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Sample records for antiproton radiation therapy

  1. Antiproton Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.

    2007-01-01

    The AD-4/ACE collaboration at CERN is investigating the anticipated benefit of antiproton radiotherapy. The experimental tasks have been twofold: 1) To quantify the radiobiological properties of the antiproton beam. 2) Perform absolute dosimetry on a pulsed antiproton beam. In order to do define ...

  2. Antiproton Cancer Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels

    Antiprotons are interesting as a modality in radiation therapy for the following reasons: When fast antiprotons penetrate matter, they behave as protons. Well before the Bragg-peak, protons and antiprotons have near identical stopping powers exhibit equal radiobiology. But when the antiprotons co...

  3. Antiproton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Knudsen, Helge V; Bassler, Niels; Alsner, Jan; Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen; DeMarco, John J; Doser, Michael; Hajdukovic, Dragan; Hartley, Oliver; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Jäkel, Oliver; Kovacevic, Sandra; Møller, Søren Pape; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B; Ratib, Osman; Solberg, Timothy D; Vranjes, Sanja; Wouters, Bradly G

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most important means we have for the treatment of localised tumours. It is therefore essential to optimize the technique, and a lot of effort goes into this endeavour. Since the proposal by Wilson in 1946 [R.R. Wilson, Radiology use of fast protons, Radiology 47 (1946) 487.] that proton beams might be better than photon beams at inactivating cancer cells, hadron therapy has been developed in parallel with photon therapy and a substantial knowledge has been gained on the effects of pions, protons and heavy ions (mostly carbon ions). Here we discuss the recent measurements by the CERN ACE collaboration of the biological effects of antiprotons, and argue that these particles very likely are the optimal agents for radiotherapy.

  4. Antiproton Cancer Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels

    An essential part in cancer radiotherapy, is to direct a sufficiently high dose towards the tumour, without damaging the surrounding tissue. Different techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy have been developed, in order to reduce the dose to the normal tissue...

  5. Radiation studies in the antiproton source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiment E760 has a lead glass (Pb-G) calorimeter situated in the antiproton source tunnel in the accumulator ring at location A50. This location is exposed to radiation from several sources during antiproton stacking operations. A series of radiation studies has been performed over the last two years to determine the sources of this radiation and as a result, some shielding has been installed in the antiproton source in order to protect the lead glass from radiation damage

  6. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  7. Antiprotons get biological

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    After its final run in September, the first results of the Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) look very promising. It was the first experiment to take data on the biological effects of antiproton beams to evaluate the potential of antiprotons in radiation therapy.

  8. Antiproton radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; DeMarco, John J.; Doser, Michael; Hajdukovic, Dragan; Hartley, Oliver; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Jakel, Oliver; Knudsen, Helge V.; Kovacevic, Sandra; Møller, Søren Pape; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B.à; Solberg, Timothy D.; Sørensen, Brita S.; Vranjes, Sanja; Wouters, Bradly G.; Holzscheiter, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Antiprotons are interesting as a possible future modality in radiation therapy for the following reasons: When fast antiprotons penetrate matter, protons and antiprotons have near identical stopping powers and exhibit equal radiobiology well before the Bragg-peak. But when the antiprotons come to rest at the Bragg-peak, they annihilate, releasing almost 2 GeV per antiproton–proton annihilation. Most of this energy is carried away by energetic pions, but the Bragg-peak of the antiprotons is still locally augmented with ∼20–30 MeV per antiproton. Apart from the gain in physical dose, an increased relative biological effect also has been observed, which can be explained by the fact that some of the secondary particles from the antiproton annihilation exhibit high-LET properties. Finally, the weakly interacting energetic pions, which are leaving the target volume, may provide a real time feedback on the exact location of the annihilation peak. We have performed dosimetry experiments and investigated the rad...

  9. Antiprotons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Owen; Segre, Emilio; Wiegand, Clyde

    1955-11-29

    Since the development of Dirac's theory of the electron and the brilliant confirmation of one of its most startling predictions by the discovery of the positron by Anderson, it has been assumed most likely that the proton would also have its charge conjugate, the antiproton. The properties that define the antiproton are: (a) charge equal to the electron charge (also in sign); (b) mass equal to the proton mass; (c) stability against spontaneous decay; (d) ability to annihilate by interaction with a proton or neutron, probably generating pions and releasing in some manner the energy 2 mc{sup 2}; (e) generation in pairs with ordinary nucleons; (f) magnetic moment equal but opposite to that of the proton; (g) fermion of spin 1/2. Not all these properties are independent, but all might ultimately be subjected to experiment.

  10. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy. At this time, you will have a physical exam , talk about your medical history , and maybe have imaging tests . Your doctor or nurse will discuss external beam radiation therapy, its benefits and side effects, and ways you can care ...

  11. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... goal of causing less harm to the surrounding healthy tissue. You don't have to worry that you'll glow in the dark after radiation treatment: People who receive external radiation are not radioactive. You' ...

  12. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... frequently used is radiation therapy. Gunnar Zagars, M.D.: There are different forms of radiation for prostate ... typical treatment takes seven weeks. Gunnar Zagars, M.D.: A patient comes in every day, Monday to ...

  13. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the treatment that is frequently used is radiation therapy. Gunnar Zagars, M.D.: There are different forms of radiation for prostate cancer. They really boil down to two different types. ...

  14. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  15. Nuclear Excitations by Antiprotons and Antiprotonic Atoms

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The proposal aims at the investigation of nuclear excitations following the absorption and annihilation of stopped antiprotons in heavier nuclei and at the same time at the study of the properties of antiprotonic atoms. The experimental arrangement will consist of a scintillation counter telescope for the low momentum antiproton beam from LEAR, a beam degrader, a pion multiplicity counter, a monoisotopic target and Ge detectors for radiation and charged particles. The data are stored by an on-line computer.\\\\ \\\\ The Ge detectors register antiprotonic x-rays and nuclear @g-rays which are used to identify the residual nucleus and its excitation and spin state. Coincidences between the two detectors will indicate from which quantum state the antiprotons are absorbed and to which nuclear states the various reactions are leading. The measured pion multiplicity characterizes the annihilation process. Ge&hyphn. and Si-telescopes identify charged particles and determine their energies.\\\\ \\\\ The experiment will gi...

  16. Measurement of 0.25-3.2 GeV antiprotons in the cosmic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, J.W.; Barbier, L.M.; Christian, E.R.;

    1996-01-01

    The balloon-borne Isotope Matter-Antimatter Experiment (IMAX) was flown from Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada on 16-17 July 1992. Using velocity and magnetic rigidity to determine mass, we have directly measured the abundances of cosmic ray antiprotons and protons in the energy range from 0.25 to 3.2 Ge......V. Both the absolute flux of antiprotons and the antiproton/proton ratio are consistent with recent theoretical work in which antiprotons are produced as secondary products of cosmic ray interactions with the interstellar medium. This consistency implies a lower limit to the antiproton lifetime of similar...

  17. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hendee, William R; Hendee, Eric G

    2013-01-01

    The Third Edition of Radiation Therapy Physics addresses in concise fashion the fundamental diagnostic radiologic physics principles as well as their clinical implications. Along with coverage of the concepts and applications for the radiation treatment of cancer patients, the authors have included reviews of the most up-to-date instrumentation and critical historical links. The text includes coverage of imaging in therapy planning and surveillance, calibration protocols, and precision radiation therapy, as well as discussion of relevant regulation and compliance activities. It contains an upd

  18. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be some permanent changes to the color and elasticity of the skin. How can you help? Dress ... to Home and School Cancer Center Cancer Basics Types of Cancer Teens Get Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Dealing ...

  19. Bubble detector measurements of a mixed radiation field from antiproton annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Bassler, Niels; Møller, Søren Pape; Petersen, Jørgen B.; Rahbek, Dennis; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    2006-01-01

    In the light of recent progress in the study of the biological potential of antiproton tumour treatment it is important to be able to characterize the neutron intensity arising from antiproton annihilation using simple, compact and reliable detectors. The intensity of fast neutrons from antiproton annihilation on polystyrene has been measured with bubble detectors and a multiplicity has been derived as well as an estimated neutron equivalent dose. Additionally the sensitivity of bubble detectors towards protons was measured.

  20. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a uniquely comprehensive source of information on the entire field of radiation therapy physics. The very significant advances in imaging, computational, and accelerator technologies receive full consideration, as do such topics as the dosimetry of radiolabeled antibodies and dose calculation models. The scope of the book and the expertise of the authors make it essential reading for interested physicians and physicists and for radiation dosimetrists.

  1. Principles of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews (a) the natural history of metastatic bone disease in general terms and as it impacts on the use of radiation as therapy; (b) the clinical and radiographic evaluations used to guide the application of irradiation; and (c) the methods, results, and toxicities of various techniques of irradiation

  2. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prostate or when the patient is older the treatment that is frequently used is radiation therapy. Gunnar Zagars, M.D.: There are different forms ... different types. There's what we call external beam treatment, which is given from an x-ray machine, ...

  3. Bubble detector measurements of a mixed radiation field from antiproton annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Knudsen, Helge; Møller, Søren Pape;

    2006-01-01

    In the light of recent progress in the study of the biological potential of antiproton tumour treatment it is important to be able to characterize the neutron intensity arising from antiproton annihilation using simple, compact and reliable detectors. The intensity of fast neutrons from antiproto...... annihilation on polystyrene has been measured with bubble detectors and a multiplicity has been derived as well as an estimated neutron equivalent dose. Additionally the sensitivity of bubble detectors towards protons was measured....

  4. Microbeam radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Wagner, Hans-Peter; Archer, David W.; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Di Michiel, Marco; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Brauer, Elke; Spanne, Per O.; Gebbers, Jan-Olef; Dixon, Keith; Blattmann, Hans

    1999-10-01

    The central nervous system of vertebrates, even when immature, displays extraordinary resistance to damage by microscopically narrow, multiple, parallel, planar beams of x rays. Imminently lethal gliosarcomas in the brains of mature rats can be inhibited and ablated by such microbeams with little or no harm to mature brain tissues and neurological function. Potentially palliative, conventional wide-beam radiotherapy of malignant brain tumors in human infants under three years of age is so fraught with the danger of disrupting the functional maturation of immature brain tissues around the targeted tumor that it is implemented infrequently. Other kinds of therapy for such tumors are often inadequate. We suggest that microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) might help to alleviate the situation. Wiggler-generated synchrotron x-rays were first used for experimental microplanar beam (microbeam) radiation therapy (MRT) at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source in the early 1990s. We now describe the progress achieved in MRT research to date using immature and adult rats irradiated at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, and investigated thereafter at the Institute of Pathology of the University of Bern.

  5. Principles of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation oncology now represents the integration of knowledge obtained over an 80-year period from the physics and biology laboratories and the medical clinic. Such integration is recent; until the supervoltage era following World War II, the chief developments in these three areas for the most part were realized independently. The physics and engineering laboratories have now developed a dependable family of sources of ionizing radiations that can be precisely directed at tumor volumes at various depths within the body. The biology laboratory has provided the basic scientific support underlying the intensive clinical experience and currently is suggesting ways of using ionizing radiations more effectively, such as modified fractionation schedules relating to cell cycle kinetics and the use of drugs and chemicals as modifiers of radiation response and normal tissue reaction. The radiation therapy clinic has provided the patient stratum on which the acute and chronic effects of irradiation have been assessed, and the patterns of treatment success and failure identified. The radiation therapist has shared with the surgeon and medical oncologist the responsibility for clarifying the natural history of a large number of human neoplasms, and through such clarifications, has developed more effective treatment strategies. Several examples of this include the improved results in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, seminoma, and epithelial neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract

  6. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... in a cohort of 97 clinical stage I-II HL patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients were staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans, treated with adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy, and given INRT (prechemotherapy involved nodes to 30 Gy, residual masses...

  7. Intracoronary radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Dae Hyuk; Oh, Seung Jun; Lee, Hee Kung; Park, Seong Wook; Hong, Myeong Ki [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bom, Hee Seung [College of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Restenosis remains a major limitation of percutaneous coronary interventions. Numerous Studies including pharmacological approaches and new devices failed to reduce restenosis rate except coronary stenting. Since the results of BENESTENT and STRESS studies came out, coronary stenting has been the most popular interventional strategy in the various kinds of coronary stenotic lesions, although the efficacy of stending was shown only in the discrete lesion of the large coronary artery. The widespread use of coronary stending has improved the early and late outcomes after coronary intervention, but it has also led to a new and serious problem, e.g., in-stent restenosis. Intravascular radiation for prevention of restenosis is a new technology in the field of percutaneous coronary intervention. Recent animal experiments and human trials have demonstrated that local irradiation, in conjunction with coronary interventions, substantially diminished the rate of restenosis. This paper reviews basic radiation biology of intracoronary radiation and its role in the inhibition of restenosis. The current status of intracoronary radiation therapy using Re-188 liquid balloon is also discussed.

  8. Treatment Plans for Antiproton Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, Michael; Bassler, Niels; Herrmann, Rochus;

    Antiprotons have been proposed as potential modality for particle beam cancer therapy by Gray and Kalogeropoulos in 1985. This proposal was based on the enhancement of physical dose deposition near the end of range due to the annihilation of antiprotons when captured by a nucleus and the expectat...

  9. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin cells called melanocytes that produce skin color ( melanin ). Radiation therapy is used mostly for melanomas that ... in addition to surgery, chemotherapy or biologic therapy. Hair Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous Hair Follicle Vein Artery © ASTRO ...

  10. Stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Simon S. [Univ. Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Case Comprehensive Cancer Center; Teh, Bin S. [The Methodist Hospital Cancer Center and Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States). Weill Cornell Medical College; Lu, Jiade J. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schefter, Tracey E. (eds.) [Colorado Univ., Aurora, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-11-01

    Comprehensive an up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. Examines in detail retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials for various organ sites from around the world. Written by world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia and Europe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an innovative treatment for various primary and metastatic cancers, and the past five years have witnessed a quantum leap in its use. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. It will serve as a detailed resource for this rapidly developing treatment modality. The organ sites covered include lung, liver, spine, pancreas, prostate, adrenal, head and neck, and female reproductive tract. Retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials on SBRT for various organ sites from around the world are examined, and toxicities and normal tissue constraints are discussed. This book features unique insights from world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia, and Europe. It will be necessary reading for radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents and fellows, medical physicists, medical physics residents, medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, and cancer scientists.

  11. The physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Khan's classic textbook on radiation oncology physics is now in its thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition. It provides the entire radiation therapy team—radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists—with a thorough understanding of the physics and practical clinical applications of advanced radiation therapy technologies, including 3D-CRT, stereotactic radiotherapy, HDR, IMRT, IGRT, and proton beam therapy. These technologies are discussed along with the physical concepts underlying treatment planning, treatment delivery, and dosimetry. This Fourth Edition includes brand-new chapters on image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and proton beam therapy. Other chapters have been revised to incorporate the most recent developments in the field. This edition also features more than 100 full-color illustrations throughout.

  12. Antiproton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results for the antiproton momentum spectrum produced in proton reactions on lead at the CERN Antiproton Accumulator is scaled to AGS operating conditions using the Sanford-Wang formula with no correction for target material. Yield predictions as a function of momentum are shown for 28.3 GeV protons on beryllium and results are converted to antiproton beam flux. The AGS Medium Energy Separated Beam has a flux which is a factor of 2 lower than Sanford-Wang predictions. This may be due to factors affecting beam acceptance

  13. Measurement of 0.25 endash 3.2 GeV antiprotons in the cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The balloon-borne isotope matter-antimatter experiment (IMAX) was flown from Lynn Lake, Manitoba Canada on 16 endash 17 July 1992. Using velocity and magnetic rigidity to determine mass, we have directly measured the abundances of cosmic ray antiprotons and protons in the energy range from 0.25 to 3.2 GeV. Both the absolute flux of antiprotons and the antiproton/proton ratio are consistent with recent theoretical work in which antiprotons are produced as secondary products of cosmic ray interactions with the interstellar medium. This consistency implies a lower limit to the antiproton lifetime of ∼107 yr. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Antiprotonic helium

    CERN Multimedia

    Eades, John

    2005-01-01

    An exotic atom in w hich an electron and an antiproton orbit a helium nucleus could reveal if there are any differences between matter and antimatter. The author describes this unusual mirror on the antiworld (5 pages)

  15. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D.: There are different forms of radiation for prostate cancer. They really boil down to two different types. There's what we call external beam treatment, which is given from an x-ray ... the prostate. [beeping] Narrator: The more common form of radiation ...

  16. Antiprotons four times more effective than protons for cell irradiation

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "A pioneering experiment at CERN with potential future application in cancer therapy has produced its first results. Started in 2003, ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) is the first investigation of the biological effects of antiprotons." (1,5 page)

  17. Antiprotons four times more effective than protons for cell irradiation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "A pioneering experiment at CERN with potential future application in cancer therapy has produced its first results. Started in 2003, ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) is the first investigation of the biological effects of antiprotons." (1,5 page)

  18. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the cancer is not completely contained in the prostate or when the patient is older the treatment ... D.: There are different forms of radiation for prostate cancer. They really boil down to two different ...

  19. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... the affected area). Damage to the bowels, causing diarrhea and ... a second cancer caused by radiation exposure. Second cancers that develop ...

  20. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Narrator: When the cancer is not completely contained in the prostate or when the patient is older the treatment that is frequently used ... There are different forms of radiation for prostate cancer. They really boil down to two different types. ...

  1. Radiation therapy in pseudotumour haemarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lal, P.; Biswal, B.M.; Thulkar, S.; Patel, A.K.; Venkatesh, R.; Julka, P.K. [Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi (India). Departments of Radiation Oncology, Radiodiagnosis and Haematology

    1998-11-01

    Total or partial deficiency of factor VIII and IX in the coagulation cascade leads to haemophilia. Haemophilia affecting weight-bearing joints gives a `pseudotumour` or haemarthrosis-like condition. Surgery and cryoprecipitate infusions have been the treatment for this condition. Radiocolloids and radiation therapy have been used with some benefit. One case of ankle pseudotumour which was treated by low-dose external beam radiation is presented here. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 14 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Relative Biological Effectiveness and Peripheral Damage of Antiproton Annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    Kavanagh, J N; Kaiser, F; Tegami, S; Schettino, G; Kovacevic, S; Hajdukovic, D; Welsch, C P; Currell, F J; Toelli, H T; Doser, M; Holzscheiter, M; Herrmann, R; Timson, D J; Alsner, J; Landua, R; Knudsen, H; Comor, J; Moller, S P; Beyer, G

    2002-01-01

    The use of ions to deliver radiation to a body for therapeutic purposes has the potential to be significant improvement over the use of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation because of the improved energy deposition profile and the enhanced biological effects of ions relative to photons. Proton therapy centers exist and are being used to treat patients. In addition, the initial use of heavy ions such as carbon is promising to the point that new treatment facilities are planned. Just as with protons or heavy ions, antiprotons can be used to deliver radiation to the body in a controlled way; however antiprotons will exhibit additional energy deposition due to annihilation of the antiprotons within the body. The slowing down of antiprotons in matter is similar to that of protons except at the very end of the range beyond the Bragg peak. Gray and Kalogeropoulos estimated the additional energy deposited by heavy nuclear fragments within a few millimeters of the annihilation vertex to be approximately 30 MeV (...

  3. Khan's the physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M

    2014-01-01

    Expand your understanding of the physics and practical clinical applications of advanced radiation therapy technologies with Khan's The Physics of Radiation Therapy, 5th edition, the book that set the standard in the field. This classic full-color text helps the entire radiation therapy team-radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists-develop a thorough understanding of 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), high dose-rate remote afterloaders (HDR), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image-guided radiation therapy (

  4. Radiation therapy for vestibular schwannomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.J.S.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Overbeeke, J.J. van; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recently, new information on the natural course and on the results of radiation therapy of vestibular schwannomas has been published. The aim of this study is to summarize the most recent literature on the contemporary insights on the natural course and the results of the latest s

  5. Radiation therapy for endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although pelvic irradiation has traditionally been employed as an adjunct to surgery, the role of radiation therapy as a definitive therapeutic modality continues to be controversial. One-hundred and twenty-one patients were treated for endometrial carcinoma between 1978 and 1985 at the Medical College of Virginia Hospital. These patients were divided into three groups with respect to their treatment. Group 1 consisted of 16 patients who had preoperative radiation therapy, group 2 consisted of 77 patients who had postoperative radiation therapy, and group 3 consisted of 28 patients who had radiation therapy alone. Ninety-three percent of the patients in groups 1 and 2 and 68% of patients in group 3 had stages I and II disease. In group 3, 32% of the patients had stages III and IV disease. Two-thirds of the patients in groups 1 and 2 had moderately differentiated tumor. One-third of patients in group 3 had poorly differentiated tumor. Sixty percent of the study's population in group 2 had deep myometrial invasion. The treatment doses utilized and local failures will be presented. All of the patients have been followed for a minimum period of 2 years. The observed actuarial 5-year survival was 85%, 80%, and 53%, respectively, for groups 1, 2, and 3. The overall survival of the entire patient population was 77%. There was 1 fatality secondary to small bowel complication in group 2 and another serious complication of rectovaginal fistula in group 1 requiring colostomy. Other side effects were skin reaction, diarrhea, and cystitis, which were treated symptomatically. Analysis of the authors' institution experience with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium and its management with radiation therapy is presented. Survival is correlated with stage, grade, and depth of myometrial invasion

  6. Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yourself during radiation therapy Radiation therapy can damage healthy body tissues in or near the area being treated, which can cause side effects. Many people worry about this part of their cancer treatment. Before ...

  7. Radiation therapy of acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, R C; Gorden, P; Glatstein, E; Roth, J

    1992-09-01

    Conventional megavoltage irradiation of GH-secreting tumors has predictable effects on tumor mass, GH, and pituitary function. 1. Further growth of the tumor is prevented in more than 99% of patients, with only a fraction of a percent of patients requiring subsequent surgery for tumor mass effects. 2. GH falls predictably with time. By 2 years GH falls by about 50% from the baseline level, and by 5 years by about 75% from the baseline level. The initial GH elevation and the size and erosive features of the sella turcica do not affect the percent decrease in GH from the baseline elevation. 3. With prolonged follow-up, further decrease in GH is seen at 10 and 15 years, with the fraction of surviving patients achieving GH levels less than 5 ng/mL approaching 90% after 15 years in our experience. Gender, previous surgery, and hyperprolactinemia do not seem to affect the response to treatment. Patients with initial GH greater than 100 ng/mL are significantly less likely to achieve GH values less than 5 ng/mL during long-term follow-up. 4. Hypopituitarism is a predictable outcome of treatment, is delayed, and may be more likely in patients who have had surgery prior to irradiation. There is no evidence that this complication is more common in patients with acromegaly than in patients with other pituitary adenomas receiving similar treatment. 5. Vision loss due to megavoltage irradiation--using modern techniques and limiting the total dose to 4680 rad given in 25 fractions over 35 days, with individual fractions not exceeding 180 rad--is extremely rare. The reported cases have occurred almost entirely in patients who have received larger doses or higher fractional doses. The theory that patients with acromegaly are prone to radiation-induced injury to the CNS and optic nerves and chiasm because of small vessel disease is not supported by a review of the reported cases. 6. Brain necrosis and secondary neoplasms induced by irradiation are extremely rare. 7. Although

  8. Oray surgery and radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl, W.

    1975-07-01

    Clinical evidence seems to indicate that careful oral surgery after radiation therapy contributes little, if anything at all, to the onset of osteoradionecrosis. In many cases the process of bone dissolution has already well progressed before teeth have to be extracted. The bone changes can be demonstrated radiographically and clinically. The teeth in the immediate area become very mobile and cause severe pain during mastication. Whether this condition could have been prevented by extractions before radiation therapy is difficult to establish. Osteoradionecrosis may be encountered in edentulous jaws. It manifests itself clinically by bone segments which break loose and penetrate through the mucosa leaving a defect which does not heal over. More research and more comparative studies are needed in this area in order to make reasonably accurate predictions.

  9. Fractionated radiation therapy after Strandqvist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models for predicting the total dose required to produce tolerable normal-tissue damage in radiation therapy are becoming less empirical, more realistic, and more specific for different tissue reactions. The progression is described from the 'cube root law', through STRANDQVIST'S well known graph to NSD, TDF and CRE and more recently to biologically based time factors and linear-quadratic dose-response curves. New applications of the recent approach are reviewed together with their implications for non-standard fractionation in radiation therapy. It is concluded that accelerated fractionation is an important method to be investigated, as well as hyperfractionation; and that more data are required about the proliferation rates of clonogenic cells in human tumours. (orig.)

  10. [Radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, F; Mornex, F; Orthuon, A

    2016-09-01

    Currently, the use of radiation therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer is subject to discussion. In adjuvant setting, the standard treatment is 6 months of chemotherapy with gemcitabine and capecitabine. Chemoradiation (CRT) may improve the survival of patients with incompletely resected tumors (R1). This should be confirmed by a prospective trial. Neoadjuvant CRT is a promising treatment especially for patients with borderline resectable tumors. For patients with locally advanced tumors, there is no a standard. An induction chemotherapy followed by CRT for non-progressive patients reduces the rate of local relapse. Whereas in the first trials of CRT large fields were used, the treated volumes have been reduced to improve tolerance. Tumor movements induced by breathing should be taken in account. Intensity modulated radiation therapy allows a reduction of doses to the organs at risk. Whereas widely used, this technique is not recommended. PMID:27523418

  11. Radiation therapy for pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is clear evidence that both pleural and peritoneal malignant mesothelioma are increasing in incidence in the United States. There is a recognized long period of latency from asbestos exposure to the emergence and diagnosis of tumor. Considering the levels of asbestos utilization in the mid-20th century, we must expect that the number of cases will continue to increase until the end of this century. Evaluation of treatment options is thus a critical issue in determining treatment approaches for this disease. Recognized only recently, mesothelioma has no effective treatment, and patients are reported only anecdotally as cured. Pleural mesothelioma is the more common presentation, but even here the reports are from small, uncontrolled series. Only one study is available in which a concomitant comparison of treatment methods was carried out. Randomized clinical studies regarding treatment of pleural mesothelioma have only recently been initiated by the clinical cooperative groups. There is thus a paucity of information on treatment in general and radiation therapy specifically for malignant mesothelioma. This chapter reviews the reported experience using radiation therapy alone and combined with other modalities for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma and considers the potential for improvement of the results of current methods of radiation therapy

  12. Development of local radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed.

  13. Late complications of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are cases in which, although all traces of acute radiation complications seem to have disappeared, late complications may appear months or years to become apparent. Trauma, infection or chemotherapy may sometimes recall radiation damage and irreversible change. There were two cases of breast cancer that received an estimated skin dose in the 6000 cGy range followed by extirpation of the residual tumor. The one (12 y.o.) developed atrophy of the breast and severe teleangiectasis 18 years later radiotherapy. The other one (42 y.o.) developed severe skin necrosis twenty years later radiotherapy after administration of chemotherapy and received skin graft. A case (52 y.o.) of adenoidcystic carcinoma of the trachea received radiation therapy. The field included the thoracic spinal cord which received 6800 cGy. Two years and 8 months after radiation therapy she developed complete paraplegia and died 5 years later. A truly successful therapeutic outcome requires that the patient be alive, cured and free of significant treatment-related morbidity. As such, it is important to assess quality of life in long-term survivors of cancer treatment. (author)

  14. Practical risk management in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology advances in radiation therapy is very remarkable. In the technological progress of radiation therapy, development of computer control technology has helped. However, there is no significant progress in the ability of human beings who is operating. In many hospitals, by the incorrect parameter setting and wrong operations at radiation treatment planning system, many incidents have been reported recently. In order to safely use invisible radiation beam for treatment, what we should be careful? In state-of-the-art radiation therapy and many technological progress, risk management should be correspond continue. I report practical risk management in radiation therapy about the technical skills, non-technical skills and the quality control. (author)

  15. Radiation therapy in bronchogenic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response of intrathoracic symptoms to thoracic irradiation was evaluated in 330 patients. Superior vena caval syndrome and hemoptysis showed the best response, with rates of 86% and 83%, respectively, compared to 73% for pain in the shoulder and arm and 60% for dyspnea and chest pain. Atelectasis showed re-expansion in only 23% of cases, but this figure increased to 57% for patients with oat-cell carcinoma. Vocal cord paralysis improved in only 6% of cases. Radiation therapy has a definite positive role in providing symptomatic relief for patients with carcinoma of the lung

  16. Antiproton Radiotherapy Peripheral Dose from Secondary Neutrons produced in the Annihilation of Antiprotons in the Target

    CERN Document Server

    Fahimian, Benjamin P; Keyes, Roy; Bassler, Niels; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Zankl, Maria; Holzscheiter, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    The AD-4/ACE collaboration studies the biological effects of antiprotons with respect to a possible use of antiprotons in cancer therapy. In vitro experiments performed by the collaboration have shown an enhanced biological effectiveness for antiprotons relative to protons. One concern is the normal tissue dose resulting from secondary neutrons produced in the annihilation of antiprotons on the nucleons of the target atoms. Here we present the first organ specific Monte Carlo calculations of normal tissue equivalent neutron dose in antiproton therapy through the use of a segmented CT-based human phantom. The MCNPX Monte Carlo code was employed to quantify the peripheral dose for a cylindrical spread out Bragg peak representing a treatment volume of 1 cm diameter and 1 cm length in the frontal lobe of a segmented whole-body phantom of a 38 year old male. The secondary neutron organ dose was tallied as a function of energy and organ.

  17. Melioidosis: reactivation during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melioidosis is caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei, a gram-negative, motile bacillus which is a naturally occurring soil saprophyte. The organism is endemic in Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Australia, and parts of Central and South America. Most human disease occurs from infection acquired in these countries. Infection with P pseudomallei may produce no apparent clinical disease. Acute pneumonitis or septicemia may result from inhalation of the organism, and inoculation into sites of trauma may cause localized skin abscesses, or the disease may remain latent and be reactivated months or years later by trauma, burns, or pneumococcal pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis, influenza, or bronchogenic carcinoma. The last is probably the commonest form of melioidosis seen in the United States. We present the first case of reactivation of melioidosis after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the lung, again emphasizing the need to consider melioidosis in a septic patient with a history of travel, especially to Southeast Asia

  18. Melioidosis: reactivation during radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegasothy, B.V.; Goslen, J.B.; Salvatore, M.A.

    1980-05-01

    Melioidosis is caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei, a gram-negative, motile bacillus which is a naturally occurring soil saprophyte. The organism is endemic in Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Australia, and parts of Central and South America. Most human disease occurs from infection acquired in these countries. Infection with P pseudomallei may produce no apparent clinical disease. Acute pneumonitis or septicemia may result from inhalation of the organism, and inoculation into sites of trauma may cause localized skin abscesses, or the disease may remain latent and be reactivated months or years later by trauma, burns, or pneumococcal pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis, influenza, or bronchogenic carcinoma. The last is probably the commonest form of melioidosis seen in the United States. We present the first case of reactivation of melioidosis after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the lung, again emphasizing the need to consider melioidosis in a septic patient with a history of travel, especially to Southeast Asia.

  19. Polarization of antiprotons by antiproton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of polarized antiproton beams at Fermilab is briefly reviewed. Two types of high-energy anti p polarimeters are described - the Coulomb-nuclear polarimeter and the Primakoff-effect polarimeter. The production of 8.9 GeV/c polarized antiprotons before entering the Fermilab accumulator ring is then discussed. 5 refs., 6 figs

  20. Cancer Treatment with Gene Therapy and Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliberov, Sergey A.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy methods have evolved remarkably in recent years which have resulted in more effective local tumor control with negligible toxicity of surrounding normal tissues. However, local recurrence and distant metastasis often occur following radiation therapy mostly due to the development of radioresistance through the deregulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and inhibition of DNA damage repair mechanisms. Over the last decade, extensive progress in radiotherapy and gene therapy co...

  1. Antiproton Focus Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet.For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  2. AMS-02 Antiprotons Reloaded

    CERN Document Server

    Kappl, Rolf; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The AMS-02 collaboration has released preliminary data on the antiproton fraction in cosmic rays. The surprisingly hard antiproton spectrum at high rigidity has triggered speculations about a possible primary antiproton component originating from dark matter annihilations. In this note, we employ newly available AMS-02 boron to carbon data to update the secondary antiproton flux within the standard two-zone diffusion model. The new background permits a considerably better fit to the measured antiproton fraction compared to previous estimates. This is mainly a consequence of the smaller slope of the diffusion coefficient favored by the new AMS-02 boron to carbon data.

  3. Radiation therapy facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: About half of all cancer patients in the United States receive radiation therapy as a part of their cancer treatment. Little is known, however, about the facilities that currently deliver external beam radiation. Our goal was to construct a comprehensive database of all radiation therapy facilities in the United States that can be used for future health services research in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: From each state's health department we obtained a list of all facilities that have a linear accelerator or provide radiation therapy. We merged these state lists with information from the American Hospital Association (AHA), as well as 2 organizations that audit the accuracy of radiation machines: the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) and Radiation Dosimetry Services (RDS). The comprehensive database included all unique facilities listed in 1 or more of the 4 sources. Results: We identified 2,246 radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States as of 2004-2005. Of these, 448 (20%) facilities were identified through state health department records alone and were not listed in any other data source. Conclusions: Determining the location of the 2,246 radiation facilities in the United States is a first step in providing important information to radiation oncologists and policymakers concerned with access to radiation therapy services, the distribution of health care resources, and the quality of cancer care

  4. Spinal cord biological safety of image-guided radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanlong Xu; Xilinbaoleri; Hao Liu; Ruozheng Wang; Jingping Bai

    2012-01-01

    Tumor models were simulated in purebred Beagles at the T9-10 levels of the spinal cord and treated with spinal image-guided radiation therapy or conventional radiation therapy with 50 or 70 Gy total radiation. Three months after radiation, neuronal injury at the T9-10 levels was observed, including reversible injury induced by spinal image-guided radiation therapy and apoptosis induced by conventional radiation therapy. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of the proapoptotic protein Fas were significantly reduced, but expression of the anti-apoptotic protein heat shock protein 70 was significantly increased after image-guided radiation therapy compared with the conventional method of the same radiation dose. Moreover, the spinal cord cell apoptotic index positively correlated with the ratio of Fas/heat shock protein 70. These findings indicate that 3 months of radiation therapy can induce a late response in the spinal cord to radiation therapy; image-guided radiation therapy is safer and results in less neuronal injury compared with conventional radiation therapy.

  5. Study on external beam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seoung Yul; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Ji, Young Hoon; Lee, Dong Han; Lee, Dong Hoon; Choi, Mun Sik; Yoo, Dae Heon; Lee, Hyo Nam; Kim, Kyeoung Jung

    1999-04-01

    To develop the therapy technique which promote accuracy and convenience in external radiation therapy, to obtain the development of clinical treatment methods for the global competition. The contents of the R and D were 1. structure, process and outcome analysis in radiation therapy department. 2. Development of multimodality treatment in radiation therapy 3. Development of computation using networking techniques 4. Development of quality assurance (QA) system in radiation therapy 5. Development of radiotherapy tools 6. Development of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) tools. The results of the R and D were 1. completion of survey and analysis about Korea radiation therapy status 2. Performing QA analysis about ICR on cervix cancer 3. Trial of multicenter randomized study on lung cancers 4. Setting up inter-departmental LAN using MS NT server and Notes program 5. Development of ionization chamber and dose-rate meter for QA in linear accelerator 6. Development on optimized radiation distribution algorithm for multiple slice 7. Implementation on 3 dimensional volume surface algorithm and 8. Implementation on adaptor and cone for IORT.

  6. Study on external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop the therapy technique which promote accuracy and convenience in external radiation therapy, to obtain the development of clinical treatment methods for the global competition. The contents of the R and D were 1. structure, process and outcome analysis in radiation therapy department. 2. Development of multimodality treatment in radiation therapy 3. Development of computation using networking techniques 4. Development of quality assurance (QA) system in radiation therapy 5. Development of radiotherapy tools 6. Development of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) tools. The results of the R and D were 1. completion of survey and analysis about Korea radiation therapy status 2. Performing QA analysis about ICR on cervix cancer 3. Trial of multicenter randomized study on lung cancers 4. Setting up inter-departmental LAN using MS NT server and Notes program 5. Development of ionization chamber and dose-rate meter for QA in linear accelerator 6. Development on optimized radiation distribution algorithm for multiple slice 7. Implementation on 3 dimensional volume surface algorithm and 8. Implementation on adaptor and cone for IORT

  7. The discovery of geomagnetically trapped cosmic ray antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Borisov, S; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carbone, R; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; Consiglio, L; De Pascale, M P; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Galper, A M; Gillard, W; Grishantseva, L; Jerse, G; Karelin, A V; Kheymits, M D; Koldashov, S V; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Nikonov, N; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Pizzolotto, C; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Rossetto, L; Sarkar, R; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Wu, J; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zverev, V G; 10.1088/2041-8205/736/1/L1

    2011-01-01

    The existence of a significant flux of antiprotons confined to Earth's magnetosphere has been considered in several theoretical works. These antiparticles are produced in nuclear interactions of energetic cosmic rays with the terrestrial atmosphere and accumulate in the geomagnetic field at altitudes of several hundred kilometers. A contribution from the decay of albedo antineutrons has been hypothesized in analogy to proton production by neutron decay, which constitutes the main source of trapped protons at energies above some tens of MeV. This Letter reports the discovery of an antiproton radiation belt around the Earth. The trapped antiproton energy spectrum in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region has been measured by the PAMELA experiment for the kinetic energy range 60--750 MeV. A measurement of the atmospheric sub-cutoff antiproton spectrum outside the radiation belts is also reported. PAMELA data show that the magnetospheric antiproton flux in the SAA exceeds the cosmic-ray antiproton flux by three ...

  8. Radiation Sensitization in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstock, Clive L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of radiation damage to biological material, including free radical mechanisms, radiation sensitization and protection, tumor hypoxia, mechanism of hypoxic cell radiosensitization, redox model for radiation modification, sensitizer probes of cellular radiation targets, pulse radiolysis studies of free radical kinetics,…

  9. Extramammary Paget's disease: role of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extra mammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an uncommon premalignant skin condition that has been traditionally managed with surgery. A report of long-standing Paget's disease with transformation to invasive adenocarcinoma definitively managed with radiation therapy is presented. A review of cases of extramammary Paget's disease treated with radiation therapy is discussed. The use of radiation therapy should be considered in selected cases, as these studies demonstrate acceptable rates of local control when used as an adjunct to surgery, or as a definitive treatment modality. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Managing the adverse effects of radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, Franklin J

    2010-08-15

    Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of radiation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to significantly improve symptoms of depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy, although they have little effect on cancer-related fatigue. Radiation dermatitis is treated with topical steroids and emollient creams. Skin washing with a mild, unscented soap is acceptable. Cardiovascular disease is a well-established adverse effect in patients receiving radiation therapy, although there are no consensus recommendations for cardiovascular screening in this population. Radiation pneumonitis is treated with oral prednisone and pentoxifylline. Radiation esophagitis is treated with dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, promotility agents, and viscous lidocaine. Radiation-induced emesis is ameliorated with 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and steroids. Symptomatic treatments for chronic radiation cystitis include anticholinergic agents and phenazopyridine. Sexual dysfunction from radiation therapy includes erectile dysfunction and vaginal stenosis, which are treated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and vaginal dilators, respectively. PMID:20704169

  11. Detoxication and antiproteolytic therapy of radiation complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakhontov, N.E.; Klimov, I.A.; Lavrikova, L.P.; Martynov, A.D.; Provorova, T.P.; Serdyukov, A.S.; Shestakov, A.F. (Gor' kovskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-11-01

    49 patients with uterine cervix and ovarian carcinomas were treated with detoxication and antiproteolytic therapy of radiation-induced side-effects. The therapy permits to complete without interruption the remote gamma-therapy course and to reduce patients in-hospital periods by 10+- 1 days. The prescription of hemoder intravenous injection in a dose of 450 ml and contrical intramuscular injection (10000 AtrE) in cases of pronounced manifestations of radiation-induced side-effects (asthenia, leukopenia, enterocolitis) for 3 days should be considered an efficient therapy.

  12. Towards an antiproton measurement with AMS-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachlechner, Andreas [RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    AMS-02 is a multi-purpose high-precision particle detector. It has been onboard the International Space Station since May 2011. The antiprotons measurement is an important part of the AMS-02 physics program. An excess above the expected spectrum due to interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar matter can hint at exotic sources like dark matter annihilation. The antiproton-to-proton ratio and the antiproton flux itself may also improve the understanding of the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. Due to the very small fraction of antiprotons in the cosmic radiation of about 10{sup -5} compared to protons a very precise particle identification is needed. The main backgrounds are other singly charged particles like protons, electrons, and pions produced within the detector material itself. At lower energies the ring-imaging Cherenkov detector and the time-of-flight system help to separate light particles from protons. The electromagnetic calorimeter and the transition radiation detector redundantly suppress the electron background. The reconstruction of the charge sign by the magnetic spectrometer is limited by its resolution and has to be taken into account carefully. The strategies to identify antiprotons in the cosmic-ray measurement in different energy regions are presented. Methods to suppress and the effect of the backgrounds to the antiproton-to-proton ratio are discussed.

  13. Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim;

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and an important component of therapy for many patients. These guidelines have been developed to address the use of RT in HL in the modern era of combined modality treatment. The role of reduced...... volumes and doses is addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) planning and advanced techniques of treatment delivery. The previously applied extended field (EF) and original involved field (IF) techniques, which treated larger volumes based on nodal stations, have now been replaced...... on Radiation Units and Measurements concepts of gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume are used for defining the targeted volumes. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated radiation therapy, breath-hold, image guided radiation therapy...

  14. Comparing Postoperative Radiation Therapies for Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, patients with one to four brain metastases who have had at least one of the metastatic tumors removed surgically will be randomly assigned to undergo whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery.

  15. ASACUSA hits antiproton jackpot

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Japanese-European ASACUSA collaboration, which takes its name from the oldest district of Tokyo, approaches the antimatter enigma in a different way from the other two AD experiments, by inserting antiprotons into ordinary atoms. Last month the collaboration succeeded in trapping about a million antiprotons. The ASACUSA antiproton trap (lower cylinder), surmounted by its liquid helium reservoir. Looking on are Ken Yoshiki-Franzen, Zhigang Wang, Takahito Tasaki, Suzanne Reed, John Eades, Masaki Hori, Yasunori Yamazaki, Naofumi Kuroda, Jun Sakaguchi, Berti Juhasz, Eberhard Widmann and Ryu Hayano. A key element of the ASACUSA apparatus is its decelerating Radiofrequency Quadrupole magnet, RFQD. After tests with protons in Aarhus, this was installed in ASACUSA's antiproton beam last October (Bulletin 41/2000, 9 October 2000). Constructed by Werner Pirkl's group in PS Division, the RFQD works by applying an electric field to the AD antiproton pulse the opposite direction to its motion. As the antiprotons slo...

  16. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy...

  17. Nursing care update: Internal radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Internal radiation therapy has been used in treating gynecological cancers for over 100 years. A variety of radioactive sources are currently used alone and in combination with other cancer treatments. Nurses need to be able to provide safe, comprehensive care to patients receiving internal radiation therapy while using precautions to keep the risks of exposure to a minimum. This article discusses current trends and issues related to such treatment for gynecological cancers.20 references.

  18. Nursing care update: Internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal radiation therapy has been used in treating gynecological cancers for over 100 years. A variety of radioactive sources are currently used alone and in combination with other cancer treatments. Nurses need to be able to provide safe, comprehensive care to patients receiving internal radiation therapy while using precautions to keep the risks of exposure to a minimum. This article discusses current trends and issues related to such treatment for gynecological cancers.20 references

  19. Modern radiation therapy for primary cutaneous lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Illidge, Tim;

    2015-01-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases. They often remain localized, and they generally have a more indolent course and a better prognosis than lymphomas in other locations. They are highly radiosensitive, and radiation therapy is an important part of the treatment......, either as the sole treatment or as part of a multimodality approach. Radiation therapy of primary cutaneous lymphomas requires the use of special techniques that form the focus of these guidelines. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group has developed these guidelines after multinational...... meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group steering committee on the use of radiation therapy in primary cutaneous lymphomas in the modern era....

  20. Antiprotonic Helium Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kartavtsev, O. I.

    1995-01-01

    Metastable antiprotonic helium atoms $^{3,4}\\! H\\! e\\bar pe$ have been discovered recently in experiments of the delayed annihilation of antiprotons in helium media. These exotic atoms survive for an enormous time (about tens of microseconds) and carry the extremely large total angular momentum $L\\sim 30-40$. The theoretical treatment of the intrinsic properties of antiprotonic helium atoms, their formation and collisions with atoms and molecules is discussed.

  1. The CERN antiproton collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Antiproton Collector is a new ring of much larger acceptance than the present accumulator. It is designed to receive 108 antiprotons per PS cycle. In order to be compatible with the Antiproton Accumulator, the momentum spread and the emittances are reduced from 6% to 0.2% and from 200 π mm mrad to 25 π mm mrad respectively. In addition to the ring itself, the new target area and the modifications to the stochastic systems of the Antiproton Accumulator are described. (orig.)

  2. THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS APPLICATIONS IN RADIATION THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Anca; Moldoveanu, Sinziana; Manea, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This is an example of the use of thermoplastic materials in a high-tech medicine field, oncology radiation therapy, in order to produce the rigid masks for positioning and immobilization of the patient during simulation of the treatment procedure, the imaging verification of position and administration of the indicated radiation dose. Implementation of modern techniques of radiation therapy is possible only if provided with performant equipment (CT simulators, linear accelerators of high energy particles provided with multilamellar collimators and imaging verification systems) and accessories that increase the precision of the treatment (special supports for head-neck, thorax, pelvis, head-neck and thorax immobilization masks, compensating materials like bolus type material). The paper illustrates the main steps in modern radiation therapy service and argues the role of thermoplastics in reducing daily patient positioning errors during treatment. As part of quality assurance of irradiation procedure, using a rigid mask is mandatory when applying 3D conformal radiation therapy techniques, radiation therapy with intensity modulated radiation or rotational techninques.

  3. THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS APPLICATIONS IN RADIATION THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Anca; Moldoveanu, Sinziana; Manea, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This is an example of the use of thermoplastic materials in a high-tech medicine field, oncology radiation therapy, in order to produce the rigid masks for positioning and immobilization of the patient during simulation of the treatment procedure, the imaging verification of position and administration of the indicated radiation dose. Implementation of modern techniques of radiation therapy is possible only if provided with performant equipment (CT simulators, linear accelerators of high energy particles provided with multilamellar collimators and imaging verification systems) and accessories that increase the precision of the treatment (special supports for head-neck, thorax, pelvis, head-neck and thorax immobilization masks, compensating materials like bolus type material). The paper illustrates the main steps in modern radiation therapy service and argues the role of thermoplastics in reducing daily patient positioning errors during treatment. As part of quality assurance of irradiation procedure, using a rigid mask is mandatory when applying 3D conformal radiation therapy techniques, radiation therapy with intensity modulated radiation or rotational techninques. PMID:27125096

  4. Care of the patient receiving radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External radiation therapy, or teletherapy, is the use of ionizing radiation to destroy cancer cells. Clinical use of ionizing radiation as treatment for cancer began with the discovery of x-rays in 1895, the identification of natural radioactivity (radium) in 1896, and the first reported cure of cancer, a basal cell epithelioma, induced by radiation in 1899. Initially, radiation was administered as a single large dose and produced severe, life-threatening side effects. The basis for the use of ionizing radiation in daily increments for a period of weeks was provided by Regaud in 1922; ten years later, Coutard clinically developed the method of dose fractionation, which remains in use today. Although the use of ionizing radiation as a treatment is over eighty years old, only in recent years have advancements in its clinical application been based on research related to the biologic effect of radiation on human cells. To effectively care for the patient prior to, during, and at the completion of external radiation therapy, the nurse must know the physical and biologic basis of external radiation therapy and its clinical application

  5. Wound healing following radiation therapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy may interrupt normal wound healing mechanisms. Changes in vasculature, effects on fibroblasts, and varying levels of regulatory growth factors result in the potential for altered wound healing whether radiation is given before or after surgery. Surgical factors, such as incision size, as well as radiation parameters, including dose and fractionation, are important considerations in developing overall treatment plans. Experience suggests that certain practical measures may diminish the risk of morbidity, and investigations are ongoing

  6. Evolution of radiation therapy: technology of today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three well established arms of treatment are surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The management of cancer is multidisciplinary; Radiation Oncologists along with Surgical Oncologists and Medical Oncologists are responsible for cancer therapeutics. They all work in close collaboration with Pathologists and Radiologists for cancer diagnosis and staging and rely on Oncology Nurses, Physiotherapists, Occupational Therapists, Nutritionists and Social Workers for optimal treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients. Therefore cancer management is a team work for getting the best results. Radiation therapy is one of the most effective methods of treating cancer

  7. Role of radiation therapy in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Hazard; John O'Connor; Courtney Scaife

    2006-01-01

    Outcomes in patients with gastric cancer in the United States remain disappointing, with a five-year overall survival rate of approximately 23%. Given high rates of local-regional control following surgery, a strong rationale exists for the use of adjuvant radiation therapy.Randomized trials have shown superior local control with adjuvant radiotherapy and improved overall survival with adjuvant chemoradiation. The benefit of adjuvant chemoradiation in patients who have undergone D2 lymph node dissection by an experienced surgeon is not known, and the benefit of adjuvant radiation therapy in addition to adjuvant chemotherapy continues to be defined.In unresectable disease, chemoradiation allows long-term survival in a small number of patients and provides effective palliation. Most trials show a benefit to combined modality therapy compared to chemotherapy or radiation therapy alone.The use of pre-operative, intra-operative, 3D conformal, and intensity modulated radiation therapy in gastric cancer is promising but requires further study.The current article reviews the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of resectable and unresectable gastric carcinoma, focusing on current recommendations in the United States.

  8. Modern radiation therapy for extranodal lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena;

    2015-01-01

    Extranodal lymphomas (ENLs) comprise about a third of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as either primary therapy (particularly for indolent ENL), consolidation after systemic therapy, salvage treatment, or palliation. The wide range of presentations of ENL...... there is a lack of guidelines for the use of RT in the management of ENL. This report presents an effort by the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) to harmonize and standardize the principles of treatment of ENL, and to address the technical challenges of simulation, volume definition...... and treatment planning for the most frequently involved organs. Specifically, detailed recommendations for RT volumes are provided. We have applied the same modern principles of involved site radiation therapy as previously developed and published as guidelines for Hodgkin lymphoma and nodal NHL. We have...

  9. Protective prostheses during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current applications and complications in the use of radiotherapy for the treatment of oral malignancy are reviewed. Prostheses are used for decreasing radiation to vital structures not involved with the lesion but located in the field of radiation. With a program of oral hygiene and proper dental care, protective prostheses can help decrease greatly the morbidity seen with existing radiotherapy regimens

  10. [Laser radiations in medical therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richand, P; Boulnois, J L

    1983-06-30

    The therapeutic effects of various types of laser beams and the various techniques employed are studied. Clinical and experimental research has shown that Helio-Neon laser beams are most effective as biological stimulants and in reducing inflammation. For this reasons they are best used in dermatological surgery cases (varicose ulcers, decubital and surgical wounds, keloid scars, etc.). Infrared diode laser beams have been shown to be highly effective painkillers especially in painful pathologies like postherpetic neuritis. The various applications of laser therapy in acupuncture, the treatment of reflex dermatologia and optic fibre endocavital therapy are presented. The neurophysiological bases of this therapy are also briefly described.

  11. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  12. Antiprotons at Solar Maximum

    CERN Document Server

    Bieber, J W; Engel, R; Gaisser, T K; Roesler, S; Stanev, T; Bieber, John W.; Engel, Ralph; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Roesler, Stefan; Stanev, Todor

    1999-01-01

    New measurements with good statistics will make it possible to observe the time variation of cosmic antiprotons at 1 AU through the approaching peak of solar activity. We report a new computation of the interstellar antiproton spectrum expected from collisions between cosmic protons and the interstellar gas. This spectrum is then used as input to a steady-state drift model of solar modulation, in order to provide predictions for the antiproton spectrum as well as the antiproton/proton ratio at 1 AU. Our model predicts a surprisingly large, rapid increase in the antiproton/proton ratio through the next solar maximum, followed by a large excursion in the ratio during the following decade.

  13. Radiation Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg, Daniel J; Craciunescu, Oana; Kelsey, Chris R

    2015-10-01

    Radiation therapy is an extraordinarily effective skin-directed therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to radiation and a complete response is generally achieved even with low doses. Radiation therapy has several important roles in the management of mycosis fungoides. For the rare patient with unilesional disease, radiation therapy alone is potentially curative. For patients with more advanced cutaneous disease, radiation therapy to local lesions or to the entire skin can effectively palliate symptomatic disease and provide local disease control. Compared with other skin-directed therapies, radiation therapy is particularly advantageous because it can effectively penetrate and treat thicker plaques and tumors. PMID:26433843

  14. Cancer and electromagnetic radiation therapy: Quo Vadis?

    CERN Document Server

    Makropoulou, Mersini

    2016-01-01

    In oncology, treating cancer with a beam of photons is a well established therapeutic technique, developed over 100 years, and today over 50% of cancer patients will undergo traditional X-ray radiotherapy. However, ionizing radiation therapy is not the only option, as the high-energy photons delivering their cell-killing radiation energy into cancerous tumor can lead to significant damage to healthy tissues surrounding the tumor, located throughout the beam's path. Therefore, in nowadays, advances in ionizing radiation therapy are competitive to non-ionizing ones, as for example the laser light based therapy, resulting in a synergism that has revolutionized medicine. The use of non-invasive or minimally invasive (e.g. through flexible endoscopes) therapeutic procedures in the management of patients represents a very interesting treatment option. Moreover, as the major breakthrough in cancer management is the individualized patient treatment, new biophotonic techniques, e.g. photo-activated drug carriers, help...

  15. Radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Shingo; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Tsuchiya, Miwako; Arai, Masahiko; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Niibe, Hideo; Tamura, Masaru

    1988-04-01

    The results of radiation therapy in 31 patients with intracranial germ cell tumors have been analyzed. The five-year survival rates were 70.1 % for germinomas and 38.1 % for teratomas. Three patients with germinoma have since died of spinal seeding. The prophylactic irradiation of the spinal canal has been found effective in protecting spinal seeding, since no relapse of germinoma has been observed in cases that received entire neuraxis iradiation, whereas teratomas and marker (AFP, HCG) positive tumors did not respond favorably to radiation therapy, and the cause of death in these patients has been local failure. Long-term survivors over 3 years after radiation therapy have been determined as having a good quality of life.

  16. Monte Carlo techniques in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Modern cancer treatment relies on Monte Carlo simulations to help radiotherapists and clinical physicists better understand and compute radiation dose from imaging devices as well as exploit four-dimensional imaging data. With Monte Carlo-based treatment planning tools now available from commercial vendors, a complete transition to Monte Carlo-based dose calculation methods in radiotherapy could likely take place in the next decade. Monte Carlo Techniques in Radiation Therapy explores the use of Monte Carlo methods for modeling various features of internal and external radiation sources, including light ion beams. The book-the first of its kind-addresses applications of the Monte Carlo particle transport simulation technique in radiation therapy, mainly focusing on external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. It presents the mathematical and technical aspects of the methods in particle transport simulations. The book also discusses the modeling of medical linacs and other irradiation devices; issues specific...

  17. Building immunity to cancer with radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikerwal, Suresh J; Hagekyriakou, Jim; MacManus, Michael; Martin, Olga A; Haynes, Nicole M

    2015-11-28

    Over the last decade there has been a dramatic shift in the focus of cancer research toward understanding how the body's immune defenses can be harnessed to promote the effectiveness of cytotoxic anti-cancer therapies. The ability of ionizing radiation to elicit anti-cancer immune responses capable of controlling tumor growth has led to the emergence of promising combination-based radio-immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer. Herein we review the immunoadjuvant properties of localized radiation therapy and discuss how technological advances in radio-oncology and developments in the field of tumor-immunotherapy have started to revolutionize the therapeutic application of radiotherapy.

  18. Radiation Therapy for Pilocytic Astrocytomas of Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Though radiation therapy is generally considered the most effective treatment for unresectable pilocytic astrocytomas in children, there are few data to support this claim. To examine the efficacy of radiation therapy for pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas, we retrospectively reviewed the experience at our institution. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients 18 years old or younger with unresectable tumors and without evidence of neurofibromatosis have been treated since 1982. Patients were treated with local radiation fields to a median dose of 54 Gy. Six patients were treated with radiosurgery to a median dose of 15.5 Gy. Five patients were treated with initial chemotherapy and irradiated after progression. Results: All patients were alive after a median follow-up of 5.0 years. However, progression-free survival was 68.7%. None of 11 infratentorial tumors progressed compared with 6 of 20 supratentorial tumors. A trend toward improved progression-free survival was seen with radiosurgery (80%) compared with external beam alone (66%), but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Eight of the 9 patients progressing after therapy did so within the irradiated volume. Conclusions: Although the survival of these children is excellent, almost one third of patients have progressive disease after definitive radiotherapy. Improvements in tumor control are needed in this patient population, and the optimal therapy has not been fully defined. Prospective trials comparing initial chemotherapy to radiation therapy are warranted.

  19. Effects of radiation therapy in microvascular anastomoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, M.P.

    1985-07-01

    The otolaryngologist, as a head and neck surgeon, commonly cares for patients with upper aerodigestive tract malignancies. Therapy of these neoplasms often requires wide excision. One standard reconstructive procedure utilizes pedicled regional flaps, both dermal and myodermal which have some disadvantages. The shortcomings of these pedicled regional flaps have led to the use of the vascularized free flap in certain cases. The occasional case may lead to catastrophe if microanastomoses fail when combined with radiation. Notwithstanding, many surgical series have reported success when radiation has been given. The present investigation was undertaken to assess the effects of radiation therapy on microvascular anastomoses when radiation is administered pre- or postoperatively or when nonradiated tissue is transferred to an irradiated recipient site. These effects were observed serially in an experimental rat model using a tubed superficial epigastric flap that adequately reflected tissue viability and vascular patency. The histologic changes were then noted over a three month period after completion of both radiation and surgery. This study adds credence to the observation of the lack of deleterious effects of radiation on experimental microvascular anastomotic patency whether the radiation is given before or after surgery or if radiated tissue is approximated to nonradiated vessels.

  20. Cancer and electromagnetic radiation therapy: Quo Vadis?

    OpenAIRE

    Makropoulou, Mersini

    2016-01-01

    In oncology, treating cancer with a beam of photons is a well established therapeutic technique, developed over 100 years, and today over 50% of cancer patients will undergo traditional X-ray radiotherapy. However, ionizing radiation therapy is not the only option, as the high-energy photons delivering their cell-killing radiation energy into cancerous tumor can lead to significant damage to healthy tissues surrounding the tumor, located throughout the beam's path. Therefore, in nowadays, adv...

  1. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 49-year-old woman developed ascites 31 years after radiation therapy for ovarian cancer and was admitted to hospital 1 year later. Diffuse infiltration of both sheets of the peritoneum was found by CT, which on histological investigation turned out to be an advanced malignant peritoneal carcinoma. When there is a history of radiation exposure, malignant peritoneal mesothelioma should be considered as the cause of ascites. (orig.)

  2. Bullous pemphigoid after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam therapy applied to a lymph node metastasis from a squamous cell carcinoma was followed by the development of histologically and immunologically typical bullous pemphigoid, the lesions being initially strictly confined to the irradiation area. This observation suggests that the bullous pemphigoid antigen may be altered or unmasked by electron beam radiotherapy, leading subsequently to the production of autoantibodies. The disease in this case effectively responded to the administration of tetracycline and niacinamide, a therapeutic regimen described recently

  3. Delineating organs at risk in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Cèfaro, Giampiero Ausili; Perez, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Defining organs at risk is a crucial task for radiation oncologists when aiming to optimize the benefit of radiation therapy, with delivery of the maximum dose to the tumor volume while sparing healthy tissues. This book will prove an invaluable guide to the delineation of organs at risk of toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy. The first and second sections address the anatomy of organs at risk, discuss the pathophysiology of radiation-induced damage, and present dose constraints and methods for target volume delineation. The third section is devoted to the radiological anatomy of orga

  4. Electron beams in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical electron beams in interaction with beam flattening and collimating devices are studied, in order to obtain the means for adequate electron therapy. A treatment planning method for arbitrary field shapes is developed that takes the properties of the collimated electron beams into account. An electron multiple-scattering model is extended to incorporate a model for the loss of electrons with depth, in order to improve electron beam dose planning. A study of ionisation measurements in two different phantom materials yields correction factors for electron beam dosimetry. (Auth.)

  5. Process of Coping with Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jean E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated ability of self-regulation and emotional-drive theories to explain effects of informational intervention entailing objective descriptions of experience on outcomes of coping with radiation therapy among 84 men with prostate cancer. Consistent with self-regulation theory, similarity between expectations and experience and degree of…

  6. Antiprotonic-hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies of antiprotonic-hydrogen atoms have recently made great progress following the commissioning of the low energy antiproton facility (LEAR) at CERN in 1983. At the same time our understanding of the atomic cascade has increased considerably through measurements of the X-ray spectra. The life history of the p-bar-p atom is considered in some detail, from the initial capture of the antiproton when stopping in hydrogen, through the atomic cascade with the emission of X-rays, to the final antiproton annihilation and production of mesons. The experiments carried out at LEAR are described and the results compared with atomic cascade calculations and predictions of strong interaction effects. (author)

  7. Computer models for optimizing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this contribution is to outline how methods of system analysis, control therapy and modelling can be applied to simulate normal and malignant cell growth and to optimize cancer treatment as for instance radiation therapy. Based on biological observations and cell kinetic data, several types of models have been developed describing the growth of tumor spheroids and the cell renewal of normal tissue. The irradiation model is represented by the so-called linear-quadratic model describing the survival fraction as a function of the dose. Based thereon, numerous simulation runs for different treatment schemes can be performed. Thus, it is possible to study the radiation effect on tumor and normal tissue separately. Finally, this method enables a computer-assisted recommendation for an optimal patient-specific treatment schedule prior to clinical therapy. (orig.)

  8. Combined therapy of urinary bladder radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaderin, V.P.; Polyanichko, M.F. (Rostovskij-na-Donu Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Onkologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1982-01-01

    A scheme of therapy of radiation cystitis is suggested. It was developed on the basis of evaluation of literature and clinical data of 205 patients with radiation injury of the urinary bladder. The method is based on general and local therapy of damaged tissues by antiinflammatory drugs, anesthetics and stimulators of reparative regeneration. Severe ulcerative and incrustation cystites, refractory to conservative therapy, were treated by surgery, using antiseptics and reparation stimulators before, during and after operation. As a result, there were hardly any complications after reconstruction of the bladder with intestinal and peritoneal tissues. 104 patients (96.1%) were cured completely and ability to work was restored in 70 patients (76.9%).

  9. Comparison of particle-radiation-therapy modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of dose distribution, beam alignment, and radiobiological advantages accorded to high LET radiation were reviewed and compared for various particle beam radiotherapeutic modalities (neutron, Auger electrons, p, π-, He, C, Ne, and Ar ions). Merit factors were evaluated on the basis of effective dose to tumor relative to normal tissue, linear energy transfer (LET), and dose localization, at depths of 1, 4, and 10 cm. In general, it was found that neutron capture therapy using an epithermal neutron beam provided the best merit factors available for depths up to 8 cm. The position of fast neutron therapy on the Merit Factor Tables was consistently lower than that of other particle modalities, and above only 60Co. The largest body of clinical data exists for fast neutron therapy; results are considered by some to be encouraging. It then follows that if benefits with fast neutron therapy are real, additional gains are within reach with other modalities

  10. External and internal radiation therapy: Past and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Treatment modalities comprise radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy can be performed by using external or internal radiation therapy. However, each method has its unique properties which undertakes special role in cancer treatment, this question is brought up that: For cancer treatment, whether external radiation therapy is more efficient or internal radiation therapy one? To answer this question, we need to consider principles and structure of individual methods. In this review, principles and application of each method are considered and finally these two methods are compared with each other.

  11. Stereotactic radiation therapy and radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, C B

    1994-01-01

    In all stereotactic irradiation procedures, a high dose is delivered to a relatively small target volume. Whether fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy is preferable (based on a therapeutic ratio) or a radiosurgical method (aiming at the precise and complete destruction of a tissue volume) depends on the definition and composition of the target. The methodologies can be grouped in closed-skull external focussed beam stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy and in stereotactic implantation/injection of radiation sources. Although originally developed to treat functional disorders of the brain, stereotactic radiosurgery has been used most successfully for over 4 decades to treat cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Complete obliteration ranges from 30 to 50% after 1 year are reported. At 2 years the results range from 72 to 90%. Clearly the outcome is influenced by patient selection. In the treatment of acoustic neurinomas follow-up data of larger series of radiosurgery show that the treatment performed under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis becomes comparable with the best microsurgery data. Using multiple isocenters and MR localization tumor growth control is achieved in more than 90% of cases, with hearing preservation of approximately 50%. Pituitary tumors with Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinomas and nonsecreting adenomas have been treated with various stereotactic irradiation methods. Further refinement of both localization techniques, dose distribution and beam manipulation will make radiosurgery an attractive modality because of its noninvasive character and low morbidity. Only a small subgroup of patients with low-grade gliomas are candidates for stereotactic localized irradiation treatment, namely those with circumscribed tumors with only limited spread of tumor cells into the periphery. For this subgroup, which usually comprises not more than 25% of all low-grade gliomas, the results from interstitial radiosurgery compete

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for radiation cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gakiya, Munehisa [Okinawa Prefectural Miyako Hospital, Hirara (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We used hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) on 11 patients with radiation cystitis from 1996 to 1998. The patients aged from 46 to 78 years with a mean of 64 years underwent one or more courses of HBO consisting of 20 sessions. During the 60 min HBO patients received 100% oxygen at 2.5 absolute atmosphere pressure in the Simple Hyperbaric Chamber. Hematuria improved in all patients. Cystoscopic findings of mucosal edema, redness and capillary dilatation were improved. HBO appears to be useful for radiation cystitis. (author)

  13. Lacrimal gland lymphoma: Role of radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Townsend; Aruna Turaka; Smith, Mitchell R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To report the clinical and treatment outcome of patients with lacrimal gland lymphoma (LGL) treated with radiation therapy (RT) at Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approved retrospective chart review of eight patients and literature review. Results: The study patients included six males and two females with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-88 years). The mean follow-up period was 23 months (range 3–74 months). Four p...

  14. Radiation Therapy in Elderly Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the long term results (local control, survival, failure, and complications) after radiation therapy for skin cancer in elderly patients. The study spanned from January 1990 to October 2002. Fifteen elderly patients with skin cancer were treated by radiotherapy at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The age distribution of the patients surveyed was 72 to 95 years, with a median age of 78.8 years. The pathologic classification of the 15 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (10 patients), basal cell carcinoma (3 patients), verrucous carcinoma (1 patient) and skin adnexal origin carcinoma (1 patient). The most common tumor location was the head (13 patients). The mean tumor diameter was 4.9 cm (range 2 to 9 cm). The radiation dose was delivered via an electron beam of 6 to 15 MeV. The dose range was adjusted to the tumor diameter and depth of tumor invasion. The total radiation dose ranged from 50{approx}80 Gy (mean: 66 Gy) with a 2 Gy fractional dose prescribed to the 80% isodose line once a day and 5 times a week. One patient with lymph node metastasis was treated with six MV photon beams boosted with electron beams. The length of the follow-up periods ranged from 10 to 120 months with a median follow-up period of 48 months. The local control rates were 100% (15/15). In addition, the five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was 80% and twelve patients (80%) had no recurrence and skin cancer recurrence occurred in 3 patients (20%). Three patients have lived an average of 90 months (68{approx}120 months) without recurrence or metastasis. A total of 9 patients who died as a result of other causes had a mean survival time of 55.8 months after radiation therapy. No severe acute or chronic complications were observed after radiation therapy. Only minor complications including radiation dermatitis was treated with supportive care. The results suggest that radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment method for the treatment of skin

  15. Radiation therapy for unresected gastric lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six consecutive patients with unresected gastric lymphoma which were treated by radiation therapy between November 1976 and March 1989 were reviewed. Radiation therapy was performed using involved fields, total radiation dosages of which ranged from 25.2 to 36 Gy (mean, 29.3 Gy). Five out of the 6 patients were treated with chemotherapy combined with radiation. Regimen of the chemotherapy was CHOP (cyclophophamide, adriamycin, vincristine and prednisone) in most cases. Three out of the 6 underwent probe laparotomy, but the tumors were diagnosed as unresectable due to locally invading the adjacent structures. They were treated by chemo-radiotherapy and 2 of them are surviving as of the present study (40 and 116 months). The other 3 patients were diagnosed as with clinical stage IV disease and 2 of them were successfully treated with chemo-radiotherapy (21 and 66 months, surviving). These data suggest that unresected gastric lymphomas, which are locally advanced or stage IV disease, are treated by chemo-radiotherapy with high curability without any serious complications. (author)

  16. Chronic neuroendocrinological sequelae of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of neuroendocrine disturbances are observed following treatment with external radiation therapy when the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) is included in the treatment field. Radiation-induced abnormalities are generally dose dependent and may develop many years after irradiation. Growth hormone deficiency and premature sexual development can occur following doses as low as 18 Gy fractionated radiation and are the most common neuroendocrine problems noted in children. Deficiency of gonadotropins, thyroid stimulating hormone, and adrenocorticotropin are seen primarily in individuals treated with > 40 Gy HPA irradiation. Hyperprolactinemia can be seen following high-dose radiotherapy (> 40 Gy), especially among young women. Most neuroendocrine disturbances that develop as a result of HPA irradiation are treatable; patients at risk require long-term endocrine follow-up

  17. Chronic neuroendocrinological sequelae of radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklar, C.A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Constine, L.S. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-03-30

    A variety of neuroendocrine disturbances are observed following treatment with external radiation therapy when the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) is included in the treatment field. Radiation-induced abnormalities are generally dose dependent and may develop many years after irradiation. Growth hormone deficiency and premature sexual development can occur following doses as low as 18 Gy fractionated radiation and are the most common neuroendocrine problems noted in children. Deficiency of gonadotropins, thyroid stimulating hormone, and adrenocorticotropin are seen primarily in individuals treated with > 40 Gy HPA irradiation. Hyperprolactinemia can be seen following high-dose radiotherapy (>40 Gy), especially among young women. Most neuroendocrine disturbances that develop as a result of HPA irradiation are treatable; patients at risk require long-term endocrine follow-up. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Biological Effectiveness of Antiproton Annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, C.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, N.;

    2004-01-01

    from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The background, description, and status...

  19. Pirfenidone enhances the efficacy of combined radiation and sunitinib therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seo-Hyun; Nam, Jae-Kyung; Jang, Junho; Lee, Hae-June, E-mail: hjlee@kcch.re.kr; Lee, Yoon-Jin, E-mail: yjlee8@kcch.re.kr

    2015-06-26

    Radiotherapy is a widely used treatment for many tumors. Combination therapy using anti-angiogenic agents and radiation has shown promise; however, these combined therapies are reported to have many limitations in clinical trials. Here, we show that radiation transformed tumor endothelial cells (ECs) to fibroblasts, resulting in reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) response and increased Snail1, Twist1, Type I collagen, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β release. Irradiation of radioresistant Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumors greater than 250 mm{sup 3} increased collagen levels, particularly in large tumor vessels. Furthermore, concomitant sunitinib therapy did not show a significant difference in tumor inhibition versus radiation alone. Thus, we evaluated multimodal therapy that combined pirfenidone, an inhibitor of TGF-induced collagen production, with radiation and sunitinib treatment. This trimodal therapy significantly reduced tumor growth, as compared to radiation alone. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that radiation-induced collagen deposition and tumor microvessel density were significantly reduced with trimodal therapy, as compared to radiation alone. These data suggest that combined therapy using pirfenidone may modulate the radiation-altered tumor microenvironment, thereby enhancing the efficacy of radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Radiation changes tumor endothelial cells to fibroblasts. • Radio-resistant tumors contain collagen deposits, especially in tumor vessels. • Pirfenidone enhances the efficacy of combined radiation and sunitinib therapy. • Pirfenidone reduces radiation-induced collagen deposits in tumors.

  20. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; De Marco, John J.; Doser, Michael; Ichioka, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Knudsen, Helge V.; Landua, Rolf; Maggiore, Carl; McBride, William H.; Møller, Søren Pape; Petersen, Jorgen; Smathers, James B.; Skarsgard, Lloyd D.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.; Withers, H.Rodney; Vranjes, Sanja; Wong, Michelle; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in “biological dose” in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current status of the experiment are given.

  1. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, Niels;

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct...... measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current...

  2. Personalized Radiation Therapy (PRT) for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Yue; Kong, Feng-Ming Spring

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews and discusses approaches and strategies of personalized radiation therapy (PRT) for lung cancers at four different levels: (1) clinically established PRT based on a patient's histology, stage, tumor volume and tumor locations; (2) personalized adaptive radiation therapy (RT) based on image response during treatment; (3) PRT based on biomarkers; (4) personalized fractionation schedule. The current RT practice for lung cancer is partially individualized according to tumor histology, stage, size/location, and combination with use of systemic therapy. During-RT PET-CT image guided adaptive treatment is being tested in a multicenter trial. Treatment response detected by the during-RT images may also provide a strategy to further personalize the remaining treatment. Research on biomarker-guided PRT is ongoing. The biomarkers include genomics, proteomics, microRNA, cytokines, metabolomics from tumor and blood samples, and radiomics from PET, CT, SPECT images. Finally, RT fractionation schedule may also be personalized to each individual patient to maximize therapeutic gain. Future PRT should be based on comprehensive considerations of knowledge acquired from all these levels, as well as consideration of the societal value such as cost and effectiveness.

  3. Palliative radiation therapy for multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy is a useful palliative modality for refractory lesions of multiple myeloma. It has been reported that total doses of 10 to 20 Gy are usually adequate to obtain some degree of pain relief. However, there are many patients who need additional doses to obtain sufficient pain relief. In this study. we retrospectively analyzed the records of patients with multiple myeloma irradiated at our department, in an attempt to develop an effective treatment policy for this disease. Twenty-nine patients with 53 lesions were treated between 1968 and 1993. Total irradiation doses were 4 to 60 Gy (median 40 Gy) with daily fractions of 2 Gy or less, and 16 to 51 Gy (median 30 Gy) with daily fractions greater than 2 Gy. Evaluated were 59 symptoms, including pain (68%), neurological abnormalities (15%), and masses (28%). Symptomatic remission was obtained in 33 of 36 (92%) lesions with pain, 6 of 8 (75%) with neurological abnormalities, and 13 of 15 (87%) mass lesions. Pain was partially relieved at a median TDF of 34, and completely at a median TDF of 66 (equivalent to 40-42 Gy with daily fractions of 2 Gy). Radiation therapy is an effective and palliative treatment method for symptomatic multiple myeloma. However, the treatment seems to require higher radiation doses than those reported to obtain adequate relief of symptoms. (author)

  4. External beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objectives: The intent of this course is to review the issues involved in the management of non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. -- The value of pre-treatment prognostic factors including stage, grade and PSA value will be presented, and their value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. -- Controversies involving the simulation process and treatment design will be presented. The value of CT scanning, Beams-Eye View, 3-D planning, intravesicle, intraurethral and rectal contrast will be presented. The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with them will be presented. -- The management of low stage, low to intermediate grade prostate cancer will be discussed. The dose, volume and timing of irradiation will be discussed as will the role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy, neutron irradiation and brachytherapy. The current status of radical prostatectomy and cryotherapy will be summarized. Treatment of locally advanced, poorly differentiated prostate cancer will be presented including a discussion of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormones, dose-escalation and neutron irradiation. -- Strategies for post-radiation failures will be presented including data on cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy and hormonal therapy (immediate, delayed and/or intermittent). New areas for investigation will be reviewed. -- The management of patients post prostatectomy will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant radiation and therapeutic radiation for biochemical or clinically relapsed patients will be presented. This course hopes to present a realistic and pragmatic overview for treating patients with non-metastatic prostatic cancer

  5. V-79 Chinese Hamster Cells irradiated with antiprotons, a study of peripheral damage due to medium and long range components of the annihilation radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacevic, Sandra; Bassler, Niels; Hartley, Oliver;

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy of cancer carries a perceived risk of inducing secondary cancer and other damage due to dose delivered to normal tissue. While expectedly small, this risk must be carefully analysed for all modalities. Especially in the use of exotic particles like pions and antiprotons, which...

  6. [Radiation therapy for prostate cancer in modern era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide overview of the latest research trend on technique of radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy(3D -CRT) has achieved better outcome of treatment for prostate cancer than 2-dimensional radiation therapy. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) is considered to be superior to 3D-CRT at certain points. Image-guided (IG) radiation therapy (IGRT), mainly IG-IMRT, is investigated what kind of influence it has on an outcome, both tumor control rate and adverse events. Particle therapy is a most ideal therapy theoretically. There is, however, few evidence which revealed that the therapy is superior to any other modalities.

  7. Coincidence studies with antiprotons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, M; Walters, H R J [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Assafrao, D; Mohallem, J R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Whelan, Colm T, E-mail: mmcgovern06@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0116 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We present a short overview of a new method for calculating fully differential cross sections that is able to describe any aspect of coincidence measurements involving heavy projectiles. The method is based upon impact parameter close coupling with pseudostates. Examples from antiproton impact ionization are shown.

  8. 21 CFR 892.5300 - Medical neutron radiation therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical neutron radiation therapy system. 892.5300 Section 892.5300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... therapy system. (a) Identification. A medical neutron radiation therapy system is a device intended...

  9. Emerging Canadian QA standards for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Canada operates a publicly funded health care system in which 70% of health care costs are paid by some level of government. Radiotherapy, indeed most cancer management, falls within the publicly funded realm of Canada's health care system. National legislation (the Canada Health Act) guarantees access to cancer services for all Canadians. However, the financial responsibility for these services is borne by the provinces. Most Canadian provinces manage the cancer management problem through central cancer agencies. In the past few decades, these provincial cancer agencies have formed the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA). This association has adopted a broad mandate for cancer management in Canada (see www.capca.ca). Included in this mandate is the adoption of standards and guidelines for all aspects of cancer control. The complexity of radiation therapy has long underscored the need for cooperation at the international and national levels in defining programmes and standards. In recent decades formal quality assurance programme recommendations have emerged in the United States, Europe and Great Britain. When defining quality assurance programs, Canadian radiation treatment centres have referenced U.S. and other program standards since they have been available. Recently, under the leadership of the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA), Canadian national quality assurance program recommendations are emerging. A CAPCA sponsored project to harmonize Canadian quality assurance processes has resulted in a draft document entitled 'Standards for Quality Assurance at Canadian Radiation Treatment Centres'. This document provides recommendations for the broad framework of radiation therapy quality assurance programs. In addition, detailed work is currently underway regarding equipment quality control procedures. This paper explores the historical and political landscape in which the quality assurance problem has

  10. Antiprotons are another matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theories of gravity abound, whereas experiments in gravity are few in number. An important experiment in gravity that has not been performed is the measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. Although there have been attempts to infer these properties from those of normal matter, none of these theoretical arguments are compelling. Modern theories of gravity that attempt to unify gravity with the other forces of nature predict that in principle antimatter can fall differently than normal matter in the Earth's field. Some of these supergravity theories predict that antimatter will fall faster, and that normal matter will fall with a small Baryon-number dependance in the earth's field. All of these predictions violate the Weak Equivalence Principle, a cornerstone of General Relativity, but are consistent with CPT conservation. In our approved experiment at LEAR (PS-200) we will test the Weak Equivalence Principle for antimatter by measuring the gravitational acceleration of the antiproton. Through a series of deceleration stages, antiprotons from LEAR will be lowered in energy to ∼4 Kelvin at which energy the gravitational effect will be measureable. The measurement will employ the time-of-flight technique wherein the antiprotons are released vertically in a drift tube. The spectrum of time-of-flight measurements can be used to extract the gravitational acceleration experienced by the particles. The system will be calibrated using H- ions which simulates the electromagnetic behavior of the antiproton, yet is a baryon to ∼0.1%. To extract the gravitational acceleration of the antiproton relative to the H- ion with a statistical precision of 1% will require the release of ∼106 to 107 particles

  11. Current status of antiproton impact ionization of atoms and molecules: theoretical and experimental perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Tom; Knudsen, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical progress in the field of antiproton-impact-induced ionization of atoms and molecules is reviewed. We describe the techniques used to measure ionization cross sections and give an overview of the experimental results supplemented by tables of all existing data. An...... status of our understanding of antiproton impact ionization. The related issues of energy loss measurements and antiproton therapy are briefly described and directions for possible future work are pointed out as well....

  12. Some computer graphical user interfaces in radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, James C.L.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, five graphical user interfaces (GUIs) used in radiation therapy practices and researches are introduced. They are: (1) the treatment time calculator, superficial X-ray treatment time calculator (SUPCALC) used in the superficial X-ray radiation therapy; (2) the monitor unit calculator, electron monitor unit calculator (EMUC) used in the electron radiation therapy; (3) the multileaf collimator machine file creator, sliding window intensity modulated radiotherapy (SWIMRT) used in...

  13. Shielding calculations for the antiproton target area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shielding calculations performed in conjunction with the design of the Fermilab antiproton target hall are summarized. The following radiological considerations were examined: soil activation, residual activity of components, and beam-on radiation. In addition, at the request of the designers, the energy deposition in the proposed graphite beam dump was examined for several targeting conditions in order to qualitatively determine its ability to survive

  14. Measurements of Cosmic Ray Antiprotons with PAMELA

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Juan

    2010-01-01

    The PAMELA experiment is a satellite-borne apparatus designed to study charged particles, and especially antiparticles, in the cosmic radiation. The apparatus is mounted on the Resurs DK1 satellite which was launched on 15 June 2006. PAMELA has been traveling around the earth along an elliptical and semi-polar orbit for almost five years. It mainly consists of a permanent magnetic spectrometer, a time of flight system and an electromagnetic imaging calorimeter, which allows antiprotons to be ...

  15. Potential for heavy particle radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy remains one of the major forms of cancer treatment. When x rays are used in radiotherapy, there are large variations in radiation sensitivity among tumors because of the possible differences in the presence of hypoxic but viable tumor cells, differences in reoxygenation during treatment, differences in distribution of the tumor cells in their cell cycle, and differences in repair of sublethal damage. When high-LET particles are used, depending upon the LET distribution, these differences are reduced considerably. Because of these differences between x rays and high-LET particle effects, the high-LET particles may be more effective on tumor cells for a given effect on normal cells. Heavy particles have potential application in improving radiotherapy because of improved dose localization and possible advantages of high-LET particles due to their radiobiological characteristics. Protons, because of their defined range, Bragg peak, and small effects of scattering, have good dose localization characteristics. The use of protons in radiotherapy minimizes the morbidity of radiotherapy treatment and is very effective in treating deep tumors located near vital structures. Fast neutrons have no physical advantages over 60Co gamma rays but, because of their high-LET component, could be very effective in treating tumors that are resistant to conventional radiations. Negative pions and heavy ions combine some of the advantages of protons and fast neutrons

  16. Potential for heavy particle radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.; Phillips, T.L.

    1977-03-01

    Radiation therapy remains one of the major forms of cancer treatment. When x rays are used in radiotherapy, there are large variations in radiation sensitivity among tumors because of the possible differences in the presence of hypoxic but viable tumor cells, differences in reoxygenation during treatment, differences in distribution of the tumor cells in their cell cycle, and differences in repair of sublethal damage. When high-LET particles are used, depending upon the LET distribution, these differences are reduced considerably. Because of these differences between x rays and high-LET particle effects, the high-LET particles may be more effective on tumor cells for a given effect on normal cells. Heavy particles have potential application in improving radiotherapy because of improved dose localization and possible advantages of high-LET particles due to their radiobiological characteristics. Protons, because of their defined range, Bragg peak, and small effects of scattering, have good dose localization characteristics. The use of protons in radiotherapy minimizes the morbidity of radiotherapy treatment and is very effective in treating deep tumors located near vital structures. Fast neutrons have no physical advantages over /sup 60/Co gamma rays but, because of their high-LET component, could be very effective in treating tumors that are resistant to conventional radiations. Negative pions and heavy ions combine some of the advantages of protons and fast neutrons.

  17. A new measurement of the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio up to 100 GeV in the cosmic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Pascale, M P; De Rosa, G; Fedele, D; Galper, A M; Grishantseva, L; Hofverberg, P; Koldashov, S V; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malvezzi, V; Marcelli, L; Menn, W; Mikhailov, V V; Minori, M; Mocchiutti, E; Nagni, M; Orsi, S; Osteria, G; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Yu I; Taddei, E; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zverev, V G

    2008-01-01

    A new measurement of the cosmic ray antiproton-to-proton flux ratio between 1 and 100 GeV is presented. The results were obtained with the PAMELA experiment, which was launched into low-earth orbit on-board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. PAMELA is equipped with a silicon-microstrip magnetic spectrometer and a silicon-tungsten imaging calorimeter and has been collecting data since July 2006. During 500 days of data collection a total of about 1000 antiprotons have been identified, including 100 above an energy of 20 GeV. The high-energy results are a ten-fold improvement in statistics with respect to all previously published data. The antiproton-to-proton flux ratio increases smoothly with energy up to about 10 GeV, in agreement with previous experiments, and then levels off. The data follow the trend expected from secondary production calculations and significantly constrain contributions from exotic sources, e.g. dark matter particle annihilations.

  18. Melanomas: radiobiology and role of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: This course will review the radiobiology of malignant melanoma (MM) and the clinical use of radiation therapy for metastatic melanoma and selected primary sites. The course will emphasize the scientific principles underlying the clinical treatment of MM. Introduction: The incidence of malignant melanoma has one of the fastest growth rates in the world. In 1991, there were 32,000 cases and 7,000 deaths from MM in the United States. By the year 2000, one of every 90 Americans will develop MM. Wide local excision is the treatment of choice for Stage I-II cutaneous MM. Five-year survival rates depend on (a) sex: female-63%, male-40%; (b) tumor thickness: t 4 mm-25%; (c) location: extremity-60%, trunk-41%; and (d) regional lymph node status: negative-77%, positive-31%. Despite adequate surgery, 45-50% of all MM patients will develop metastatic disease. Radiobiology: Both the multi-target model: S = 1-(1-e-D/Do)n and the linear quadratic mode: -In(S) = alpha x D + beta x D2 predict a possible benefit for high dose per fraction (> 400 cGy) radiation therapy for some MM cell lines. The extrapolation number (n) varies from 1-100 for MM compared to other mammalian cells with n=2-4. The alpha/beta ratios for a variety of MM cell lines vary from 1 to 33. Other radiobiologic factors (repair of potentially lethal damage, hypoxia, reoxygenation, and repopulation) predict a wide variety of clinical responses to different time-dose prescriptions including high dose per fraction (> 400 cGy), low dose per fraction (200-300 cGy), or b.i.d. therapy. Based on a review of the radiobiology of MM, no single therapeutic strategy emerges which could be expected to be successful for all tumors. Time-Dose Prescriptions: A review of the retrospective and prospective clinical trials evaluating various time-dose prescriptions for MM reveals: (1) MM is a radiosensitive tumor over a wide range of diverse time-dose prescriptions; and (2) The high clinical response rates to a

  19. Neutrons from Antiproton Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.

    the volume targeted for irradiation. A major part of this peripheral dose arise from neutrons, which in particular are problematic due to their high RBE for secondary cancer incidence. We have measured the fast and thermal neutron spectrum in different geometrical configurations in order to experimentally...... the neutron spectrum. Additionally, we used a cylindrical polystyrene loaded with several pairs of thermoluminescent detectors containing Lithium-6 and Lithium-7, which effectively detects thermalized neutrons. The obtained results are compared with FLUKA imulations. Results: The results obtained...... the annihilation vertex inside the polystyrene phantom produced a response which corresponds to a neutron fluence of 8000 neutrons/cm2 per 107 antiprotons. This is equivalent to a neutron kerma of 1.4e-9 Gy (adult brain) per 107 antiprotons following ICRU 46. Conclusion: The thermalized part of the neutron...

  20. Primary population of antiprotonic helium states

    OpenAIRE

    Révai, J.; Shevchenko, N.V.(Nuclear Physics Institute, Řež, 25068, Czech Republic)

    2003-01-01

    A full quantum mechanical calculation of partial cross-sections leading to different final states of antiprotonic helium atom was performed. Calculations were carried out for a wide range of antiprotonic helium states and incident (lab) energies of the antiproton.

  1. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  2. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Clayton B; Thompson, Holly M; Benedict, Stanley H; Seibert, J Anthony; Wong, Kenneth; Vaughan, Andrew T; Chen, Allen M

    2016-04-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning--a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of "gentle IGRT

  3. Extra Low ENergy Antiproton

    CERN Multimedia

    To produce dense antiproton beams at very low energies (110 keV), it has been proposed to install a small decelerator ring between the existing AD ring and the experimental area. Phase-space blowup during deceleration is compensated by electron cooling such that the final emittances are comparable to the 5MeV beam presently delivered by the AD. An immediate consequence is a significant increase in the number of trapped antiprotons at the experiments as outlined in the proposal CERN/SPSC-2009-026; SPCS-P-338. This report describes the machine parameters and layout of the proposal ELENA (Extra Low ENergy Antiproton)ring also gives an approximate estimate of cost and manpower needs. Since the initial estimate, published in 2007 (CERN-AB-2007-079), the ELENA design has evolved considerably. This is due to a new location in the AD hall to acommodate for the possibility of another experimental zone, as suggested by the SPCS, and also due to improvements in the ring optics and layout. The cost estimate that is prese...

  4. ALPHA freezes antiprotons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Laboratories like CERN can routinely produce many different types of antiparticles. In 1995, the PS210 experiment formed the first antihydrogen atoms and a few years later, in 2002, ATRAP and ATHENA were already able to produce several thousand of them. However, no experiment in the world has succeeded in ‘trapping’ these anti-atoms in order to study them. This is the goal of the ALPHA experiment, which has recently managed to cool down the antiprotons to just a few Kelvin. This represents a major step towards trapping the anti-atom, thus opening a new avenue into the investigation of antimatter properties.   Members of the ALPHA collaboration working on the apparatus in the Antiproton Decelerator experimental hall at CERN. Just like the atom, the anti-atom is neutral. Unlike the atom, the anti-atom is made up of antiprotons (as opposed to protons in the atom) and positrons (as opposed to electrons). In order to thoroughly study the properties of the anti-atoms, scien...

  5. Antiproton compression and radial measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jorgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page R D; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, achieved by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile, and its relation to that of the electron plasma. We also measure the outer radial profile by ejecting antiprotons to the trap wall using an octupole magnet.

  6. Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three patients suffering from squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva were treated with radiation therapy alone between 1961 and 1980 at the NIRS. The five-year survival rate and local control rate in each stage were 91 % and 36 % in T2 and 71 % and 64 % in T3, respectively. These results indicated that the early detection of recurrent tumor by close follow-up and an adequate retreatment procedure is very important for prologing survival. Late recurrence, more than five years after treatment, appeared in 30 % of the patients and this may be one of the special figures of postirradiated vulval carcinoma. The primary site was irradiated with external electron beams or radium needles, and better results were obtained with the later. Irradiation to the lymph node area in the pelvic cavity was necessary in patients with a more advanced stage of disease than T2. (author)

  7. Radiation therapy - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung cancer - small cell Metastatic brain tumor Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Prostate cancer Testicular cancer Patient Instructions Abdominal radiation - discharge Bleeding during cancer treatment Brain radiation - discharge Breast radiation - discharge Chest radiation - ...

  8. Radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiation therapy for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideomi; Yamashita; Wataru; Takahashi; Akihiro; Haga; Keiichi; Nakagawa

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy(SBRT)has a locacontrol rate of 95%at 2 years for non-small cell lungcancer(NSCLC)and should improve the prognosis oinoperable patients,elderly patients,and patients withsignificant comorbidities who have early-stage NSCLCThe safety of SBRT is being confirmed in internationalmulti-institutional PhaseⅡtrials for peripheral lungcancer in both inoperable and operable patients,bureports so far have found that SBRT is a safe and effective treatment for early-stage NSCLC and early metastatic lung cancer.Radiation pneumonitis(RP)is oneof the most common toxicities of SBRT.Although mospost-treatment RP is Grade 1 or 2 and either asymptomatic or manageable,a few cases are severe,symptomatic,and there is a risk for mortality.The reportedrates of symptomatic RP after SBRT range from 9%to28%.Being able to predict the risk of RP after SBRT isextremely useful in treatment planning.A dose-effecrelationship has been demonstrated,but suggesteddose-volume factors like mean lung dose,lung V20and/or lung V2.5 differed among the reports.We foundthat patients who present with an interstitial pneumo-nitis shadow on computed tomography scan and high levels of serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 and surfactant protein D have a high rate of severe radiation pneumo-nitis after SBRT.At our institution,lung cancer patients with these risk factors have not received SBRT since 2006,and our rate of severe RP after SBRT has de-creased significantly since then.

  9. Liver cancer and selective internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver cancer is the biggest cancer-related killer of adults in the world. Liver cancer can be considered as two types: primary and secondary (metastatic). Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a revolutionary treatment for advanced liver cancer that utilises new technologies designed to deliver radiation directly to the site of tumours. SIRT, on the other hand, involves the delivery of millions of microscopic radioactive spheres called SIR-Spheres directly to the site of the liver tumour/s, where they selectively irradiate the tumours. The anti-cancer effect is concentrated in the liver and there is little effect on cancer at other sites such as the lungs or bones. The SIR-Spheres are delivered through a catheter placed in the femoral artery of the upper thigh and threaded through the hepatic artery (the major blood vessel of the liver) to the site of the tumour. The microscopic spheres, each approximately 35 microns (the size of four red blood cells or one-third the diameter of a strand of hair), are bonded to yttrium-90 (Y-90), a pure beta emitter with a physical half-life of 64.1 hours (about 2.67 days). The microspheres are trapped in the tumour's vascular bed, where they destroy the tumour from inside. The average range of the radiation is only 2.5 mm, so it is wholly contained within the patient's body; after 14 days, only 2.5 percent of the radioactive activity remains. The microspheres are suspended in water for injection. The vials are shipped in lead shields for radiation protection. Treatment with SIR-Spheres is generally not regarded as a cure, but has been shown to shrink the cancer more than chemotherapy alone. This can increase life expectancy and improve quality of life. On occasion, patients treated with SIR-Spheres have had such marked shrinkage of the liver cancer that the cancer can be surgically removed at a later date. This has resulted in a long-term cure for some patients. SIRTeX Medical Limited has developed three separate cancer

  10. Ultraviolet radiation therapy and UVR dose models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, David Robert, E-mail: davidrobert.grimes@oncology.ox.ac.uk [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland and Cancer Research UK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Gray Laboratory, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been an effective treatment for a number of chronic skin disorders, and its ability to alleviate these conditions has been well documented. Although nonionizing, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is still damaging to deoxyribonucleic acid integrity, and has a number of unpleasant side effects ranging from erythema (sunburn) to carcinogenesis. As the conditions treated with this therapy tend to be chronic, exposures are repeated and can be high, increasing the lifetime probability of an adverse event or mutagenic effect. Despite the potential detrimental effects, quantitative ultraviolet dosimetry for phototherapy is an underdeveloped area and better dosimetry would allow clinicians to maximize biological effect whilst minimizing the repercussions of overexposure. This review gives a history and insight into the current state of UVR phototherapy, including an overview of biological effects of UVR, a discussion of UVR production, illness treated by this modality, cabin design and the clinical implementation of phototherapy, as well as clinical dose estimation techniques. Several dose models for ultraviolet phototherapy are also examined, and the need for an accurate computational dose estimation method in ultraviolet phototherapy is discussed.

  11. Diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third edition of CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 (now CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 114), which is one of a series of standards issued by the Canadian Standards Association under Part II of the Canadian Electrical Code. This edition marks an important shift towards harmonization of Canadian requirements with those of the European community and the United States. Also important to this edition is the expansion of its scope to include the complete range of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment, rather than solely radiation-emitting equipment. In so doing, equipment previously addressed by CSA Standard C22.2 No. 125, Electromedical Equipment, specifically lasers for medical applications and diagnostic ultrasound units, is now dealt with in the new edition. By virtue of this expanded scope, many of the technical requirements in the electromedical equipment standard have been introduced to the new edition, thereby bringing CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 up to date. 14 tabs., 16 figs

  12. Severe prostatic calcification after radiation therapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W A; Miller, E V; Sullivan, L D; Chapman, W H

    1979-06-01

    Severe symptomatic prostatic calcification was seen in 3 patients who had carcinoma of the prostate treated initially with transurethral resection, followed in 2 to 4 weeks by definitive radiation therapy. This complication is probably preventable if an interval of 6 weeks is allowed between transurethral resection of the prostate and radiation therapy.

  13. [Importance of sonotomography in radiation therapy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckemann, R; Quast, U; Glaeser, L; Schmitt, G

    1976-08-01

    Ultrasound tomography provides true scale representation of body contours and organ structures. The image supplies substantial, individual geometrical data, essential for computerized radiation treatment planning. The mehtod is described. Typical planning examples for therapy are demonstrated. The value of follow up sonograms for radiation therapy is described. The limitations of the method are pointed out.

  14. 21 CFR 892.5840 - Radiation therapy simulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiation therapy simulation system. 892.5840 Section 892.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5840 Radiation therapy...

  15. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy compared with radiation therapy alone in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the treatment of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to assess the outcomes of patients receiving such treatment. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 137 previously untreated and histologically confirmed advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with either radiation therapy only or combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy at the Seoul National University Hospital between 1984 and 1996. The stage distribution was as follows: AJCC Stage III-21, Stage IV-61 in the radiation therapy group (RT group); AJCC Stage III-1, Stage IV-54 in neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy group (CT/RT group). The median follow-up for surviving patients was 48 months. Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 71% for the CT/RT group and 59% for the RT group (p = 0.04). The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 63% for the CT/RT group and 52% for the RT group (p = 0.04). Distant metastasis (DM) incidence was significantly lower in the CT/RT group. The 5-year freedom from distant metastasis rates were 84% for the CT/RT group and 66% for the RT group (p 0.01). The incidence of locoregional failures was also lower in the CT/RT group, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (69% vs. 56%, p = 0.09) Conclusion: While not providing conclusive evidence, historical evidence from this institution suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly improves both overall and the disease-free survival of patients with advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  16. Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

  17. Modern role and issues of radiation therapy for benign diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyashita, Tsuguhiro; Tateno, Atsushi; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Cases of radiation therapy for benign diseases have diminished in number because of recent alternative methods and knowledge about radiation carcinogenesis. In contrast to this tendency, our cases of benign diseases have recently increased. The facts made us reconsider today's radiation therapy of benign diseases. We reviewed 349 patients who were diagnosed as having benign tumors or non-neoplastic conditions and treated by radiation therapy in the past sixteen years. Analyzed items were the annual transition of treatment number, sorts of diseases, patients' age and sex, and the goal of therapy. Of all radiation therapy patients, benign diseases account for 9.26%. The annual percentages were 0.5%, 6.0%, 11.2% and 13.7% at intervals of five years since 1982. The majority was 246 post-operative irradiation for keloids (71%) and 41 pituitary adenomas (12%). Compared with malignant tumors, benign disease patients were statistically younger and female-dominant. Applications of radiation therapy in keloids and pituitary adenomas had definite goals, but were unclear in other rare diseases. Benign diseases should be treated by radiation therapy as the second or third option, provided the patients have serious symptoms and their diseases do not respond to other modalities. It seems to be widely accepted that favorite cases such as keloids and pituitary adenomas are treated by radiation therapy. But, optimal radiation therapies for other rare benign diseases have not been established. Therefore, the building of databases on radiation therapy on benign diseases should be pursued. Since benign disease patients were young and female-dominant and had many remaining years, their carcinogenicity potential should be considered. (author)

  18. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: emerging cancer treatment technology

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Hong; Ritter, M. A.; Tomé, W. A.; Harari, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is rapidly advancing in the field of radiation oncology. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy allows for improved dose conformality, thereby affording the potential to decrease the spectrum of normal tissue toxicities associated with IMRT. Preliminary results with IMRT are quite promising; however, the clinical data is relatively immature and overall patient numbers remain small. High-quality IMRT requires intensive physics support and ...

  19. Optimal approach in early breast cancer: Radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Poortmans, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy significantly reduces by at least 70% the relative risk of local and regional recurrences for breast cancer after surgery. A positive influence on overall survival has been clearly demonstrated, especially for patients with a high absolute risk for locoregional recurrences. However, this is partially counterbalanced by late toxicity (dependent upon the radiation dose) especially to cardiac structures. Apart from this toxicity, a clear influence of radiation-therapy-related f...

  20. Cancer and Radiation Therapy: Current Advances and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam Baskar, Kuo Ann Lee, Richard Yeo, Kheng-Wei Yeoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development and treatment. However with its increasing incidence, the clinical management of cancer continues to be a challenge for the 21st century. Treatment modalities comprise of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy remains an important component of cancer treatment with approximately 50% of all cancer patients receiving radiation therapy during their course of illness; it contributes towards 40% of curative treatment for cancer. The main goal of radiation therapy is to deprive cancer cells of their multiplication (cell division potential. Celebrating a century of advances since Marie Curie won her second Nobel Prize for her research into radium, 2011 has been designated the Year of Radiation therapy in the UK. Over the last 100 years, ongoing advances in the techniques of radiation treatment and progress made in understanding the biology of cancer cell responses to radiation will endeavor to increase the survival and reduce treatment side effects for cancer patients. In this review, principles, application and advances in radiation therapy with their biological end points are discussed.

  1. Polymer gel dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Recently developed treatment modalities such as stereotactic and conformal radiation therapy produce complex dose distributions which are difficult or impractical to measure with conventional dosimetry instrumentation. Three-dimensional treatment planning systems which purport to calculate these complex dose distributions should be compared to experimental results before being routinely applied to clinical problems. There is a need for a new class of tissue-equivalent dosimeters capable of providing accurate, high resolution, time-integrated and three dimensional dose distributions. The recently developed BANG polymer gel dosimetry system (MGS Research, Inc., Guilford, CT) is ideally suited for the task described above. Physico-chemical principles of the polymer gel dosimetry are presented, together with examples of its application to radiation therapy. Data analysis and display program, written for Macintosh computer, is demonstrated. Materials and Methods: Radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic monomers, which are dispersed in tissue-equivalent gelatin, has been shown to be dependent on the dose, but independent of the dose rate or photon energy. Therefore, the spatial distribution of polymer in the gel is precisely representative of the dose distribution. As the polymeric microparticles reduce the water proton NMR relaxation times in the gel, the dose distribution can be measured with high resolution and accuracy using magnetic resonance imaging. Also, as these microparticles cannot diffuse through the gelatin matrix, their distribution is permanent. An improved formulation of the BANG dosimeter consists of 3% w/v acrylic acid, 3% N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide, 1% sodium hydroxide, 5% gelatin, and 88% water. MR images are transferred via a local network to a Macintosh computer, and R2 maps constructed on the basis of multiple TE images, using a non-linear least squares fit based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. A dose-to-R2

  2. Recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax after radiation therapy to the thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twiford, T.W. Jr.; Zornoza, J.; Libshitz, H.I.

    1978-03-01

    Two patients who received radiation therapy to the thorax and who developed recurrent spontaneous pneumothoraces are presented. Patients with recurrent pneumothoraces secondary to radiation have not been described previously. Pleural changes secondary to radiation may contribute significantly to the complicated clinical course of these patients.

  3. Localized fibrous mesothelioma of pleura following external ionizing radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilbey, J.H.; Mueller, N.L.M.; Miller, R.R.; Nelems, B.

    1988-12-01

    Carcinogenesis is a well-known complication of radiation exposure. Ionizing radiation also leads to an increased incidence of benign tumors. A 36-year-old woman had a localized fibrous mesothelioma of the pleura and an ipsilateral breast carcinoma 23 years after receiving external radiation therapy for treatment of a chest wall keloid.

  4. Intraoperative radiation therapy for malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Noboru; Yamada, Hiromu; Andoh, Takashi; Takada, Mitsuaki; Hirata, Toshifumi; Funakoshi, Takashi; Doi, Hidetaka; Yanagawa, Shigeo (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-04-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IOR) is an ideal means of exterminating residual tumor after surgical resection. In this study, the clinical results of IOR using a Scanditronix Microtron MM-22 were evaluated in 14 patients with malignant glioma, five of whom had recurrent tumors. Between July, 1985 and October, 1986, 11 patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GB) were irradiated 18 times (mean, 1.6 times/case), and three with astrocytoma (Kernohan grade III) underwent IOR once each. The target-absorbed dose at 1 to 2 cm deeper than the tumor resection surface was 15 to 50 Gy. During irradiation, a cotton bolus was placed in the dead space after over 91% of the tumor had been resected. As a rule, external irradiation therapy was also given postoperatively at a dose of 30 to 52 Gy. One patient died of pneumonia and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome 1 month postoperatively. The 1- and 2-year survival rates of the ramaining 13 patients were 84.6% and 61.5%, respectively; among the 10 with GB, they were 80% and 50%. Generally, the smaller the tumor size, the better the results. There were no adverse effects, despite the dose 15 to 50 Gy applied temporally to the tumor bed. IOR was especially effective against small, localized tumors, but was not always beneficial in cases of large tumors, particularly those with a contralateral focus. The improved survival rate in this series demonstrates that IOR is significantly effective in the 'induction of remission' following surgical excision of malignant gliomas. (author).

  5. Whole-brain hippocampal sparing radiation therapy: Volume-modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Katrina; Lenards, Nishele; Holson, Janice

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is responsible for memory and cognitive function. An ongoing phase II clinical trial suggests that sparing dose to the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation therapy can help preserve a patient׳s neurocognitive function. Progressive research and advancements in treatment techniques have made treatment planning more sophisticated but beneficial for patients undergoing treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare hippocampal sparing whole-brain (HS-WB) radiation therapy treatment planning techniques using volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We randomly selected 3 patients to compare different treatment techniques that could be used for reducing dose to the hippocampal region. We created 2 treatment plans, a VMAT and an IMRT, from each patient׳s data set and planned on the Eclipse 11.0 treatment planning system (TPS). A total of 6 plans (3 IMRT and 3 VMAT) were created and evaluated for this case study. The physician contoured the hippocampus as per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 protocol atlas. The organs at risk (OR) were contoured and evaluated for the plan comparison, which included the spinal cord, optic chiasm, the right and left eyes, lenses, and optic nerves. Both treatment plans produced adequate coverage on the planning target volume (PTV) while significantly reducing dose to the hippocampal region. The VMAT treatment plans produced a more homogenous dose distribution throughout the PTV while decreasing the maximum point dose to the target. However, both treatment techniques demonstrated hippocampal sparing when irradiating the whole brain. PMID:26235550

  6. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  7. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  8. Radiation Therapy for Chloroma (Granulocytic Sarcoma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakst, Richard; Wolden, Suzanne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Yahalom, Joachim, E-mail: yahalomj@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Objectives: Chloroma (granulocytic sarcoma) is a rare, extramedullary tumor of immature myeloid cells related to acute nonlymphocytic leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Radiation therapy (RT) is often used in the treatment of chloromas; however, modern studies of RT are lacking. We reviewed our experience to analyze treatment response, disease control, and toxicity associated with RT to develop treatment algorithm recommendations for patients with chloroma. Patients and Methods: Thirty-eight patients who underwent treatment for chloromas at our institution between February 1990 and June 2010 were identified and their medical records were reviewed and analyzed. Results: The majority of patients that presented with chloroma at the time of initial leukemia diagnosis (78%) have not received RT because it regressed after initial chemotherapy. Yet most patients that relapsed or remained with chloroma after chemotherapy are in the RT cohort (90%). Thirty-three courses of RT were administered to 22 patients. Radiation subsite breakdown was: 39% head and neck, 24% extremity, 9% spine, 9% brain, 6% genitourinary, 6% breast, 3% pelvis, and 3% genitourinary. Median dose was 20 (6-36) Gy. Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival and overall survival in the RT cohort were 39% and 43%, respectively, at 5 years. At a median follow-up of 11 months since RT, only 1 patient developed progressive disease at the irradiated site and 4 patients developed chloromas at other sites. RT was well tolerated without significant acute or late effects and provided symptom relief in 95% of cases. Conclusions: The majority of patients with chloromas were referred for RT when there was extramedullary progression, marrow relapse, or rapid symptom relief required. RT resulted in excellent local disease control and palliation of symptoms without significant toxicity. We recommend irradiating chloromas to at least 20 Gy, and propose 24 Gy in 12 fractions as an appropriate regimen.

  9. Predicting Radiation Pneumonitis After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Patients Previously Treated With Conventional Thoracic Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) to the lung in patients who had previously undergone conventional thoracic radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients who had previously received conventionally fractionated radiation therapy to the thorax were treated with SABR (50 Gy in 4 fractions) for recurrent disease or secondary parenchymal lung cancer (T 10 and mean lung dose (MLD) of the previous plan and the V10-V40 and MLD of the composite plan were also related to RP. Multivariate analysis revealed that ECOG PS scores of 2-3 before SABR (P=.009), FEV1 ≤65% before SABR (P=.012), V20 ≥30% of the composite plan (P=.021), and an initial PTV in the bilateral mediastinum (P=.025) were all associated with RP. Conclusions: We found that severe RP was relatively common, occurring in 20.8% of patients, and could be predicted by an ECOG PS score of 2-3, an FEV1 ≤65%, a previous PTV spanning the bilateral mediastinum, and V20 ≥30% on composite (previous RT+SABR) plans. Prospective studies are needed to validate these predictors and the scoring system on which they are based.

  10. Occurrence of BOOP outside radiation field after radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamanishi, Tohru; Oida, Kazukiyo [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan); Morimatu, Takafumi (and others)

    2001-09-01

    We report a case of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) that occurred outside the radiation field after radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer. A 74-year-old woman received chemotherapy and a total of 60 Gy of radiation therapy to the right hilum and mediastinum for small cell carcinoma of the suprahilar area of the right lung. Radiation pneumonitis developed within the radiation port 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy. She complained of cough and was admitted 7 months after completion of the radiation therapy. Chest radiography and computed tomography demonstrated peripheral alveolar opacities outside the radiation field on the side contralateral to that receiving the radiation therapy. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed that the total cell count was increased, with a markedly increased percentage of lymphocytes. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed a histologic pattern consistent with BOOP. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in rapid improvement of the symptoms and complete resolution of the radiographic abnormalities of the left lung. Although some cases of BOOP following radiation therapy for breast cancer have been reported, none of BOOP after radiation therapy for lung cancer have appeared in the literature. (author)

  11. Radiation therapy for long-bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadasaki, Kouichi; Tomiyoshi, Hideki; Ooshima, Yoshie; Urashima, Masaki; Mori, Masaki (Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic-Bomb Survivors Hospital (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    Efficacy of palliative and prophylactic radiotherapies for metastatic bone pain and pathological fracture was investigated in 14 patients with long bone metastases. Irradiation sites were the femur in 10 patients, the humerus in 2, the radius in one, and the tibia in one. Radiographs showed osteolytic lesion in 13 patients and osteoblastic lesion in one. A total dose of 48.6 Gy to 87.3 Gy was delivered in daily fractional doses of 2 Gy (one patient), 2.5 Gy (3), 3 Gy (6), 4 Gy (2) and 5 Gy (2), 5 days a week. For 13 patients, except for one death within one month after the completion of irradiation, pain relief was attained. Of these patients, 7 (54%) had complete pain relief. In one patient, pathological fracture occurred as early as 10 days after the beginning of irradiation when irradiation efficacy was not attained. In none of the 13 others, was pathological fracture encountered. No side effects were seen at all during or after irradiation. Radiation therapy was an extremely effective means for managing patients with long bone metastases in terms of its palliative and prophylactic role. (N.K.).

  12. Radiation therapy for the solitary plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esengül Koçak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma-cell neoplasms are classically categorized into four groups as: multiple myeloma (MM, plasma-cell leukemias, solitary plasmacytomas (SP of the bone (SPB, and extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP. These tumors may be described as localized or diffuse in presentation. Localized plasma-cell neoplasms are rare, and include SP of the skeletal system, accounting for 2-5% of all plasma-cell neoplasms, and EMP of soft tissue, accounting for approximately 3% of all such neoplasms. SP is defined as a solitary mass of neoplastic plasma cells either in the bone marrow or in various soft tissue sites. There appears to be a continuum in which SP often progresses to MM. The main treatment modality for SP is radiation therapy (RT. However, there are no conclusive data in the literature on the optimal RT dose for SP. This review describes the interrelationship of plasma-cell neoplasms, and attempts to determine the minimal RT dose required to obtain local control.

  13. Physics at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, M.; Walz, J.

    2013-09-01

    The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility of CERN began operation in 1999 to serve experiments for studies of CPT invariance by precision laser and microwave spectroscopy of antihydrogen (Hbar ) and antiprotonic helium (pbar He) atoms. The first 12 years of AD operation saw cold Hbar synthesized by overlapping clouds of positrons (e+) and antiprotons (pbar ) confined in magnetic Penning traps. Cold Hbar was also produced in collisions between Rydberg positronium (Ps) atoms and pbar . Ground-state Hbar was later trapped for up to ˜1000 s in a magnetic bottle trap, and microwave transitions excited between its hyperfine levels. In the pbar He atom, deep ultraviolet transitions were measured to a fractional precision of (2.3-5)×10-9 by sub-Doppler two-photon laser spectroscopy. From this the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio was determined as M/me=1836.1526736(23), which agrees with the p value known to a similar precision. Microwave spectroscopy of pbar He yielded a measurement of the pbar magnetic moment with a precision of 0.3%. More recently, the magnetic moment of a single pbar confined in a Penning trap was measured with a higher precision, as μ=-2.792845(12)μ in nuclear magnetons. Other results reviewed here include the first measurements of the energy loss (-dE/dx) of 1-100 keV pbar traversing conductor and insulator targets; the cross sections of low-energy (therapy. New experiments under preparation attempt to measure the gravitational acceleration of Hbar or synthesize H. Several other future experiments will also be briefly described.

  14. Radiation therapy and host immunity in malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Host resistance to the growth of neoplastic cells has been a subject of intense interest for many years. The recent demonstration that many tumors in man have tumor-associated antigens has provided a firm basis for experimental investigations of this resistance. Thus, it is important to determine whether radiation therapy for malignant tumors incurs detrimental effects on the host resistance. This article reviews the information on the relationship of radiation therapy to patient's immune status, and discusses the concept that in radiation therapy for cancer, the patient's immunological responses to the malignat tumor must be considered. (auth.)

  15. Natural health products and cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Oneschuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Complementary therapies, notably natural health products such as herbs and vitamins, are frequently used by cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and radiation therapy. There is much controversy as to whether these natural health products should be taken during conventional cancer treatments. Supporters of this practice cite beneficial effects of the antioxidant properties, while opponents are concerned about the potential for natural health product-chemotherapy/radiation related negative interactions. This involves understanding the role and effect on metabolizing enzymes. This review will highlight the present evidence for both the beneficial and negative consequences of the use of natural health products during chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

  16. COMPARISON OF HYPOFRACTIONATED RADIATION THERAPY VERSUS CONVENTIONAL RADIATION THERAPY IN POST MASTECTOMY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and a leading cause of cancer death in females and accounts for 1.8 million new cases and approximately 0.5 million deaths annually. Patients who present with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC require multidisciplinary team approach that incorporates diagnostic imaging, surgery, chemotherapy and histopathological assessment, including molecular-based studies, radiation, and, if indicated, biologic and hormonal therapies. Hypofractionated radiation therapy following mastectomy has been used in many institutions for several decades and have demonstrated equivalent local control, cosmetic and normal tissues between 50 Gy in 25 fractions and various hypofractionated radiotherapy prescriptions employing 13-16 fractions. Evidence suggests that hypofractionated radiotherapy may also be safe and effective for regional nodal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To compare the local control and side effects of hypofractionated radiation therapy with conventional radiation therapy in post mastectomy carcinoma breast with stage II and III and to compare the tolerability and compliance of both schedules. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted on 60 histopathologically proven patients of carcinoma of breast, treated surgically with modified radical mastectomy. Group I patients were given external radiation to chest flap and drainage areas, a dose of 39 Gy/13 fractions/3.1 weeks, a daily dose 3 Gy for 13 fractions in 4 days a week schedule and Group II patients were given external radiation to chest flap and drainage areas, a dose of 50 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks, to receive a daily dose 2 Gy for 25 fractions in a 5 days a week schedule. RESULTS The median age at presentation in Group I and II was 48 and 50 years respectively. Locoregional control after completion of radiotherapy in Group I vs. Group II was 26/30 (86.7% vs. 27/30 (90% respectively. Acute reactions and their grades in Group

  17. Optimization of adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer: Solutions for photon and proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.A.J. van de Schoot

    2016-01-01

    In cervical cancer radiation therapy, an adaptive strategy is required to compensate for interfraction anatomical variations in order to achieve adequate dose delivery. In this thesis, we have aimed at optimizing adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer to improve treatment efficiency and reduc

  18. Particle beam radiation therapy:re-introducing the future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar Abdel-Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Particle radiation therapy is an exciting area of radiotherapy basic and clinical researches. The majority of particle radiotherapy work is being done with proton beams having essential y the same radiobiologic properties as conventional photon/electron radiation but al owing a much more precise control of the radiation dose distribution. However, other charged particles are also playing an increasing role, like neutrons. In this review article we wil summarize the data related to basic and clinical experiences related to particle beam radiation therapy.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute radiation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Risaku

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome affects military personnel and civilians following the uncontrolled dispersal of radiation, such as that caused by detonation of nuclear devices and inappropriate medical treatments. Therefore, there is a growing need for medical interventions that facilitate the improved recovery of victims and patients. One promising approach may be cell therapy, which, when appropriately implemented, may facilitate recovery from whole body injuries. This editorial highlights the current knowledge regarding the use of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the benefits and limitations of which are under investigation. Establishing successful therapies for acute radiation syndrome may require using such a therapeutic approach in addition to conventional approaches. PMID:27182446

  20. The Impact of the Myeloid Response to Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Gough

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is showing potential as a partner for immunotherapies in preclinical cancer models and early clinical studies. As has been discussed elsewhere, radiation provides debulking, antigen and adjuvant release, and inflammatory targeting of effector cells to the treatment site, thereby assisting multiple critical checkpoints in antitumor adaptive immunity. Adaptive immunity is terminated by inflammatory resolution, an active process which ensures that inflammatory damage is repaired and tissue function is restored. We discuss how radiation therapy similarly triggers inflammation followed by repair, the consequences to adaptive immune responses in the treatment site, and how the myeloid response to radiation may impact immunotherapies designed to improve control of residual cancer cells.

  1. Proton minibeam radiation therapy: Experimental dosimetry evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peucelle, C.; Martínez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y., E-mail: prezado@imnc.in2p3.fr [IMNC-UMR 8165, CNRS, Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, Orsay Cedex 91406 (France); Nauraye, C.; Patriarca, A.; Hierso, E.; Fournier-Bidoz, N. [Institut Curie - Centre de Protonthérapie d’Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Bât. 101, Orsay 91898 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a new radiotherapy (RT) approach that allies the inherent physical advantages of protons with the normal tissue preservation observed when irradiated with submillimetric spatially fractionated beams. This dosimetry work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the technical implementation of pMBRT. This has been performed at the Institut Curie - Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods: Proton minibeams (400 and 700 μm-width) were generated by means of a brass multislit collimator. Center-to-center distances between consecutive beams of 3200 and 3500 μm, respectively, were employed. The (passive scattered) beam energy was 100 MeV corresponding to a range of 7.7 cm water equivalent. Absolute dosimetry was performed with a thimble ionization chamber (IBA CC13) in a water tank. Relative dosimetry was carried out irradiating radiochromic films interspersed in a IBA RW3 slab phantom. Depth dose curves and lateral profiles at different depths were evaluated. Peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR), beam widths, and output factors were also assessed as a function of depth. Results: A pattern of peaks and valleys was maintained in the transverse direction with PVDR values decreasing as a function of depth until 6.7 cm. From that depth, the transverse dose profiles became homogeneous due to multiple Coulomb scattering. Peak-to-valley dose ratio values extended from 8.2 ± 0.5 at the phantom surface to 1.08 ± 0.06 at the Bragg peak. This was the first time that dosimetry in such small proton field sizes was performed. Despite the challenge, a complete set of dosimetric data needed to guide the first biological experiments was achieved. Conclusions: pMBRT is a novel strategy in order to reduce the side effects of RT. This works provides the experimental proof of concept of this new RT method: clinical proton beams might allow depositing a (high) uniform dose in a brain tumor located in the center of the brain (7.5 cm depth

  2. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  3. Proton-antiproton collider physics

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido

    1989-01-01

    This volume reviews the physics studied at the CERN proton-antiproton collider during its first phase of operation, from the first physics run in 1981 to the last one at the end of 1985. The volume consists of a series of review articles written by physicists who are actively involved with the collider research program. The first article describes the proton-antiproton collider facility itself, including the antiproton source and its principle of operation based on stochastic cooling. The subsequent six articles deal with the various physics subjects studied at the collider. Each article descr

  4. Results of radiation therapy for medulloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibamoto, Yuta; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Tsutsui, Kazushige; Ono, Koji (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Takahashi, Masaji

    1989-12-01

    Results of radiation therapy for cerebellar medulloblastoma at Kyoto University Hospital were reviewed. Between 1962 and 1988, 30 patients with histologically-proven medulloblastoma completed radiotherapy. Before 1971, the treatment volume was either the posterior fossa only or posterior fossa plus spinal axis, but after 1972, it was extended to include the entire neuraxis. The mean dose was 48 Gy to the posterior fossa, 36 Gy to the whole brain, and 25 Gy to the spinal axis. The 5-year survival rate and 5-year relapse-free survival rate estimated by the Kaplan-Meier's method were 36% and 37%, respectively, for total cases, but were as high as 79% and 80%, respectively, for the recent 10 patients. This improvement in the treatment results appeared to be due to extensive tumor resection and improved radiotherapy technique, and not to the use of chemotherapy. The prognosis was significantly better in patients treated with craniospinal irradiation than in those otherwise treated. There was a trend towards better survival in patients who received 50 Gy or more to the posterior fossa or 24 Gy or more to the spinal axis, compared to the patients who received lower doses to each site. No significant morbidity of radiotherapy was seen. Four of the six surviving patients who were treated below age 12 have a mental retardation and/or a short stature, but one patient treated at age 5 has a normal growth and a good intelligence. From these analysis, it is recommended to irradiate craniospinal axis and posterior fossa up to 25{approx}35 Gy and 50{approx}55 Gy, respectively. (author).

  5. Radiation Therapy Result of Polymorphic Reticulosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Kim, Gwi Eon; Park, Young Nyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-06-15

    During the period from January, 1975, to June, 1989, one hundred patients with histopathologically proven polymorphic reticulosis in the upper respiratory tract were treated with radiation therapy and the analysis of treatment results was undertaken. One hundred patients (69 males, 31 females) with a mean age of 46 years (range 12-79 years) were presented. Nasal cavity was the most frequent site of involvement(56%), and 44 cases had multifocal sites of involvement. The incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis at initial diagnosis was 24%. Staging was determined by Ann-Arbor classification, retrospectively. The number of patients of stage IE, IIE, IIIE and IVE were 35, 60, 1, and 4, respectively. The overall 5 year actuarial survival rates were 38.4%. The difference in 5 year survival rates between patients with stage IE and IIE, with solitary and multiple, with CR and PR after irradiation were significant statistically. For the analysis of failure patterns, failure sites include the following: local failure alone(30/55=54.6%), systemic failure alone(9/55=16.4%), both local and systemic failure(16/55=29.0%). Retrograde slide review was available in 29 cases of PMR with respect to histopathologic bases, and immunohistochemical studies were performed using MTI and DACO-UCHL-1 as T-cell markers, MB2 as a B-cell marker and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin as a histiocytic markers. All that 29 cases showed characteristic histologic features similar to those of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and showed positive reactio to the T-cell marker. These findings suggest strongly that quite a significant portion of PMR may be in fact T-cell lymphoma.

  6. Radiation dermatitis following electron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten patients, who had been treated for mycosis fungoides with electron beam radiation ten or more years previously, were examined for signs of radiation dermatitis. Although most patients had had acute radiation dermatitis, only a few manifested signs of mild chronic changes after having received between 1,000 and 2,800 rads

  7. Radiation dermatitis following electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    Ten patients, who had been treated for mycosis fungoides with electron beam radiation ten or more years previously, were examined for signs of radiation dermatitis. Although most patients had had acute radiation dermatitis, only a few manifested signs of mild chronic changes after having received between 1,000 and 2,800 rads.

  8. Optimization of adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer: Solutions for photon and proton therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Schoot, van der, A.

    2016-01-01

    In cervical cancer radiation therapy, an adaptive strategy is required to compensate for interfraction anatomical variations in order to achieve adequate dose delivery. In this thesis, we have aimed at optimizing adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer to improve treatment efficiency and reduce radiation-induced toxicities. First, the clinically implemented adaptive strategy was described and the dosimetric consequences of this adaptive strategy compared to conventional non-adaptive rad...

  9. Pneumothorax following thoracic radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy alone to the nodal drainage sites above the diaphragm, namely a ''mantle'' field, is often standard treatment for early stage Hodgkin's disease and may be used in combination with chemotherapy in more advanced disease. Localised pneumonitis and fibrosis are recognised treatment related sequelae; however, other pulmonary complications, including pneumothorax, have been described. Two cases of spontaneous pneumothorax following mantle radiation therapy are presented. (author)

  10. Natural health products and cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Doreen Oneschuk; Jawaid Younus

    2011-01-01

    Complementary therapies, notably natural health products such as herbs and vitamins, are frequently used by cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and radiation therapy. There is much controversy as to whether these natural health products should be taken during conventional cancer treatments. Supporters of this practice cite beneficial effects of the antioxidant properties, while opponents are concerned about the potential for natural health product-chemotherapy/radiation related negative in...

  11. Superficial Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Sean; Minni, John; Herold, David

    2015-12-01

    Superficial radiation therapy has become more widely available to dermatologists. With the advent of more portable machines, it has become more convenient for dermatology practices to employ in an office-based setting. The goal of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the role of superficial radiation therapy in dermatology practice and to review the current literature surrounding its use in the treatment of both basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

  12. Clinical Oral Examinations: Assessment of Competency in Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Leech, Michelle; POOLE, CLAIRE; CRAIG, AGNELLA; COFFEY, MARY ANNE; NI CHUINNEAGAIN, SIOBHAN

    2009-01-01

    Matching assessment strategies to learning outcomes in radiation therapy education is of the utmost importance. Assessing clinical competence requires that `competence? be clearly defined prior to the start of any clinical programme. In this article, we report on our experience in using clinical oral examinations in assessing competence in second year undergraduate radiation therapy students. The shortcomings of clinical oral examinations such as `leaking? of the agenda are addressed and more...

  13. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clini...

  14. Thyroid neoplasia following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of thyroid neoplasia following high-dose radiation treatment to the neck and mediastinum for malignant neoplasms such as Hodgkin's lymphoma in children and young adults has been raised recently. Five patients, 19 to 39 years old, were operated on for thyroid neoplasms that developed following cervical and mediastinal radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Three patients had papillary carcinomas and two had follicular adenomas. The latency period between radiation exposure and the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm ranged from eight to 16 years. This limited series provided strong support for the recommendation that children and young adults who are to receive high-dose radiation therapy to the head, neck, and mediastinum should receive suppressive doses of thyroxine prior to radiation therapy in order to suppress thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and then be maintained on a regimen of suppression permanently

  15. Music therapy CD creation for initial pediatric radiation therapy: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Philippa; O'Callaghan, Clare; Wheeler, Greg; Grocke, Denise

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods research design was used to investigate the effects of a music therapy CD (MTCD) creation intervention on pediatric oncology patients' distress and coping during their first radiation therapy treatment. The music therapy method involved children creating a music CD using interactive computer-based music software, which was "remixed" by the music therapist-researcher to extend the musical material. Eleven pediatric radiation therapy outpatients aged 6 to 13 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they could create a music CD prior to their initial treatment to listen to during radiation therapy, or to a standard care group. Quantitative and qualitative analyses generated multiple perceptions from the pediatric patients, parents, radiation therapy staff, and music therapist-researcher. Ratings of distress during initial radiation therapy treatment were low for all children. The comparison between the two groups found that 67% of the children in the standard care group used social withdrawal as a coping strategy, compared to 0% of the children in the music therapy group; this trend approached significance (p = 0.076). MTCD creation was a fun, engaging, and developmentally appropriate intervention for pediatric patients, which offered a positive experience and aided their use of effective coping strategies to meet the demands of their initial radiation therapy treatment.

  16. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  17. Pelvic Normal Tissue Contouring Guidelines for Radiation Therapy: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, Hiram A., E-mail: hgay@radonc.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Barthold, H. Joseph [Commonwealth Hematology and Oncology, Weymouth, MA (United States); Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel); O' Meara, Elizabeth [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Al-Lozi, Rawan [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lawton, Colleen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zietman, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Myerson, Robert [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Willett, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Jhingran, Anuja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Ryu, Janice [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To define a male and female pelvic normal tissue contouring atlas for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Methods and Materials: One male pelvis computed tomography (CT) data set and one female pelvis CT data set were shared via the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center. A total of 16 radiation oncologists participated. The following organs at risk were contoured in both CT sets: anus, anorectum, rectum (gastrointestinal and genitourinary definitions), bowel NOS (not otherwise specified), small bowel, large bowel, and proximal femurs. The following were contoured in the male set only: bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb. The following were contoured in the female set only: uterus, cervix, and ovaries. A computer program used the binomial distribution to generate 95% group consensus contours. These contours and definitions were then reviewed by the group and modified. Results: The panel achieved consensus definitions for pelvic normal tissue contouring in RTOG trials with these standardized names: Rectum, AnoRectum, SmallBowel, Colon, BowelBag, Bladder, UteroCervix, Adnexa{sub R}, Adnexa{sub L}, Prostate, SeminalVesc, PenileBulb, Femur{sub R}, and Femur{sub L}. Two additional normal structures whose purpose is to serve as targets in anal and rectal cancer were defined: AnoRectumSig and Mesorectum. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusions: Consensus guidelines for pelvic normal tissue contouring were reached and are available as a CT image atlas on the RTOG Web site. This will allow uniformity in defining normal tissues for clinical trials delivering pelvic radiation and will facilitate future normal tissue complication research.

  18. Spontaneous pneumothorax after upper mantle radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1967 and 1981, 158 of 256 consecutive adult patients received upper mantle (UM) radiation therapy as part of initial treatment of Hodgkin disease at the Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre. Chemotherapy was also part of the initial treatment in 21 of 158 patients who received UM radiation therapy. Spontaneous pneumothorax was observed in six of 158 patients during remission after UM radiation therapy in this series. Three cases were incidental findings on follow-up radiographs, but three other patients were seen initially with symptoms of spontaneous pneumothorax. The entity occurred in three of 21 patients (14%) treated with UM radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and in three of 137 (2%) treated with UM radiation therapy (P < .05). Within the range of UM doses (3,500-4,000 cGy in 4 weeks), higher dose was not associated with higher risk of spontaneous pneumothorax. Although these cases of spontaneous pneumothorax are clustered in an age range classic for this entity, the incidence of spontaneous pneumothorax in this group of patients is higher than the anticipated lifetime incidence of 1:500 for the general population. This risk of spontaneous pneumothorax after UM radiation therapy may be even higher in patients who also receive chemotherapy

  19. Dose Determination using alanine detectors in a Mixed Neutron and Gamma Field for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Liver Malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, T.; Blaickner, M.; Ziegner, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for liver malignancies is being investigated at the University of Mainz. One important aim is the set-up of a reliable dosimetry system. Alanine dosimeters have previously been applied for dosimetry of mixed radiation fields in antiproton therapy, and may...

  20. An Investigation of Vascular Strategies to Augment Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kaffas, Ahmed Nagy

    Radiation therapy is administered to more than 50% of patients diagnosed with cancer. Mechanisms of interaction between radiation and tumour cells are relatively well understood on a molecular level, but much remains uncertain regarding how radiation interacts with the tumour as a whole. Recent studies have suggested that tumour response to radiation may in fact be regulated by endothelial cell response, consequently stressing the role of tumour blood vessels in radiation treatment response. As a result, various treatment regimens have been proposed to strategically combine radiation with vascular targeting agents. A great deal of effort has been aimed towards developing efficient vascular targeting agents. Nonetheless, no optimal method has yet been devised to strategically deliver such agents. Recent evidence suggesting that these drugs may "normalize" tumour blood vessels and enhance radiosensitivity, is supporting experiments where anti-angiogenic drugs are combined with cytotoxic therapies such as radiotherapy. In contrast, ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles have recently been demonstrated to enhance radiation therapy by biophysically interacting with endothelial cells. When combined with single radiation doses, these microbubbles are believed to cause localized vascular destruction followed by tumour cell death. Finally, a new form of 'pro-angiogenics' has also been demonstrated to induce a therapeutic tumour response. The overall aim of this thesis is to study the role of tumour blood vessels in treatment responses to single-dose radiation therapy and to investigate radiation-based vascular targeting strategies. Using pharmacological and biophysical agents, blood vessels were altered to determine how they influence tumour cell death, clonogenicity, and tumour growth, and to study how these may be optimally combined with radiation. Three-dimensional high-frequency power Doppler ultrasound was used throughout these studies to investigate vascular response to

  1. Antiproton Star Observed in Emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, Owen; Chupp, Warren W.; Goldhaber, Gerson; Segre,Emilio; Wiegand, Clyde; Amaldi, E.; Baroni, G.; Castagnoli, C.; Franzinetti, C.; Manfredini, A.

    1955-12-01

    In connection with the antiproton investigation at the Bevatron we planned and carried out a photographic-emulsion exposure in a magnetically selected beam of negative particles. The magnetic system was identical to the first half (one deflecting magnet and one magnetic lens) of the system used in the antiproton experiment of Chamberlain, Segre, Wiegand, and Ypsilantis. The selected particles left the copper target in the forward direction with momentum 1.09 Bev/c.

  2. Cranial Radiation Therapy and Damage to Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy is associated with a progressive decline in cognitive function, prominently memory function. Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to be an important mechanism underlying this cognitive decline. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of radiation-induced failure of neurogenesis. Potential therapeutic…

  3. The Radiation Therapy Oncology in the context of oncological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the radiation therapy oncology in the context of oncological practice. The radiotherapy is a speciality within medicine that involves the generation, application and dissemination of knowledge about the biology, causes, prevention and treatment of the cancer and other pathologies by ionising radiation

  4. The therapy of marrowy syndrome at radiation lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author made conclusion that cumulative data on experimental therapy of radiation affections testify to the effect that at critical radiation sickness of heavy level following hematosis oppression effective can be only that treatment regimen, which contains resources conducive to reducing processes in the marrow

  5. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section 892.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation...

  6. Once-Daily Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC

  7. Once-Daily Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lindsay [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Harmsen, William [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Blanchard, Miran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goetz, Matthew [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jakub, James [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert; Petersen, Ivy; Rooney, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stauder, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yan, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Laack, Nadia, E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC

  8. Acute and Chronic Cutaneous Reactions to Ionizing Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, Fleta N.; Simmons, Brian J.; Aaron H. Wolfson; Nouri, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an important treatment modality for a variety of malignant conditions. However, development of radiation-induced skin changes is a significant adverse effect of radiation therapy (RT). Cutaneous repercussions of RT vary considerably in severity, course, and prognosis. When they do occur, cutaneous changes to RT are commonly graded as acute, consequential-late, or chronic. Acute reactions can have severe sequelae that impact quality of life as well as cancer treatment. Th...

  9. [The application of total quality management (TQM) in quality management of radiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui-yao; Fu, Shen; Li, Bin

    2009-03-01

    The strategies and methods of the total quality management (TQM) need to applied in quality management of radiation therapy. We should improve the level of quality control and quality assurance in radiation therapy. By establishing quality control system in radiation therapy, standardization of radiation therapy workflow, strengthening quality control of devices and physical technique and paying attention to safety protection and staff training.

  10. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  11. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology

  12. Focal Therapy, Differential Therapy, and Radiation Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Anudh K.; Ennis, Ronald D

    2012-01-01

    Focal and differential therapy represent an approach to improve the therapeutic ratio of prostate cancer treatments. This concept is a shift from treating the whole gland to intensely treating the portion of the gland that contains significant tumor. However, there are many challenges in the move towards focal approaches. Defining which patients are suitable candidates for focal therapy approaches is an area of significant controversy, and it is likely that additional data from imaging or det...

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazato, Tomonori; Yusa, Toshiko; Onaga, Tomohiro; Sugaya, Kimio; Koyama, Yuzo; Hatano, Tadashi; Ogawa, Yoshihide [Ryukyus Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-05-01

    Radiation therapy has widely been used for cancers in the pelvis. Radiation cystitis, one of the late complications, presents often as hemorrhagic cystitis, which is refractory to the conventional therapy and may threaten the patient`s life. We used hyperbaric oxygen therapy on patients with radiation cystitis to test its potential benefit. Ten patients aged from 46 to 81 years with a mean of 62 years underwent one or more courses of hyperbaric oxygen therapy according to their symptoms, consisting of 20 sessions (3 to 5 sessions a week) at the Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, the University of the Ryukyus Hospital in the 9-year period from 1985 to 1994. They included 8 patients having a history of cervical cancer, one with external genital cancer and one with vaginal cancer. During the 75 min hyperbaric oxygen therapy patients received 100% oxygen at 2 absolute atmosphere pressure in the Multiplace Hyperbaric Chamber. Hematuria subsided and subjective symptoms including urinary frequency improved in seven patients. Cystoscopic findings including mucosal edema, redness, and capillary dilation were partially improved. The procedure subjectively and objectively palliated the 10 patients in a favorable manner. To date we have not armed any active procedure to control radiation-induced refractory hemorrhagic cystitis in terms of efficacy, invasiveness, and adverse effects. Therefore, in consideration of our clinical results, hyperbaric oxygen therapy appears to be useful for radiation cystitis. (author)

  14. Radiation Therapy for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the enormity of the public health burden imposed by age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), much effort has been directed toward identifying effective and efficient treatments. Currently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections have demonstrated considerably efficacy in treating neovascular ARMD, but patients require frequent treatment to fully benefit. Here, we review the rationale and evidence for radiation therapy of ARMD. The results of early photon external beam radiation therapy are included to provide a framework for the sequential discussion of evidence for the usage of stereotactic radiation therapy, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The evidence suggests that these 3 modern modalities can provide a dose-dependent benefit in the treatment of ARMD. Most importantly, preliminary data suggest that all 3 can be used in conjunction with anti-VEGF therapeutics, thereby reducing the frequency of anti-VEGF injections required to maintain visual acuity

  15. Reversible brachial plexopathy following primary radiation therapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salner, A.L.; Botnick, L.E.; Herzog, A.G.; Goldstein, M.A.; Harris, J.R.; Levene, M.B.; Hellman, S.

    Reversible brachial plexopathy has occurred in very low incidence in patients with breast carcinoma treated definitively with radiation therapy. Of 565 patients treated between January 1968 and December 1979 with moderate doses of supervoltage radiation therapy (average axillary dose of 5000 rad in 5 weeks), eight patients (1.4%) developed the characteristic symptoms at a median time of 4.5 months after radiation therapy. This syndrome consists of paresthesias in all patients, with weakness and pain less commonly seen. The symptom complex differs from other previously described brachial plexus syndromes, including paralytic brachial neuritis, radiation-induced injury, and carcinoma. A possible relationship to adjuvant chemotherapy exists, though the etiology is not well-understood. The cases described demonstrate temporal clustering. Resolution is always seen.

  16. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN RADIATION THERAPY FOR HEAD AND NECK CANCER: INTENSITY MODULATED RADIATION THERAPY AND HYPOXIA TARGETING

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Nancy Y.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2008-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has revolutionized radiation treatment for head and neck cancers (HNC). When compared to the traditional techniques, IMRT has the unique ability to minimize the dose delivered to normal tissues without compromising tumor coverage. As a result, side effects from high dose radiation have decreased and patient quality of life has improved. In addition to toxicity reduction, excellent clinical outcomes have been reported for IMRT. The first part of thi...

  17. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stefan Starup; Schytte, Tine; Jensen, Henrik R;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now an accepted and patient friendly treatment, but still controversy exists about its comparability to conventional radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this single...... and SBRT predicted improved prognosis. However, staging procedure, confirmation procedure of recurrence and technical improvements of radiation treatment is likely to influence outcomes. However, SBRT seems to be as efficient as conventional RT and is a more convenient treatment for the patients....

  18. Technological progress in radiation therapy for brain tumors

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vernimmen, Frederik Jozef

    2014-01-01

    To achieve a good therapeutic ratio the radiation dose to the tumor should be as high as possible with the lowest possible dose to the surrounding normal tissue. This is especially the case for brain tumors. Technological ad- vancements in diagnostic imaging, dose calculations, and radiation delivery systems, combined with a better un- derstanding of the pathophysiology of brain tumors have led to improvements in the therapeutic results. The widely used technology of delivering 3-D conformal therapy with photon beams (gamma rays) produced by Li-near Accelerators has progressed into the use of Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Particle beams have been used for several decades for radiotherapy because of their favorable depth dose characteristics. The introduction of clinically dedicated proton beam therapy facilities has improved the access for cancer patients to this treatment. Proton therapy is of particular interest for pediatric malignancies. These technical improvements are further enhanced by the evolution in tumor physiology imaging which allows for improved delineation of the tumor. This in turn opens the potential to adjust the radiation dose to maximize the radiobiological effects. The advances in both imaging and radiation therapy delivery will be discussed.

  19. Antiprotonic helium atomcules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauge Sébastien

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available About 3% of antiprotons ( stopped in helium are long-lived with microsecond lifetimes, against picoseconds in all other materials. This unusual longevity has been ascribed to the trapping of on metastable bound states in He+ helium atom-molecules thus named atomcules. Apart from their unique dual structure investigated by laser spectroscopy – a near-circular quasi-classical Rydberg atom with l ~ n – 1 ~ 37 or a special diatomic molecule with a negatively charged nucleus in high rotational state with J = l – the chemical physics aspects of their interaction with other atoms or molecules constitute an interesting topic for molecular physics. While atomcules may resist to million collisions in helium, molecular contaminants such as H2 are likely to destroy them in a single one, down to very low temperatures. In the Born-Oppenheimer framework, we interpret the molecular interaction obtained by ab initio quantum chemical calculations in terms of classical reactive channels, with activation barriers accounting for the experiments carried out in He and H2. From classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the thermalization stage strongly quenches initial populations, thus reduced to a recovered 3 % trapping fraction. This work illustrates the pertinence of chemical physics concepts to the study of exotic processes involving antimatter. New insights into the physico-chemistry of cold interstellar radicals are anticipated.

  20. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  1. Alterations of nutritional status: impact of chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nutritional status of a cancer patient may be affected by the tumor, the chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy directed against the tumor, and by complications associated with that therapy. Chemotherpay-radiotherapy is not confined exclusively to malignant cell populations; thus, normal tissues may also be affected by the therapy and may contribute to specific nutritional problems. Impaired nutrition due to anorexia, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may be dependent upon the specific chemotherapeutic agent, dose, or schedule utilized. Similar side effects from radiation therapy depend upon the dose, fractionation, and volume irradiated. When combined modality treatment is given the nutritional consequences may be magnified. Prospective, randomized clinical trials are underway to investigate the efficacy of nutritional support during chemotherapy-radiotherapy on tolerance to treatment, complications from treatment, and response rates to treatment. Preliminary results demonstrate that the administration of total parenteral nutrition is successful in maintaining weight during radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but that weight loss occurs after discontinuation of nutritional support. Thus, longterm evaluation is mandatory to learn the impact of nutritional support on survival, diease-free survival, and complication rates, as well as on the possible prevention of morbidity associated with aggressive chemotherapy-radiation therapy

  2. Movie prediction of lung tumor for precise chasing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, precision for radiation therapy is a major challenge in the field of cancer treatment. When it comes to a moving organ like lungs, limiting the radiation to the target and sparing the surrounding healthy tissue is always a concern. It can induce the limit in the accuracy of area irradiated during lung cancer radiation therapy. Many methods have been introduced to compensate the motion in order to reduce the effect of radiation to healthy tissue due to respiratory motion. The motion of lung along with the tumor makes it very difficult to spare the healthy tissue during radiation therapy. The fear of this unintended damage to the neighboring tissue often limits the dose that can be applied to the tumor. The purpose of this research is the prediction of future motion images for the improvement of tumor tracking method. We predict the motion images by using principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-channel singular spectral analysis (MSSA) method. Time series x-ray images are used as training images. The motion images were successfully predicted and verified using the developed algorithm. The real time implementation of this method in future is believed to be significant for higher level of real time tumor tracking during radiation therapy. (author)

  3. Predicting Radiation Pneumonitis After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Patients Previously Treated With Conventional Thoracic Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hui; Zhang Xu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy Y. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Swisher, Stephen G. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) to the lung in patients who had previously undergone conventional thoracic radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients who had previously received conventionally fractionated radiation therapy to the thorax were treated with SABR (50 Gy in 4 fractions) for recurrent disease or secondary parenchymal lung cancer (T <4 cm, N0, M0, or Mx). Severe (grade {>=}3) RP and potential predictive factors were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. A scoring system was established to predict the risk of RP. Results: At a median follow-up time of 16 months after SABR (range, 4-56 months), 15 patients had severe RP (14 [18.9%] grade 3 and 1 [1.4%] grade 5) and 1 patient (1.4%) had a local recurrence. In univariate analyses, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) before SABR, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and previous planning target volume (PTV) location were associated with the incidence of severe RP. The V{sub 10} and mean lung dose (MLD) of the previous plan and the V{sub 10}-V{sub 40} and MLD of the composite plan were also related to RP. Multivariate analysis revealed that ECOG PS scores of 2-3 before SABR (P=.009), FEV1 {<=}65% before SABR (P=.012), V{sub 20} {>=}30% of the composite plan (P=.021), and an initial PTV in the bilateral mediastinum (P=.025) were all associated with RP. Conclusions: We found that severe RP was relatively common, occurring in 20.8% of patients, and could be predicted by an ECOG PS score of 2-3, an FEV1 {<=}65%, a previous PTV spanning the bilateral mediastinum, and V{sub 20} {>=}30% on composite (previous RT+SABR) plans. Prospective studies are needed to validate these predictors and the scoring system on which they are based.

  4. ASACUSA Anti-protonic Helium_Final

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Production Service; CERN AD; Paola Catapano; Julien Ordan, Arzur Catel; Paola Catapano; ASACUSA COLLABORATION

    2016-01-01

    Latest precision measurement of the mass of the proton and the anti proton though the production of antiprotonic helium by the ASACUSA experiment at CERN's antimatter factory, with a beam from the Antiproton Decelerator

  5. Imaging and Data Acquisition in Clinical Trials for Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Thomas J; Bishop-Jodoin, Maryann; Followill, David S; Galvin, James; Knopp, Michael V; Michalski, Jeff M; Rosen, Mark A; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Shankar, Lalitha K; Laurie, Fran; Cicchetti, M Giulia; Moni, Janaki; Coleman, C Norman; Deye, James A; Capala, Jacek; Vikram, Bhadrasain

    2016-02-01

    Cancer treatment evolves through oncology clinical trials. Cancer trials are multimodal and complex. Assuring high-quality data are available to answer not only study objectives but also questions not anticipated at study initiation is the role of quality assurance. The National Cancer Institute reorganized its cancer clinical trials program in 2014. The National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) was formed and within it was established a Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance Organization. This organization is Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core, the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Group, consisting of 6 quality assurance centers that provide imaging and radiation therapy quality assurance for the NCTN. Sophisticated imaging is used for cancer diagnosis, treatment, and management as well as for image-driven technologies to plan and execute radiation treatment. Integration of imaging and radiation oncology data acquisition, review, management, and archive strategies are essential for trial compliance and future research. Lessons learned from previous trials are and provide evidence to support diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy data acquisition in NCTN trials.

  6. Two Effective Heuristics for Beam Angle Optimization in Radiation Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Yarmand, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    In radiation therapy, mathematical methods have been used for optimizing treatment planning for delivery of sufficient dose to the cancerous cells while keeping the dose to critical surrounding structures minimal. This optimization problem can be modeled using mixed integer programming (MIP) whose solution gives the optimal beam orientation as well as optimal beam intensity. The challenge, however, is the computation time for this large scale MIP. We propose and investigate two novel heuristic approaches to reduce the computation time considerably while attaining high-quality solutions. We introduce a family of heuristic cuts based on the concept of 'adjacent beams' and a beam elimination scheme based on the contribution of each beam to deliver the dose to the tumor in the ideal plan in which all potential beams can be used simultaneously. We show the effectiveness of these heuristics for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) on a clinical liver case.

  7. Determinants of job satisfaction among radiation therapy faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swafford, Larry G; Legg, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    Job satisfaction is one of the most significant predictors of employee retention in a variety of occupational settings, including health care and education. A national survey of radiation therapy educators (n = 90) has indicated that respondents are not satisfied with their jobs based on data collected using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). To predict the factors associated with job satisfaction or dissatisfaction, the authors used a nine-item questionnaire derived from the MSQ. Educators were grouped according to their job satisfaction scores, and multiple discriminant analysis was used to determine which factors were predictive of satisfaction among groups of educators. Statistical results indicate that ability utilization, institutional support, compensation, personnel, and job characteristics were key determinants of job satisfaction among radiation therapy educators. These results may better inform faculty and administration of important factors that can promote job satisfaction and retain faculty in radiation therapy education programs. PMID:19753428

  8. Selective use of radiation therapy for neoplasms of the skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, R.G.

    1980-07-01

    Radiation therapy is preferable treatment for a minority of basal cell and epidermoid carcinomas of the skin. Proper use exploits the inherent advantage of preservation of function and cosmesis. Therefore, many cancers involving the eyelid, canthus, nose, nasolabial fold, pinna, ear canal, vermilion surface of the lower lip and skin of the chin can be advantageously treated by radiation therapy as compared to surgery, if pretreatment destruction of normal tissue is minimal. Although irradiation is equally effective, surgery is more expeditious for small lesions and cancers at other sites, which can be excised and followed by primary closure, and for large lesions if reconstruction will be required after destruction of the tumor. Radiation therapy can be effective, and usually is preferable treatment, for several other primary neoplasms of skin such as mycosis fungoides and Kaposi's sarcoma.

  9. Current status of radiation therapy. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) of radiation therapy. Current management of patients with esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Kenji [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    The best management for small mucosal esophageal cancer is generally endoscopic mucosal resection. However, for submucosal cancer and extensive mucosal caner, either radical surgery or radiation seems to be an equally efficacious option. Radiation therapy concurrent with chemotherapy is more effective than radiation therapy alone for patients with unresectable esophageal cancer. The key drugs are cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. However, for patients with poor performance status or for aged patients, radiation therapy alone is still a choice of treatment. Surgery has generally been indicated for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. However, outcomes of concurrent chemoradiation therapy may be comparable with those of surgery. Therefore, a prospective randomized study should be performed to determine the best management for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. The usefulness of intra-cavitary irradiation for esophageal cancer has not been clarified. A prospective randomized trial with a large number of patients is necessary to determine the effectiveness of intra-cavitary irradiation. The best management for patients with loco-regionally recurrent esophageal cancer after surgery has not been determined. Intensive therapy should be considered if the site of recurrence is limited and the time interval from surgery to recurrence is long. Chemotherapy is essential in the management of patients with small cell esophageal cancer. However, the best local therapy has not been determined. (author)

  10. Low Energy Antiproton Ring experimental area

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    The experimental area at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) is seen. This set up was used to slow down antiprotons which had been produced by colliding a proton beam with a solid target. The experiments in the hall then took antiprotons from LEAR to perform antimatter studies. One such experiment, PS210, produced the world's first antihydrogen atoms.

  11. Combination of radiation injuries: pathogenesis, clinic, therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern notions on combined radiation injuries (CRI) are presented. Characteristic of injurious factors of nuclear explosion and common regularities of the CRI origination is given. The data on the CRI clinical peculiarities, diagnostics and treatment, principles of medical assistance for the injured on the stages of medical evacuation and recommendations on rehabilitation are presented

  12. Radiation therapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Shibamoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Up until the late 1970s, radiation therapy played an important role in the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL but more recently its role has changed due to the increased use of systemic chemotherapy. In this article, the current status of radiotherapy for PCNSL and optimal forms of radiotherapy, including the treatment volume and radiation dose, are discussed. Data from nationwide Japanese surveys of PCNSL patients treated with radiation therapy suggest that the prognosis of PCNSL patients improved during the 1990s, in part due to the use of high-dose methotrexate-containing chemotherapy. The prognosis of patients treated with radiation alone also improved. Radiotherapy still seems to play an important role in the attempt to cure this disease.

  13. The Role for Radiation Therapy in the Management of Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leachman, Brooke K; Galloway, Thomas J

    2016-10-01

    Although there is no consensus regarding the optimal sequencing of external beam radiotherapy and surgery for extremity soft tissue sarcoma, radiation therapy delivered before or after limb-sparing surgery significantly improves local control, particularly for high-grade tumors. Large database analyses suggest that improved local control may translate into an overall survival benefit. Best practices require ample communication between the radiation and surgical teams to ensure appropriate tissues are targeted, unnecessary radiation is avoided, and patients are afforded the best opportunity for cure while maintaining function. Modern experiences with intensity-modulated radiotherapy/image-guided radiation therapy suggest toxicity is reduced through field size reduction and precise targeting, improving the therapeutic ratio. PMID:27542646

  14. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements...... axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3...

  15. Tracheoinnominate artery fistula as a complication of radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, D.; Piccone, B.R.; Littman, P.; Lisker, S.A.

    1979-03-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistulization is a well-known complication of tracheostomy and of tracheal resection. The first known occurrence of this problem in a patient in whom no transtracheal procedure had ever been performed is reported, and high-dose radiation therapy delivered three years before for a mediastinal malignancy is suggested as the cause. No evidence of tumor was found in or adjacent to the tracheovascular communication. The tracheoinnominate artery fistula must be considered a potential complication of radiation therapy as well as of surgery.

  16. Carcinoma of the maxillary antrum: surgery or radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between the years 1968 and 1978, 57 patients with malignant tumors of the para-nasal sinuses were seen at the Medical College of Virginia. Thirty-nine patients presenting with squamous cell epitheliomas of the maxillary antrum, free of lymph node or distant metastases, and primarily treated at the Medical College of Virginia, form the basis of this study. Nineteen patients underwent radical craniofacial surgery with orbital exenteration and reconstruction. Twenty patients underwent Caldwell-Luc procedure followed by radical radiation therapy. The crude 3 year disease-free survivals are 50% and 37% in the radiation therapy and the surgery group, respectively. Local control, survival, and patterns of failure are discussed

  17. Khan's lectures handbook of the physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M; Mihailidis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Khan's Lectures: Handbook of the Physics of Radiation Therapy will provide a digest of the material contained in The Physics of Radiation Therapy. Lectures will be presented somewhat similar to a PowerPoint format, discussing key points of individual chapters. Selected diagrams from the textbook will be used to initiate the discussion. New illustrations will used, wherever needed, to enhance the understanding of important concepts. Discussion will be condensed and often bulleted. Theoretical details will be referred to the textbook and the cited literature. A problem set (practice questions) w

  18. Nuclear dynamics induced by antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Reaction dynamics in collisions of antiprotons on nuclei is investigated within the Lanzhou quantum molecular dynamics model. The reaction channels of elastic scattering, annihilation, charge exchange and inelastic collisions of antiprotons on nucleons have been included in the model. Dynamics on particle production, in particular pions, kaons, antikaons and hyperons, is investigated in collisions of $\\overline{p}$ on $^{12}$C, $^{20}$Ne, $^{40}$Ca and $^{181}$Ta from a low to high incident momenta. It is found that the annihilations of $\\overline{p}$ on nucleons are of importance on the dynamics of particle production in phase space. Hyperons are mainly produced via meson induced reactions on nucleons and strangeness exchange collisions, which lead to the delayed emission in antiproton-nucleus collisions.

  19. Antiprotons in the Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Scott

    1999-10-01

    The HEAT (High Energy Antimatter Telescope) collaboration flew in May 1999 a balloon-borne instrument to measure the relative abundance of antiprotons and protons in the cosmic rays to kinetic energies of 30 GeV. The instrument uses a multiple energy loss technique to measure the Lorentz factor of through-going cosmic rays, a magnet spectrometer to measure momentum, and several scintillation counters to determine particle charge and direction (up or down in the atmosphere). The antiproton/proton abundance ratio as a function of energy is a probe of the propagation environment of protons through the galaxy. Existing measurements indicate a higher than expected value at both high and low energies. A confirming measurement could indicate peculiar antiproton sources, such as WIMPs or supersymmetric darkmatter candidates. A description of the instrument, details of the flight and instrument performance, and status of the data analysis will be given.

  20. Measurement of interaction between antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    One of the primary goals of nuclear physics is to understand the force between nucleons, which is a necessary step for understanding the structure of nuclei and how nuclei interact with each other. Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus in 1911, and the large body of knowledge about the nuclear force since acquired was derived from studies made on nucleons or nuclei. Although antinuclei up to antihelium-4 have been discovered and their masses measured, we have no direct knowledge of the nuclear force between antinucleons. Here, we study antiproton pair correlations among data taken by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and show that the force between two antiprotons is attractive. In addition, we report two key parameters that characterize the corresponding strong interaction: namely, the scattering length (f0) and effective range (d0). As direct information on the interaction between two antiprotons, one of the simplest systems of antinucleons, our result provides a fundamental ingr...

  1. Anonymization of DICOM Electronic Medical Records for Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Newhauser, Wayne; Jones, Timothy; Swerdloff, Stuart; Newhauser, Warren; Cilia, Mark; Carver, Robert (British painter, ca.1730-1791); Halloran, Andy; Zhang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMR) and treatment plans are used in research on patient outcomes and radiation effects. In many situations researchers must remove protected health information (PHI) from EMRs. The literature contains several studies describing the anonymization of generic Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) files and DICOM image sets but no publications were found that discuss the anonymization of DICOM radiation therapy plans, a key component of an EMR in a can...

  2. The radiation therapy of benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray should only be applied when other forms of treatment of good-natured diseases do not provide equally good results. One should note that somatic lesion should be completely avoided and genetic lesion avoided to the greatest probability. One can distinguish according to ones aims between inflammation irradiation, pain irradiation, stimulation therapy and functional therapy. An indication for inflammation irradiation can be post-operative parotitis, furuncle in the face, mastitis puerperalis, panaritium ossale, recurrent sudoriparouns abscesses and repelling reactions after transplanting organs. Pain irradiation is indicated with degenerative diseases of the skeleton system. A further possible application is radiotherapy of hypotrophic processes and benign tumours. Functional radiotherapy is indicated with hyperendocrinism, neurovegetative disorders and allergies. (MG)

  3. Maxillary sinus carcinoma: result of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This hundred and sixteen patients with carcinoma of the maxillary sinus received primary therapy consisting of external beam irradiation alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy at the Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital, between 1953 and 1982. In our institution, methods of treating cancer of the maxillary sinus have been changed from time to time and showed different control rates and clinical courses. An actuarial 10-year survival rate of 21% has been obtained by the megavoltage irradiation alone as well as 34% actuarial 10-year survival rate by megavoltage irradiation with surgery. After the introduction of conservative surgery followed by conventional trimodal combination therapy, the local control rate has been improved. The amount of functional, cosmetic, and brain damages have been remarkably decreased by this mode of therapy. The actuarial five year survival rate was 67%. In addition, along with the improvement of the local control rate, the control of nodal and distant organ metastases have been emerging as one of the important contributions to the prognosis of this disease

  4. Antiproton collisions with molecular hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Saenz, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical antiproton and proton cross sections for ionization and excitation of hydrogen molecules as well as energy spectra of the ionized electrons were calculated in the impact-energy range from 8  to  4000  keV. The cross sections were computed with the close-coupling formulation of the sem......Theoretical antiproton and proton cross sections for ionization and excitation of hydrogen molecules as well as energy spectra of the ionized electrons were calculated in the impact-energy range from 8  to  4000  keV. The cross sections were computed with the close-coupling formulation...

  5. Stem cell-based therapies for acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation in the event of accidental or intentional incident such as nuclear/radiological terrorism can lead to debilitating injuries to multiple organs resulting in death within days depending on the amount of radiation dose and the quality of radiation. Unfortunately, there is not a single FDA-licensed drug approved against acute radiation injury. The RadStem Center for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (RadStem CMGR) program at Einstein is developing stem cell-based therapies to treat acute radiation syndrome (ARS). We have demonstrated that intravenous transplantation of bone marrow-derived and adipose-derived stromal cells, consisting of a mixture of mesenchymal, endothelial and myeloid progenitors can mitigate mice exposed to whole body irradiation of 12 Gy or whole abdominal irradiation of up to 20 Gy. We identified a variety of growth and differentiation factors that individually is unable to improve survival of animals exposed to lethal irradiation, but when administered sequentially mitigates radiation injury and improves survival. We termed this phenomenon as synthetic survival and describe a new paradigm whereby the 'synthetic survival' of irradiated tissues can be promoted by systemic administration of growth factors to amplify residual stem cell clonogens post-radiation exposure, followed by a differentiation factor that favors tissue stem cell differentiation. Synthetic survival can be applied to mitigate lethal radiation injury in multiple organs following radiation-induced hematopoeitic, gastrointestinal and pulmonary syndromes. (author)

  6. Immunomodulatory effects of radiation: what is next for cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anita; Simon, Samantha S; Moody, Tomika D; Garnett-Benson, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Despite its former reputation as being immunosuppressive, it has become evident that radiation therapy can enhance antitumor immune responses. This quality can be harnessed by utilizing radiation as an adjuvant to cancer immunotherapies. Most studies combine the standard radiation dose and regimens indicated for the given disease state, with novel cancer immunotherapies. It has become apparent that low-dose radiation, as well as doses within the hypofractionated range, can modulate tumor cells making them better targets for immune cell reactivity. Herein, we describe the range of phenotypic changes induced in tumor cells by radiation, and explore the diverse mechanisms of immunogenic modulation reported at these doses. We also review the impact of these doses on the immune cell function of cytotoxic cells in vivo and in vitro.

  7. Influential Factors and Synergies for Radiation-Gene Therapy on Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Lin; Junxing Huang; Yujuan Shi; Yanhong Xiao; Ting Guo

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-gene therapy, a dual anticancer strategy of radiation therapy and gene therapy through connecting radiation-inducible regulatory sequence to therapeutic gene, leading to the gene being induced to express by radiation while radiotherapy is performed and finally resulting in a double synergistic antitumor effect of radiation and gene, has become one of hotspots in the field of cancer treatment in recent years. But under routine dose of radiation, especially in the hypoxia environment ...

  8. Radiation therapy. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Radiation Therapy, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  9. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning

  10. Waiting Lists for Radiation Therapy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Why waiting lists arise and how to address them remains unclear, and an improved understanding of these waiting list "dynamics" could lead to better management. The purpose of this study is to understand how the current shortage in radiation therapy in Ontario developed; the implications of prolonged waits; who is held accountable for managing such delays; and short, intermediate, and long-term solutions. Methods A case study of the radiation therapy shortage in 1998-99 at Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Relevant documents were collected; semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with ten administrators, health care workers, and patients were conducted, audio-taped and transcribed; and relevant meetings were observed. Results The radiation therapy shortage arose from a complex interplay of factors including: rising cancer incidence rates; broadening indications for radiation therapy; human resources management issues; government funding decisions; and responsiveness to previous planning recommendations. Implications of delays include poorer cancer control rates; patient suffering; and strained doctor-patient relationships. An incompatible relationship exists between moral responsibility, borne by government, and legal liability, borne by physicians. Short-term solutions include re-referral to centers with available resources; long-term solutions include training and recruiting health care workers, improving workload standards, increasing compensation, and making changes to the funding formula. Conclusion Human resource planning plays a critical role in the causes and solutions of waiting lists. Waiting lists have harsh implications for patients. Accountability relationships require realignment.

  11. Pregnancy after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browde, S; Friedman, M; Nissenbaum, M

    1986-01-01

    A successful pregnancy after intracavitary radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix is described. An additional 13 similar cases from the literature are reviewed. The possible reasons for the occurrence of these pregnancies despite irradiation to the ovaries, cervical canal and endometrium are discussed. The fact is emphasized that no genetic damage to the child was expected.

  12. Radiation therapy for portal venous invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keiichi Nakagawa; Masatoshi Makuuchi; Kuni Ohtomo; Hideomi Yamashita; Kenshiro Shiraishi; Naoki Nakamura; Masao Tago; Hiroshi Igaki; Yoshio Hosoi; Shuichiro Shiina; Masao Omata

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the efficacy and safety of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-D CRT) for this disease and to specify patient subgroups suitable for this treatment.METHODS: Fifty-two patients with HCC received PVI-targeted radiation therapy from January 1995 through December 2003. Portal venous invasion (PVI) was found in the second or lower order branches of the portal vein in 6 patients, in the first branch in 24 patients and in the main trunk in 22 patients. Child classifications of liver function before radiation therapy were A, B, and C for 19, 24 and 2 patients, respectively. All patients received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a total dose ranging from 39 to 60 Gy (57.0 Gy in average).RESULTS: Overall survival rates at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 45.1%, 25.3%, 15.2%, 10.1%, and 5.1%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that Child status, the number of tumor foci, tumor type,transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) after radiation therapy were statistically significant prognostic factors.Multivariate analysis showed that the number of tumor foci and TAE after radiation therapy were statistically significant.CONCLUSION: The results of this study strongly suggest the efficacy of 3-D CRT as treatment for PVI in HCC. 3-D CRT is recommended in combination with postradiation TAE for PVI of HCC with 5 tumor foci or less in the liver and with Child A liver function.

  13. LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring), general view.

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    When the Antiproton Project was launched in the late 1970s, it was recognized that in addition to the primary purpose of high-energy proton-antiproton collisions in the SPS, there was interesting physics to be done with low-energy antiprotons. In 1982, LEAR was ready to receive antiprotons from the Antiproton Accumulator (AA), via the PS. A year later, delivery of antiprotons to the experiments began, at momenta as low as 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy 5.3 MeV), in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction" mode, dispensing some E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. For such an achievement, stochastic and electron cooling had to be brought to high levels of perfection.

  14. Clinical Opportunities in Combining Immunotherapy with Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Eric Finkelstein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical work in murine models suggests that local radiotherapy plus intratumoral syngeneic DC injection can mediate immunologic tumor eradication. Radiotherapy affects the immune response to cancer, besides the direct impact on the tumor cells, and other ways to coordinate immune modulation with radiotherapy have been explored. We review here the potential for immune mediated anticancer activity of radiation on tumors. This is mediated by antigen acquisition and presentation by dendritic cells, and through changes of lymphocytes’ activity. Recent work has implemented the combination of external beam radiation (EBRT with intratumoral injection of dendritic cells (DC. This included a pilot study of coordinated intraprostatic, autologous DC injection together with radiation therapy with five HLA-A2(+ subjects with high-risk, localized prostate cancer; the protocol used androgen suppression, external beam radiation therapy (25 fractions, 45 Gy, DC injections after fractions 5, 15, and 25, and then interstitial radioactive implant. Another was a phase II trial using neo-adjuvant cell death-inducing EBRT plus intra-tumoral DC in soft tissue sarcoma, to test if this would increase immune activity toward soft tissue sarcoma associated antigens. Clinical experience using radiation therapies combined with other systemic immune treatments are additionally surveyed, including use of investigational recombinant vaccinia and fowlpox, interleukin-2, toll like receptor 9 (TLR9 agonists and lymphocyte checkpoint inhibitors directed at PD1 and at CTLA4.

  15. BRCA1 Mutation: A Predictive Marker for Radiation Therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA repair, in particular, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, is essential for the survival of both normal and cancer cells. An elaborate repair mechanism has been developed in cells to efficiently repair the damaged DNA. The pathways predominately involved in DSB repair are homologous recombination and classic nonhomologous end-joining, although the alternative NHEJ pathway, a third DSB repair pathway, could also be important in certain contexts. The protein of BRCA1 encoded by the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 regulates all DSB repair pathways. Given that DSBs represent the most biologically significant lesions induced by ionizing radiation and that impaired DSB repair leads to radiation sensitivity, it has been expected that cancer patients with BRCA1 mutations should benefit from radiation therapy. However, the clinical data have been conflicting and inconclusive. We provide an overview about the current status of the data regarding BRCA1 deficiency and radiation therapy sensitivity in both experimental models and clinical investigations. In addition, we discuss a strategy to potentiate the effects of radiation therapy by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, the pharmacologic drugs being investigated as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with BRCA1/2 mutations

  16. BRCA1 Mutation: A Predictive Marker for Radiation Therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Charlene; Zhang, Junran, E-mail: Junran.zhang@case.edu

    2015-10-01

    DNA repair, in particular, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, is essential for the survival of both normal and cancer cells. An elaborate repair mechanism has been developed in cells to efficiently repair the damaged DNA. The pathways predominately involved in DSB repair are homologous recombination and classic nonhomologous end-joining, although the alternative NHEJ pathway, a third DSB repair pathway, could also be important in certain contexts. The protein of BRCA1 encoded by the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 regulates all DSB repair pathways. Given that DSBs represent the most biologically significant lesions induced by ionizing radiation and that impaired DSB repair leads to radiation sensitivity, it has been expected that cancer patients with BRCA1 mutations should benefit from radiation therapy. However, the clinical data have been conflicting and inconclusive. We provide an overview about the current status of the data regarding BRCA1 deficiency and radiation therapy sensitivity in both experimental models and clinical investigations. In addition, we discuss a strategy to potentiate the effects of radiation therapy by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, the pharmacologic drugs being investigated as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with BRCA1/2 mutations.

  17. Evaluation of neutron radiation field in carbon ion therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun-Kui; Su, You-Wu; Li, Wu-Yuan; Yan, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xi-Meng; Mao, Wang; Pang, Cheng-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Carbon ions have significant advantages in tumor therapy because of their physical and biological properties. In view of the radiation protection, the safety of patients is the most important issue in therapy processes. Therefore, the effects of the secondary particles produced by the carbon ions in the tumor therapy should be carefully considered, especially for the neutrons. In the present work, the neutron radiation field induced by carbon ions was evaluated by using the FLUKA code. The simulated results of neutron energy spectra and neutron dose was found to be in good agreement with the experiment data. In addition, energy deposition of carbon ions and neutrons in tissue-like media was studied, it is found that the secondary neutron energy deposition is not expected to exceed 1% of the carbon ion energy deposition in a typical treatment.

  18. Patterns of Failure for Pediatric Glioblastoma Multiforme Following Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabason, Jacob E; Sutton, David; Kenton, Owen; Guttmann, David M; Lustig, Robert A; Hill-Kayser, Christine

    2016-08-01

    Despite aggressive multimodal therapy for pediatric glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), patient survival remains poor. This retrospective review of patients with GBM aims to evaluate the patterns of failure after radiation therapy (RT). The study included 14 pediatric patients treated with RT at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from 2007 to 2015. With a median follow-up of 16.9 months, 13 (92.9%) developed recurrent disease. Of recurrences, nine (69.2%) were in-field, three (23.1%) were marginal, and one (7.7%) was distant. The majority of patients treated with adjuvant radiation failed in the region of high-dose RT, indicating the need for improvements in local therapy. PMID:27128519

  19. Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Shochet, Melvyn J.

    1995-01-01

    Comment: Summary of the 10th Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics, Fermilab, May 9-13, 1995. Postscript file (34 pages with 82 embedded figures; 5.7 MB) available at http://www-cdf.fnal.gov/physics/conf95/cdf3225_pbarp_wkshp_summary.ps

  20. Physics at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2013-01-01

    The Antiproton Decelerator of CERN began operation in 1999 to serve experiments for studies of CPT invariance by precision laser and microwave spectroscopy of antihydrogen ($\\bar{\\rm H}$) and antiprotonic helium ($\\bar{p}{\\rm He}^+$). The first 12 years of operation saw cold $\\bar{\\rm H}$ synthesized by overlapping clouds of positrons ($e^+$) and antiprotons ($\\bar{p}$) confined in magnetic Penning traps. Cold $\\bar{\\rm H}$ was also produced in collisions between Rydberg positronium atoms and $\\bar{p}$. Ground-state $\\bar{\\rm H}$ was later trapped for up to $\\sim 1000$ s in a magnetic bottle trap, and microwave transitions excited between its hyperfine levels. In the $\\bar{p}{\\rm He}^+$ atom, UV transitions were measured to a precision of (2.3-5) $\\times$ $10^{-9}$ by sub-Doppler two-photon laser spectroscopy. From this the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio was determined as $M_{\\bar{p}}/m_e=$1836.1526736(23), which agrees with the p value. Microwave spectroscopy of $\\bar{p}{\\rm He}^+$ yielded a measurement o...

  1. Gastrointestinal Toxicities With Combined Antiangiogenic and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollom, Erqi L.; Deng, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Pai, Reetesh K. [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Brown, J. Martin; Giaccia, Amato; Loo, Billy W.; Shultz, David B.; Le, Quynh Thu; Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Combining the latest targeted biologic agents with the most advanced radiation technologies has been an exciting development in the treatment of cancer patients. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an ablative radiation approach that has become established for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, and it has been increasingly used in combination with biologic agents, including those targeting angiogenesis-specific pathways. Multiple reports have emerged describing unanticipated toxicities arising from the combination of SBRT and angiogenesis-targeting agents, particularly of late luminal gastrointestinal toxicities. In this review, we summarize the literature describing these toxicities, explore the biological mechanism of action of toxicity with the combined use of antiangiogenic therapies, and discuss areas of future research, so that this combination of treatment modalities can continue to be used in broader clinical contexts.

  2. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Primary Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-min Wang

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been used to treat primary brain tumors as standard primary and/or adjunctive therapies for decades. It is difficult for conventional radiotherapy to deliver a lethal dose of radiation to the tumors while sparing surrounding normal brain due to complicated structures and multifunction in human brain. With the understanding of radiation physics and computer technology, a number of novel and more precise radiotherapies have been developed in recent years. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of these strategies. The use of IMRT in the treatment of primary brain tumors is being increasing nowadays. It shows great promise for some of primary brain tumors and also presents some problems, This review highlights current IMRT in the treatment of mainly primary brain tumors.

  3. Sensitometry in diagnostic radiology, radiation therapy, and nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haus, A.G.; Rossmann, K.; Vyborny, C.; Hoffer, P.B.; Doi, K.

    The purpose of this paper is to present a tutorial discussion on the sensitometric methods employed for determining the characteristic curve of interest in diagnostic radiology, radiation therapy, and nuclear medicine. These methods are based on the way in which various recording systems are exposed in practice. In diagnostic radiology, an inverse-square sensitometer is used for measurements of the characteristic curves of conventional film and screen-film systems. In radiation therapy, a sensitometric technique can be used for the determination of the proper characteristic curve for a film which can be placed beneath the patient before radiation treatment and removed afterwards so that an image of the anatomy actually irradiated is obtained. In nuclear medicine, a sensitometric study served as a means of evaluating several radiographic films for imaging of the light output on an oscilloscope when the Anger camera is used.

  4. Backgrounds of computer-assisted treatment planning in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of ionising radiation and living materials causes biological damage of tempory or permanent nature. In radiation therapy this phenomenon is used in a controlled fashion in order to stop the proliferation of malignant cells, while at the same time limiting the permanent damage to healthy tissues and organs to at least tolerable levels. Because of the often relatively small differences in response of malignant growths and normal tissues, the margins between tolerable and intolerable are so small that the greatest precision in treatment planning and execution is required. The nature of this treatment agent implies that the radiation therapist has to rely very much on instrumentally obtained and processed information, in all phases of this medical activities around the patient. In this paper a description is given of the backgrounds of computer-assisted methods which have enabled modern individualised and optimised planning for therapy with high energy X- and gamma beams. (orig.)

  5. Study on neutron radiation field of carbon ions therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jun-Kui; Li, Wu-Yuan; Yan, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xi-Meng; Mao, Wang; Pang, Cheng-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ions offer significant advantages for deep-seated local tumors therapy due to their physical and biological properties. Secondary particles, especially neutrons caused by heavy ion reactions should be carefully considered in treatment process and radiation protection. For radiation protection purposes, the FLUKA Code was used in order to evaluate the radiation field at deep tumor therapy room of HIRFL in this paper. The neutron energy spectra, neutron dose and energy deposition of carbon ion and neutron in tissue-like media was studied for bombardment of solid water target by 430MeV/u C ions. It is found that the calculated neutron dose have a good agreement with the experimental date, and the secondary neutron dose may not exceed one in a thousand of the carbon ions dose at Bragg peak area in tissue-like media.

  6. Protection Strategy of Sensitive Body Organs in Radiation Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Abolfath, Ramin M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate protection strategies of sensitive body anatomy against the irradiation to the cancerous moving tumors in intensity modulated radiation therapy. Inspired by optimization techniques developed in statistical physics and dynamical systems, we deploy a method based on variational principles and formulate an efficient genetic algorithm which enable us to search for global minima in a complex landscape of irradiation dose delivered to the radiosensitive organs at risk. We take advantage of the internal motion of body anatomy during radiation therapy to reduce the unintentional delivery of the radiation to sensitive organs. We show that the accurate optimization of the control parameters, compare to the conventional IMRT and widely used delivery based on static anatomy assumption, leads to a significant reduction of the dose delivered to the organs at risk.

  7. Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation

  8. Salvage radiation therapy following radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ervandian, Maria; Høyer, Morten; Petersen, Stine Elleberg;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this observational cohort study was to evaluate the outcome and prognostic factors following salvage radiotherapy (SRT) in a consecutive national cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2006 and 2010, 259 patients received SRT in Denmark. Patient- and cancer-related chara......BACKGROUND: The purpose of this observational cohort study was to evaluate the outcome and prognostic factors following salvage radiotherapy (SRT) in a consecutive national cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2006 and 2010, 259 patients received SRT in Denmark. Patient- and cancer.......0%. Nearly half of the patients (44%) received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in combination with SRT. Positive surgical tumour margins (p = 0.025) and ADT (p = 0.001) were the only markers independently correlated with b-PFS. In patients who received SRT without ADT, both a pre-SRT PSA level ≤0.5 ng...

  9. Clinical trial experience using erythropoietin during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncologists have several reasons for trying to maintain or increase hemoglobin levels in their patients during therapy. Relief of the symptoms of anemia, including fatigue and dyspnea, are traditional, well-accepted indications. A newer rationale is to enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy in controlling tumors. A laboratory animal study found that administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) increased intratumoral median oxygen levels and diminished the proportion of measurements in the very low (<3 mm Hg) range. Hemoglobin level is a strong independent prognostic factor for tumor control by radiation therapy. The hemoglobin level at the end of radiation therapy is a stronger prognostic factor than is the hemoglobin level at the start of therapy. Numerous clinical trials have utilized rHuEPO during radiation with or without concurrent chemotherapy. All 4 trials which enrolled patients with low hemoglobin levels (<12 to 13.5 g/dl) found that rHuEPO significantly increased hemoglobin within 2 weeks and that hemoglobin levels continued to rise until the end of rHuEPO treatment. rHuEPO was efficacious in limiting the decrease in hemoglobin and use of packed red blood cell transfusion in the one reported trial in which it was used in patients with initially normal hemoglobin levels during intensive concurrent radiation and chemotherapy. One trial found a statistically significant improvement in complete pathologic response rate after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with the use of rHuEPO. rHuEPO has a potentially large role to play in the care of the cancer patient. (orig.)

  10. The Results of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Despite apparently complete resection of cancer of the rectum, local recurrence rate was high. Radiation therapy has been used either alone or in combination with chemotherapy as an adjunct to surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic factors, survival rate and local recurrence rate of the rectal cancer who had received postoperative radiation therapy by retrospective analysis. Method: From 1982 to 1990, 63 patients with cancer of the rectum surgically staged as B2 or C disease received postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy after curative resection of tumor for cure. Postoperative radiation therapy was given to the whole pelvis (mean dose: 5040 cGy in 5-6weeks) and perineum was included in irradiated field in case of abdominoperineal resection. Results: Three-year actuarial survival rate was 73.2% overall, 87.7% in stage B2+3 and 62.9% in stage C2+3. Three-year disease-free survival rate was 69.5% overall, 87.7% in stage B2+3 and 56.8% in stage C2+3. Three-year disease-free survival rate in anterior resection was 77.8% and 44.4% in abdominoperineal resection. The local recurrence rate was 15.9% and distant failure rate was 20.6%. Severe late complication was small bowel obstruction in 6 patients and surgery was required in 4 patients (6.3%). The prognostic factors were stage (p=0.0221) and method of surgery(p=0.0414) (anterior resection vs abdominoperineal resection). Conclusion: This study provides evidence supporting the use of postoperative radiation therapy for reducing the local recurrence rate in patients who have had curative resection of rectal cancer with involvement of perirectal fat or regional nodes or both (stage B2 and C)

  11. The Results of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    Purpose: Despite apparently complete resection of cancer of the rectum, local recurrence rate was high. Radiation therapy has been used either alone or in combination with chemotherapy as an adjunct to surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic factors, survival rate and local recurrence rate of the rectal cancer who had received postoperative radiation therapy by retrospective analysis. Method: From 1982 to 1990, 63 patients with cancer of the rectum surgically staged as B2 or C disease received postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy after curative resection of tumor for cure. Postoperative radiation therapy was given to the whole pelvis (mean dose: 5040 cGy in 5-6weeks) and perineum was included in irradiated field in case of abdominoperineal resection. Results: Three-year actuarial survival rate was 73.2% overall, 87.7% in stage B2+3 and 62.9% in stage C2+3. Three-year disease-free survival rate was 69.5% overall, 87.7% in stage B2+3 and 56.8% in stage C2+3. Three-year disease-free survival rate in anterior resection was 77.8% and 44.4% in abdominoperineal resection. The local recurrence rate was 15.9% and distant failure rate was 20.6%. Severe late complication was small bowel obstruction in 6 patients and surgery was required in 4 patients (6.3%). The prognostic factors were stage (p=0.0221) and method of surgery(p=0.0414) (anterior resection vs abdominoperineal resection). Conclusion: This study provides evidence supporting the use of postoperative radiation therapy for reducing the local recurrence rate in patients who have had curative resection of rectal cancer with involvement of perirectal fat or regional nodes or both (stage B2 and C)

  12. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: To analyze the feasibility of high dose assessing acute and late toxicities both rectal and genitourinary in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Material and methods: Between April 2006 and April 2008 90 patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with MRT technique in the Department of Radiotherapy. The analysis included 80 patients, 10 of them in treatment. The total dose received was 80 Gy. One patient received 70.2 Gy (because of previous pelvic radiotherapy). Age average: 65 (r 43-85 years). Stage: T1c: 43 p (53.75%), T2: 35 p (43.75%), T3: 1 p (1.25%). Score of Gleason 10 ng/ml and < ng / ml: 7 (8.75%). Hormone therapy: 34 p (42.5%). Results: Acute rectal toxicity: grade 0: 46 p (57.5%), grade 1: 23 p (28.75%), grade 2: 9 p (11.25%), grade 3: 1 p (1.25%). Acute genitourinary toxicity: Grade 0: 26 p (32.5%) Grade 1: 36 p (45%), Grade 2: 17 p (21.25%), Grade 3: 1 p (1.25%). Chronic toxicity (RTOG) (considering patients evaluated more than 6 months after the end of treatment): 19 patients showed no rectitis and 1 patient had mild symptoms. Urethritis: 19 patients had no symptoms, 1 patient grade 1. The PSA pretreatment average: 9.5 ng / ml (80 p). One month after treatment: 4.6 ng / ml. With an average follow-up of 8 m (r 2-22), there were no biochemical recurrence. One patient had bone metastases one year after the end of the treatment. No deaths for prostate cancer were noticed. Conclusions: IMRT is a safe and effective therapy with more precision than the 3D-CRT, which allows increase the dose without increasing the risk of complications. (authors)

  13. [Stereotactic body radiation therapy for spinal metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, D; Martinage, G; Mirabel, X; Lacornerie, T; Makhloufi, S; Faivre, J-C; Thureau, S; Lartigau, É

    2016-10-01

    After the liver and lungs, bones are the third most common sites of cancer metastasis. Palliative radiotherapy for secondary bone tumours helps relieve pain, improve the quality of life and reduce the risk of fractures. Stereotactic body radiotherapy can deliver high radiation doses with very tight margins, which has significant advantages when treating tumours close to the spinal cord. Strict quality control is essential as dose gradient at the edge of the spinal cord is important. Optimal schedule is not defined. A range of dose-fractionation schedules have been used. Pain relief and local control are seen in over 80%. Toxicity rates are low, although vertebral fracture may occur. Ongoing prospective studies will help clarify its role in the management of oligometastatic patients. PMID:27614511

  14. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Spinal Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A. [Mayo Medical School, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Stauder, Michael C.; Miller, Robert C.; Bauer, Heather J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Rose, Peter S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Olivier, Kenneth R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Brinkmann, Debra H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Laack, Nadia N., E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Based on reports of safety and efficacy, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of malignant spinal tumors was initiated at our institution. We report prospective results of this population at Mayo Clinic. Materials and Methods: Between April 2008 and December 2010, 85 lesions in 66 patients were treated with SBRT for spinal metastases. Twenty-two lesions (25.8%) were treated for recurrence after prior radiotherapy (RT). The mean age of patients was 56.8 {+-} 13.4 years. Patients were treated to a median dose of 24 Gy (range, 10-40 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). Radiation was delivered with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and prescribed to cover 80% of the planning target volume (PTV) with organs at risk such as the spinal cord taking priority over PTV coverage. Results: Tumor sites included 48, 22, 12, and 3 in the thoracic, lumbar, cervical, and sacral spine, respectively. The mean actuarial survival at 12 months was 52.2%. A total of 7 patients had both local and marginal failure, 1 patient experienced marginal but not local failure, and 1 patient had local failure only. Actuarial local control at 1 year was 83.3% and 91.2% in patients with and without prior RT. The median dose delivered to patients who experienced local/marginal failure was 24 Gy (range, 18-30 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). No cases of Grade 4 toxicity were reported. In 1 of 2 patients experiencing Grade 3 toxicity, SBRT was given after previous radiation. Conclusion: The results indicate SBRT to be an effective measure to achieve local control in spinal metastases. Toxicity of treatment was rare, including those previously irradiated. Our results appear comparable to previous reports analyzing spine SBRT. Further research is needed to determine optimum dose and fractionation to further improve local control and prevent toxicity.

  15. Complementary strategies for the management of radiation therapy side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Christine E; Valero, Meighan

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu-puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc-yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera-pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  16. Pulmonary function tests after radiation therapy following pneumonectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is often necessary after pneumonectomy, either immediately or due to local cancer recurrence. High radiation doses represent a challenge due to the limited tolerance of the necessity of preserving and protecting the remaining lung parenchyma. The use of CT scan based-treatment planning allows delivery of high radiation doses. To evaluate the radiation tolerance of the lung after high radiation dose, we compared pulmonary function tests performed before surgery and after radiation therapy. Ten male patients (mean age, 56 years old; age range, 45-73) were irradiated after pneumonectomy for lung cancer. All patients had a CT scan-based treatment planning. The mean radiation dose was 56 Gy (45-66 Gy) delivered with a linear accelerator and multiple complex fields. Two or more sets of pulmonary function tests were available (before surgery and 2 to 6 months after radiation). No patient developed clinical radiation pneumonitis and most of the patients had a minimal para-mediastinal fibrosis at CT scan. Postirradiation pulmonary lung tests were compared to the theoretical values of the estimated defect observed after pneumonectomy. No significant decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1s/inspiratory vital capacity (FEV1/IVC) was observed in ten evaluable patients; the observed values were comparable to those expected after pneumonectomy without irradiation (FEV1/IVC: 61 to 100%), showing that irradiation did not alter pulmonary function. Computerized tomography-based treatment planning and the use of complex beam positioning allowed optimal lung parenchymal preservation. Through this procedure, high doses of radiation can be delivered to the mediastinum and bed tumor. Comparison of pulmonary function tests performed before surgery and after radiation showed no alteration of lung function, even after high doses. Optimal tools required for the evaluation of radiation on lung parenchyma are still to be defined. (authors)

  17. Radiation therapy in the treatment of aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, K D; Suit, H D

    1984-11-15

    Twenty-five patients with aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid tumors) have been treated or followed in the Department of Radiation Medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1972 and 1982. Seventeen patients were treated by radiation, 4 for primary and 13 for recurrent disease. Seven patients were treated in conjunction with surgery. Partial or complete regression was achieved in 76%, and 59% are without evidence of disease (NED) at 9 to 94 months follow-up. Eight of ten patients treated primarily with radiation have achieved complete response without an attempt at resection (five) or have achieved stabilization (three) of their disease after some regression. Consistent complete control was seen with doses above 60 Gy. Periods to 27 months were required to observe complete responses. Only three failures within the radiation field were observed, two after low doses (22 and 24 Gy, respectively). Eight patients were seen after resection but with uncertain or histologically minimum positive margins, and were followed regularly and not treated. One patient has failed to date and is NED after resection. Radiation therapy is recommended in those situations where wide-field resection without significant morbidity is not possible for gross local disease. If minimally positive margins exist after resection in a patient who may be followed carefully, frequent follow-up and prompt treatment at recurrence may be an effective alternative to immediate radiation therapy.

  18. Some computer graphical user interfaces in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James C L

    2016-03-28

    In this review, five graphical user interfaces (GUIs) used in radiation therapy practices and researches are introduced. They are: (1) the treatment time calculator, superficial X-ray treatment time calculator (SUPCALC) used in the superficial X-ray radiation therapy; (2) the monitor unit calculator, electron monitor unit calculator (EMUC) used in the electron radiation therapy; (3) the multileaf collimator machine file creator, sliding window intensity modulated radiotherapy (SWIMRT) used in generating fluence map for research and quality assurance in intensity modulated radiation therapy; (4) the treatment planning system, DOSCTP used in the calculation of 3D dose distribution using Monte Carlo simulation; and (5) the monitor unit calculator, photon beam monitor unit calculator (PMUC) used in photon beam radiation therapy. One common issue of these GUIs is that all user-friendly interfaces are linked to complex formulas and algorithms based on various theories, which do not have to be understood and noted by the user. In that case, user only needs to input the required information with help from graphical elements in order to produce desired results. SUPCALC is a superficial radiation treatment time calculator using the GUI technique to provide a convenient way for radiation therapist to calculate the treatment time, and keep a record for the skin cancer patient. EMUC is an electron monitor unit calculator for electron radiation therapy. Instead of doing hand calculation according to pre-determined dosimetric tables, clinical user needs only to input the required drawing of electron field in computer graphical file format, prescription dose, and beam parameters to EMUC to calculate the required monitor unit for the electron beam treatment. EMUC is based on a semi-experimental theory of sector-integration algorithm. SWIMRT is a multileaf collimator machine file creator to generate a fluence map produced by a medical linear accelerator. This machine file controls

  19. Anaemia and radiation therapy; Anemie et radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, F. [Clinique d' Oncologie et de Radiotherapie, INSERM U619, 37 - Tours (France); Lartigau, E. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2004-11-01

    Anaemia is frequent in cancer and may increase tumour hypoxia that stimulates angiogenesis. However, erythropoietin is a hypoxia-inducible stimulator of erythropoiesis which seems to improve quality of life in cancer patients. Two recent phase III randomized studies showed negative results using erythropoietin in head and neck cancer patients and in metastatic breast cancer patients with impaired specific survival. In vitro and in vivo experiments have provided erythropoietin-receptor expression in endothelial cancer cells including malignant tumours of the breast, prostate, cervix, lung, head and neck, ovary, melanoma, stomach, gut, kidney etc. Biologic effect of erythropoietin and its receptor linkage induces proliferation of human breast cancer and angiogenesis and may limit anti-tumour effect of cancer treatment, in part, by tumour vascularization improvement. In addition, the use of exogenous erythropoietin could be able to favour tumour progression by improving tumour oxygenation and nutriment supply. If erythropoietin receptor were functional in human cancer. the assessment of erythropoietin receptor expression on tumour cell may help to select patients benefiting from exogenous erythropoietin. However. the relationship between erythropoietin receptor expression, tumour growth and exogenous erythropoietin. requires more studies. The results of recent clinical trials suggest that using erythropoietin should be avoided in non-anemic patients and discussed in patients receiving curative therapy. (authors)

  20. Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio of radiation therapy after pneumonectomy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouette, R.; Causse, N.; Elkhadri, M.; Caudry, M.; Maire, J.P.; Houlard, J.P.; Racaldini, L.; Demeaux, H.

    1995-12-01

    Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy would allow to decrease the normal tissue dose while maintaining the same target dose as standard treatment. To evaluate the feasibility of normal tissue dose reduction for ten patients with pneumonectomy for lung cancer, we determined the dose distribution to the normal tissue with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-DCRT) and conventional treatment planning (CTP). Dose-volume histograms for target and normal tissue (lung, heart) were used for comparison of the different treatment planning. The mean percentages of lung and heart volumes which received 40 Gy with 3-DCRT were respectively 63% and 37% of the mean percentage of lung and volumes which received the same dose with CTP. These preliminary results suggest that conformal therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing risk to normal tissue.

  1. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Radiation Therapy: Review of Evidence and Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Dawson, Laura A., E-mail: laura.dawson@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of global cancer death. Curative therapy is not an option for most patients, often because of underlying liver disease. Experience in radiation therapy (RT) for HCC is rapidly increasing. Conformal RT can deliver tumoricidal doses to focal HCC with low rates of toxicity and sustained local control in HCC unsuitable for other locoregional treatments. Stereotactic body RT and particle therapy have been used with long-term control in early HCC or as a bridge to liver transplant. RT has also been effective in treating HCC with portal venous thrombosis. Patients with impaired liver function and extensive disease are at increased risk of toxicity and recurrence. More research on how to combine RT with other standard and novel therapies is warranted. Randomized trials are also needed before RT will be generally accepted as a treatment option for HCC. This review discusses the current state of the literature and opportunities for future research.

  2. Late neuro endocrinological sequelae of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) is included in the treatment field in children and adults, a variety of neuroendocrine disturbances are more common than has been appreciated in the past. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands usually occurs months to years after treatment, and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. Primary brain tumors represent the largest group of malignant solid tumors in children. The survival rates of 50 reported in the literature are achieved at the expense of late occurring effects. Radiation-induced abnormalities are generally dose-dependent. Growth hormone deficiency and premature sexual development can occur at doses as low as 18 Gy in conventional fractionation, and is the most common neuroendocrine problem in children. In patients treated with > 40 Gy on the HPA, deficiency of gonadotropins, thyroid stimulation hormone, and adrenocorticotropin (> 50 Gy), hyperprolactinemia can be seen, especially among young women. Most neuroendocrine disturbances that develop as a result of HPA can be treated efficiently, provided that an early detection of these endocrine dysfunctions abnormalities is done. (authors)

  3. Computer calculations in interstitial seed therapy: I. Radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interstitial seed therapy computers can be used for radiation treatment planning and for dose control after implantation. In interstitial therapy with radioactive seeds there are much greater differences between planning and carrying out radiation treatment than in teletherapy with cobalt-60 or X-rays. Because of the short distance between radioactive sources and tumour tissue, even slight deviations from the planned implantation geometry cause considerable dose deviations. Furthermore, the distribution of seeds in an actual implant is inhomogeneous. During implantation the spatial distribution of seeds cannot be examined exactly, though X-rays are used to control the operation. The afterloading technique of Henschke allows a more exact implantation geometry, but I have no experience of this method. In spite of the technical difficulty of achieving optimum geometry, interstitial therapy still has certain advantages when compared with teletherapy: the dose in the treated volume can be kept smaller than in teletherapy, the radiation can be better concentrated in the tumour volume, the treatment can be restricted to one or two operations, and localized inoperable tumours may be cured more easily. The latter may depend on an optimal treatment time, a relatively high tumour dose and a continuous exponentially decreasing dose rate during the treatment time. A disadvantage of interstitial therapy is the high personnel dose, which may be reduced by the afterloading technique of Henschke (1956). However, the afterloading method requires much greater personnel and instrumental expense than free implantation of radiogold seeds and causes greater trauma for the patient

  4. Postoperative radiation therapy for grade II and III intracranial ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine the long-term outcome of intracranial ependymoma patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. Methods and materials: Sixty patients were treated at our institution between 1964 and 2000. Forty patients had World Health Organization Grade II ependymoma, and 20 patients had Grade III ependymoma. The median patient age was 10.7 years. The majority of patients were male (55%), had infratentorial tumors (80%), and had subtotal resections (72%). Postoperative radiation therapy was delivered to all patients to a median total dose of 50.4 Gy. Craniospinal radiation therapy was used in the earlier era in only 12 patients (20%). Results: The median follow-up of surviving patients was 12.5 years. The 5-year and 10-year disease-free survival rates for all patients were 58.4% and 49.5%, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates for all patients were 71.2% and 55.0%, respectively. Supratentorial tumor location was independently associated with a worse disease-free survival. Subtotal resection and supratentorial location predicted a worse overall survival, but this failed to reach statistical significance. No statistically significant effect on prognosis was observed with tumor grade, patient age, or radiation dose or volume. Conclusion: Our long-term follow-up indicates that half of ependymoma patients will have disease recurrences, indicating the need for more effective treatments

  5. Vitamin A as an adjunct to radiation therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a series of animal experiments supplemental Vitamin A (Vit. A) has been found to enhance the effectiveness of irradiation in tumor therapy in several ways: 1. By direct potentiation of radiation effects as manifested by hastening of tumor regression and lessening of metastatic spread. 2. By exerting a protective action against toxicity induced by therapeutic exposure to radiation as expressed by a) moderation of depletion of blood elements (i.e. leucopenia, thrombocytopenia) b) minimizing of damage to mucosal surfaces (i.e. radiation esophagitis) c) reduction of immunosuppression (i.e. increased rate of ''takes'' of transplanted tumors in irradiated animals) d) counteracting of carcinogenic effects (i.e. radiation-induced lymphoma). 3. By accelerating wound healing thereby shortening surgery to irradiation time in post-operative treatment. The above observations derived from their animal experiment which are described in detail suggest that Vit. A may be of value as an antineoplastic and radioprotective agent

  6. The effect of radiation therapy on hemophilic arthropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jin Oh; Hong, Seong Eon; Kim, Sang Gi; Shin, Dong Oh [School of Medicine, KyungHee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    Repetitive bleeding into the joint space is the cause of debilitative hemophilic arthropathy. To interrupt this process, we treated the hemophilic patients suffering from repetitive joint bleeding with radiation therapy. From 1997 to 2001, a total of 41 joints from 37 hemophilic arthropathy patients were treated with radiation therapy at KyungHee University Hospital. The treated joints were 35 ankles, 3 knees and 3 elbows, respectively. The age of the patients ranged from 4 to 27 years (median age: 11 years). The radiation dose ranged from 900 cGy to 2360 cGy (median dose: 900 cGy). The fraction size was 150 cGy, 180 cGy or 200 cGy. The number of bleeding in one year before and after radiotherapy was compared. There was a tendency of frequent bleeding for the patients younger than 11 ({rho} 0.051) but there was also a tendency for more improvement in this group ({rho} 0.057). The number of joint bleedings was related with joint pain ({rho} 0.012) and joint swelling ({rho} = 0.033) but not with the Arbold-Hilgartner stage ({rho} 0.739),cartilage destruction ({rho} = 0.718) and synovial hypertrophy ({rho} = 0.079). The number of bleeding was reduced in thirty-three cases, and eight cases showed no improvement after radiation therapy. The average number of bleeding in a month was 2.52 before radiotherapy, but this was reduced to 1.4 after radiotherapy ({rho} = 0.017). Radiation therapy was effective for the hemophilia patients with repetitive joint bleeding to decrease the bleeding frequency and to prevent hemophilic arthropathy.

  7. Comparison of electromagnetic and hadronic models generated using Geant 4 with antiproton dose measured in CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Tavakoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After proposing the idea of antiproton cancer treatment in 1984 many experiments were launched to investigate different aspects of physical and radiobiological properties of antiproton, which came from its annihilation reactions. One of these experiments has been done at the European Organization for Nuclear Research known as CERN using the antiproton decelerator. The ultimate goal of this experiment was to assess the dosimetric and radiobiological properties of beams of antiprotons in order to estimate the suitability of antiprotons for radiotherapy. One difficulty on this way was the unavailability of antiproton beam in CERN for a long time, so the verification of Monte Carlo codes to simulate antiproton depth dose could be useful. Among available simulation codes, Geant4 provides acceptable flexibility and extensibility, which progressively lead to the development of novel Geant4 applications in research domains, especially modeling the biological effects of ionizing radiation at the sub-cellular scale. In this study, the depth dose corresponding to CERN antiproton beam energy by Geant4 recruiting all the standard physics lists currently available and benchmarked for other use cases were calculated. Overall, none of the standard physics lists was able to draw the antiproton percentage depth dose. Although, with some models our results were promising, the Bragg peak level remained as the point of concern for our study. It is concluded that the Bertini model with high precision neutron tracking (QGSP_BERT_HP is the best to match the experimental data though it is also the slowest model to simulate events among the physics lists.

  8. Comparison of electromagnetic and hadronic models generated using Geant 4 with antiproton dose measured in CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Reiazi, Reza; Mohammadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Jabbari, Keyvan

    2015-01-01

    After proposing the idea of antiproton cancer treatment in 1984 many experiments were launched to investigate different aspects of physical and radiobiological properties of antiproton, which came from its annihilation reactions. One of these experiments has been done at the European Organization for Nuclear Research known as CERN using the antiproton decelerator. The ultimate goal of this experiment was to assess the dosimetric and radiobiological properties of beams of antiprotons in order to estimate the suitability of antiprotons for radiotherapy. One difficulty on this way was the unavailability of antiproton beam in CERN for a long time, so the verification of Monte Carlo codes to simulate antiproton depth dose could be useful. Among available simulation codes, Geant4 provides acceptable flexibility and extensibility, which progressively lead to the development of novel Geant4 applications in research domains, especially modeling the biological effects of ionizing radiation at the sub-cellular scale. In this study, the depth dose corresponding to CERN antiproton beam energy by Geant4 recruiting all the standard physics lists currently available and benchmarked for other use cases were calculated. Overall, none of the standard physics lists was able to draw the antiproton percentage depth dose. Although, with some models our results were promising, the Bragg peak level remained as the point of concern for our study. It is concluded that the Bertini model with high precision neutron tracking (QGSP_BERT_HP) is the best to match the experimental data though it is also the slowest model to simulate events among the physics lists.

  9. Gold Nanoparticles and Their Alternatives for Radiation Therapy Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Cooper

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is one of the most commonly used treatments for cancer. The dose of delivered ionizing radiation can be amplified by the presence of high-Z materials via an enhancement of the photoelectric effect; the most widely studied material is gold (atomic number 79. However, a large amount is needed to obtain a significant dose enhancement, presenting a challenge for delivery. In order to make this technique of broader applicability, the gold must be targeted, or alternative formulations developed that do not rely solely on the photoelectric effect. One possible approach is to excite scintillating nanoparticles with ionizing radiation, and then exploit energy transfer between these particles and attached dyes in a manner analogous to photodynamic therapy. Doped rare-earth halides and semiconductor quantum dots have been investigated for this purpose. However, although the spectrum of emitted light after radiation excitation is usually similar to that seen with light excitation, the yield is not. Measurement of scintillation yields is challenging, and in many cases has been done only for bulk materials, with little understanding of how the principles translate to the nanoscale. Another alternative is to use local heating using gold or iron, followed by application of ionizing radiation. Hyperthermia pre-sensitizes the tumors, leading to an improved response. Another approach is to use chemotherapeutic drugs that can radiosensitize tumors. Drugs may be attached to high-Z nanoparticles or encapsulated. This article discusses each of these techniques, giving an overview of the current state of nanoparticle-assisted radiation therapy and future directions.

  10. Gold Nanoparticles and Their Alternatives for Radiation Therapy Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel; Bekah, Devesh; Nadeau, Jay

    2014-10-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the most commonly used treatments for cancer. The dose of delivered ionizing radiation can be amplified by the presence of high-Z materials via an enhancement of the photoelectric effect; the most widely studied material is gold (atomic number 79). However, a large amount is needed to obtain a significant dose enhancement, presenting a challenge for delivery. In order to make this technique of broader applicability, the gold must be targeted, or alternative formulations developed that do not rely solely on the photoelectric effect. One possible approach is to excite scintillating nanoparticles with ionizing radiation, and then exploit energy transfer between these particles and attached dyes in a manner analogous to photodynamic therapy. Doped rare-earth halides and semiconductor quantum dots have been investigated for this purpose. However, although the spectrum of emitted light after radiation excitation is usually similar to that seen with light excitation, the yield is not. Measurement of scintillation yields is challenging, and in many cases has been done only for bulk materials, with little understanding of how the principles translate to the nanoscale. Another alternative is to use local heating using gold or iron, followed by application of ionizing radiation. Hyperthermia pre-sensitizes the tumors, leading to an improved response. Another approach is to use chemotherapeutic drugs that can radiosensitize tumors. Drugs may be attached to high-Z nanoparticles or encapsulated. This article discusses each of these techniques, giving an overview of the current state of nanoparticle-assisted radiation therapy and future directions.

  11. Advances in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy physics with intensity modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S

    2000-09-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy, a specific form of conformal radiation therapy, is currently attracting a lot of attention, and there are high expectations for this class of treatment techniques. Several new technologies are in development, but physicists are still working to improve the physical basis of radiation therapy.

  12. 21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system. 892.5050 Section 892.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...-particle radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A medical charged-particle radiation therapy...

  13. The Use of Medical Images in Planning and Delivery of Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalet, Ira J; Austin-Seymour, Mary M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors provide a survey of how images are used in radiation therapy to improve the precision of radiation therapy plans, and delivery of radiation treatment. In contrast to diagnostic radiology, where the focus is on interpretation of the images to decide if disease is present, radiation therapy quantifies the extent of the region to be treated, and relates it to the proposed treatment using a quantitative modeling system called a radiation treatment planning (RTP...

  14. Accounting for radiation quality in heavy ion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerer, A.M. [LMU, Muenchen (Germany). Radiobiological Inst.]|[Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearbiologie

    1997-09-01

    This introductory contribution outlines the need for models and their use in radiotherapy dose planning. The linear-quadratic dose relation is now predominantly used in therapy dose planning. In Section I it is linked to the earlier quantitative scheme for conventional radiotherapy. In Section II two major approaches are presented in a form that makes them comparable; the section can be read by itself, if this comparison alone is of interest. Models for therapy planning are tools, largely of empirical character; they do not need to elucidate unknown mechanisms of radiation action. The emphasis is, therefore, on the computational scheme, not on its interpretation. (orig.)

  15. Radiation therapy for the prevention of postoperative and traumatic complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishkovskij, A.N.; DudareV, A.L. (Voenno-Meditsinskaya Akademiya, Leningrad (USSR))

    1983-05-01

    An analysis of the results of radiation therapy of 587 patients with postoperative and traumatic complications has shown that special ..gamma..-therapy used at early time following trauma or surgical intervention, with the first clinical signs of an incipient inflammatory process (the so-called ''anticipating'' irradiation), makes it possible to avoid the development of serious postoperative, post-traumatic complications: wound suppuration, fistulas, secondary parotitis, postamputation pain syndrome, ''needle'' osteomyelitis, keloid cicatrix, skin graft rejection, etc. In the author opinion, this promising trend in radiotherapy of nontumorous diseases is worth a wider using in clinical practice.

  16. The radiation techniques of tomotherapy & intensity-modulated radiation therapy applied to lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhengfei; Fu, Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) plays an important role in the management of lung cancer. Development of radiation techniques is a possible way to improve the effect of RT by reducing toxicities through better sparing the surrounding normal tissues. This article will review the application of two forms of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), fixed-field IMRT and helical tomotherapy (HT) in lung cancer, including dosimetric and clinical studies. The advantages and potential disadvantages of these t...

  17. Shielding and Radiation Protection in Ion Beam Therapy Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroe, Andrew J.; Rightnar, Steven

    Radiation protection is a key aspect of any radiotherapy (RT) department and is made even more complex in ion beam therapy (IBT) by the large facility size, secondary particle spectra and intricate installation of these centers. In IBT, large and complex radiation producing devices are used and made available to the public for treatment. It is thus the responsibility of the facility to put in place measures to protect not only the patient but also the general public, occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed personnel working within the facility, and electronics installed within the department to ensure maximum safety while delivering maximum up-time.

  18. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT). They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost....../or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate...

  19. Late complications of radiation therapy for patients with malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement on the treatment of malignant lymphoma have led to prolonged survival for many patients. However, they are at risk of late complications of the disease and treatment. Impaired function due to radiation-induced injury of normal tissues, such as cardiac, pulmonary, or thyroid dysfunction, becoming manifest at few months to years after treatment. Fortunately, only a small portion of these are major complications, causing severe, or permanent disability. The frequency of secondary leukemia (AML) occurring in patients treated for malignant lymphoma is highest in those patients receiving many courses of combination chemotherapy and is low in those receiving radiation therapy alone. (author) 47 refs

  20. Occurrence of BOOP outside radiation field after tangential radiation therapy for breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamanishi, Tohru; Gohma, Iwao; Oida, Kazukiyo [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    We report three cases of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) that occurred outside the radiation field after radiation therapy using tangential fields for breast carcinoma. All patients complained of a cough between 14 and 20 weeks after completion of radiation therapy. Fever also developed in two of the three. Chest radiography and computed tomography demonstrated peripheral alveolar opacities outside the radiation field on the same side as the radiation therapy. Laboratory data showed an increased level of C-reactive protein and an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed an elevated total cell count with a very high percentage of lymphocytes. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed a histologic pattern consistent with BOOP. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in rapid clinical improvement and complete resolution of the radiographic abnormalities. This pulmonary disorder appears to be induced by radiation, especially when a tangential field is employed for breast carcinoma, though the etiology has not been fully investigated. It is important to be aware of this type of pulmonary complication in patients given radiotherapy for breast carcinoma. (author)

  1. The role of radiation therapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of patients with malignant tumors. Radiation pathological stand point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimations suggest that about 60% of all cancer patients will require some form of radiation therapy during their lifetime. Although 40 to 50% of cancer patients in Europe and the United States receive radiation therapy, only about 20% of patients with cancer in Japan undergo such treatment. This is largely due to the lack of understanding of the role of radiation therapy by many medical personnel in Japan, as well as to ''''radiation allergy'''' among many of the general population in Japan, a country that has been undergone atomic bombing. From our perspective as specialists in radiation therapy, the chronic shortage of radiation oncologist also poses a serious problem. Although there are approximately 700 hospitals throughout Japan where radiation therapy is available, no more than half this number of medical facilities have a full-time radiation oncologist. Perhaps the reason for this is that radiation therapy is perceived as unnecessary in Japan. However, it is absolutely essential. In our experience, the 5-year relative survival rate of patients with malignant tumors who have undergone radiation therapy in our clinic is 65 percent. Thus, radiation therapy has proven very useful in the treatment of malignant tumors. Moreover, better estimates of prognosis of cancer patients treated with radiation therapy are becoming possible. This article discusses the role of radiation therapy, from a radiation pathological perspective, in a multidisciplinary approach to treatment of cancer patients. I also emphasize the critical importance of training radiation oncologists who can function as part of multidisciplinary teams that care for patients with malignant tumors. (author). 50 refs

  2. Impact of dose calculation algorithm on radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Zhou; Chen; Ying; Xiao; Jun; Li

    2014-01-01

    The quality of radiation therapy depends on the ability to maximize the tumor control probability while minimizing the normal tissue complication probability.Both of these two quantities are directly related to the accuracy of dose distributions calculated by treatment planning systems.The commonly used dose calculation algorithms in the treatment planning systems are reviewed in this work.The accuracy comparisons among these algorithms are illustrated by summarizing the highly cited research papers on this topic.Further,the correlation between the algorithms and tumor control probability/normal tissue complication probability values are manifested by several recent studies from different groups.All the cases demonstrate that dose calculation algorithms play a vital role in radiation therapy.

  3. Conformal radiation therapy: technical requirements and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conformal radiation therapy represents a considerable and attractive challenge in oncology. Its aim is mainly to improve local control by increasing the dose with an acceptable rate of complications. This work overviews the world literature on this subject. The technical and theoretical requirements are highlighted. These requirements include a precise definition of the target volume by digital imaging (essentially CT scan), but also clear view of the target volume and the organs at risk, a specific collimation of the beam, 3-D dose calculations, optimization procedures, and a rigid immobilization of the patient with verification of his position. Moreover, the clinical applications of conformal radiation therapy are reviewed and discussed. (authors). 80 refs., 1 tab

  4. Approaching Oxygen-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Boris; Redler, Gage; Pelizzari, Charles; Tormyshev, Victor M; Halpern, Howard J

    2016-01-01

    The outcome of cancer radiation treatment is strongly correlated with tumor oxygenation. The aim of this study is to use oxygen tension distributions in tumors obtained using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) imaging to devise better tumor radiation treatment. The proposed radiation plan is delivered in two steps. In the first step, a uniform 50% tumor control dose (TCD50) is delivered to the whole tumor. For the second step an additional dose boost is delivered to radioresistant, hypoxic tumor regions. FSa fibrosarcomas grown in the gastrocnemius of the legs of C3H mice were used. Oxygen tension images were obtained using a 250 MHz pulse imager and injectable partially deuterated trityl OX63 (OX71) spin probe. Radiation was delivered with a novel animal intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) XRAD225Cx microCT/radiation therapy delivery system. In a simplified scheme for boost dose delivery, the boost area is approximated by a sphere, whose radius and position are determined using an EPR O2 image. The sphere that irradiates the largest fraction of hypoxic voxels in the tumor was chosen using an algorithm based on Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. We used the fraction of irradiated hypoxic volume as the true positive determinant and the fraction of irradiated normoxic volume as the false positive determinant in the terms of that analysis. The most efficient treatment is the one that demonstrates the shortest distance from the ROC curve to the upper left corner of the ROC plot. The boost dose corresponds to the difference between TCD90 and TCD50 values. For the control experiment an identical radiation dose to the normoxic tumor area is delivered.

  5. Example of an Antiproton-Nucleon Annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, O.; Chupp, W.W.; Ekspong, A.G.; Goldhaber, G.; Goldhaber, S.; Lofgren, E.J.; Segre, E.; Wiegand, C.; Amaldi, E.; Baroni,G.; Castagnoli, C.; Franzinetti, C.; Manfredini, A.

    1956-02-27

    The existence of antiprotons has recently been demonstrated at the Berkeley Bevatron by a counter experiment. The antiprotons were found among the momentum-analyzed (1190 Mev/c) negative particles emitted by a copper target bombarded by 6.2-Bev protons. Concurrently with the counter experiment, stacks of nuclear emulsions were exposed in the beam adjusted to 1090 Mev/c negative particles in an experiment designed to observe the properties of antiprotons when coming to rest. This required a 132 g/cm2 copper absorber to slow down the antiprotons sufficiently to stop them in the emulsion stack. Only one antiproton was found in stacks in which seven were expected, assuming a geometric interaction cross section for antiprotons in copper. It has now been found that the cross section in copper is about twice geometric, which explains this low yield.

  6. Antiproton source beam position system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TeV I Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system is designed to provide a useful diagnostic tool during the commissioning and operational phases of the antiproton source. Simply stated the design goal is to provide single turn position information for intensities of > 1x109 particles, and multi-turn (clocked orbit) information for beam intensities of > 1x107 particles, both with sub-millimeter resolution. It is anticipated that the system will be used during commissioning for establishing the first turn through the Debuncher and Accumulator, for aligning injection orbits, for providing information necessary to correct closed orbits, and for measuring various machine parameters (e.g. tunes, dispersion, aperture, chromaticity). During normal antiproton operation the system will be used to monitor the beam position throughout the accumulation process

  7. Wound healing after radiation therapy: Review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy is an established modality in the treatment of head and neck cancer patients. Compromised wound healing in irradiated tissues is a common and challenging clinical problem. The pathophysiology and underlying cellular mechanisms including the complex interaction of cytokines and growth factors are still not understood completely. In this review, the current state of research regarding the pathomechanisms of compromised wound healing in irradiated tissues is presented. Current and possible future treatment strategies are critically reviewed

  8. 4D PET-CT guided radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Geets, X

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous technological progress in the field of imaging and computation have been revolutionizing radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tumor biology can now be characterized by functional imaging for modifying treatment management and dose delivered in better accordance with the radiobiology of solid tumors and normal tissues. Specific radiation therapy (RT) strategies can further address the tumor motion issue, ensuring optimal tumor coverage with small safety margins.

  9. Urethral strictures after radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pra, Alan; Furrer, Marc; Thalmann, George; Spahn, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Urethral stricture after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer is a delicate problem as the decreased availability of tissue healing and the close relation to the sphincter complicates any surgical approach. We here review the pathophysiology, dosimetry, and the disease specific aspects of urethral strictures after radiotherapy. Moreover we discuss different treatment option such as direct vision internal urethrotomy as well as techniques for open reconstruction with and without tissue transfer.

  10. Radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Development, simulation and test of transition radiation detector prototypes for the compressed baryonic matter experiment at the facility for antiproton and ion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Cyrano S.H.

    2014-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the development of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. The TRD sub-detector will contribute to the global particle identification and track reconstruction of charged particles. The technical design goal for the TRD is to identify 90% electrons with a maximum pion contamination of 1%. The TRD and Ring Image CHerenkov (RICH) detector should reach a common pion rejection of 10{sup 4}, in order to measure charmonium and low-mass vector mesons. The position resolution should be between 200 and 300 μm in the anode wire direction. The most demanding aspect of the CBM TRD design is the high interaction rate of up to 10{sup 7} Hz resulting in a charged particle rate of up to 100 kHz/cm{sup 2} in the central part of the detector planes at SIS300 conditions. It is crucial to find the optimal radiator detector combination with a minimum material budget to limit scattering and background due to conversions and at the same time reach a sufficient pion rejection and position resolution. In this thesis it is confirmed that a Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) with a Xe/CO{sub 2} gas thickness of 12mm provides sufficient absorption probability for TR-photons in combination with self-supporting low density PE foam or micro-structured foil radiators. A continuous investigation aiming at an optimal wire and pad-plane geometry, as well as a minimization of the material budget between active gas and radiator has been presented in hard- and software. A minimum photon absorption cross-section of the entrance window was realized with a thermally stretched aluminized Kapton foil, glued to a G11 support grid support frame. This structure limits the mechanical deformation of the entire window to 1mm/mbar. All MWPC prototypes include two wire planes. A symmetric amplification region of 2 x (3, 3.5 or 4)mm is followed by a short drift region of 6, 5 or 4 mm. The drift region reduces the gain

  12. Carcinoma of the anal canal: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with standard conformal radiotherapy frequently experience severe acute and late toxicity reactions to the treatment area. Roohipour et al. (Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 147–53) stated a patient's tolerance of chemoradiation to be an important prediction of treatment success. A new intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for anal carcinoma cases has been developed at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre aimed at reducing radiation to surrounding healthy tissue. A same-subject repeated measures design was used for this study, where five anal carcinoma cases at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre were selected. Conformal and IMRT plans were generated and dosimetric evaluations were performed. Each plan was prescribed a total of 54 Gray (Gy) over a course of 30 fractions to the primary site. The IMRT plans resulted in improved dosimetry to the planning target volume (PTV) and reduction in radiation to the critical structures (bladder, external genitalia and femoral heads). Statistically there was no difference between the IMRT and conformal plans in the dose to the small and large bowel; however, the bowel IMRT dose–volume histogram (DVH) doses were consistently lower. The IMRT plans were superior to the conformal plans with improved dose conformity and reduced radiation to the surrounding healthy tissue. Anecdotally it was found that patients tolerated the IMRT treatment better than the three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy. This study describes and compares the planning techniques

  13. Carcinoma of the anal canal: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Charlotte; Moloney, Phillip; Mathlum, Maitham [Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Geelong Hospital, Geelong, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with standard conformal radiotherapy frequently experience severe acute and late toxicity reactions to the treatment area. Roohipour et al. (Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 147–53) stated a patient's tolerance of chemoradiation to be an important prediction of treatment success. A new intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for anal carcinoma cases has been developed at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre aimed at reducing radiation to surrounding healthy tissue. A same-subject repeated measures design was used for this study, where five anal carcinoma cases at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre were selected. Conformal and IMRT plans were generated and dosimetric evaluations were performed. Each plan was prescribed a total of 54 Gray (Gy) over a course of 30 fractions to the primary site. The IMRT plans resulted in improved dosimetry to the planning target volume (PTV) and reduction in radiation to the critical structures (bladder, external genitalia and femoral heads). Statistically there was no difference between the IMRT and conformal plans in the dose to the small and large bowel; however, the bowel IMRT dose–volume histogram (DVH) doses were consistently lower. The IMRT plans were superior to the conformal plans with improved dose conformity and reduced radiation to the surrounding healthy tissue. Anecdotally it was found that patients tolerated the IMRT treatment better than the three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy. This study describes and compares the planning techniques.

  14. Osteoradionecrosis of the skull after radiation therapy for invasive carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michaela T; Billington, Alicia; Habal, Mutaz B

    2011-09-01

    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the skull is a rare but fatal complication of radiation therapy for the treatment of head and neck malignancies. The pathogenesis of ORN follows the "3Hs Theory" proposed by Marx (J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1983;41:283-288) in which radiation induces tissue injury by causing vessel thrombosis (hypovascularity), which leads to hypoxia, and results in cell death of the skin and the underlying structure of the bony element (hypocellularity) including the deep visceral structures. This note details a patient with severe and extensive ORN of the parietooccipital region of the skull because of a large dose of radiation therapy for the treatment of an invasive basal cell carcinoma of the scalp. The patient's condition was further complicated by an extensive infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which leads to meningitis and cerebral edema as well as cerebritis. The patient was successfully treated with interdisciplinary medical and surgical aggressive therapy and radical procedures involving 4 separate trips to the operating room for an 18-month period. Success was achieved because of early clinical diagnosis of ORN, aggressive eradication of infected and necrotic tissues including the brain, and restoration of functioning and viable tissues through the use of local flaps to change an open wound to a closed wound. PMID:21959411

  15. Radiation Therapy in Malignant Tumors of the Parotid Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Dong; Park, Charn Il; Kim, Kwang Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    A retrospective analysis was performed on 55 patients with malignant parotid tumor who were treated with radiation therapy between March, 1979 and July, 1989. Of these patients, 8 patients received radiation therapy(RT) alone and 47 patients were treated with combined operation and radiation therapy(OP+RT). The follow-up period of the survivors ranged form 1 to 129 months with a median of 48 months. The common histologic types were mucoepidermoid carcinoma (25 cases), malignant mixed tumor(12 cases), adenoid cystic carcinoma(6 cases). The 5 and 10 year local control rate were 69.8% and 65.7% in all patients. In OP+RT group, prognostic factors related to local control were histologic grade, tumor size, lymph node metastasis. Resection of facial nerve did not affect the local control rate significantly(p=0.129). Distant metastasis developed in 23.6% of patients, mostly to the lung. Actuarial overall survival rate was 72.2% at 10 years and formed plateau after 5 years. Disease-free (NED) survival rate was 49.4% at 10 years and was better achieved in OP+RT group and low grade lesions. Based on our result, a well planned postoperative RT following parotidectomy is highly efficacious in controlling malignant tumors of the parotid gland and preservation of facial nerve.

  16. Role of radiation therapy in lung cancer management - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J-G; Shao, H-J; Jiang, F-E; Huang, Y-D

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Furthermore, more than 50% of lung cancer patients are found affected by distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. On the other hand, 20% of these patients are without regional spread and are good candidates for surgical operation. The remaining 30% represent an intermediate group whose tumors have metastasized up to regional lymph nodes. These remain 30% are the most appropriate candidates for radiation therapy. These patients are also called as "locally advanced lung cancer" or stage III lung cancer patients. In these patients strategy of combination therapy viz. radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy is also tried by various groups in the recent past for this better management. However, long-term survival is still poor with a 5-year survival in 5-25% of patients. During the last decades, there has been a development in radiation strategies. The present review article focuses on different approaches to optimize radiotherapy for these patients. PMID:27466995

  17. Physics with Antiprotons at PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PANDA experiment is part of the core project of the planned Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt (Germany)[1]. One major component of the upgraded accelerator complex is the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) which will provide a high quality antiproton beam in the momentum range between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. PANDA, a fixed target experiment directly implemented in the HESR, will investigate antiproton annihilations with the aim to explore fundamental questions in the cross over region of the non perturbative and the strong QCD. Due to the planned extensive physics program a multipurpose detector with a nearly complete solid angle coverage, proper particle identification over a large momentum range, and high resolution calorimetry for neutral particles is required. After an overview about the goals and the detector design of the PANDA experiment major parts of the planned physics program will be discussed, namely the meson spectroscopy and the search for exotics in the charmonium and open charm region

  18. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review

  19. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: Richard.valicenti@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California (United States); Thompson, Ian [Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Albertsen, Peter [Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goldenberg, S. Larry [Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wolf, J. Stuart [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Department of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Klein, Eric [Glickman Urological Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Faraday, Martha M. [Four Oaks, Inc (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  20. Acute and Chronic Cutaneous Reactions to Ionizing Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Fleta N; Simmons, Brian J; Wolfson, Aaron H; Nouri, Keyvan

    2016-06-01

    Ionizing radiation is an important treatment modality for a variety of malignant conditions. However, development of radiation-induced skin changes is a significant adverse effect of radiation therapy (RT). Cutaneous repercussions of RT vary considerably in severity, course, and prognosis. When they do occur, cutaneous changes to RT are commonly graded as acute, consequential-late, or chronic. Acute reactions can have severe sequelae that impact quality of life as well as cancer treatment. Thus, dermatologists should be informed about these adverse reactions, know how to assess their severity and be able to determine course of management. The majority of measures currently available to prevent these acute reactions are proper skin hygiene and topical steroids, which limit the severity and decrease symptoms. Once acute cutaneous reactions develop, they are treated according to their severity. Treatments are similar to those used in prevention, but incorporate wound care management that maintains a moist environment to hasten recovery. Chronic changes are a unique subset of adverse reactions to RT that may develop months to years following treatment. Chronic radiation dermatitis is often permanent, progressive, and potentially irreversible with substantial impact on quality of life. Here, we also review the etiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, prevention, and management of late-stage cutaneous reactions to radiotherapy, including chronic radiation dermatitis and radiation-induced fibrosis. PMID:27250839

  1. Ultra-low Energy Antiprotons at FLAIR

    OpenAIRE

    Welsch, C.; Grieser, M.; von Hahn, R; Orlov, D.; Wolf, A.; Ullrich, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Future Accelerator Facility for Beams of Ions and Antiprotons at Darmstadt will produce the highest flux of antiprotons in the world. So far it is foreseen to accelerate the antiprotons to high energies (3-15 GeV) for meson spectroscopy and other nuclear and particle physics experiments in the HESR (High Energy Storage Ring). Within the planned complex of storage rings, it is possible to decelerate the antiprotons to about 30 MeV kinetic energy, opening up the possibility to create low en...

  2. Aesthetic results following partial mastectomy and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to determine the aesthetic changes inherent in partial mastectomy followed by radiation therapy in the treatment of stage I and stage II breast cancer. A retrospective analysis of breast cancer patients treated according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project Protocol B-06 was undertaken in 57 patients from 1984 to the present. The size of mastectomy varied between 2 x 1 cm and 15 x 8 cm. Objective aesthetic outcome, as determined by physical and photographic examination, was influenced primarily by surgical technique as opposed to the effects of radiation. These technical factors included orientation of resections, breast size relative to size of resection, location of tumor, and extent and orientation of axillary dissection. Regarding cosmesis, 80 percent of patients treated in this study judged their result to be excellent or good, in comparison to 50 percent excellent or good as judged by the plastic surgeon. Only 10 percent would consider mastectomy with reconstruction for contralateral disease. Asymmetry and contour abnormalities are far more common than noted in the radiation therapy literature. Patients satisfaction with lumpectomy and radiation, however, is very high. This satisfaction is not necessarily based on objective criteria defining aesthetic parameters, but is strongly influenced by retainment of the breast as an original body part

  3. A method of estimating fetal dose during brain radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a simple method of estimating fetal dose during brain radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: An anthropomorphic phantom was modified to simulate pregnancy at 12 and 24 weeks of gestation. Fetal dose measurements were carried out using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Brain radiation therapy was performed with two lateral and opposed fields using 6 MV photons. Three sheets of lead, 5.1-cm-thick, were positioned over the phantom's abdomen to reduce fetal exposure. Linear and nonlinear regression analysis was used to investigate the dependence of radiation dose to an unshielded and/or shielded fetus upon field size and distance from field isocenter. Results: Formulas describing the exponential decrease of radiation dose to an unshielded and/or shielded fetus with distance from the field isocenter are presented. All fitted parameters of the above formulas can be easily derived using a set of graphs showing their correlation with field size. Conclusion: This study describes a method of estimating fetal dose during brain radiotherapy, accounting for the effects of gestational age, field size and distance from field isocenter. Accurate knowledge of absorbed dose to the fetus before treatment course allows for the selection of the proper irradiation technique in order to achieve the maximum patient benefit with the least risk to the fetus

  4. The Role of Postoperative Pelvic Radiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Jae Sung; Yun, Hyong Geun; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-06-15

    To evaluate the role of postoperative pelvic radiation therapy in rectal cancer, a retrospective analysis was done on 189 patients with modified Astler-Coller stages B2+3, C1, and C2+3 who were treated from February 1979 to June 1986. Forty-seven patients were staged as B2+3, 17 as C1, and 125 as C2+3. As a curative resection, 41 received low anterior resection, 143 received abdomino-perineal resection, and five received pelvic exenteration. The survival and disease-free survival rates of the total patients at five year were 45.3% and 44.1%, respectively. The stage was an important prognostic factor for survival and disease-free survival: the survival rates at five year were 55.7% in B2+3, 65.7% in C1, and 36.4% in C2+3, respectively (p<0.01). The liver was the most frequently involved organ of recurrence followed by the lung and the perineum. The patients who received low anterior resection achieved better disease-free survival but were more prone to late radiation bowel morbidities than those who received abdominoperineal resection. Postoperative pelvic radiation therapy proved to be effective in locoregional disease control but did not prevent the appearance of distant metastasis, which was of major concern in advanced stages. Patterns of treatment failure, and factors relating to radiation morbidity are discussed, and therapeutic options for better results are proposed.

  5. The Role of Postoperative Pelvic Radiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the role of postoperative pelvic radiation therapy in rectal cancer, a retrospective analysis was done on 189 patients with modified Astler-Coller stages B2+3, C1, and C2+3 who were treated from February 1979 to June 1986. Forty-seven patients were staged as B2+3, 17 as C1, and 125 as C2+3. As a curative resection, 41 received low anterior resection, 143 received abdomino-perineal resection, and five received pelvic exenteration. The survival and disease-free survival rates of the total patients at five year were 45.3% and 44.1%, respectively. The stage was an important prognostic factor for survival and disease-free survival: the survival rates at five year were 55.7% in B2+3, 65.7% in C1, and 36.4% in C2+3, respectively (p<0.01). The liver was the most frequently involved organ of recurrence followed by the lung and the perineum. The patients who received low anterior resection achieved better disease-free survival but were more prone to late radiation bowel morbidities than those who received abdominoperineal resection. Postoperative pelvic radiation therapy proved to be effective in locoregional disease control but did not prevent the appearance of distant metastasis, which was of major concern in advanced stages. Patterns of treatment failure, and factors relating to radiation morbidity are discussed, and therapeutic options for better results are proposed

  6. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for oropharyngeal cancer: radiation dosage constraint at the anterior mandible.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Jong, J.M. de; Granzier, M.E.; Nieman, F.H.; Baat, C. de; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Because the survival of endosseous implants in irradiated bone is lower than in non-irradiated bone, particularly if the irradiation dose exceeds 50Gy, a study was carried out to assess the irradiation dose in the anterior mandible, when intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is used. The hypo

  7. Vocal changes in patients undergoing radiation therapy for glottic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.; Harrison, L.B.; Solomon, B.; Sessions, R.B. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A prospective evaluation of vocal changes in patients receiving radiation therapy for T1 and T2 (AJC) glottic carcinoma was undertaken in January 1987. Vocal analysis was performed prior to radiotherapy and at specific intervals throughout the radiation treatment program. The voicing ratio was extrapolated from a sustained vowel phonation using the Visipitch interfaced with the IBM-PC. Preliminary observations suggested three distinct patterns of vocal behavior: 1. reduced voicing ratio with precipitous improvement within the course of treatment, 2. high initial voicing ratio with reduction secondary to radiation induced edema, with rapid improvement in the voicing component after the edema subsided, and 3. fluctuating voicing ratio during and following treatment. Enrollment of new patients and a 2-year follow-up of current patients was undertaken.

  8. Local dose enhancement in radiation therapy: Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nanotechnology has boosted the use of nanoparticles in radiation therapy in order to achieve greater therapeutic ratio between tumor and healthy tissues. Gold has been shown to be most suitable to this task due to the high biocompatibility and high atomic number, which contributes to a better in vivo distribution and for the local energy deposition. As a result, this study proposes to study, nanoparticle in the tumor cell. At a range of 11 nm from the nanoparticle surface, results have shown an absorbed dose 141 times higher for the medium with the gold nanoparticle compared to the water for an incident energy spectrum with maximum photon energy of 50 keV. It was also noted that when only scattered radiation is interacting with the gold nanoparticles, the dose was 134 times higher compared to enhanced local dose that remained significant even for scattered radiation. (author)

  9. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a (60)Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Yang, Min;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating (60)Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. METHODS AND MATERIALS......: The ViewRay treatment planning system (Oakwood Village, OH) was used to create (60)Co IMRT treatment plans for 33 cancer patients with disease in the abdominal, pelvic, thorax, and head and neck regions using physician-specified patient-specific target coverage and organ at risk (OAR) objectives. Backup...... plans using a third-party linear accelerator (linac)-based planning system were also created. Plans were evaluated by attending physicians and approved for treatment. The (60)Co and linac plans were compared by evaluating conformity numbers (CN) with 100% and 95% of prescription reference doses...

  10. The new radiation protection ordinance and its consequences in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new radiation protection ordinance (StrlSchV) entails a number of additional or changed instructions. They require that personnel exposed to radiation at work be reclassified, or that personnel not exposed to radiation at work be classified as personnel exposed to radiation at work, that local dosage measurements be taken particularly in radiation therapy, in order to insure that the radiation protection areas prevailing to date can be maintained, that generally accessible areas be examined to determine whether with persons not exposed to radiation in the course of work, in the case of their prolonged presence there, 1 mSv per year is not exceeded, that instructions be put in writing, that at regular 5-year intervals the proficiency of physicians, specialists in medical physics and MTRAs be brought up to date and, that medical positions for radiooncologists be established. The stricter requirements in radiation protection are inevitably connected with greater expenditures and higher costs. These results of the new radiation protection ordinance are in direct opposition to the financial possibilities that are being restricted through budgeting and pressure on hospitals and practices to reduce costs. (orig.)

  11. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Roses, Daniel [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Speyer, James [Department of Medical Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Fenton Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: Silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  12. Radiation bronchitis in lung cancer patient treated with stereotactic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of chronic radiation bronchitis that developed in a patient with lung cancer treated with fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. A 73-year-old woman with a medically inoperable T1N0M0 adenocarcinoma of the lung was treated with stereotactic radiation therapy. By using eight non-coplanar ports, 50 Gy/5 fractions was delivered in two weeks. At four weeks, a partial response was obtained with no acute adverse reaction. She developed severe cough at six months. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed thick circumferentially coated bronchial mucosa in close proximity to the tumor site. At 12 months, follow-up study confirmed marked stenotic change in the B6 segmental bronchus without tumor progression. (author)

  13. Development, simulation and test of transition radiation detector prototypes for the compressed baryonic matter experiment at the facility for antiproton and ion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Cyrano S.H.

    2014-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the development of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. The TRD sub-detector will contribute to the global particle identification and track reconstruction of charged particles. The technical design goal for the TRD is to identify 90% electrons with a maximum pion contamination of 1%. The TRD and Ring Image CHerenkov (RICH) detector should reach a common pion rejection of 10{sup 4}, in order to measure charmonium and low-mass vector mesons. The position resolution should be between 200 and 300 μm in the anode wire direction. The most demanding aspect of the CBM TRD design is the high interaction rate of up to 10{sup 7} Hz resulting in a charged particle rate of up to 100 kHz/cm{sup 2} in the central part of the detector planes at SIS300 conditions. It is crucial to find the optimal radiator detector combination with a minimum material budget to limit scattering and background due to conversions and at the same time reach a sufficient pion rejection and position resolution. In this thesis it is confirmed that a Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) with a Xe/CO{sub 2} gas thickness of 12mm provides sufficient absorption probability for TR-photons in combination with self-supporting low density PE foam or micro-structured foil radiators. A continuous investigation aiming at an optimal wire and pad-plane geometry, as well as a minimization of the material budget between active gas and radiator has been presented in hard- and software. A minimum photon absorption cross-section of the entrance window was realized with a thermally stretched aluminized Kapton foil, glued to a G11 support grid support frame. This structure limits the mechanical deformation of the entire window to 1mm/mbar. All MWPC prototypes include two wire planes. A symmetric amplification region of 2 x (3, 3.5 or 4)mm is followed by a short drift region of 6, 5 or 4 mm. The drift region reduces the gain

  14. Imaging Changes in Pediatric Intracranial Ependymoma Patients Treated With Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Compared to Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, Jillian R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sato, Mariko; Chintagumpala, Murali [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ketonen, Leena [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jones, Jeremy Y. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Paulino, Arnold C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Okcu, M. Fatih; Su, Jack M. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Weinberg, Jeffrey [Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Boehling, Nicholas S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Khatua, Soumen [Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Adesina, Adekunle [Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Mahajan, Anita, E-mail: amahajan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes after radiation therapy (RT) in children with ependymoma is not well defined. We compared imaging changes following proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) to those after photon-based intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients with nonmetastatic intracranial ependymoma who received postoperative RT (37 PBRT, 35 IMRT) were analyzed retrospectively. MRI images were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists. Results: Sixteen PBRT patients (43%) developed postradiation MRI changes at 3.8 months (median) with resolution by 6.1 months. Six IMRT patients (17%) developed changes at 5.3 months (median) with 8.3 months to resolution. Mean age at radiation was 4.4 and 6.9 years for PBRT and IMRT, respectively (P=.06). Age at diagnosis (>3 years) and time of radiation (≥3 years) was associated with fewer imaging changes on univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, P=.048; OR: 0.36, P=.05). PBRT (compared to IMRT) was associated with more frequent imaging changes, both on univariate (OR: 3.68, P=.019) and multivariate (OR: 3.89, P=.024) analyses. Seven (3 IMRT, 4 PBRT) of 22 patients with changes had symptoms requiring intervention. Most patients were treated with steroids; some PBRT patients also received bevacizumab and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. None of the IMRT patients had lasting deficits, but 2 patients died from recurrent disease. Three PBRT patients had persistent neurological deficits, and 1 child died secondarily to complications from radiation necrosis. Conclusions: Postradiation MRI changes are more common with PBRT and in patients less than 3 years of age at diagnosis and treatment. It is difficult to predict causes for development of imaging changes that progress to clinical significance. These changes are usually self-limiting, but some require medical intervention, especially those involving the brainstem.

  15. Acute toxicity in comprehensive head and neck radiation for nasopharynx and paranasal sinus cancers: cohort comparison of 3D conformal proton therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate acute toxicity endpoints in a cohort of patients receiving head and neck radiation with proton therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Forty patients received comprehensive head and neck radiation including bilateral cervical nodal radiation, given with or without chemotherapy, for tumors of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses, any T stage, N0-2. Fourteen received comprehensive treatment with proton therapy, and 26 were treated with IMRT, either comprehensively or matched to proton therapy delivered to the primary tumor site. Toxicity endpoints assessed included g-tube dependence at the completion of radiation and at 3 months after radiation, opioid pain medication requirement compared to pretreatment normalized as equivalent morphine dose (EMD) at completion of treatment, and at 1 and 3 months after radiation. In a multivariable model including confounding variables of concurrent chemotherapy and involved nodal disease, comprehensive head and neck radiation therapy using proton therapy was associated with a lower opioid pain requirement at the completion of radiation and a lower rate of gastrostomy tube dependence by the completion of radiation therapy and at 3 months after radiation compared to IMRT. Proton therapy was associated with statistically significant lower mean doses to the oral cavity, esophagus, larynx, and parotid glands. In subgroup analysis of 32 patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy, there was a statistically significant correlation with a greater opioid pain medication requirement at the completion of radiation and both increasing mean dose to the oral cavity and to the esophagus. Proton therapy was associated with significantly reduced radiation dose to assessed non-target normal tissues and a reduced rate of gastrostomy tube dependence and opioid pain medication requirements. This warrants further evaluation in larger studies, ideally with patient-reported toxicity outcomes and quality of life

  16. Melanoma Therapy via Peptide-Targeted a-Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yubin; Hylarides, Mark; Fisher, Darrell R.; Shelton, Tiffani; Moore, Herbert A.; Wester, Dennis W.; Fritzberg, Alan R.; Winkelmann, Christopher T.; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2005-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. Current chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy regimens are ineffective agents against melanoma, as shown by a 10-year survival rate for patients with disseminated disease of approximately 5% (reference?). In this study, the unique combination of a melanoma targeting peptide and an in vivo generated a-particle emitting radioisotope was investigated for its melanoma therapy potential. Alpha-radiation is densely ionizing and energy is locally absorbed, resulting in high concentrations of destructive free radicals and irreparable DNA double strand breaks. This high linear-energy-transfer overcomes radiation resistant tumor cells and oxygen-enhancement effects. The melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH was radiolabeled with 212Pb, the parent of 212Bi, which decays via alpha and beta decay. Biodistribution and therapy studies were performed in the B16/F1 melanoma bearing C57 mouse flank tumor model. 212Pb[DOTA]-R e(Arg11)CCMSH exhibited rapid tumor uptake and extended retention coupled with rapid whole body disappearance. Radiation dose delivered to the tumor was estimated to be 61 cGy/uCi 212Pb administered. Treatment of melanoma-bearing mice with 50, 100 and 200 uCi of 212Pb[DOTA]-Re(Arg11)CCMSH extended mean survival of mice to 22, 28, and 49.8 days, respectively, compared to the 14.6 day mean survival of the placebo control group. Forty-five percent of the mice receiving 200 uCi survived the study disease-free.

  17. Radiation Therapy in Carcinoma of the Vulva A Review of Fifteen Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. S.; Oh, W. Y.; Suh, C. O.; Kim, G. E.; Park, C. K. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-06-15

    This study analyzed 15 patients who underwent a course of radiation therapy for their vulva cancer in the Yonsei Univ., from Jan., 1971 to Apr., 1985. 4 patients had initial surgery for their vulva cancer and were subsequently treated by a course of adjuvant radiation therapy. 11 patients were given radiation therapy as the initial course of therapy, and one of these was in adjuvant setting before radical surgery. The most common failure site was primary site failure.

  18. Radiation Therapy in Carcinoma of the Vulva A Review of Fifteen Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzed 15 patients who underwent a course of radiation therapy for their vulva cancer in the Yonsei Univ., from Jan., 1971 to Apr., 1985. 4 patients had initial surgery for their vulva cancer and were subsequently treated by a course of adjuvant radiation therapy. 11 patients were given radiation therapy as the initial course of therapy, and one of these was in adjuvant setting before radical surgery. The most common failure site was primary site failure

  19. Spontaneous pneumothorax as a complication of radiation therapy for primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous pneumothorax occured as a complication in out of 419 cases of primary lung cancer treated with radiation therapy during the last ten years. Two cases were seen during the course of radiation therapy with improvement of atelectasis and the 4 other cases were observed after completion of radiation therapy with radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. One of the 4 cases was treated with combined chemotherapy. Continuous suction was necessary in only 2 cases. Prognosis was unchanged by this complication. (author)

  20. Spontaneous pneumothorax as a complication of radiation therapy for primary lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, M.; Nakajima, N.; Hayakawa, K.; Okazaki, A.; Maehara, Y. (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1980-12-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax occured as a complication in 6 out of 419 cases of primary lung cancer treated with radiation therapy during the last ten years. Two cases were seen during the course of radiation therapy with improvement of atelectasis and the 4 other cases were observed after completion of radiation therapy with radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. One of the 4 cases was treated with combined chemotherapy. Continuous suction was necessary in only 2 cases. Prognosis was unchanged by this complication.

  1. Managing complications of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients: Part I. Management of xerostomia

    OpenAIRE

    W. C. Ngeow; Chai, W. L.; Rahman, R.A.; Ramli, R

    2006-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they receive radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therap...

  2. Current status of radiation therapy. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) of radiation therapy. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguchi, Masahiko; Gomi, Koutaro [Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital; Shikama, Naoto [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Hospital

    2002-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous group of lympho-proliferative disorders, mainly originating in lymphoid tissues and other extranodal organs, with different patterns of behavior. Prognosis depends on the histo-pathologic type, prognostic factors, and treatment. According to the WHO classification (2001), the NHLs are divided into two prognostic groups: the indolent lymphomas (follicular lymphoma, marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, etc.) and the aggressive lymphomas (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, etc.). Indolent NHLs have a good prognosis, with median survival as long as 10 years, and early stage (I and II) indolent NHLs can be treated with radiation therapy alone, with 70% to 90% 5-year overall survival rates. The aggressive NHLs have shorter natural histories, but the number of patients cured with intensive chemotherapy currently is increasing. In general, overall survival at 5 years is approximately 50% to 60%. Patients with stage I and contiguous stage II aggressive NHLs enjoy excellent survival rates when treated with a combined modality including chemotherapy (CHOP) and radiation therapy. The radiation dose for NHLs varies from 25 to 50 Gy and is dependent on pathologic type and the organs at risk. Radiation fields are basically limited to involved regions or extended to immediately adjacent sites. Localized presentations of extranodal NHLs can be treated with involved-field techniques with significant success. However, the long-term adverse reactions must be considered carefully. (author)

  3. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  4. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, C [Wayne State University, Grosse Pointe, MI (United States); Borras, C [Radiological Physics and Health Services, Washington, DC (United States); Carlson, D [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  5. Light at the end of the tunnel in radiation therapy: molecular imaging in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate dose delivery to malignant tissue in radiotherapy is quite important for enhancing the treatment efficacy while minimizing morbidity of surrounding normal tissues. Advances in therapeutic strategies and diagnosis technologies along with our understanding of the biology of tumor response to radiation therapy have paved way to allow nearly 60% of current cancer patients to be treated with Radiation Therapy. The confluence of molecular imaging and nanotechnology fields are bridging physics and medicine and are quickly making strides in opening new avenues and therapeutic strategies that complement radiation therapy - with a distinct footprint in immunotherapy, adoptive cell therapy, and targeted chemotherapy. Incorporating optical imaging in radiation therapy in my laboratory, we demonstrated that molecular probes can monitor radiation-induced physiological changes at the target and off-target sites using in vivo molecular imaging approaches. Further we show endogenous bioluminescence resulting from whole body irradiation, which is distinct from the Cherenkov radiation. Mice without anesthesia were held in ventilated mouse pie cage and subjected to 5 Gy X-ray irradiation using commercially available X-RAD320 irradiator (1 Gy/min; F2 beam hardening filter 1.5 mm Al, 0.25 mm Cu, 0.75 mm Sn,). The endogenous bioluminescence from the subjects was captured using cooled CCD camera. Significant increase (up to 100 fold) in the amounts of photons released as bioluminescence was detected during 5 min capture from the mice subjected to irradiation compared to that of the control. To determine the early inflammatory response, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity was monitored using L-012 (8-amino-5-chloro-7-phenylpyridol (3,4-d)pyridazine-1,4(2H,3H) dione), a chemiluminescence reporter. L-012 was administered (i.p) after 15 min of irradiation. Chemiluminescence resulting from the irradiation induced ROS activity, possible through the action of the

  6. Quasi-VMAT in high-grade glioma radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadda, G.; Massazza, G.; Zucca, S.; Durzu, S.; Meleddu, G.; Possanzini, M.; Farace, P. [Regional Oncological Hospital, Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radio-Oncology

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To compare a quasi-volumetric modulated arc therapy (qVMAT) with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. The qVMAT technique is a fast method of radiation therapy in which multiple equispaced beams analogous to those in rotation therapy are radiated in succession. Patients and methods: This study included 12 patients with a planning target volume (PTV) that overlapped at least one organ at risk (OAR). 3D-CRT was planned using 2-3 non-coplanar beams, whereby the field-in-field technique (FIF) was used to divide each field into 1-3 subfields to shield the OAR. The qVMAT strategy was planned with 15 equispaced beams and IMRT was planned using 9 beams with a total of 80 segments. Inverse planning for qVMAT and IMRT was performed by direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) to deliver a homogenous dose distribution of 60 Gy within the PTV and simultaneously limit the dose received by the OARs to the recommended values. Finally, the effect of introducing a maximum dose objective (max. dose < 54 Gy) for a virtual OAR in the form of a 0.5 cm ring around the PTV was investigated. Results: The qVMAT method gave rise to significantly improved PTV{sub 95%} and conformity index (CI) values in comparison to 3D-CRT (PTV{sub 95%} = 90.7 % vs. 82.0 %; CI = 0.79 vs. 0.74, respectively). A further improvement was achieved by IMRT (PTV{sub 95%} = 94.4 %, CI = 0.78). In qVMAT and IMRT, the addition of a 0.5 cm ring around the PTV produced a significant increase in CI (0.87 and 0.88, respectively), but dosage homogeneity within the PTV was considerably reduced (PTV{sub 95%} = 88.5 % and 92.3 %, respectively). The time required for qVMAT dose delivery was similar to that required using 3D-CRT. Conclusion: These findings suggest that qVMAT should be preferred to 3D-CRT for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. The qVMAT method could be applied in hospitals, for example

  7. Quasi-VMAT in high-grade glioma radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare a quasi-volumetric modulated arc therapy (qVMAT) with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. The qVMAT technique is a fast method of radiation therapy in which multiple equispaced beams analogous to those in rotation therapy are radiated in succession. Patients and methods: This study included 12 patients with a planning target volume (PTV) that overlapped at least one organ at risk (OAR). 3D-CRT was planned using 2-3 non-coplanar beams, whereby the field-in-field technique (FIF) was used to divide each field into 1-3 subfields to shield the OAR. The qVMAT strategy was planned with 15 equispaced beams and IMRT was planned using 9 beams with a total of 80 segments. Inverse planning for qVMAT and IMRT was performed by direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) to deliver a homogenous dose distribution of 60 Gy within the PTV and simultaneously limit the dose received by the OARs to the recommended values. Finally, the effect of introducing a maximum dose objective (max. dose 95% and conformity index (CI) values in comparison to 3D-CRT (PTV95% = 90.7 % vs. 82.0 %; CI = 0.79 vs. 0.74, respectively). A further improvement was achieved by IMRT (PTV95% = 94.4 %, CI = 0.78). In qVMAT and IMRT, the addition of a 0.5 cm ring around the PTV produced a significant increase in CI (0.87 and 0.88, respectively), but dosage homogeneity within the PTV was considerably reduced (PTV95% = 88.5 % and 92.3 %, respectively). The time required for qVMAT dose delivery was similar to that required using 3D-CRT. Conclusion: These findings suggest that qVMAT should be preferred to 3D-CRT for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. The qVMAT method could be applied in hospitals, for example, which have limited departmental resources and are not equipped with systems capable of VMAT delivery. (orig.)

  8. Implementation of MRI gel dosimetry in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeck, S.Aa.J

    1998-12-01

    Gel dosimetry was used together with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions in radiation therapy. Two different dosimeters were studied: ferrous- and monomer gel, based on the principles of radiation-induced oxidation and polymerisation, respectively. Single clinical electron and photon beams were evaluated and gel dose distributions were mainly within 2% of conventional detector results. The ferrous-gel was also used for clinical proton beams. A decrease in signal per absorbed dose was found close to the end of the range of the protons (15-20%). This effect was explained as a linear energy transfer dependence, further supported with Monte Carlo simulations. A method for analysing and comparing data from treatment planning system (TPS) and gel measurements was developed. The method enables a new pixel by pixel evaluation, isodose comparison and dose volume histogram verification. Two standard clinical radiation therapy procedures were examined using the developed TPS verification method. The treatment regimes included several beams of different radiation qualities. The TPS calculated data were in very good agreement with the dose distribution measured by the ferrous-gel. However, in a beam abutment region, larger dose difference was found. Beam adjustment errors and a minor TPS underestimation of the lateral scatter contribution outside the primary electron beam may explain the discrepancy. The overall uncertainty in the ferrous-gel dose determination was considerably reduced using an optimised MRI acquisition protocol and a new MRI scanner. The relative dose uncertainty was found to be better than 3.3% for all dose levels (95% confidence level). Using the method developed for comparing measured gel data with calculated treatment plans, the gel dosimetry method was proven to be a useful tool for radiation treatment planning verification 103 refs, 20 figs, 6 tabs

  9. The role of a prone setup in breast radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eHuppert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy (BCT receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of heart and lung within the field. The prone setup has been accepted as the best localizing position for both MRI and stereotactic biopsy, but its adoption has been delayed in radiotherapy. New technological advances including image-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT have made possible the exploration of accelerated fractionation schemes with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in the prone position, along with better imaging and verification of reproducibility of patient setup. This review describes some of the available techniques for prone breast radiotherapy and the available experience in their application. The NYU prone breast radiotherapy approach is discussed, including a summary of the results from several prospective trials.

  10. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute skin toxicity is frequent during radiation therapy and can lead to temporary arrest of the treatment. Chronic toxicity can occur and conduct to cosmetic problems. Alopecia is the most frequent toxicity concerning hair and is most of the time reversible. Several factors linked to patients influence skin toxicity, such as under-nutrition, old age, obesity, smoking, skin diseases, autoimmune diseases, failure of DNA reparation. Skin, hair and nail toxicities depend also on radiation schedule. Acute toxicity is greater when dose per fraction increases. Chronic and acute toxicities are more often when total dose increases. Under 45 Gy, the risk of severe skin toxicity is low, and begins above 50 Gy. Skin toxicity depends also on the duration of radiotherapy and split course schedules are associated with less toxicities. Irradiation surface seems to influence skin toxicity but interaction is more complex. Reirradiation is often feasible in case of cancer recurrence but with a risk of grade 3-4 toxicity above all in head and neck cancer. The benefit/risk ratio has to be always precisely evaluated. Permanent alopecia is correlated with the follicle dose. Modern techniques of radiation therapy allow to spare skin. (authors)

  11. Phantom dosimetry at 15 MV conformal radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: larissathompson@hotmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Dias, Humberto G., E-mail: fisicamedica.hl@mariopenna.org.br [Luxemburgo Hospital, Mario Penna Institute, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a tumor simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. As final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. (author)

  12. Radiation Physics and Chemistry in Heavy-ion Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura, M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy ions, such as carbon and oxygen ions, are classified as high-LET radiations, and produce a characteristic dose-depth distribution different from that of low-LET radiations such as γ-rays, xrays and electrons. Heavy ions lose less energy at the entrance to an irradiated biological system up to some depth than the low-LET radiations, while they deposit a large amount of dose within a very narrow range at a certain depth, producing the characteristic sharp peak called the Bragg peak. Therefore, by controlling the Bragg peak, it becomes possible to irradiate only the tumor region in a pin-point manner, while avoiding irradiation of the normal tissue, thus making heavyion therapy ideal for deep-seated tumor treatment. Clinical results on more than 2400 patients are very encouraging. However, very little is known about what is going on in terms of physics and chemistry inside the Bragg peak. In this paper the current status of our understanding of heavy-ion interactions and remaining problems of physics and chemistry for the heavy-ion treatment are explored, particularly in the Bragg peak region. Specially, the survey of the basic physical quantity, the mean energy required to form an ion pair (Wvalue for heavy ions of interest for radiotherapy is presented. Finally, the current clinical status of heavy-ion therapy is presented.

  13. The value of radiation therapy for pituitary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watari, Tsutomu [Dokkyo Univ., Mibu, Tochigi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-09-01

    Following points are discussed in this review. (1) Historical review of our previous therapeutic management. (2) Classification of pituitary adenomas. (3) Clinical analysis of my recent 58 cases. (4) Verification of usefulness of postoperative irradiation which achieved to increase in local control rate. (5) Authoritativeness of radiotherapy. In general, 3 to 4 portal technique or arc therapy were employed. The lateral opposing field technique was avoid to use. The recommended doses using linear accelerator x-ray technique is approximately 5000 cGy in 5 weeks. To prevent radiation hazard; (1) examiner should not use technique of two opposed fields, (2) total doses should not exceed 5000 cGy in 5 to 6 weeks and the use of daily fractions should not exceed 200 cGy. (6) Correlation of hormone secreting tumors and radiation therapy. (7) Problem of radiosurgery and heavy particle. (8) Countermeasure for recurrence cases. (9) Problem of side effects of radiotherapy and its precaution. Complication of radiation for pituitary adenoma found that the significant side effects are negligibly small in recent years. (10) Pituitary tumor are originally slow growing and benign tumor, therefore the response to irradiation takes long time to elapse for final evaluation. For instance, over 80 to 90% of acromegaly patients respond HGH successfully, but this may require from one to several years. (11) Conclusion. (author).

  14. Failure of odontogenesis after chemo-radiation therapy for rhabdomyosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Young; Hong, Sung Woo; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    This report details a case of 8-year-old girl showing failure of odontogenesis after chemo-radiation therapy for rhabdomysarcoma at the age of 4. The observed results were as follows: 1. Past history revealed that she had received for a total radiation dose od 4430 cGy, 29 fractions in 6 weeks and chemotherapy with vincristine, actinomycin D and cytoxan, followed as maintenance phase for 2 years. 2. The patient was symptom-free and appointed for the treatment of multiple dental caries. 3. Oral examination showed hypoplastic enamel on whole erupted permanent teeth and showed retarded eruption. 4. Conventional radiograms showed failure of root development including abrupt cessation of root formation and root agenesis, and microdobtia, missing teeth, irregular enamel, dislocation of the impacted teeth. Additional finding showed good healing bone pattern on the left mandibular ramus and angle area. 5. Cehalometric analysis revealed failure of bite raising due to incomplete eruption of all the first molars and made it possible to suspect entrapped mandibular growth and then Class II tendency growth. 6. There was correlation between the time of chemo-radiation therapy and the damage of the teeth.

  15. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the feasibility and the toxicity of the neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We analyzed 77 previously untreated and histologically confirmed advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy at the Seoul National University Hospital between 1984 and 1996. The stage distribution was as follows: AJCC stage 111-2, stage IV-75. Sixty-six patients received infusion of 5-FU (1000 mg/m2, on Day 1-5) and cisplatin (100 mg/m2, on Day 1), eleven patients received infusion of 5.FU (1000 mg/m2, on Day 1-5) and carboplatin (300 mg/m2, on Day 1) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radiation therapy. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 44 months. The overall chemotherapy response rates were 87%. The toxicities of chemotherapy were mild. Only 3 patients experienced Grade 3 toxicities (1 for cytopenia, 2 for nausea/vomiting). The degree of radiation induced mucositis was not severe, and ten patients developed Grade 2 mucositis. The 5-year overall survival rates were 68% and the 5-year disease free survival rates were 65%. The 5-year freedom from distant metastasis rates were 82% and 5-year locoregional control rates were 75%. This single institution experience suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves overall survival and disease free survival for patients with advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma without increase of toxicity

  16. Phantom dosimetry at 15 MV conformal radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: larissathompson@hotmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Dias, Humberto G., E-mail: fisicamedica.hl@mariopenna.org.br [Instituto Mario Penna, Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil). Hospital Luxemburgo

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a tumor simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. As final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. (author)

  17. The role of medical physics in prostate cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Seuntjens, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Medical physics, both as a scientific discipline and clinical service, hugely contributed and still contributes to the advances in the radiotherapy of prostate cancer. The traditional translational role in developing and safely implementing new technology and methods for better optimizing, delivering and monitoring the treatment is rapidly expanding to include new fields such as quantitative morphological and functional imaging and the possibility of individually predicting outcome and toxicity. The pivotal position of medical physicists in treatment personalization probably represents the main challenge of current and next years and needs a gradual change of vision and training, without losing the traditional and fundamental role of physicists to guarantee a high quality of the treatment. The current focus issue is intended to cover traditional and new fields of investigation in prostate cancer radiation therapy with the aim to provide up-to-date reference material to medical physicists daily working to cure prostate cancer patients. The papers presented in this focus issue touch upon present and upcoming challenges that need to be met in order to further advance prostate cancer radiation therapy. We suggest that there is a smart future for medical physicists willing to perform research and innovate, while they continue to provide high-quality clinical service. However, physicists are increasingly expected to actively integrate their implicitly translational, flexible and high-level skills within multi-disciplinary teams including many clinical figures (first of all radiation oncologists) as well as scientists from other disciplines. PMID:27095755

  18. Radiation Therapy for the Management of Brain Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Matthew D; Wu, Cheng-Chia; Yanagihara, Ted K; Jani, Ashish; Wang, Tony J C

    2016-08-01

    Brain metastases are the most common malignant intracranial tumors and carry a poor prognosis. The management of brain metastases may include a variety of treatment modalities including surgical resection, radiation therapy, and/or systemic therapy. The traditional treatment for brain metastasis involved whole brain irradiation. However, improved systemic control of primary cancers has led to longer survival for some groups of patients and there is increasing need to consider the late effects of radiation to the entire brain. With advances in imaging and radiation treatment planning and delivery stereotactic radiosurgery has become more frequently utilized and may be delivered through Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery or linear accelerator-based systems. Furthermore, experience in treating thousands of patients on clinical trials has led to diagnosis-specific prognostic assessment systems that help guide our approach to the management of this common clinical scenario. This review provides an overview of the literature supporting radiotherapy for brain metastasis and an update on current radiotherapeutic options that is tailored for the nonradiation oncologist. PMID:27213494

  19. Evolution and accomplishments of the radiation therapy oncology group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) recently completed its first quarter century as a cooperative clinical cancer research organization. It is timely and appropriate to document its origins, evolution, and accomplishments. Methods and Materials: The historical review of the RTOG called upon written and oral documentation. Results: The RTOG is the most enduring product of the Committee for Radiation Therapy Studies (CRTS). Although not one of the original 17 clinical trials groups developed by the National Cancer Institute in 1956, the RTOG has pursued trials suggested by laboratory findings including the oxygen effect, intrinsic radiosensitivity, proliferation kinetics of normal and tumor cells, and interactions with other cytotoxic agents. Improvements in survival have been demonstrated for patients with carcinoma of the esophagus and cervix, and nonsmall cell carcinomas of the lung. The national and international radiation oncology communities have benefited from standards and quality control/assurance guidelines for established and new modalities. A growing number of institutions in North America participate in RTOG trials. Conclusion: The RTOG is an important clinical research resource, which has contributed to improved outcome for patients with many forms of cancer. It has become increasingly productive and widely adopted and endorsed by oncologists throughout North America

  20. Strategies for quality assurance of intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late 2011 The Swedish Society of Radiation Physics formed a working group to concentrate on the Quality Assurance of modern radiation therapy techniques. The given task was to identify and summarise the different QA strategies in Sweden and also the international recommendations. This was used to formulate recommendations for practical guidelines within Sweden. In this paper a brief summery of the group's work is presented. All the Swedish radiation therapy centres do a pre treatment verification measurement as QA for every new IMRT and VMAT plan. Physicists do it and they believe it to be time consuming. A general standpoint from all the centres was that new guidelines and legislation is needed to allow QA that does not require a measurement. Based on various international publications and recommendations the working group has presented two strategies, one where all new plans are checked through measurement and one where no measurement is needed. The measurement- based strategy is basically the same as the one used today with an extended machine QA part. The other presented strategy is process oriented where all the different parts of the treatment chain are checked separately. The final report can be found in Swedish on http://www.radiofysik.org

  1. Failure of odontogenesis after chemo-radiation therapy for rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details a case of 8-year-old girl showing failure of odontogenesis after chemo-radiation therapy for rhabdomysarcoma at the age of 4. The observed results were as follows ; 1. Past history revealed that she had received for a total radiation dose od 4430 cGy, 29 fractions in 6 weeks and chemotherapy with vincristine, actinomycin D and cytoxan, followed as maintenance phase for 2 years. 2. The patient was symptom-free and appointed for the treatment of multiple dental caries. 3. Oral examination showed hypoplastic enamel on whole erupted permanent teeth and showed retarded eruption. 4. Conventional radiograms showed failure of root development including abrupt cessation of root formation and root agenesis, and microdobtia, missing teeth, irregular enamel, dislocation of the impacted teeth. Additional finding showed good healing bone pattern on the left mandibular ramus and angle area. 5. Cehalometric analysis revealed failure of bite raising due to incomplete eruption of all the first molars and made it possible to suspect entrapped mandibular growth and then Class II tendency growth. 6. There was correlation between the time of chemo-radiation therapy and the damage of the teeth.

  2. Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja; Moon, Hye Seong; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Chong Il; Ahn, Jung Ja [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy, and to investigate the prognostic factors for FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer patients who were treated with simple hysterectomy, or who had high-risk factors following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Between March 1986 and December 1998, 58 patients, with FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer were included in this study, The indications for postoperative radiation therapy were based on the pathological findings, including lymph node metastasis, positive surgical margin, parametrial extension, Iymphovascular invasion, invasion of more than half the cervical stroma, uterine extension and the incidental finding of cervix cancer following simple hysterectomy. All patients received external pelvic radiotherapy, and 5 patients, received an additional intracavitary radiation therapy. The radiation dose from the external beam to the whole pelvis was 45 - 50 Gy. Vagina cuff irradiation was performed, after completion of the external beam irradiation, al a low-dose rate of CS-137, with the total dose of 4488-4932 chy (median: 4500 chy) at 5 mm depth from the vagina surface. The median follow-up period was 44 months (15-108 months), The 5-yr actuarial local control rate, distant free survival and disease-free survival rate were 98%, 95% and 94%, respectively. A univariate analysis of the clinical and pathological parameters revealed that the clinical stage (p=0.0145), status of vaginal resection margin (p=0.0002) and parametrial extension (p=0.0001) affected the disease-free survival. From a multivariate analysis, only a parametrial extension independently influenced the disease-free survival. Five patients (9%) experienced Grade 2 late treatment-related complications, such as radiation proctitis (1 patient), cystitis (3 patients) and lymphedema of the leg (1 patient). No patient had grade 3 or 4 complications. Our results indicate that postoperative radiation therapy can

  3. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - the role of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To review the approach to the diagnosis, assessment, treatment and continuing management of patients with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with the emphasis on the role of radiation therapy in this group of diseases. The entity of 'Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma' encompasses a diverse group of disorders involving almost any part of the body. This diversity bedevils any attempt to unify the approach to this disease on a rational basis. Nevertheless, some broad principles can be applied to almost any presentation of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The approach to the management of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is based on the histologic type, localization and extent of disease and other disease and patient related prognostic factors. The accurate pathologic diagnosis of lymphoma has been greatly facilitated by availability of markers, molecular and genetic techniques. The newly proposed revised classification of lymphomas and its impact on these of RT will be discussed. Although the Ann Arbor staging classification has been shown to provide important prognostic information, other factors have equivalent, if not greater, influence on outcome in patients with Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The management of lymphomas is based primarily on the histologic type and extent of the disease including stage, tumour bulk, number of sites involved and location of the disease. The success of curative radiation therapy is contingent upon the presence of localized disease, normal tissue tolerance allowing the delivery of RT curative dose (30-35 Gy) and the tumour bulk. The current evidence suggests that locoregional RT for stage I and II low grade lymphoma results in approximately 50% prolonged (10-15 years) failure free rate and possible cure. Radiation alone is no longer used for intermediate and high grade lymphomas. The standard management of stage I and II intermediate grade large cell and mixed lymphomas is with doxorubicin based chemotherapy (e.g. CHOP) followed by involved field radiation. The

  4. Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy, and to investigate the prognostic factors for FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer patients who were treated with simple hysterectomy, or who had high-risk factors following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Between March 1986 and December 1998, 58 patients, with FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer were included in this study, The indications for postoperative radiation therapy were based on the pathological findings, including lymph node metastasis, positive surgical margin, parametrial extension, Iymphovascular invasion, invasion of more than half the cervical stroma, uterine extension and the incidental finding of cervix cancer following simple hysterectomy. All patients received external pelvic radiotherapy, and 5 patients, received an additional intracavitary radiation therapy. The radiation dose from the external beam to the whole pelvis was 45 - 50 Gy. Vagina cuff irradiation was performed, after completion of the external beam irradiation, al a low-dose rate of CS-137, with the total dose of 4488-4932 chy (median: 4500 chy) at 5 mm depth from the vagina surface. The median follow-up period was 44 months (15-108 months), The 5-yr actuarial local control rate, distant free survival and disease-free survival rate were 98%, 95% and 94%, respectively. A univariate analysis of the clinical and pathological parameters revealed that the clinical stage (p=0.0145), status of vaginal resection margin (p=0.0002) and parametrial extension (p=0.0001) affected the disease-free survival. From a multivariate analysis, only a parametrial extension independently influenced the disease-free survival. Five patients (9%) experienced Grade 2 late treatment-related complications, such as radiation proctitis (1 patient), cystitis (3 patients) and lymphedema of the leg (1 patient). No patient had grade 3 or 4 complications. Our results indicate that postoperative radiation therapy can

  5. Implementation of Remote 3-Dimensional Image Guided Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the process and initial experience of remote credentialing of three-dimensional (3D) image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) as part of the quality assurance (QA) of submitted data for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials; and to identify major issues resulting from this process and analyze the review results on patient positioning shifts. Methods and Materials: Image guided radiation therapy datasets including in-room positioning CT scans and daily shifts applied were submitted through the Image Guided Therapy QA Center from institutions for the IGRT credentialing process, as required by various RTOG trials. A centralized virtual environment is established at the RTOG Core Laboratory, containing analysis tools and database infrastructure for remote review by the Physics Principal Investigators of each protocol. The appropriateness of IGRT technique and volumetric image registration accuracy were evaluated. Registration accuracy was verified by repeat registration with a third-party registration software system. With the accumulated review results, registration differences between those obtained by the Physics Principal Investigators and from the institutions were analyzed for different imaging sites, shift directions, and imaging modalities. Results: The remote review process was successfully carried out for 87 3D cases (out of 137 total cases, including 2-dimensional and 3D) during 2010. Frequent errors in submitted IGRT data and challenges in the review of image registration for some special cases were identified. Workarounds for these issues were developed. The average differences of registration results between reviewers and institutions ranged between 2 mm and 3 mm. Large discrepancies in the superior-inferior direction were found for megavoltage CT cases, owing to low spatial resolution in this direction for most megavoltage CT cases. Conclusion: This first experience indicated that remote review for 3D IGRT as part of QA

  6. Mental and growth retardation after medulloblastoma radiation therapy. MRI assessment of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on 3 cases of a medulloblastoma and discuss the usefulness of calculating the T2 value from long-term follow-up MRIs of 1.5 T in order to analyze the cause of mental retardation. Of 13 medulloblastoma patients who were treated at our hospital from 1970 through 1984, 4 patients survived. Excluding 1 of these patients, a 2-year-old child, the remaining 3 cases are discussed. The 3 patients underwent surgery and received postoperative craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy. The radiation dose (tumoral dose) was 40 to 85 Gy to the posterior fossa, 0 to 30.4 Gy to the spinal cord, and 25.6 to 35.2 Gy to the whole brain. The long-term effects were evaluated by calculating the T2 value and conducting a psychometric analysis from 2 to 11 years after radiation therapy. Their respective Tanaka-Vineland IQ test results were 32, 46, and 102 and their respective growth heights were -3.6 SD, -6.4 SD, and +0.18 SD. Growth hormone deficiencies were identified in all 3 patients. The decline in ability and failure to grow became more pronounced with time. The calculated T2 values showed alterations in the hippocampus, the occipital white matter, and the hypothalamus of all 3 patients. The hippocampal alteration contributed to a decline in intellectual ability and resulted in learning difficulties at school. It should be noted that in addition to whole-brain radiation that was pursued, the focal radiation provided delivers the same radiation dose to the hippocampus as to the tumor. Such a high radiation dose thus might be responsible for the decline in intellectual ability. Therefore, to avoid radiation injury to these areas, stereotactic radiosurgery must be planned for focal radiation therapy. (K.H.)

  7. Analysis of radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field in breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogo, Etsuyo; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Hayabuchi, Naofumi [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    2002-02-01

    In a retrospective study of radiation-induced pulmonary changes for patients with breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer, we sent questionnaires to the main hospitals in Japan. In this study, we analyzed pulmonary changes after tangential whole-breast irradiation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field. The questionnaires included patients data, therapy data, and lung injury information between August 1999 and May 2000. On the first questionnaires, answer letters were received from 107 institutions out of 158 (67.7%). On the second questionnaires, response rate (hospitals which had radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field) was 21.7% (23/106). We could find no risk factors of this type of pneumonitis. We suggested that lung irradiation might trigger this type of pneumonitis which is clinically similar to BOOP (bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia). It developed in 1.5-2.1% among the patients with breast conserving surgery and tangential whole-breast irradiation. And it is likely appeared within 6 months after radiotherapy. (author)

  8. Analysis of radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field in breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective study of radiation-induced pulmonary changes for patients with breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer, we sent questionnaires to the main hospitals in Japan. In this study, we analyzed pulmonary changes after tangential whole-breast irradiation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field. The questionnaires included patients data, therapy data, and lung injury information between August 1999 and May 2000. On the first questionnaires, answer letters were received from 107 institutions out of 158 (67.7%). On the second questionnaires, response rate (hospitals which had radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field) was 21.7% (23/106). We could find no risk factors of this type of pneumonitis. We suggested that lung irradiation might trigger this type of pneumonitis which is clinically similar to BOOP (bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia). It developed in 1.5-2.1% among the patients with breast conserving surgery and tangential whole-breast irradiation. And it is likely appeared within 6 months after radiotherapy. (author)

  9. A Method for Evaluating Quality Assurance Needs in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery techniques challenges traditional prescriptive quality control and quality assurance programs that ensure safety and reliability of treatment planning and delivery systems under all clinical scenarios. Until now quality management (QM) guidelines published by concerned organizations (e.g., American Association of Physicists in Medicine [AAPM], European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology [ESTRO], International Atomic Energy Agency [IAEA]) have focused on monitoring functional performance of radiotherapy equipment by measurable parameters, with tolerances set at strict but achievable values. In the modern environment, however, the number and sophistication of possible tests and measurements have increased dramatically. There is a need to prioritize QM activities in a way that will strike a balance between being reasonably achievable and optimally beneficial to patients. A systematic understanding of possible errors over the course of a radiation therapy treatment and the potential clinical impact of each is needed to direct limited resources in such a way to produce maximal benefit to the quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and is developing a framework for designing QM activities, and hence allocating resources, based on estimates of clinical outcome, risk assessment, and failure modes. The report will provide guidelines on risk assessment approaches with emphasis on failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and an achievable QM program based on risk analysis. Examples of FMEA to intensity-modulated radiation therapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy are presented. Recommendations on how to apply this new approach to individual clinics and further research and development will also be discussed

  10. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms.

  11. Conservative surgery and radiation therapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective review of 402 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy between 1979 and 1992 w as done. Disease free and actuarial survival rates, local, regional and distant recurrence rates and treatment related acute and chronic complications were evaluated according to stage. The technique and dose of radiotherapy were assessed in relation to stage of the disease, status of margin of lumpectomy and cosmetic results. Treatment related morbidity was minimal and overall cosmetic results were excellent. In stage 0 (in situ), I and II survival at 12 years has been 100%, 90% and 80% respectively. It is concluded that breast conservation treatment is an appropriate method of primary therapy, along with radiation therapy, for women with Stage I and II breast cancer

  12. Cherenkov imaging and biochemical sensing in vivo during radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongxiao

    While Cherenkov emission was discovered more than eighty years ago, the potential applications of imaging this during radiation therapy have just recently been explored. With approximately half of all cancer patients being treated by radiation at some point during their cancer management, there is a constant challenge to ensure optimal treatment efficiency is achieved with maximal tumor to normal tissue therapeutic ratio. To achieve this, the treatment process as well as biological information affecting the treatment should ideally be effective and directly derived from the delivery of radiation to the patient. The value of Cherenkov emission imaging was examined here, primarily for visualization of treatment monitoring and then secondarily for Cherenkov-excited luminescence for tissue biochemical sensing within tissue. Through synchronized gating to the short radiation pulses of a linear accelerator (200Hz & 3 micros pulses), and applying a gated intensified camera for imaging, the Cherenkov radiation can be captured near video frame rates (30 frame per sec) with dim ambient room lighting. This procedure, sometimes termed Cherenkoscopy, is readily visualized without affecting the normal process of external beam radiation therapy. With simulation, phantoms and clinical trial data, each application of Cherenkoscopy was examined: i) for treatment monitoring, ii) for patient position monitoring and motion tracking, and iii) for superficial dose imaging. The temporal dynamics of delivered radiation fields can easily be directly imaged on the patient's surface. Image registration and edge detection of Cherenkov images were used to verify patient positioning during treatment. Inter-fraction setup accuracy and intra-fraction patient motion was detectable to better than 1 mm accuracy. Cherenkov emission in tissue opens up a new field of biochemical sensing within the tissue environment, using luminescent agents which can be activated by this light. In the first study of

  13. Surgery and radiation therapy for extramedullary plasmacytoma of the penile mucosa in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wypij, Jackie M; de Lorimier, Louis-Philippe

    2012-09-01

    A 10-year-old neutered male Italian greyhound dog was presented because it had a penile plasmacytoma. Surgery followed by radiation therapy resulted in local control and survival for 1688 days. This is the first report of surgery and definitive radiation therapy for curative intent therapy of extramedullary penile plasmacytoma in a dog. PMID:23450865

  14. Surgery and radiation therapy for extramedullary plasmacytoma of the penile mucosa in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Wypij, Jackie M.; de Lorimier, Louis-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    A 10-year-old neutered male Italian greyhound dog was presented because it had a penile plasmacytoma. Surgery followed by radiation therapy resulted in local control and survival for 1688 days. This is the first report of surgery and definitive radiation therapy for curative intent therapy of extramedullary penile plasmacytoma in a dog.

  15. 21 CFR 892.5770 - Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly. 892.5770 Section 892.5770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... therapy patient support assembly. (a) Identification. A powered radiation therapy patient support...

  16. Surgical radiation and drug therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There main components of the program of radical therapy of breast cancer are distinguished: surgical, radiation and drug. The surgical operation continues to be one of the main therapeutic methods, though there is a trend towards limitation of the amount of surgical interventions. Investigations are carried out in the performance of rational operations of the cancer of the 1 and 2 stages supplemented with pre- and postoperative irradiation. Techniques of large dose fractionation are doveloped. It is shown that in case of 2b and 3a,b stages it is oppropriate to assign a combined or complex therapy: operation, irradiation and chemotherapy. The advantages of polychemotherapy via monochemotherapy are noted. The effect of immunotherapy on the efficiency of the therapy of brest cancer is studied. A conclusion is made that a certain progress has been reached recently in the treatment of breast cancer and that only an individual approach should be used when choosing therapy tactics taking into account all vital factors

  17. Therapy of patients with osteoarthritis with low energy laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Vasiljeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess influence oflow energy laser radiation (LELR on glycosaminoglycan (GAG and vitamin С level in pts with osteoarthritis (OA. Material and methods. 82 pts with primary OA and 25 healthy volunteers signed informed consent were included in an open randomized prospective 12-month study. Inclusion criteria: unsatisfactory effect of previous drug therapy (DT, stable NSAID dose 3-5 days before and during LELR course, absence of comorbid hepatic and kidney diseases in stage of functional decompensation, malignant diseases, exclusion therapy influencing microcirculation, exercise therapy, physical therapy. Intra-articular injections were not done during 3 months before the study. Pts were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 received complex DT and LELR, group 2 - DT. clinical and laboratory parameters were used as efficacy measures. Statistical analysis was performed on personal computer IBM PC (OS — Windows EP Home Edition with Microsoft office and STATISTICA 6.0 programs. Results. Analysis of the results showed significant improvement of most measures in comparison with traditional DT. LELR administration allowed to decrease chondroprotector and NSAID doses. Vitamin С decrease in serum of OA pts may be a risk factor of development and progression of this disease.

  18. Plastic scintillation dosimetry for radiation therapy: minimizing capture of Cerenkov radiation noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in scintillation dosimetry using small water-equivalent plastic scintillators, because of their favourable characteristics when compared with other more commonly used detector systems. Although plastic scintillators have been shown to have many desirable dosimetric properties, as yet there is no successful commercial detector system of this type available for routine clinical use in radiation oncology. The main factor preventing this new technology from realizing its full potential in commercial applications is the maximization of signal coupling efficiency and the minimization of noise capture. A principal constituent of noise is Cerenkov radiation. This study reports the calculated capture of Cerenkov radiation by an optical fibre in the special case where the radiation is generated by a relativistic particle on the fibre axis and the fibre axis is parallel to the Cerenkov cone. The fraction of radiation captured is calculated as a function of the fibre core refractive index and the refractive index difference between the core and the cladding of the fibre for relativistic particles. This is then used to deduce the relative intensity captured for a range of fibre core refractive indices and fibre core-cladding refractive index differences. It is shown that the core refractive index has little effect on the amount of radiation captured compared to the refractive index difference. The implications of this result for the design of radiation therapy plastic scintillation dosimeters are considered

  19. Physics with antiprotons at LEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low energy antiproton ring LEAR started to work at CERN in 1983. It provides clean anti p beams of much higher intensity and much better quality than available so far in the range from 0.1 to 2 GeV/c momentum. 16 of the 17 accepted experiments are installed and 14 of them took first data in 1983. After approx.= 240 hours of LEAR operation very first results are available. One can expect that exciting physics results be produced in many different domains provided LEAR gets enough anti p in the future. (orig.)

  20. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right–sided cancer. Methods: To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Results: A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46. In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03 and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049 walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%, while in five of the controls (13.9%,(Odds ratio=1.3. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusion: The risk of radiation induced myocardial

  1. A maximum feasible subset algorithm with application to radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman

    1999-01-01

    inequalities. Special classes of this problem are of interest in a variety of areas such as pattern recognition, machine learning, operations research, and medical treatment planning. This problem is generally solvable in exponential time. A heuristic polynomial time algorithm is presented in this paper. The...... algorithm relies on an iterative constraint removal procedure where constraints are eliminated from a set proposed by solutions to minmax linear programs. The method is illustrated by a simulated example of a linear system with double sided bounds and a case from the area of radiation therapy....

  2. 3D Monte Carlo radiation transfer modelling of photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. Louise; Christison, Craig; Brown, C. Tom A.; Wood, Kenneth; Valentine, Ronan M.; Moseley, Harry

    2015-06-01

    The effects of ageing and skin type on Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for different treatment methods have been theoretically investigated. A multilayered Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer model is presented where both daylight activated PDT and conventional PDT are compared. It was found that light penetrates deeper through older skin with a lighter complexion, which translates into a deeper effective treatment depth. The effect of ageing was found to be larger for darker skin types. The investigation further strengthens the usage of daylight as a potential light source for PDT where effective treatment depths of about 2 mm can be achieved.

  3. The new Wuerzburg data base for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conception, structure and realisation of a new data base for radiation therapy are present. The data base utilizes the commercial data base system ORACLE and the data base language SQL. A program package for statistical analyses including Kaplan-Meier-calculations, logrank test and Gehan/Breslow test was elaborated. The input of the data recorded on form sheets is carried out on a data base of the Tumor Centre in the first instance. From there the data are transfered to the ORACLE data base. Up to now the courses of disease of about 13 000 patients are stored. Therefore, extensive and detailed statistical analyses are practicable. (orig.)

  4. Energy and intensity modulated radiation therapy with electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    In recent years intensity modulated radiation therapy with photons (xIMRT) has gained attention due to its ability to reduce the dose in the tissues close to the tumour volume. However, this technique also results in a large low dose volume. Electron IMRT (eIMRT) has the potential to reduce the integral dose to the patient due to the dose fall off in the electron depth dose curves. This dose fall off makes it possible to modulate the dose distribution in the direction of the beam by selecting...

  5. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT). They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost against the tumour bed) with a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic i...

  6. Whole-brain radiation therapy for brain metastases: detrimental or beneficial?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is frequently used, either alone or together with whole-brain radiation therapy to treat brain metastases from solid tumors. Certain experts and radiation oncology groups have proposed replacing whole-brain radiation therapy with stereotactic radiosurgery alone for the management of brain metastases. Although randomized trials have favored adding whole-brain radiation therapy to stereotactic radiosurgery for most end points, a recent meta-analysis demonstrated a survival disadvantage for patients treated with whole-brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery compared with patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery alone. However the apparent detrimental effect of adding whole-brain radiation therapy to stereotactic radiosurgery reported in this meta-analysis may be the result of inhomogeneous distribution of the patients with respect to tumor histologies, molecular histologic subtypes, and extracranial tumor stages between the groups rather than a real effect. Unfortunately, soon after this meta-analysis was published, even as an abstract, use of whole-brain radiation therapy in managing brain metastases has become controversial among radiation oncologists. The American Society of Radiation Oncology recently recommended, in their “Choose Wisely” campaign, against routinely adding whole-brain radiation therapy to stereotactic radiosurgery to treat brain metastases. However, this situation creates conflict for radiation oncologists who believe that there are enough high level of evidence for the effectiveness of whole-brain radiation therapy in the treatment of brain metastases

  7. Role of Local Radiation Therapy in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, Sandra; Golden, Encouse B; Formenti, Silvia C

    2015-12-01

    The recent success of cancer immunotherapy has demonstrated the power of the immune system to clear tumors, generating renewed enthusiasm for identifying ways to induce antitumor immune responses in patients. Natural antitumor immune responses are detectable in a fraction of patients across multiple malignant neoplasms and can be reactivated by targeting rate-limiting immunosuppressive mechanisms. In most patients, however, interventions to induce a de novo antitumor immune response are necessary. We review growing evidence that radiation therapy targeted to the tumor can convert it into an in situ tumor vaccine by inducing release of antigens during cancer cell death in association with proinflammatory signals that trigger the innate immune system to activate tumor-specific T cells. In addition, radiation's effects on the tumor microenvironment enhance infiltration of activated T cells and can overcome some of the barriers to tumor rejection. Thus, the complementary effects of radiation on priming and effector phases of antitumor immunity make it an appealing strategy to generate immunity against a patient's own individual tumor, that through immunological memory, can result in long-lasting systemic responses. Several anecdotal cases have demonstrated the efficacy of combining radiation with available immunotherapies, and results of prospective trials are forthcoming.

  8. Fast Monte Carlo for radiation therapy: the PEREGRINE Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann Siantar, C.L.; Bergstrom, P.M.; Chandler, W.P.; Cox, L.J.; Daly, T.P.; Garrett, D.; House, R.K.; Moses, E.I.; Powell, C.L.; Patterson, R.W.; Schach von Wittenau, A.E.

    1997-11-11

    The purpose of the PEREGRINE program is to bring high-speed, high- accuracy, high-resolution Monte Carlo dose calculations to the desktop in the radiation therapy clinic. PEREGRINE is a three- dimensional Monte Carlo dose calculation system designed specifically for radiation therapy planning. It provides dose distributions from external beams of photons, electrons, neutrons, and protons as well as from brachytherapy sources. Each external radiation source particle passes through collimator jaws and beam modifiers such as blocks, compensators, and wedges that are used to customize the treatment to maximize the dose to the tumor. Absorbed dose is tallied in the patient or phantom as Monte Carlo simulation particles are followed through a Cartesian transport mesh that has been manually specified or determined from a CT scan of the patient. This paper describes PEREGRINE capabilities, results of benchmark comparisons, calculation times and performance, and the significance of Monte Carlo calculations for photon teletherapy. PEREGRINE results show excellent agreement with a comprehensive set of measurements for a wide variety of clinical photon beam geometries, on both homogeneous and heterogeneous test samples or phantoms. PEREGRINE is capable of calculating >350 million histories per hour for a standard clinical treatment plan. This results in a dose distribution with voxel standard deviations of <2% of the maximum dose on 4 million voxels with 1 mm resolution in the CT-slice plane in under 20 minutes. Calculation times include tracking particles through all patient specific beam delivery components as well as the patient. Most importantly, comparison of Monte Carlo dose calculations with currently-used algorithms reveal significantly different dose distributions for a wide variety of treatment sites, due to the complex 3-D effects of missing tissue, tissue heterogeneities, and accurate modeling of the radiation source.

  9. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lindsay C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Diehn, Felix E. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Boughey, Judy C. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Childs, Stephanie K.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S.; Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert W., E-mail: mutter.robert@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Results: Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastases were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. Conclusions: For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted.

  10. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, J.; Peperzeel, H.A. van (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Tan, K.E.W.P. (Royal Dutch Eye Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands)

    1985-02-01

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9), 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy.

  11. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9,) 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy. (Auth.)

  12. The design and implementation of the radiation therapy information management system (RTIMS) based on the workflow of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To meet the special needs of the department of radiation oncology, a radiation therapy information management system (RTIMS) has been developed as a secondary database system to supplement the Varian Varis/Aria since 2007. Methods: The RTIMS server was used to run a database and web service of Apache + PHP + MySQL. The RTIMS sever's web service could be visited with Internet Explorer (IE) to input, search, count, and print information from about 30 workstations and 20 personal computers. As some workstations were installed with Windows and IE in English only, some functions had English version. Results: In past five years, as the RTIMS was implemented in the department, some further needs were met and more practical functions were developed. And now the RTIMS almost covered the whole workflow of radiation therapy (RT). By September 2011 , recorded patients data in the RTIMS is as follows: 3900 patients, 2600 outpatient RT records, 6800 progress notes, 1900 RT summaries, 6700 charge records, 83000 workload records, 3900 plan application forms, 1600 ICRT records. etc. Conclusions: The RTIMS based on the workflow of RT has been successfully developed and clinically implemented. And it was demonstrated to be user-friendly and was proven to significantly improve the efficiency of the department. Since it is an in-house developed system, more functions can be added or modified to further enhance its potentials in research and clinical practice. (authors)

  13. Treatment results of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Image Guided Radiation Therapy for head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose is to evaluate treatment results of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) for head and neck cancers. Methods and Materials: descriptive cross sectional study on 45 head and neck cancer patients treated by IMRT-IGRT with curative intent at Department of Radiation Oncology, 108 Central Military Hospital from 12/2013 to 3/2015. Results: 100% IMRT plan underwent quality assurance with gamma index ≥ 95%. Mean conformity index of IMRT plans was 1.21 ± 0.13. Patient setup errors in supero-inferior (SI), antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) were ≤ 3 mm. Overall treatment complete response, partial response and stable disease rates were 75.6% and 15.6 % and 8.8%, respectively. There were 42.2 % patients with no xerostomia; 57.8% grade 1 and no grade 2 - 4 xerostomia. Conclusions: Head and neck cancers treatment with IMRT-IGRT showed good tumor response with safety, high accuracy and acceptable side effects. (author)

  14. Clinical trial experience using erythropoietin during radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavey, R.S. [Radiation Oncology Program, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Univ. of Southern California, CA, Los Angeles (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Oncologists have several reasons for trying to maintain or increase hemoglobin levels in their patients during therapy. Relief of the symptoms of anemia, including fatigue and dyspnea, are traditional, well-accepted indications. A newer rationale is to enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy in controlling tumors. A laboratory animal study found that administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) increased intratumoral median oxygen levels and diminished the proportion of measurements in the very low (<3 mm Hg) range. Hemoglobin level is a strong independent prognostic factor for tumor control by radiation therapy. The hemoglobin level at the end of radiation therapy is a stronger prognostic factor than is the hemoglobin level at the start of therapy. Numerous clinical trials have utilized rHuEPO during radiation with or without concurrent chemotherapy. All 4 trials which enrolled patients with low hemoglobin levels (<12 to 13.5 g/dl) found that rHuEPO significantly increased hemoglobin within 2 weeks and that hemoglobin levels continued to rise until the end of rHuEPO treatment. rHuEPO was efficacious in limiting the decrease in hemoglobin and use of packed red blood cell transfusion in the one reported trial in which it was used in patients with initially normal hemoglobin levels during intensive concurrent radiation and chemotherapy. One trial found a statistically significant improvement in complete pathologic response rate after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with the use of rHuEPO. rHuEPO has a potentially large role to play in the care of the cancer patient. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Onkologie bestehen zahlreiche Gruende, die Haemoglobinkonzentration der Patienten waehrend der Therapie zu halten oder sogar anzuheben. Als anerkannte Indikation gilt hierbei die Besserung anaemiebedingter Symptome wie Muedigkeit und Dyspnoe, wobei jedoch neuere Ergebnisse darauf hinweisen, dass auch die Effizienz der Strahlen- und

  15. Potency preservation following stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erectile dysfunction after prostate radiation therapy remains an ongoing challenge and critical quality of life issue. Given the higher dose of radiation per fraction using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) there is concern that post-SBRT impotency would be higher than conventional radiation therapy approaches. This study sought to evaluate potency preservation and sexual function following SBRT for prostate cancer. Between February 2008 and March 2011, 216 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated definitively with SBRT monotherapy at Georgetown University Hospital. Potency was defined as the ability to have an erection firm enough for intercourse with or without sexual aids while sexual activity was defined as the ability to have an erection firm enough for masturbation and foreplay. Patients who received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were excluded from this study. Ninety-seven hormone-naïve men were identified as being potent at the initiation of therapy and were included in this review. All patients were treated to 35–36.25 Gy in 5 fractions delivered with the CyberKnife Radiosurgical System (Accuray). Prostate specific antigen (PSA) and total testosterone levels were obtained pre-treatment, every 3 months for the first year and every 6 months for the subsequent year. Sexual function was assessed with the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM), the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC)-26 and Utilization of Sexual Medication/Device questionnaires at baseline and all follow-up visits. Ninety-seven men (43 low-, 50 intermediate- and 4 high-risk) at a median age of 68 years (range, 48–82 years) received SBRT. The median pre-treatment PSA was 5.9 ng/ml and the minimum follow-up was 24 months. The median pre-treatment total serum testosterone level was 11.4 nmol/L (range, 4.4-27.9 nmol/L). The median baseline SHIM was 22 and 36% of patients utilized sexual aids prior to treatment. Although potency rates declined following

  16. Image-guided radiation therapy. Paradigm change in radiation therapy; Bildgestuetzte Strahlentherapie. Paradigmenwechsel in der Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenz, F. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Mannheim (Germany); Belka, C. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Muenchen (Germany); Reiser, M. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Mannheim (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The introduction of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) has changed the workflow in radiation oncology more dramatically than any other innovation in the last decades. Imaging for treatment planning before the initiation of the radiotherapy series does not take alterations in patient anatomy and organ movement into account. The principle of IGRT is the temporal and spatial connection of imaging in the treatment position immediately before radiation treatment. The actual position and the target position are compared using cone-beam computed tomography (CT) or stereotactic ultrasound. The IGRT procedure allows a reduction of the safety margins and dose to normal tissue without an increase in risk of local recurrence. In the future the linear treatment chain in radiation oncology will be developed based on the closed-loop feedback principle. The IGRT procedure is increasingly being used especially for high precision radiotherapy, e.g. for prostate or brain tumors. (orig.) [German] Die Einfuehrung der bildgestuetzten Radiotherapie (IGRT - ''image-guided radiotherapy'') hat wie kaum eine andere Innovation die Behandlungsablaeufe in der Radioonkologie veraendert. Eine einmalige Bildgebung zur Bestrahlungsplanung vor der Behandlungsserie beruecksichtigt nicht die Aenderung der Patientengeometrie und die Organbeweglichkeit. Das Prinzip der IGRT besteht in der raeumlichen und zeitlichen Zusammenfuehrung von Bildgebung in der Bestrahlungsposition unmittelbar vor der eigentlichen Bestrahlung. Mittels Cone-beam-CT oder stereotaktischem Ultraschall wird die Ist- mit der Sollposition verglichen. Die IGRT erlaubt die Reduktion der Sicherheitssaeume und damit die Schonung des Normalgewebes, ohne das Rezidivrisiko zu erhoehen. Zukuenftig wird die lineare Behandlungskette in der Radioonkologie durch eine geschlossene, multipel rueckgekoppelte Therapieschleife ersetzt werden. Speziell bei Praezisionsbestrahlungen wie z. B. Prostata- oder Hirntumoren kommt die IGRT

  17. Approach of combined cancer gene therapy and radiation: response of promoters to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene therapy is an emerging cancer treatment modality. We are interested in developing a radiation-inducible gene therapy system to sensitize the tumor vasculature to the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) treatment. An expression system based on irradiation-inducible promoters will drive the expression of anti-tumor genes in the tumor vasculature. Solid tumors are dependent on angio genesis, a process in which new blood vessels are formed from the pre-existing vasculature. Vascular endothelial cells are un transformed and genetically stable, thus avoiding the problem of resistance to the treatments. Vascular endothelial cells may therefore represent a suitable target for this therapeutic gene therapy strategy.The identification of IR-inducible promoters native to endothelial cells was performed by gene expression profiling using cDNA micro array technology. We describe the genes modified by clinically relevant doses of IR. The extension to high doses aimed at studying the effects of total radiation delivery to the tumor. The radio-inductiveness of the genes selected for promoter study was confirmed by RT-PCR. Analysis of the activity of promoters in response to IR was also assessed in a reporter plasmid. We found that authentic promoters cloned onto a plasmid are not suitable for cancer gene therapy due to their low induction after IR. In contrast, synthetic promoters containing repeated sequence-specific binding sites for IR-activated transcription factors such as NF-κB are potential candidates for gene therapy. The activity of five tandemly repeated TGGGGACTTTCCGC elements for NF-κB binding in a luciferase reporter was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the response to fractionated low doses was improved in comparison to the total single dose. Thus, we put present evidence that a synthetic promoter for NF-κB specific binding may have application in the radio-therapeutic treatment of cancer. (author)

  18. That was LEAP 05! or Antiproton Physics in a Nutshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Paul

    2005-10-01

    A personally flavored review of selected topics of LEAP 05 is given, with focus on some recent interesting developments in low and medium energy antiproton physics, such as fundamental symmetries and antihydrogen, antihadron-hadron systems, antiproton-proton annihilation, nuclear structure studies with antiprotons, and the FAIR facility for antiproton and ion research.

  19. Vertebral fracture complications following radiation therapy. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We observed the outbreak time of a spinal compression fracture following radiation therapy and its natural course. Case 1 was a 88-year-old, woman. NTX 66.9. Underwent cobalt irradiation 54 Gy for esophageal cancer. Three months after irradiation, the first lumbar vertebra was found to de compressed, and low back pain occurred. Vacuum cleft phenomenon in X-P appeared after two weeks, but anterior callus formation appeared in eight weeks, after which the low back pain disappeared. Case 2 was a 77-year-old woman. NTX 86.5. Underwent irradiation 69 Gy for uterine carcinoma. Six months after the irradiation, the fourth/five lumbar vertebra were found to be compressed. Great collapse occurred in X-P after two weeks, but stabilized and did not aggravate thereafter. Low back pain also disappeared. Radiotherapy affects bone cells (osteoblasts, osteoclasts), inhibiting bone remodeling. As a result, deficient elastic resistance occurs. Vertebral bodies are also compressed in such a situation. After that normal callus formation starts from adjacent normal bone cells. The compression fracture observed ranged from three to six months after radiation. Natural course is well. Therefore conservative therapy is recommended. (author)

  20. Intraluminal radiation therapy in the management of malignant biliary obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction from carcinoma of the bile ducts, gallbladder, and pancreas (Group I) or metastatic disease (Group II) were treated with intraluminal radiation therapy (ILRT) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In 11 cases ILRT was used as a central boost in combination with 3000 cGy external beam radiation therapy (ERT). No significant treatment toxicity was observed. Cholangiographic response was observed in 2 of 12 evaluable patients. In no patient was long-term relief of jaundice without indwelling biliary stent achieved. Survival from treatment in eight Group I patients treated with ILRT +/- ERT was 3 to 13 months (median, 4.5). Survival in seven similarly treated Group II patients was 0.5 to 8 months (median, 4.0). Additional data for ten similar patients referred for ILRT but treated with ERT alone are presented. Analysis of this and other reports indicate the need for prospective controlled trials of the role of this regimen in the management of malignant biliary obstruction before wider application can be recommended

  1. Results of radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-nine consecutive patients who were treated with radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix between April 1982 and December 1986 were reviewed. Twelve patients were treated with low dose-rate intracavitary irradiation using radium-226, and 46 were treated with high dose-rate irradiation using a remote afterloading system combined with external irradiation, and the other one was treated with external irradiation alone. The 5-year-survival rates for stage Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIb, and IVa were 77.8, 85.7, 87.5, 45.5 and 40.0%, respectively. The 5-year-survival rates for the low and high dose-rates irradiation were 66.7 and 73.9%, respectively. The most common complication of radiation therapy was rectal bleeding, which required conservative treatment (grade 2) in 11 (18.6%). The morbidities for the low and high dose-rates irradiation were similar. The causes of death in 17 patients were local recurrence in 14, metastases in 2 and other specified in one. These findings suggest that high dose-rate intracavitary irradiation is as effective as low dose-rate irradiation for carcinoma of the uterine cervix, and that further efforts for controlling the local tumors with stage IIIb disease without an increased rate of side-effects is required. (author)

  2. Adjuvant radiation therapy in metastatic lymph nodes from melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the outcome after adjuvant radiation therapy with standard fractionation regimen in metastatic lymph nodes (LN) from cutaneous melanoma. 86 successive patients (57 men) were treated for locally advanced melanoma in our institution. 60 patients (69%) underwent LN dissection followed by radiation therapy (RT), while 26 patients (31%) had no radiotherapy. The median number of resected LN was 12 (1 to 36) with 2 metastases (1 to 28). Median survival after the first relapse was 31.8 months. Extracapsular extension was a significant prognostic factor for regional control (p = 0.019). Median total dose was 50 Gy (30 to 70 Gy). A standard fractionation regimen was used (2 Gy/fraction). Median number of fractions was 25 (10 to 44 fractions). Patients were treated with five fractions/week. Patients with extracapsular extension treated with surgery followed by RT (total dose ≥50 Gy) had a better regional control than patients treated by surgery followed by RT with a total dose <50 Gy (80% vs. 35% at 5-year follow-up; p = 0.004). Adjuvant radiotherapy was able to increase regional control in targeted sub-population (LN with extracapsular extension)

  3. Preclinical imaging in animal models of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern radiotherapy benefits from precise and targeted diagnostic and pretherapeutic imaging. Standard imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) offer high morphological detail but only limited functional information on tumors. Novel functional and molecular imaging modalities provide biological information about tumors in addition to detailed morphological information. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) CT or ultrasound-based perfusion imaging as well as hybrid modalities, such as positron emission tomography (PET) CT or MRI-PET have the potential to identify and precisely delineate viable and/or perfused tumor areas, enabling optimization of targeted radiotherapy. Functional information on tissue microcirculation and/or glucose metabolism allow a more precise definition and treatment of tumors while reducing the radiation dose and sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. In the development of new imaging methods for planning individualized radiotherapy, preclinical imaging and research plays a pivotal role, as the value of multimodality imaging can only be assessed, tested and adequately developed in a preclinical setting, i.e. in animal tumor models. New functional imaging modalities will play an increasing role for the surveillance of early treatment response during radiation therapy and in the assessment of the potential value of new combination therapies (e.g. combining anti-angiogenic drugs with radiotherapy). (orig.)

  4. Stage IA non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring; Limited chemotherapy and radiation therapy versus radiation therapy alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Minoru (Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology Dept. of Radiology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama (Japan)); Kondo, Makoto (Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology); Hiramatsu, Hideko (Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology); Ikeda, Yasuo (Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Hematology); Mikata, Sumio (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Katayama, Michiaki (Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology); Ito, Hisao (Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology); Kusano, Shoichi (Dept. of Radiology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama (Japan)); Kubo, Asuchishi (Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-01-01

    Seventeen patients with stage IA non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring were treated with radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. All lesions were judged as having intermediate grade malignancy in the Working Formulation. Eight patients received combined treatment with three cycles of cylcophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednison (CHOP) and radiation therapy with 30 to 40 Gy. Another 9 patients were treated with radiation therapy 40 to 60 Gy alone. After a median follow-up of 69 months, all 8 patients, treated with combined modality were alive and relapse-free whereas 4 of the 9 treated with irradiation alone had relapsed. All relapses occurred transdiaphragmatically. Two of the 4 relapsing patients were saved, but the other two died of the disease. The 5-year relapse-free and cause-specific survival rates were 100% and 100% in the combined modality group, and 56% and 76% in the radiation therapy alone group (relapse-free: p=0.04, cause-specific: p=0.16). There were no serious complications related to treatment, although most patients complained of mouth dryness and most patients given CHOP had paresthesia. Our opinion was that the total impact of these two side-effects on quality of life was less pronounced after combined modality than after radiation therapy alone. Limited chemotherapy and radiation therapy seemed to be more beneficial than radiation therapy alone not only in relapse-free survival but also in quality of life after treatment. (orig.).

  5. Radiation-Induced Leukemia at Doses Relevant to Radiation Therapy: Modeling Mechanisms and Estimating Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuryak, Igor; Sachs, Rainer K.; Hlatky, Lynn; Mark P. Little; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Brenner, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Because many cancer patients are diagnosed earlier and live longer than in the past, second cancers induced by radiation therapy have become a clinically significant issue. An earlier biologically based model that was designed to estimate risks of high-dose radiation induced solid cancers included initiation of stem cells to a premalignant state, inactivation of stem cells at high radiation doses, and proliferation of stem cells during cellular repopulation after inactivation. This earlier model predicted the risks of solid tumors induced by radiation therapy but overestimated the corresponding leukemia risks. Methods: To extend the model to radiation-induced leukemias, we analyzed in addition to cellular initiation, inactivation, and proliferation a repopulation mechanism specific to the hematopoietic system: long-range migration through the blood stream of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from distant locations. Parameters for the model were derived from HSC biologic data in the literature and from leukemia risks among atomic bomb survivors v^ ho were subjected to much lower radiation doses. Results: Proliferating HSCs that migrate from sites distant from the high-dose region include few preleukemic HSCs, thus decreasing the high-dose leukemia risk. The extended model for leukemia provides risk estimates that are consistent with epidemiologic data for leukemia risk associated with radiation therapy over a wide dose range. For example, when applied to an earlier case-control study of 110000 women undergoing radiotherapy for uterine cancer, the model predicted an excess relative risk (ERR) of 1.9 for leukemia among women who received a large inhomogeneous fractionated external beam dose to the bone marrow (mean = 14.9 Gy), consistent with the measured ERR (2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2 to 6.4; from 3.6 cases expected and 11 cases observed). As a corresponding example for brachytherapy, the predicted ERR of 0.80 among women who received an inhomogeneous low

  6. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was carried out by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is based on data from 12 randomized trials and 2 meta-analyses. Data from 3 prospective studies, 29 retrospective studies and 58 other articles were also used. In total, 58 scientific articles are included, involving 27,280 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 38,362 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized thus: Solid scientific documentation shows that in patients with HL more than 80% in the early stages and 60-70% of younger patients in advanced stages of disease are now cured by the development of radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy. Long-term follow-up shows that after 15 to 20 years the mortality from HL in early and intermediate stages is exceeded by other causes of death, mostly secondary malignancies and cardiac deaths, especially myocardial infarction. Convincing data show that radiotherapy plays a major role in the development of solid cancers and cardiovascular disease, but no randomized trials have been performed. During the past decade increasing awareness of fatal long-term sequelae has fundamentally changed treatment strategies in early and intermediate stages. A thorough long-term follow-up is essential to evaluate the effects of the modifications of the therapy. In early stages of disease extended field irradiation is now replaced by short periods of chemotherapy followed by limited radiotherapy to decrease late sequelae. This approach is strongly supported by early reports from randomized trials. Final results cannot be fully evaluated for many years. The optimal radiation dose and volume after chemotherapy are not defined or if irradiation is needed at all

  7. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliai, Caspian; Fisher, Brandon; Jani, Ashish; Wong, Michael; Poli, Jaganmohan; Brady, Luther W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Komarnicky, Lydia T., E-mail: lydia.komarnicky-kocher@drexelmed.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for treating hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and proctitis secondary to pelvic- and prostate-only radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients were treated with HBOT for radiation-induced HC and proctitis. The median age at treatment was 66 years (range, 15-84 years). The range of external-beam radiation delivered was 50.0-75.6 Gy. Bleeding must have been refractory to other therapies. Patients received 100% oxygen at 2.0 atmospheres absolute pressure for 90-120 min per treatment in a monoplace chamber. Symptoms were retrospectively scored according to the Late Effects of Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scale to evaluate short-term efficacy. Recurrence of hematuria/hematochezia was used to assess long-term efficacy. Results: Four of the 19 patients were lost to follow-up. Fifteen patients were evaluated and received a mean of 29.8 dives: 11 developed HC and 4 proctitis. All patients experienced a reduction in their LENT-SOMA score. After completion of HBOT, the mean LENT-SOMA score was reduced from 0.78 to 0.20 in patients with HC and from 0.66 to 0.26 in patients with proctitis. Median follow-up was 39 months (range, 7-70 months). No cases of hematuria were refractory to HBOT. Complete resolution of hematuria was seen in 81% (n = 9) and partial response in 18% (n = 2). Recurrence of hematuria occurred in 36% (n = 4) after a median of 10 months. Complete resolution of hematochezia was seen in 50% (n = 2), partial response in 25% (n = 1), and refractory bleeding in 25% (n = 1). Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is appropriate for radiation-induced HC once less time-consuming therapies have failed to resolve the bleeding. In these conditions, HBOT is efficacious in the short and long term, with minimal side effects.

  8. Simulation of an antiprotons beam applied to the radiotherapy; Simulacao de um feixe de antiprotons aplicado a radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prata, Leonardo de Almeida

    2006-07-15

    Results for the interaction of a antiproton beam with constituent nuclei of the organic matter are presented. This method regards of the application of an computational algorithm to determine quantitatively the differential cross sections for the scattered particles, starting from the interaction of these antiprotons with the nuclei, what will allow in the future to draw the isodose curve for antiproton therapy, once these beams are expected to be used in cancer treatment soon. The calculation will be done through the application of the concepts of the method of intranuclear cascade, providing yield and differential cross sections of the scattered particles, present in the software MCMC. Th algorithm was developed based on Monte Carlo's method, already taking into account a validate code. The following physical quantities are presented: the yield of secondary particles, their spectral and angular distributions for these interactions. For the energy range taken into account the more important emitted particles are protons, neutrons and pions. Results shown that emitted secondary particles can modify the isodose curves, because they present high yield and energy for transverse directions. (author)

  9. The concept and evolution of involved site radiation therapy for lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of radiation therapy for lymphoma from extended field radiotherapy of the past to modern conformal treatment with involved site radiation therapy based on advanced imaging, three-dimensional treatment planning and advanced treatment delivery techniques. Today, radiation...... therapy is part of the multimodality treatment of lymphoma, and the irradiated tissue volume is much smaller than before, leading to highly significant reductions in the risks of long-term complications....

  10. Focused radiation hepatitis after Bragg-peak proton therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation hepatitis is clearly demonstrated by noncontrast and contrast enhanced CT following radiotherapy for liver diseases. Radiation hepatitis is dependent on dose distribution and is usually demonstrated as nonsegmental bandlike lesion after photon therapy. We report a case of focused, oval-shaped radiation hepatitis that was induced by photon therapy. The attenuation difference was localized in a high-dose area caused by Bragg-peak proton therapy. 17 refs., 2 figs

  11. Antiproton--Proton Scattering Experiments with Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Lenisa, P; Lenisa, Paolo; Rathmann, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The document describes the physics case of the PAX experiment using polarized antiprotons, which has recently been proposed for the new Facility for Antiprotons and Ions Research (FAIR) at GSI--Darmstadt. Polarized antiprotons provide access to a wealth of single-- and double--spin observables, thereby opening a new window to physics uniquely accessible at the HESR. The polarized antiprotons would be most efficiently produced by spin--filtering in a dedicated Antiproton Polarizer Ring (APR) using an internal polarized hydrogen gas target. In the proposed collider scenario of the PAX experiment, polarized protons stored in a COSY--like Cooler Storage Ring (CSR) up to momenta of 3.5 GeV/c are bombarded head--on with 15 GeV/c polarized antiprotons stored in the HESR. This asymmetric double--polarized antiproton--proton collider is ideally suited to map, e.g., the transversity distribution in the proton. The proposed detector consists of a large--angle apparatus optimized for the detection of Drell--Yan electron ...

  12. Clinical significance of radiation therapy in breast recurrence and prognosis in breast-conserving surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant risk factors for recurrence of breast cancer after breast-conserving therapy, which has become a standard treatment for breast cancer, are positive surgical margins and the failure to perform radiation therapy. In this study, we evaluated the clinical significance of radiation therapy after primary surgery or breast recurrence. In 344 cases of breast-conserving surgery, disease recurred in 43 cases (12.5%), which were classified as follows: 17 cases of breast recurrence, 13 cases of breast and distant metastasis, and 13 cases of distant metastasis. Sixty-two patients (16.7%) received radiation therapy. A positive surgical margin and younger age were significant risk factors for breast recurrence in patients not receiving postoperative radiation therapy but not in patients receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy may be beneficial for younger patients with positive surgical margins. Furthermore, radiation therapy after recurrence was effective in the cases not treated with postoperative radiation but not in cases with inflammatory recurrence. Patients with breast recurrence alone had significantly higher survival rates than did patients with distant metastases regardless of breast recurrence. These findings suggest that the adaptation criteria of radiation therapy for local control must be clarified. (author)

  13. Clinical significance of radiation therapy in breast recurrence and prognosis in breast-conserving surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Nagao, Kazuharu; Miyayama, Haruhiko [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    1999-03-01

    Significant risk factors for recurrence of breast cancer after breast-conserving therapy, which has become a standard treatment for breast cancer, are positive surgical margins and the failure to perform radiation therapy. In this study, we evaluated the clinical significance of radiation therapy after primary surgery or breast recurrence. In 344 cases of breast-conserving surgery, disease recurred in 43 cases (12.5%), which were classified as follows: 17 cases of breast recurrence, 13 cases of breast and distant metastasis, and 13 cases of distant metastasis. Sixty-two patients (16.7%) received radiation therapy. A positive surgical margin and younger age were significant risk factors for breast recurrence in patients not receiving postoperative radiation therapy but not in patients receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy may be beneficial for younger patients with positive surgical margins. Furthermore, radiation therapy after recurrence was effective in the cases not treated with postoperative radiation but not in cases with inflammatory recurrence. Patients with breast recurrence alone had significantly higher survival rates than did patients with distant metastases regardless of breast recurrence. These findings suggest that the adaptation criteria of radiation therapy for local control must be clarified. (author)

  14. Skeletal sequelae of radiation therapy for malignant childhood tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Rate, W.; D' Angio, G.J.; Drummond, D.S. (UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick (USA))

    1990-02-01

    One hundred forty-three patients who received radiation therapy for childhood tumors, and survived to the age of skeletal maturity, were studied by retrospective review of oncology records and roentgenograms. Diagnoses for the patients were the following: Hodgkin's lymphoma (44), Wilms's tumor (30), acute lymphocytic leukemia (26), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (18), Ewing's sarcoma (nine), rhabdomyosarcoma (six), neuroblastoma (six), and others (four). Age at the follow-up examination averaged 18 years (range, 14-28 years). Average length of follow-up study was 9.9 years (range, two to 18 years). Asymmetry of the chest and ribs was seen in 51 (36%) of these children. Fifty (35%) had scoliosis; 14 had kyphosis. In two children, the scoliosis was treated with a brace, while one developed significant kyphosing scoliosis after laminectomy and had spinal fusion. Twenty-three (16%) patients complained of significant pain at the radiation sites. Twelve of the patients developed leg-length inequality; eight of those were symptomatic. Three patients developed second primary tumors. Currently, the incidence of significant skeletal sequelae is lower and the manifestations are less severe than reported in the years from 1940 to 1970. The reduction in skeletal complications may be attributed to shielding of growth centers, symmetric field selection, decreased total radiation doses, and sequence changes in chemotherapy.

  15. Therapeutic Implications for Overcoming Radiation Resistance in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Mo; Hong, Yunkyung; Lee, Seunghoon; Liu, Pengda; Lim, Ji Hong; Lee, Yong Heon; Lee, Tae Ho; Chang, Kyu Tae; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-11-10

    Ionizing radiation (IR), such as X-rays and gamma (γ)-rays, mediates various forms of cancer cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence. Among them, apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe are the main mechanisms of IR action. DNA damage and genomic instability contribute to IR-induced cancer cell death. Although IR therapy may be curative in a number of cancer types, the resistance of cancer cells to radiation remains a major therapeutic problem. In this review, we describe the morphological and molecular aspects of various IR-induced types of cell death. We also discuss cytogenetic variations representative of IR-induced DNA damage and genomic instability. Most importantly, we focus on several pathways and their associated marker proteins responsible for cancer resistance and its therapeutic implications in terms of cancer cell death of various types and characteristics. Finally, we propose radiation-sensitization strategies, such as the modification of fractionation, inflammation, and hypoxia and the combined treatment, that can counteract the resistance of tumors to IR.

  16. Therapeutic Implications for Overcoming Radiation Resistance in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong Mo Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR, such as X-rays and gamma (γ-rays, mediates various forms of cancer cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence. Among them, apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe are the main mechanisms of IR action. DNA damage and genomic instability contribute to IR-induced cancer cell death. Although IR therapy may be curative in a number of cancer types, the resistance of cancer cells to radiation remains a major therapeutic problem. In this review, we describe the morphological and molecular aspects of various IR-induced types of cell death. We also discuss cytogenetic variations representative of IR-induced DNA damage and genomic instability. Most importantly, we focus on several pathways and their associated marker proteins responsible for cancer resistance and its therapeutic implications in terms of cancer cell death of various types and characteristics. Finally, we propose radiation-sensitization strategies, such as the modification of fractionation, inflammation, and hypoxia and the combined treatment, that can counteract the resistance of tumors to IR.

  17. Radiation therapy of hyperplastic heterotopic ossifications in osteogenesis imperfecta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a rare hereditary disease of connective tissue with a genetic defect in collagen synthesis. In osteogenesis imperfecta hyperplastic heterotopic ossification can be induced by hyperplastic callus formation caused by trauma or operation. Heterotopic ossifications can be found in numerous benign diseases. The successful use of low dose radiotherapy in the treatment of heterotopic ossifications in well-known from the literature. Patients and Methods: We treated two children (a 13-year old girl and a ten-year old boy) with heterotopic ossifications of the lower extremities in osteogenesis imperfecta type IV (Lobstein) with a low dose irradiation (10x1 Gy, respectively 6x1 Gy) under megavoltage conditions. Results: After radiotherapy the children were painfree and the hyperplastic callus was considerably reduced. The previously immobilized patients could partly be mobilized. Thereby it could be contributed to the rehabilitation of the patients. New hyperplastic callus formation was not observed in the irradiated areas so far. Conclusion: Analogous to the successful radiation of heterotopic ossifications in other benign diseases radiation therapy seems to be a successful treatment of hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta. Despite the late risks of radiotherapy radiation treatment of benign diseases in children might be indicated. (orig.)

  18. Skeletal sequelae of radiation therapy for malignant childhood tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred forty-three patients who received radiation therapy for childhood tumors, and survived to the age of skeletal maturity, were studied by retrospective review of oncology records and roentgenograms. Diagnoses for the patients were the following: Hodgkin's lymphoma (44), Wilms's tumor (30), acute lymphocytic leukemia (26), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (18), Ewing's sarcoma (nine), rhabdomyosarcoma (six), neuroblastoma (six), and others (four). Age at the follow-up examination averaged 18 years (range, 14-28 years). Average length of follow-up study was 9.9 years (range, two to 18 years). Asymmetry of the chest and ribs was seen in 51 (36%) of these children. Fifty (35%) had scoliosis; 14 had kyphosis. In two children, the scoliosis was treated with a brace, while one developed significant kyphosing scoliosis after laminectomy and had spinal fusion. Twenty-three (16%) patients complained of significant pain at the radiation sites. Twelve of the patients developed leg-length inequality; eight of those were symptomatic. Three patients developed second primary tumors. Currently, the incidence of significant skeletal sequelae is lower and the manifestations are less severe than reported in the years from 1940 to 1970. The reduction in skeletal complications may be attributed to shielding of growth centers, symmetric field selection, decreased total radiation doses, and sequence changes in chemotherapy

  19. Doses to Carotid Arteries After Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, M.V.; Brodin, Nils Patrik; Aznar, Marianne Camille;

    2013-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are at an increased risk of stroke because of carotid artery irradiation. However, for early-stage HL involved node radiation therapy (INRT) reduces the volume of normal tissue exposed to high doses. Here, we evaluate 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D......-CRT), volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and proton therapy (PT) delivered as INRT along with the extensive mantle field (MF) by comparing doses to the carotid arteries and corresponding risk estimates....

  20. Estimation of impairment of gustation and salivary secretion after radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Kikuchi, Yuzo [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Hospital; Morita, Kozo; Murao, Takayuki; Yokoi, Motoo

    1995-06-01

    To estimate impairment of gustation and salivary secretion after radiation therapy, we classified the degree of gustation and xerostomia into 4 grades in 50 patients who had received radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies. We found that gustation recovered in most patients regardless of radiation dose, but salivary secretion recovered only when radiation dose was less than 40 to 50 Gy on the gland of the affected side and less than 30 to 40 Gy on the opposite side. (author).

  1. The anti-proton charge radius

    CERN Document Server

    Crivelli, P; Heiss, M W

    2016-01-01

    The upcoming operation of the Extra Low ENergy Antiprotons (ELENA) ring at CERN, the upgrade of the anti-proton decelerator (AD), and the installation in the AD hall of an intense slow positron beam with an expected flux of $10^{8}$ e$^+$/s will open the possibility for new experiments with anti-hydrogen ($\\bar{\\text{H}}$). Here we propose a scheme to measure the Lamb shift of $\\bar{\\text{H}}$. For a month of data taking, we anticipate an uncertainty of 100 ppm. This will provide a test of CPT and the first determination of the anti-proton charge radius at the level of 10%.

  2. Radiation therapy of lung carcinoma; Strahlentherapie des Bronchialkarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oertel, S.; Debus, J.; Hof, H.; Bischof, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    At first presentation and primary diagnosis approximately 50% of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and 25% of patients with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) have a potentially curable tumor stage. Definitive, adjuvant and neoadjuvant radio- (chemo-)therapy play an important role as part of multimodal treatment approaches. High radiation doses can be achieved in tumor areas with modern radiotherapy planning and treatment techniques without an increase of side-effects. The 3 year overall survival after primary radiotherapy is approximately 50% for patients with NSCLC in stage I and 20% in stage IIIA. Radiotherapy can be used in patients with progressive metastatic disease after insufficient response to systemic therapy with threatening thoracic symptoms and for palliative treatment of cerebral, lymphatic and osseous metastases. (orig.) [German] Etwa 50% der Patienten mit einem nichtkleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinom (NSCLC, ''non-small cell lung carcinoma'') und 25% der Patienten mit einem kleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinom (SCLC, ''small cell lung carcinoma'') befinden sich zum Zeitpunkt der Primaerdiagnose in einem potenziell heilbaren Tumorstadium. Die definitive, adjuvante und neoadjuvante Radio- (chemo-)therapie hat im Rahmen der multimodalen Behandlungskonzepte einen festen Stellenwert. Durch den Einsatz modernster Techniken bei der Bestrahlungsplanung und -therapie koennen hohe Strahlendosen bei gleichzeitiger Schonung des gesunden Gewebes appliziert werden. Die 3-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten fuer Patienten mit NSCLC betragen nach primaerer Bestrahlung {approx}50% im Stadium I und {approx}20% im Stadium IIIA. Im metastasierten Stadium wird eine Radiotherapie bei unzureichendem Ansprechen der systemischen Behandlung mit drohender thorakaler Symptomatik sowie zur palliativen Behandlung zerebraler, lymphogener oder ossaerer Metastasen eingesetzt. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of secondary radiation and radiation protection in laser-driven proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faby, Sebastian; Wilkens, Jan J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Physik-Dept.

    2015-09-01

    This work is a feasibility study of a radiation treatment unit with laser-driven protons based on a state-of-the-art energy selection system employing four dipole magnets in a compact shielded beamline. The secondary radiation emitted from the beamline and its energy selection system and the resulting effective dose to the patient are assessed. Further, it is evaluated whether or not such a compact system could be operated in a conventional treatment vault for clinical linear accelerators under the constraint of not exceeding the effective dose limit of 1 mSv per year to the general public outside the treatment room. The Monte Carlo code Geant4 is employed to simulate the secondary radiation generated while irradiating a hypothetical tumor. The secondary radiation inevitably generated inside the patient is taken into account as well, serving as a lower limit. The results show that the secondary radiation emanating from the shielded compact therapy system would pose a serious secondary dose contamination to the patient. This is due to the broad energy spectrum and in particular the angular distribution of the laser-driven protons, which make the investigated beamline together with the employed energy selection system quite inefficient. The secondary radiation also cannot be sufficiently absorbed in a conventional linear accelerator treatment vault to enable a clinical operation. A promising result, however, is the fact that the secondary radiation generated in the patient alone could be very well shielded by a regular treatment vault, allowing the application of more than 100 fractions of 2 Gy per day with protons. It is thus theoretically possible to treat patients with protons in such treatment vaults. Nevertheless, the results show that there is a clear need for alternative more efficient energy selection solutions for laser-driven protons.

  4. Combinations of Radiation Therapy and Immunotherapy for Melanoma: A Review of Clinical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Christopher A., E-mail: barkerc@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Postow, Michael A. [Department of Medicine, Melanoma and Sarcoma Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Radiation therapy has long played a role in the management of melanoma. Recent advances have also demonstrated the efficacy of immunotherapy in the treatment of melanoma. Preclinical data suggest a biologic interaction between radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Several clinical studies corroborate these findings. This review will summarize the outcomes of studies reporting on patients with melanoma treated with a combination of radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Vaccine therapies often use irradiated melanoma cells, and may be enhanced by radiation therapy. The cytokines interferon-α and interleukin-2 have been combined with radiation therapy in several small studies, with some evidence suggesting increased toxicity and/or efficacy. Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, has been combined with radiation therapy in several notable case studies and series. Finally, pilot studies of adoptive cell transfer have suggested that radiation therapy may improve the efficacy of treatment. The review will demonstrate that the combination of radiation therapy and immunotherapy has been reported in several notable case studies, series and clinical trials. These clinical results suggest interaction and the need for further study.

  5. Interaction of antiproton with nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hrtánková, J

    2015-01-01

    We performed fully self-consistent calculations of $\\bar{p}$-nuclear bound states within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. The G-parity motivated $\\bar{p}$-meson coupling constants were adjusted to yield potentials consistent with $\\bar{p}$-atom data. We confirmed large polarization effects of the nuclear core caused by the presence of the antiproton. The $\\bar{p}$ absorption in the nucleus was incorporated by means of the imaginary part of a phenomenological optical potential. The phase space reduction for the $\\bar{p}$ annihilation products was taken into account. The corresponding $\\bar{p}$ width in the medium significantly decreases, however, it still remains considerable for the $\\bar{p}$ potential consistent with experimental data.

  6. Academic Career Selection and Retention in Radiation Oncology: The Joint Center for Radiation Therapy Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The United States healthcare system has witnessed declining reimbursement and increasing documentation requirements for longer than 10 years. These have decreased the time available to academic faculty for teaching and mentorship. The impact of these changes on the career choices of residents is unknown. The purpose of this report was to determine whether changes have occurred during the past decade in the proportion of radiation oncology trainees from a single institution entering and staying in academic medicine. Methods and Materials: We performed a review of the resident employment experience of Harvard Joint Center for Radiation Therapy residents graduating during 13 recent consecutive years (n = 48 residents). The outcomes analyzed were the initial selection of an academic vs. nonacademic career and career changes during the first 3 years after graduation. Results: Of the 48 residents, 65% pursued an academic career immediately after graduation, and 44% remained in academics at the last follow-up, after a median of 6 years. A later graduation year was associated with a decrease in the proportion of graduates immediately entering academic medicine (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.94). However, the retention rate at 3 years of those who did immediately enter academics increased with a later graduation year (p = 0.03). Conclusion: During a period marked by notable changes in the academic healthcare environment, the proportion of graduating Harvard Joint Center for Radiation Therapy residents pursuing academic careers has been declining; however, despite this decline, the retention rates in academia have increased

  7. Recommendation of the working group commissioned by the French nuclear safety authority on stereotactic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. - At the request of the French nuclear safety authority (Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, ASN) a working party of multidisciplinary experts was initiated to elaborate a report regarding propositions for the clinical practice of stereotactic radiation therapy and the related medical physics. Material and methods. - Several stereotactic radiation therapy experts were audited by the working party, especially neurosurgeons and neuro-radiologists, as well as radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation technologists. An international survey was conducted looking at legal requirements and guidelines concerning stereotactic radiation therapy. A national survey was conducted in France among 29 departments performing stereotactic radiation therapy. The working party report was submitted for advice to the permanent group of medical experts of ASN. Results. - Among the 13 countries who responded, very few have legal documents. Some of them are stating that stereotactic radiation therapy must be performed in a radiotherapy department and only by well-trained professionals. Guidelines describing the role of each participant have been published in the USA. In France, stereotactic radiation therapy is performed with dedicated machines or adapted linear accelerators. In 2009, within the 29 departments, 4247 patients were treated with stereotactic radiation therapy representing 4% of the patients treated with external beam radiation therapy. Intracranial lesions were: 3383 and extracranial: 864. The working party of multidisciplinary experts made 7 recommendations. The first one saying that stereotactic radiation therapy must be considered as a radiotherapy. The permanent group of medical experts is asking to modify the 'decret du 19 mars 2007' regarding 'radiosurgery'. Conclusion. - The medical benefit of stereotactic radiation therapy is well admitted and it is an increasingly used technique. This work through practical guidelines and legal propositions intends

  8. Low Level Laser Therapy: laser radiation absorption in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Orlando, Stefano; Dell'Ariccia, Marco; Brandimarte, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experimental study in which we have measured the transmitted laser radiation through dead biological tissues of various animals (chicken, adult and young bovine, pig) in order to evaluate the maximum thickness through which the power density could still produce a reparative cellular effect. In our experiments we have utilized a pulsed laser IRL1 ISO model (based on an infrared diode GaAs, λ=904 nm) produced by BIOMEDICA s.r.l. commonly used in Low Level Laser Therapy. Some of the laser characteristics have been accurately studied and reported in this paper. The transmission results suggest that even with tissue thicknesses of several centimeters the power density is still sufficient to produce a cell reparative effect.

  9. Head and Neck Soft Tissue Sarcomas Treated with Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Lucas K.; Brown, Lindsay C.; Rooney, Jessica W.; Foote, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck soft tissue sarcomas (HNSTSs) are rare and heterogeneous cancers in which radiation therapy (RT) has an important role in local tumor control (LC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes and patterns of treatment failure in patients with HNSTS treated with RT. A retrospective review was performed of adult patients with HNSTS treated with RT from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2012. LC, locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and predictors thereof were assessed. Forty-eight patients with HNSTS were evaluated. Five-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of LC, LRC, DFS, and OS were 87, 73, 63, and 83%, respectively. Angiosarcomas were found to be associated with worse LC, LRC, DFS, and OS. Patients over the age of 60 had lower rates of DFS. HNSTSs comprise a diverse group of tumors that can be managed with various treatment regimens involving RT. Angiosarcomas have higher recurrence and mortality rates. PMID:27441072

  10. Carcinoma of the nasal vestibule treated with radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendenhall, N.P.; Parsons, J.T.; Cassisi, N.J.; Million, R.R.

    1987-05-01

    Twenty-two patients with squamous carcinoma of the nasal vestibule were treated at the University of Florida Division of Radiation Therapy with curative intent. Fifteen lesions were de novo and seven recurrent after surgery. By AJCC classification, 7 lesions were Tx or T1, 2 were T2, 2 were T3, and 11 were T4. Management of the primary tumor and regional lymphatic drainage was highly individualized. Local control was achieved in 19 out of 22 lesions. The ultimate regional lymph node control rate was 22 out of 22, although two patients required radical neck dissection after development of lymph node disease in untreated regional lymphatics. Two patients have died of cancer and three of intercurrent disease. Cosmetic results are generally excellent but may be compromised by previous surgery in recurrent lesions or tumor destruction of normal tissues in advanced lesions. Complications of treatment are minimal.

  11. Efficiency considerations in the expansion of radiation therapy services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: An economic option appraisal to determine whether early investment in capital is an efficient means of expanding radiation therapy services. Methods and Materials: Costs were based on 1991 data from a center in western Sydney. Two options were costed: Option 1 based on an increase in overtime performed by existing staff, using capital more intensively and possible use of shifts; Option 2 based on an investment in new capital and associated increases in levels of staffing. The health sector costs of both options were determined in one center at workloads of between 70,940 and 98,525 fields per year to assess relative efficiency. Results: There was very little difference in cost between both options, with Option 1 slightly cheaper at workloads up to 98,525 fields per year. Conclusions: The results suggest that capital investment may be introduced at a fairly early stage without efficiency loss. Sensitivity analysis reinforces these conclusions and the generalizability of the results

  12. Nutritional support as an adjunct to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with malignancies which are treated with therapeutic radiation are at risk for nutritional problems, both from their underlying malignancy as well as from their treatment. These effects may be acute or chronic and relate to the site of the tumor and regions irradiated. There is a large experience with nutritional intervention in irradiated patients, including oral feedings and enteral and parenteral nutritional support. The indications for the specific administration of nutritional support during radiotherapy depend on the nutritional status of the patient and the area irradiated, as well as the individual prognosis. Patients who are malnourished at the time of treatment are most likely to profit from nutritional intervention. To date, prospective randomized trials of nutritional support in patients undergoing radiotherapy fail to show a benefit of routine adjuvant nutritional intervention in terms of improved response and tolerance to treatment, improved local control or survival rates, or reduction of complications from therapy

  13. Laser-radiation therapy failures in stage II laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed laser-radiation combined therapy for stage I and II laryngeal cancers in order to preserve the larynx. In the present study, we retrospectively investigate the factors affecting the preservation of the larynx in stage II laryngeal cancer. The subjects consisted of 34 patients with stage II laryngeal cancer treated between 1988 and 1996 and observed for more than 2 years. Cases with involvement of the ventricle or false cord and those with impaired vocal cord movement showed a tendency towards the loss of their larynx. Moreover, these failures required a longer period to irradiate 1 gray on average than cases which led to a successful preservation of the larynx. (author)

  14. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survival in patients with unresectable pancreatic carcinoma is poor. Studies by Mayo Clinic and the Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group (GITSG) have established combined modality treatment with chemotherapy and radiation as the standard of care. Use of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy alone has also been shown to provide a benefit, but 5‑year overall survival still remains less than 5%. Conventional radiotherapy is traditionally delivered over a six week period and high toxicity is seen with the concomitant use of chemotherapy. In contrast, SBRT can be delivered in 3–5 days and, when used as a component of combined modality therapy with gemcitabine, disruption to the timely delivery of chemotherapy is minimal. Early single-institution reports of SBRT for unresectable pancreatic carcinoma demonstrate excellent local control with acceptable toxicity. Use of SBRT in unresectable pancreatic carcinoma warrants further investigation in order to improve the survival of patients with historically poor outcomes

  15. Carcinoma of the nasal vestibule treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-two patients with squamous carcinoma of the nasal vestibule were treated at the University of Florida Division of Radiation Therapy with curative intent. Fifteen lesions were de novo and seven recurrent after surgery. By AJCC classification, 7 lesions were Tx or T1, 2 were T2, 2 were T3, and 11 were T4. Management of the primary tumor and regional lymphatic drainage was highly individualized. Local control was achieved in 19 out of 22 lesions. The ultimate regional lymph node control rate was 22 out of 22, although two patients required radical neck dissection after development of lymph node disease in untreated regional lymphatics. Two patients have died of cancer and three of intercurrent disease. Cosmetic results are generally excellent but may be compromised by previous surgery in recurrent lesions or tumor destruction of normal tissues in advanced lesions. Complications of treatment are minimal

  16. Effects of radiation therapy on skeletal growth in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldwein, J.W. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Ionizing radiation was used to treat childhood cancer long before the advent of chemotherapy, and it took little time for physicians to appreciate the deleterious effects it had on skeletal growth. The cause of this complication results predominantly from alteration of chondroblastic activity. This may stem directly from irradiation at the epiphyseal plate or indirectly from irradiation of glands that secrete growth-mediating hormones. The complication can go far beyond the obvious physical afflictions and extend into the psychologic domain, rendering deeper, more permanent scars. Presently, many of these effects are predictable, reducible, and treatable without compromising the cure that so often depends on the use of irradiation. Because of the complexities of childhood cancer therapy, strategies aimed at diminishing these effects are challenging. It is imperative that these effects be understood so that they can be reduced in current patients and prevented in future patients.33 references.

  17. External radiation therapy for internal fistulation of malignant obstructive jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Yoshikazu; Miyazaki, Minoru; Yasumasa, Keigo; Higuti, Takuya; Hayashi, Hiroki; Iwahashi, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Shirou; Sumimura, Junichi; Nagai, Isao [Kinan General Hospital, Tanabe, Wakayama (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Internal fistulation is one of way to improve QOL for patients afflicted by malignant obstructive jaundice. Of 15 patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to malignancy in the past three years, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was performed in all cases, and internal fistulation was achieved in six and not in the other nine. Three of successful cases were irradiated with 10 MV x-ray using parallel opposing fields, with average dose of 29 Gy. There were no complaints of vomiting and nausea, pneumonia, or GI bleeding during radiation therapy. For the irradiated cases, it took 52 days from PTBD to fistulation. Internal fistulated patients had no problem with cholangitis or tube trouble, and all were discharged with good QOL. (author)

  18. The antiproton depth–dose curve measured with alanine detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bassler, Niels; Palmans, Hugo; Holzscheiter, Michael H; Kovacevic, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    n this paper we report on the measurement of the antiproton depth–dose curve, with alanine detectors. The results are compared with simulations using the particle energy spectrum calculated by FLUKA, and using the track structure model of Hansen and Olsen for conversion of calculated dose into response. A good agreement is observed between the measured and calculated relative effectiveness although an underestimation of the measured values beyond the Bragg-peak remains unexplained. The model prediction of response of alanine towards heavy charged particles encourages future use of the alanine detectors for dosimetry of mixed radiation fields.

  19. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Treating Long-Term Gastrointestinal Adverse Effects Caused by Radiation Therapy in Patients With Pelvic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    Bladder Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Gastrointestinal Complications; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Vaginal Cancer

  20. Antiproton Induced Fission and Fragmentation of Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The annihilation of slow antiprotons with nuclei results in a large highly localized energy deposition primarily on the nuclear surface. \\\\ \\\\ The study of antiproton induced fission and fragmentation processes is expected to yield new information on special nuclear matter states, unexplored fission modes, multifragmentation of nuclei, and intranuclear cascades.\\\\ \\\\ In order to investigate the antiproton-nucleus interaction and the processes following the antiproton annihilation at the nucleus, we propose the following experiments: \\item A)~Measurement of several fragments from fission and from multifragmentation in coincidence with particle spectra, especially neutrons and kaons. \\item B)~Precise spectra of $\\pi$, K, n, p, d and t with time-of-flight techniques. \\item C)~Installation of the Berlin 4$\\pi$ neutron detector with a 4$\\pi$ Si detector placed inside for fragments and charged particles. This yields neutron multiplicity distributions and consequently distributions of thermal excitation energies and...

  1. Prospects for Antiproton Experiments at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Daniel M

    2011-01-01

    Fermilab operates the world's most intense antiproton source. Newly proposed experiments can use those antiprotons either parasitically during Tevatron Collider running or after the end of the Tevatron Collider program. For example, the annihilation of 5 to 8 GeV antiprotons is expected to yield world-leading sensitivities to hyperon rare decays and CP violation. It could also provide the world's most intense source of tagged D^0 mesons, and thus the best near-term opportunity to study charm mixing and, via CP violation, to search for new physics. Other measurements that could be made include properties of the X(3872) and the charmonium system. An experiment using a Penning trap and an atom interferometer could make the world's most precise measurement of the gravitational force on antimatter. These and other potential measurements using antiprotons offer a great opportunity for a broad and exciting physics program at Fermilab in the post-Tevatron era.

  2. Dosimetrically Triggered Adaptive Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The widespread use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer has been limited by internal target and normal tissue motion. Such motion increases the risk of underdosing the target, especially as planning margins are reduced in an effort to reduce toxicity. This study explored 2 adaptive strategies to mitigate this risk and proposes a new, automated method that minimizes replanning workload. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with cervical cancer participated in a prospective clinical study and underwent pretreatment and weekly magnetic resonance (MR) scans over a 5-week course of daily external beam radiation therapy. Target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were contoured on each of the scans. Deformable image registration was used to model the accumulated dose (the real dose delivered to the target and OARs) for 2 adaptive replanning scenarios that assumed a very small PTV margin of only 3 mm to account for setup and internal interfractional motion: (1) a preprogrammed, anatomy-driven midtreatment replan (A-IMRT); and (2) a dosimetry-triggered replan driven by target dose accumulation over time (D-IMRT). Results: Across all 30 patients, clinically relevant target dose thresholds failed for 8 patients (27%) if 3-mm margins were used without replanning. A-IMRT failed in only 3 patients and also yielded an additional small reduction in OAR doses at the cost of 30 replans. D-IMRT assured adequate target coverage in all patients, with only 23 replans in 16 patients. Conclusions: A novel, dosimetry-triggered adaptive IMRT strategy for patients with cervical cancer can minimize the risk of target underdosing in the setting of very small margins and substantial interfractional motion while minimizing programmatic workload and cost

  3. Sulfasalazine and temozolomide with radiation therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Takeuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A recent phase 1/2 clinical trial argued for caution for the use of sulfasalazine in progressive glioblastoma (GBM. However, the study enrolled patients with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma indicating that patients recruited probably had severe disease. Thus, the study may not accurately reflect the effectiveness of sulfasalazine for GBM and we hypothesized that earlier sulfasalazine administration may lead to anticancer effects. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether sulfasalazine can improve the outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed GBM. Subjects and Methods: A total of 12 patients were treated with temozolomide and sulfasalazine with radiation therapy after surgery. Twelve patients with primary GBM treated with temozolomide and radiation therapy formed the control group. Progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS and seizure-free survival (SFS curves were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. The survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. Results: The median OS, PFS and SFS did not differ between the groups. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred over the duration of the study in nine (75% patients. The median SFS was 12 months in nine patients who received sulfasalazine administration for more than 21 days, which was strongly but not significantly longer than the 3 months observed in the control group (P = 0.078. Conclusions: Sulfasalazine treatment with temozolomide plus radiotherapy for newly diagnosed primary GBM is associated with a high rate of discontinuation due to hematologic toxic effects. This treatment may have no effect on OS or PFS, although it may improve seizure control if an adequate dose can be administered.

  4. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. Development of the technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is a result of advances in computer sciences that allowed the development of new technology related to planning and radiation therapy. IMRT was developed to homogenize the dose in the target volumes and decrease the dose in the surrounding healthy tissue. Using a software with high calculation capacity a simultaneous irradiation with different doses in a given volume is achieved. IMRT is based on internal planning. Material and methods: 628 patients were treated with IMRT in prostate lesions, head and neck, breast, thorax, abdomen and brain since August 2008. The software for IMRT is the XIO CMS and the accelerator used is a Varian Clinac 6 / 100. IMRT requires a first simulation, where immobilization systems are selected (mats, thermoplastic masks, among others) and the demarcation of the target structures, healthy tissue and dose prescription by a tattoo. Images of CT / MRI are merged when necessary. Once the system made the treatment optimization, this one is regulated by modulators. These are produced by numerical control machines from digital files produced by software. In a second modulation the planned irradiation is checked and tattoo is carried out according with this. We have a strict process of quality assurance to assess the viability of the plan before its implementation. We use the Map Check it possible to compare the dose on the central axis and the distribution in the whole plane regarding to that generated by the planning system. From 03/2008 the virtual simulation process was implemented integrating the described stages. Results and Conclusions: IMRT is a complex technique. The meticulous planning, implementation of process and quality control allows the use of this technique in a reliable and secure way. With IMRT we achieved a high level of dose conformation, less irradiation of healthy tissue, lower rates of complications and the dose escalation for some tumors. (authors)

  5. Definitions of biochemical failure in prostate cancer following radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) published a consensus panel definition of biochemical failure following radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In this paper, we develop a series of alternative definitions of biochemical failure. Using data from 688 patients, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the various definitions, with respect to a defined 'clinically meaningful' outcome. Methods and Materials: The ASTRO definition of biochemical failure requires 3 consecutive rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA). We considered several modifications to the standard definition: to require PSA rises of a certain magnitude, to consider 2 instead of 3 rises, to require the final PSA value to be greater than a fixed cutoff level, and to define biochemical failure based on the slope of PSA over 1, 1.5, or 2 years. A clinically meaningful failure is defined as local recurrence, distant metastases, initiation of unplanned hormonal therapy, unplanned radical prostatectomy, or a PSA>25 later than 6 months after radiation. Results: Requiring the final PSA in a series of consecutive rises to be larger than 1.5 ng/mL increased the specificity of biochemical failure. For a fixed specificity, defining biochemical failure based on 2 consecutive rises, or the slope over the last year, could increase the sensitivity by up to approximately 20%, compared to the ASTRO definition. Using a rule based on the slope over the previous year or 2 rises leads to a slightly earlier detection of biochemical failure than does the ASTRO definition. Even with the best rule, only approximately 20% of true failures are biochemically detected more than 1 year before the clinically meaningful event time. Conclusion: There is potential for improvement in the ASTRO consensus definition of biochemical failure. Further research is needed, in studies with long follow-up times, to evaluate the relationship between various definitions of biochemical failure and

  6. Proton-minibeam radiation therapy: A proof of concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prezado, Y. [IMNC-UMR 8165, CNRS, Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Fois, G. R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari, Strada provinciale Monserrato Sestu km 0.700, Monserrato, Cagliari 09042 (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: This Monte Carlo simulation work aims at studying a new radiotherapy approach called proton-minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT). The main objective of this proof of concept was the evaluation of the possible gain in tissue sparing, thanks to the spatial fractionation of the dose, which could be used to deposit higher and potentially curative doses in clinical cases where tissue tolerances are a limit for conventional methods. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations (GATE v.6) have been used as a method to calculate the ratio of the peak-to-valley doses (PVDR) for arrays of proton minibeams of 0.7 mm width and several center-to-center distances, at different depths in a water phantom. The beam penumbras were also evaluated as an important parameter for tissue sparing, for example, in the treatment of non-cancer diseases like epilepsy. Two proton energies were considered in this study: a clinically relevant energy (105 MeV) and a very high energy (1 GeV), to benefit from a reduced lateral scattering. For the latter case, an interlaced geometry was also evaluated. Results: Higher or similar PVDR than the ones obtained in x-rays minibeam radiation therapy were achieved in several pMBRT configurations. In addition, for the two energies studied, the beam penumbras are smaller than in the case of Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Conclusions: The high PVDR obtained for some configurations and the small penumbras in comparison with existing radiosurgery techniques, suggest a potential gain in healthy tissue sparing in this new technique. Biological studies are warranted to assess the effects of pMBRT on both normal and tumoral tissues.

  7. Potential of biological images for radiation therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent technical advances in 3D conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy (3DCRT and IMRT) based, on patient-specific CT and MRI images, have the potential of delivering exquisitely conformal dose distributions to the target volume while avoiding critical structures. Emerging clinical results in terms of reducing treatment-related morbidity and increasing local control appear promising. Recent developments in imaging have suggested that biological images may further positively impact cancer diagnosis, characterization and therapy. While in the past radiological images are largely anatomical, the new types of images can provide metabolic, biochemical, physiological, functional and molecular (genotypic and phenotypic) information. For radiation therapy, images that give information about factors (e.g. tumor hypoxia, Tpot) that influence radiosensitivity and treatment outcome can be regarded as radiobiological images. The ability of IMRT to 'paint' (in 2D) or 'sculpt' (in 3D) the dose, and produce exquisitely conformal dose distributions begs the '64 million dollar question' as to how to paint or sculpt, and whether biological imaging may provide the pertinent information. Can this new approach provide 'radiobiological phenotypes' non-invasively, and incrementally improve upon the predictive assays of radiobiological characteristics such as proliferative activity (Tpot - the potential doubling time), radiosensitivity (SF2 - the surviving fraction at a dose of 2 Gy), energy status (relative to sublethal damage repair), pH (a possible surrogate of hypoxia), tumor hypoxia, etc. as prognosticator(s) of radiation treatment outcome. Important for IMRT, the spatial (geometrical) distribution of the radiobiological phenotypes provide the basis for dose distribution design to conform to both the physical (geometrical) and the biological attributes. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  8. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Brain Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for brain tumours is based on data from 9 randomized trials and 1 meta-analysis. Moreover, data from 2 prospective studies, 3 retrospective studies and 4 other articles were used. In total, 19 scientific articles are included, involving 4,266 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 11,252 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized as follows: The conclusion from SBU 129/2 that curative treatment is not available for patients with high-grade malignant glioma (grade III and IV) is still valid. The survival benefit from postoperative radiotherapy compared to supportive care only or chemotherapy is about 3-4 months, as demonstrated in earlier randomized studies. Quality of life is now currently estimated and considered to be of major importance when reporting the outcome of treatment for patients with brain tumours. There is no scientific evidence that radiotherapy using hyper- and hypofractionation leads to longer survival for patients with high-grade malignant glioma than conventional radiotherapy. There is large documentation, but only one randomized study. There is some documentation to support the view that patients with grade IV glioma and poor prognosis can be treated with hypofractionation and with an outcome similar to that after conventional fractionation. A shorter treatment time should be convenient for the patient. Documentation of the benefit of a radiotherapy boost with brachytherapy is limited and no conclusion can be drawn. There is no scientific evidence that radiotherapy prolongs life for patients with low-grade glioma. There are some data supporting that radiotherapy can be used to treat symptoms in

  9. Experimental setup and first measurement of DNA damage induced along and around an antiproton beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavanagh, J. N.; Currell, F. J.; Timson, D. J.;

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy employs ionizing radiation to induce lethal DNA lesions in cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissues. Due to their pattern of energy deposition, better therapeutic outcomes can, in theory, be achieved with ions compared to photons. Antiprotons have been proposed to offer...

  10. Automated fiducial marker planning for thoracic stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jason D.; Rai, Lav; Wibowo, Henky; Tsalyuk, Serge; Anderson, Eric D.

    2012-02-01

    Stereotactic body-radiation therapy (SBRT) has gained acceptance in treating lung cancer. Localization of a thoracic lesion is challenging as tumors can move significantly with breathing. Some SBRT systems compensate for tumor motion with the intrafraction tracking of targets by two stereo fluoroscopy cameras. However, many lung tumors lack a fluoroscopic signature and cannot be directly tracked. Small radiopaque fiducial markers, acting as fluoroscopically visible surrogates, are instead implanted nearby. The spacing and configuration of the fiducial markers is important to the success of the therapy as SBRT systems impose constraints on the geometry of a fiducial-marker constellation. It is difficult even for experienced physicians mentally assess the validity of a constellation a priori. To address this challenge, we present the first automated planning system for bronchoscopic fiducial-marker placement. Fiducial-marker planning is posed as a constrained combinatoric optimization problem. Constraints include requiring access from a navigable airway, having sufficient separation in the fluoroscopic imaging planes to resolve each individual marker, and avoidance of major blood vessels. Automated fiducial-marker planning takes approximately fifteen seconds, fitting within the clinical workflow. The resulting locations are integrated into a virtual bronchoscopic planning system, which provides guidance to each location during the implantation procedure. To date, we have retrospectively planned over 50 targets for treatment, and have implanted markers according to the automated plan in one patient who then underwent SBRT treatment. To our knowledge, this approach is the first to address automated bronchoscopic fiducialmarker planning for SBRT.

  11. Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols. Material and methods: cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I-II studies of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. The rationale of these combinations, early efficacy and toxicity data, and possible molecular predictors for tumor response are reviewed. Computerized bibliographic searches of Pubmed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO and ASTRO meetings. Results: the combination of cetuximab and CRT can be safely applied without dose compromises of the respective treatment components. Disappointingly low rates of pathologic complete remission have been noted in several phase II studies. The K-ras mutation status and the gene copy number of EGFR may predict tumor response. The toxicity pattern (radiation-induced enteritis, perforations) and surgical complications (wound healing, fistula, bleeding) observed in at least some of the clinical studies with bevacizumab and CRT warrant further investigations. Conclusion: longer follow-up (and, finally, randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates, and toxicity associated with these novel treatment approaches. (orig.)

  12. Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, Friederike; Roedel, Franz; Capalbo, Gianni; Weiss, Christian; Roedel, Claus [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Background: EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols. Material and methods: cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I-II studies of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. The rationale of these combinations, early efficacy and toxicity data, and possible molecular predictors for tumor response are reviewed. Computerized bibliographic searches of Pubmed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO and ASTRO meetings. Results: the combination of cetuximab and CRT can be safely applied without dose compromises of the respective treatment components. Disappointingly low rates of pathologic complete remission have been noted in several phase II studies. The K-ras mutation status and the gene copy number of EGFR may predict tumor response. The toxicity pattern (radiation-induced enteritis, perforations) and surgical complications (wound healing, fistula, bleeding) observed in at least some of the clinical studies with bevacizumab and CRT warrant further investigations. Conclusion: longer follow-up (and, finally, randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates, and toxicity associated with these novel treatment approaches. (orig.)

  13. Radiation Therapy in Malignant Tumors of the Parotid Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. R.; Oh, W. Y.; Suh, C. O.; Kim, G. E.; Loh, J. K. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-06-15

    From 1970 to 1982, thirty one patients with malignant tumors of the parotid gland were treated with radiation therapy at department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei Cancer Center. Indication for radiotherapy were as follows: 1) when there were microscopic or gross residual diseases (6 patients), 2) when patients considered to have high risk factors (15 patients), 3) when the tumor found to be inoperable (6 patients), 4) when there was recurrence after surgery (4 patients). Most patients were treated with a total of 5,000 to 6,500 cGy in 5 to 6 weeks except when there were gross diseases, in which patients received slightly higher dose up to 7,000 cGy in 7 weeks. Locoregional failure rate was 43% in patients with microscopic or gross residual disease and high risk factors (postoperative radiotherapy group) and 20% in patients with inoperable tumor and recurrence after surgery (primary radiotherapy group). There was no difference in the failure rates among the various histological types. Eight patients failed distantly. Severe complications appeared only in 2 patients irradiated for inoperable advanced diseases.

  14. Results of radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of vulva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukiyama, Iwao; Kakehi, Masae; Ono, Ryosuke (National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)

    1984-04-01

    From 1962 to 1982, 20 cases of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva were treated by radiation alone at National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo. 80% (16/20) of these cases were over 60 years old. Treatment was made by interstitial irradiation (Radium needle or Au-Grain) and external irradiation (Betatron electron or Linac X-rays), alone or with various combinations. As for the stage of these cases, Stage I was 3 cases (15%), Stage II was 5 (25%) and Stage III was 12 (60%). Serious complications after treatment were observed in 15% (3/20) and all cases were treated with external irradiation alone. The 5 year survival rates by stage were as follows; Stage I 100% (3/3), Stage II 50% (2/4) and Stage III 22.2% (2/9). Surgery is considered the treatment of choice in this disease. However, radiation therapy may be indicated when the tumor has extended beyond the limit of surgical resections; when distant metastases are present; when the patient's general condition precludes surgery, or when surgery is refused.

  15. Results of radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1962 to 1982, 20 cases of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva were treated by radiation alone at National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo. 80% (16/20) of these cases were over 60 years old. Treatment was made by interstitial irradiation (Radium needle or Au-Grain) and external irradiation (Betatron electron or Linac X-rays), alone or with various combinations. As for the stage of these cases, Stage I was 3 cases (15%), Stage II was 5 (25%) and Stage III was 12 (60%). Serious complications after treatment were observed in 15% (3/20) and all cases were treated with external irradiation alone. The 5 year survival rates by stage were as follows; Stage I 100% (3/3), Stage II 50% (2/4) and Stage III 22.2% (2/9). Surgery is considered the treatment of choice in this disease. However, radiation therapy may be indicated when the tumor has extended beyond the limit of surgical resections; when distant metastases are present; when the patient's general condition precludes surgery, or when surgery is refused. (author)

  16. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-05-01

    We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT). They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost against the tumour bed) with a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic irradiation can cause significant injury to the peripheral nerves of the lumbosacral plexus and/or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic. PMID:22949908

  17. Pediatric meuroblastoma: postoperative radiation therapy using less than 2000 rad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable controversy regarding the role of radiaiton therapy in the treatment of neuroblastoma. Postoperative irradiation in the range of 2500-4000 rad is commonly used in the treatment of Evans Stage II or III disease, but there are no data in the literature to suggest the optimum dose of radiation that is necessary. Because much lower doses have been used at the University of Florida, a retrospective study was undertaken in an attempt to determine the optimum dose necessary in conjunction with surgery. From March 1964 through July 1979, 21 children with Stage II or III neuroblastoma were seen at the University of Florida. One patient died postoperatively. The remainder received postoperative irradiation with doses ranging from 900 to 4500 rad. The lower dose of radiation used did not adversely influence survival, particularly for patients less than two years of age diagnosis. In this group, no patient had a local recurrence or died of disease, even though nine of 15 available patients received doses of 900-1500 rad

  18. Pediatric meuroblastoma: postoperative radiation therapy using less than 2000 rad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, H.M.; Marcus, R.B. Jr; Thar, T.L.; Million, R.R.; Graham-Pole, J.R.; Talbert, J.L.

    1983-04-01

    There is considerable controversy regarding the role of radiaiton therapy in the treatment of neuroblastoma. Postoperative irradiation in the range of 2500-4000 rad is commonly used in the treatment of Evans Stage II or III disease, but there are no data in the literature to suggest the optimum dose of radiation that is necessary. Because much lower doses have been used at the University of Florida, a retrospective study was undertaken in an attempt to determine the optimum dose necessary in conjunction with surgery. From March 1964 through July 1979, 21 children with Stage II or III neuroblastoma were seen at the University of Florida. One patient died postoperatively. The remainder received postoperative irradiation with doses ranging from 900 to 4500 rad. The lower dose of radiation used did not adversely influence survival, particularly for patients less than two years of age diagnosis. In this group, no patient had a local recurrence or died of disease, even though nine of 15 available patients received doses of 900-1500 rad.

  19. Radiation therapy for the palliation of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reviews the experience at the University of Arizona in an effort to define the minimum effective radiation dose for durable pain relief in the majority of patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma. The records of 101 patients with multiple myeloma irradiated for palliation at the University of Arizona between 1975 and 1990 were reviewed. Three hundred sixteen sites were treated. Ten sites were asymptomatic, including six hemibody fields with advanced disease unresponsive to chemotherapy and four local fields with impending pathological fractures. Three hundred six evaluable symptomatic sites remained. The most common symptom was bone pain. Other symptoms included neurological impairment with a palpable mass. Total tumor dose ranged from 3.0 to 60 Gy, with a mean of 25 Gy. Symptom relief was obtained in 297 of 306 evaluable symptomatic sites (97%). Complete relief of symptoms was obtained in 26% and partial relief in 71%. Symptom relief was obtained in 92% of sites receiving a total dose less than 10 Gy (n = 13) and 98% of sites receiving 10 Gy or more (n = 293). No dose-response could be demonstrated. The likelihood of symptom relief was not influenced by the location of the lesion or the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Of the 297 responding sites, 6% (n = 19) relapsed after a median symptom-free interval of 16 months. Neither the probability of relapse nor the time to relapse was related to the radiation dose. Retreatment of relapsing sites provided effective palliation in all cases. Radiation therapy is effective in palliating local symptoms in multiple myeloma. A total dose of 10 Gy should provide durable symptom relief in the majority of patients. 16 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Stroke-like Migraine Attacks after Radiation Therapy Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Zheng; Li Yang; Li-Ming Tan; Li-Xia Qin; Chun-Yu Wang; Hai-Nan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To summarize the clinical presentation,pathogenesis,neuroimaging,treatment,and outcome of stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome,and to propose diagnostic criteria for this disorder.Data Sources:We searched the PubMed database for articles in English published from 1995 to 2015 using the terms of "stroke-like AND migraine AND radiation." Reference lists of the identified articles and reviews were used to retrieve additional articles.Study Selection:Data and articles related to late-onset effects of cerebral radiation were selected and reviewed.Results:SMART is a rare condition that involves complex migraines with focal neurologic deficits following cranial irradiation for central nervous system malignancies.The recovery,which ranges from hours to days to weeks,can be partial or complete.We propose the following diagnostic criteria for SMART:(1) Remote history of therapeutic external beam cranial irradiation for malignancy;(2) prolonged,reversible clinical manifestations mostly years after irradiation,which may include migraine,seizures,hemiparesis,hemisensory deficits,visuospatial defect,aphasia,confusion and so on;(3) reversible,transient,unilateral cortical gadolinium enhancement correlative abnormal T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal of the affected cerebral region;(4) eventual complete or partial recovery,the length of duration of recovery ranging from hours to days to weeks;(5) no evidence of residual or recurrent tumor;(6) not attributable to another disease.To date,no specific treatment has been identified for this syndrome.Conclusions:SMART is an extremely rare delayed complication of brain irradiation.However,improvements in cancer survival rates have resulted in a rise in its frequency.Hence,awareness and recognition of the syndrome is important to make a rapid diagnosis and avoid aggressive interventions such as brain biopsy and cerebral angiography.

  1. Long-term outcomes for adult craniopharyngioma following radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masson-Cote, Laurence; Masucci, Giuseppina Laura; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Laperriere, Normand J. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Atenafu, Eshetu G. [Dept. of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Cusimano, Michael [Dept. of Surgery, Div. of Neurosurgery, St. Michaels Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Croul, Sidney [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Mason, Warren [Dept. of Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (Canada), E-mail: Arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca; Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Background. We report long-term outcomes in adult patients with craniopharyngioma following surgery and radiation therapy (RT). Material and methods. Fifty-three patients treated with RT (median, 50 Gy in 25 fractions) between 1980 and 2009 with pathologically confirmed craniopharyngioma were reviewed (53% solid and 47% cystic/solid). The median age was 53 years (range, 22-76), 53% were female, 83% were sub-totally resected, 6% were gross totally resected and 11% had a biopsy and/or cyst aspiration alone. RT was delivered adjuvantly in 53% of patients as opposed to salvage intent upon progression. Results. Median follow-up was seven years (86 months, range, 8-259). The 5- and 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 85% and 69%, overall survival (OS) rates were 76% and 70%, and cause-specific survival (CSS) rates were both 88%, respectively. Both univariable and multivariable analysis identified age (<53 or {>=}53) as a prognostic factor for OS (p =0.0003) and CSS (p =0.05). PFS was observed to be worse in patients with >2 surgeries prior to RT (p =0.01). Neither the intent of radiation or tumor type (cystic vs. solid/cystic) were prognostic or predictive. New endocrinopathies and visual dysfunction were observed in 53% and 17% of patients post-surgery, and in 11% and 6% post-RT, respectively. Conclusion. We report long-term favorable PFS, CSS and OS for craniopharyngioma post-RT. We observe age as a significant prognostic factor, however, timing of radiation was not.

  2. 21 CFR 892.5900 - X-ray radiation therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false X-ray radiation therapy system. 892.5900 Section 892.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5900 X-ray radiation therapy...

  3. 21 CFR 892.5710 - Radiation therapy beam-shaping block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiation therapy beam-shaping block. 892.5710 Section 892.5710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5710 Radiation therapy...

  4. An Evaluation of Dose Equivalence between Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation Therapy and Conventional Broadbeam Radiation Using Clonogenic and Cell Impedance Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Johari Ibahim; Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Yuqing Yang; Marina Zaitseva; Andrew W Stevenson; Rogers, Peter A. W.; Premila Paiva

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-dose synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) has shown the potential to deliver improved outcomes over conventional broadbeam (BB) radiation therapy. To implement synchrotron MRT clinically for cancer treatment, it is necessary to undertake dose equivalence studies to identify MRT doses that give similar outcomes to BB treatments. AIM: To develop an in vitro approach to determine biological dose equivalence between MRT and BB using two different cell-based assays. METHO...

  5. Modern Radiation Therapy for Primary Cutaneous Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Lena, E-mail: lena.specht@regionh.dk [Departments of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Dabaja, Bouthaina [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Illidge, Tim [Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, The Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Hoppe, Richard T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases. They often remain localized, and they generally have a more indolent course and a better prognosis than lymphomas in other locations. They are highly radiosensitive, and radiation therapy is an important part of the treatment, either as the sole treatment or as part of a multimodality approach. Radiation therapy of primary cutaneous lymphomas requires the use of special techniques that form the focus of these guidelines. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group steering committee on the use of radiation therapy in primary cutaneous lymphomas in the modern era.

  6. Dysuria Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einsley-Marie eJanowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysuria following prostate radiation therapy is a common toxicity that adversely affects patients’ quality of life and may be difficult to manage. Methods: 204 patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT from 2007 to 2010 for localized prostate carcinoma with a minimum follow up of three years were included in this retrospective review of prospectively collected data. All patients were treated to 35-36.25Gy in 5 fractions delivered with robotic SBRT with real time fiducial tracking. Dysuria and other lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed via Question 4b (Pain or burning on urination of the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC-26 and the American Urological Association (AUA Symptom Score at baseline and at routine follow up. Results: 204 patients (82 low-, 105 intermediate-, and 17 high risk according to the D’Amico classification at a median age of 69 years (range 48-91 received SBRT for their localized prostate cancer with a median follow up of 47 months. Bother associated with dysuria significantly increased from a baseline of 12% to a maximum of 43% at one month (p<0.0001. There were two distinct peaks of moderate to severe dysuria bother at 1 month and at 6-12 months, with 9% of patients experiencing a late transient dysuria flare. While a low level of dysuria was seen through the first two years of follow-up, it returned to below baseline by two years (p=0.91. The median baseline AUA score of 7.5 significantly increased to 11 at 1 month (p<0.0001 and returned to 7 at 3 months (p= 0.54. Patients with dysuria had a statistically higher AUA score at baseline and at all follow-ups up to 30 months. Dysuria significantly correlated with dose and AUA score on multivariate analysis. Frequency and strain significantly correlated with dysuria on stepwise multivariate analysis.Conclusions: The rate and severity of dysuria following SBRT is comparable to patients treated with other radiation modalities.

  7. Prevention of normal tissue complications in radiation therapy of head and neck cancer : the role of 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.B. Wijers (Oda)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn The Netherlands. head and neck cancer (3.9%) ranks the eighth most frequemly diagnoscd malignant tumor. Radiation therapy (IIT) plays an important role in the treatmem of patients with head and neck cancer, as they constitute approximately 6% of those treated in a routine radiation th

  8. The Role of Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy with Photons, Protons and Heavy Ions for Treating Extracranial Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Michael Laine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the ability to deliver large doses of ionizing radiation to a tumor has been limited by radiation induced toxicity to normal surrounding tissues. This was the initial impetus for the development of conventionally fractionated radiation therapy, where large volumes of healthy tissue received radiation and were allowed the time to repair the radiation damage. However, advances in radiation delivery techniques and image guidance have allowed for more ablative doses of radiation to be delivered in a very accurate, conformal and safe manner with shortened fractionation schemes. Hypofractionated regimens with photons have already transformed how certain tumor types are treated with radiation therapy. Additionally, hypofractionation is able to deliver a complete course of ablative radiation therapy over a shorter period of time compared to conventional fractionation regimens making treatment more convenient to the patient and potentially more cost-effective. Recently there has been an increased interest in proton therapy because of the potential further improvement in dose distributions achievable due to their unique physical characteristics. Furthermore, with heavier ions the dose conformality is increased and in addition there is potentially a higher biological effectiveness compared to protons and photons. Due to the properties mentioned above, charged particle therapy has already become an attractive modality to further investigate the role of hypofractionation in the treatment of various tumors. This review will discuss the rationale and evolution of hypofractionated radiation therapy, the reported clinical success with initially photon and then charged particle modalities, and further potential implementation into treatment regimens going forward.

  9. Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Postprostatectomy Patients Using Real-Time Electromagnetic Target Motion Tracking During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Methods and Materials: Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (Dmin) with the planned Dmin to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV Dmin is at least 95% of the planned CTV Dmin. Results: Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: −0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Conclusion: Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery

  10. Dosimetric comparison of three dimensional conformal radiation therapy versus intensity modulated radiation therapy in accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Moorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: Breast conserving surgery (BCS is the standard treatment for stage I and II breast cancer. Multiple studies have shown that recurrences after lumpectomy occur mainly in or near the tumor bed. Use of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI allows for significant reduction in the overall treatment time that results in increasing patient compliance and decreasing healthcare costs. We conducted a treatment planning study to evaluate the role of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT with regards to three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT in APBI. Materials and Methods: Computed tomography planning data sets of 33 patients (20 right sided and 13 left sided with tumor size less than 3 cm and negative axillary lymph nodes were used for our study. Tumor location was upper outer, upper inner, central, lower inner, and lower outer quadrants in 10, 10, 5, 4 and 4 patients, respectively. Multiple 3DCRT and IMRT plans were created for each patient. Total dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions were planned. Dosimetric analysis was done for the best 3DCRT and IMRT plans. Results: The target coverage has been achieved by both the methods but IMRT provided better coverage (P = 0.04 with improved conformity index (P = 0.01. Maximum doses were well controlled in IMRT to below 108% (P < 0.01. Heart V2 Gy (P < 0.01, lung V5 Gy (P = 0.01, lung V10 Gy (P = 0.02, contralateral breast V1 Gy (P < 0.01, contralateral lung V2 Gy (P < 0.01, and ipsilateral uninvolved breast (P < 0.01 doses were higher with 3DCRT compared to IMRT. Conclusion: Dosimetrically, IMRT–APBI provided best target coverage with less dose to normal tissues compared with 3DCRT-APBI.

  11. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a {sup 60}Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, H. Omar, E-mail: hwooten@radonc.wustl.edu; Green, Olga; Yang, Min; DeWees, Todd; Kashani, Rojano; Olsen, Jeff; Michalski, Jeff; Yang, Deshan; Tanderup, Kari; Hu, Yanle; Li, H. Harold; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating {sup 60}Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. Methods and Materials: The ViewRay treatment planning system (Oakwood Village, OH) was used to create {sup 60}Co IMRT treatment plans for 33 cancer patients with disease in the abdominal, pelvic, thorax, and head and neck regions using physician-specified patient-specific target coverage and organ at risk (OAR) objectives. Backup plans using a third-party linear accelerator (linac)-based planning system were also created. Plans were evaluated by attending physicians and approved for treatment. The {sup 60}Co and linac plans were compared by evaluating conformity numbers (CN) with 100% and 95% of prescription reference doses and heterogeneity indices (HI) for planning target volumes (PTVs) and maximum, mean, and dose-volume histogram (DVH) values for OARs. Results: All {sup 60}Co IMRT plans achieved PTV coverage and OAR sparing that were similar to linac plans. PTV conformity for {sup 60}Co was within <1% and 3% of linac plans for 100% and 95% prescription reference isodoses, respectively, and heterogeneity was on average 4% greater. Comparisons of OAR mean dose showed generally better sparing with linac plans in the low-dose range <20 Gy, but comparable sparing for organs with mean doses >20 Gy. The mean doses for all {sup 60}Co plan OARs were within clinical tolerances. Conclusions: A commercial {sup 60}Co MR-IGRT device can produce highly conformal IMRT treatment plans similar in quality to linac IMRT for a variety of disease sites. Additional work is in progress to evaluate the clinical benefit of other novel features of this MR-IGRT system.

  12. Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Postprostatectomy Patients Using Real-Time Electromagnetic Target Motion Tracking During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Mingyao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Bharat, Shyam [Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, New York (United States); Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, Hiram A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Hou, Wei-Hsien [St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Methods and Materials: Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (D{sub min}) with the planned D{sub min} to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV D{sub min} is at least 95% of the planned CTV D{sub min}. Results: Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: −0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Conclusion: Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery.

  13. A case of spontaneous pneumothorax following radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumothorax (SPTX is a potentially devastating rare complication of the thoracic radiation therapy. Most of the cases in the medical literature, have been described in lymphoma patients receiving radiation therapy. The pathogenesis of this adverse event remains undefined although different mechanisms have been proposed. We present a case of post-radiation therapy SPTX in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, following intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, which to our knowledge is the first such reported case related to this newer mode of radiation therapy. This report highlights the importance of keeping a close eye for this complication as timely treatment with chest tube insertion and drainage of the pneumothorax can be a lifesaving in these patients.

  14. A Patterns of Care Study of the Various Radiation Therapies for Prostate Cancer among Korean Radiation Oncologists in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Sung; Ha, Sung Whan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-06-15

    To conduct a nationwide academic hospital patterns of the practice status and principles of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The survey will help develop the framework of a database of Korean in Patterns of Case Study. A questionnaire about radiation treatment status and principles was sent to radiation oncologists in charge of prostate cancer treatment at thirteen academic hospitals in Korea. The data was analyzed to find treatment principles among the radiation oncologists when treating prostate cancer. The number of patients with prostate cancer and treated with radiation ranged from 60 to 150 per academic hospital in Seoul City and 10 to 15 outside of Seoul City in 2006. The primary diagnostic methods of prostate cancer included the ultrasound guided biopsy on 6 to 12 prostate sites (mean=9), followed by magnetic resonance imaging and a whole body bone scan. Internal and external immobilizations were used in 61.5% and 76.9%, respectively, with diverse radiation targets. Whole pelvis radiation therapy (dose ranging from 45.0 to 50.4 Gy) was performed in 76.9%, followed by the irradiation of seminal vesicles (54.0{approx}73.8 Gy) in 92.3%. The definitive radiotherapy doses were increased as a function of risk group, but the range of radiation doses was wide (60.0 to 78.5 Gy). Intensity modulated radiation therapy using doses greater than 70 Gy, were performed in 53.8% of academic hospitals. In addition, the simultaneous intra-factional boost (SIB) technique was used in three hospitals; however, the target volume and radiation dose were diverse. Radiation therapy to biochemical recurrence after a radical prostatectomy was performed in 84.6%; however, the radiation dose was variable and the radiation field ranged from whole pelvis to prostate bed. The results of this study suggest that a nationwide Korean Patterns of Care Study is necessary for the recommendation of radiation therapy guidelines of prostate cancer.

  15. An analysis of the incidence and related factors for radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients who receive radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Young; Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heui Kwan [Prebyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We analyzed the incidence and related factors of radiation dermatitis; at first, to recognize whether a decrease in radiation dermatitis is possible or not in breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy. Of 338 patients, 284 with invasive breast cancer who received breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy at Chonbuk National University Hospital from January 2007 to June 2009 were evaluated. Patients who also underwent bolus, previous contralateral breast irradiation and irradiation on both breasts were excluded. For patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis, the incidence and relating factors for radiation dermatitis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 207 and 77 patients appeared to have RTOG grade 0/1 or above RTOG grade 2 radiation dermatitis, respectively. The factors found to be statistically significant for the 77 patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis include the presence of lymphocele due to the stasis of lymph and lymph edema which affect the healing disturbance of radiation dermatitis (p=0.003, p=0.001). Moreover, an allergic reaction to plaster due to the immune cells of skin and the activation of cytokine and concomitant hormonal therapy were also statistically significant factors (p=0.001, p=0.025). Most of the breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy appeared to have a greater than mild case of radiation dermatitis. Lymphocele, lymphedema, an allergy to plaster and concomitant hormonal therapy which affect radiation dermatitis were found to be significant factors. Consequently, we should eliminate lymphocele prior to radiation treatment for patients who appear to have an allergic reaction to plaster. We should also instruct patients of methods to maintain skin moisture if they appear to have a greater than moderate case of radiation dermatitis.

  16. An analysis of the incidence and related factors for radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients who receive radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the incidence and related factors of radiation dermatitis; at first, to recognize whether a decrease in radiation dermatitis is possible or not in breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy. Of 338 patients, 284 with invasive breast cancer who received breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy at Chonbuk National University Hospital from January 2007 to June 2009 were evaluated. Patients who also underwent bolus, previous contralateral breast irradiation and irradiation on both breasts were excluded. For patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis, the incidence and relating factors for radiation dermatitis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 207 and 77 patients appeared to have RTOG grade 0/1 or above RTOG grade 2 radiation dermatitis, respectively. The factors found to be statistically significant for the 77 patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis include the presence of lymphocele due to the stasis of lymph and lymph edema which affect the healing disturbance of radiation dermatitis (p=0.003, p=0.001). Moreover, an allergic reaction to plaster due to the immune cells of skin and the activation of cytokine and concomitant hormonal therapy were also statistically significant factors (p=0.001, p=0.025). Most of the breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy appeared to have a greater than mild case of radiation dermatitis. Lymphocele, lymphedema, an allergy to plaster and concomitant hormonal therapy which affect radiation dermatitis were found to be significant factors. Consequently, we should eliminate lymphocele prior to radiation treatment for patients who appear to have an allergic reaction to plaster. We should also instruct patients of methods to maintain skin moisture if they appear to have a greater than moderate case of radiation dermatitis.

  17. The antiproton depth–dose curve in water

    CERN Document Server

    Bassler, N; Jäkel, O; Knudsen, H V; Kovacevic, S

    2008-01-01

    We have measured the depth–dose curve of 126 MeV antiprotons in a water phantom using ionization chambers. Since the antiproton beam provided by CERN has a pulsed structure and possibly carries a high-LET component from the antiproton annihilation, it is necessary to correct the acquired charge for ion recombination effects. The results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations and were found to be in good agreement. Based on this agreement we calculate the antiproton depth–dose curve for antiprotons and compare it with that for protons and find a doubling of the physical dose in the peak region for antiprotons.

  18. Effect of radiation therapy on autologous and allogeneic bone grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Currently no significant literature exists regarding the effects of therapeutic radiation on bone graft integrity in humans. As the combination of these procedures is frequently necessary in the treatment of neoplasms, we have retrospectively analyzed graft outcomes in irradiated sites. Materials and Methods: 40 autologous or allogeneic bone grafts in 35 patients treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) between 1977 and 1995 were evaluated. Preoperative radiation was given in 28 cases, postoperative in 21 cases. Radiation was delivered as external beam photons, 160 MeV protons or brachytherapy implant. Doses ranged from 3 to 83 Gy. Grafts were located in the spine (17), pelvis (13), femur (5), humerus (2) and tibia (3). Functional graft survival and healing quality were determined radiographically. Failure free survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and linear regressions were performed using the Wilcoxan method. Results: Overall rates of graft survival were 86% at 1 yr and 73% at 5 yrs. For auto grafts and allografts the 1 yr rates were 100% and 80% (p=.96). No significant differences in outcome based on treatment chronology were found with survival rates of 81% for preoperative treatment and 86% for postoperative treatment. With linear regression analysis there was no relation between outcome and time between surgery and radiation (p=.89). Further, no relation between bone dose (preoperative + postoperative dose), graft dose (postoperative dose) or mean dose/day and outcome was found (p=.50, p=.49 and p=.43). Failures were evenly distributed amongst high and low dose groups. The use of chemotherapy did not significantly effect outcome with a survival rate of 85% compared to 87%. Tobacco use was a significant predictor of failure with 63% graft survival compared to 94% in non-smokers (p=.038). Quality of bone healing rated poor overall, but was highly variable and did not correlate with dose or chronology of therapy

  19. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on

  20. Survey of resident education in intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Renuka; Oh, Julia L; Roeske, John C; Mundt, Arno J

    2005-06-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been gaining increasing popularity among practicing physicians in the U.S., but the extent to which radiation oncology residents are taught the principles of this technology and are trained to use IMRT remains unknown. In this paper, we assessed the current level of resident education in IMRT in the United States. Chief residents at all 77 accredited radiation oncology programs were sent a 13-question survey addressing formal didactics and hands-on experience in IMRT. The survey assessed the frequency, subject, and format of IMRT didactics. Questions also addressed the number of IMRT patients and anatomical sites treated, resident involvement in the IMRT process, and the intent of IMRT use. Finally, residents were asked for their opinions on their IMRT education. Sixty-one surveys (79%) were completed. Overall, forty-three respondents (71%) reported receiving formal IMRT didactics, with nearly one-third reporting extensive didactics (> or = 3 lectures/seminars et cetera per year). The most common didactic formats were lectures (95%) and journal clubs (63%), most commonly supervised by physicists (98%). Involvement by physicians and radiobiologists were reported by 63% and 7% of respondents, respectively. Overall, 87% of respondents had hands-on IMRT training, with nearly one-half having treated > 25 patients. The most common sites treated were head and neck (94%) and prostate (81%). Involvement in all aspects of the IMRT process was common, particularly target and tissue delineation (98%) and plan evaluation (93%). Most respondents (79%) with hands-on experience reported receiving formal didactics. However, nearly one-third received no or only minimal formal didactics. The percentage of respondents desiring increased IMRT didactics and hands-on experience were 70% and 47%, respectively. Our results suggest that the great majority of radiation oncology residents in the United States are currently exposed to didactics

  1. The effects of sequence and type of chemotherapy and radiation therapy on cosmesis and complications after breast conservation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Chemotherapy plays an increasingly important role in the treatment of both node-negative and node-positive breast cancer patients, but the optimal sequencing of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is not well established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the interaction of sequence and type of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy given with radiation therapy on the cosmetic outcome and the incidence of complications of Stage I and II breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 1053 Stage I and II breast cancer patients treated with curative intent with breast-conserving surgery, axillary dissection, and radiation therapy between 1977-1991 were reviewed. Median follow-up after treatment was 6.7 years. Two hundred fourteen patients received chemotherapy alone, 141 patients received hormonal therapy alone, 86 patients received both, and 612 patients received no adjuvant therapy. Patients who received chemotherapy ± hormonal therapy were grouped according to sequence of chemotherapy: (a) concurrent = concurrent chemotherapy with radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy; (b) sequential = radiation followed by chemotherapy or chemotherapy followed by radiation; and (c) sandwich = chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiation followed by chemotherapy. Compared to node negative patients, node-positive patients more commonly received chemotherapy (77 vs. 9%, p < 0.0001) and/or hormonal therapy (40 vs. 14%, p < 0.0001). Among patients who received chemotherapy, the majority (243 patients) received concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy with two cycles of cytoxan and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) administered during radiation followed by six cycles of chemotherapy with cytoxan, 5-fluorouracil and either methotrexate(CMF) or doxorubicin(CAF). For analysis of cosmesis, patients included were relapse free with 3 years minimum follow-up. Results: The use of chemotherapy had an adverse effect

  2. Enhancement of radiosensitization by metal-based nanoparticles in cancer radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Yu Su; Pei-Dang Liu; Hao Wu; Ning Gu

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy performs an important function in cancer treatment. However, resistance of tumor cells to radiation therapy still remains a serious concern, so the study of radiosensitizers has emerged as a persistent hotspot in radiation oncology. Along with the rapid advancement of nanotechnology in recent years, the potential value of nanoparticles as novel radiosensitizers has been discovered. hTis review summarizes the latest experimental ifndings bothin vitro andin vivo and attempts to highlight the underlying mechanisms of response in nanoparticle radiosensitization.

  3. Enhancement of radiosensitization by metal-based nanoparticles in cancer radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Xiang-Yu; Liu, Pei-Dang; Wu, Hao; Gu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy performs an important function in cancer treatment. However, resistance of tumor cells to radiation therapy still remains a serious concern, so the study of radiosensitizers has emerged as a persistent hotspot in radiation oncology. Along with the rapid advancement of nanotechnology in recent years, the potential value of nanoparticles as novel radiosensitizers has been discovered. This review summarizes the latest experimental findings both in vitro and in vivo and attempts...

  4. A comprehensive dosimetric study of pancreatic cancer treatment using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric-modulated radiation therapy (VMAT), and passive-scattering and modulated-scanning proton therapy (PT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xuanfeng; Dionisi, Francesco; Tang, Shikui; Ingram, Mark; Hung, Chun-Yu; Prionas, Evangelos; Lichtenwalner, Phil; Butterwick, Ian; Zhai, Huifang; Yin, Lingshu; Lin, Haibo; Kassaee, Alireza; Avery, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.avery@uphs.upenn.edu

    2014-07-01

    With traditional photon therapy to treat large postoperative pancreatic target volume, it often leads to poor tolerance of the therapy delivered and may contribute to interrupted treatment course. This study was performed to evaluate the potential advantage of using passive-scattering (PS) and modulated-scanning (MS) proton therapy (PT) to reduce normal tissue exposure in postoperative pancreatic cancer treatment. A total of 11 patients with postoperative pancreatic cancer who had been previously treated with PS PT in University of Pennsylvania Roberts Proton Therapy Center from 2010 to 2013 were identified. The clinical target volume (CTV) includes the pancreatic tumor bed as well as the adjacent high-risk nodal areas. Internal (iCTV) was generated from 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT), taking into account target motion from breathing cycle. Three-field and 4-field 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), 5-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy, 2-arc volumetric-modulated radiation therapy, and 2-field PS and MS PT were created on the patients’ average CT. All the plans delivered 50.4 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV). Overall, 98% of PTV was covered by 95% of the prescription dose and 99% of iCTV received 98% prescription dose. The results show that all the proton plans offer significant lower doses to the left kidney (mean and V{sub 18} {sub Gy}), stomach (mean and V{sub 20} {sub Gy}), and cord (maximum dose) compared with all the photon plans, except 3-field 3DCRT in cord maximum dose. In addition, MS PT also provides lower doses to the right kidney (mean and V{sub 18} {sub Gy}), liver (mean dose), total bowel (V{sub 20} {sub Gy} and mean dose), and small bowel (V{sub 15} {sub Gy} absolute volume ratio) compared with all the photon plans and PS PT. The dosimetric advantage of PT points to the possibility of treating tumor bed and comprehensive nodal areas while providing a more tolerable treatment course that could be used for dose

  5. A comprehensive dosimetric study of pancreatic cancer treatment using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric-modulated radiation therapy (VMAT), and passive-scattering and modulated-scanning proton therapy (PT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With traditional photon therapy to treat large postoperative pancreatic target volume, it often leads to poor tolerance of the therapy delivered and may contribute to interrupted treatment course. This study was performed to evaluate the potential advantage of using passive-scattering (PS) and modulated-scanning (MS) proton therapy (PT) to reduce normal tissue exposure in postoperative pancreatic cancer treatment. A total of 11 patients with postoperative pancreatic cancer who had been previously treated with PS PT in University of Pennsylvania Roberts Proton Therapy Center from 2010 to 2013 were identified. The clinical target volume (CTV) includes the pancreatic tumor bed as well as the adjacent high-risk nodal areas. Internal (iCTV) was generated from 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT), taking into account target motion from breathing cycle. Three-field and 4-field 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), 5-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy, 2-arc volumetric-modulated radiation therapy, and 2-field PS and MS PT were created on the patients’ average CT. All the plans delivered 50.4 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV). Overall, 98% of PTV was covered by 95% of the prescription dose and 99% of iCTV received 98% prescription dose. The results show that all the proton plans offer significant lower doses to the left kidney (mean and V18 Gy), stomach (mean and V20 Gy), and cord (maximum dose) compared with all the photon plans, except 3-field 3DCRT in cord maximum dose. In addition, MS PT also provides lower doses to the right kidney (mean and V18 Gy), liver (mean dose), total bowel (V20 Gy and mean dose), and small bowel (V15 Gy absolute volume ratio) compared with all the photon plans and PS PT. The dosimetric advantage of PT points to the possibility of treating tumor bed and comprehensive nodal areas while providing a more tolerable treatment course that could be used for dose escalation and combining with radiosensitizing chemotherapy

  6. Radiation therapy in the multimodal treatment approach of pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [Klinik am Eichert, Goeppingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology and Radiation Therapy; Radiooncologic Univ. Clinic, Tuebingen (Germany); Kocher, M.; Mueller, R.P. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Radiation Therapy; Kortmann, R.D.; Paulsen, F.; Jeremic, B.; Bamberg, M. [Radiooncologic Univ. Clinic, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, literature will be reviewed to assess the role of modern radiotherapy and radiosurgery in the management of pituitary adenomas. Material and Methods: Nowadays, magnetic resonance imaging for the definition of the target volume and a real three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning with field conformation and the possibility for non-coplanar irradiation has to be recommended. Most groups irradiate these benign tumors with single doses of 1.8-2.0 Gy up to a total dose of 45 Gy or 50.4 Gy in extensive parasellar adenomas. Adenomas are mostly small, well circumscribed lesions, and have, therefore, attracted the use of stereotactically guided high-precision irradiation techniques which allow extreme focussing and provide steep dose gradients with selective treatment of the target and optimal protection of the surrounding brain tissue. Results: Radiation therapy controls tumor growth in 80-98% of patients with non-secreting adenomas and 67-89% for endocrine active tumors. Reviewing the recent literature including endocrine active and non-secreting adenomas, irradiated postoperatively or in case of recurrence the 5-, 10- and 15-year local control rates amount 92%, 89% and 79%. In cases of microprolactinoma primary therapy consists of dopamine agonists. Irradiation should be preferred in patients with macroprolactinomas, when drug therapy and/or surgery failed or for patients medically unsuitable for surgery. Reduction and control of prolactin secretion can be achieved in 44-70% of patients. After radiotherapy in acromegaly patients somatomedin-C and growth hormone concentrations decrease to normal levels in 70-90%, with a decrease rate of 10-30% per year. Hypercortisolism is controlled in 50-83% of adults and 80% of children with Cushing's disease, generally in less than 9 months. Hypopituitarism is the most common side effect of pituitary irradiation with an incidence of 13-56%. Long-term overall risk for brain necrosis in a total of 1,388 analyzed

  7. Radiation therapy in the multimodal treatment approach of pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, literature will be reviewed to assess the role of modern radiotherapy and radiosurgery in the management of pituitary adenomas. Material and Methods: Nowadays, magnetic resonance imaging for the definition of the target volume and a real three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning with field conformation and the possibility for non-coplanar irradiation has to be recommended. Most groups irradiate these benign tumors with single doses of 1.8-2.0 Gy up to a total dose of 45 Gy or 50.4 Gy in extensive parasellar adenomas. Adenomas are mostly small, well circumscribed lesions, and have, therefore, attracted the use of stereotactically guided high-precision irradiation techniques which allow extreme focussing and provide steep dose gradients with selective treatment of the target and optimal protection of the surrounding brain tissue. Results: Radiation therapy controls tumor growth in 80-98% of patients with non-secreting adenomas and 67-89% for endocrine active tumors. Reviewing the recent literature including endocrine active and non-secreting adenomas, irradiated postoperatively or in case of recurrence the 5-, 10- and 15-year local control rates amount 92%, 89% and 79%. In cases of microprolactinoma primary therapy consists of dopamine agonists. Irradiation should be preferred in patients with macroprolactinomas, when drug therapy and/or surgery failed or for patients medically unsuitable for surgery. Reduction and control of prolactin secretion can be achieved in 44-70% of patients. After radiotherapy in acromegaly patients somatomedin-C and growth hormone concentrations decrease to normal levels in 70-90%, with a decrease rate of 10-30% per year. Hypercortisolism is controlled in 50-83% of adults and 80% of children with Cushing's disease, generally in less than 9 months. Hypopituitarism is the most common side effect of pituitary irradiation with an incidence of 13-56%. Long-term overall risk for brain necrosis in a total of 1,388 analyzed patients

  8. Image-guided radiation therapy for treatment delivery and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Leah Kayomi

    Target conformity and normal tissue sparing provided by modern radiation therapy techniques often result in steep dose gradients, which increase the need for more accurate patient setup and treatment delivery. Image guidance is starting to play a major role in determining the accuracy of treatment setup. A typical objective of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is to minimize differences between planned and delivered treatment by imaging the patient prior to delivery. This step verifies and corrects for patient setup and is referred to as setup verification. This dissertation evaluates the efficacy of daily imaging for setup verification and investigates new uses of IGRT for potential improvements in treatment delivery. The necessity of daily imaging can first be determined by assessing differences in setup corrections between patient groups. Therefore, the first objective of this investigation was to evaluate the application of IGRT for setup verification by quantifying differences in patient positioning for several anatomical disease sites. Detailed analysis of setup corrections for brain, head and neck, lung, and prostate treatments is presented. In this analysis, large setup errors were observed for prostate treatments. Further assessment of prostate treatments was performed, and patient-specific causes of setup errors investigated. Setup corrections are applied via rigid shifts or rotations of the patient or machine, but anatomical deformations occur for which rigid shifts cannot correct. Fortunately, IGRT provides images on which anatomical changes occurring throughout the course of treatment can be detected. From those images, the efficacy of IGRT in ensuring accurate treatment delivery can be evaluated and improved by determining delivered doses and adapting the plan during treatment. The second objective of this dissertation was to explore new applications of IGRT to further improve treatment. By utilizing daily IGRT images, a retrospective analysis of

  9. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wen-Yen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jen, Yee-Min, E-mail: yeeminjen@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Meei-Shyuan [School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Li-Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cardinal Tien Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chang-Ming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ko, Kai-Hsiung [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuen-Tze; Lin, Jang-Chun; Chao, Hsing-Lung; Lin, Chun-Shu; Su, Yu-Fu; Fan, Chao-Yueh; Chang, Yao-Wen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: This was a matched-pair study. From January 2008 to December 2009, 36 patients with 42 lesions of unresectable recurrent HCC were treated with SBRT. The median prescribed dose was 37 Gy (range, 25 to 48 Gy) in 4-5 fractions over 4-5 consecutive working days. Another 138 patients in the historical control group given other or no treatments were selected for matched analyses. Results: The median follow-up time was 14 months for all patients and 20 months for those alive. The 1- and 2-year in-field failure-free rates were 87.6% and 75.1%, respectively. Out-field intrahepatic recurrence was the main cause of failure. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 64.0%, and median time to progression was 8.0 months. In the multivariable analysis of all 174 patients, SBRT (yes vs. no), tumor size ({<=}4 cm vs. >4 cm), recurrent stage (stage IIIB/IV vs. I) and Child-Pugh classification (A vs. B/C) were independent prognostic factors for OS. Matched-pair analysis revealed that patients undergoing SBRT had better OS (2-year OS of 72.6% vs. 42.1%, respectively, p = 0.013). Acute toxicities were mild and tolerable. Conclusion: SBRT is a safe and efficacious modality and appears to be well-tolerated at the dose fractionation we have used, and its use correlates with improved survival in this cohort of patients with recurrent unresectable HCC. Out-field recurrence is the major cause of failure. Further studies of combinations of SBRT and systemic therapies may be reasonable.

  10. Late radiation toxicity in Hodgkin lymphoma patients: proton therapy's potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toltz, Allison; Shin, Naomi; Mitrou, Ellis; Laude, Cecile; Freeman, Carolyn R; Seuntjens, Jan; Parker, William; Roberge, David

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, all young patients treated for intrathoracic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) at one of 10 radiotherapy centers in the province of Quebec received 3D conformal photon therapy. These patients may now be at risk for late effects of their treatment, notably secondary malignancies and cardiac toxicity. We hypothesized that more complex radiotherapy, including intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and possibly IMRT (in the form of helical tomotherapy (HT)), could benefit these patients. With institutional review board approval at 10 institutions, all treatment plans for patients under the age of 30 treated for HL during a six-month consecutive period of 2010 were retrieved. Twenty-six patients were identified, and after excluding patients with extrathoracic radiation or treatment of recurrence, 20 patients were replanned for HT and IMPT. Neutron dose for IMPT plans was estimated from published measurements. The relative seriality model was used to predict excess risk of cardiac mortality. A modified linear quadratic model was used to predict the excess absolute risk for induction of lung cancer and, in female patients, breast cancer. Model parameters were derived from published data. Predicted risk for cardiac mortality was similar among the three treatment techniques (absolute excess risk of cardiac mortality was not reduced for HT or IMPT (p > 0.05, p > 0.05) as compared to 3D CRT). Predicted risks were increased for HT and reduced for IMPT for secondary lung cancer (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and breast cancers (p< 0.001, p< 0.001) as compared to 3D CRT. PMID:26699298

  11. Projections onto the Pareto surface in multicriteria radiation therapy optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokrantz, Rasmus, E-mail: bokrantz@kth.se, E-mail: rasmus.bokrantz@raysearchlabs.com [Optimization and Systems Theory, Department of Mathematics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm SE-100 44, Sweden and RaySearch Laboratories, Sveavägen 44, Stockholm SE-103 65 (Sweden); Miettinen, Kaisa [Optimization and Systems Theory, Department of Mathematics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden and University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Mathematical Information Technology, FI-400 14 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: To eliminate or reduce the error to Pareto optimality that arises in Pareto surface navigation when the Pareto surface is approximated by a small number of plans. Methods: The authors propose to project the navigated plan onto the Pareto surface as a postprocessing step to the navigation. The projection attempts to find a Pareto optimal plan that is at least as good as or better than the initial navigated plan with respect to all objective functions. An augmented form of projection is also suggested where dose–volume histogram constraints are used to prevent that the projection causes a violation of some clinical goal. The projections were evaluated with respect to planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered by step-and-shoot and sliding window and spot-scanned intensity modulated proton therapy. Retrospective plans were generated for a prostate and a head and neck case. Results: The projections led to improved dose conformity and better sparing of organs at risk (OARs) for all three delivery techniques and both patient cases. The mean dose to OARs decreased by 3.1 Gy on average for the unconstrained form of the projection and by 2.0 Gy on average when dose–volume histogram constraints were used. No consistent improvements in target homogeneity were observed. Conclusions: There are situations when Pareto navigation leaves room for improvement in OAR sparing and dose conformity, for example, if the approximation of the Pareto surface is coarse or the problem formulation has too permissive constraints. A projection onto the Pareto surface can identify an inaccurate Pareto surface representation and, if necessary, improve the quality of the navigated plan.

  12. Radiation therapy and arterial infusion chemotherapy for advanced gallbladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard therapy is not yet established for the unresectable advanced gallbladder cancer (AGC). Here described is the outcome of authors' therapeutic protocol for AGC during the time Jan., 1989-Dec., 2008. Subjects are 73 patients (M 32/F 41, average age 65 y) with AGC of Stage IV. One shot arterial infusion (AI) of EEP regimen (etoposide (VP16)/4'epiadriamycin (EPIR)/cisplatin (CDDP)) is conducted via hepatic artery proper or common at the first angiography and one week later, external radiation therapy (RT), with about 30-50 Gy/6 fractions (actually, 12-61.6 Gy). AI is weekly done with FP regimen (CDDP/5-fluorouracil (FU)) through the reservoir indwelled in the gastroduodenal artery for 6 months where a metal stent for the stegnosis of bile duct is used if necessary after RT, and in recent days, additionally with biweekly CDDP/gemcitabin (GEM) regimen depending on patient's state after FP. As a result, RT is conducted to 62 cases (RT alone 8 cases), AI, 64 (alone, 10), and RT+AI, 54. Response is found to be 49% (CR 7 cases and PR, 28). Survivals 1- and 3-year are 39 and 6%, respectively, and average survival time, 408 days. Survival rate in (RT+AI) is significantly superior to that in AI alone and in RT alone. Prognosis in patients with jaundice, hepatic or duodenal invasion is significantly inferior to those without the symptom, and in non-responded cases, to responded cases. Complications like hepatic abscess are seen in 4 cases at 6 months after treatment. Four actual case-reports are presented in details with their images. Combination of RT+AI is suggested to be of utility for AGC, of which multi-center trial is awaited with addition of newer anti-cancers developed recently. (K.T.)

  13. Projections onto the Pareto surface in multicriteria radiation therapy optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To eliminate or reduce the error to Pareto optimality that arises in Pareto surface navigation when the Pareto surface is approximated by a small number of plans. Methods: The authors propose to project the navigated plan onto the Pareto surface as a postprocessing step to the navigation. The projection attempts to find a Pareto optimal plan that is at least as good as or better than the initial navigated plan with respect to all objective functions. An augmented form of projection is also suggested where dose–volume histogram constraints are used to prevent that the projection causes a violation of some clinical goal. The projections were evaluated with respect to planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered by step-and-shoot and sliding window and spot-scanned intensity modulated proton therapy. Retrospective plans were generated for a prostate and a head and neck case. Results: The projections led to improved dose conformity and better sparing of organs at risk (OARs) for all three delivery techniques and both patient cases. The mean dose to OARs decreased by 3.1 Gy on average for the unconstrained form of the projection and by 2.0 Gy on average when dose–volume histogram constraints were used. No consistent improvements in target homogeneity were observed. Conclusions: There are situations when Pareto navigation leaves room for improvement in OAR sparing and dose conformity, for example, if the approximation of the Pareto surface is coarse or the problem formulation has too permissive constraints. A projection onto the Pareto surface can identify an inaccurate Pareto surface representation and, if necessary, improve the quality of the navigated plan

  14. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy for Breast Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathout, Lara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Centre affilié à l' Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Hijal, Tarek [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Théberge, Valérie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec, L' Hôtel-Dieu de Québec, Quebec (Canada); Centre des maladies du sein Deschênes-Fabia, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Centre affilié à l' Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Vulpe, Horia [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Hogue, Jean-Charles [Centre des maladies du sein Deschênes-Fabia, Quebec (Canada); Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec, Hôpital St-Sacrement, Quebec (Canada); Lambert, Christine [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bahig, Houda [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Centre affilié à l' Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); and others

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Conventional radiation therapy (RT) administered in 25 fractions after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is the standard treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Although accelerated hypofractionated regimens in 16 fractions have been shown to be equivalent to conventional RT for invasive breast cancer, few studies have reported results of using hypofractionated RT in DCIS. Methods and Materials: In this multicenter collaborative effort, we retrospectively reviewed the records of all women with DCIS at 3 institutions treated with BCS followed by hypofractionated whole-breast RT (WBRT) delivered in 16 fractions. Results: Between 2003 and 2010, 440 patients with DCIS underwent BCS followed by hypofractionated WBRT in 16 fractions for a total dose of 42.5 Gy (2.66 Gy per fraction). Boost RT to the surgical bed was given to 125 patients (28%) at a median dose of 10 Gy in 4 fractions (2.5 Gy per fraction). After a median follow-up time of 4.4 years, 14 patients had an ipsilateral local relapse, resulting in a local recurrence-free survival of 97% at 5 years. Positive surgical margins, high nuclear grade, age less than 50 years, and a premenopausal status were all statistically associated with an increased occurrence of local recurrence. Tumor hormone receptor status, use of adjuvant hormonal therapy, and administration of additional boost RT did not have an impact on local control in our cohort. On multivariate analysis, positive margins, premenopausal status, and nuclear grade 3 tumors had a statistically significant worse local control rate. Conclusions: Hypofractionated RT using 42.5 Gy in 16 fractions provides excellent local control for patients with DCIS undergoing BCS.

  15. Proton Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouw, Kent W. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sethi, Roshan V.; Yeap, Beow Y.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.; Munzenrider, John E.; Adams, Judith [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Grabowski, Eric [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mukai, Shizuo [Retina Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate long-term disease and toxicity outcomes for pediatric retinoblastoma patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT). Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective analysis of 49 retinoblastoma patients (60 eyes) treated with PRT between 1986 and 2012. Results: The majority (84%) of patients had bilateral disease, and nearly half (45%) had received prior chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 8 years (range, 1-24 years), no patients died of retinoblastoma or developed metastatic disease. The post-PRT enucleation rate was low (18%), especially in patients with early-stage disease (11% for patients with International Classification for Intraocular Retinoblastoma [ICIR] stage A-B disease vs 23% for patients with ICIR stage C-D disease). Post-PRT ophthalmologic follow-up was available for 61% of the preserved eyes (30 of 49): 14 of 30 eyes (47%) had 20/40 visual acuity or better, 7 of 30 (23%) had moderate visual acuity (20/40-20/600), and 9 of 30 (30%) had little or no useful vision (worse than 20/600). Twelve of 60 treated eyes (20%) experienced a post-PRT event requiring intervention, with cataracts the most common (4 eyes). No patients developed an in-field second malignancy. Conclusions: Long-term follow-up of retinoblastoma patients treated with PRT demonstrates that PRT can achieve high local control rates, even in advanced cases, and many patients retain useful vision in the treated eye. Treatment-related ocular side effects were uncommon, and no radiation-associated malignancies were observed.

  16. Treatment of advanced head and neck cancer: multiple daily dose fractionated radiation therapy and sequential multimodal treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, M; Browde, S; Bezwoda, W R; de Moor, N G; Derman, D P

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with advanced head and neck cancer were entered into a randomised trial comparing chemotherapy (DDP + bleomycin) alone, multiple daily fractionated radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy consisting of chemotherapy plus multiple fractionated radiation therapy. Multimodal therapy gave a significantly higher response rate (69%) than either single-treatment modality. The use of a multiple daily dose fractionation allowed radiation therapy to be completed over 10 treatment days, and the addition of chemotherapy to the radiation treatment did not significantly increase toxicity. Patients receiving multimodal therapy also survived significantly longer (median 50 weeks) than those receiving single-modality therapy (median 24 weeks).

  17. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected

  18. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindley, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.hindley@lthtr.nhs.uk [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom); Zain, Zakiyah [College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah (Malaysia); Wood, Lisa [Department of Social Sciences, Lancaster Medical School, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Anne [Medical and Pharmaceutical Statistics Research Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected.

  19. Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy in pediatric parameningeal rhabdomyosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We evaluated the utility of three dimensional (3D) treatment planning in the management of children with parameningeal head and neck rhabdomyosarcomas. Methods and Materials: Five children with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma were referred for treatment at our radiation oncology center from May 1990 through January 1993. Each patient was evaluated, staged, and treated according to the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. Patients were immobilized and underwent a computed tomography scan with contrast in the treatment position. Tumor and normal tissues were identified with assistance from a diagnostic radiologist and defined in each slice. The patients were then planned and treated with the assistance of a 3D treatment planning system. A second plan was then devised by another physician without the benefit of the 3D volumetric display. The target volumes designed with the 3D system and the two-dimensional (2D) method were then compared. The dosimetric coverage to tumor, tumor plus margin, and normal tissues was also compared with the two methods of treatment planning. Results: The apparent size of the gross tumor volume was underestimated with the conventional 2D planning method relative to the 3D method. When margin was added around the gross tumor to account for microscopic extension of disease in the 2D method, the expected area of coverage improved relative to the 3D method. In each circumstance, the minimum dose that covered the gross tumor was substantially less with the 2D method than with the 3D method. The inadequate dosimetric coverage was especially pronounced when the necessary margin to account for subclinical disease was added. In each case, the 2D plans would have delivered substantial dose to adjacent normal tissues and organs, resulting in a higher incidence of significant complications. Conclusions: 3D conformal radiation therapy has a demonstrated advantage in the treatment of sarcomas of the head and neck. The improved dosimetric coverage

  20. Radiation therapy in patients with ENT cancers; La radiotherapie des cancers ORL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillet, F.; Rozec, C. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Diana, C. [Centre Hospitalier, 77 -Melin (France)

    1995-06-01

    The place of radiation therapy for the treatment of ENT tumors has changed over the last 15 years under the influence of several factors including advances in imaging techniques; introduction of first-line chemotherapy; advances in surgery, in particular reconstructive therapy; advances in radiation therapy, including widespread use of simulators and computerized dosimetry, better control of the time factor (reduced interruption times, changes in the fractionating of external-beam radiation therapy, optimal dose rate during brachytherapy); improved knowledge of the beneficial effects of brachytherapy; use of radiosensitizing treatments; and advances in the prevention and treatment of complications of radiation therapy, in particular use of pentoxifylline and hyperbaric oxygen to treat radionecrosis. (authors). 10 refs.