post-dose and the average BT pre-dose was calculated. In multi-dose experiment rabbits were selected and grouped as well as received i. p. endotoxin in the same way as above, but were administered with GK001 for consecutive 5 day. 3. Bacteriostatie effect. The antibacterial activities of GK001 on Bacillus Pumilus, Bacillus Subtilis and Micrococcus Luteus were measured in vitro at concentrations of 0.125-1.0 g·mL-1. Results 1. The GK001 showed a significant and dose-dependent painsuppressant effect, with inhibitory rate being 45.2 %, 31.2 % and 20.8 % at high, medium and low dose, respectively (P< 0.05). 2. Both single and multiple administration of GK001 had no effect on rabbit pyrogen response caused by endotoxin. 3. GK001 had bacteriostatic effects on the aforementioned 3 bacteria significantly and in dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions GK001 has analgesic and in vitro antibacterial but no antipyretie effects.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Seewaboon Sireeratawong; Arunporn Itharat; Nusiri Lerdvuthisopon; Pritsana Piyabhan; Parirat Khonsung; Supot Boonraeng; Kanjana Jaijoy

    2012-01-01

    Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. are herbaceous plants in the Piperaceae family. The ethanol extract of P. interruptum and P. chaba inhibited ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Both extracts reduced transudative and granuloma weights as well as body weight gain and thymus weight of the chronic inflammatory model using cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. Moreover, both extracts exhibited analgesic activity on bot...

  12. 清热止咳糖浆中盐酸麻黄碱含量测定%The Determination of Hydrochloric Ephedrine in Antipyretic Cough Syrup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金凤珠

    2000-01-01

    利用麻黄碱的挥发性,用水蒸气蒸馏法使其与制剂中其它组分分离后再利用溴麝香草酚蓝比色法测定清热止咳糖浆中盐酸的麻黄碱含量,方法准确,结果令人满意.

  13. Research the Antipyretic Effect for the Extract of Senecio Cannabifolius Less%返魂草提取物解热的药效学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商明秀; 陈秀兰; 尚士光; 周丽荣

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究返魂草提取物(FH)解热的作用.方法:通过内毒素致家兔体温升高和啤酒酵母致大鼠发热实验研究FH的解热作用;结果:返魂草提取物各剂量组对内毒素致家兔体温升高、对啤酒酵母致大鼠发热均有显著的抑制作用,作用强度与剂量呈一定的相关性.结论:返魂草提取物具有显著地解热作用,具有较好的应用价值.

  14. 黄蜀葵花总黄酮抗炎解热作用%Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of TFA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽; 董六一; 江勤; 岑德意; 陈志武; 马传庚

    2003-01-01

    目的研究黄蜀葵花总黄酮( TFA)的抗炎、解热作用.方法采用二甲苯致小鼠耳片肿胀的急性炎症模型和皮下埋植棉球致肉芽组织形成的慢性非特异性炎症模型观察TFA的抗炎作用;采用sc松节油或iv大肠杆菌液两种诱发家兔发热的模型观察TFA的解热作用.结果 TFA(200、100、50 mg/kg)均能有效减轻小鼠右耳肿胀程度,TFA 50 mg/kg可明显抑制大鼠新生肉芽组织形成;由sc松节油或iv大肠杆菌液诱发的家兔体温升高,TFA可产生不同程度地降低作用.结论 TFA具有良好的抗炎、解热作用.

  15. Assessment of the safety and feasibility of administering anti-pyretic therapy in critically ill adults: study protocol of a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Niven Daniel J; Léger Caroline; Kubes Paul; Stelfox H Tom; Laupland Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Fever is one of the most commonly observed abnormal signs in patients with critical illness. However, there is a paucity of evidence to guide the management of febrile patients without acute brain injury and little is known about the biologic response to treatment of fever. As such, observational studies suggest that the treatment of fever is inconsistent. This pilot clinical trial will assess the safety and feasibility of treating febrile critically ill adult patients wit...

  16. 21 CFR 343.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE General Provisions § 343.1 Scope. (a) An over-the-counter analgesic-antipyretic drug product in a form suitable for...

  17. A thin-layer chromatography study on the ingredient Herba corydalis bungeanae in coryza antipyretic granules%感冒清热颗粒中苦地丁薄层色谱实验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜素兰; 杜素芳

    2004-01-01

    目的研究感冒清热颗粒中苦地丁薄层色谱(TLC)实验方法,筛选可靠的TLC鉴别方法.方法采用TLC鉴别方法.结果确定本品TLC鉴别提取方法、展开剂和薄层板类型.结论该方法灵敏、准确、可靠,获得的TLC图谱清晰、持久,可用于本品质量控制.

  18. 复方丹参颗粒解热、利尿作用的实验研究%Empirical study on antipyretic and diuretic effects of Fufang Danshen granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何汝帮; 杨安平

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察复方丹参颗粒的解热、利尿作用.方法 通过制造二硝基苯酚致家兔发热及大鼠利尿实验模型,观察复方丹参颗粒的解热、利尿作用.结果 复方丹参颗粒可明显抑制发热家兔体温上升及增加排泄尿量,与模型对照组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05和P<0.01);结论复方丹参颗粒具有明显解热、利尿作用.

  19. 水牛角主要药效学评价及解热活性物质基础研究%Pharmacodynamics research of water buffalo horn and the basic study of water baffulo horn antipyretic active compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘睿; 段金廒; 李友宾; 戴俊; 彭蕴茹

    2007-01-01

    目的 对水牛角的解热、镇静、促凝血等生物活性进行了评价研究,并针对其解热活性的物质基础开展了初步研究.方法 采用皮下酵母致热法、光电管法、毛细管法评价了水牛角粉、热提液和冷浸液的解热、镇静、促凝血作用;采用凝胶柱层析法将水牛角热提液按分子量分为大、中、小3个部位,并以皮下酵母致热法评价了各部位的解热作用.结果 水牛角粉、水牛角热提液和冷浸液均可降低酵母致热大鼠体温、降低小鼠自发活动次数、缩短小鼠凝血时间,其中热提液的作用强于冷浸液样品;水牛角热提液的大分子量和小分子量部位均能降低酵母致热大鼠体温,中分子量部位作用不明显.结论 水牛角粉、水牛角热提液均具有明显的解热、镇静、促凝血作用,冷浸液解热作用较弱;水牛角解热作用的物质基础源于大分子和小分子部位的共同贡献.

  20. 清热解毒复方治疗膝关节骨性关节炎的研究%Study on treatment for knee osteoarthritis joint with antipyretic detoxicate compound recipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商善刚; 郭爱芹; 张慧

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨清热解毒复方治疗膝关节骨性关节炎的效果.方法 将60例符合膝关节骨性关节炎患者随机分为2组,观察组予清热解毒复方内服外用,对照组予酮洛芬外用,均治疗3周后评价疗效.j皓果治疗后2组患者膝关节临床症状明显减轻,关节功能显著改善,与治疗前比较具有显著性差异(P均<0.01).且观察组近期及远期疗效及HSS评分均明显优于对照组,有显著性差异(P均<0.01).结论 清熬解毒复方能明显改善膝关节骨性关节炎患者的临床症状和关节功能.

  1. Drug: D01762 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01762 Drug Sulpyrine hydrate (JP16); Dipyrone (USAN); Metamizole sodium salt monoh...ESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BB Pyrazolones N02BB02 Metamizole sodium D01762 Sulpyrine hydrate (JP16); Dipyrone

  2. Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: a double-blind, randomized phase II clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); E.J. van Breda (Eric); H.M.A. van Gemert (Maarten); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); R.J. Meijer (Ron); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Body temperature is a strong predictor of outcome in acute stroke. However, it is unknown whether antipyretic treatment leads to early and clinically worthwhile reduction of body temperature in patients with acute stroke, especially w

  3. Drug: D04011 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l (TN) Chondroitin sulfate sodium [DR:D04078], Sodium salicylate [DR:D00566] Anti-inflammatory Therapeutic c...ory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory

  4. Acetaminophen administration in pediatric age: an observational prospective cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Lubrano, Riccardo; Paoli, Sara; Bonci, Marco; Di Ruzza, Luigi; Cecchetti, Corrado; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Pavone, Piero; Matin, Nassim; Vitaliti, Giovanna; Gentile, Isotta

    2016-01-01

    Background Parents often do not consider fever as an important physiological response and mechanism of defense against infections that leads to inappropriate use of antipyretics and potentially dangerous side effects. This study is designed to evaluate the appropriateness of antipyretics dosages generally administered to children with fever, and to identify factors that may influence dosage accuracy. Results In this cross-sectional study we analyzed the clinical records of 1397 children aged ...

  5. 桂枝汤解热作用的机制研究回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超峰; 陈升

    2015-01-01

    This article reviewed the research on the mechanism of the antipyretic effect of Guizhi decoction. Guizhi decoction mainly af-fected the production of the endogenous pyrogen and centric febrile mediators so as to play its antipyretic effect, and we discussed the an-tipyretic action of Guizhi decoction with theories of TCM.%对桂枝汤解热作用的机制研究进行了回顾,桂枝汤主要影响发热环节中的内生致热原以及发热中枢介质的产生从而发挥其解热作用,并就此进行了相关探讨。

  6. 葛芩粉药效学实验研究%Study on Pharmacodynamics of GQF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓓蕾; 张贵君; 崔向微; 文春先

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the pharmacodynamics of GQF.Methods: Study on antipyretic,analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immune function of GQF.Result: GQF has antipyretic, analgesic, antiinflammatory, immune effects.Conclusion: GQF is significantly effective.%目的:研究葛芩粉(GQF)的药效学.方法:对葛芩粉解热、镇痛、杭炎、免疫作用进行了研究.结果:葛芩粉具有明显的解热、镇痛、抗炎、免疫等药理作用.结论:葛芩粉具有确切的疗效.

  7. EFEK-ANTI PIRETIK BEBERAPA TANAMAN OBAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wahjoedi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brotowali (Tinospora tuberculata Beaumae, Meniran (Phyllanthus niruri L.. Bengle (Zingiber cas-sumunar Roxb. and Tapak limau (Elephantopus scaber L. are four plants that have been known to have antipyretic property. To confirm the antipyretic property, materials obtained from The Balai Pene­litian Tanaman Obat Tawangmangu, Surakarta (Central Java were tested on fever induced rats. The fever depressing effect of 750 mg symplicium/100 g body weight on ratsdid not differ significantly that of 30 mg sodium salicylate/100g body weight. No dosage-response relationship was seen in the four symplicia, and thterefore it is not advisable to recommend the use of those symplicia as antipyretis.

  8. Drug: D04226 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04226 Drug Flupirtine maleate (USAN) C15H17FN4O2. C4H4O4 420.1445 420.3916 D04226....US SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02B OTHER ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BG Other analgesics and antipyretics N02BG07 Flupirtine D04226 Flu...ate receptor [HSA:2902 2903 2904 2905 2906] [KO:K05208 K05209 K05210 K05211 K05212] Flupirtine [ATC:N02BG07] D04226 Flupirtine...pirtine maleate (USAN) Target-based classification of dr

  9. PENGARUH EKSTRAK TANAMAN OBAT ASLI TERHADAP SUHU NORMAL MENCIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wahjoedi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of screening of the medicinal plants efficacy, 19 plants have been tested to see their influence to the normal body temperature of mice. Among the 19 plants there are some medicinal plants which are used as antipyretic by the Indonesian people. Those are Ageratum conyzoides L, Brasica rugosa Prain, Euphatorium triplinerve Vahl, Messua ferrea L and Oroxylum indicum Vent. The administration is intra-peritoneally. Some extract at test dose (1/3 - 1/2 LD 50 decrease the normal body temperature more than 2°C. Most of them happened to be known as antipyretic in traditional medicines.

  10. Drug: D00970 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.gif Anti-inflammatory; Analgesic; Antipyretic [DS:H00445 H00630] ATC code: G02CC02 M01AE02 M02AA12 Indications: Rheumatoid arthriti...s, Osteoarthritis, Ankylosing spondylitis, Juvenile arthritis, etc. cyclooxygenase-

  11. Cost effectiveness of oseltamivir treatment of influenza : a critique of published methods and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J; Beardsworth, Paul; Wilschut, Jan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to determine, from a systematic assessment of published data, the cost effectiveness of the neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral medication oseltamivir in comparison with usual care (i.e. over-the-counter medication such as analgesics and antipyretics for sym

  12. Drug: D08190 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08190 Drug Dipyrone (BAN); Metamizole sodium; Vetalgin (TN) C13H16N3O4S. Na 333.07...fication [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02B OTHER ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS N02BB Pyrazolones N02BB02 Metamiz

  13. Drug: D01583 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nflammatory; Antipyretic Therapeutic category: 3999 ATC code: L04AX05 Enzyme: CYP1A...D01583 Drug Pirfenidone (JAN/USAN/INN); Esbriet (TN) C12H11NO 185.0841 185.2218 D01583.gif Analgesic; Anti-i

  14. Drug: D03960 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : magnesium carbonate = 1 : 2 map07049 Antithrombosis agents Therapeutic categor...ntral nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents 1143 Salicylates D03960 Aspir...in - dialuminate mixt 3 Agents affecting metabolism 33 Blood and body fluid agents

  15. Effect of Temperature and Light on Phytochemical Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Andrographis paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    B. Jaikumar; R. Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) is an annual herb. It is found in Sri Lanka, and throughout the plains of India especially Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Orissa. Various medicinal properties like cholevetic, antidiarrheal, immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory have been attributed to this plant in the traditional system of Indian medicine. Further reported activities are hepatoprotective, antimalarial, anticancer, antihypertensive, antipyretic, antithrombotic and antidote for sn...

  16. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di

    2013-12-01

    The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003. PMID:24791478

  17. 21 CFR 343.22 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use. 343.22 Section 343.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC,...

  18. Design and Synthesis of 3, 4-Dihydropyrrolo[2, 1-c][1,4]oxazin-1-one and its 7-Acyl Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong En GUO; Bin FU; Ying Xiang LIU

    2003-01-01

    Starting from 1H-pyrrole, unreported 3, 4-dihydropyrrolo[2, 1-c][1, 4]oxazin-1-one 4,7-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-3, 4-dihydropyrrolo[2, 1-c][1, 4]oxazin-l-one 5 and 7-benzoyl-3, 4-dihydro-pyrrolo [2, 1-c][1, 4]oxazin-1-one 9 were designed and synthesized. They may have antipyretic andanalgesic activities.

  19. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rheumatologic active ingredients. 343.13 Section 343.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  20. 21 CFR 343.20 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 343.20 Section 343.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.20...

  1. 21 CFR 343.10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 343.10 Section 343.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.10...

  2. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiovascular active ingredients. 343.12 Section 343.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  3. Cupping Therapy for 103 Cases of High Fever due to Infection of the Upper Respiratory Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖东

    2002-01-01

    @@ The cupping therapy has remarkable antipyretic effect in the treatment of fever. In recent years, the author has treated 103 cases of high fever caused by infection of the upper respiratory tract and obtained quite satisfactory therapeutic results. A report follows.

  4. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of intravenous paracetamol in the critically ill patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, A.D.; Hunfeld, N.G.; Touw, D.J.; Melief, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Paracetamol (PCM) is a drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Despite its frequent use, little is known about its efficacy and pharmacokinetics (PK) when intravenously administered in the critically ill patient. A previous study suggests that therapeutic concentrations are not

  5. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    is directly related to stroke severity and outcome, and fever after stroke is associated with substantial increases in morbidity and mortality. Normalisation of temperature in acute stroke by antipyretics is generally recommended, although there is no direct evidence to support this treatment. Despite its...

  6. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissolution and drug release testing. 343.90 Section 343.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  7. 绿原酸对内毒素致热的影响%Effect of Chlorogenic Acid on the Fever Induced by Endotoxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炳仁; 马文惠; 陈宝; 何丽钦

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether chlorogenic acid is the material basis to play the role of antipyretic effect in Shuanghuanglian and other drugs. Methods ; Rahit fever model was setup by the administration of endotoxin, then the effect of chlorogenic acid on the fever was studied. Results: Chlorogenic, acid had antipyretic effect and it's antipyretic effect showed obvious relationship between dose and time. However, it had a longer onset time. Conclusion: Chlorogenic acid is the material basis to play the role of antipyretic effect in Shuanghuanglian and other drugs.%目的:探索绿原酸是否是双黄连发挥解热作用的物质基础.方法:在给家兔静脉注入内毒素造成的发热模型上,评价绿原酸对发热家兔体温的影响.结果:绿原酸表现出退热作用,呈现明显的量效和时效关系,但起效时间较长结论:绿原酸是双黄连发挥解热作用的物质基础.

  8. 21 CFR 343.50-343.60 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 343.50-343.60 Section 343.50-343.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE...

  9. Introduction of Cover Picture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Cypripedium guttatum Sw is a plant of Cypripedium L. (Orchidaceae), which has biological effects such as sedation, analgesia, sweating, and antipyretic. Modern research shows that this Chinese herbal medicine can be used for the treatment of neurasthenia, epilepsy, febrile convulsion, headache, and stomachache. It is widely distributed in Northeast China, and Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, and Yunnan

  10. FLUPIRTINE: A HUMAN DRUG WITH POTENTIAL FOR USE IN THE VETERINARY FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Giorgi; Helen Owen

    2012-01-01

    Flupirtine is a nonopioid drug without antipyretic or antiphlogistic properties and with a favorable tolerability in humans. It constitutes a unique class within the group of nonsteroidal analgesics and displays a peculiar pharmacokinetic/dynamic profile that could have large potentialities of applications in the veterinary field. This review describes and evaluates the pharmacologic literature concerning flupirtine and addresses its potential in veterinary medicine.

  11. Pharmacological effects of methanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni Jacq (meliaceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sruti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of medicinal plants are common ingredients of many folk and herbal medicines, and seed extracts have been reported to possess pharmacological activity including anti-inflammatory activity. In the present investigation, the methanolic extract of the dried ground seeds of Swietenia mahagoni (SMSE has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acute, sub-chronic, and chronic models of inflammation in rodents. The antipyretic and analgesic activities were evaluated in mice models. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the extract up to a dose of 1.2 g/kg intraperitoneally was nontoxic. SMSE at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. was found to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities and the effect was comparable with that produced by the standard drug, ibuprofen. The results of the experiment on arachidonic acid-induced paw edema in rat revealed that the extract produces anti-inflammatory activity through dual inhibition of the cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. SMSE also enhanced peritoneal cell exudates along with macrophage significantly. The triterpenoids present in SMSE may be responsible for these activities. SMSE possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities.

  12. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kidon Mona; Kang Liew; Chin Chiang; Hoon Lim; Hugo,, Argentiniensis, (ca. 1210-ca. 1270)

    2007-01-01

    Although extensively studied in adults, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) hypersensitivity in children, especially in young children, remains poorly defined. Pediatricians, prescribing antipyretics for children, rarely encounter significant problems, but the few epidemiologic studies performed show conflicting results. Although it is clear that some patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-sensitive asthma have their clinical onset of disease in childhood and bronchoconstriction af...

  13. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome (DRESS) syndrome associated with azithromycin presenting like septic shock: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sriratanaviriyakul, Narin; Nguyen, Lam-Phuong; Henderson, Mark C.; Timothy E Albertson

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome is a potentially life-threatening cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction characterized by extensive mucocutaneous eruption, fever, hematologic abnormalities including eosinophilia and/or atypical lymphocytosis, and extensive organ involvement. The drugs most often responsible for causing drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome are anticonvulsants, antimicrobial agents and antipyretic or anti-inflam...

  14. Characterization of phytoconstituents and evaluation of total phenolic content, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial activities of Solanum violaceum Ortega. (Family:Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Sarwar Raju

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Since S. violaceum have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activities, more studies such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and other pharmacological activities should be carried out to justify its traditional use, as the plant is available and used broadly in the rural areas for folkloric remedies. 

  15. Ibuprofen versus steroids: risk and benefit, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovannini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years we have observed an upward trend in the employment of ibuprofen as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic therapy. Therefore the pediatrician has often a precious option in the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment in children instead of using steroids and paracetamol. In clinical practice ibuprofen can be used in the treatment of headache, toothache, otalgy, dysmenorrhea, neuralgia, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and fever: it is the first choice for these common diseases. However, the use of steroids is a routine, even if non-corticosteroid anti-inflammatory molecules could be useful. Certainly steroids are powerful anti-inflammatory, indicated for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders and in acute respiratory and allergic diseases. Beside, thanks to their chemical and pharmacological profile, they also provide patients with an antipyretic effect. However, the use of steroids must be reserved to cases in which other classical antipyretics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not effective. The possible side effects and risks associated with stepping down steroids must be considered. Although “steroids-phobia” should be discouraged, steroids are to be reserved only as the first indication. In all other cases the pediatrician can use ibuprofen, whose efficacy and safety are widely demonstrated by now.

  16. Drug: D07611 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [DR:D01962], Anhydrous caffeine [DR:D00528] Anti-inflammatory Therapeutic category: 1149 Therapeutic catego...entral nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents 1149 Others D07611 Simetride - anhydrous caffeine mixt PubChem: 96024450 ...

  17. Direct toxicity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for renal medullary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Gerson M.; Michea, Luis F.; Peters, Eugenia M.; Kirby, Martha; Xu, Yuhui; Ferguson, Douglas R.; Burg, Maurice B.

    2001-01-01

    Antipyretic analgesics, taken in large doses over a prolonged period, cause a specific form of kidney disease, characterized by papillary necrosis and interstitial scarring. Epidemiological evidence incriminated mixtures of drugs including aspirin (ASA), phenacetin, and caffeine. The mechanism of toxicity is unclear. We tested the effects of ASA, acetaminophen (APAF, the active metabolite of phenacetin), caffeine, and other related drugs individually and in combination...

  18. Prenatal and Infant Exposure to Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen and the Risk for Wheeze and Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Joanne E.; Scirica, Christina V.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Camargo, Carlos A.; Weiss, Scott T.; Gold, Diane R.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported an association between use of over-the-counter antipyretics during pregnancy or infancy and increased asthma risk. An important potential limitation of these observational studies is confounding by indication. Objectives We investigated the association of antipyretic intake, 1) during pregnancy and 2) during the first year of life (infancy), with asthma-related outcomes, before and after controlling for early life respiratory infections. Methods We included 1490 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a longitudinal pre-birth cohort study. We categorized prenatal acetaminophen exposure as the maximum intake (never, 1–9 or ≥ 10 times) in early or mid-pregnancy, and ibuprofen intake as presence or absence in early pregnancy. We expressed intakes of antipyretics in infancy as never, 1–5, 6–10, or >10 times. We examined the associations of acetaminophen and ibuprofen (per unit increase in exposure category) during pregnancy and infancy with wheeze, asthma and allergen sensitization in early (3–5 y) (n= 1419) and mid-childhood (7–10 y) (n= 1220). Results Unadjusted models showed an elevated asthma risk in early childhood for higher infant acetaminophen (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04, 1.41) and ibuprofen (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.19, 1.52) intake. Controlling for respiratory infections attenuated estimates for acetaminophen (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.88, 1.22) and ibuprofen (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05, 1.36). Prenatal acetaminophen was associated with increased asthma (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02, 1.58) in early but not mid-childhood. Conclusions Adjustment for respiratory infections in early life substantially diminished associations between infant antipyretics and early childhood asthma. Respiratory infections should be accounted for in studies of antipyretics and asthma, to mitigate bias due to confounding by indication. PMID:25441647

  19. Effect of Shanggan Granules on Fever Caused by Upper Respiratory Tract Viral Infection%上感颗粒对病毒性上呼吸道感染患者体温的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚肇庆; 郑艳; 卜擎燕; 邹建东; 芮庆林; 张丽; 刘夕宁; 曾亮; 耿连艺; 熊宁宁; 余衍亮; 刘清泉; 张晓云; 罗翌; 张念志; 孙伯青; 孙菊光; 杜梁枫

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价透表清气法(上感颗粒)对病毒性上呼吸道感染性发热的作用.方法 采用多中心研究方法,观察上感颗粒对433例不同证型的病毒性上呼吸道感染性发热的即刻退热作用、起效时间和退热时间.结果 上感颗粒的起效时间为2.35 h,4 h内体温下降≥0.5 ℃的患者例数占50%左右,平均退热时间为13.55 h,72 h内体温恢复正常者占93%.结论 上感颗粒治疗上呼吸道病毒感染性发热的各证型均有较好的临床疗效.%Objective To evaluate the effect of Shanggan Granules, a representative prescription of the therapy of relieving the exterior syndrome and reducing heat, on the fever caused by upper respiratory tract viral infection.Methods We adopted the cohort and multi-center study.The instant antipyretic effect, the effect-acting antipyretic time, and the final antipyretic time were analyzed in 433 cases with different clinical syndromes.Results In average, the effect-acting antipyretic time was 2.35 hours, the rate of temperature drop more than 0.5 ℃ within 4 h was about 50 %, the final antipyretic time was 13.55 hours, and the rate of temperature dropping to the normal within 72 h was 93 %.Conclusion Shanggan Granules has certain effect on the fever caused by upper respiratory tract viral infection in patients with various syndromes.

  20. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ichnocarpus frutescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narendra Kumar Singh; V.P. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Ichnocarpusfrutescens R.Br.(Apocynaceae),is a woody climbing shrub,found almost in all parts of India.In India,tribes used this plant as a substitute of Indian Sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus) for the treatment of atrophy,convulsions,cough,delirium,dysentery,measles,splenomegaly,tuberculosis,tumor,diabetes as a lactogogue,antipyretic,demulcent,diaphoretic and in skin diseases.Phytochemical investigations indicate that 28 compounds reported from the plant belong to various chemical category viz.phytosterol,triterpenes,flavonoids and various other phenolic compounds.Pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant reported include antiurolithiatic,hepatoprotective,antioxidant,analgesic,antipyretic,anti-inflammatory,antidiabetic,antihyperlipidemic and antitumor activity.In the present review the literature data on the phytochemical and biological investigations on the I.frutescens are summarized up to March 2011.

  1. Bioactive phenolic derivatives from Acaena splendens methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, N; Delporte, C; Negrete, R; Feliciano, S A San; López-Pérez, J L

    2002-09-01

    Acaena splendens H. et A. has been used in Chilean folk medicine for the treatment of fever and inflammation. A description of the in vivo reduction of bacterial pyrogen-induced fever in rabbits and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in guinea pigs is presented. The methanol extract named ME-1, obtained after succesive extractions with petroleum ether and dichloromethane, showed a strong antipyretic action (45.7% of effect), though the antiinflammatory activity was only observed after submitting this extract to column fractionation, giving a crude mixture of flavonoids named C4 with both activities (55.7% and 98.9% of antiinflammatory and antipyretic effect respectively at a dose of 600 mg/kg). The bioassay-guided fractionation by column chromatography afforded the active fraction, which contained (-,-)-epicatechin, tiliroside, 7-O-acetyl-3-O-beta-D-glucosyl-kaempferol and 7-beta-D-glucosyloxy-5-hydroxy-chromone.

  2. The Curative and Prophylactic Effects of Xylopic Acid on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Boampong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been intensified to search for more effective antimalarial agents because of the observed failure of some artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT treatments of malaria in Ghana. Xylopic acid, a pure compound isolated from the fruits of the Xylopia aethiopica, was investigated to establish its attributable prophylactic, curative antimalarial, and antipyretic properties. The antimalarial properties were determined by employing xylopic acid (10–100 mg/kg in ICR mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Xylopic acid exerted significant (P<0.05 effects on P. berghei infection similar to artemether/lumefantrine, the standard drug. Furthermore, it significantly (P<0.05 reduced the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced fever in Sprague-Dawley rats similar to prednisolone. Xylopic acid therefore possesses prophylactic and curative antimalarial as well as antipyretic properties which makes it an ideal antimalarial agent.

  3. Long-term toxicological effects of paracetamol in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Majeed,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The analgesic and antipyretic properties of paracetamol were first described in 1893, then it has been widely available as a non-prescription drug, with a therapeutic profile that reflects widespread safety and efficacy as well as paracetamol became the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. It is the most frequently used over-the counter medicine in young children and is nearly universally used in infants. The drug is used by millions of children every day. The study was designed to study the toxicological effect of therapeutic dose of paracetamol after oral administration for three months in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicous on the heart, kidney and liver. Results showed oral administration of the paracetamol for three months in laboratory rats showed that this drug has a severe damaging effect on most of the vital organs in the body like kidney, liver and heart.

  4. 补中益气汤对脾虚发热家兔体温、脑脊液PGE2和丘脑下部-视前区组织cAMP含量的影响%Effects of Buzhongyiqitang on Temperature、PGE2 in Cerebrospinal Fluid and cAMP in Hypothalamus-preoptic Tissue Reserpine-induced Splenasthenic Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恩户; 赵勤; 侯建平; 赵燕平

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to research the antipyretic mechanisms of Buzhongyiqitang in reserpine-induced splenasthenic rabbit. Method: The model of splenasthenic syndrome in rabbit was made by i. m. reserpine. Then, Buzhongyiqitang groups were given Buzhongyiqitang 5g/kg, 10g/kg to stomach. On the 4th day,observing the changes of temperature, PGE2 in cerebrospinal fluid and cAMP in hypothalamus-preoptic tissue between model group, control group and Buzhongyiqitang groups after i.v. TAB triple-vaccine. Results: Buzhongyiqitang can remarkably reduce elevated temperature ( P < 0.01, P< 0.01), PGE2 and cAMP. Conclusion: Buzhongyiqitang had antipyretic effect for reserpine-induced splenasthenic syndrome with elevated temperature in rabbit. The mechanism is probably" related to reducing PGE2 and cAMP in concerned central nervous.

  5. 退热药对小儿急性呼吸道感染病程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新吉

    2013-01-01

    分析退热药对小儿急性呼吸道感染病程的影响。对104例急性呼吸道感染患儿的临床资料进行分析。使用退热药的观察组病程均比对照组长。对于退热药的应用因严格掌握适应症。%Analysis of antipyretic effect on infantile acute respiratory infection disease progression. The clinical data of 104 cases of acute respiratory infection in children with analysis. Use antipyretic course of the observation group were better than the contrast group. The application of the antifebrile due to strictly grasp the indications.

  6. Acute Tubulointerstitial Nephritis: Presentation of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife USLU GÖKCEOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and paracetamol (acetaminophen which are analgesic-antipyretic drugs are thought to be safe and are most commonly used in children to control pain and fever. We retrospectively analysed the clinical and laboratory characteristics of four patients who were admitted between 2009-2011 and diagnosed as acute renal failure with a history of analgesic-antipyretic drugs usage. Two of them used flurbiprofen and the other two paracetamol. None of them had any chronic disease. The time between medication and admission to hospital was 3-20 days. Renal biopsy was performed in all patients showing tubulointerstitial inflammation. One patient was given corticosteroid therapy and the other three were treated with hydration only. Renal function tests became normal in 4-9 days. Two of three patients who had proteinuria at admission had normal urinalysis at discharge.

  7. A comparative study of two dosage levels of ibuprofen syrup in children with pyrexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotob, A

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the antipyretic effect of two dosage levels of ibuprofen syrup in children with fever due to a variety of causes, forty-four out of the fifty children admitted completed the 24-hour trial period, twenty-three receiving 20 mg ibuprofen/kg body-weight, twenty-one receiving 30 mg/kg ibuprofen. Both dosage levels gave highly significant (p less than 0.001) reductions in rectal temperatures, with a statistically significant reduction, at the 5% level, in favour of the higher dose at 12 and 20 hours. No side-effects were reported at either dosage level, and the taste was acceptable to all the children. It is concluded that ibuprofen was a useful and effective antipyretic drug in the population studied, and that the higher dosage is preferable to the lower, being more effective, equally palatable, and giving rise to no side-effects in this study. PMID:3888726

  8. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Kummer; Fernanda Carolina Fachini-Queiroz; Camila Fernanda Estevão-Silva; Renata Grespan; Expedito Leite Silva; Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado; Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Rutaceae) includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka...

  9. Safety evaluation of Bon-santé cleanser® polyherbal in male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, O. E.; Awodele, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background The potential harm of medicinal herbs has been recently observed following herbal toxicity studies after ingestion of polyherbal remedies. This was the rationale for the food and drug regulatory agency decision for thorough safety evaluation of herbal medicines. Androgenic, antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory potentials as well as chemical compositions of extracts of massularia acuminata, terminalia ivorensis, anogeissus leiocarpus and macuna pruriens respectively have bee...

  10. Chemical and Pharmacological Researches on Hyoscyamus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; SHI Ji; YU Xin-wen; SUN Jing-kuan; MEN Qi-ming; KANG Ting-guo

    2011-01-01

    The reports on chemical constituents of Hyoscyamus niger were summarized. The compounds include alkaloids, saponins, lignans, coumarinolignans, flavonoids, and some other nonalkaloidal compounds. TLC, HPLC, and GC were used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of some chemical constituents in H. niger. Modern pharmacological experiments showed that H. niger had the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory, bronchodilatory, urinary bladder relaxant, hypotensive, cardiosuppressant, vasodilator, antitumor, and feeding deterrent properties. In addition, the toxicities of this medicinal plant were also described.

  11. Drimys brasiliensis essential oil as a source of drimenol

    OpenAIRE

    Luciele Milani Zem; Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas; Henrique Soares Koehler; Maria Izabel Radomski; Cicero Deschamps

    2016-01-01

    Drimys brasiliensis Miers is a native plant species to the Atlantic Forest, commonly known as cataia, and used as a stimulant, anti-diahrreal, antipyretic, among other properties. Dried and fresh leaves of cataia were collected in autumn/2012, submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger graduated apparatus over a period of 4 hours after reaching the boiling point, then essential oil was collected. In oil from green leaves, 49 compounds were identified, being 65.0% sesquiterpenes, 12.0% mono...

  12. Fever and feverish illness in children under five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Penny; Harrison, Maureen

    This article discusses the causes and management of fever in children. In line with guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, it explores the importance of identifying children at risk of serious illness and those that can be managed safely at home. The article also identifies the skills and knowledge required by paediatric and general nurses working with children, alongside the need to offer parents guidance on antipyretics and how to care for their child at home.

  13. Dystonia as acute adverse reaction to cough suppressant in a 3-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, A; Incorpora, G; Ruggieri, M

    2001-01-01

    Cough suppressant preparations containing mixtures of dextromethorphan or codeine with antihistamines, decongestants (sympathomimetic), expectorants and antipyretics with either sedative or anticholinergic activity have been associated with dystonic reactions in children. We report on a 3-year-old girl who presented with episodic stiffness and abnormal posturing with rigidity after arbitrary maternal administration of a mixture of methylcodeine and extract from Hedera plant. PMID:11587381

  14. [Clinical analysis of 410 cases of drug eruption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Bao-han

    2003-02-01

    An clinical analysis was conducted among a cohort of 410 patients drug eruption with treated in our department from January 1995 to December 2001. We found that the common drugs likely to lead to anaphylactic reactions included cephalosporins, ampicillin types, antipyretic analgesic types, rabies vaccine, sulfonamides, tetracyclines types, etc. The drug eruption mostly presents diverse clinical features resembling the rashes as seen in cases of scarlet fever, measles, urtica, or mucosal edema or ulceration.

  15. Preformulation Characterisation, Designing and Formulation of Aceclofenac Loaded Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    B. Jayanthi; Madhusudhan, S.; Mohanta, G. P.; Manna, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to systematically investigate some of the important physicochemical properties of Aceclofenac loaded micro particles.Aceclofenac is a potent analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the management of moderate-to-severe pain and in rheumatoid disorder, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylities. Almost all drugs are marketed as tablets, capsules or both. Prior to the development of these major dosage forms, it is essential that pert...

  16. Drug: D04022 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04022 Mixture, Drug Sodium salicylate - dibucaine hydrocholoride - calcium bromide... mixt; Neo vitacain (TN) Sodium salicylate [DR:D00566], Dibcaine hydrochloride [DR:D02220], Calcium bromide ...[DR:D01723] Anti-inflammatory Therapeutic category: 1149 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301]... nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents 1149 Others D04022 Sodium salicylate - dibucaine hydrocholoride - calcium bromide mixt PubChem: 17398006 ...

  17. Pharmacological basis for the use of Hypericum oblongifolium as a medicinal plant in the management of pain, inflammation and pyrexia

    OpenAIRE

    Raziq, Naila; Saeed, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Haroon; Gul, Farah

    2016-01-01

    Background The present therapeutic agents for the treatment of pain, inflammation and pyrexia are not very effective and accompanied by various side effects. Therefore, new effective agents are the most wanted. The present study investigates the anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of crude methanol extract of Hypericum oblongifolium. Methods In vivo acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests were used for antinociceptive effects at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg i.p. ...

  18. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Kadam; K.N. Yadav; F.A. Patel; F.A. Karjikar; M J Patil

    2013-01-01

    Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy,...

  19. The Curative and Prophylactic Effects of Xylopic Acid on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Boampong; Ameyaw, E. O.; B. Aboagye; Asare, K.; Kyei, S; Donfack, J. H.; Woode, E.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts have been intensified to search for more effective antimalarial agents because of the observed failure of some artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) treatments of malaria in Ghana. Xylopic acid, a pure compound isolated from the fruits of the Xylopia aethiopica, was investigated to establish its attributable prophylactic, curative antimalarial, and antipyretic properties. The antimalarial properties were determined by employing xylopic acid (10–100 mg/kg) in ICR mice infected wi...

  20. Synthesis, spectral characterization, and pharmacological screening of some 4-[{1-(arylmethylidene}-amino]-3-(4-pyridyl-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees A Siddiqui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Pain is an unpleasant and subjective sensation that results from a harmful sensorial stimulation, which alerts the body about current or potential damage to its tissues and organs. Fever is a complex physiological response triggered by infections or aseptic stimuli. Elevation in body temperature occurs when the concentration of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 increases within parts of the brain. Triazole derivatives have been found to possess various pharmacological and biological activities, such as, anti-inflammatory, analgesics, antipyretic, and antifungal. Materials and Methods : Various 4-[{1-(arylmethylidene}-amino]-3-(4-pyridyl-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives were synthesized by a sequence of reactions starting from isonicotinic acid hydrazide. The synthesized compounds were screened for in-vivo analgesic by the tail-flick method and anti-pyretic activities at a dose of 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight respectively. The antipyretic activity was evaluated using Brewer′s yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Fever was induced by subcutaneously injecting 20 ml/kg of 20% aqueous suspension of Brewer′s yeast in normal saline. Results and Discussion : The analgesic screening results revealed that the compounds 3b, 3c, and 3d exhibited excellent analgesic activity at 60 and 90 minutes compared to the standard drug (Analgin. Results revealed that the compounds 3a, 3e, and 3f significantly decreased the temperature of pyretic (P<0.001 rats at one, three and six hours after compound administration as compared to Aspirin (standard drug. Conclusion : Compounds 3b, 3c, and 3d exhibited significant analgesic activity comparable with the standard drug analgin, using the tail flick model. Compounds 3a, 3e, and 3f showed significant anti-pyretic activities comparable with the standard drug aspirin using the yeast-induced pyrexia model.

  1. In Vivo rodent micronucleus assay of Gmelina Arborea Roxb (Gambhari) extract

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Sahu; Goli Divakar; Kalyani Divakar

    2010-01-01

    Gmelina arborea Roxb (family Verbenaceae) commonly known as ‘Gambhari’ tree, the various parts of the plants are widely used in diarrhoea, anti-pyretic, thirst, anemia, leprosy, ulcers, consumption, strangury, vaginal discharges. We tested the genotoxic potential of G. arborea in bone marrow cells obtained from Swiss albino mice using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Aqueous extract of G. arborea (AEGA) was tested at the dose of 286 & 667 mg/kg body weight (b. w.). Cyclop...

  2. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2001-01-01

    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  3. The Effect of Polymer Content on the Non-Newtonian Behavior of Acetaminophen Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandar Moghimipour; Maryam Kouchak; Anayatollah Salimi; Saeed Bahrampour; Somayeh Handali

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. The aim of the study was evaluation of the effect of different polymers on rheological behavior of acetaminophen suspension. In order to achieve controlled flocculation, sodium chloride was added. Then structural vehicles such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), tragacanth, and magnesium aluminum silicate (Veegum) were evaluated individually and in combination. Physical stability parameters such as sedimen...

  4. FLUPIRTINE: A HUMAN DRUG WITH POTENTIAL FOR USE IN THE VETERINARY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Giorgi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flupirtine is a nonopioid drug without antipyretic or antiphlogistic properties and with a favorable tolerability in humans. It constitutes a unique class within the group of nonsteroidal analgesics and displays a peculiar pharmacokinetic/dynamic profile that could have large potentialities of applications in the veterinary field. This review describes and evaluates the pharmacologic literature concerning flupirtine and addresses its potential in veterinary medicine.

  5. IgE-Mediated Reaction to Metamizole: Evaluation of a Patient with Severe Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Sevket; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer

    2016-06-01

    Metamizole, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with weak anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic effects, is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. Many adverse reactions to metamizole, such as early or late-onset systemic reactions and bone marrow suppression, have been identified. In this report, we present a case of systemic reaction after the application of parenteral metamizole (Novalgin(®) ampoule; Sanofi Aventis, İstanbul, Turkey) and discuss the mechanism underlying the reaction. PMID:27551180

  6. Intelligent drug delivery systems obtained by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z.; Takacs, Erzsebet; Safranj, Agneza; Yoshida, Masaru; Katakai, Ryoichi; Carenza, Mario

    1998-06-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester, an {alpha}-aminoacid-containing monomer, in the presence of a crosslinking agent and a hydrophilic monomer gave rise to polymer hydrogels whose water content at equilibrium was found to decrease as the swelling temperature increased. Some hydrogel samples were obtained with entrapped acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug. It was ascertained that the release of the drug was controlled by both the hydrophilicity of the polymer matrices and the environmental temperature.

  7. Intelligent drug delivery systems obtained by radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z.; Takacs, Erzsebet; Safranj, Agneza; Yoshida, Masaru; Katakai, Ryoichi; Carenza, Mario

    1998-06-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester, an α-aminoacid-containing monomer, in the presence of a crosslinking agent and a hydrophilic monomer gave rise to polymer hydrogels whose water content at equilibrium was found to decrease as the swelling temperature increased. Some hydrogel samples were obtained with entrapped acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug. It was ascertained that the release of the drug was controlled by both the hydrophilicity of the polymer matrices and the environmental temperature.

  8. Radiation synthesis of hydrogels for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yoshida, Masaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment. Dept. of Material Development; Katakai, Ryoichi [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry; Carenza, Mario [Istituto di Fotochimica Radiazioni d`Alta Energia, Legnaro, Padova (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    Thermally reversible hydrogels were synthesized by radiation-induced copolymerization of acryloyl-Lpropine methyl ester with hydrophilic or hydrophobic monomers. The preparation of this copolymers has the purpose to obtain materials for biomedicalk application as drug delivery systems. Acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug, was entrapped into some thermoresponsive hydrogels. It was found that the release profiles of drug can be controlled by copolymer porosity, hydrophilicity and changing the environmental temperature. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essence oil of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L)

    OpenAIRE

    Z Izadi; M Esna-Ashari; G Ahmadvand; P. Davoodi; KH Piri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a perennial herbaceous essence oil bearing plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family. This plant is a valuable and important herb which has many therapeutic properties. Recent investigations have shown its excellent anti-irritable bowel syndrome effects. Other properties of this plant are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, promote menstrual flow, antipyretic, antiseptic and anti-rheumatoid effects. This investigation was conducted to s...

  10. Effect of flupirtine on the growth and viability of U373 malignant glioma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Panchanathan, Elango; Ramanathan, Gnanasambandan; Lakkakula, Bhaskar Venkata Kameswara Subrahmanya

    2013-01-01

    Objective Flupirtine is a non-opioid analgesic without antipyretic or antiphlogistic properties but with favorable tolerability in humans. This analgesic also exhibits neuroprotective activities. Furthermore, flupirtine antagonizes glutamate- and NMDA-induced intracellular levels of Ca2+ and counteracts the effects of focal cerebral ischemia. Although flupirtine has been used to relieve pain caused by different diseases and clinical procedures, information on the safety and efficacy of flupir...

  11. Distribution and chemotaxonomic significance of phenolic compounds in Spermacoce verticillata (L.) G. Mey

    OpenAIRE

    Iasmim C. Lima; Rosane Nora; Mário G. de Carvalho; Douglas S.A. Chaves

    2014-01-01

    Context: Spermacoce verticillata, known as “poaia and vassourinha de botão”, is a species widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic. It is a native species, small, upright perennial, and broadly distributed throughout Brazil. Until now, few chemical studies have focused on the phenolic composition of this species. Aims: Evaluate the phytochemical profile of phenolic compounds from Spermacoce verticillata and search new compounds that have...

  12. Essential oil constituents and their biological activities from the leaves of Cassia fistula growing in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Prabodh Satyal; Dosoky, Noura S.; Ambika Poudel; William N. Setzer

    2013-01-01

    Cassia fistula L. (Fabaceae) fruit is used traditionally in Nepal as an antipyretic and to treat constipation, while the leaves are used to treat jaundice, piles, rheumatism, ulcers, insect bites, facial paralysis and skin eruptions. C. fistula leaves are important ingredients in Ayurvedic medicine. This study was undertaken to characterize the volatile constituents of C. fistula leaves and to evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. The essential oil from the leaves of Cassia f...

  13. Drug: D01879 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01879 Drug Eptazocine hydrobromide (JAN); Sedapain (TN) C15H21NO. HBr 311.0885 312...l nervous system 114 Antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents 1149 Others D01879 Eptazocine hydrobromide...ed receptors Rhodopsin family Opioid mu-opioid receptor [HSA:4988] [KO:K04215] Eptazocine D01879 Eptazocine hydrobromide... (JAN) kappa-opioid receptor [HSA:4986] [KO:K04214] Eptazocine D01879 Eptazocine hydrobromide (J

  14. Role of Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Acute Acetaminophen Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Adult Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab M. Gebaly* and Gamal M. Aboul Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic is known to cause hepatic injury in humans and experimental animals when administered in high doses. It was reported that toxic effects of acetaminophen are due to oxidative reactions that take place during its metabolism. L-carnitine is a cofactor in the transfer of long-chain fatty acid allowing to the beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the mitochondria. It is a known antioxidant with protective effects against lipid peroxidati...

  15. Toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by acetaminophen: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Gupta; Niti Mittal; Nishikant Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a very commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drug across various age groups. Although mild to moderate cutaneous reactions have been reported quite frequently, serious reactions like Stevens –Johnson syndrome and Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are very rare. We report the case of a 10 year old child who had TEN after ingestion of tablet acetaminophen. This case report highlights the need to be critically aware of this rare and serious adverse effect of this commonly ...

  16. Pharmacokinetic properties of intramuscular versus oral syrup paracetamol in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Wattanakul, Thanaporn; Teerapong, Pramote; Plewes, Katherine; Newton, Paul N.; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Silamut, Kamolrat; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; White, Nicholas J.; Arjen M. Dondorp; Tarning, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is an inherent symptom of malaria in both adults and children. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the recommended antipyretic as it is inexpensive, widely available and has a good safety profile, but patients may not be able to take the oral drug reliably. A comparison between the pharmacokinetics of oral syrup and intramuscular paracetamol given to patients with acute falciparum malaria and high body temperature was performed. Methods A randomized, open-label, two-treatment, cro...

  17. Paracetamol use (and/or misuse) in children in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obu Herbert A; Chinawa Josephat M; Ubesie Agozie C; Eke Christopher B; Ndu Ikenna K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen) is the commonest available analgesic and anti-pyretic. It is readily accessed from pharmacy, patent medicine and provision shops as over the counter drug making it a potential drug of abuse, especially in children. We sought to find its use and/or misuse in children seen at the paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. Objective To determine the dosage, formulation, and ...

  18. Clinical experience and results of treatment with suprofen in pediatrics. 1st communication: Suprofen dosage for children/An open and a double-blind study with suprofen syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippl, G; Michos, N; Bolla, K; Stocker, H

    1985-01-01

    The antipyretic effect of single doses of alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-phenyl acetic acid (suprofen, Suprol) syrup, administered at dose levels of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg b.w., was tested in a randomized double-blind and a subsequent open study. The test populations consisted of 100 children in the double-blind study and 40 patients in the open test (20 subjects/group). The patients' age ranged from 2 to 12 years; the lowest initial rectal temperature was 39.0 degrees C. The treatment groups were homogeneous as to demographic data. The temperature was reduced in all treatment groups. In the double-blind study the mean value dropped under the subfebrile threshold of 38.0 degrees C only in the group on 5 mg/kg and remained then constant for up to 6 h following administration. No sufficient antipyretic effect was obtained with lower doses. The results of the additional open study with doses of 7.5 and 10 mg/kg indicated good antipyretic effect. This effect was not, however, superior to that obtained with 5 mg/kg. Pulse and respiratory rates returned to normal within 1.5 h following administration, except in patients on 1 mg/kg. A total of 10 patients, homogeneously distributed in the treatment groups, experienced vomiting as an adverse reaction. Short-term hypotonia was seen in one subject on 7.5 mg/kg. The results obtained show that single doses of suprofen upward of 5 mg/kg b.w. exert satisfactory, long-lasting, antipyretic effect on children. PMID:3911961

  19. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Mokhber-Dezfuli; Soodabeh Saeidnia; Ahmad Reza Gohari; Mahdieh Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-a...

  20. Formulation, in vitro release and transdermal diffusion of diclofenac salts by implementation of the delivery gap principle / Hanri Smith

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Hanri

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in the treatment of inflammation and pain (Escribano et al., 2003:203). Diclofenac, a classical NSAID, is considerably more effective as an analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug than other traditional NSAIDs, like indomethacin and naproxen (Grosser et al., 2011:986). However, the use of diclofenac is known for its many side effects, such as gastric disorders, while fluid and sodium retention are also comm...

  1. Study of Formulation of Mild Pharmaceutical Forms of Paracetamol in Medical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahu, Bedri; Morina, Naim; Islami, Hilmi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Paracetamol is one of the most used antipyretic- analgesic preparation, which can be found in different pharmaceutical forms and in different doses. Due to its wide utilization in the clinical practice, determination of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulation is of a great importance since that over dosage with paracetamol may cause the hepatic fulminant necroses and other toxic effects. Material and methods: Study has included two formulations of paracetamol suppositories wit...

  2. Assessment of the effect of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. extract on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells Avaliação do efeito do extrato de Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. na marcação de elementos sanguíneos com tecnécio-99m e na morfologia de células vermelhas do sangue

    OpenAIRE

    Kakali De; Susmita Chandra; Mridula Misra

    2009-01-01

    Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (BM), a traditional Ayurvedic medicine, used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. BM extract have been extensively investigated by several authors for their neuropharmacological effects. In nuclear medicine, red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have several clinical applications. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labeling of RBC wit...

  3. ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHARANTIN FROM MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LINN. FRUIT

    OpenAIRE

    Subhashchandra Patel; Tushar Patel; Kaushal Parmar; Yagnesh Bhatt; Yogesh Patel; N. M. Patel

    2010-01-01

    Momordica Charantia (Cucurbitaceae) is commonly known as bitter guard in English and karela in Hindi. The fruit has claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordicosides, carbohydrate, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucoside, etc. Earlier claim shows that the plant used as stomachic, carminative, tonic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The present investigation was carried out to isolate, purify and characterize Charantin from fruit of Momord...

  4. Variation in Morphological Characteristics and Andrographolide Content in Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees of Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, A. K.; Mandal, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (king of bitters), commonly known as Kalmegh is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines for a number of ailments related to digestion, hepatoprotection, hypoglycemic, and as anti-bacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, vermicidal and antipyretic. A. paniculata collected from five locations of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh were studies for their morphological characteristics and diterpene contents to find out superior genotype. The average amount of dry ...

  5. Confusion

    OpenAIRE

    Krenzelok, Edward P.; Royal, Mike A.

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) plays a vital role in American health care, with in excess of 25 billion doses being used annually as a nonprescription medication. Over 200 million acetaminophen-containing prescriptions, usually in combination with an opioid, are dispensed annually. While acetaminophen is recognized as a safe and effective analgesic and antipyretic, it is also associated with significant morbidity and mortality (hepatotoxicity) if doses in excess of the therapeutic amount are ing...

  6. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Anthriscus sylvestris as an Alternative Source for Anticancer Lignans

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian Tudorel Olaru; George Mihai Niţulescu; Alina Orțan; Cristina Elena Dinu-Pîrvu

    2015-01-01

    Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. is a wild herbaceous plant common in most temperate regions. It has been used traditionally to treat headaches, as a tonic, as antitussive, antipyretic, analgesic and diuretic. The plant contains deoxypodophyllotoxin, which is proven to have antitumor and anti-proliferative effects, anti-platelet aggregation, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activity. Deoxypodophyllotoxin is considered to be the plant’s most important constituent, because of its ...

  7. Aspirin for the next generation

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Nick; Smith, Tom

    2013-01-01

    First used as an analgesic and antipyretic, investigations into aspirin’s anti-inflammatory effects led to its establishment in 1974 as a drug that altered the activity of platelets to influence the course and incidence of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease. It became the standard in treatment and prevention of vascular disorders. The 25th International Scientific Meeting on aspirin held at the Royal College of Physicians in London on 24th October 2012 took aspirin into fresh f...

  8. Evaluation of Analgesic & Anti-inflammatory activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf root on Experimental Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar; Rajeev Kumar; Sanjay Yadav; Satyawan Singh; Surendra Nath Pandeya

    2010-01-01

    Desmostachia bipinnata (L.) Stapf (Gramineae) occurs widely in Egypt. This plant used traditionally as analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, asthma, thirst, jaundice, vaginal discharges, vesicle calculi, diseases of bladder, skin eruptions, vomiting, and sedative to pregnant uterus. So, in the present study, Desmostachia bipinnata roots were explored for their anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced paw oedema) and analgesic potential (Hot plate method) on experimental model and compared ...

  9. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Garg Nitika; Meena Ajay; Nain Jaspreet

    2011-01-01

    The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glyco...

  10. Sleep Disruption and Proprioceptive Delirium due to Acetaminophen in a Pediatric Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Carnovale; Marco Pozzi; Andrea Angelo Nisic; Elisa Scrofani; Valentina Perrone; Stefania Antoniazzi; Emilio Clementi; Sonia Radice

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 7-year-old boy, who received acetaminophen for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, due to an infection of the superior airways. 13 mg/kg (260 mg) of acetaminophen was administered orally before bedtime, and together with the expected antipyretic effect, the boy experienced sleep disruption and proprioceptive delirium. The symptoms disappeared within one hour. In the following six months, acetaminophen was administered again twice, and the reaction reappeared with similar f...

  11. STUDY OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY WITH REDUCTION OF DPPH RADICAL AND XANTHINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR OF THE EXTRACT OF RUELLIA TUBEROSA LINN LEAF

    OpenAIRE

    Aktsar Roskiana Ahmad; Abdul Munim; Berna Elya

    2012-01-01

    Ruellia tuberosa L belongs to Acanthaceae family. In traditional medicine has been used as diuretic, antidiabetic, antipyretic and antihypertensive, and it also recently been incorporated as a component in a herbal tea in Taiwan. This research aims to determine the antioxidant activity of R. tuberosa leaf extract. Extraction of R. tuberosa leaf by stratified maceration method using dichloromethana and methanol. Methanol extract was partitioned by using ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Antioxidant...

  12. Amelioration of Aspirin Induced Oxidative Impairment and Apoptotic Cell Death by a Novel Antioxidant Protein Molecule Isolated from the Herb Phyllanthus niruri

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Ghosh, Shatadal; Sil, Parames C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has been used for a long time as an analgesic and anti-pyretic drug. Limitations of its use, however, remain for the gastro-intestinal side effects and erosions. Although the role of aspirin on gastro-intestinal injury has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying aspirin-induced liver and spleen pathophysiology are poorly defined. The present study has been conducted to investigate whether phyllanthus niruri protein (PNP) possesses any protective role against aspi...

  13. Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Stolzberg

    2012-01-01

    Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs or aging which affects ~14% of the gener...

  14. ACTH and. cap alpha. -melanotropin in central temperature control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipton, J.M.; Glyn, J.R.; Zimmer, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and ..cap alpha..-melanotropin (..cap alpha..-MSH) occur in brain tissue known to be important to temperature control. These peptides cause hypothermia if they are injected centrally in sufficient doses, but they do not act on the central set point of temperature control. Instead they appear to inhibit central pathways for heat conservation and production. In addition to their hypothermic capability, these peptides are antipyretic when given centrally in doses that have no effect on normal body temperature. ACTH has previously been associated with fever reduction in both clinical and experimental studies, and it may be that endogenous central ACTH is important for limitation of maximal fever. The hypothermic and antipyretic effects of ACTH do not depend on stimulation of the adrenal cortex because they are also observed in adrenalectomized rabbits. Nor is the antipyretic effect limited to the rabbit inasmuch as a comparable effect has been demonstrated in the squirrel monkey. The two peptides may be involved in central mediation of normal thermoregulation and fever, perhaps limiting the febrile response and other rises in body temperature by acting as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in central thermoregulatory pathways.

  15. Pharmacological effects of ethanol extract of Egyptian Artemisia herba-alba in rats and mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heba Mohammed Ibrahim Abdallah; Nawal E.L. Sayed Gomaa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate some pharmacological effects including gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and in vitro antioxidant effects of Artemisia herba-alba extract in different experimental models. Methods: Inflammation was induced in rat paw by subcutaneous injection of 1% (v/v) carrageenan solution. Writhes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6%(v/v) acetic acid solution. Pyrexia was induced using Brewer's yeast suspension. Gastric lesion was induced in rats by oral administration of 99% ethanol. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and gastroprotective activities of Artemisia herba-alba extract were investigated respectively. In vitro antioxidant effect was investigated using DPPH free radical. Results: The plant extract showed anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, analgesic effect against acetic acid-induced writhing, and antipyretic ac-tivity in Brewer's yeast model of pyrexia. Besides, it was shown to be a gastroprotective agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. The plant also exhibited a free radical scavenging potential in an in vitro antioxidant study using DPPH. Conclusions: The results validate the use of the investigated plant in traditional medicine for different ailments.

  16. Clinical observation on treating fever in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection by Tanreqing plus ribavirin%痰热清联合利巴韦林治疗急性上呼吸道感染发热患者的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁益辉; 李舟文; 申梅

    2012-01-01

      目的:观察痰热清联合利巴韦林治疗急性上呼吸道感染发热患者的临床疗效.方法:将120例患者随机分为利巴韦林组、痰热清组、联合组各40例,分别给予利巴韦林注射液,痰热清注射液,利巴韦林注射液+痰热清注射液治疗,观察三组患者的临床疗效、体温起效时间、解热时间及痊愈时间.结果:利巴韦林与痰热清均能较好的治疗急性上呼吸道感染,两组差异无显著性意义(P>0.05);利巴韦林组与联合组临床疗效比较,两组差异有显著性意义(P0.05);Compared the clinical efficacy of ribavirin group and the combined group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05);Compared the clinical efficacy of Tanreqing group and the combined group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05);The onset time of Tanreqing group was shorter than that of the ribavirin group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05);antipyretic time and healing time were shorter than that of the ribavirin group, There are significant differences (P<0.01). The onset time, antipyretic time and healing time of the ribavirin group were shorter than that of the ribavirin group and Tanreqing group, there are significant differences (P<0.01). Conclusion: Ribavirin and Tanreqing had a better therapeutic effect in treating acute upper respiratory tract infection, the antipyretic action of anreqing was better than that of ribavirin, body temperature onset time, antipyretic time, and recovery time were shorter than that of ribavirin, but no significant difference in both clinical efficacy. The effects of combination was better than that of single using ribavirin or Tanreqing, the onset time, antipyretic, healing time were shorter.

  17. Estado actual del manejo de la fiebre en niños. Current status of management of fever in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Alberto Rueda Zambrano, MD

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Es muy frecuente en el ambiente médico y entre los padres de familia el uso y abuso de antipiréticos buscando disminuir abruptamente la temperatura, mejorar los síntomas derivados de la fiebre y contrarrestar las reacciones adversas de la misma. Por otro lado, existen diferentes conceptos acerca de la elección del antipirético más eficaz y seguro en niños y su ruta de administración, así como su utilidad en la prevención de convulsiones febriles, entre otras. Este artículo pretende dar claridad a las controversias en el manejo de la fiebre mediante la revisión de la literatura, incluyendo solo ensayos clínicos, meta análisis, guías de manejo y revisiones de tema, publicadas en las dos últimas décadas. Para tal fin se revisaron las bases de datos Cochrane, PubMed y Medscape.Antipyretics are very often used between physicians and parents to treat fever and relief its symptoms and prevent vaccination side effects. Indeed, there is a misconception about the prevention of recurrence of febrile seizures with antipyretics and this leads to overdoses, side effects and, therefore, more parent´s anxiety. There are contradictory concepts about the election of safer and better antipyretic in children and its better administration via: oral and rectal paracetamol, ibuprofen, ketoprofeno, nimesulide, oral and intramuscular metamizol, paracetamol plus ibuprofen and ponging/lukewarm bath. All these alternatives have been studied by many researchers without consensus because more trials with bigger samples and longer time of study are needed. No clarity exists between doctors and parents about the antipyretic's effects over febrile seizure prevention and prophylaxis of post vaccine symptoms. This article pretends to find actual evidence about fever , its implications and use of antipyretics in children through searching on data bases like PubMed, Cochcrane, and Medscape.

  18. 蒙药金莲花药理作用研究%Pharmacology Action Study on Mongolia Drug Trollius Chinensis Bge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏昕; 常亮; 赵阳; 白音夫

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察金莲花总黄酮镇痛、解热、抗炎作用的效果.方法 实验动物采用热板法与醋酸扭体法、家兔与大鼠致热法、耳廓渗出与棉球肉芽法测定金莲花总黄酮的镇痛、解热、抗炎效果.结果 金莲花0.8,0.4,0.2 g/kg剂量组,在给药90 min,小鼠疼痛阈值提高47.6%,39.9%,14.2%,扭体抑制率为31.6%,28.5%,12.1%;对家兔解热作用可持续5h,对大鼠解热作用可持续4h,解热作用2h后最明显;对小鼠耳壳炎性渗出抑制率为22.6%,29.7%,14.4%,对大鼠棉球肉芽肿抑制率为43.9%,24.6%,5.3%.结论 金莲花总黄酮具有镇痛、解热、抗炎作用,作用强度呈量效关系.%Objective To observe the analgesic, antipyretic and anti - inflammatory effects of total flavone in Trollius Chinensis Bge. . Methods The experimental animals were performed the hot plate,acetic acid writhing,rabbit and rat induced fever,earlap exudation and cottonball granuloma methods for determining the analgesic, antipyretic and anti - inflammatory effects of total flavone in Trollius chinensis Bge. Results In the total flavone dose groups of 0. 8 g/kg,0. 4 g/kg and 0.2 g/kg,mice pain threshold were increased by 47.6% ,39.9% and 14.2% within 90 min after medication, the writhing inhibiting rates were 31.6% ,28.5% and 12. 1% ,the rabbit antipyretic effects could lasted for 5 h and the rat antipyretic effects could lasted for 4 h. The antipyretic effect was most obvious after 2 h. The inhibiting rates of mice earlap inflammatory exudation were 22.6% , 29.7% and 14.4%. The inhibiting rates of rat cottenball granyloma were 43.9% ,24.6% and 5.3% , respectively. Conclusion Total flavone in Trollius Chinensis Bge. has significant analgesic, antipyretic and anti - inflammatory effects and the effect intensity presents a dose - reaction relation

  19. Toyne combined cooling paste for clinical observation of children with high fever%托恩联合降温贴用于小儿高热降温的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗儒英; 王丽红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the curative effect of combined with cooling paste used for tone of children with high fever. Methods in our hospital in 2010 January ~2012 year in December 160 cases, divided into tone and cooling with the combined treatment group 80 cases and single antipyretic therapy tone control group of 80 cases. And Its Antipyretic efficacy and adverse reactions were observed. Results the total efficiency of antipyretic difference between the two groups no significant (P > 0.05), but in 40min to 2h, A group antifebrile speed and better than group B. Results the tone combined with cooling paste for better curative effect of children with high fever.%目的:研究托恩与降温贴联合用于小儿高热的疗效。方法选取我院2010年1月~2012年12月160例患儿,分成托恩与降温贴联合用药组80例及单用托恩的退热治疗对照组80例。并观察其退热疗效及不良反应。结果退热总有效率两组差异无显著性(P>0.05),但是在用药后40min至2h内,A组退热速度和效果明显优于B组。结果托恩与降温贴联合用于小儿高热的疗效较好。

  20. 口服布洛芬混悬液退热效果的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文庆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Ibuprofen Suspension antipyretic effect and adverse reaction.Method Randomly on 360 children with acute fever patients were divided into A (treatment group),group B (control group) two,A group 180 cases used Ibuprofen Suspension treatment,B group of 180 cases using Saridon treatment,analysis the antipyretic effect and adverse reaction of two groups.Results In A group,curative effect is better than that of B group,B group of adverse reaction rate higher than that of A group,statistically,there were significant differences.Conclusion Ibuprofen Suspension clinical antipyretic effect,rapid onset,blood drug concentration for a long time, during the course of medication safety.%目的:探讨布洛芬混悬液退热效果和不良反应。方法随机将急性上感伴体温升高患儿360例分为A(治疗组)、B(对照组)两组,A组180例使用布洛芬混悬液治疗,B组180例使用散利痛治疗,比较分析两组退热效果和不良反应。结果 A组疗效优于B组,B组不良反应发生率高于A组,经统计学处理,有显著性差异。结论布洛芬混悬液临床退热疗效好,起效快,血药浓度维持较长时间,用药期间安全性高。

  1. Heat-clearing And Detoxifying Effects of Eupatorium chinense L.%华泽兰清热解毒作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋毅萍; 徐江平; 黄芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究华泽兰清热解毒作用.方法 通过二甲苯致小鼠耳廓肿胀、糖皮质激素诱导小鼠免疫功能低下、干酵母致大鼠发热等实验,研究华泽兰的清热解毒作用.结果 华泽兰可抑制二甲苯所致小鼠耳廓肿胀,并随剂量的增加作用增强;华泽兰能提高糖皮质激素诱导的免疫功能低下小鼠的免疫功能,且华泽兰1 g·kg-1药效作用显著;华泽兰1.5 g·kg-1能对抗干酵母所致大鼠发热.结论 华泽兰具有清热解毒作用.%Objective To preliminary study the antipyretic and detoxifying effect of Eupatorium chinense L.Methods The antipyretic and detoxifying effects of Eupatorium chinense L.were demonstrated through experiments on auricle swelling induced by xylene in mice, immune insufficientcy induced by glucocorticoid in mice and fever induced by dry yeast in rats .Results Eupatorium chinense L.inhibited ear swelling and the effect enhanced with the dose; Eupatorium Chinese L.improved the immune function in immunosuppressed mice and reduced the fever in rats, especially for which at the dose of 1 g·kg-1 ; Eupatorium Chinese L.1.5 g·kg-1 relieved fever induced by dried yeast.Conclusion Eupatorium chinense L.presents antipyretic and detoxifying function.

  2. Artemisia vulgaris L. ethanolic leaf extract reverses thrombocytopenia/ thrombocytosis and averts end-stage disease of experimental severe Plasmodium berghei murine malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayan S. Bamunuarachchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua is the most potent antimalarial against chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We previously reported that the ethanolic leaf extract of Artemisia vulgaris, an invasive weed and the only Artemisia species in Sri Lanka, possess both potent and safe antimalarial activity (in terms of antiparasitic properties in a P. berghei murine malaria model. We report here a prototype study that investigated antidisease activities of A. vulgaris ethanolic leaf extract (AVELE in a P. berghei ANKA murine malaria model that elicit pathogenesis similar to falciparum malaria. Profound thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia in mice were detected in early-stage (Day 3, and at a later stage of infection (Day 6, respectively. Plasmodium berghei infected mice, 7 or 8 days post-infection reached end-stage disease with rapid drop in body temperature and usually die within 24 h, as a consequence of cerebral malaria. Methods: Three doses of the AVELE (500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg were used to assess antidisease activity of A. vulgaris in terms of survival, effects on thrombocyte related pathology and end-stage disease, antipyretic activity, and antinociception, using standard methodology. Results: The 1000 mg/kg dose of AVELE significantly increased survival, reversed the profound thrombocytopenia/ thrombocytosis (p ≤0.01, altered the end-stage disease (p ≤0.05, and manifested significant antipyretic and antinociceptive (p ≤0.05 activities. Interpretation & conclusion: We conclude that a crude ethanolic leaf extract of A. vulgaris, showed potent antimalarial properties, in terms of antidisease activities; antipyretic activity, peripheral and central antinociception, increased survival, averted end-stage disease and reversed hrombocytopenia/thrombocytosis.

  3. [Analysis of patients with acute exogenous poisoning at an intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, R; Meier, F; Penk, I; Striehn, E

    1987-02-01

    Over a period of 2 years patients with exogenic intoxications take 16% in the total number of patients of the department for internal intensive care. The cases in question were 43.3% males and 56.7% females. The average age of the patients with 31 years was low. The mortality was 2.4%. In the first place of the exogenic intoxications were intoxications with the groups of medicaments sedatives, hypnotics, tranquilizers, analgetics and antipyretics followed by intoxications with neuroleptics, beta-receptor blockers, antidepressives, antiepileptics and glycosides. The rate of complications was greatest in the mixed intoxications. PMID:3590879

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia causing diarrhea leading to mortality:an unusual disease course in a 10 month old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepa balachandran; WANG Suo-ying; SUN Bing-wei; LI Yu-qin; Krishna kumar.A

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ten months old female infant was admitted with three days history of fever and loose stools. The patient was initially treated with suspicion of viral infection. Interferon 10 μg was given IM and antipyretics were prescribed before the patient was brought to our hospital. Previous investigation showed neutropenia[WBC 7.88×109 /L, Neutrophils 0.39×109 /L, Lymphocytes 6.26×109 /L, PLT 264×109 /L, Hemoglobin level 108.10 g/L].

  5. Introducing a rare form of PFAPA from the Marshal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFever is considered a common symptom in children. Periodic fever with less luadeuce produces additional complications. In this study, we present a rare periodic fever syndrome which contains; aphthus stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA in a 3 year old child with typical symptoms. His fever was present for 2-4 days (100%, in addition, cervical adenitis & pharyngitis associated arthritis (only one tries was observed. The sedimentation rate was increased. Its treatment consisted of antipyretic and corticosteroids. This lead to a good prognosis and with the passage of time had a complete resolution.

  6. Ibuprofen: Synthesis, production and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in 1969, ibuprofen has become one of the most common painkillers in the world. Ibuprofen in an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and like other drugs of its class it possesses analgetic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. While ibuprofen is a relatively simple molecule, there is still sufficient structural complexity to ensure that a large number of different synthetic approaches are possible. Since the introduction of pharmaceutical products containing ibuprofen, industrial and academic scientists have developed many potential production processes. This paper describes the history, synthesis and production, as well as the properties and stability of ibuprofen.

  7. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Kadam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy, Cytomorphology, Physical constants and Photochemical study of fruit. All parameters were studied according to the WHO and Pharmacopoeial guidelines to standardize the Piper nigrum.

  8. Administration of over-the-counter medication to children at home--a survey of parents from community health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Colleen; Rolfe, Paula; Brennan-Hunter, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Parents (n = 135) were surveyed in relation to administering antipyretic/analgesic medications to their children (2 months-6 years) at home. Parents usually chose acetaminophen, calculated dosages based on weight but did not always know the child's weight, administered medications with a dropper, and reported having a sick child was moderately stressful. Many children were medicated for pain and/or fever during the week prior to immunization and many weighed more than the age/weight recommended dosages on the label. Community health nurses can facilitate safe administration of medications by integrating knowledge of parents' pain and fever management practices into discussions and anticipatory planning during clinic visits.

  9. The effect of magnetic field on the shape of etch pits of paracetamol crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchenko, V.E. [Kemerovo State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Research and Educational Center, Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Boldyrev, V.V.; Shakhtshneider, T.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zakharov, Yu.A.; Krasheninin, V.I. [Kemerovo State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ermakov, A.E. [Institute of Physics of Metals, Ural Branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2002-04-01

    In the present study we investigate the effect of magnetic field on the shape of etch pits of the crystals of p-hydroxyacetanilide (paracetamol), which is widely used in pharmacy as antipyretic, antiphlogistic medicine. It was discovered that the magnetic field (H=0.5 T, {tau}=15 min) changes the morphology of etch pits and shifts dislocations in paracetamol crystal. Activation energy of the changes induced by the action of the magnetic field was determined to be 63 kJ/mol, which is comparable with the energy of hydrogen bonds in crystal lattice. (orig.)

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol with Microwave Assisted Alkaline Hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunli Xu; Wei Liu; Baoxin Li

    2003-01-01

    @@ Paracetamol (N-acetyl-4-amino-phenol) is a popular analgesic and antipyretic medication that is readily absorbed after administration and has few side effects and little toxicity when used in recommended dose. After ingestion of an overdose quantity of paracetamol, the accumulation of toxic metabolites may cause severe and sometimes fatal hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. So, the accurate determination of paracetamol in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids has appeared especially attractive. For its measurement, many me thods have been developed, such as fluorometry, electrochemical method, nuclear magnetic resonance-mass spectrometry,chromatography method, and capillary electrophoresis

  11. Antinociceptive activity of Dyera costulata extract in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Wantana Reanmongkol; Sanan Subhadhirasakul; Chittima Pairat; Chaiya Poungsawai; Wiparat Choochare

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the chloroform extract from the leaves of Dyera costulata Hook. f. (D. costulata) on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were examined. General behavior was also examined using pentobarbitalinduced sleep and locomotor activity in mice. The LD50 value of intraperitoneally injected D. costulata extract in mice was 0.27 g/kg. Oral administration of D. costulata extract (100-400 mg/kg...

  12. Antinociceptive activity of the alkaloid extract from Kopsia macrophylla leaves in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sunisa Sengsui; Jittima Kalnaowakul; Sanan Subhadhirasakul; Khemawenut Thanyapanit; Surapon Thienmontree; Wantana Reanmongkol

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the alkaloid extract from the leaves of Kopsia macrophylla Hk. f. K. (K. macrophylla) on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in mice, were examined. General behavior was also examined using pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. The LD50 value of intraperitoneally injected K. macrophylla extract in mice was 318.46 mg/kg. Oral administration of K. macrophylla extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significa...

  13. Agranulocytosis after Metamizole Sodium Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Cagan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metamizole sodium (Novalgine is commonly used as an antipyretic, analgesic, and spasmolytic agent in some parts of the world and our country; however, it is banned in developed countries because of severe side effects. Here we present a case of a three-years- four- months-old girl who developed life-threatening agranulocytosis in his bone marrow after metamizole sodium use for fever, which resolved with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 580-583

  14. MULTI FACETED SAXIFRAGA LIGULATA

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    Priyanka Kantivan Goswami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Saxifraga ligulata belongs to family saxifragaceae, is an accepted source of ayurvedic medicine Pashanabheda. This plant has been already recognized for its role in dissolving kidney stone. This review supports all updated information on its chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, traditional uses and scientific approach. The chemical entities of this plant have been used as an Antibacterial, Antiviral, Antipyretic, Antidiabetic, Anti inflammatory, Diuretic, Antiurolithiatic, Antioxidant, Antitussive and Hepatoprotective. This review is studied for the further development of various formulations for their traditional use and Pharmacological activities.

  15. The effect of direct heating and cooling of heat regulation centers on body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were done on 28 rabbits in which puncture instruments were left in the brain for 1-2 days until the calori-puncture hyperthermia had passed and the body temperature was again normal. The instrument remaining in the brain was then used as a galvanic electrode and a second fever was produced, this time due to the electrical stimulus. It was concluded that heat is a centrally acting antipyretic and that cold is a centrally acting stimulus which produces hyperpyrexia cold-induced fever.

  16. Toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by acetaminophen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is a very commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drug across various age groups. Although mild to moderate cutaneous reactions have been reported quite frequently, serious reactions like Stevens –Johnson syndrome and Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are very rare. We report the case of a 10 year old child who had TEN after ingestion of tablet acetaminophen. This case report highlights the need to be critically aware of this rare and serious adverse effect of this commonly used over the counter drug. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 831-832

  17. The Study of Pyridazine Compounds on Prostanoids: Inhibitors of COX, cAMP Phosphodiesterase, and TXA2 Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pyridazine moiety is an important structural feature of various pharmacological active compounds. Synthetic pyridazine compounds have been reported as effective antiprostaglandins (PGs, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX, and antiplatelet agents, that is, inhibitors of prostaglandin or cyclooxygenase (COX-I & COX-II enzyme, platelet cAMP phosphodiesterase, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2 synthase. These compounds are selective and nonselective COX inhibitors and showed analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity. Pyridazine compounds with antiplatelet agents inhibited TXA2 enzyme. Pyridazines also exhibited antirheumatoid activity. These pyridazine compounds hold considerable interest relative to the preparation of organic intermediates and other anticipated biologically active compounds.

  18. Pyrazoline Derivatives: A Worthy Insight into the Recent Advances and Potential Pharmacological Activities

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    Md. Azizur Rahman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available 2-Pyrazolines display a broad spectrum of potential pharmacological activities and are present in a number of pharmacologically active molecules such as phenazone/ amidopyrene/ methampyrone (analgesic and antipyretic, azolid/ tandearil (anti-inflammatory, indoxacarb (insecticide and anturane (uricosuric. Changes in their structure have offered a high degree of diversity that has proven useful for the development of new therapeutic agents having improved potency and lesser toxicity. In this context, the recently synthesized 2-pyrazoline derivatives possessing important pharmacological activities have been highlighted.

  19. Comparative Study on Pharmacodynamic Experiment of Jinzheng Oral Liquid Prepared by Different Processes%不同工艺金振口服液药效实验比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兰; 李家春; 徐连明; 王振中; 萧伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the antipyretic,anti-inflammatory and antitussive effects of Jinzhen oral liquid prepared by different processes. Methods: By using antipyretic and anti-inflammatory as the major pharmacodynamic indicators,to investigate the effect of Jinzhen oral liquid prepared by different processes on inhibition of rat increasing temperature induced by yeast and rabbits increasing temperature induced by LPS, of rat hind paw edema induced by carrageenan, the effect of cough on the am-monia to mice. Results: Jinzhen oral liquid prepared by different processes could remarkably decrease the high temperature in rat induced by yeast and had good antipyretic effects for experimental fever rat. Jinzhen oral liquid prepared by different pro-cesses had an obvious inhibitory function in acute inflammatory of rats induced by carrageenan, and had the evident function of relieving cough. Conclusion: Jinzhen oral liquid prepared by different processes had corresponding antipyretic and anti-inflamma-tory function.%目的:比较金振口服液不同制备工艺解热、抗炎、止咳作用。方法:以解热、抗炎、止咳为主要药效学指标,观察不同工艺金振口服液对酵母致大鼠发热、大肠杆菌内毒素(LPS)致家兔发热体温升高的抑制作用,对角叉菜胶致大鼠足跖肿胀急性炎症的影响,对氨水致小鼠咳嗽的影响。结果:金振口服液对酵母引起的大鼠体温增高和大肠杆菌内毒素引起的家兔体温增高有明显的抑制作用,对大鼠足跖肿胀具有明显的抑制作用,止咳作用明显。结论:不同工艺制备金振口服液解热抗炎作用相当。

  20. Comparative Evaluation of CNS Depressant Activity of the Flavonoid Fractions from the Fresh Leaves and Flowers of Ixora coccinea Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen AK*

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ixora coccinea Linn belonging to the family Rubiaceae is a plant native to India and Sri Lanka. It is also called Jungle Jeranium. It has been traditionally used in eczema, irregular mensturation, diarrhoea, hypertension skin ulcers, as an antiseptic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer agent. Our present work is the study of its CNS depression activity so that it can be used a herbal sedative The flavonoid fractions of leaves and flowers were tested for CNS depressant activity using Actophotometer where both the leaf and flower extracts showed marked CNS depression up to 87.36%and 95.40%, respectively.

  1. POTENSI LICHEN SEBAGAI SUMBER BAHAN OBAT: SUATU KAJIAN PUSTAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIS SEPTIANA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen is a plant with many benefits. Its abundant existence in an area may indicate that air pollution levels are still low. Besides as indicator of air quality, lichen is also used as traditional medicine. Until present time, application of lichens for arthritis, constipation, chemotherapy, external wound, microbial infection, worm and infestation are still done in some countries. It is due to active chemical compounds contain in lichen that has activities as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoa, analgesic and antipyretic, and anthelmintic. With its potential and efforts to provide sustainable materials, lichen has good prospect to be developed become modern medicine.

  2. Drug: D07979 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07979 Drug Flupirtine D-gluconate; Katadolon (TN) C15H17FN4O2. C6H12O7 500.1919 50...esics and antipyretics N02BG07 Flupirtine D07979 Flupirtine D-gluconate Target-ba..., NMDA N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor [HSA:2902 2903 2904 2905 2906] [KO:K05208 K05209 K05210 K05211 K05212] Flupirtine... [ATC:N02BG07] D07979 Flupirtine D-gluconate CAS: 105507-11-7 PubChem:

  3. Drug: D07978 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07978 Drug Flupirtine (INN) C15H17FN4O2 304.1336 304.3195 D07978.gif Analgesic; An... and antipyretics N02BG07 Flupirtine D07978 Flupirtine (INN) Target-based classif...thyl-D-aspartate receptor [HSA:2902 2903 2904 2905 2906] [KO:K05208 K05209 K05210 K05211 K05212] Flupirtine [ATC:N02BG07] D07978 Flup...irtine (INN) CAS: 56995-20-1 PubChem: 96024673 LigandBox

  4. TREATMENT OF 30 CASES OF INFANTILE HIGH FEVER WITH ERJIAN-POINT BLOOD-LETTING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赛玲; 朱军

    2001-01-01

    High fever is referred to that the body temperature exceeds 39℃. Due to aplasia of the cerebral nerve system during infantile stage, continuous high fever may induce temporary functional disturbance of the brain, manifesting as sudden and transient loss of consciousness and local or general muscular spasm that is termed as infantile convulsion. The authors find in clinical practice that sometimes, administration of antipyretics as compound aspirin (APC), compound aminopyrine, etc. has no effect on infantile high fever, if treated with Erjian (MA-H 6) bleeding method, the body temperature may be decreased by 0.5~1.0℃. Here is the report.

  5. Structural Elucidation of two Compounds from the Fruit of Medicinally Important Plant, Basella Rubra

    OpenAIRE

    Swarnali Nath Choudhury; Biplab De; Satya Bhusan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Basella rubra is a medicinal plant species found in India and other parts of Asia and tropical Africa. It improves the appetite, useful in biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers and it has antiviral and antipyretic activity. The red pigment from the fruit has good colouring ability. It is bright purple at pH 3-7. It is a good additive and a safe, non-poisonous colorant. At present, the dyestuff industry has grown rapidly because of the vital role played by small – scale sector, which is resp...

  6. Therapeutic misadventure with paracetamol in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivbalan So

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol (acetaminophen, though considered a safe, "over the counter" analgesic and antipyretic, can cause liver injury with overdose. Therapeutic misadventure is a unique problem where the existing nomogram used for acute poisoning is not applicable. In this context, early initiation of N-acetylcysteine even before a biochemical evidence of liver injury may be beneficial. A series of 6 children with this type of paracetamol overdose are presented here to increase the awareness and understanding of this problem since no such data is available from India.

  7. NQO2 is a reactive oxygen species generating off-target for acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Teemu P; Björklund, Mikael

    2014-12-01

    The analgesic and antipyretic compound acetaminophen (paracetamol) is one of the most used drugs worldwide. Acetaminophen overdose is also the most common cause for acute liver toxicity. Here we show that acetaminophen and many structurally related compounds bind quinone reductase 2 (NQO2) in vitro and in live cells, establishing NQO2 as a novel off-target. NQO2 modulates the levels of acetaminophen derived reactive oxygen species, more specifically superoxide anions, in cultured cells. In humans, NQO2 is highly expressed in liver and kidney, the main sites of acetaminophen toxicity. We suggest that NQO2 mediated superoxide production may function as a novel mechanism augmenting acetaminophen toxicity.

  8. Adamantyl analogues of paracetamol as potent analgesic drugs via inhibition of TRPA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Fresno

    Full Text Available Paracetamol also known as acetaminophen, is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic agent. We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of adamantyl analogues of paracetamol with important analgesic properties. The mechanism of nociception of compound 6a/b, an analog of paracetamol, is not exerted through direct interaction with cannabinoid receptors, nor by inhibiting COX. It behaves as an interesting selective TRPA1 channel antagonist, which may be responsible for its analgesic properties, whereas it has no effect on the TRPM8 nor TRPV1 channels. The possibility of replacing a phenyl ring by an adamantyl ring opens new avenues in other fields of medicinal chemistry.

  9. Yamogenin 3-O--D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 4)-O--D-xylopyranoside from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Saxena; Albert Shalem

    2004-03-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum (NO - Leguminosae) is cultivated in many parts of India. It has been found to possess significant medicinal value. Its leaves are used both internally and externally to reduce swelling, prevent falling of hair and in treating burns. Its seeds are carminative, antipyretic, anthelmintic and diuretic, and are also useful in treatment of dropsy, chronic cough, heart diseases, bronchitis, piles and small pox. This plant also possesses antidiabetic property. The present communication deals with the isolation and identification of steroidal saponin SA-III, characterised as yamogenin 3-O--D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 4)-O--D-xylopyranoside, which was isolated from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum.

  10. ANTIOXIDANT, IMMUNOMODULATORY AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS: AN OVERVIEW

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    Madhuri S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis (Amla is traditionally used for several diseases, and it is believed to increase the defense against diseases. It is particularly used for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, liver disorders, heart disease, ulcer, snake venom, haemorrhage, diarrhea, dysentery, anaemia and ophthalmic disorders. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, cytoprotective, analgesic, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antitussive and gastroprotective are the important properties of amla. Vitamin C, tannins and flavaniods present in amla have very powerful antioxidant activities. Due to rich vitamin C, amla is successfully used in the treatment of human scurvy.

  11. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF EFFERVESCENT TABLET OF PARACETAMOL AND IBUPROFEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren K. Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, fast-dissolving drug delivery system have started gaining popularity and acceptance as newdrug delivery system, because they are easy to administer and lead to better compliance. Usually, elderlypeople experience difficulty in swallowing the tablet. Paracetamol having analgesic, antipyretic effect,they inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme involved in prostaglandin (PG synthesis but not in peripheraltissue while Ibuprofen inhibit prostaglandin (PG synthesis in peripheral tissue so in this studyParacetamol and Ibuprofen combination used for analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory actionsimultaneously. The aim of this study was to formulate effervescent tablet with sufficient mechanicalintegrity and to achieve faster disintegration in the water. Effervescent tablets are uncoated tablets thatgenerally contain acid substances and carbonates or bicarbonates and which react rapidly in the presenceof water by releasing carbon dioxide. They are intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before use.Effervescent compositions in the form of tablets are comprising a therapeutic agent, granulating agent,and an effervescent system which dissolve rapidly in water to yield an effervescent solution containing acompletely dissolved therapeutic agent and a process for their preparation. In this study different ratio ofCitric acid and Sodium bicarbonate was used, superdisintegrant like SSG and cross-providone was used,compared to cross-providone SSG decreases the Solution time of tablet. Granules prepared by Wetgranulation technique and from the result it was found that the Particle size 355-500 μm of granulesshow good Solution time and Hardness property.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir Figen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80. The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3% in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3% stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.

  13. Vasopressin: its role in antipyresis and febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, W L; Cooper, K E; Ruwe, W D

    1984-02-01

    When pyrogenic substances are injected intravenously into experimental animals, a sequence of events is set in motion which involves the hypothalamus and perhaps other portions of the diencephalon to produce a febrile response. We now present evidence that the brain produces its own endogenous antipyretic which may serve as a means of controlling the extent of the fever. When arginine vasopressin is perfused through the lateral septal area of the hypothalamus of the sheep, fever is suppressed. Vasopressin alone does not lower normal body temperature when perfused through this region of the brain. In addition, evidence is provided to indicate that vasopressin is released within the lateral septal area during the febrile response. It is concluded that, in fever, arginine vasopressin may be released in the lateral septal area of the brain and serve as an endogenous antipyretic. Results indicate that, following an initial application of vasopressin into the brain itself, a subsequent similar administration of vasopressin produces seizure-like activity. Therefore, it is suggested that this release of arginine vasopressin may contribute to the production of febrile convulsion. PMID:6722595

  14. Antinociceptive activity of the alkaloid extract from Kopsia macrophylla leaves in mice

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    Sunisa Sengsui

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the alkaloid extract from the leaves of Kopsia macrophylla Hk. f. K. (K. macrophylla on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in mice, were examined. General behavior was also examined using pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. The LD50 value of intraperitoneally injected K. macrophylla extract in mice was 318.46 mg/kg. Oral administration of K. macrophylla extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of contortions and stretchings induced by acetic acid and licking activity of the late phase in the formalin test but not in the heat-induced pain in mice. The K. macrophylla extract (100-400 mg/kg, p.o. had no effect on fever induced by yeast in mice. The alkaloid extract of K. macrophylla prolonged the duration of pentobarbitalinduced sleep in mice. These results suggest that the alkaloid extract of K. macrophylla possesses analgesic action via peripheral pathway but no antipyretic activity.

  15. Effects of electrical stimulation of VSA on firing characteristics of thermosensitiveneurons in POAH of rabbits treated with pyrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract] AIM and METHODS:The recent work from our laboratory showed that ventral septal area (VSA) played a negative-regulatory central role in thermoregulation during endogenous pyrogen-induced fever. In order to further investigate the role of VSA in the antipyretic mechanism, we observed the effects of electrical stimulation of VSA on firing characteristics of thermosensitive neurons in preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POAH) by using extracellular microelectrode technique on 32 New Zealand white rabbits treated with interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) intracerebroventriculary (ICV). RESULTS:(1)Injection of IL-1β decreased discharging rate of warm-sensitive neurons in POAH. Electrical stimulation of VSA remarkably decreased thermosensitive coefficient of warm-sensitive neurons. (2)Injection of IL-1β caused increase in discharging rate of cold-sensitive neurons in POAH. Electrical stimulation of VSA remarkably increased thermosensitive coefficient of cold-sensitive neurons. CONCLUSTION:VSA may have an antipyretic effect through affecting the firing characteristics of thermosensitive neurons in POAH during IL-1β-induced fever.

  16. Evaluation of Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of First Febrile Seizures in Children

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    F Mir-Naseri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Febrile seizure is the most common problem in pediatric neurology that occur s in 3– 4% of children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate demographic and clinical characteristics of first febrile seizures in children admitted to the hospital. Methods: In a descriptive retrospective study, medical records of children with first febrile seizure, admitted between March 2004and August 2005 toYazd Shaheed Sadoughi Hospital were evaluated for demographic and clinical characteristics of first febrile seizures . Results: 76 boys and 63 girls with mean age of 2.03 ± 1.21 years were evaluated. Febrile seizure type was complex in 33% and simple in 67 %. On the whole, 66 % occurred in less than two year olds and 6 % in more than four year olds. The most common form of seizure was generalized tonic colonic (79cases and URI was the most prevalent etiology of fever. Mean temperature on admission was 38.5o C. Mean seizure time and hospital stay (days was 6.7 minutes and 2.3 days, both of which were statistically more significant in complex febrile seizure. Conclusion: There were a significant number of complex febrile seizures in this study that necessitates more aggressive handling. As antipyretic use is ineffective in prevention of febrile seizures, undue stress on parents can be avoided by not emphasizing on antipyretic consumption.

  17. Analysis of analgesic drug for its clinical adverse reactions%镇痛药物临床不良反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂承江

    2012-01-01

      解热镇痛药的不良反应属于药学栏目范畴,属于非处方用药,好多感冒患者缺乏相应的医药知识,患了感冒以后急于治好,经常两种或两种以上感冒药同时服用,但常用的药也会引起严重的不良反应。尤其是两种以上的感冒药同时服用等于是加大解热镇痛药的剂量,更容易引起严重的不良反应。%  adverse reaction are pharmacy section of antipyretic analgesics category belonging to over-the-counter medications many flu patients with lack of medical knowledge eager to heal after caught a bad cold often two or more colds at the same time taking.commonly used drugs can also cause severe adverse reactions.especially more cold medicine while taking the amount to increase the dosage of antipyretic analgesics more likely to cause serious adverse reactions.

  18. Open study of the clinical effect of suprofen drops in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippl, G; Baerlocher, K; Michos, N

    1986-06-01

    Antipyretic effect, tolerability, and acceptance of alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienyl-carbonyl)phenylacetic acid (suprofen, Suprol) drops were tested within the scope of an open study including a total of 111 children with fever of various etiology; two investigational centers participated in this study. The initial mean rectal temperature averaged 39.3 degrees C. The dosage of suprofen drops depended upon the patient's body weight and age; the drug was administered up to q.i.d., for 4 days at the longest. Body temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were recorded prior to administration and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after first administration of the drug. The antipyretic effect of the treatment was appreciated good in 89% of the cases. Reduction in temperature was statistically significant at all rating times after first administration of the drops as compared with the initial values. Adverse drug experiences such as vomiting and loose stools were seen in only 5 cases. The tolerability was considered good in 96% and the acceptance in 94% of the cases.

  19. Intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Sean T; Scott, Lesley J

    2009-01-01

    Intravenous paracetamol (rINN)/intravenous acetaminophen (USAN) is an analgesic and antipyretic agent, recommended worldwide as a first-line agent for the treatment of pain and fever in adults and children. In double-blind clinical trials, single or multiple doses of intravenous paracetamol 1 g generally provided significantly better analgesic efficacy than placebo treatment (as determined by primary efficacy endpoints) in adult patients who had undergone dental, orthopaedic or gynaecological surgery. Furthermore, where evaluated, intravenous paracetamol 1 g generally showed similar analgesic efficacy to a bioequivalent dose of propacetamol, and a reduced need for opioid rescue medication. In paediatric surgical patients, recommended doses of intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg were not significantly different from propacetamol 30 mg/kg for the treatment of pain, and showed equivocal analgesic efficacy compared with intramuscular pethidine 1 mg/kg in several randomized, active comparator-controlled studies. In a randomized, noninferiority study in paediatric patients with an infection-induced fever, intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg treatment was shown to be no less effective than propacetamol 30 mg/kg in terms of antipyretic efficacy. Intravenous paracetamol was well tolerated in clinical trials, having a tolerability profile similar to placebo. Additionally, adverse reactions emerging from the use of the intravenous formulation of paracetamol are extremely rare (<1/10 000). [table: see text]. PMID:19192939

  20. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity in Preschool Children

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    Kidon Mona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although extensively studied in adults, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID hypersensitivity in children, especially in young children, remains poorly defined. Pediatricians, prescribing antipyretics for children, rarely encounter significant problems, but the few epidemiologic studies performed show conflicting results. Although it is clear that some patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA-sensitive asthma have their clinical onset of disease in childhood and bronchoconstriction after ASA challenge is seen in 0 to 22% of asthmatic children so challenged, ibuprofen at antipyretic doses may cause acute respiratory problems only in a very small number of mild to moderate asthmatics. The recently elucidated mechanism of action of acetaminophen may explain some occurrences of adverse reactions in patients with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity on the basis of its inhibitory activity on the newly described enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX-3. This nonspecific sensitivity to inhibition of COX is most likely genetically determined and shows a remarkable association with atopic disease even in the very young age group and possibly an increased predilection in specific ethnic groups. This review summarizes state-of-the-art published data on NSAID hypersensitivity in preschool children.

  1. Why Fever Phobia Is Still Common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Suzan; Usak, Esma; Koksal, Tulin; Canbal, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is a reliable sign of illness, but it also evokes fear and anxiety. It is not the fever itself but the fear of possible complications and accompanying symptoms that is important for pediatricians and parents. Objectives We aimed to investigate maternal understanding of fever, its potential consequences, and impacts on the treatment of children. Patients and Methods A questionnaire was use to explore the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of mothers of 861 children brought to four medical centers in different regions of Turkey in 2012, with fever being the chief complaint. All the children were aged 3 months - 15 years. Results Among the 861 mothers, 92.2% favored antipyretics for fever, either alone or in addition to external cooling measures. Most favored paracetamol or ibuprofen. In this study, the appropriate use of antipyretics was 75.2%, which was higher than that reported in the literature. In common with previous reports, seizures and brain damage were perceived as the most frightening and harmful effects of fever. All the mothers expressed concerns about fever, but they were most common among the highly educated or those with one child. Conclusions Fever phobia remains common, not only among low socioeconomic status mothers but also among those of high socioeconomic status. Healthcare providers should take fever phobia into account and provide correct information to caregivers about fever at all visits. PMID:27781110

  2. Pharmacology and Toxicology of Extract from Arcangelisia gusanlung

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hai-zhen; DONG Zhi; ZHU Yi; CHEN Guo-biao

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the pharmacology and toxicology of the extracts from Arcangelisia gusanlung (EAG).Methods The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated using various inflammatory models including ear edema induced by xylene in mice,paw edema induced by carrageenan,and cotton pellet granuloma in rats.The analgesic effect was observed in hot-plate test and writhing test in mice and the antipyretic effect was observed in rat fever model induced by yeast.The antitussive action was tested in mice by sequential method and expectorant action was evaluated by tracheal excretion of phenol red.The antidiarrhea function was observed on normal intestinal propulsion of mouse model of diarrhea induced by decoction of Sennae Folium.The toxicity was measured by toxicological experiment.Results Each dose of EAG could significantly inhibit the paw edema,cotton pellet granuloma,and intestinal propulsion.EAG significantly reduced writhing times and amount of wet manure.Obvious antipyretic action to fevered rat was observed.EAG obviously increased the tracheal excretion of phenol red and prolonged the latency of cough.No toxic reaction was shown in the observed period,and the maximum tolerance dose of mice was equivalent to 1360 times of common-used dose in human.Conclusion The clinical dosage of EAG is safe,and its anti-inflammatory,analgesia,antipyresis,antitussive,expectorant,and antidiarrhea effects are significant.

  3. New Flavonoid Glycoside and Pharmacological Activities of Pteranthus dichotomus Forssk.

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    Emad, M. Atta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Luteolin 6-rhamnosyl (1``` 4`` rhamnoside was isolated from Pteranthus dichotomus for the first time as a natural product along with eight compounds; kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin-7-glucoside, isoorientin, orientin-7-methoxide, luteolin, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside-7-glucouronic acid and myricetin-3-glucoside. The plant contained phenol, protocatechuic, p-hydroxy benzoic, gallic, p-coumaric and o-coumaric acids; they were identified by HPLC, the flavonoid compounds were purified by chromatographic methods, identified by chemical and physical methods including UV, 1H, 13C and 2D- NMR. The tested extract was highly safe as LD 50 (4 g/kg b.wt., it has anti-inflammatory, moderate analgesic effect and caused increase in urine volume, it also had no effect on liver functions of animals. Kidney functions were impaired after large dose (100 mg/kg -1. It has Anti-tumor activity against Ehrlish Ascites Carcinoma. The new isolated compound showed antipyretic effect and increased the urine volume while the tested extract had moderate antipyretic activity in rats.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extract of Wattakaka volubilis (Dreagea volubilis

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    Nandi Debkumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wattakaka volubilis (Family: Asclepiadaceae has been reported to possess medicinal effects. In the present study, the dried leaf extract [methanol-water (1:1] of W. volubilis designated as ′the extract′ was evaluated for pharmacological activity in rats and mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acute, sub-chronic and chronic models of inflammation in rodents. The antipyretic and analgesic activities were evaluated in mice models. In the acute toxicity study, it was found that the extract was non-toxic up to 1 g/kg, i.p. The extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. was found to possess, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in a dose-dependent manner and the effect was comparable with that produced by the standard drug, ibuprofen. The extract significantly inhibited the arachidonic acid-induced paw oedema in rats, indicating that the extract inhibited both the cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. The extract also significantly enhanced the macrophage count in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It is possible that the saponins present in the extract may be responsible for these activities.

  5. Fever Drops of Intestinal Fluid Particles Combined Treatment of Children with Fever Efficacy of Exogenous High Fever and Nursing%退热颗粒联合退热滴肠液治疗小儿外感高热疗效观察与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶万丽; 胡晓丹; 解玲芳

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察中药退热颗粒剂联合小儿退热滴肠液治疗小儿外感高热的疗效.方法:采用随机、对照法,将急性上呼吸道感染患儿220例,随机分为试验组和对照组各110例,分别用中药颗粒剂联合小儿退热滴肠液和布洛芬混悬液治疗,采用X2检验和t检验比较两组治疗总有效率、治疗后0.5、1、2、4、6h体温变化.结果:两组治疗总有效率比较P>0.05;前1h对照组体温下降优于治疗组,第4,6h对照组体温上升高于治疗组.结论:两组治疗总有效率无统计学差异;对照组退热起效时间优于试验组,但试验组退热维持时间优于对照组.%Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of combination of TCM antipyretic granules with pediatric intestinal drops in the treatment of pediatric exopathic high fever ( Wind Hot Syndrome )Methods:A random, controlled method was used in selecting 220 cases of the children with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infection.The cases were randomly divided into treatment group and control group of 110 cases each.110 cases were treated with the combination of the TCM antipyretic granules with Antipyretic intestinal fluid drops while 110 cases were treated with ibuprofen suspension alone.x2 test and t test were used to compare the overall effectiveness of therapy in two groups.After the therapy the body temperature changes were recorded at the intervals of 0.5h, 1h, 2h, 4h and 6h.Results:The overall therapeutic effectiveness rate of two groups was P>0.05; during the first hour the control group’s temperature declining was better that treatment group.At the fourth and sixth hour the control group’s temperature rise surpassed the treatment group.Conclusion: The two groups showed no statistical difference in the overall therapeutic effectiveness of the treatments.The onset of antipyretic effect in control group was better than in the treatment group; but the treatment group had longer duration of antipyretic effect compared

  6. Is fever a predictive factor in the autism spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megremi, Amalia S F

    2013-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display such a marked increase in recent decades that researchers speak of "epidemic outbreak" of the disease. Although the diagnostic framework has been expanded and thus more disorders now fall within the autistic spectrum, no one disputes the increased incidence of autism in modern societies, making it a major public health problem. On the other hand, heterogeneity is a major feature of the disorder, both in terms of the etiopathogenesis as well as to the phenotypic expression, natural history and evolution. Consequently, there is considerable research interest in determining factors which are etiopathogenetically, prognostically, preventively or/and therapeutically associated with the disorder. Literature data indicate that probably there are differences in susceptibility to various infections between normal and autistic children. In addition, some autistic children show improvement in the characteristics of their autistic behavior during febrile incident and repression of fever (through antipyretics) might be associated with the onset of autistic disorder. Since fever has been associated with mental illness since the time of Hippocrates already and the presence of fever is associated with a favorable outcome in various pathologic conditions, it is assumed that there are probably two subgroups of autistic children: those who have the possibility to develop acute febrile incidents and those who develop acute incidents without fever. If this is the case, it is important to know whether there are differences between the two subgroups in various biological markers (cytokines/chemokines, autoantibodies), neuroimaging findings, personal and family history of these children (use of drugs, vaccinations, history of autoimmunity, etc.) and, if the first subgroup consists of autistic people of higher functionality and better outcome, or not. If such a classification is real, is there a possibility for the fever to be used as a predictor of

  7. Use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the prevention of streptococcal and viral pharyngotonsillitis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Colombo, Maria; Zanvit, Alberto; Risso, Paolo; Rottoli, Amilcare S

    2014-01-01

    Background Streptococcus salivarius K12 is an oral probiotic strain releasing two lantibiotics (salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B) that antagonize the growth of S. pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans also affected by episodes of acute otitis media. S. salivarius K12 successfully colonizes the oral cavity, and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. We tested its preventive role in reducing the incidence of both streptococcal and viral pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis in children. Materials and methods We enrolled 61 children with a diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal disorders. Thirty-one of them were enrolled to be treated daily for 90 days with a slow-release tablet for oral use, containing no less than 1 billion colony-forming units/tablet of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®), and the remaining 30 served as the untreated control group. During treatment, they were all examined for streptococcal infection. Twenty children (ten per group) were also assessed in terms of viral infection. Secondary end points in both groups were the number of days under antibiotic and antipyretic therapy and the number of days off school (children) and off work (parents). Results The 30 children who completed the 90-day trial with Bactoblis® showed a significant reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (>90%), as calculated by comparing the infection rates of the previous year. No difference was observed in the control group. The treated group showed a significant decrease in the incidence (80%) of oral viral infections. Again, there was no difference in the control group. With regard to secondary end points, the number of days under antibiotic treatment of the treated and control groups were 30 and 900 respectively, days under antipyretic treatment 16 and 228, days of absence from school 16 and 228, and days of absence from work 16 and 228. The product was well tolerated by the subjects, with no side effects

  8. 蓝芩口服液治疗病毒性上呼吸道感染发热疗效观察%Effect of Lanqin Oral Liquid on the fever caused by viral upper respiratory tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘禧玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of Lanqin oral liquid on the wind heat syndrome of the fever caused by viral upper respiratory tract infection.Methods 130 cases from our hospital of the fever(wind heat syndrome)caused by viral upper respiratory tract infection,including 20 confirmed cases of H1N1 influenza A,8 suspected cases,and 41 clinically diagnosed cases were treated with Lanqin oral liquid,for 3 days'treatment and oneday follow-up,the rate of instant antipyretic effect and the antipyretic time were observed.Results The fever was reduced in 39 cases(30.0%)and 118 cases(90.8%),within 4h and 72h after medication respectively.The average antipyretic time was 20.5h.Conclusion Lanqin oral liquid can treat the fever(wind heat syndrome)caused by viral upper respiratory tract infection effectively.%目的 观察蓝芩口服液治疗病毒性上呼吸道感染发热的治疗效果.方法 130例病毒性上呼吸道感染发热患者,其中包括甲型H1N1流感确诊病例20例,疑似病例8例,临床诊断病例41例,予蓝芩口服液治疗3d,随访1d,观察退热效果和退热时间.结果 治疗后,4h内退热39例(30.0%),72 h退热118例(90.8%),平均退热时间为(23.7±14.9)h.结论 蓝芩口服液治疗病毒性上呼吸道感染发热疗效确切.

  9. 九味羌活汤治疗上呼吸道感染发热疗效分析%The analysis of the curative effect of nine-Ingredient notopterygium decoction in the treatment of fever caused by upper respiratory infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱萍; 史红霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察九味羌活汤加减对急性上呼吸道感染发热(外感风寒夹热夹湿证)的治疗作用。方法:收集106例急性上呼吸道感染发热(外感风寒夹热夹湿证)患者,给予九味羌活汤随证加减治疗,用药3天,随访1天,观察即刻退热疗效和解热时间。结果:服药4h 退热32例,占30.19%;72h退热102例,占96.23%;平均解热时间为19.6h。结论:九味羌活汤加减治疗急性上呼吸道感染发热(外感风寒夹热夹湿证)疗效确切。%Objective:To observe the effect of Nine-Ingredient Notopterygium Decoction on treating fever caused by acute upper respiratory infection (external-contraction wind-cold with hot and dampness syndrome). Methods: 106 cases of acute upper respiratory tractinfection (external-contraction wind-cold with hot and dampness syndrome)were given Nine-Ingredient Notopterygium Decoction.The formula was slightly changed according to the syndrome. The decoction was taken for 3 days and a one-day follow-up was made to observe the immediate antipyretic effect and antipyretic time. Result:32 cases’ fever reduced after 4h which accounted for 30.19%;102 cases’ fever reduced after 72h which accounted for 96.23%; the average antipyretic time is 19.6h. Conclusion: Nine-Ingredient Notopterygium Decoction had exact curative effect in the treatment of fever caused by acute upper respiratory infection (external-contraction wind-cold with hot and dampness syndrome).

  10. 中药复方灌注剂治疗奶牛乳房炎的药效与应用安全性研究%The Effecacy and Safety of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Compoud Filler for Dairy Cattle with Mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆娟; 冯士彬; 李志明; 王希春; 韩春杨; 邹松阳; 刘琦山; 吴金节

    2011-01-01

    治疗奶牛乳房炎的中药复方灌注剂由瓜子金、紫花地丁、鸡血藤和黄芪等11味中药组方制成.以兔子、小白鼠和豚鼠为试验动物,从镇痛、抗炎、解热、异常毒性、热源检查、溶血与凝集和过敏反应等方面进行了药效与应用安全性研究.试验显示,该中药复方灌注剂对小白鼠镇痛和抗炎效果以及对伤寒-副伤寒二联菌苗致家兔发热反应的解热效果极显著(P<0.01).通过安全性试验,未发现该中药复方灌注剂引起异常毒性、热敏、溶血与凝集反应和过敏反应.结果表明,该中药复方灌注剂镇痛、消炎和解热效果显著,安全性较高,可用于临床试验.%The compound filler was composed of 11 kinds of the traditional Chinese herbs such as Polygala japonica, Viola yedoensis Makino, Spatholobus suberectrus and Astragalus membranaceus, etc. Rabbits, small mice and guinea pigs were selected to investigate the effecacy and safety of the compound filler through analgesic test, antiinflammation test, antipyretic test,abnormal toxicity and pyrogen test, hemolysis and agglutination reaction, and allergic reaction, etc. The results showed that the analgesic and antiinflammation effect of the compound filler in small mice and the antipyretic effect on the fever of rabbits induced by typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine were extremely significant(P<O.O1). The security test revealed that the compound filler did not cause abnormal toxicity, temperature sensitivity, hemolysis and agglutination, and allergic reactions. The results indicated that the compound filler was very effective for analgesic, antiinflammation and antipyretic, and it was safe in clinical application.

  11. Sleep Disruption and Proprioceptive Delirium due to Acetaminophen in a Pediatric Patient

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    Carla Carnovale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 7-year-old boy, who received acetaminophen for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, due to an infection of the superior airways. 13 mg/kg (260 mg of acetaminophen was administered orally before bedtime, and together with the expected antipyretic effect, the boy experienced sleep disruption and proprioceptive delirium. The symptoms disappeared within one hour. In the following six months, acetaminophen was administered again twice, and the reaction reappeared with similar features. Potential alternative explanations were excluded, and analysis with the Naranjo algorithm indicated a “probable” relationship between acetaminophen and this adverse reaction. We discuss the potential mechanisms involved, comprising imbalances in prostaglandin levels, alterations of dopamine, and cannabinoid and serotonin signalings.

  12. 我院251例药品不良反应报告分析%Analysis of 251 cases of adverse drug reactions in our hospital report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐锦辉

    2013-01-01

      purpose: to understand adverse drug reactions in our hospital (Adverse Drug Reaction) the incidence and relevant factors, provide reference for rational drug use, avoid the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Methods: 251 cases on our 2011 colection statistics, analysis of ADR reports. Results 251 cases ADR report total involved 16 class drugs, vein drops note is caused ADR of main to drug way (201 cases); antibiotics occurred rate Supreme (142 cases), second is proprietary Chinese medicines (28 cases), and antipyretic analgesia drug (20 cases), and anti-tumor drug (16 cases), and effect blood and hematopoietic system of drug (12 cases); clinical performance main for skin and damage (99 cases), accounted for 39.44%, digestive system of of damage (75 cases) accounted for 29.88%. Conclusion: ADR is related to many factors relevant to clinical ADR monitoring work should be strengthened to reduce or avoid the occurrence of ADR.

  13. The discovery of “sale amarissimo antifebbrile” (“bitter febrifugal saline” by Bartolommeo Rigatelli, i.e. the origins of pharmacoeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Marson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering the history of salycilates, it has to be underlined that a number of Italian scientists made significant contributions on such a topic. Among these, two pharmacists, Bartolommeo Rigatelli in Verona and Francesco Fontana in Lazise, carried out the first extraction of the active component of willow bark in 1824. Rigatelli named the drug “sale amarissimo antifebbrile” (“bitter febrifugal saline”. In his report some references of pharmacoeconomics are sketched out, thus indicating the attention that the Austrian government on the North Italian districts gave to the management policy. In fact, Rigatelli carried out an economic account of the use of salicin extracts as an antipyretic agent instead of the chincona bark which had been imported from South America at that time and was very expensive. This historical report gives rise to outline a brief history of pharmacoeconomics.

  14. A review of traditional use, phytoconstituents and biological activities of Himalayan yew, Taxus wallichiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hitender Sharma; Munish Garg

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize certain phytoconstituents for their protection, which, because they are not of primary need, are known as secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites of plants, have often been found to have medicinal uses for human beings. One such gymnosperm having secondary metabolites of medicinal potential for humans is Taxus wal ichiana (Himalayan yew). Besides being the source of taxol, this plant has been investigated for its essential oil, diterpenoids, lignans, steroids, sterols and bifavonoids. Traditional y, it is used to treat disorders of the digestive, respiratory, nervous and skeletal systems. Although pharmacological y underexplored, it has been used for antiepileptic, anti-infammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, analgesic, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. The present review compiles traditional uses, phytochemical constituents (speciifcal y the secondary metabolites) pharmacological activities and the toxicity of T. wal ichiana.

  15. Management of acute fever in children: guideline for community healthcare providers and pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robin; Jeena, Prakash; Kotze, Shane; Lewis, Humphrey; Webb, David; Wells, Mike

    2013-09-03

    Fever is a normal physiological response to illness that facilitates and accelerates recovery. Although it is often associated with a self-limiting viral infection in children, it may also be a presenting symptom of more serious conditions requiring urgent medical care. Therefore, it is essential to distinguish between a child with fever who is at high risk of serious illness and who requires specific treatment, hospitalisation or specialist care, and those at low risk who can be managed conservatively at home. This guideline aims to assist pharmacists, primary healthcare workers and general practitioners in risk-stratifying children who present with fever, deciding on when to refer, the appropriate use of antipyretic medication and how to advise parents and caregivers. 

  16. Mothers' perceptions and knowledge on childhood malaria in the holendemic Kibaha district, Tanzania: implications for malaria control and the IMCI strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Lwihula, G K; Minjas, J N;

    2000-01-01

    Prior to an intervention on improving the quality of malaria case management, we assessed mothers' abilities to recognize nonsevere and severe/complicated malaria in children when a child has fever with other physiological and behavioural symptoms associated with malaria. Malaria was mentioned...... as the commonest febrile illness (94. 1%), convulsions the least (11.4%). Fever and enteric symptoms featured as the most important symptoms of childhood malaria at frequencies of 93.5% and 73.8%, respectively. The need for laboratory diagnosis was very high (98.3%), the reason being to get accurate diagnosis...... and treatment (89.4%). Poor outcome of treatment was ascribed to incorrect diagnosis and prescription, noncompliance at home and ineffective drugs (62.1%). Most mothers (86.6%) would take antipyretic measures first when a child has fever, and subsequently the majority (92.9%) would seek care at a modern health...

  17. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy in Tanzanian children gives rapid parasite clearance but slow fever clearance that is improved by chloroquine in combination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2002-01-01

    paracetamol (PCM) (n=38) in children with uncomplicated malaria. Over 72 h, there were eight (20.5%) treatment failures in the CQ group but none in the other groups. Although not significant (P > 0.1), irrespective of resistance CQ alone had a shorter median survival time to fever clearance than SP alone (54......Following widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance, sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine (SP) is now the first line antimalarial drug in a number of African countries including Tanzania. Unlike CQ, SP has no antipyretic effects, a feature that might delay fever clearance, and by acting on late stage...... vs. 60 h). SP plus CQ had a highly significantly shorter median survival time to fever clearance than SP alone (48 vs. 60 h) (P

  18. [Risks and benefits of paracetamol in children with fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bont, Eefje G P M; Brand, Paul L P; Dinant, Geert-Jan; van Well, Gijs T J; Cals, Jochen W L

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, paracetamol is the most commonly used antipyretic for children and the drug of first choice for reducing fever named in the majority of practice guidelines. However, whether or not it is necessary or desirable to treat fever is questionable. The provision of accurate information on the causes and treatment of fever can decrease the help-seeking behaviour of parents. Paracetamol is both effective and advisable when there is a combination of fever and pain. Fever on its own does not require treatment and doctors should therefore show caution about advising paracetamol for children who have just this symptom. The effect of paracetamol on the general well-being of children with fever on its own has not been unequivocally proven. Treatment with paracetamol for the prevention of febrile convulsions has been proven ineffective. There are indications that inhibiting fever through paracetamol can adversely affect the immune response. The use of paracetamol can produce mild side effects and hepatotoxicity.

  19. Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the genus Prunella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yubing; Xia, Bohou; Xie, Wenjian; Zhou, Yamin; Xie, Jiachi; Li, Hongquan; Liao, Duanfang; Lin, Limei; Li, Chun

    2016-08-01

    Prunella is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants in the Labiatae family. There are approximately 15 species worldwide, distributed widely in the temperate regions and tropical mountains of Europe and Asia. In the genus Prunella, P. vulgaris is the most studied, following a several thousand-year history as a traditional antipyretic and antidotal Chinese herb. Furthermore, since ancient times, P. vulgaris has been widely used as a cool tea ingredient and consumed as a vegetable. The genus Prunella contains triterpenoids and their saponins, phenolic acids, sterols and associated glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, volatile oil and saccharides. Modern pharmacological studies have revealed that Prunella possess antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, antihypertensive and hypoglycemic functions. The active components related to these functions are mainly triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids and polysaccharides. This review mainly summarizes recent advances in traditional usage, chemical components and pharmacological functions. PMID:26988527

  20. Lemon grass oil for improvement of oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruckmani Rajesvari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon grass essential oil has been used for decades to treat respiratory infections, sinusitis, bladder infections, high cholesterol, digestive problem, varicose veins and also for regeneration of connective tissue. It has anti spasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, insect repellent, sedative, vasodilator and flavoring properties. In china, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver diseases and also to treat rheumatism. Since lemon grass oil possess various pharmacological actions, it is also quite useful in dentistry. Hence, the objective of this article is to highlight various uses of lemon grass oil in the dental field and in the medical field in order to aid the professionals for future research.

  1. 癌性发热的中医辨治%Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer-inducde Fever by TCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵; 侯炜

    2012-01-01

    癌性发热是影响癌症患者生存质量的一个重要的因素,西医对癌性发热通常采用解热镇痛药或者激素治疗,效果不佳.中医认为癌性发热属于"内伤发热"的范畴,根据发热原因不同,具体辨证施治,往往可获良效.%The cancer - induced fever is an important factor affecting the life quality of cancer patients. Western medicine for cancer -induced fever usually adopts the antipyretic and analgesic drugs or hormone therapy, hut had poor effect. Chinese medicine considers cancer -induced fever belongs to the" fever due to internal injury " category. According to the different causes treatment based on syndrome differentiation often can obtain good effect.

  2. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichosanthes , a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc.

  3. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Satyendra; Manvi; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc. PMID:22654406

  4. Chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhay Kumar Pandey; Pooja Singh; Nijendra Nath Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance. The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz., Ocimum basilicum Linn. (alt. Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurience), Ocimum campechianum Mill., Ocimum canum Sims. (Ocimum americanum), Ocimum citriodorum, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn., Ocimum micranthum Willd., Ocimum sanctum Linn., (alt. Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn.), Ocimum selloi Benth., Ocimum trichodon, Ocimum utricifolium from different geographical regions. A considerable difference in chemical composition of a particular species is found, which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic zones and changes in edaphic factors. Attention is also focused on the biological properties of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant, repellent, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal and therapeutic (anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antiulcer, analgesic, anthelmintic, anticarcinogenic, skin permeation enhancer, immunomodulatory, cardio-protective, antilipidemic) agents.

  5. Pain – Part I. Pharmaco-therapeutic management (ro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuns, C. I.,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of pain mechanisms require different treatments that address to the different stages of pain production, transmission, modulation and control and at the same time can be individualized according to each patient. In this respect several substances with specific anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic activity,tranquilizers, etc. are successfully used in pain, they are supplemented by physical and chemical means. Treatment of pain is achieved by removing the cause that produced it. Elimination of inflammation, ischemia control, of infection or nerve compression, many times can lead to complete disappearance of pain. In thepresent referate groups of substances with implications in pain are presented. Are presented sintheticaly:amines, antihistamines group, anti-inflammatory nonsteroidic drugs (classic and modern, anesthetics and tranquilizers groups etc. Are also presented other means of pain therapy (analgesic electrotherapy: low frequency effect analgesic currents: diadynamic, Trabert, stochastic, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, pain stimulation by galvanic current.

  6. A Review on Herbal Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangh Partap

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethno botanical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on Mimusops elengi to which commonly known as Bakul and Spanish cherry, belonging to Sapotaceae family. It is a large ornamental evergreen tree cultivated in India and generally reared in gardens for the sake of its fragrant flowers. In the traditional Indian system of medicine, the ayurveda and in various folk system of medicine, the bark, fruit and seeds of Mimusops elengi possess several medicinal properties such as astringent, tonic, and febrifuge. Chemical studies have shown that, Bark contain tannin, some caoutchoue, wax, starch and ash and Flower contain volatile oil as well as Seeds contain fixed fatty oil. Preclinical studies have shown that Mimusops elengi or some part of its phytochemicals possess Analgesic, Antibiotic, Antihyperlipidemic, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antoxidant, Antipyretic, Cytotoxic, Congestive enhancing, Gingival bleeding, Gastic ulcer, Hypotensive activity.

  7. Medical prevention of recurrent acute otitis media: an updated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, Paola; Nazzari, Erica; Torretta, Sara; Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common pediatric diseases; almost all children experience at least one episode, and a third have two or more episodes in the first three years of life. The disease burden of AOM has important medical, social and economic effects. AOM requires considerable financial assistance due to needing at least one doctor visit and a prescription for antipyretics and/or antibiotics. AOM is also associated with high indirect costs, which are mostly related to lost days of work for one parent. Moreover, due to its acute symptoms and frequent recurrences, AOM considerably impacts both the child and family's quality of life. AOM prevention, particularly recurrent AOM (rAOM), is a primary goal of pediatric practice. In this paper, we review current evidence regarding the efficacy of medical treatments and vaccines for preventing rAOM and suggest the best approaches for AOM-prone children. PMID:24678887

  8. Genotoxicity of paracetamol on the germ cells of Drosophilla melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Y. M. alakilli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug. The aim of the present study is to determine the potential genetic effects of Paracetamol in Drosophilla melanogaster using two methods: Sex Linked Recessive Lethals (SLRL test and effect of Paracetamol on enzyme activity using spectrophotometric analysis. Three concentrations of drug were used (5, 10, and 20 mM. The results reveal significant differences in S.L.R.L, except spermatozoa stages showed insignificant increases when the data of the four broods were considered all together in three treatments. Meanwhile, Paracetamol showed a genotoxic effects in the three categories of the two generations of S.L.R.L, F1 heterozygous females, F2 bar eye females and F2 wild type males on the genetic back ground of Cholinesterase in all treatments.

  9. Acetaminophen from liver to brain: New insights into drug pharmacological action and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Carolina I; Pérez, María J; Manautou, José E; Mottino, Aldo D

    2016-07-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a well-known analgesic and antipyretic drug. It is considered to be safe when administered within its therapeutic range, but in cases of acute intoxication, hepatotoxicity can occur. APAP overdose is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the northern hemisphere. Historically, studies on APAP toxicity have been focused on liver, with alterations in brain function attributed to secondary effects of acute liver failure. However, in the last decade the pharmacological mechanism of APAP as a cannabinoid system modulator has been documented and some articles have reported "in situ" toxicity by APAP in brain tissue at high doses. Paradoxically, low doses of APAP have been reported to produce the opposite, neuroprotective effects. In this paper we present a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of hepatic toxicity as well as a thorough review of both toxic and beneficial effects of APAP in brain. PMID:26921661

  10. From plant extract to molecular panacea: a commentary on Stone (1763) 'An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of the agues'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John N

    2015-04-19

    The application of aspirin-like drugs in modern medicine is very broad, encompassing the treatment of inflammation, pain and a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Although anecdotal accounts of willow bark extract as an anti-inflammatory drug have occurred since written records began (for example by Hippocrates), the first convincing demonstration of a potent anti-pyretic effect of willow bark containing salicylates was made by the English cleric Edward Stone in the late eighteenth century. Here, we discuss the route to optimizing and understanding the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory drugs that have their origins in Stone's seminal study, 'An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of agues'. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750237

  11. Thermally reversible gels based on acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester as drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z.; Takacs, Erzsebet; Safranj, Agneza; Yoshida, Masaru; Katakai, Ryoichi; Carenza, Mario

    1999-06-01

    Thermally reversible hydrogels were synthesized by radiation-induced copolymerization of acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester with hydrophilic or hydrophobic monomers. The swelling behaviour was found to be affected by a proper balance of the latter. In particular, the transition temperature of the different hydrogels shifted to higher or lower values depending on the presence of hydrophilic or hydrophobic moieties in the polymer chain, respectively. Acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug, was entrapped into some hydrogels and a wide range of release rates was obtained according to the nature of the comonomers. A novel thermoresponsive hydrogel was also prepared by radiation polymerization of acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester in the presence of 4-acryloyloxy acetanilide, an acrylic derivative of acetaminophen. Again, the swelling curves showed an inverse function of temperature. It was shown that with this hydrogel bearing the drug covalently attached to the polymer backbone, the hydrolysis process was the rate-determining process of the drug release.

  12. STANDARDIZATION AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON CYPERUS ROTUNDUS LINN RHIZOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Puneet kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus rotundus Linn vernacularly called “Nagarmotha” is a medicinal plant belonging to the family of the Cyperaceae and was widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin areas. This plant, which grows naturally in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, is widespread in northeast appearing among Indian, Chinese, Japanese natural drugs used as home remedy against spasms, stomach disorders and irritation of bowel. Cyperus rotundus has many different uses and used as cooling, intellect promoting, nervine tonic, diuretic, antiperiodic, diarrhoea, dysentery, leprosy, bronchitis, amenorrhea, blood disorders, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity. The present study was aimed to evaluate the parameter to determine the quality of the Cyperus rotundus rhizome. These studies comprise to investigate macroscopy, powder analysis, physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening and fluorescence characteristics. The studies will provide referential information for the correct identification of the crude drug.

  13. POLA PENGOBATAN SENDIRI OLEH MASYARAKAT (SURVAI KESEHATAN RUMAH TANGGA 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ratna Budiarso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pattern on self-treatment was studied from Household Health Survey in 1980. The major disease symptoms identified by lay-men were cough 15.2%, fever 12.9% and running-nose 9.4%. Thirty-four percent of the people being ill, had self treatment as their first action taken. Modem medication were used by 84.6% of those having self-treatment, and antipyretic-analgesics were most frequently used (52,1 %. Traditional medicine was utilized by 20% cases having self-treatment. The subjective outcome of self-treatment, showed that 76.4% cases had improved or were cured. The final result of self-treat­ment did not show very much difference as compared to medical treatment.

  14. Evaluation of drugs for prevention of hyperthermia in rats exposed to microwave irradiation. Final report, 1983-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knepton, J.; Cobb, B.

    1987-03-04

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of two antipyretic drugs, indomethacin and dihydrotachysterol, in the prevention of microwave-induced hyperthermia in rats. Indomethacin has been proven effective in reducing fever of pyrogenic origin. Dihydrotachysterol (DHT) is effective in increasing survival of rats during heat stress. After being acclimated to restraint in an acrylic cone-shaped holder and to the presence of a colonic temperature probe each rat was subjected to a series of body-temperature measurements under various drug and microwave conditions. Pretreatment with both drugs consisted of single and multiple injections prior to microwave exposure. Multiple does of DHT caused a progressive fall in baseline body temperature, but did not affect the relative increase in temperatures due to microwave irradiation. Single-injection procedures did not reduce temperature elevation due to microwave irradiation. Neither indomethacin nor DHT were found to ameliorate microwave-induced hyperthermia.

  15. Polar Compounds Isolated from the Leaves of Albertisia delagoensis (Menispermaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous infusions of the leaves of the shrub Albertisia delagoensis (Menispermaceae are used in South Africa in traditional Zulu medicine to alleviate a variety of symptoms, including fever, and intestinal problems. We report the analysis of such an aqueous extract using the HPLC-NMR technique. A number of polar compounds were identified, including proto-quercitol, nicotinic acid, allantoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid, phthalic acid and the aporphine alkaloid derivative roemrefidine. Allantoic acid and roemrefidine have been fully characterised by 1H- and 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. Earlier reports of antiplasmodial activity of roemrefidine and of A. delagoensis extracts are correlated with this study and with the antipyretic properties of neutral aqueous extracts.

  16. Hydrogenation of aniline on a low-percentage, supported rhodium catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ualikhanova, A.; Temirbulatova, A.E.

    1992-01-10

    The products of hydrogenation of aniline and their derivatives exhibit biological activity and are used in the pharmaceutical industry for preparation of analgesic, antipyretic, and sulfanilamide drugs. Up to 30% of the total consumption of aniline is for synthesis of drugs. Hydrogenation of aniline on platinum metals supported on carbon was studied by Rylander et al. The authors investigated the catalytic properties of rhodium supported on oxides in saturation of aniline with hydrogen in water. In most cases, the amount of noble metal in the supported catalyst was 5%. Decreasing the concentration of active phase in the catalyst is economically advantageous. The features of hydrogenation of aniline in the presence of 1% Rh/MgO in solutions with wide variation of the technological parameters of the process were investigated in the present study. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Pharmacological Research of Tetrandrine and Fangchinoline, the Major Components of Stephania Tetrandrae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永鹤; 方莲花; 库宝善; 姚海燕

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The root of the Chinese herbal remedy Han Fang Ji ( Radix of Stephania Tetrandrae) has been used since antiquity by Chinese physicians as an ahtihypertenion, antirheumatic, analgesic and antipyretic agent. Tetrandrine (TET) and fangchinoline (FAN), the bisbenzylisoquinolide alkaloids, are the major components of Han Fang Ji. TET has been well known as a natural occurred non - specific calcium channel blocker. However, the effects of TET on the cardiovascular system are not fully understood, and that a few of researches about FAN, an another major constituent of Han Fang Ji, are reported. Thus, we have done these studies to investigate and compare the effects of TET and FAN on cardiovascular system,CNS and multi - drug resistance to anticancer drugs for several years.

  18. Isolation, Characterization and In vitro Antiurolithiatic activity of Cerpegin Alkaloid from Ceropegia bulbosa var. Lushii root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Monika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceropegia bulbosa var.lushii also known as Kadula, Haudlo, Khappar-kaddu, Bhuu-tumbi, Gilodya and Patalatumbi in local language, family Asclepiadaceae. The tuberous roots are used to treat several diseases like diarrhoea, dysentery, analgesic, antipyretic, kidney stone and other activities. The tuberous root contains steriods, polyphenols, fats, albuminoids, sugars, potassium and active constituent an alkaloid cerpegin.The present investigation was carried out to isolate, purify and characterize cerpegin from root of Ceropegia bulbosa var.lushii. The isolated cerepegin was further characterized with the help of Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, Thin Layer Chromatography, Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, Proton- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy confirmed the identification. The antiurolithiatic activity of cerpegin was evaluated by using modified invitro model. The isolated compound cerpegin (A1 was showed maximum dissolution of both types of stones (calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in comparison to the all extract tested. Cystone was found to be more effective.

  19. Regimen analysis of children infected by macrolide-resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae%耐药肺炎支原体感染患儿的用药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王穗琼; 王豫; 邓文喻; 张琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the regimen of children infected by macrolide - resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae. Methods The regimens were analyzed of children whose throat swab mycoplasma pneumoniae cultures were positive, from November 2010 to May 2012 in our hospital. And the courses of medications were returned visits. Results There were 116 children whose throat swab mycoplasma pneumoniae cultures were positive. All of them took macrolide antibacterial agents. In addition to three children combined (3-lactam antibacterials, there were 49 children in the drug - resistant group of 52 children infected by macrolide - resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae. There were 64 children in the drug - susceptive group. No significant differences were found in sex, age, usage rates of macrolide antibacterial agents, antipyretic drugs, antihistamines and phlegm drugs, P > 0. 05. Compared to drug - susceptive group, the courses of macrolide antibacterial agents were shorter, and antipyretic drugs, antihistamine drugs and apophlegmatisants were longer in the drug -resistant group, P < 0. 05. Conclusions The children infected by macrolide - resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae treated by antipyretic drugs, antihistamine drugs and apophlegmatisants. Compared to the children infected by macrolide - susceptive mycoplasma pneumoniae, the children infected by macrolide - resistant had shorter course of macrolide antibacterial agents, and longer courses of antipyretic drugs, antihistamine drugs and apophlegmatisants.%目的 探讨耐大环内酯类抗菌药的肺炎支原体感染患儿的用药方案.方法 分析2010年11月至2012年5月广东省妇幼保健院收治的咽拭子肺炎支原体培养阳性患儿的用药方案,并回访用药疗程.结果 MP培养阳性患儿116例均使用了大环内酯类抗菌药抗感染治疗,其中耐药52例,除去3例联合了β内酰胺类抗菌药,耐药组为49例;敏感组为64例,没有联合β内酰胺类抗菌药病例.两组

  20. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  1. Synthesis and activity evaluation of 2-(1-naphtho[2,1- b ]furan-2-yl-carbonyl-3,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaraswamy M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl naphtho[2,1- b ]furan-2-carboxylate (2 on reaction with hydrazine hydrate in presence of acid catalyst in ethanol medium affords naphtho[2,1-b]furan-2-carbohydrazide (3. The reaction of substituted acetophenones (4a-c with aromatic aldehydes (5a-e produces chalcones (6a-o via the Claisen condensation. The reaction of naphtho[2,1- b ]furan-2-carbohydrazide (3 with chalcones (6a-6o in presence of acetic acid as catalyst in dioxane produces 1-(naphtho[2,1- b ]furan-2-yl-carbonyl-3,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles (7a-o. The structures of newly synthesized compounds have been established by elemental analysis and spectral studies. The compounds 7a-o have been evaluated for their antimicrobial activity and some selected compounds evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic, anthelmintic, diuretic and antipyretic activities.

  2. Vibrational spectroscopic studies and DFT calculations of 4-aminoantipyrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, J.; Ramalingam, M.; Sethuraman, V.; Sundaraganesan, N.; Sebastian, S.

    2009-08-01

    The pyrazole derivative, 4-aminoantipyrine (4AAP), used as an intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals especially antipyretic and analgesic drugs has been analyzed experimentally and theoretically for its vibrational frequencies. The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the title compound have been compared with the theoretically computed frequencies invoking the standard 6-311g(d,p) and cc-pVDZ basis sets at DFT level of theory (B3LYP). The harmonic vibrational frequencies at B3LYP/cc-pVDZ after appropriate scaling method seem to coincide satisfactorily with the experimental observations rather than B3LYP/6-311g(d,p) results. The theoretical spectrograms for FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 4AAP have been also constructed and compared with the experimental spectra. Additionally, thermodynamic data have also been calculated and discussed.

  3. Aspectos químicos, biológicos e etnofarmacológicos do gênero Cassia

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    Cláudio Viegas Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of Cassia are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world, and have been extensively investigated chemically and pharmacologically.They are known to be a rich source of phenolic derivatives, most of them with important biological and pharmacological properties. Some Asian, African and Indian tribes use these species as a laxative, purgative, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antiviral and anti-inflammatory agent. Among a number of other classes of secondary metabolites, such as anthracene derivatives, antraquinones, steroids and stilbenoids, biologically active piperidine alkaloids are an especially important bioactive class of compounds that showed to be restricted to a small group of Cassia species. In this paper we present an overview of the chemical, biological and ethnopharmacological data on Cassia piblished in the literature.

  4. Current Perspectives in NSAID-Induced Gastropathy

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    Mau Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are the most highly prescribed drugs in the world. Their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic actions may be beneficial; however, they are associated with severe side effects including gastrointestinal injury and peptic ulceration. Though several approaches for limiting these side effects have been adopted, like the use of COX-2 specific drugs, comedication of acid suppressants like proton pump inhibitors and prostaglandin analogs, these alternatives have limitations in terms of efficacy and side effects. In this paper, the mechanism of action of NSAIDs and their critical gastrointestinal complications have been reviewed. This paper also provides the information on different preventive measures prescribed to minimize such adverse effects and analyses the new suggested strategies for development of novel drugs to maintain the anti-inflammatory functions of NSAIDs along with effective gastrointestinal protection.

  5. Case Report: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma following pretransplant nephrectomy for a 2.35 Kg kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, Arvind P; Chabra, Jaspreet Singh; Singh, Abhishek G; Tak, Gopal R; Soni, Shailesh; Sabnis, Ravindra; Desai, Mahesh

    2016-01-01

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is an extremely rare disease with a worldwide distribution and higher prevalence in Asians. It is a benign and self-limiting disorder, characterized by regional cervical lymphadenopathy accompanied with mild fever and night sweats. Lymph node histopathology is diagnostic and treating physicians should be aware of this entity as it may mimic other systemic diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus, tuberculosis, malignant lymphoma, and more rarely adenocarcinoma. Key features on lymph node biopsy are fragmentation, necrosis and karyorrhexis. Treatment includes symptomatic care, analgesics-antipyretics, corticosteroids and spontaneous recovery occurs in 1 to 4 months. We report a case of adult polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) with end stage renal disease and episodes of fever and cervical lymphadenopathy. The infectious screen was negative and on extensive workup, the patient was found to have histiocytic-necrotizing lymphadenitis, which clinched the diagnosis of KFD. PMID:27408688

  6. A Review on Pyrazole chemical entity and Biological Activity

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    Md. Jahangir Alam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic organic heterocycle containing pyrimidine scaffolds possesses two nitrogen atoms of Five-membered ring. These Pyrazole skeletons comprise various ranges of pharmacological activities such as analgesic, antipyretic, anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anticonvulsant, ant arrhythmic activities. Pyrazole is a multipurpose lead compound developed by chemical architecture for effective molecules which are biologically active. Several synthetic routes are accorded to the development of pyrazole containing reactions to afford a novel molecule which is an enormous opportunity in the field of medicinal chemistry. The existing collection of exertions on research to provide information about the synthesis and innumerable biological activities of pyrazole and their outcomes during the past year.

  7. Mangifera Indica (Mango

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    K A Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted.

  8. Co-Trimoxazole-Induced DRESS Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitorn, Limvorraphan

    2016-02-01

    Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS syndrome) is a severe adverse drug reaction. The drugs, which most commonly induce this condition, are anti-convulsants and sulfonamides. A 15-year-old Thai woman with no known underlying disease was prescribed co-trimoxazole, and two months after initiation, DRESS was diagnosed by RegiSCAR's score. Her clinical symptoms were fever laboratory abnormalities and maculopapular rash on her face, trunk and extremities. She was treated with antipyretics, antihistamines and steroid therapy, and her clinical and laboratory findings were restored to normal by the 10th day of treatment. Early diagnosis, discontinuation of the culprit drug, and management with steroids therapy can reduce the severity of DRESS syndrome. PMID:27266243

  9. O-desmethylquinine as a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors using AutoDock Vina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Sophi; Mahardhika, Andhika Bintang; Ibrahim, Slamet; Chong, Wei Lim; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Tjahjono, Daryono Hadi

    2014-10-01

    Computational approach was employed to evaluate the biological activity of novel cyclooxygenase-2 COX-2 inhibitor, O-desmethylquinine, in comparison to quinine as common inhibitor which can also be used an agent of antipyretic, antimalaria, analgesic and antiinflamation. The molecular models of the compound were constructed and optimized with the density function theory with at the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) level using Gaussian 09 program. Molecular docking studies of the compounds were done to obtain the COX-2 complex structures and their binding energies were analyzed using the AutoDock Vina. The results of docking of the two ligands were comparable and cannot be differentiated from the energy scoring function with AutoDock Vina.

  10. Antiviral Strategies Against Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnabi, Rana; Neyts, Johan; Delang, Leen

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has evolved from a geographically isolated pathogen to a virus that is widespread in many parts of Africa, Asia and recently also in Central- and South-America. Although CHIKV infections are rarely fatal, the disease can evolve into a chronic stage, which is characterized by persisting polyarthralgia and joint stiffness. This chronic CHIKV infection can severely incapacitate patients for weeks up to several years after the initial infection. Despite the burden of CHIKV infections, no vaccine or antivirals are available yet. The current therapy is therefore only symptomatic and consists of the administration of analgesics, antipyretics, and anti-inflammatory agents. Recently several molecules with various viral or host targets have been identified as CHIKV inhibitors. In this chapter, we summarize the current status of the development of antiviral strategies against CHIKV infections. PMID:27233277

  11. Clinical effect of rectal application of suprofen in children. An open controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weydert, A; Gugler, E; Michos, N; Höbel, W; Martinek, G

    1985-01-01

    Antipyretic effect, tolerability, and acceptance of alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-phenyl acetic acid (suprofen, Suprol) suppositories were tested in an open study including 90 hospitalized children with fever of various etiology. The mean rectal temperature prior to treatment was 39.3 degrees C. The dose regimen was chosen depending upon the body weight: Up to 4 suppositories were administered for maximally 4 days. Body temperature as well as pulse and respiratory rates were recorded prior to insertion of the suppository and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h following first application of the preparation. Regardless of sex and age the temperature was reduced in 85.5% of the cases; as compared to the initial values this reduction was after first application statistically significant at all rating times. The only adverse reaction - vomiting - was seen in 3 cases.

  12. Novel pharmaceutical cocrystal consisting of paracetamol and trimethylglycine, a new promising cocrystal former.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yusuke; Fukami, Toshiro; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Tomono, Kazuo

    2014-10-01

    Paracetamol (APAP), a frequently used antipyretic drug, has poor compression moldability. In this study, we identified a novel cocrystal consisting of APAP and trimethylglycine (TMG) that exhibits improved tabletability. TMG was used instead of oxalic acid (OXA), which is a coformer reported previously. The cocrystal (APAP-TMG at a molar ratio of 1:1) was characterized by X-ray analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The crystal structure of APAP-TMG revealed that it was a cocrystal, since no proton was transferred between the APAP and TMG molecules. The compression and dissolution properties of APAP-TMG were similar to that of the APAP-OXA cocrystal. In addition, taste sensing measurements suggested that TMG has a sweet and umami taste, indicating that TMG should suppress the bitterness of APAP. From these results, TMG could be a safe and promising cocrystal former that could replace OXA, which can irritate tissues. PMID:25010838

  13. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience show that hypothermia protects the brain from damage during ischaemia. There is a growing hope that the prevention of fever in stroke will improve outcome and that hypothermia may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. Body temperature...... is directly related to stroke severity and outcome, and fever after stroke is associated with substantial increases in morbidity and mortality. Normalisation of temperature in acute stroke by antipyretics is generally recommended, although there is no direct evidence to support this treatment. Despite its...... obvious therapeutic potential, hypothermia as a form of neuroprotection for stroke has been investigated in only a few very small studies. Therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in acute stroke but owing to serious side-effects--such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia--it is still thought...

  14. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  15. Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of Bioactive Fraction of Syzygium cumini L. Seeds

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    SUNIL S YADAV

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium cumini L. better known as Jamun belonging to the family Myrtaceae is identified to have antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and anti-oxidant activities. Anticancer activity of S. cumini L. fruits has been demonstrated. However, anticancer activity of S. cumini seeds on various types of human cancers has not been explored much. The methanol fraction of ethanol extract from the seeds of S. cumini was found to have significant antibacterial activity. This bioactive fraction was further tested positive for its anticancer activity on various types of human cancer cell lines indicating its potency. Structural characterization of the bioactive fraction was achieved using analysis of high performance liquid chromatography, ultra violet and infra red spectrum.

  16. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burukoglu, Dilek; Baycu, Cengiz; Taplamacioglu, Fulya; Sahin, Erhan; Bektur, Ezgi

    2016-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs are the most commonly used group of drugs today. Increase in the use of standard NSAI for treating pain and inflammation was restricted by the fact that these drugs were proven to possibly cause gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Meloxicam is a NSAI that has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. This study aims to investigate the effects of meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats under light microscopy level. Based on the light microscopic observations, mononuclear cell infiltration and pseudolobular formation was established in liver samples of animals in the experimental group. Metaplasia in surface and glandular epithelia and atrophy were observed in stomach samples. Glomerular stasis-related hypertrophy and focal interstitial nephritis were found in kidneys. It was concluded in this study that meloxicam might cause hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and gastric metaplasia in rats at a used dose and duration. PMID:24958741

  17. European experience with flurbiprofen. A new analgesic/anti-inflammatory agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, W W; Kassam, Y B

    1986-03-24

    Numerous European clinical trials begun more than 12 years ago have clearly demonstrated flurbiprofen's safety and efficacy as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic agent. In preclinical studies, flurbiprofen was at least as potent as indomethacin, and approximately 200 times more potent than aspirin. For patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a review of several trials found flurbiprofen often superior to aspirin and naproxen, and equivalent to indomethacin and ibuprofen in efficacy. Acetaminophen appeared no more effective than placebo for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. For patients with ankylosing spondylitis, flurbiprofen was also shown to be equivalent or superior to indomethacin and phenylbutazone. For patients with osteoarthritis of the peripheral joints, spine, hip, and knee, flurbiprofen was again found equal to ibuprofen, diclofenac, indomethacin, and naproxen. Side effects with flurbiprofen were few and predominantly related to the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STATUS OF DATURA FASTUOSA LINN

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    Dhiman Anju

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants constitute an effective source of traditional and modern medicines. Traditional system of medicine enlightened the importance of Datura fastuosa Linn (Solanaceae to have a great medicinal value. The roots, dried leaves and flowering tops have been used in India for their narcotic and antispasmodic properties in the treatment of numerous ailments and conditions. The juice of fresh leaves, or a poultice of them, is used to relieve painful swellings earache. The seeds and root possess antidiarrhoeal, antipyretic properties and are used to treat insanity and fever. The present paper enlightens the chemical profile and pharmacological potential of D. fastuosa and encourages the traditional use to find new therapeutic effects, but under the guidance of a qualified practitioner.

  19. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza C. M. de Lima

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacologicalproperties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS, particularly, the sedative and analgesic properties of root crude aqueous extract of this plant in mice and rats. This extract showed an antinociceptive effect in acetic acid - acetylcholine - and hypertonic saline - induced abdominal constrictions, but not in hot-plate and tail flick tests P. alliacea did not produce any CNS depressor effect. Thus its antinociceptive action in animals can be responsible by its poplar use as an analgesic.

  20. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine:A concise report of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanika Patel; Ravi B Singh; Dinesh K Patel

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins.Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on aC27 cholestane skeleton.Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system.Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques.Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  1. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn. & Unani Description– A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Shahzad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn. is a marshy perennial herb and rhizomes which has been traditionally used as medicine, against different diseases viz; Nisyan (dementia, Zofe Dimagh (Alzheimers disease, Humma (fever, Zeequn Nafs (asthama, Sual Muzmin (chronic cough, Ziabetus (ziabetes, Dyslipidemia, Quroohe Muzmina (chronic ulcer and mainly for digestive problems such as Dyspepsia (Zofe Hazm, Sue Hazm and Tukhma. A large number of chemical constituents such as phenyl propanoids, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes as well as xanthone glycosides, flavones, lignans, steroids obtained from the Vaj have been proved to show various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, nootropic, antipyretic, anti-asthamatic, hypoglycaemic, hepato-protective, cardioprotective, cytotoxic activity etc. The aim of this review is to provide information regarding Unani description in classical texts and scientific studies at current scenario which will motivate the research scholars on the basis of current scientific updates in their field of research.

  2. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różański, Michał; Jankowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines with antipyretic action have a long tradition of use in Polish phytotherapy. Over the years, they have proven both their efficacy and safety in a feverishness, which very often have accompanied the upper respiratory tract infections in children. Leading active ingredient of these products is the willow bark (Cortex salicis), which has been the active ingredient in both, the herbal mixture Pyrosan placed on the market in the 50's of last century and Pyrosal syrup marketed in the year 1989. Other herbal substances used in such preparations are elder flower, lime flower and meadowsweet flower. The usage of a pharmaceutical form of syrup is prerequisite when the main group of the patients are children. Such products are continuously in use for nearly 30 years in Poland. PMID:27162290

  3. A comparison of nimesulide and paracetamol in the treatment of fever due to inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, G; Titti, G; Pieragostini, P; Comito, A; Scaricabarozzi, I

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of nimesulide were compared with those of paracetamol in a nonblind randomised study that recruited 110 children (64 males, 46 females; aged 3 to 6 years) with inflammation of the upper respiratory tract and fever. Nimesulide suspension (1.5 mg/kg 3 times daily) or paracetamol syrup (10 mg/kg 4 times daily) were administered orally until fever resolved. Body temperature was recorded and local pain and general discomfort assessed. Three patients treated with nimesulide and 6 patients treated with paracetamol withdrew from the study as a result of adverse events, and 1 paracetamol-treated patient discontinued because of a requirement for therapy with steroids. Nimesulide was as effective as paracetamol in reducing fever, local pain, and general discomfort. Nimesulide therefore appears to be at least as effective as paracetamol in terms of antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity in children with inflammation of the upper respiratory tract and fever. PMID:7506180

  4. Comparative efficacy and tolerance of ibuprofen syrup and acetaminophen syrup in children with pyrexia associated with infectious diseases and treated with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autret, E; Breart, G; Jonville, A P; Courcier, S; Lassale, C; Goehrs, J M

    1994-01-01

    A double-blind, randomised, parallel group study has been done comparing the efficacy and tolerability of 7.5 mg/kg ibuprofen syrup (n = 77) and 10 mg.kg-1 acetaminophen syrup (n = 77) in 154 children (6 months to 5 years) with fever (> or = 38 degrees C) associated with infectious diseases and treated with antibiotic therapy. The area under the percentage reduction in temperature curve captured the net effect of each drug and provided the best estimate for comparison of efficacy during a defined period. Temperature evolution over time was not significantly different between the two groups. Nevertheless, the temperature reduction over the first 4 h of treatment (H0-H4) was significantly higher after ibuprofen (60%) than acetaminophen (45%). Both ibuprofen and acetaminophen were well tolerated. In conclusion, significant antipyretic activity, good tolerability and its availability as a syrup make ibuprofen an effective means of fever control in children. PMID:8070499

  5. Variation in Morphological Characteristics and Andrographolide Content in Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (king of bitters, commonly known as Kalmegh is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines for a number of ailments related to digestion, hepatoprotection, hypoglycemic, and as anti-bacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, vermicidal and antipyretic. A. paniculata collected from five locations of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh were studies for their morphological characteristics and diterpene contents to find out superior genotype. The average amount of dry weight per individual was between 16.58 to 18.92 g. The average andrographolide content varied from 1.07 to 2.24 percent in dried leaves. The differences in growth characteristics among the plants collected from different locations were not significant. However, andrographolide content among the plants from different locations were statistically significant. The results indicated that those populations are potentially important sources for breeding, improvement of cultivars and best sources for obtaining higher drug yield.

  6. Berberis lycium a Medicinal Plant with Immense Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sood2

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Berberis lycium belong to family Berberidaceae is an evergreen shrub growing in Himalayan region. The various parts of the plant like root, bark, stem, leaves and fruits are used by the people as a medicine or food. This plant has also gained wide acceptance for its medicinal value in ayurvedic drugs. The plant is known to prevent liver disorders, abdominal disorders, skin diseases, cough, ophthalmic etc. Moreover the pharmacological studies have shown that plant is hypoglycemic, hyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic and antipyretic properties. The fruits of the plant are also very nutritious and are rich source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, anthocyanin etc. These fruits are consumed in raw form or are utilized in the preparation of juices, jams, preserve etc. by the local inhabitants. In the present article an attempt has been made to summarize the various properties of Berberis lycium plant.

  7. Novel application of hydrotropic solubilizing additives in the estimation of aspirin in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated aqueous solutions of various hydrotropic agents like sodium benzoate, sodium salicylate, sodium acetate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide and sodium ascorbate have been observed to enhance aqueous solubilities of a large number of poorly water-soluble drugs. In the present investigation hydrotropic solubilization technique has been employed to solubilize poorly water-soluble aspirin (analgesic and antipyretic drug by 0.5 M ibuprofen sodium solution to carry out titrimetric analysis of aspirin in tablet dosage form. Results of analysis by proposed method and Phamacopoeial method are very comparable. Proposed method is new, rapid, simple, accurate, and reproducible. Statistical data proved the accuracy, reproducibility and the precision of proposed method.

  8. Effect of 70-nm silica particles on the toxicity of acetaminophen, tetracycline, trazodone, and 5-aminosalicylic acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Kondoh, M; Watari, A; Hasezaki, T; Isoda, K; Tsutsumi, Y; Yagi, K

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to nano-sized particles is increasing because they are used in a wide variety of industrial products, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Some animal studies indicate that such nanomaterials may have some toxicity, but their synergistic actions on the adverse effects of drugs are not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether 70-nm silica particles (nSP70), which are widely used in cosmetics and drug delivery, affect the toxicity of a drug for inflammatory bowel disease (5-aminosalicylic acid), an antibiotic drug (tetracycline), an antidepressant drug (trazodone), and an antipyretic drug (acetaminophen) in mice. Co-administration of nSP70 with trazodone did not increase a biochemical marker of liver injury. In contrast, co-administration increased the hepatotoxicity of the other drugs. Co-administration of nSP70 and tetracycline was lethal. These findings indicate that evaluation of synergistic adverse effects is important for the application of nano-sized materials.

  9. Hesperidin alleviates acetaminophen induced toxicity in Wistar rats by abrogation of oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Arjumand, Wani; Nafees, Sana; Seth, Amlesh; Ali, Nemat; Rashid, Summya; Sultana, Sarwat

    2012-01-25

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, but at high dose it leads to undesirable side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The present study demonstrates the comparative hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of hesperidin (HD), a naturally occurring bioflavonoid against APAP induced toxicity. APAP induces hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity as was evident by abnormal deviation in the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, APAP induced renal damage by inducing apoptotic death and inflammation in renal tubular cells, manifested by an increase in the expression of caspase-3, caspase-9, NFkB, iNOS, Kim-1 and decrease in Bcl-2 expression. These results were further supported by the histopathological examination of kidney. All these features of APAP toxicity were reversed by the co-administration of HD. Therefore, our study favors the view that HD may be a useful modulator in alleviating APAP induced oxidative stress and toxicity.

  10. REVIEW ARTICLE – Intravenous paracetamol in pediatrics: A global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzammil Irshad, MBBS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous (IV Paracetamol is an excellent post operative analgesic and antipyretic in children. Efficacy and tolerability of IV Propacetamol have been established in pediatric practice. It is believed that paracetamol works by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzymes. Studies bring to light that therapeutic doses of IV acetaminophen are effective and tolerable in children with least chances of hepatotoxicity. However, overdose toxicity has been reported in children and drug induced hypotension in febrile critically ill patients. Therapeutic doses according to body weight of neonates and children can be administered in hospital settings. Special education of health care staff regarding precise dose and solution is necessary to assess the role of IV paracetamol preparation in pediatric practice.

  11. Current issues with paracetamol induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinc Cakir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol (acetaminophen; APAP, a commonly-used analgesic and anti-pyretic drug, is usually safe when administered at therapeutic doses in children. However, at overdoses, APAP has the potential for causing fulminant hepatic necrosis and nephrotoxicity in both humans and animals. In pre-school children, many poisonings are due to chemical or pharmaceutical preparations like APAP which is an important example for poisoning with pharmaceutics. Liver has an important role in the metabolism of toxic chemicals, certain drugs and environmental pollutants. Using the cytochrome P450 pathway, APAP is converted to a highly toxic metabolite, namely N–acetyl–p–benzoquinamine (NAPQI. By this way, ... [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(3.000: 165-166

  12. Assessment of in vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen on human cultured lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan Basri; Dordu, Tuba; Husunet, Mehmet Tahir; Tazehkand, Mostafa Norizadeh; Valipour, Ebrahim; Topaktas, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is commonly used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the study was to explore the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen in human cultured lymphocytes by sister chromatid exchange, chromosome aberration, and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus tests. 10, 20, 30, and 40 μg/mL concentrations of flurbiprofen (solvent is DMSO) were used to treatment of human cultured lymphocytes at two different treatment periods (24 and 48 h). Flurbiprofen had no significant genotoxic effect in any of these tests. But exposing to flurbiprofen for 24 and 48 h led to significant decrease on proliferation index, mitotic index, and nuclear division index (NDI). Also, all decreases were concentration-dependent (except NDI at 24 h treatment period). Consequently, the findings of this research showed that flurbiprofen had cytotoxic effects in human blood lymphocytes.

  13. Choosing an Appropriate Method for Sustained Release Flurbiprofen Pellet Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zenginer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flurbiprofen is a slightly water soluble, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory active ingredient with analgesic and antipyretic activity. The purpose of this study was to develop an appropriate pellet production method for pH independent sustained release pellet formulation of flurbiprofen. Flurbiprofen pellets were produced by three different production methods; Suspension Layering, Extrusion Spherization, Rotagranulation. Although the simple and fast processing properties of Extrusion Spheronization and Rotagranulation methods, according to visual control and comparative dissolution profiles, Suspension Layering method was found more suitable for Flurbiprofen SR (Sustained Release having high drug load for each single dose. Beginning with the spherical core has brought great advantage to Suspension Layering method, since ideal sphericity could not be reached at Extrusion Spheronization and Rotagranulation methods due to limited microcrystalline cellulose amount.

  14. Antioxidant Capacity and Lipophilic Constitution of Alternanthera bettzickiana flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.A. Petrus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel Nicolson is an erect herb and an ornamental pot plant, which is recorded to be useful in purifying and nourishing blood. It is also claimed to be a soft laxative, a galactagogue and an antipyretic in addition to its wound healing property. The leaves are reported to be used like spinach and in soups. The lipophilic acetone extract of the fresh flowers exhibited in vitro antioxidant/radical scavenging (ABTS•+ and FRAP assays and metal (Ferrous ion chelating capacities. The extract has been analysed to contain eighteen saturated and four unsaturated hydrocarbons, ten saturated, three monounsaturated and one polyunsaturated esters of fatty acid, in addition to a saturated and an unsaturated higher alcohol and a fatty aldehyde, together with a monoterpene and nine acyclic diterpenes and a steroid. γ-Tocopherol and α-tocopherol-β-D-mannoside are the principal vitamin E identified in combination with pairs of cyclohexenones and benzofuranones as well as five phthalates.

  15. PHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIALS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Kumar Biswas et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this literature review was to provide advance research information for the future scientists to discover new drug molecules from the medicinal plant, Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae. The plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol and kaempferol. In addition to its high nutritional value, Moringa oleifera Lam is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine. This review gives the scientific information regarding pharmacological potentials of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae.

  16. ETHNOMEDICOBOTANICAL STUDY ON OCIMUM SANCTUM L. (TULSI - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIPLAB KUMAR DASH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicobotanical study of different plant parts of Ocimum sanctum L., belonging to the family Lamiaceae, popular for its medicinal and religious value in Hinduism of Bangladesh. Methods and materials: This review has been conducted to pile up information that is available in different scientific literatures and this update compendium documentation has focused on some of the traditional and pharmacological aspects and phytochemical constituents. Results: From the result it reveals that wide numbers of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant e.g. aesculectin, orientin, vallinin, eugenol, alkanoids and is proved to have potential for medical effects like hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, chemopreventive, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiulcer, antiinflammatory, antipyretic and various other important medicinal properties. Conclusion: The effects of O. sanctum may delay the development some life threating complications and this work stimulates the researchers for further research on the potential use of this medicinal plants having pharmaceutical potential.

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF GMELINA ARBOREA: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vaibhav

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gmelina arborea Roxb (Family- Verbenaceae commonly known as ‘Gamhar’ is a beautiful fast growing deciduous tree throughout in Indiaand one of the herbs mentioned in all ancient scriptures of Ayurveda.It is known to have been used in traditional Indian medicine having important source of chemicals of immense medicinal and pharmaceutical importance such as flavonoids, alkaloids, arboreol, isoarboreol, methyl arboreol, gummadiol, gmelanone ,gmelinol, n-hexacosnol, n-octanol, β-sitosterol and luteolin. Various studies indicated that it possesses antioxidants, diuretic, anthelmintic activity, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and analgesic, antimicrobial and in the treatment of jaundice, headache, useful in hallucination, piles, fever and ‘Tridosha’as a folk remedies. The review focuses on the detailed phytochemical composition and medicinal uses along with pharmacological properties of different parts of G.arborea.

  18. Mimusops elengi: A Review on Ethnobotany, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad V. Kadam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethno botanical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on Mimusops elengi to which commonly known as Bakul and Spanish cherry, belonging to Sapotaceae family. It is a large ornamental evergreen tree cultivated in India and generally reared in gardens for the sake of its fragrant flowers. In the traditional Indian system of medicine, the ayurveda and in various folk system of medicine, the bark, fruit and seeds of Mimusops elengi possess several medicinal properties such as astringent, tonic, and febrifuge. Chemical studies have shown that, Bark contain tannin, some caoutchoue, wax, starch and ash and Flower contain volatile oil as well as Seeds contain fixed fatty oil. Preclinical studies have shown that Mimusops elengi or some part of its phytochemicals possess Analgesic, Antibiotic, Antihyperlipidemic, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antoxidant, Antipyretic, Cytotoxic, Congestive enhancing, Gingival bleeding, Gastic ulcer, Hypotensive activity

  19. Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eStolzberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs or aging which affects ~14% of the general population. For over a quarter century, auditory scientists have used the salicylate toxicity model to investigate candidate biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying phantom sound perception. In this review, we summarize some of the intriguing biochemical and physiological effects associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus, some of which occur in the periphery and others in the central nervous system. The relevance and general utility of the salicylate toxicity model in understanding phantom sound perception in general are discussed.

  20. Role of neutrophils in hepatotoxicity induced by oral acetaminophen administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G S; Nadig, D E; Kokoska, E R; Solomon, H; Tiniakos, D G; Miller, T A

    1998-12-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common analgesic and antipyretic compound which, when administered in high doses, has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality, secondary to hepatic toxicity. To date, the mechanism(s) whereby APAP induces liver injury remains to be delineated. This study investigated the potential role of neutrophils as contributors to liver injury in rats administered sublethal doses of APAP. Oral APAP administration (650 mg/kg) was associated with increases in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels indicating biochemical evidence of significant liver damage. Furthermore, histological analyses verified significant hepatocellular necrosis as well as enhanced myeloperoxidase staining in these liver specimens. However, if animals were pretreated with antineutrophil sera prior to APAP administration, neutrophil counts remained depressed, ALT levels were significantly decreased, and the degree of liver injury was attenuated on a histological level. Taken together these data suggest that neutrophils mediate, at least in part, the hepatotoxic effects of oral acetaminophen administration in rats. PMID:9878321

  1. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Anthriscus sylvestris as an Alternative Source for Anticancer Lignans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Niţulescu, George Mihai; Orțan, Alina; Dinu-Pîrvu, Cristina Elena

    2015-01-01

    Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. is a wild herbaceous plant common in most temperate regions. It has been used traditionally to treat headaches, as a tonic, as antitussive, antipyretic, analgesic and diuretic. The plant contains deoxypodophyllotoxin, which is proven to have antitumor and anti-proliferative effects, anti-platelet aggregation, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activity. Deoxypodophyllotoxin is considered to be the plant's most important constituent, because of its pharmacological properties and because it can be converted into epipodophyllotoxin, the main raw material for the semisynthesis of the cytostatic agents etoposide and teniposide. This work summarizes for the first time the results related to the botanical description, distribution and habitat, phytochemical and pharmacological properties and emphasizes the aspects for future biotechnological research to establish its utility in the therapeutic arsenal. PMID:26287153

  2. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Anthriscus sylvestris as an Alternative Source for Anticancer Lignans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Tudorel Olaru

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthriscus sylvestris (L. Hoffm. is a wild herbaceous plant common in most temperate regions. It has been used traditionally to treat headaches, as a tonic, as antitussive, antipyretic, analgesic and diuretic. The plant contains deoxypodophyllotoxin, which is proven to have antitumor and anti-proliferative effects, anti-platelet aggregation, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activity. Deoxypodophyllotoxin is considered to be the plant’s most important constituent, because of its pharmacological properties and because it can be converted into epipodophyllotoxin, the main raw material for the semisynthesis of the cytostatic agents etoposide and teniposide. This work summarizes for the first time the results related to the botanical description, distribution and habitat, phytochemical and pharmacological properties and emphasizes the aspects for future biotechnological research to establish its utility in the therapeutic arsenal.

  3. Modern Research and Application Characteristics of Gegen%葛根现代研究及应用特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程博琳; 苗明三

    2014-01-01

    Gegen contains Isoflavones,Puerarin glycosides,triterpenoid saponin and other compound. Gegen has Antipyretic,Antioxi-dant,alleviating a hangover,growing in intelligence,antitumor and other pharmacological effects. Meanwhile,it has clinical application in cerebrovascular disease. Gegen diet and the application in cerebrovascular disease and diabetes will be the focus of research and ap-plication in the future.%葛根含有异黄酮类、葛根苷类、三萜皂苷类及其他化合物,具有解热、抗氧化、解酒、益智、抗肿瘤等药理作用,可用于治疗心脑血管疾病。未来葛根的食疗及在心脑血管系统、糖尿病方面的应用将是研究、应用的重点。

  4. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  5. Near-fatal infection following an elective ankle-fracture fixation: less risk should not mean less vigilance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giada Bianchi; Dingxin Qin; Joseph A.Dearani; Qi Qian

    2011-01-01

    Surgical fixation of closed ankle fracture is traditionally viewed as having low risk for post-operative infection. Only a few cases of surgical-site confined infection have been reported. Because of the low infection risk, the necessity for perioperative prophylaxis has been questioned. We report a case of fulminant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis occurring shortly after an elective ankle fixation surgery in an elderly woman with chronic rheumatoid arthritis. Because systemic infection was unexpected, she had been given antipyretics for postoperative fever until just before rapid clinical deterioration. A nearly fatal hematogenous infection occurred after such a procedure, indicating the necessity for being on high alert and considering the possibility of bloodstream infection.

  6. Environmental effect on essential oil composition of Aloysia citriodora from Corrientes (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Gabriela; Torres, Ana Maria; Bubenik, Ana Laura; Ricciardi, Armando; Lorenzo, Daniel; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    Lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora Palau) is indigenous to South America and was introduced into Europe. It is cultivated mainly due to the lemon-like aroma emitted from its leaves, which are utilized for the preparation of herbal tea reputed to have antispasmodic, antipyretic, sedative and digestive properties. In this work we introduce the enantiomeric distribution of sabinene and limonene by bidimensional gas chromatography (chiral GC-GC) as a genuine quantitative parameter in order to improve the knowledge so far available on A. citriodora oil. Multivariate analysis afforded information on the similarities and differences of wild and cultivated A. citriodora populations during different seasons in the same environmental conditions. The results indicated that it was possible to discard the environmental and seasonal effect on the chemical composition of A. citriodora for wild and cultivated materials belonging to the same genetic origin. PMID:22224294

  7. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF OXAZINE AND ITS DERIVATIVES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SINDHU T J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxazine derivatives are an important class of heterocycles, which has attracted much synthetic interest due to their wide range of biological activities. Oxazine is a heterocyclic compound can be formally derived from benzene, and its reduction products, by suitable substitution of carbon (and hydrogen atoms by nitrogen and oxygen. In the last few years oxazine derivatives have proved to be valuable synthetic intermediates and also possess important biological activities like sedative, analgesic, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antitumour, antimalarial and antimicrobial. In these days, development of drug resistance is a major problem and to overcome this situation, it is necessary to synthesize new classes of compounds. The aim of the article is to review the generalization of the collected data about the synthesis of oxazine derivatives and their activities. We hope that this work will be a definite interest for researchers concerned with azines in generally and oxazines in particular.

  8. Sleep Disruption and Proprioceptive Delirium due to Acetaminophen in a Pediatric Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnovale, Carla; Pozzi, Marco; Nisic, Andrea Angelo; Scrofani, Elisa; Perrone, Valentina; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Radice, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 7-year-old boy, who received acetaminophen for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, due to an infection of the superior airways. 13 mg/kg (260 mg) of acetaminophen was administered orally before bedtime, and together with the expected antipyretic effect, the boy experienced sleep disruption and proprioceptive delirium. The symptoms disappeared within one hour. In the following six months, acetaminophen was administered again twice, and the reaction reappeared with similar features. Potential alternative explanations were excluded, and analysis with the Naranjo algorithm indicated a “probable” relationship between acetaminophen and this adverse reaction. We discuss the potential mechanisms involved, comprising imbalances in prostaglandin levels, alterations of dopamine, and cannabinoid and serotonin signalings. PMID:23573447

  9. Flurbiprofen-antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Zaman; Alamgeer; Kanwal, Munazza; Hassan, Mubashir; Abdullah, Sahar; Waheed, Mamuna; Ahsan, Haseeb; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen-antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (-COOH) was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic -OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (P<0.001) reduced the inflammation against carrageenan and egg albumin-induced paw edema at 4 hours of study. The reduction in the size of the inflamed paw showed that most of the compounds inhibited the later phase of inflammation. The prodrug 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (4b) showed significant reduction in paw licking with percentage inhibition of 58%. It also exhibited higher analgesic activity, reducing the number of writhes with a percentage of 75%, whereas flurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (P<0.001) reduction in rectal temperature was shown by all prodrugs at all times of assessment. The results of ulcerogenic activity showed that all prodrugs produced less GI irritation than flurbiprofen. Molecular docking and simulation studies were carried out with cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) proteins, and it was observed that our prodrugs have more potential to selectively bind to COX-2 than to COX-1. It is concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities with

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihantola-Vormisto, A; Summanen, J; Kankaanranta, H; Vuorela, H; Asmawi, Z M; Moilanen, E

    1997-12-01

    Leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica L. have been used for the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment of rural populations in its growing areas in subtropical and tropical parts of China, India, Indonesia, and the Malay Peninsula. In the present study, leaves of Ph. emblica were extracted with ten different solvents (n-hexane, diethyl ether, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, acetic acid, dichloromethane, 1,4-dioxane, toluene, chloroform, and water). The inhibitory activity of the extracts against human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) and platelet functions was studied. Methanol, tetrahydrofuran, and 1,4-dioxane extracts (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited leukotriene B4-induced migration of human PMNs by 90% and N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced degranulation by 25-35%. The inhibitory activity on receptor-mediated migration and degranulation of human PMNs was associated with a high proportion of polar compounds in the extracts as assessed by normal phase thin layer chromatography. Diethyl ether extract (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited calcium ionophore A23187-induced leukotriene B4 release from human PMNs by 40%, thromboxane B2 production in platelets during blood clotting by 40% and adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation by 36%. Ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin, all compounds isolated earlier from Ph. emblica, could not explain these inhibitory activities on PMNs or platelets by Ph. emblica extracts. These results show that the leaves of Ph. emblica have inhibitory activity on PMNs and platelets, which confirm the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of this plant as suggested by its use in traditional medicine. The data suggest that the plant leaves contain as yet unidentified polar compound(s) with potent inhibitory activity on PMNs and chemically different apolar molecule(s) which inhibit both prostanoid and leukotriene synthesis.

  11. Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Leaves: Analysis Of Proximate, Antioxidant Activities And Inorganic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of herbal plants species has been used in traditional medicine. Most of these plants contained several potent bio-active ingredients and nutrients that could give potential positive effects to the health such as antioxidant and antipyretic. Hibiscus rosa sinensis, commonly known as Bunga raya, have similar concoction characteristic to tea which contain antioxidants that help to control cholesterol. In addition, mucilage that was found in the leaves could helps to reduce extreme body heat during fever (which potentially acts as an antipyretic). Therefore, this preliminary study on the fresh and dried H. rosa sinensis leaves was carried out to analyze and identify the nutrients content, anti-oxidants and inorganic material. Total phenolic content (TPC) method was used for both fresh and dried leaves prior to the antioxidant activities of DPPH free radicals scavenging and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) as to confirm the existence of antioxidant constituents. Meanwhile, the composition of heavy metals was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The proximate analysis of the fresh leaves showed the presence of moisture content (9.03 %), protein (10.44 %), fat (6.43 %), crude fiber (11.55 %), ash (11.22 %) and carbohydrate (51.33 %). Meanwhile, the inorganic contents are as follows: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of FRAP and DPPH showed that dried leaves of H. rosa sinensis was higher than the fresh leaves (p < 0.05) irrespective of any solvent used. The positive correlation between TPC and two other antioxidant activities of DPPH and FRAP (p < 0.05) indicates the presence of antioxidant components in the acetone and water extracts. Therefore, the high availability of essential nutritional component, anti-oxidants and low concentration of hazardous inorganic matter in H. rosa sinensis leaves enable it to be used as one

  12. Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Zaman; Alamgeer; Kanwal, Munazza; Hassan, Mubashir; Abdullah, Sahar; Waheed, Mamuna; Ahsan, Haseeb; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (–COOH) was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic –OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (P<0.001) reduced the inflammation against carrageenan and egg albumin-induced paw edema at 4 hours of study. The reduction in the size of the inflamed paw showed that most of the compounds inhibited the later phase of inflammation. The prodrug 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (4b) showed significant reduction in paw licking with percentage inhibition of 58%. It also exhibited higher analgesic activity, reducing the number of writhes with a percentage of 75%, whereas flurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (P<0.001) reduction in rectal temperature was shown by all prodrugs at all times of assessment. The results of ulcerogenic activity showed that all prodrugs produced less GI irritation than flurbiprofen. Molecular docking and simulation studies were carried out with cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) proteins, and it was observed that our prodrugs have more potential to selectively bind to COX-2 than to COX-1. It is concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities

  13. Occurrence and distribution pattern of acidic pharmaceuticals in surface water, wastewater, and sediment of the Msunduzi River, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunbiade, Foluso O; Moodley, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of information on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment in African countries led the authors to investigate 8 acidic pharmaceuticals (4 antipyretics, 3 antibiotics, and 1 lipid regulator) in wastewater, surface water, and sediments from the Msunduzi River in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The method recoveries, limits of detection (LOD), and limits of quantification were determined. The method recoveries were 58.4% to 103%, and the LODs ranged between 1.16 ng/L and 29.1 ng/L for water and between 0.58 ng/g and 14.5 ng/g for sediment. The drugs were all present in wastewater and in most of the surface water and sediment samples. Aspirin was the most abundant pharmaceutical observed, 118 ± 0.82 μg/L in wastewater influent, and the most observed antibiotic was nalidixic acid (25.2-29.9 μg/L in wastewater); bezafibrate was the least observed. The distribution pattern of the antipyretic in water indicates more impact in suburban sites. The solid-liquid partitioning of the pharmaceuticals between sediment and water, measured as the distribution coefficient (log KD ) gave an average accumulation magnitude of 10× to 32× in sediments than in water. The downstream distribution patterns for both water and sediment indicate discharge contributions from wastewater, agricultural activities, domestic waste disposal, and possible sewer system leakages. Although concentrations of the pharmaceuticals were comparable with those obtained from some other countries, the contamination of the present study site with pharmaceuticals has been over time and continues at present, making effective management and control necessary. PMID:26138880

  14. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from the Red Sea soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens

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    R Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The Red Sea soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens has been investigated concerning its secondary metabolites. Analysis of H. fuscescens has led to the isolation of 6-hydroxy -α- muurolene (1, gorgosten-5(E-3 β-ol (2, 1-nonadecyloxy-2,3-propanediol (3 and (2S,3R,4E,8E-N-hexadecanoyl-2-amino 4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol (4 and sarcoaldosterol A (5. The isolated compounds were reported from several marine organisms and are identified for the first time from the soft coral H. fuscescens collected from the Red Sea. The activity of the alcoholic extract as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, anti oxidant is reported. The activity of the isolated compounds against several pathogenic microbes has been also reported. Industrial Relevance: A huge number of secondary metabolites are produced by soft bodied marine organisms to get over predation and infection. Compounds produced by soft bodied marine organisms are different from those produced by terrestrial organisms, and therefore may yield novel lead for antimicrobial drugs. With the diversity in the secondary metabolites and the new activities and mechanism of action marine animals considered an excellent source for new pharmaceuticals. This work is concerned with the isolation of secondary metabolites isolated form the Heteroxenia fuscescens from the red sea and the evaluation of some biological activities. The alcoholic extract of Heteroxenia fuscescens was found to possess antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity. 6-hydroxy -α- muurolene was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with MIC of 19 µg/ml. The alcoholic extract of the organism under study is none toxic so we believe its sterol content could be a good source for safer anti-inflammatory drugs and also the 6-hydroxy -α- muurolene (compound 1 will be a good candidate for more derivatisation studies to optimize its activity and selectivity as antimicrobial.

  15. Self-medication practices among female students of higher educational institutions in Selangor, Malaysia: A quantitative insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Wong, Pei Se; Yi, Heng Chin; Yun, Gan Siaw; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization has defined self-medication as the selection and use of medications (including herbal and traditional product) by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The prevalence of self-medication is reported to be higher among female students. Objective: To investigate the awareness and self-medication practices among female students of higher education institutions in Malaysia. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in four higher education institutes of Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to collect data from a sample 475 students. A “pretested” questionnaire was used as a study instrument. Results: A total of 461 questionnaires were returned (response rate 97.05%). The prevalence of self-medication among female students in higher educational institutions was 57.2% (n = 262). The most common source of self-prescribed medicine was a pharmacy or clinics (n = 206; 45%). It was found that antipyretics were the most common medications used without doctor's consultation (n = 212; 89.1%). Analgesics and antipyretics (n = 79; 62.7%) were highly recommended by students to their family and friends. The common reason for self-medication was prior successful experience (n = 102, 81.0%). The majority of respondents (n = 280; 61.1%) reported that they believed over-the-counter medications were as effective as medications prescribed by a doctor. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication practice among female students in the sample of the four higher education institutions was moderate. More studies are required to generalize these findings across Malaysia. PMID:27413350

  16. Alleviative Effects of a Kampo (a Japanese Herbal Medicine “Maoto (Ma-Huang-Tang” on the Early Phase of Influenza Virus Infection and Its Possible Mode of Action

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    Takayuki Nagai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Kampo medicine, maoto, has been prescribed in an early phase of influenza-like illness and used for a treatment of influenza clinically in Japan these days. However, the efficacy of maoto against the virus infection remains to be elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the alleviative effects of maoto against early phase of influenza virus infection and its preliminary mode of actions through immune systems. When maoto (0.9 and 1.6 g/kg/day was orally administered to A/J mice on upper respiratory tract infection of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 from 4 hours to 52 hours postinfection (p.i. significant antipyretic effect was shown in comparison with water-treated control. Administration of maoto (0.8 and 1.3 g/kg/day significantly decreased the virus titers in both nasal (NLF and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF at 52 hours p.i., and significantly increased the anti-influenza virus IgM, IgA, and IgG1 antibody titers in NLF, BALF, and serum, respectively. Maoto also increased significantly the influenza virus-bound IgG1 and IgM antibody titers in serum and the virus-bound IgM antibody titer in even the BALF of uninfected A/J mice. These results indicate that maoto exerts antipyretic activity in influenza virus-infected mice and virus reducing effect at an early phase of the infection through probably augmentation of the virus-bound natural antibodies.

  17. The effect of preoperative intravenous paracetamol administration on postoperative fever in pediatrics cardiac surgery

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    Mohammad-Hasan Abdollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-operative fever is a common complication of cardiac operations, which is known to be correlated with a greater degree of cognitive dysfunction 6 weeks after cardiac surgery. The aim of the present study was to examine efficacy and safety of single dose intravenous Paracetamol in treatment of post-operative fever in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 80 children, aged 1-12 years, presenting for open heart surgery were entered in the trial and randomly allocated into two groups: Placebo and Paracetamol. After induction of anaesthesia, 15 mg/kg intravenous Paracetamol solution was infused during 1 h in the Paracetamol group. Patients in placebo group received 15 mg/kg normal saline infusion during the same time. Since the end of operation until next 24 h in intensive care unit, axillary temperature of the two group patients was recorded in 4-h intervals. Any fever that occurred during this period had been treated with Paracetamol suppository (125 mg and the amount of antipyretic drug consumption for each patient had been recorded. In order to examine the safety of Paracetamol, patients were evaluated for drug complication at the same time. Results: Mean axillary temperature during first 24 h after operation was significantly lower in Paracetamol group compared with placebo group (P = 0.001. Overall fever incidence during 24 h after operation was higher in placebo group compared with Paracetamol group (P = 0.012. Of Paracetamol group patients, 42.5% compared with 15% of placebo group participants had no consumption of antipyretic agent (Paracetamol suppository during 24 h after operation (P = 0.001. Conclusion: This study suggests that single dose administration of intravenous Paracetamol before paediatric cardiac surgeries using cardiopulmonary bypass; reduce mean body temperature in the first 24 h after operation.

  18. Flurbiprofen-antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Zaman; Alamgeer; Kanwal, Munazza; Hassan, Mubashir; Abdullah, Sahar; Waheed, Mamuna; Ahsan, Haseeb; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen-antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (-COOH) was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic -OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (P<0.001) reduced the inflammation against carrageenan and egg albumin-induced paw edema at 4 hours of study. The reduction in the size of the inflamed paw showed that most of the compounds inhibited the later phase of inflammation. The prodrug 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (4b) showed significant reduction in paw licking with percentage inhibition of 58%. It also exhibited higher analgesic activity, reducing the number of writhes with a percentage of 75%, whereas flurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (P<0.001) reduction in rectal temperature was shown by all prodrugs at all times of assessment. The results of ulcerogenic activity showed that all prodrugs produced less GI irritation than flurbiprofen. Molecular docking and simulation studies were carried out with cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) proteins, and it was observed that our prodrugs have more potential to selectively bind to COX-2 than to COX-1. It is concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities with

  19. Drug eruptions: An 8-year study including 106 inpatients at a dermatology clinic in Turkey

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    Fatma Akpinar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few clinical studies are found in the literature about patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of cutaneous drug eruption. Aims: To determine the clinical types of drug eruptions and their causative agents in a hospital-based population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in the Dermatology Department of Haseki General Hospital. Through 1751 patients hospitalized in this department between 2002 and 2009, inpatients diagnosed as drug eruption were evaluated according to WHO causality definitions. 106 patients composed of probable and possible cases of cutaneous drug eruptions were included in this study. Results: Seventy one females and 35 males were evolved. Mean age was 44.03±15.14. Duration between drug intake and onset of reaction varied from 5 minutes to 3 months. The most common clinical type was urticaria and/or angioedema in 48.1% of the patients, followed by maculopapular rash in 13.2%, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in 8.5%. Drugs most frequently associated with cutaneous drug eruptions were antimicrobial agents in 40.5% of the patients, followed by antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics in 31.1%, and antiepileptics in 11.3%. Conclusion: Urticaria and/or angioedema and maculopapular rash comprised majority of the drug eruptions. Rare reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, sweet syndrome, oral ulceration were also found. Antimicrobial agents and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics were the most commonly implicated drugs. Infrequently reported adverse reactions to myorelaxant agents, newer cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were also detected. We suppose that studies on drug eruptions should continue, because the pattern of consumption of drugs is changing in every country at different periods and many new drugs are introduced on the market continuously.

  20. 布洛芬分散片的药效学研究%Experimental study of pharmacodynamics of Ibuprofen Dispersible Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凤玉; 孙海清

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究布洛芬分散片的药效学.方法 应用布洛芬分散片探索对角叉胶所致大鼠足跖炎性肿胀的抗炎作用以及解热镇痛作用、内毒素致家兔发热的解热作用与醋酸致小鼠疼痛的镇痛效果.结果用布洛芬分散片低、中和高剂量组分别与空白组比较,动物关节肿胀程度明显减轻(P < 0.01),小鼠扭体次数显著减少 (P < 0.01),家兔体温显著降低(P < 0.01).结论 布洛芬分散片药效与片剂相同,可以作为一种新剂型开发.%Objective To study the pharmacodynamics of Ibuprofen Dispersible Tablets. Methods Ibuprofen Dispersible Tablets were used to explore the anti-inflammatory effect and the antipyretic and analgesic effect on the car-rageenan-induced rat footpad inflammatory swelling, the antipyretic effect on the endotoxin-induced home rabbit fever and the analgesic effect on the acetate-induced mice pain. Results Compared with the control group, the joint swelling degree significantly relieved (P < 0.01), the number of writhing times significantly reduced (P < 0.01) and the temperature of home rabbit significantly lowered (P < 0.01) in the low, medium and high dose ibuprofen dispersible tablet groups. Conclusion Ibuprofen Dispersible Tablets have the same pharmacodynamics with Ibuprofen Tablets and thus can be served as a new formulation.

  1. 蜂毒蜜点涂佐治小儿急性细菌性扁桃体炎的疗效与安全性%The efficacy and safety of the adjuvant Treatment of the children with acute bacterial tonsillitis by pointing the Honey Bee Venom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊莉; 成永明; 邓庭超; 朱锦妍; 洁珍; 黄晨娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价蜂毒蜜点涂佐治小儿急性细菌性扁桃体炎的临床疗效与安全性。方法:将符合本方案入选条件的患儿125例,随机分成治疗组和对照组,其中治疗组为64例,对照组为61例。治疗组在口服头孢克洛颗粒的基础上,用蜂毒蜜1ml点涂咽部两侧与双侧扁桃体,每天2次,疗程5d;对照组仅口服头孢克洛颗粒,不用蜂毒蜜点涂,疗程相同。结果:治疗组48小时退热率为73.4%,总有效率为100%,不良反应率为3.1%。对照组48小时退热率为55.7%,总有效率为90.2%,不良反应率为1.6%。经统计学处理:两组临床疗效有显著性差异(P0.05)。结论:蜂毒蜜点涂佐治小儿急性细菌性扁桃体炎安全、有效,易于被患儿接受。%Objective:To assess the efficacy and safety of the adjuvant treatment of the children with acute bacterial tonsillitis by pointing the honey bee Venom. Methods:To divide 125 patients into two groups randomly-the treatment group (sixty four) and the control group (sixty one). On the basis of oral cefaclor granules,the treatment group were pointed on the pharynx and bilateral amygdala with the one milliliter of the honey bee venom, twice a day for five days, and control group only with oral cefaclor particles for five days. Results: The treatment group showed antipyretic rate of 73.4% within 48 hours and the total effective rate was 100% with the rate of adverse events of 3.1%. The control group showed antipyretic rate of 55.7% within 48 hours, the total effective rate was 90.2%, the incidence rate of adverse events of 1.6%; After the statistics treatment, the significant difference was seen between the two groups in the antipyretic rate within 48 hours and clinical curative effect (P0.05).Conclusion: The adjuvant treatment with pointing honey bee venom was safe, effective, and easily acceptant in the children with acute bacterial tonsillitis.

  2. Drug intervention effects on thrombocytopenia due to Plasmodium berghei infection in mice%鼠疟原虫引起血小板减少药物干预效果的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区德锦; 韦海艳; 邹春燕; 崔立旺; 黄亚铭

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the common antipyretics,antibiotics and corticosteroids on thrombocytopenia due to Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Methods Healthy Kunming mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with Plasmodium berghei and treated with β -Iactams,quinolones, antipyretics and corticosteroids at dose of 10 times that of human dose for 3 days by irrigation or intramuscular injection when platelet count markedly below normal value.Then blood samples were obtained for every 12 hours and platelet count was recorded. Observation group consisted of five mice and each drug was tested in a group and with control group. Results The normal mice platelet count averaged for 256 × 109/L and the platelet count dropped to an average count of 90 ×109/L in each group 8 days after infection with Plasmodium berghei. The platelet count returned to 201 × 109/L in azithromycin-treated group only 3 days after treated with various antibiotics and muscular injection of aminophenazone and dexamethasone.and other antibiotics, antipyretic and corticosteroids showed no effect on thrombocytopenia recovery in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Conclusions Except azithromycin,aminophenazone,amoxicillin,levofloxacin and dexamethasone showed on effects on platelet recovery in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.%目的 了解退烧药、抗生素及激素对感染鼠疟原虫引起的血小板减少是否具有恢复的效果.方法 健康昆明小鼠腹腔接种感染伯氏鼠疟原虫,当感染鼠血小板明显低于正常值后,分别采用临床常用的大环内酯类、β内酰胺类和喹诺酮类抗生素、退烧药及激素类药物按照人体治疗量的10倍灌服或肌注方法给药3d,每12h采血1次做血小板计数观察.每5只小鼠为一个观察试验组,每种药物采用一组小鼠试验观察取平均数据,并设正常对照组. 结果 正常鼠血小板平均计数为256 × 109/L.健康鼠感染鼠疟原虫后第8d,各组感

  3. Use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the prevention of streptococcal and viral pharyngotonsillitis in children

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    Di Pierro F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Maria Colombo,2 Alberto Zanvit,3 Paolo Risso,4 Amilcare S Rottoli5 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milan, 2Pediatric Department, University of Parma, Parma, 3Stomatology Institute, Milan, 4Laboratory of Epidemiology and Social Psychiatry, Mario Negri Institute, Milan, 5Pediatric Department, Uboldo Hospital, Cernusco sul Naviglio, Italy Background: Streptococcus salivarius K12 is an oral probiotic strain releasing two lantibiotics (salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B that antagonize the growth of S. pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans also affected by episodes of acute otitis media. S. salivarius K12 successfully colonizes the oral cavity, and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. We tested its preventive role in reducing the incidence of both streptococcal and viral pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis in children. Materials and methods: We enrolled 61 children with a diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal disorders. Thirty-one of them were enrolled to be treated daily for 90 days with a slow-release tablet for oral use, containing no less than 1 billion colony-forming units/tablet of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®, and the remaining 30 served as the untreated control group. During treatment, they were all examined for streptococcal infection. Twenty children (ten per group were also assessed in terms of viral infection. Secondary end points in both groups were the number of days under antibiotic and antipyretic therapy and the number of days off school (children and off work (parents. Results: The 30 children who completed the 90-day trial with Bactoblis® showed a significant reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (>90%, as calculated by comparing the infection rates of the previous year. No difference was observed in the control group. The treated group showed a significant decrease in the incidence (80% of oral viral infections. Again

  4. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by RehabCare, Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medication errors are widely reported for hospitalised patients, but limited data are available for medication errors that occur in community-based and clinical settings. Epidemiological data from poisons information centres enable characterisation of trends in medication errors occurring across the healthcare spectrum. AIM: The objective of this study was to characterise the epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) of Ireland. METHODS: A 3-year prospective study on medication errors reported to the NPIC was conducted from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009 inclusive. Data on patient demographics, enquiry source, location, pharmaceutical agent(s), type of medication error, and treatment advice were collated from standardised call report forms. Medication errors were categorised as (i) prescribing error (i.e. physician error), (ii) dispensing error (i.e. pharmacy error), and (iii) administration error involving the wrong medication, the wrong dose, wrong route, or the wrong time. RESULTS: Medication errors were reported for 2348 individuals, representing 9.56% of total enquiries to the NPIC over 3 years. In total, 1220 children and adolescents under 18 years of age and 1128 adults (>\\/= 18 years old) experienced a medication error. The majority of enquiries were received from healthcare professionals, but members of the public accounted for 31.3% (n = 736) of enquiries. Most medication errors occurred in a domestic setting (n = 2135), but a small number occurred in healthcare facilities: nursing homes (n = 110, 4.68%), hospitals (n = 53, 2.26%), and general practitioner surgeries (n = 32, 1.36%). In children, medication errors with non-prescription pharmaceuticals predominated (n = 722) and anti-pyretics and non-opioid analgesics, anti-bacterials, and cough and cold preparations were the main pharmaceutical classes involved. Medication errors with prescription medication predominated for

  5. Effects of Tufu Decoction Rectal Medication on Body Temperature and Gastrointestinal Function of Fushi Syndrome Rats%通腑方直肠滴入对腑实证大鼠体温及胃肠功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶冬兰

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过观察不同剂量通腑方直肠滴入对腑实证大鼠体温及胃肠动力的影响,探讨相关作用机理.方法 以中药灌服制备大鼠腑实证模型,各治疗组均从造模成功后第2日开始连续3d给药,观察各组大鼠体温、胃肠蠕动、胃泌素水平.结果 与模型组比较,通腑方有一定的解热作用,并且其解热作用比阳性药物作用更持久.通腑方能促进胃动素、胃泌素产生,对肠蠕动均有推动作用,中剂量组与高剂量组无明显差异.结论 通腑方有一定的解热作用,其对胃排空有一定的促进作用,且能促进胃动素和胃泌素的产生,对消化功能有着积极的作用.%Objective: To explore the mechanism of tongfu decoction treating pediatric related disease by the way observing of Effects Tufu Decoction rectal medication on body temperature and gastrointestinal function of Fushi Syndrome rats. Methods: Empirical model of Fushi Pattern rats were set by Chinese traditional irrigation . Each treatment group were given Tongfu decoction from the second day after the success of the Setting model for three consecutive days,and the rats body temperature,gastrointestinal peristalsis,gastrin were observed in every group.Result: Compared with model group,the tongfu Decoction had antipyretic effect,and itsantipyretic effect is more lasting than positive drug effect. The Tongfu decoction were role to bowel movements. There were no obvious difference between the dose group and high dose group.The dose and high dose group could promote motilin,gastrin produce,and there were no obvious difference in the dose and high dose group. Conclusion:The Tongfu Decoction has antipyretic effect, gastric emptying effect, gastrointestinal peristalsis promotion effect, motilin and gastrin generation promotion effect,which contributs positively to digestion.

  6. 红北柴胡药效作用初探%Pharmacodynamics of Bupleurum Chinese DC.and B.Scorzonerifolium Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓节; 胡杰; 张福生; 李震宇; 秦雪梅

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较研究北柴胡和红柴胡在解热、抗炎、镇痛及保肝等方面药效作用间的差异.方法:wistar大鼠和昆明种小鼠随即分为5组正常组、模型组、北柴胡组、红柴胡组和阳性对照组,分别采用大鼠2,4-二硝基苯酚致热实验、小鼠光热法致尾痛实验、小鼠腹腔毛细血管通透性实验及四氯化碳所致小鼠急性肝损伤实验进行药效评价与验证.结果:结果表明,北柴胡的抗灸、镇痛作用比红柴胡好,而红柴胡的解热作用优于北柴胡.结论:中药的品种对其疗效会产生很重要的影响,建议在临床用药时北柴胡和红柴胡不可混用,应注明其品种,以确保中药疗效的稳定性.%Objective:To study the differences of pharmacological effects between B. Scorzonerifolium DC. and B. Scorzonerifolium Willd. including analgesic, antipyretic effect, anti - inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. Methods, thermogenic action induced by 2,4 -dinitrophenol.tail -pain test by photothermy and vinegar abdominal capillary permeability were applied to evaluate and validate the pharmacodynamics of B. chinense DC. and B. scozonerifolium Willd. Five groups in each experiment, heath control group,model group,positive control group,B. chinense DC. group and B. scozonerifolium Willd. group. Results,The anti -inflammatory and analgesic effect of B. chinense DC. group were better than B. scozonerifolium Willd. group, which,however, had the better antipyretic effect. Conclusion: Because varieties of traditional Chinese medicine have important effects on its therapy and in order to ensure the therapy stability of traditional Chinese medicine,it is recommended that B, chinense DC. and B. scozonerifolium Willd. should be used respectively on clinical application.

  7. Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zaman Ashraf,1,2 Alamgeer,3 Munazza Kanwal,1 Mubashir Hassan,2 Sahar Abdullah,3 Mamuna Waheed,3 Haseeb Ahsan,3 Song Ja Kim2 1Department of Chemistry, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Abstract: Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (–COOH was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic –OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, ­suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (P<0.001 reduced the inflammation against carrageenan and egg albumin-induced paw edema at 4 hours of study. The reduction in the size of the inflamed paw showed that most of the compounds inhibited the later phase of inflammation. The prodrug 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-ylpropanoate (4b showed significant reduction in paw licking with percentage inhibition of 58%. It also exhibited higher analgesic activity, reducing the number of writhes with a percentage of 75%, whereas flurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (P<0.001 reduction in rectal temperature was shown by all

  8. Anticancer activities against cholangiocarcinoma, toxicity and pharmacological activities of Thai medicinal plants in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plengsuriyakarn Tullayakorn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA, a devastating cancer with increasing worldwide incidence and mortality rates, is largely ineffective. The discovery and development of effective chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. Methods/Design The study aimed at evaluating anticancer activities, toxicity, and pharmacological activities of the curcumin compound (CUR, the crude ethanolic extracts of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger: ZO and Atractylodes lancea thung. DC (Khod-Kha-Mao: AL, fruits of Piper chaba Hunt. (De-Plee: PC, and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai formulation (a mixture of parts of 18 Thai medicinal plants: PPF were investigated in animal models. Anti-cholangiocarcinoma (anti-CCA was assessed using CCA-xenograft nude mouse model. The antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and anti-ulcer activities and effects on motor coordination were investigated using Rota-rod test, CODA tail-cuff system, writhing and hot plate tests, carrageenan-induced paw edema test, brewer's yeast test, and alcohol-induced gastric ulcer test, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity tests were performed according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals with modification. Results Promising anticancer activity against CCA in nude mouse xenograft model was shown for the ethanolic extract of AL at all oral dose levels (1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight as well as the extracts of ZO, PPF, and CUR compound at the highest dose level (5000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. PC produced no significant anti-CCA activity. Results from acute and subacute toxicity tests both in mice and rats indicate safety profiles of all the test materials in a broad range of dose levels. No significant toxicity except stomach irritation and general CNS depressant signs were observed. Investigation of pharmacological activities of the test materials revealed promising anti-inflammatory (ZO, PPF, and AL, analgesic (CUR and

  9. 抗风湿中药制剂中非法添加多种化学成分的HPLC检测%Determination of the illegal addictives in the traditional Chinese antirheumatic preparations by RP-HPLC-UV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘放; 唐靓

    2014-01-01

    Obj ective To determine the illegal addictives in the traditional Chinese antirheumatic preparations by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography(RP-HPLC-UV).Methods The separation was performed on an Agilent HC C18 column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 mm)with detective wavelength at 240 nm.The mixture solution of methanol and 1 mL·L-1 acetic acid (60∶40) was used as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1 .0 mL·min-1 .Results 4 kinds antipyretic analgesic chemical substances and 2 kinds glucocorticoid were proved to be separated completely under the selected chromatography conditions.Conclusion The meth-od is simple and accurate,and can be used for detecting antipyretic analgesic chemical substances and glucocorticoid aduherated in the preparations of traditional Chinese medicine and health food.%目的:应用反相高效液相色谱-紫外检测(RP-HPLC-UV)技术分析检测抗风湿中药制剂中可能存在的化学药品成分。方法采用的色谱柱分别为 Agilent HC C18(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 mm );流动相为甲醇-1 mL·L-1醋酸水溶液(60∶40);流速:1 mL·min-1;捡测波长240 nm。结果4种解热镇痛类化学药物和2种糖皮质激素化学药物,能在该色谱条件下得到分离和鉴定。结论该法简便、快速、准确,可用于中成药及保健品中非法添加解热镇痛类化学药物和糖皮质激素的检测。

  10. 栀子化学成分及其药理作用研究进展%Advances in studies on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Gardenia jasminoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥乐; 李红伟; 李颜; 余奇; 万丽丽; 郭澄

    2011-01-01

    栀子(Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.)是茜草科(Rubiaceae)栀子属植物,其干燥成熟果实作为中药栀子,具有泻火除烦、清热利尿、凉血解毒的功效.现代植物化学研究发现,该植物中含有大量的环烯醚萜类化合物,同时还存在一些有机酸、黄酮、香豆素、挥发油、皂苷、木脂素、多糖及其他类化合物;现代药理研究表明栀子具有抗炎、抗氧化、利胆、利尿、抗肿瘤、解热、镇痛、辐射防护、降血脂等多种药理活性,成为研究的热点.因此本文对最近5年有关栀子的化学成分和药理研究的新进展进行分类汇总,为其进一步研究提供参考.%Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, one genus of Gardenia, belongs to the family of the Rubiaceae.The fruit of G.jasminoides is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine named “Zhizi”.It has significant biologic activities including antipyretic, antianxiety, diuretic effcts, Cooling the Blood and Detoxication.Recently, a large quantity of newly-emerging bioactive constituents from G.jasminoides has been reported.The unique constituents iridoid glucosides, and other types of active principles include organic acid, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, terpenoids, volatile oils and fatty acids.They entitle the plant to possess several bioactivities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cholagogue, diuretic, anticancer, radiological protection, antiphlogistic, antipyretic, analgesic,and antihyperlipidemic effects.In this paper, we reviewed categorization of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of G.jasminoides from reports since 2004.This review will provide a reference for further studies.

  11. The epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medication errors are widely reported for hospitalised patients, but limited data are available for medication errors that occur in community-based and clinical settings. Epidemiological data from poisons information centres enable characterisation of trends in medication errors occurring across the healthcare spectrum. AIM: The objective of this study was to characterise the epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) of Ireland. METHODS: A 3-year prospective study on medication errors reported to the NPIC was conducted from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009 inclusive. Data on patient demographics, enquiry source, location, pharmaceutical agent(s), type of medication error, and treatment advice were collated from standardised call report forms. Medication errors were categorised as (i) prescribing error (i.e. physician error), (ii) dispensing error (i.e. pharmacy error), and (iii) administration error involving the wrong medication, the wrong dose, wrong route, or the wrong time. RESULTS: Medication errors were reported for 2348 individuals, representing 9.56% of total enquiries to the NPIC over 3 years. In total, 1220 children and adolescents under 18 years of age and 1128 adults (>\\/= 18 years old) experienced a medication error. The majority of enquiries were received from healthcare professionals, but members of the public accounted for 31.3% (n = 736) of enquiries. Most medication errors occurred in a domestic setting (n = 2135), but a small number occurred in healthcare facilities: nursing homes (n = 110, 4.68%), hospitals (n = 53, 2.26%), and general practitioner surgeries (n = 32, 1.36%). In children, medication errors with non-prescription pharmaceuticals predominated (n = 722) and anti-pyretics and non-opioid analgesics, anti-bacterials, and cough and cold preparations were the main pharmaceutical classes involved. Medication errors with prescription medication predominated for

  12. Acaricide activity of leaves extracts of Sambucus australis Schltdl. (Caprifoliaceae at 2% on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Krawczak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasite infections caused by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus are responsible for the most of economic losses in producing-cattle countries in tropical and subtropical areas. Indiscriminate uses of chemical acaricides have contributed with the appearance of tick resistance to many drugs available in the marketplace, and it is a serious problem in the tick control. Flowers of Sambucus australis (South America, called "sabugueiro-from-Brazil", are used on infusions or decoctions forms in the folk medicine with diuretic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and laxative purpose, also employed for treating respiratory diseases in human. The main goal of this study was to evaluate in vitro potential of S. australis leaves extracts as an acaricide agent. Ethanol extract at 70% has been dehydrated and a fraction was suspended in 70% ethanol or in distillated water at final concentration of 2% (0.2mg-1. Using the immersion test of engorged females the efficiency results were obtained in 34% and 66% with the leaves extract diluted in water and 70% ethanol, respectively. This study is the first report on acaricidal activity of S. australis against cattle tick. Further studies to determine the active metabolites in different stages of S. australis could aid to identify suitable extracts to be tested in the R. (B. microplus control.

  13. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and iron (II-dependent DNA damage by extracts of Pothomorphe peltata (L. Miq

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    Desmarchelier C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Pothomorphe peltata (L. Miq. (Piperaceae are used locally as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and diuretic infusions and to treat external ulcers and local infections in several parts of the Peruvian, Bolivian and Brazilian Amazon region. The antioxidant activity of different extracts of P. peltata was studied using the hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence assay in liver homogenates, and the methanolic extract was found to have the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 = 4 µg/ml. Aqueous and dichloromethane extracts did not show antioxidant activity. The extracts were further evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS assay. Finally, an assay of DNA sugar damage induced by Fe (II salt was used to determine the capacity of the extracts to suppress the oxidative degradation of DNA. All the extracts showed antioxidant activity in the latter two bioassays. The methanolic extract showed the highest activity in reducing oxidative damage to DNA, with an IC50 = 5 µg/ml. Since this extract was highly effective in reducing chemiluminescence and DNA damage, and because the latter activity could be due to the presence of compounds that bind to DNA, DNA-binding activity was studied using the DNA-methyl green (DNA-MG bioassay. A 30% decrease in the initial absorbance of DNA-MG complex was observed in the methanolic extract at 1000 µg/ml, suggesting the presence of compounds that bind to genetic material. No DNA-binding activity was observed in the aqueous or dichloromethane extracts

  14. Structural Elucidation of two Compounds from the Fruit of Medicinally Important Plant, Basella Rubra

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    Swarnali Nath Choudhury

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Basella rubra is a medicinal plant species found in India and other parts of Asia and tropical Africa. It improves the appetite, useful in biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers and it has antiviral and antipyretic activity. The red pigment from the fruit has good colouring ability. It is bright purple at pH 3-7. It is a good additive and a safe, non-poisonous colorant. At present, the dyestuff industry has grown rapidly because of the vital role played by small – scale sector, which is responsible for the production of azo, acids, basics and direct dyes. But such synthetic dyes have toxic effect and hence may not be useful in edible substances. Therefore keeping this in mind the structure of two separated compounds from the fruit pigment of medicinally important plant Besella rubra were elucidated. The structures of the compounds have been characterized on the basis of spectral data such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectral studies.

  15. Design, Synthesis and the Biological Evaluation of New 1,3-Thiazolidine-4-ones Based on the 4-Amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Apotrosoaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New thiazolidine-4-one derivatives based on the 4-aminophenazone (4-amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one scaffold have been synthesized as potential anti-inflammatory drugs. The pyrazoline derivatives are known especially for their antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, but recently there were synthesized new compounds with important antioxidant, antiproliferative, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. The beneficial effects of these compounds are explained by nonselective inhibition of cyclooxygenase izoenzymes, but also by their potential scavenging ability for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The structure of the new compounds was proved using spectroscopic methods (FR-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS. The in vitro antioxidant potential of the synthesized compounds was evaluated according to the ferric reducing antioxidant power, phosphomolydenum reducing antioxidant power, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The chemical modulation of 4-aminophenazone (6 through linkage to thiazolidine-propanoic acid derivatives 5a–l led to improved antioxidant potential, all derivatives 7a–l being more active than phenazone. The most active compounds are the derivatives 7e, and 7k, which showed the higher antioxidant effect depending on the antioxidant assay considered.

  16. Bioprospecting of Moringa (Moringaceae: Microbiological Perspective

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    Harpreet Kaur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce primary and secondary metabolites which encompass a wide array of functions. Some of these have been subsequently exploited by humans for their beneficial role in a diverse array of applications. However, out of 750,000 species available on earth, only 1 to 10 % is being potentially used. Moringa is one such genus belonging to the family of Moringaceae, a monotypic family of single genera with around 33 species. Most of these species have not been explored fully despite the enormous bioactivity reports concerning various potentials such as: cardiac and circulatory stimulants; anti-tumor; antipyretic; antiepileptic; anti-inflammatory; antiulcer; antispasmodic; diuretic antihypertensive; cholesterol lowering; antioxidant; antidiabetic; hepato protective; antibacterial and antifungal activities. They are claimed to treat different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine. Surprisingly, some of the species have been reported to be extinct from the face of earth before their exploration and exploitation for economic benefits. This review focuses on the bio-prospects of Moringa particularly on relatively little explored area of their microbiological applications.

  17. IMLII: A CRAZE LOVELY

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    Dhamija Isha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Every part of Tamarind tree, from roots to leaf tips has been utilized to meet different human needs. Tamarindus indica (Caesalpiniaceae, popularly known as imli is a perennial evergreen tree with a spreading crown, feathery evergreen foliage and fragrant flowers. Tamarindus indica is one of the auspicious, versatile tree species in the Indian subcontinent. The pulp of Tamarind finds important place in chutneys, pickles, jams, curries, sauces, ice cream, sharbat and “tamarind fish”. It is extensively used in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh cuisines, particularly in the preparation of Rassam and Sāmbhar. Traditionally, Tamarindus indica has been used as an antidiabetic, digestive, expectorant, anti-pyretic and anti-malarial agent. This review article summarizes the phytoconstituents, pharmacological actions, drug interactions encountered and safety profile with the use of Tamarind.I first fell in love with tamarind fruit, during school summer vacations. There was an elderly lady in my village, who carried delightful tamarind balls. Her tamarind balls were made up of tamarind pulp, sugar, a pinch of salt and ginger. We, children would break the balls apart and suck on the pieces. We'd suck the entire tamarind piece until there was nothing left except the seed to discard. Our craze had nothing to do with the nutritional or medicinal content of the fruit.

  18. The Effect of Polymer Content on the Non-Newtonian Behavior of Acetaminophen Suspension

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    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. The aim of the study was evaluation of the effect of different polymers on rheological behavior of acetaminophen suspension. In order to achieve controlled flocculation, sodium chloride was added. Then structural vehicles such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, tragacanth, and magnesium aluminum silicate (Veegum were evaluated individually and in combination. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume (F, redispersibility (n, and growth of crystals of the suspensions were determined. Also, the rheological properties of formulations were studied. The results of this study showed that the combination of suspending agents had the most physical stability and pseudoplastic behavior with some degree of thixotropy. Viscosity of suspensions was increased by adding NaCl 0.02%. Presence of PVP is necessary for improving rheological behavior of suspensions by NaCl. This may be related to the cross-linking between the carbonyl group in the PVP segment and Na+ ions.

  19. Escin reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis on glioma and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, Gülşen Akalin; Işcan, Arzu; Kutlu, Mehtap

    2015-10-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut) seed extract has a wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is escin. It is known that several medicinal herbs with anti-inflammatory properties have been found to have a role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of escin in the C6 glioma and A549 cell lines were analyzed by MTT. Apoptotic effects of escin on both cell lines were evaluated by Annexin V binding capacity with flow cytometric analysis. Structural and ultrastructural changes were also evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that escin has potent antiproliferative effects against C6 glioma and A549 cells. These effects are both dose and time dependent. Taken together, escin possesses cell cycle arrest on G0/G1 phase and selective apoptotic activity on A549 cells as indicated by increased Annexin V-binding capacity, bax protein expression, caspase-3 activity and morphological changes obtained from micrographs by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:25906387

  20. β-Aescin at subinhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) enhances susceptibility of Candida glabrata clinical isolates to nystatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franiczek, Roman; Gleńsk, Michał; Krzyżanowska, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Maciej

    2015-11-01

    Aescin (escin) derived from the seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) is a natural mixture of triterpene saponins exhibiting a wide variety of pharmacological properties, including antiinflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. However, data concerning antifungal activities of these compounds are limited. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida glabrata clinical isolates to α-aescin sodium, β-aescin crystalline and β-aescin sodium using the disk diffusion (DD) and broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Moreover, the influence of subinhibitory concentration (0.5×MIC) of β-aescins on the nystatin MIC was also studied. In general, the results obtained by the DD assay correlated well with those obtained by the BMD method. Both β-aescins effectively inhibited the growth of all 24 strains tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 8 to 32 μg/ml for β-aescin crystalline, whereas those of β-aescin sodium were slightly lower and ranged from 4 to 16 μg/ml. In contrast, α-aescin sodium was found to be completely ineffective against the strains studied. MIC values of nystatin were reduced 2-16-fold and 2-4-fold in the presence of subinhibitory concentration of β-aescin crystalline and β-aescin sodium, respectively. Results of the present study may suggest the additive interaction between β-aescin and nystatin. PMID:26092104

  1. Escin Chemosensitizes Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Inhibits the Nuclear Factor-kappaB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmon, A; Vexler, A; Berkovich, L; Earon, G; Ron, I; Lev-Ari, S

    2013-01-01

    Background. There is an urgent need to develop new treatment strategies and drugs for pancreatic cancer that is highly resistant to radio-chemotherapy. Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut) known in Chinese medicine as a plant with anti-inflammatory, antiedema, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is Escin (C54H84O23). Objective. To evaluate the effect of Escin alone and combined with chemotherapy on pancreatic cancer cell survival and to unravel mechanism(s) of Escin anticancer activity. Methods. Cell survival was measured by XTT colorimetric assay. Synergistic effect of combined therapy was determined by CalcuSyn software. Cell cycle and induction of apoptosis were evaluated by FACS analysis. Expression of NF- κ B-related proteins (p65, I κ Bα, and p-I κ Bα) and cyclin D was evaluated by western blot analysis. Results. Escin decreased the survival of pancreatic cancer cells with IC50 = 10-20 M. Escin combined with gemcitabine showed only additive effect, while its combination with cisplatin resulted in a significant synergistic cytotoxic effect in Panc-1 cells. High concentrations of Escin induced apoptosis and decreased NF- κ B-related proteins and cyclin D expression. Conclusions. Escin decreased pancreatic cancer cell survival, induced apoptosis, and downregulated NF- κ B signaling pathway. Moreover, Escin sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy. Further translational research is required. PMID:24282639

  2. Central nervous system activity of Leucas inflata Benth. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yousuf, M H; Ali, B H; Bashir, A K; Tanira, M O M; Blunden, G

    2002-09-01

    The analgesic activity of the methanol and acetone extracts of Leucas inflata L. (family Labiatae) was evaluated in mice using different experimental models. The effect of the two extracts on pentobarbitone-sleeping time, motor activity, sensorimotor coordination, carrageen induced inflammation, and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia has also been investigated. The two crude extracts have been phytochemically analyzed and some constituents isolated and characterized. These included stigmasterols, a chromone and coumarins. Extracts of L. inflata L., given at single oral doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg, significantly and dose-dependently, reduced formalin-induced pain, acetic acid induced abdominal constrictions and increased the reaction time in the hot-plate test. Both extracts caused significant and dose-related impairment in the sensorimotor control and ambulatory and total motor activity of treated mice. Both extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory action by reducing paw edema of treated mice. The extracts did not significantly affect the rectal temperature of normothermic mice. However, they were effective in preventing Brewers yeast induced pyrexia. It is concluded that the crude methanol and acetone extract of L. inflata has CNS depressant properties, manifested as antinociception and sedation. Both extracts have anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions.

  3. Simultaneous determination of five active compounds in chimonanthus nitens by double-development HPTLC and scanning densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Bin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chimonanthus nitens (family Calycanthaceae, Shanlamei in Chinese, is an unique species in China. The extract of dried leaves of Chimonanthus nitens has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antitussive effects. Terpenes, coumarins, and flavonoids are usually regarded as the main active components. Therefore, simultaneous determination of these compounds is very important to control the quality of Chimonanthus nitens. Results A double-development TLC method was developed for simultaneous analysis of five compounds in Chimonanthus nitens. The chromatography was performed on silica gel 60 plate with chloroform-methanol (9∶1, v/v and petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (10∶1, v/v as mobile phase for twice development. Their characteristic TLC profiles were observed under UV light at 365 nm and the bands were then revealed by reaction with 1% vanillin-H2SO4 solution. Quantification of three monoterpenes was achieved by densitometry at 545 nm (β-caryophyllene or 606 nm (cineole and linalool. Two coumarins (scopoletin and scoparone were determined by densitometry at 340 nm with filter wavelength of 370 nm. The investigated compounds had good linearity (R2 >0.99 within test ranges. Conclusions The developed double-development TLC method is helpful to control the quality of Chimonanthus nitens, which is simple and accurate.

  4. Studies on in vivo radioprotection efficacy of indazolone derivative on electron beam induced oxidative stress using Drosophila Melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indazole nucleus is an effective pharmacophore in medicinal chemistry and shows diverse biological and pharmacological activities. Indazolone and its derivatives show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities as some of them act as dopamine antagonists, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic agents. Benzyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxilic acids has antispermatogenetic and anticancer activity. In the present study the synthesis of 4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3H-indazol-3-one was carried out and characterized by spectral and analytical data. The synthesized indazolone derivative showed good in vitro antioxidant activity namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay, FRAP assay etc. By keeping the antioxidant property in mind the synthesized molecule was screened for its in vivo radioprotection activity using Drosophila Melanogaster (Oregon K). The compound was supplied to flies in the form of diet and the safety evaluation was carried out for 7 days at 300 μg/ml concentration. Later the electron beam irradiated flies were assayed for oxidative stress markers namely, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), enzymatic and Non enzymatic antioxidants.The results showed that the indazolone molecule exhibited good in vivo radioprotection activity. (author)

  5. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

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    Touran MAHMOUDIAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepam in febrile  seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy of intermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age range of 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female were studied. Children with a history of psychomotor delay, abnormal  neurological examination, a history of antiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excluded from the study. Patients received a single dose of prophylactic Clonazepam (0.05 mg/kg/ day on the first day of febrile illness and twice daily during the course of fever.An antipyretic medication (Acetaminophen was advised if fever exceeded 38oC. Patients were followed up for one year after the study inclusion date.ResultsThree patients were excluded from study since they didnot follow the tritment and three patients experienced afebrile seizures. Twenty four patients had 162 febrile episodes during the course of the study and all patients were seizure-free after 1 year.ConclusionClonazepam was 100% effective but lethargy and ataxia were common side effects in patients. Fortunately, their parents continued treatment because they had prior awareness of the  possible side effects of clonazepam. Clonazepam is efficacious as an intermittent therapy for febrile seizures if parents are informed of its side effects.Keywords: recurrent febrile seizures, clonazepam, intermittent prophylaxis

  6. Optimising the management of fever and pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Anker, J N

    2013-01-01

    Fever and pain in children, especially associated with infections, such as otitis media, are very common. In paediatric populations, ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) are both commonly used over-the-counter medicines for the management of fever or mild-to-moderate pain associated with sore throat, otitis media, toothache, earache and headache. Widespread use of ibuprofen and paracetamol has shown that they are both effective and generally well tolerated in the reduction in paediatric fever and pain. However, ibuprofen has the advantage of less frequent dosing (every 6-8 h vs. every 4 h for paracetamol) and its longer duration of action makes it a suitable alternative to paracetamol. In comparative trials, ibuprofen has been shown to be at least as effective as paracetamol as an analgesic and more effective as an antipyretic. The safety profile of ibuprofen is comparable to that of paracetamol if both drugs are used appropriately with the correct dosing regimens. However, in the overdose situation, the toxicity of paracetamol is not only reached much earlier, but is also more severe and more difficult to manage as compared with an overdose of ibuprofen. There is clearly a need for advanced studies to investigate the safety of these medications in paediatric populations of different ages and especially during prolonged use. Finally, the recently reported association between frequency and severity of asthma and paracetamol use needs urgent additional investigations.

  7. Perception of chloroquine efficacy and alternative treatments for uncomplicated malaria in children in a holoendemic area of Tanzania: implications for the change of treatment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-01-01

    of fever. It was hypothesized that the long experience with CQ and its antipyretic effect (lacking in S/P) might impede acceptance of S/P for wider use as first-line drug. Malarial fevers in children were most commonly treated with CQ (92.8%), followed by quinine (60.7%) and S/P (28.7%). A 63.2% knew......Prior to policy change from chloroquine (CQ) to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P; Fansidar) we assessed the perception of CQ efficacy and the alternative treatment options for malaria in children among parents/guardians (N=527) of under-fives attending first level health facilities on account...... and proven CQ failures in first level health facilities and the district hospital. S/P was judged to be more effective than quinine, but too strong for children, and was the least known drug in the study area. All formulations of S/P cost more per dose for a child and an adult than CQ. The implications...

  8. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

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    Raquel Kummer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus (Rutaceae includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90 μg/mL had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg also reduced TNF-α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis.

  9. Premarketing surveillance of ibuprofen suppositories in febrile children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Dan; Youngster, Ilan; Cohen, Avner; Leibovitch, Eugene; Shavit, Itai; Erez, Ilan; Uziel, Yosef; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2011-03-01

    In many countries, ibuprofen is available only in oral formulations. The authors aimed to investigate parental satisfaction and possible adverse reactions among children receiving newly marketed ibuprofen suppositories, prior to their arrival at the pharmaceutical points of distribution. Children needing antipyretic medication were recruited from 11 pediatric wards and clinics in Israel. Each patient received ibuprofen suppositories (5-10 mg/kg/dose) after completing a data collection form. After 3 to 7 days of treatment, information regarding parent satisfaction, possible adverse reactions, and concomitant use of drugs was obtained. Overall, 490 children completed the study. Parents' satisfaction was high (4.5 ± 0.47 on a scale of 1-5), and 92.2% reported that they would use the medication in the future. Adverse reactions were reported in 8 patients (1.63%, 95% confidence interval = 1.77-3.25), the most common being diarrhea. Rectal administration of ibuprofen suppositories is well tolerated and overall satisfaction and the repeated expected use were high.

  10. Evaluation of Memory Enhancing Activity of Leaf Extract of Dalbergia sissoo in Mice

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    Sayanti Sau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dalbergia sissoo (family: Fabaceae is an Asian deciduous rosewood tree. It is the state tree of Punjab state (India called as Shisham used for antipyretic, emesis, ulcers, leucoderma, stomach troubles and skin disease, memory enhancer etc. The aim of this study is to evaluate the learning and memory activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of Dalbergia sissoo in mice. The animals were divided into six groups of 6 each. Group I was considered as normal control, II as Standard control (Imipramine, III, IV and V was treated group (ELDS 300, 450 and 600 mg/kg respectively and VI as scopolamine treated (negative control.The effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Dalbergia sissoo was investigated in mice for memory enhancing activity using various experimental paradigms of learning and memory viz. Transfer latency (TL on elevated plus maze and passive avoidance. For memory and learning activity vehicle/ extracts / STD drug administered daily for first seven days, on 8th day dementia was induced by scopolamine. ELDS significantly enhanced the learning and memory activities against the scopolamine induced dementia and significant decrease in Acetylcholinesterase level in brain in animals. The memory enhanced activity as evidenced by learning and retrieval was due to cholinergic facilitatory effect in animals. These results indicate a possible memory enhancing action of Dalbergia sissoo which qualitatively comparable with that of piracetam.

  11. ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHARANTIN FROM MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LINN. FRUIT

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    Subhashchandra Patel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Momordica Charantia (Cucurbitaceae is commonly known as bitter guard in English and karela in Hindi. The fruit has claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordicosides, carbohydrate, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucoside, etc. Earlier claim shows that the plant used as stomachic, carminative, tonic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The present investigation was carried out to isolate, purify and characterize Charantin from fruit of Momordica Charantia Linn. The isolated charantin was further characterized with the help of Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, Thin Layer Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, Proton- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy confirmed the identification. The antibacterial activity of charantin was tested by using Agar Diffusion (Cup Plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of crude extracts were determined for various organism which was 0.2 mg/ml. The present studies confirm better antimicrobial activity of Charantin when compared with standard, against bacterial species such as gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  12. Evaluation of Analgesic & Anti-inflammatory activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Desmostachya bipinnata (L. Stapf root on Experimental Animals

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    Vinod Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Desmostachia bipinnata (L. Stapf (Gramineae occurs widely in Egypt. This plant used traditionally as analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, asthma, thirst, jaundice, vaginal discharges, vesicle calculi, diseases of bladder, skin eruptions, vomiting, and sedative to pregnant uterus. So, in the present study, Desmostachia bipinnata roots were explored for their anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced paw oedema and analgesic potential (Hot plate method on experimental model and compared to standard drugs (Indomethacin for anti-inflammatory activity, Analgin for analgesic activity. In the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test for acute inflammation, the extract of Desmostachya bipinnata in dose of 400 mg/kg body weight showed 62.5% inhibition of edema, at the end of 3h. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, sterols and flavonoids. The pharmacological activities of medicinal plants are usually due to their secondary metabolites. Some of the constituents of the extract have been documented to possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The results of this study provide evidence for the analgesic and anti- inflammatory activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Desmostachya bipinnata root thus supporting its traditional use in painful inflammatory conditions.

  13. Development of pH sensitive polyacrylamide grafted pectin hydrogel for controlled drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutar, Prashant B; Mishra, Rakesh K; Pal, Kunal; Banthia, Ajit K

    2008-06-01

    In the present study an attempt was made to graft polyacrylamide on pectin. The grafted polymer was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Rheological property of pectin solution was compared with the product solution. The grafted polymer was cross-linked with varying amount of glutaraldehyde. The swelling properties of the cross-linked product were also studied. The salicylic acid, an antipyretic drug, was incorporated in the cross-linked gel as a model drug and the drug release studies were done in a modified Franz's diffusion cell. The effect of cross-linking density on the release property of salicylic acid was studied through the cross-linked product. The product showed better film forming property and gelling property than pectin. The comparative rheological properties of pectin and grafted copolymer indicated change in the property of the product. FTIR studies indicated incorporation of amide group. Differential scanning calorimetry and XRD suggested formation of a new polymer. Swelling study indicated pH dependent swelling of the cross-linked hydrogel. Salicylic acid release indicated pH dependent release from the hydrogel.

  14. Clinical implications and treatment of dengue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chawla Pooja; Yadav Amrita; Chawla Viney

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a common pathogenic disease often proving fatal, more commonly affecting the tropics. Aedes mosquito is the vector for this disease, and outbreaks of dengue often cause mass damage to life.The current review is an effort to present an insight into the causes, etiology, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, major organs affected, mitigation and line of treatment of this disease with special emphasis on drugs of natural origin.The disease has a potential to spread as an endemic, often claiming several lives and thus requires concerted efforts to work out better treatment options. Traditional medicine offers an alternative solution and could be explored as a safer treatment option. Development of a successful vaccine and immunization technique largely remains a challenge and a better antiviral approach needs to be worked out to complement the supportive therapy.No single synthetic molecule has found to be wholly effective enough to offer curative control and the line of treatment mostly utilizes a combination of fluid replacement and antipyretics-analgesics like molecules to provide symptomatic relief.

  15. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J

    2015-11-01

    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. PMID:26187566

  16. Perceptions and practices of self-medication among medical students in coastal South India.

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    Nithin Kumar

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a common practice worldwide and the irrational use of drugs is a cause of concern. This study assessed the prevalence of self-medication among the medical students in South India. The data was analysed using SPSS version 11.5. A total of 440 students were included in the study. The prevalence of self-medication was 78.6%. A larger number of females were self-medicating (81.2% than males (75.3%. The majority of the students self-medicated because of the illness being too trivial for consultation (70.5%. Antipyretics were most commonly self-medicated by the participants (74.8%. Only 47% of the participants opined that self-medication was a part of self-care and it needs to be encouraged. 39.3% of the participants perceived that the supply of medicine without prescription by the pharmacist can prevent the growing trend of self-medication. Easy availability and accessibility to health care facilities remains the cornerstone for reducing the practice of self-medication.

  17. Escin Chemosensitizes Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Inhibits the Nuclear Factor-kappaB Signaling Pathway

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    A. Rimmon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an urgent need to develop new treatment strategies and drugs for pancreatic cancer that is highly resistant to radio-chemotherapy. Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut known in Chinese medicine as a plant with anti-inflammatory, antiedema, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is Escin (C54H84O23. Objective. To evaluate the effect of Escin alone and combined with chemotherapy on pancreatic cancer cell survival and to unravel mechanism(s of Escin anticancer activity. Methods. Cell survival was measured by XTT colorimetric assay. Synergistic effect of combined therapy was determined by CalcuSyn software. Cell cycle and induction of apoptosis were evaluated by FACS analysis. Expression of NF-κB-related proteins (p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα and cyclin D was evaluated by western blot analysis. Results. Escin decreased the survival of pancreatic cancer cells with IC50 = 10–20 M. Escin combined with gemcitabine showed only additive effect, while its combination with cisplatin resulted in a significant synergistic cytotoxic effect in Panc-1 cells. High concentrations of Escin induced apoptosis and decreased NF-κB-related proteins and cyclin D expression. Conclusions. Escin decreased pancreatic cancer cell survival, induced apoptosis, and downregulated NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, Escin sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy. Further translational research is required.

  18. A review on versatile applications of transition metal complexes incorporating Schiff bases

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    Ahmed M. Abu-Dief

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schiff bases and their complexes are versatile compounds synthesized from the condensation of an amino compound with carbonyl compounds and widely used for industrial purposes and also exhibit a broad range of biological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antipyretic properties. Many Schiff base complexes show excellent catalytic activity in various reactions and in the presence of moisture. Over the past few years, there have been many reports on their applications in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. The high thermal and moisture stabilities of many Schiff base complexes were useful attributes for their application as catalysts in reactions involving at high temperatures. The activity is usually increased by complexation therefore to understand the properties of both ligands and metal can lead to the synthesis of highly active compounds. The influence of certain metals on the biological activity of these compounds and their intrinsic chemical interest as multidentate ligands has prompted a considerable increase in the study of their coordination behaviour. Development of a new chemotherapeutic Schiff bases and their metal complexes is now attracting the attention of medicinal chemists. This review compiles examples of the most promising applied Schiff bases and their complexes in different areas.

  19. Ninety-Day Subchronic Oral Toxicity Study of Senecio scandens Extract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Kun; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Ting; Yi, Yan; Li, Chun-Ying; Wang, Hong-Jie; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Ye, Zu-Guang; Liang, Ai-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the safety/toxicity of Senecio scandens, a well-known Chinese herb that is used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiosis, and antipyretic drug. A 90-d subchronic oral toxicity study of S. scandens was performed in Wistar rats. The extract of S. scandens was administered orally to male and female rats at a single dose of 225, 450, and 900 mg/kg/d. There was no obvious toxicity. Certain changes in hematology and coagulation parameters (red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count (PLT), monocyte percentage (Mo%), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT)) were observed in some administration groups. In regards to the blood biochemical parameters, the levels of creatinine (CRN), potassium, and chloride were increased in a number of the treated rats. There were no significant changes in other hematology, coagulation, or biochemical parameters in rats orally administered S. scandens. S. scandens has a slight effect on rat coagulation and metabolism systems. The herb was safe at all doses tested, but caution should be taken when administering S. scandens at higher doses. PMID:26195160

  20. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

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    Garg Nitika

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glycosides, tannins, flavanoid, b-sitosterol and lupeol. The present study deals with phytochemical investigations of Bombax ceiba root including determination of loss on drying, ash values, TLC and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of powdered drug was also carried out. The qualitative chemical examinations revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents like flavanoid, terpenoid saponins, phenolic compounds and mucilage’s in the extracts. The study revealed specific identities for the particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

  1. Physicochemical Standardization of Kushta Abrak Safaid: A Herbo-Mineral Unani Formulation

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    Mohd Tariq

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abrak (Mica is a rock forming silicate of aluminium and is used in Unani system in the form of kushta (calcined product. After proper purification and incineration abrak becomes highly potent and is used in treatment of various diseases of respiratory system, stomach and intestine, tuberculosis, asthma, spermatorrhoea etc. Hakim describes abrak as antipyretic, general tonic, aphrodisiac, constipative and desiccant. Product standardization of a compound formulation is utmost necessary to check the purity and genuineness of a preparation. In this study the purification, preparation and standardization of kushta abrak safaid was performed. Kushta was evaluated on classical parameters like finger test, fineness test etc. as well as on modern parameters like bulk density, tapped density, hausner’s ratio, carr’s index, pH, loss of weight on drying, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, extractive value and loss of weight on ignition. The physicochemical parameters evaluated in this study might be considered as standard parameters of kushta abrak safaid.

  2. Proposition of real-time precise prediction model of infectious disease patients from Prescription Surveillance using the National Database of Electronic Medical Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuuki; Kawanohara, Hirokazu; Kamei, Miwako

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of common pediatric infectious diseases has been monitored officially at sentinel medical institutions in Japan. However, the numbers of affected patients are not provided. Prescription Surveillance (PS), which infers the number of patients with influenza, varicella, and gastrointestinal infections from data related to prescriptions at external pharmacies, provides estimates to the public the following morning. This study assessed the prediction ability of the incidence of common pediatric infectious diseases from PS information using the National Database of Electronic Medical Claims (NDBEMC): the number of patients prescribed neuraminidase inhibitors, anti-herpes virus drugs, antibiotic drugs, antipyretic analgesics, and multi-ingredient cold medications. The diseases include RS virus infection, pharyngoconjunctival fever, hand, foot and mouth disease, erythema infectiosum, exanthem subitum, pertussis, herpangina, influenza, varicella, and gastrointestinal infection. For comparison, we used the estimated number of patients who were prescribed neuraminidase inhibitor in PS, which had been confirmed already for precision, and provided estimates to the general public via the internet. The discrepancy rates of all considered diseases between the reported number in NDBEMC and the predicted numbers of patients from PS were less than the value in NI counts and the coefficients of determination in the estimation were from .8109 to .9825. These predictions were sufficiently precise to provide to the general public. PMID:26320387

  3. Pharmacology and biochemistry ofPolygonatum verticillatum:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saboon; Yamin Bibi; Muhammad Arshad; Sidra Sabir; Muhammad Shoaib Amjad; Ejaz Ahmed; Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Polygonatum verticillatum (Linn.) All. syn.Convallaria verticillata Linn. is a valuable medicinal plant, distributed in the temperate Himalaya at the elevations 2 400 to 2 800 m. It is a perennial rhizomatous herb and contains various pharmacologically important secondary metabolites among which the most important areα-bulnesene, linalyl acetate, eicosadienoic, pentacosane, piperitone, docasane, diosgenin, santonin and calarene. It also possesses antimalarial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, lipoxygenase, urease inhibition, diuretic, tracheorelaxant, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, antifungal, antibacterial and bronchodilator activities. The plant also got importance in traditional systems of medicine due to its broad therapeutic potential especially of its rhizome. But in the past few years, over exploitation of plant parts caused the decline in the frequency of this species due to which it became threatened, endangered and vulnerable in different parts of the world. So efforts are being made in certain regions of the world for bothex-situ and in-situ conservation. This paper briefly reviewed the botanical, traditional, phytochemical, pharmacological and conservation related aspects of this plant.

  4. Degradation of phenazone in aqueous solution with ozone: influencing factors and degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Heng-Feng; Cao, Meng; Xu, Dan-Yao; Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhao, Ming-Xing; Huang, Zhen-Xing; Ruan, Wen-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation kinetics and degradation pathways of phenazone (an analgesic and antipyretic drug) upon reaction with O3 were investigated. Kinetic studies on degradation of phenazone were carried out under different operating conditions such as temperature, pH, anions and H2O2 addition. Results showed that the degradation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The reaction rate constant (kobs) of phenazone reached the maximum at 20 °C (9.653×10(-3) s(-1)). The presence of NO3(-) could enhance the degradation rate, while the addition of HCO3(-), SO4(2)(-), Cl(-) and the rise of pH showed negative effects on the ozonation of phenazone. H2O2 addition increased the phenazone degradation efficiency by 45.9% with the optimal concentration of 0.135 mM. Reaction by-products were evaluated by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, which allowed the identification of a total of 10 by-products. The transformation pathways of phenazone ozonation consisted mainly of electrophilic addition and substitution, pyrazole ring opening, hydroxylation, dephenylization and coupling. The toxicity of these intermediate products showed that they are expected not to be more toxic than phenazone, with the exception of P7 (aniline) and P10 (1,5-dimethyl-4-((1-methyl-2-phenylhydrazinyl)methoxy)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one).

  5. Preformulation Characterisation, Designing and Formulation of Aceclofenac Loaded Microparticles

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    B. Jayanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to systematically investigate some of the important physicochemical properties of Aceclofenac loaded micro particles.Aceclofenac is a potent analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the management of moderate-to-severe pain and in rheumatoid disorder, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylities. Almost all drugs are marketed as tablets, capsules or both. Prior to the development of these major dosage forms, it is essential that pertain fundamental physical and chemical properties of the drug molecule and other divided properties of the drug powder are determined. This information decides many of the subsequent events and approaches in formation development.A per oral extended release micro particles of aceclofenac was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method using polymer ethyl cellulose as well as eudragit RSPO and dispersion carrier as Aerosil. So before selection of excipients, the Preformulation study of drug aceclofenac is completed for successful formulation of per oral extended release micro particles. Preformulation studies included solubility, pKa, dissolution, melting point, assay development,, stability in solid state; bulk density, flow properties, excipient compatibility, entrapment efficiency, release profile of micro particles and Marketed brands of modified release product were investigated.

  6. Biological assessment (antiviral and antioxidant and acute toxicity of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis

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    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drimys presents the widest geographical distribution of the Winteraceae family, which comprises seven genera and about 120 species. In Brazil, the genus is found from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul and occur in two species, Drimys angustifolia Miers, and D. brasiliensis Miers, Winteraceae, popularly known as "casca-de-anta", characterized by the presence of flavonoids and essential oils. It is used in folk medicine as an antiscorbutic, stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, antipyretic, antibacterial, and against asthma and bronchitis, besides having insecticidal properties. In addition to the known biological activities, it is very important to explore new applications in the treatment of physiological disorders or diseases caused by parasites. Based on this information, in this study we propose to evaluate volatile oils of the species D. brasiliensis and D. angustifolia, as an antioxidant, using the model of the DPPH radical as an antiviral against human herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1 and acute toxicity in vivo. The two species were not able to reduce the DPPH radical and showed interesting antiviral activity, significantly reducing the virus titers in vitro assays. Regarding the in vivo toxicity in female Wistar rats, treatment with the two species showed interesting signs in animals such as salivation, ptosis, tremor, decreased motor activity. In addition the oils of D. brasiliensis to other signs, some animals showed increased urination and diarrhea.

  7. Biological assessment (antiviral and antioxidant and acute toxicity of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drimys presents the widest geographical distribution of the Winteraceae family, which comprises seven genera and about 120 species. In Brazil, the genus is found from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul and occur in two species, Drimys angustifolia Miers, and D. brasiliensis Miers, Winteraceae, popularly known as "casca-de-anta", characterized by the presence of flavonoids and essential oils. It is used in folk medicine as an antiscorbutic, stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, antipyretic, antibacterial, and against asthma and bronchitis, besides having insecticidal properties. In addition to the known biological activities, it is very important to explore new applications in the treatment of physiological disorders or diseases caused by parasites. Based on this information, in this study we propose to evaluate volatile oils of the species D. brasiliensis and D. angustifolia, as an antioxidant, using the model of the DPPH radical as an antiviral against human herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1 and acute toxicity in vivo. The two species were not able to reduce the DPPH radical and showed interesting antiviral activity, significantly reducing the virus titers in vitro assays. Regarding the in vivo toxicity in female Wistar rats, treatment with the two species showed interesting signs in animals such as salivation, ptosis, tremor, decreased motor activity. In addition the oils of D. brasiliensis to other signs, some animals showed increased urination and diarrhea.

  8. Bioactive constituents from Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. and Rhus coriaria L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Marawan M.; El Sayed, Aly M.; Yousif, Miriam F.; El Sayed, Abeer M.; Sleem, Amany A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The leaf ethanol extract of Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. has evidenced medicinal value due to its hepatoprotective activity. It demonstrated inhibitory effects on test standard microbes approximated to 40% the potency of ofloxacin and fluconazole. The same extract evidenced in vitro cytotoxicity on human cell lines, liver carcinoma HEPG2, larynx carcinoma HEP2, and colon carcinoma HCT116 cell lines when compared to doxorubicin. Materials and Methods: Fractionation of the leaf ethanol extract led to the isolation of the polyphenols, ethyl gallate, and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, a hydrocarbon, hendecane, the fatty acid ester, methyl linoleate, and four triterpenoids, betulonic acid, 3-acetyl-methyl betulinate, lupenone and lupeol for the first time, in addition to the previously reported phenol acids and flavonoids, gallic acid, methyl gallate, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-galactoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside. Results: The ethanol extract of the fruit of the genetically related Rhus coriaria L., known as sumac, afforded protocatechuic acid, isoquercitrin, and myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside from the fruits for the first time, in addition to the previously reported phenol acids and flavonoids, gallic acid, methyl gallate, kaempferol, and quercetin. Conclusion: The leaf ethanol extract of H. caffrum Bernh. exhibited variable anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities, besides the hepatoprotective, in vitro cytotoxic and anti-microbial activities. PMID:22262932

  9. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS LEAVES

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    Choudhury Antara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physiochemical and phytochemical details about the plant Amaranthus spinosus. The physiochemical result obtained can be used for the identification of powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening, different types of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. Phytoconstituents like fixed oils, fats, carbohydrates, glycosides, gum and mucilage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, amino acids and saponins showed positive tests in the extracts. Amaranthus spinosus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. It is commonly known as Spiny amaranth or Pig weed and found throughout the world. In India it is found at roadsides, waste places and fields. The whole plant is used as a laxative. Traditionally it has been used as diuretic, antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-snake venom, antileprotic, anti-gonorrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and immunomodulatory. The root paste of the plant is used to cure skin disease. A red pigment obtained from the plant is used for colouring foods and medicines.

  10. 中药栀子有效成分及药理作用的研究进展%Research Progress in Effective Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Gardenia Jasminoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亭

    2015-01-01

    中药栀子为茜草科植物栀子的干燥成熟果实,其主要有效成分包括环烯醚萜、栀子黄色素、有机酸等. 现代药理研究表明栀子具有抗炎、解热、镇痛、保肝、利胆、降血脂、抗血栓、神经保护、抗阿尔茨海默病等作用. 本文综述了栀子的有效成分及药理作用,为其深入研究提供参考.%Traditional Chinese medicine"Zhizi" is the dry ripe fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, which belongs to the family of Rubiaceae. The main effective constituents of gardenia include iridoid, gardenia yellow pigment and organic acid. Modern pharmaco-logical studies showed that the main pharmacological effects of gardenia included anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects, liver protection, cholagogue, antilipidemic effect, antithrombus, nerve protection and anti-Alzheimer' s disease. In this paper, the ef-fective constituents and pharmacological effects of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis were reviewed to provide available information for further research.

  11. Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae): A phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, E B C; Sousa, C N S; Meneses, L N; Ximenes, N C; Santos Júnior, M A; Vasconcelos, G S; Lima, N B C; Patrocínio, M C A; Macedo, D; Vasconcelos, S M M

    2015-11-01

    Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae) is commonly called the "coconut tree" and is the most naturally widespread fruit plant on Earth. Throughout history, humans have used medicinal plants therapeutically, and minerals, plants, and animals have traditionally been the main sources of drugs. The constituents of C. nucifera have some biological effects, such as antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities. Our objective in the present study was to review the phytochemical profile, pharmacological activities, and toxicology of C. nucifera to guide future preclinical and clinical studies using this plant. This systematic review consisted of searches performed using scientific databases such as Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, SciVerse, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. Some uses of the plant were partially confirmed by previous studies demonstrating analgesic, antiarthritic, antibacterial, antipyretic, antihelminthic, antidiarrheal, and hypoglycemic activities. In addition, other properties such as antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardioprotective, antiseizure, cytotoxicity, hepatoprotective, vasodilation, nephroprotective, and anti-osteoporosis effects were also reported. Because each part of C. nucifera has different constituents, the pharmacological effects of the plant vary according to the part of the plant evaluated.

  12. Cocos nucifera (L. (Arecaceae: A phytochemical and pharmacological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.C. Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocos nucifera (L. (Arecaceae is commonly called the “coconut tree” and is the most naturally widespread fruit plant on Earth. Throughout history, humans have used medicinal plants therapeutically, and minerals, plants, and animals have traditionally been the main sources of drugs. The constituents of C. nucifera have some biological effects, such as antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities. Our objective in the present study was to review the phytochemical profile, pharmacological activities, and toxicology of C. nucifera to guide future preclinical and clinical studies using this plant. This systematic review consisted of searches performed using scientific databases such as Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, SciVerse, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. Some uses of the plant were partially confirmed by previous studies demonstrating analgesic, antiarthritic, antibacterial, antipyretic, antihelminthic, antidiarrheal, and hypoglycemic activities. In addition, other properties such as antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardioprotective, antiseizure, cytotoxicity, hepatoprotective, vasodilation, nephroprotective, and anti-osteoporosis effects were also reported. Because each part of C. nucifera has different constituents, the pharmacological effects of the plant vary according to the part of the plant evaluated.

  13. Effect of Temperature and Light on Phytochemical Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Andrographis paniculata

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    B. Jaikumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae is an annual herb. It is found in Sri Lanka, and throughout the plains of India especially Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Orissa. Various medicinal properties like cholevetic, antidiarrheal, immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory have been attributed to this plant in the traditional system of Indian medicine. Further reported activities are hepatoprotective, antimalarial, anticancer, antihypertensive, antipyretic, antithrombotic and antidote for snake bites. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-microbial activity for the isopropanol extract of A. paniculata against different bacterial strains such as E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. vulgaris, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus by determining inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition. Minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition values and the high bioactive metabolites production was observed in different extracts of A. paniculata under different physical stress (Light and temperatures. The results revealed that, the isopropanol extract of A. paniculata is potent for inhibiting bacterial growth and various secondary metabolites production in dark condition at 37°C than other tested parameters.

  14. Potent Insecticidal Secondary Metabolites from the Medicinal Plant Acanthus montanus

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    Elham Amin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acanthus montanus (Nees T. Anders. (Family: Acanthaceae is a small shrub with sparse branches and soft stems, widespread in Africa, the Balkans, Romania, Greece and Eastern Mediterranean. Documented evidence showed that the leaves of the plant possess spasmolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. In our ongoing research project; aimed at identifying new natural compounds with insecticidal activity, the alcohol extract of the aerial parts of A. montanus exhibited a significant activity against adult Aedes aegypti. Phytochemical study of the plant has resulted in isolation of nine compounds, eight of which exhibit variable degrees of insecticidal activity. β-sitosterol-3-O- β –D-glucoside (1 exhibited potent mosquitocidal activity (100% mortality against adult Aedes aegypti at 1.25 μg/mg concentration, followed by palmitic acid (2 (90%, linaroside (3 (80%, and acetoside (9 (70% respectively. It is noteworthy that this is the first report of insecticidal activity of β-sitosterol-3-O- β –D-glucoside, linaroside and acetoside.

  15. Nimesulide has a role of radio-sensitizer against lung carcinoma A549 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Joo Yoon; Park, Jong Kuk; Hong, Sung Hee [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Cyclooxygenases (COX) are key enzymes in the prostaglandin synthesis. There are two isoforms of the COX enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 expression is associated with carcinogenesis in variety of cancers and to render cells resistant to apoptotic stimuli. Increased expression of COX-2 is shown in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), specifically in adenocarcinomas. Radiotherapy has been the important treatment for NSCLC. In recent studies, newer molecules that target specific pathophysiology or molecular pathways have been tested for the radiation sensitizers. COX-2 inhibitors are shown to enhanced radioresponse of cultured human cancer cell lines and immunodeficient mice. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms how NSAIDs enhance radioresponse of tumor cells. Nimesulide (methanesulfonamide, N-(4-nitro-2- phenoxyphenyl)), selective COX-2 inhibitors, is a drug with anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic properties. Nimesulide has the specific affinity to inhibit the inducible form of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) rather than the constitutive form (COX-1), and is well tolerated by adult, elderly and pediatric patients. Nimesulide was found also to have a chemopreventive activity against colon, urinary bladder, breast, tongue, and liver carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined whether nimesulide can increase radiation induced cell death and its mechanism in NSCLC cells A549.

  16. Nimesulide has a role of radio-sensitizer against lung carcinoma A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclooxygenases (COX) are key enzymes in the prostaglandin synthesis. There are two isoforms of the COX enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 expression is associated with carcinogenesis in variety of cancers and to render cells resistant to apoptotic stimuli. Increased expression of COX-2 is shown in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), specifically in adenocarcinomas. Radiotherapy has been the important treatment for NSCLC. In recent studies, newer molecules that target specific pathophysiology or molecular pathways have been tested for the radiation sensitizers. COX-2 inhibitors are shown to enhanced radioresponse of cultured human cancer cell lines and immunodeficient mice. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms how NSAIDs enhance radioresponse of tumor cells. Nimesulide (methanesulfonamide, N-(4-nitro-2- phenoxyphenyl)), selective COX-2 inhibitors, is a drug with anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic properties. Nimesulide has the specific affinity to inhibit the inducible form of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) rather than the constitutive form (COX-1), and is well tolerated by adult, elderly and pediatric patients. Nimesulide was found also to have a chemopreventive activity against colon, urinary bladder, breast, tongue, and liver carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined whether nimesulide can increase radiation induced cell death and its mechanism in NSCLC cells A549

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA LINN: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheewala Payal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines and their application have always been the basis for man’s curiosity from the time immemorial. Averrhoa carambola Linn, commonly known as Kamrakh or Golden Star, is undoubtedly one of the most unique creations of nature grown widely in the tropics and the warmer areas of subtropics. Averrhoa carambola is reported to contain mainly saponins, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids. It is used as a well known remedy for the treatment of a number of manifestations in Ayurvedic as well as folklore systems of medicine. In Ayurveda, Averrhoa carambola finds use as an anti-helminth, anti-malarial, antipyretic, digestive tonic, febrifuge, antiscorbutic and antidote for poison. It is considered as one of the best Indian cooling medicines. These properties are believed to be mediated by different phytochemicals found in the plant, acting singly or in concert. A relatively large number of scientific publications on Averrhoa carambola have been published in recent years, including a number of research articles. The goal of this review is to provide an updated categorization of the phytochemical constituents along with the comprehensive list of known ethno-botanical uses, common names and a brief summary of relevant pharmacological activities of this plant.

  18. chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhay; Kumar; Pandey; Pooja; Singh; Nijendra; Nath; Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance.The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz.,Ocimum basilicum Linn.(alt.Ocimum basilicum var.minimum,Ocimum basilicum var.purpurience).Ocimum campechianum Mill.,Ocimum canum Sims.(Ocimum americanum),Ocimum citriodorum,Ocimum gratissimum Linn.,Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn..Ocimum micranthum Willd.,Ocimum sanctum Linn.,(alt.Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn.),Ocimum selloi Benth..Ocimum trichodon,Ocimum utricifolium from different geographical regions.A considerable difference in chemical composition of a particular species is found,which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic zones and changes in edaphic factors.Attention is also focused on the biological properties of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial,antioxidant,repellent,insecticidal,larvieidal,nematicidal and therapeutic(anti-inflammatory,antinociceptive,antipyretic,antiulcer,analgesic,anthelmintic,anticarcinogenic,skin permeation enhancer,immunomodulatory,cardio-protective,antilipidemic) agents.

  19. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses. PMID:25162032

  20. The incredible queen of green: Nutritive value and therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib Amjad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera, rightly called as the miracle tree, is the extensively grown and highly valuable species of Moringaceae family. The tree has a pantropical distribution with nativity to Indian subcontinent. Nutritionally and therapeutically, it is a highly valued plant. Vitamins, proteins, β-carotene, aminoacids and various phenolics such as β-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and zeatin with potential for nutritional and therapeutic applications are enriched in different plant parts. Different plant parts of this plant such as roots, leaves, bark, flowers, fruit of immature pods and seeds possess a number of therapeutic properties such as diuretic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antitumor, antiulcer, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activities, and are being operational in various traditional medicine system for curing different health problems. Moringa is higly beneficial in depression, malnutrition, general weakness and osteoporosis. The present review is intended to emphasize the phytochemical constitution, traditional medicinal uses along pharmacological properties with the purpose to create public awareness regarding therapeutic and nutritive potential of this multipurpose tree as well as to facilitate the pharmacists and the researchers to fill the gap by exploring novel therapeutic compounds that will, of course, be in favor of humanity.

  1. The incredible queen of green:Nutritive value and therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad ShoaibAmjad; Huma Qureshi; MuhammadArshad; Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari; Maria Masood

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, rightly called as the miracle tree, is the extensively grown and highly valuable species of Moringaceae family. The tree has a pantropical distribution with nativity to Indian subcontinent. Nutritionally and therapeutically, it is a highly valued plant. Vitamins, proteins, β-carotene, aminoacids and various phenolics such as β-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and zeatin with potential for nutritional and therapeutic applications are enriched in different plant parts. Different plant parts of this plant such as roots, leaves, bark, flowers, fruit of immature pods and seeds possess a number of therapeutic properties such as diuretic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antitumor, antiulcer, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activities, and are being operational in various traditional medicine system for curing different health problems. Moringa is higly beneficial in depression, malnutrition, general weakness and osteoporosis. The present review is intended to emphasize the phytochemical constitution, traditional medicinal uses along pharmacological properties with the purpose to create public awareness regarding therapeutic and nutritive potential of this multipurpose tree as well as to facilitate the pharmacists and the researchers to fill the gap by exploring novel therapeutic compounds that will, of course, be in favor of humanity.

  2. [Appropriate prescription, adherence and safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostres, Carlos; Lanas, Ángel

    2016-03-18

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most numerous category of drugs sharing the same mechanism of action and therapeutic activities (anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic). Despite having similar efficacy for pain relieve, the different available NSAIDs show variability in its safety profile. The risk of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular complications varies depending on the dose of NSAID and also the presence of different risk factors. It is necessary, therefore, an individualized case assessment before establishing the indication of the best NSAID for each patient, taking account of the best gastroprotection strategy. Improved prescription and enhanced treatment adherence are central objectives to reduce NSAID-related complications. A recent consensus of the Spanish Association of Gastroenterology and the Spanish societies of Cardiology and Rheumatology intends to promote the rational use of NSAIDs according to new recent studies. This review provides additional aspects to facilitate the optimal decision-making process in the routine use of these drugs in clinical practice. PMID:26724872

  3. Dual effects of acetylsalicylic acid on ERK signaling and Mitf transcription lead to inhibition of melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Takashi; Usami, Mai; Awaji, Mizuki; Shinohara, Sumire; Sato, Kazuomi

    2016-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as an analgesic/antipyretic drug. It exhibits a wide range of biological effects, including preventative effects against heart attack and stroke, and the induction of apoptosis in various cancer cells. We previously found that ASA inhibits melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. However, the mechanisms of how ASA down-regulates melanin synthesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of ASA on melanogenic pathways, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) transcription. ASA significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner without oxidative stress and cell death. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the inhibitory effect of ASA might be due to the inhibition of Mitf gene transcription. Interestingly, ASA also induced ERK phosphorylation. Additionally, treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, abolished the anti-melanogenic effect of ASA. These results suggest that the depigmenting effect of ASA results from down-regulation of Mitf, which is induced by both the induction of ERK phosphorylation and the inhibition of Mitf transcription. PMID:26699907

  4. Delivery of Piroxicam With A Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablet: In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Kepsutlu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam (PX is one of the most potent non-steroidal, antiinflammatory agents which also exhibit anti-pyretic activity in various types of non-rheumatic pains. Although the drug is well absorbed following oral administration, gastric irritation is still the most serious adverse effect. Thus there is a need for an alternative drug delivery system with better GI tolerability. Buccal administration of drugs provides a convenient route of administration for both systemic and and local actions and bypasses first-pass effects and avoids GI side effects. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop buccal tablets of piroxicam by using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and chitosan as mucoadhesive agents. Tablets were prepared with direct compression method and evaluated for physical properties. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the release rate of PX from the formulations affected by type and ratio of polymers. The release mechanism of PX from buccal tablets follows diffusive mechanism with first order and Higuchi release kinetics. In vivo studies of optimum buccal tablet formulation carried out on human healthy volunteers showed that the relative bioavailability of PX was 67.52 ± 21.47%. These results demonstrate that buccal tablet formulation of PX seems to be an alternative drug delivery for patients especially suffering from GI disturbances

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY BETWEEN ACETONE AND ETHANOLIC STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF SPONDIAS PINNATA (LINN.F KURZ

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    Panda B.K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Spondias Pinnata (Linn.F Kurz is found in tribal area of Mayurbhanj district and extensively used traditionally by the tribal people as Anthelmintic, Anti-inflammatory, Regulate menstruation, Anti-pyretic, Anti-tumor and Anti-bacterial activity1-6. The present study is attempted to explore the anthelmintic activity of acetone and ethanol extract of bark of plant Spondias Pinnata in a comparative study. The various doses of acetone and ethanol extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activities on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima postuma. All extracts of both the solvents were able to show anthelmintic activity at (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml concentration. The activities are well comparable with standard drugs, Piperazine citrate and Albendazole (10 mg/ml.All the doses of acetone and ethanol extract of Spondias Pinnata showed better anthelmintic activities than the standard drugs. When the dose of extract is increased, a gradual increase in anthelmintic activity was observed. Ethanol extract showed better anthelmintic activity in comparison to the acetone extract of Spondias Pinnata. The data was verified as statistically significance by using ANOVA at 5% level of significance (P< 0.05.

  6. Study of the radioprotective efficiency of combined administration of natural antioxidants and a sulfhydryl compound in feverish irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present experiments, a study of the radioprotective effects of natural antioxidants, rutin alone, vitamine E alone or each of them combined with synthetic radioprotector, cysteine have been investigated in irradiated and feverish irradiated rats. Furthermore, the oxidative stress bio markers and certain liver function tests of the irradiated and the feverish whole body irradiated rats were examined. Two main sets of animals were used: The 1st set was constructed in order to study the effect of irradiation, while the second set was used to study the effect of irradiation on feverish rats. The effect of irradiation was evaluated by exposing the whole body of rats to gamma radiation at acute single dose level of 6.5 Gy. Rutin was orally daily administered for two weeks before irradiation in a dose of 1.064 mmol/kg , vitamine E was injected intraperitoneally daily for seven days before irradiation in a dose of 50 mg/100 g. While, cysteine was intraperitoneally administered only 30 min. before irradiation in a dose of 30 mg/kg. In order to determine the antipyretic effect of the drugs, body temperature of each animal was measured before induction of hyperthermia as well as 18 hours following yeast injection. Rats were treated with the tested drugs before induction of fever then exposed to whole body gamma radiation at acute single dose level of 6.5 Gy and body temperature of each animal was measured 3 days after irradiation

  7. Effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on the in vitro protease inhibitory activity of naproxen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmalingam, Senthil Rajan; Chidambaram, Kumarappan; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Nadaraju, Shamala, E-mail: dsenthilrajan@yahoo.co.in [School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated the effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on in vitro trypsin inhibitory activity of naproxen—a member of the propionic acid derivatives, which are a group of antipyretic, analgesic, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques were used to increase the solubility and anti-inflammatory efficacy of naproxen. The evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS) technique and the kneading methods were used to prepare the nanosuspension and inclusion complex of naproxen, respectively. We also used an in vitro protease inhibitory assay to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of modified naproxen formulations. Physiochemical properties of modified naproxen formulations were analyzed using UV, IR spectra, and solubility studies. Beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of naproxen was found to have a lower percentage of antitryptic activity than a pure nanosuspension of naproxen did. In conclusion, nanosuspension of naproxen has a greater anti-inflammatory effect than the other two tested formulations. This is because the nanosuspension formulation reduces the particle size of naproxen. Based on these results, the antitryptic activity of naproxen nanosuspension was noteworthy; therefore, this formulation can be used for the management of inflammatory disorders. (author)

  8. Foliar Biophenolic Antioxidant Metabolites of Alternanthera bettzickiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kalpana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel Nicholson (Family: Amaranthaceaeis an erect herb and an ornamental pot plant, claimed to be useful in purifying and nourishing blood, in addition to the acclaimed soft laxative, galactagogue, antipyretic and wound healing characteristics. The tender leaves and shoots are commonly consumed like vegetable or spinach and in soups, either cooked alone or mixed with other vegetables and served with a staple food like rice or ugali. From the hydrophilic extract of the fresh leaves that exhibited in vitro antioxidant/radical scavenging (ABTS•+ and FRAP assays and metal (Ferrous ion chelating capacities, six biophenolic antioxidants, viz., 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6-C-β-D-glucopyranosylapigenin, 6-C-β-D-glucopyranosylapigenin, 8-C-β-D-glucopyranosylapigenin, (E-3-(4-hydroxyphenylprop-2-enoic acid, (E-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylprop-2-enoic acid and (E-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylprop-2-enoic acid, have been isolated and characterised for the first time adopting extensive chromatographic and spectral studies.

  9. COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ETHANOBOTANICAL USES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MELIA AZEDARACH LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABIRA SULTANA, HAFIZ MUHAMMAD ASIF, NAVEED AKHTAR, MUHAMMAD WAQAS, SAIF UR REHMAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants, since times immemorial, have been used in virtually all cultures for therapeutic purposes. The widespread use of herbal remedies and healthcare preparations obtained from commonly used traditional herbs and medicinal plants have been traced to the occurrence of natural products with medicinal properties. In the present review, an attempt has been made to collect the botanical, phytochemical, ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and toxicological information on Melia azedarach L. which is used traditionally as an anthelmintic, diuretic, emmenagouge, expectorant, vermifuge, used in piles, used as astringent, used in hysteria, leprosy, and in scrofula. Medicinally it has been shown to possess various pharmacological activities like antifungal, anti-malarial, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-fertility, anthelmintic, antipyretic and cytotoxic activities. The available literature on the M. azedarach L. revealed that this plant contains many phytochemical constituents including alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and rutins. The aim of this article is to review those medicinal and pharmacological properties of M. azedarach which have been or still are being learned. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological properties.

  10. Inclusion of Paracetamol into β-cyclodextrin nanocavities in solution and in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kemary, Maged; Sobhy, Saffaa; El-Daly, Samy; Abdel-Shafi, Ayman

    2011-09-01

    We report on steady-state UV-visible absorption and emission characteristics of Paracetamol, drug used as antipyretic agent, in water and within cyclodextrins (CDs): β-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl- β-CD (HP- β-CD) and 2,6-dimethyl- β-CD (Me- β-CD). The results reveal that Paracetamol forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with CD. Upon encapsulation, the emission intensity enhances, indicating a confinement effect of the nanocages on the photophysical behavior of the drug. Due to its methyl groups, the Me- β-CD shows the largest effect for the drug. The observed binding constant showing the following trend: Me- β-CD > HP- β-CD > β-CD. The less complexing effectiveness of HP- β-CD is due to the steric effect of the hydroxypropyl-substituents, which can hamper the inclusion of the guest molecules. The solid state inclusion complex was prepared by co-precipitation method and its characterization was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H NMR and X-ray diffractometry. These approaches indicated that Paracetamol was able to form an inclusion complex with CDs, and the inclusion compounds exhibited different spectroscopic features and properties from Paracetamol.

  11. Clinicopathological changes and effect of imidocarb therapy in dogs experimentally infected with Babesia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, A; Vörös, K; Németh, T; Biksi, I; Hetyey, Cs; Manczur, F; Tekes, L

    2006-03-01

    In this study one spleen-intact dog (A) and two splenectomised dogs (BSE, CSE) were infected with Babesia canis. All animals developed an acute disease characterised by fever, haemoglobinuria and anaemia, the latter being more severe in the splenectomised dogs. Fever and parasitised red blood cells were detected for three days after imidocarb treatment in the splenectomised animals. Haematological abnormalities included regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia (due to neutropenia and lymphopenia) in the acute phase, soon followed by leukocytosis, neutrophilia and left shift a few days later. Acute hepatopathy was detected in all dogs with elevated ALT activity, which was more seriously altered in the splenectomised dogs. Diffuse changes in liver structure and hepatomegaly were seen by ultrasonography. Liver biopsy and histology revealed acute, non-purulent hepatitis in the splenectomised dogs. Both splenectomised dogs were successfully cured after collection of 400 ml highly parasitised blood, proving that large-amount antigen production is possible with rescuing the experimental animals. Whole blood transfusion, imidocarb and supportive care with infusions, antipyretics, glucocorticoids and diuretics were applied. The spleen-intact dog clinically recovered after receiving supportive treatment, with no imidocarb therapy. Microbial infections developed in both splenectomised animals (BSE: haemobartonellosis, CSE: osteomyelitis caused by Escherichia coli), probably as a consequence of immunosuppression after splenectomy and glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:16613023

  12. In Vivo rodent micronucleus assay of Gmelina Arborea Roxb (Gambhari extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Sahu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gmelina arborea Roxb (family Verbenaceae commonly known as ′Gambhari′ tree, the various parts of the plants are widely used in diarrhoea, anti-pyretic, thirst, anemia, leprosy, ulcers, consumption, strangury, vaginal discharges. We tested the genotoxic potential of G. arborea in bone marrow cells obtained from Swiss albino mice using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Aqueous extract of G. arborea (AEGA was tested at the dose of 286 & 667 mg/kg body weight (b. w.. Cyclophosphamide (CPZ 25 mg/kg b. w. was used as positive control in micronucleus test. The AEGA significantly increased the % micronucleated polychrometics at doses of 286mg/kg and 667mg/kg, after 24, 48 72h time interval. And also decreased the PCE/NCE ratio after 24, 48 and 72 h as compared to solvent control group. In this study, we investigated the effect of G. arborea on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb.

  13. IN VIVO RODENT MICRONUCLEUS ASSAY OF GMELINA ARBOREA ROXB (GAMBHARI EXTRACT

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    Kalyani Divakar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gmelina arborea Roxb (family Verbenaceae commonly known as ‘Gambhari’tree, the various parts of the plants are widely used in diarrhoea, anti-pyretic, thirst,anemia, leprosy, ulcers, consumption, strangury, vaginal discharges. We tested thegenotoxic potential of G. arborea in bone marrow cells obtained from Swiss albino miceusing micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Aqueous extract of G.arborea (AEGA was tested at the dose of 286 & 667 mg/kg body weight (b. w..Cyclophosphamide (CPZ 25 mg/kg b. w. was used as positive control in micronucleustest. The AEGA significantly increased the % micronucleated polychrometics at doses of286mg/kg and 667mg/kg, after 24, 48 72h time interval. And also decreased thePCE/NCE ratio after 24, 48 and 72 h as compared to solvent control group. In this study,we investigated the effect of G. arborea on mammalian bone marrow cells usingmicronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb.

  14. In vivo rodent micronucleus assay of gmelina arborea roxb (gambhari) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Rohit; Divakar, Goli; Divakar, Kalyani

    2010-01-01

    Gmelina arborea Roxb (family Verbenaceae) commonly known as 'Gambhari' tree, the various parts of the plants are widely used in diarrhoea, anti-pyretic, thirst, anemia, leprosy, ulcers, consumption, strangury, vaginal discharges. We tested the genotoxic potential of G. arborea in bone marrow cells obtained from Swiss albino mice using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Aqueous extract of G. arborea (AEGA) was tested at the dose of 286 & 667 mg/kg body weight (b. w.). Cyclophosphamide (CPZ) 25 mg/kg b. w. was used as positive control in micronucleus test. The AEGA significantly increased the % micronucleated polychrometics at doses of 286mg/kg and 667mg/kg, after 24, 48 72h time interval. And also decreased the PCE/NCE ratio after 24, 48 and 72 h as compared to solvent control group. In this study, we investigated the effect of G. arborea on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb. PMID:22247828

  15. Apoptotic induction activity of Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. extracts on human lung and cervical cancer cell lines

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    Pintusorn Hansakul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. (Yaa paak khwaai and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. (Yaa teen-ka have long been used in traditional Thai medicine because of their diuretic, anti-inflamatory, and antipyretic effects. The present study examined the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of the hexane and butanolic extracts of these two grass species. All the grass extracts exhibited selective growth inhibition effect on human lung cancer (A549 and cervical cancer (HeLa cells relative to normal human lung MRC-5 fibroblasts with IC50 values in a range of 202 to 845 mg/ml. Apparently, HeLa cellswere more sensitive to the extracts than A549 cells. Moreover, all the extracts induced lethality in both cancer cell lines atconcentrations close to 1,000 mg/ml, indicating their selective cytotoxicity effects. ELISA assay showed that only the hexaneextract of D. aegyptium (L. P.B. and E. indica (L. Gaerth. significantly increased the apoptotic level in extract-treatedA549 cells. However, DNA ladder assay detected classic DNA ladder patterns, a characteristic feature of apoptosis, in both cancer cell lines treated with all the extracts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicatethat the cytotoxic activity of the grass extracts against lung and cervical cancer cells is mediated through the induction ofapoptosis.

  16. Early detection of influenza like illness through medication sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socan, Maja; Erculj, Vanja; Lajovic, Jaro

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring sales of medications is a potential candidate for an early signal of a seasonal influenza epidemic. To test this theory, the data from a traditional, consultation-oriented influenza surveillance system were compared to medication sales and a predictive model was developed. Weekly influenza-like incidence rates from the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System were compared to sales of seven groups of medications (nasal decongestants, medicines for sore throat (MST), antitussives, mucolytics, analgo-antipyretics, non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), betalactam antibiotics, and macrolide antibiotics) to determine the correlation of medication sales with the sentinel surveillance system - and therefore their predictive power. Poisson regression and regression tree approaches were used in the statistical analyses. The fact that NSAIDs do not exhibit any seasonality and that prescription of antibiotics requires a visit to the doctor's office makes the two medication groups inappropriate for predictive purposes. The influenza-like illness (ILI) curve is the best matched by the mucolytics and antitussives sales curves. Distinct seasonality is also observed with MST and decongestants. The model including these four medication groups performed best in prediction of ILI incidence rate using the Poisson regression model. Sales of antitussives proved to be the best single predictive variable for regression tree model. Sales of medication groups included in the model were demonstrated to have a predictive potential for early detection of influenza season. The quantitative information on medication sales proves to be a useful supplementary system, complementing the traditional consultation-oriented surveillance system.

  17. 老年人慎用的药物%The drugs used with caution in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映志

    2014-01-01

    随着社会的发展,老年人用药越来越受到重视。老年人是个特殊的群体,根据老年人身体、生理等特点,在使用某些药物时,应特别慎重,以防不良反应发生。老年人慎用的药物包括泻药、利尿药、抗生素、降血压药、心脑血管药、安眠药、解热镇痛药、激素类药等。%With the development of society,more and more attention is paid to the drug use in the elderly.The elderly are a special group of people.According to the physical and physiological characteristics of the elderly,in the use of certain drugs, people should be particularly careful in order to prevent adverse reaction.The elderly careful drugs including laxatives, diuretic, antibiotics, blood pressure medicine, cardiovascular drugs, sleeping pills, antipyretic analgesics, hormonal drugs, etc.

  18. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root

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    Pravaree Phuneerub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS to evaluate nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, and PGE 2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root.

  19. ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION; VERTICAL TRANSMISSION AND FOETAL CONGENITAL ANOMALIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Aziz-un-Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to flaviviridae family that includes Dengue, West Nile, and Yellow Fever among others. Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 in Zika forest of Uganda. It is a vector borne disease, which has been sporadically reported mostly from Africa, Pacific islands and Southeast Asia since its discovery. ZIKV infection presents as a mild illness with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after the bite of an infected mosquito. Majority of the patients have low grade fever, rash, headaches, joints pain, myalgia, and flu like symptoms. Pregnant women are more vulnerable to ZIKV infection and serious congenital anomalies can occur in foetus through trans-placental transmission. The gestation at which infection is acquired is important. Zika virus infection acquired in early pregnancy poses greater risk. There is no evidence so far about transmission through breast milk. Foetal microcephaly, Gillian Barre syndrome and other neurological and autoimmune syndromes have been reported in areas where Zika outbreaks have occurred. As infection is usually very mild no specific treatment is required. Pregnant women may be advised to take rest, get plenty of fluids. For fever and pain they can take antipyretics like paracetamol. So far no specific drugs or vaccines are available against Zika Virus Infection so prevention is the mainstay against this diseases. As ZIKV infection is a vector borne disease, prevention can be a multi-pronged strategy. These entail vector control interventions, personal protection, environmental sanitation and health education among others.

  20. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

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    Bruno da Cruz Pádua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetaminophen (APAP is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose.