WorldWideScience

Sample records for antiperspirants

  1. Segmentation of antiperspirants and deodorants

    OpenAIRE

    Král, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Master's Thesis on topic Segmentation of antiperspirants and deodorants is to discover differences in consumer's behaviour, determinate and describe segments of consumers based on these differences and propose marketing strategy for the most attractive segments. Theoretical part describes market segmentation in general, process of segmentation and segmentation criteria. Analytic part characterizes Czech market of antiperspirants and deodorants, analyzes ACNielsen market data and d...

  2. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  3. Deodorants and antiperspirants affect the axillary bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; Hutapea, Prawira; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-10-01

    The use of underarm cosmetics is common practice in the Western society to obtain better body odor and/or to prevent excessive sweating. A survey indicated that 95 % of the young adult Belgians generally use an underarm deodorant or antiperspirant. The effect of deodorants and antiperspirants on the axillary bacterial community was examined on nine healthy subjects, who were restrained from using deodorant/antiperspirant for 1 month. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the individual microbial dynamics. The microbial profiles were unique for every person. A stable bacterial community was seen when underarm cosmetics were applied on a daily basis and when no underarm cosmetics were applied. A distinct community difference was seen when the habits were changed from daily use to no use of deodorant/antiperspirant and vice versa. The richness was higher when deodorants and antiperspirants were applied. Especially when antiperspirants were applied, the microbiome showed an increase in diversity. Antiperspirant usage led toward an increase of Actinobacteria, which is an unfavorable situation with respect to body odor development. These initial results show that axillary cosmetics modify the microbial community and can stimulate odor-producing bacteria. PMID:25077920

  4. Effects of antiperspirant aluminum percent composition and mode of application on mock microcalcifications in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesurolle, Benoît, E-mail: benoit.mesurolle@muhc.mcgill.ca; Ceccarelli, Joan; Karp, Igor; Sun, Simon; El-Khoury, Mona

    2014-02-15

    Objective: Active ingredients in antiperspirants – namely, aluminum-based complexes – can produce radiopaque particles on mammography, mimicking microcalcifications. The present study was designed to investigate whether the appearance of antiperspirant induced radiopaque particles observed on mammograms is dependent on the percentage of aluminum-based complexes in antiperspirants and/or on their mode of application. Methods: A total of 43 antiperspirants with aluminum-based complex percentages ranging between 16% and 25% were tested. Each antiperspirant was applied to a single use plastic shield and then placed on an ultrasound gel pad, simulating breast tissue. Two experiments were performed, comparing antiperspirants based on (1) their percentage of aluminum-based complexes (20 antiperspirants) and (2) their mode of applications (solid, gel, and roll-on) (26 antiperspirants). Two experienced, blinded radiologists read images produced in consensus and assessed the appearance of radiopaque particles based on their density and shape. Results: In experiment 1, there was no statistically significant association between the percent aluminum composition of invisible solid antiperspirants and the density or shape of the radiopaque particles (p-values > 0.05). In experiment 2, there was a statistically significant association between the shape of the radiopaque particles and the mode of application of the antiperspirant (p-value = 0.0015). Conclusions: Our study suggests that the mammographic appearance of the radiopaque antiperspirant particles is not related to their percent composition of aluminum complexes. However, their mode of application appears to influence the shape of radiopaque particles, solid antiperspirants mimicking microcalcifications the most and roll-on antiperspirants the least.

  5. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN SOME ANTIPERSPIRANT FORMULATIONS MARKETED IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim, L. S.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiperspirants are astringent substances applied to the skin to reduce or prevent sweat. The process of sweating is an important, normal physiological process that enables us excretes excess water and salt from the body. However conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweat led to the need for control of sweat using antiperspirants, although antiperspirants are now used for cosmetic purposes in recent times. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of Aluminium (Al, which is the active ingredient in most antiperspirants and also to determine the presence and concentration of other metals such as Lead (Pb, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni, Zinc (Zn, and Copper (Cu. Ten (10 brands of antiperspirant samples marketed in Nigeria were purchased. All samples were pre-treated using acid digestion and the concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS(Perkin Elmer A Analyst 200.Germany. For all the antiperspirant samples analysed, metals such a Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were not detected while the concentrations of Al and Pb found were between (0.624 – 2.416mg/L and (1.787 – 5.610mg/L respectively. In comparison to the standard permissible limits of aluminium in antiperspirants, the percentage of aluminium in all the samples analysed was within the standard permissible limit set by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Nine samples conformed to over the counter antiperspirants value while one conformed to a prescription antiperspirant value. However, the presence of lead metal in the antiperspirant samples may be a health risk to the consumers.

  6. Cosmetics: colorimetric determination of zirconium in antiperspirant aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid direct dilution procedure for the estimation of soluble zirconium and a fusion procedure for the determination of total zirconium (soluble and insoluble forms) in cream base concentrates prepared from antiperspirant aerosols are described. The direct dilution procedure involves extraction of soluble zirconium with HCl (55 + 45). The filtered extract is reacted with alizarin red S to form a stable colored complex which is measured spectrophotometrically. The fusion procedure involves ashing the aerosol concentrate followed by fusion of the ash with potassium pyrosulfate to form an acid-soluble melt. Zirconium is precipitated from solution as the hydroxide and washed to eliminate interfering ions, particularly sulfate. After redissolving in HCl (55 + 45) and reacting with alizarin red S, total zirconium is measured. Zirconyl chloride octahydrate, assayed gravimetrically by hydroxide precipitation and conversion to the oxide, is used as the zirconium reference standard. Concentration range of zirconium measured was 200 to 500 μg/100 ml. Recoveries of standard zirconium added to commercial aerosols labeled to contain aluminum and zirconyl hydroxychlorides ranged from 97 to 101 percent by the fusion procedure. Analysis of these aerosols by direct dilution gave generally slightly lower results than by fusion

  7. [The use of deodorants/antiperspirants does not constitute a risk factor for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namer, Moïse; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Gligorov, Joseph; Lokiec, François; Spielmann, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Based on the observation of a high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant adjacent to the usual area of application of deodorants and/or antiperspirants, several scientific teams have advanced the hypothesis of a possible link between antiperspirants and breast cancer. The possibility of the involvement of parabens and aluminium salts, traditional components of a number of cosmetic products, has been advanced by the same teams. In order to ascertain whether this hypothesis could or could not be confirmed, a group of clinical experts in oncology was set up to search and analyse the literature data relating to the problem raised with the aim of answering three predefined questions: 1) does it exist experimental or biological arguments supporting a potential link between the use of deodorants/antiperspirants and breast cancer? 2) Does the use of deodorants/antiperspirants have any effect on the increase in the risk of breast cancer? 3) Could a causal relationship between the use of deodorants/antiperspirants and breast cancer be accepted? The scientific data were searched systematically in the PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez) using standardised search equations. Fifty-nine studies resulting from the literature search were reviewed and nineteen articles with various methodologies were selected for in-depth analysis. In view of the fact that parabens are generally not present in deodorants/antiperspirants, the reflection group's search related purely to the question of aluminium salts. Among these nineteen articles, many are methodologically unsound, do not answer to the questions posed or deal with the question of parabens and were therefore discarded by the reflection group. The expert group's conclusion coincides with those of the French, European and American health authorities. After analysis of the available literature on the subject, no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis was identified and no validated

  8. [The use of deodorants/antiperspirants does not constitute a risk factor for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namer, Moïse; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Gligorov, Joseph; Lokiec, François; Spielmann, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Based on the observation of a high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant adjacent to the usual area of application of deodorants and/or antiperspirants, several scientific teams have advanced the hypothesis of a possible link between antiperspirants and breast cancer. The possibility of the involvement of parabens and aluminium salts, traditional components of a number of cosmetic products, has been advanced by the same teams. In order to ascertain whether this hypothesis could or could not be confirmed, a group of clinical experts in oncology was set up to search and analyse the literature data relating to the problem raised with the aim of answering three predefined questions: 1) does it exist experimental or biological arguments supporting a potential link between the use of deodorants/antiperspirants and breast cancer? 2) Does the use of deodorants/antiperspirants have any effect on the increase in the risk of breast cancer? 3) Could a causal relationship between the use of deodorants/antiperspirants and breast cancer be accepted? The scientific data were searched systematically in the PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez) using standardised search equations. Fifty-nine studies resulting from the literature search were reviewed and nineteen articles with various methodologies were selected for in-depth analysis. In view of the fact that parabens are generally not present in deodorants/antiperspirants, the reflection group's search related purely to the question of aluminium salts. Among these nineteen articles, many are methodologically unsound, do not answer to the questions posed or deal with the question of parabens and were therefore discarded by the reflection group. The expert group's conclusion coincides with those of the French, European and American health authorities. After analysis of the available literature on the subject, no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis was identified and no validated

  9. A simple and fast method for the determination of active ingredient in antiperspirant cosmetics by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antiperspirant cosmetics are tested for their active ingredient (aluminium chlorohydroxide) by conventional analytical techniques. Aluminium has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in all antiperspirant products and package forms available in the Greek market in order to develop a simple and fast method for quantization. The results show that neutron activation analysis could be established as an official method for the determination of active ingredient in antiperspirant cosmetics. The proposed method is compared with the existing official methods and an alternative sampling method for aerosol package is presented. (author)

  10. If exposure to aluminium in antiperspirants presents health risks, its content should be reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Alain; Fauconneau, Bernard; Sappino, André-Pascal; Deloncle, Roger; Guillard, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Since aluminium (Al) pervades our environment, the scientific community has for many years raised concerns regarding its safety in humans. Al is present in numerous cosmetics such as antiperspirants, lipsticks and sunscreens. Al chlorohydrate is the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics and may constitute for Al a key exposure route to the human body and a potential source of damage. An in vitro study has demonstrated that Al from antiperspirant can be absorbed through viable human stripped skin. The potential toxicity of Al has been clearly shown and recent works convincingly argue that Al could be involved in cancerogenic processes. Nowadays, for example, Al is suspected of being involved in breast cancer. Recent work in cells in culture has lent credence to the hypothesis that this metal could accumulate in the mammary gland and selectively interfere with the biological properties of breast epithelial cells, thereby promoting a cascade of alterations reminiscent of the early phases of malignant transformation. In addition, several studies suggest that the presence of Al in human breast could influence metastatic process. As a consequence, given that the toxicity of Al has been widely recognized and that it is not a physiological component in human tissues, reducing the concentration of this metal in antiperspirants is a matter of urgency.

  11. Collaborative study of the colorimetric determination of zirconium in antiperspirant aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously published method for determining zirconium in antiperspirant aerosols was collaboratively studied by 7 laboratories. The method consists of 2 procedures: a rapid dilution procedure for soluble zirconium compounds or a lengthier fusion procedure for total zirconium followed by colorimetric determination. The collaborators were asked to perform the following: Spiking materials representing 4 levels of soluble zirconium were added to weighed portions of a zirconium-free cream base concentrate and the portions were assayed by the dilution procedure. Spiking materials representing 4 levels of zirconium in either the soluble or the insoluble form (or as a mixture) were also added to portions of the same concentrate and these portions were assayed by the fusion procedure. They were also asked to concentrate and assay, by both procedures, 2 cans each of 2 commercial aerosol antiperspirants containing zirconyl hydroxychloride. The average percent recoveries and standard deviations for spiked samples were 99.8-100.2 and 1.69-2.71, respectively, for soluble compounds determined by the dilution procedure, and 93.8-97.4 and 3.09-4.78, respectively, for soluble and/or insoluble compounds determined by the fusion procedure. The average perent zirconium found by the dilution procedure in the 2 commercial aerosol products was 0.751 and 0.792. Insufficient collaborative results were received for the fusion procedure for statistical evaluation. The dilution procedure has been adopted as official first action

  12. An earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis related to more frequent use of antiperspirants/deodorants and underarm shaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, K G

    2003-12-01

    Breast cancer incidence suggests a lifestyle cause. A lifestyle factor used near the breast is the application of antiperspirants/deodorants accompanied by axillary shaving. A previous study did not support a link with breast cancer. If these habits have a role in breast cancer development, women using antiperspirants/deodorants and shaving their underarms frequently would be expected to have an earlier age of diagnosis than those doing so less often. An earlier age of diagnosis would also be expected in those starting to use deodorants and shaving at an earlier age. This is the first study to investigate the intensity of underarm exposure in a cohort of breast cancer survivors. Four hundred and thirty-seven females diagnosed with breast cancer were surveyed. Once grouped by their frequency of underarm hygiene habits, the mean age of diagnosis was the primary end point. Secondary end points included the overall frequency of these habits, and potential usage group confounding variables were evaluated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Frequency and earlier onset of antiperspirant/deodorant usage with underarm shaving were associated with an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis. Combined habits are likely for this earlier age of diagnosis. In conclusion, underarm shaving with antiperspirant/deodorant use may play a role in breast cancer. It is not clear which of these components are involved. Reviewed literature insinuates absorption of aluminium salts facilitated by dermal barrier disruption. Case-controlled investigations are needed before alternative underarm hygiene habits are suggested. PMID:14639125

  13. An earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis related to more frequent use of antiperspirants/deodorants and underarm shaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, K G

    2003-12-01

    Breast cancer incidence suggests a lifestyle cause. A lifestyle factor used near the breast is the application of antiperspirants/deodorants accompanied by axillary shaving. A previous study did not support a link with breast cancer. If these habits have a role in breast cancer development, women using antiperspirants/deodorants and shaving their underarms frequently would be expected to have an earlier age of diagnosis than those doing so less often. An earlier age of diagnosis would also be expected in those starting to use deodorants and shaving at an earlier age. This is the first study to investigate the intensity of underarm exposure in a cohort of breast cancer survivors. Four hundred and thirty-seven females diagnosed with breast cancer were surveyed. Once grouped by their frequency of underarm hygiene habits, the mean age of diagnosis was the primary end point. Secondary end points included the overall frequency of these habits, and potential usage group confounding variables were evaluated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Frequency and earlier onset of antiperspirant/deodorant usage with underarm shaving were associated with an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis. Combined habits are likely for this earlier age of diagnosis. In conclusion, underarm shaving with antiperspirant/deodorant use may play a role in breast cancer. It is not clear which of these components are involved. Reviewed literature insinuates absorption of aluminium salts facilitated by dermal barrier disruption. Case-controlled investigations are needed before alternative underarm hygiene habits are suggested.

  14. A preliminary study of the dermal absorption of aluminium from antiperspirants using aluminium-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flarend, R; Bin, T; Elmore, D; Hem, S L

    2001-02-01

    Aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH), the active ingredient in many antiperspirants, was labeled with the radioisotope 26Al. The labeled ACH was then fractionated into about 100 samples using gel filtration chromatography. Each fraction was analyzed for 26Al and total aluminium content. Aluminium-26 was only detected in the fractions that also contained aluminium, which verified that the ACH was uniformly labeled. 84 mg of the labeled ACH was then applied to a single underarm of two adult subjects with blood and urine samples being collected over 7 weeks. Tape-stripping and mild washings of the skin were also collected for the first 6 days. Results indicate that only 0.012% of the applied aluminium was absorbed through the skin. At this rate, about 4 microg of aluminium is absorbed from a single use of ACH on both underarms. This is about 2.5% of the aluminium typically absorbed by the gut from food over the same time period. Therefore, a one-time use of ACH applied to the skin is not a significant contribution to the body burden of aluminium.

  15. Exposure data for personal care products: hairspray, spray perfume, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash, and solid antiperspirant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretz, Linda; Api, Anne Marie; Barraj, Leila; Burdick, Joel; Davis, De Ann; Dressler, William; Gilberti, Enrico; Jarrett, Gwendolyn; Mann, Steve; Laurie Pan, Y H; Re, Thomas; Renskers, Kevin; Scrafford, Carolyn; Vater, Sally

    2006-12-01

    Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, studies to assess consumer use practices were undertaken. Six widely used personal care product types were included in the studies. Five of the products were cosmetics (spray perfume, hairspray, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash) and one product was a cosmetic/over-the-counter drug product (solid antiperspirant). Three hundred and sixty women, ages 19-65 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited at 10 different geographical locations within the US. The number of recruits was chosen to ensure a minimum of three hundred completed responses per product type. Subjects were provided with a new container of the brand of product they normally use and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted to derive summary distributions of use patterns. The geometric mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the six product types were: spray perfume, 0.33 g and 0.23 g; hairspray, 2.58 g and 1.83 g (aerosol); 3.64 g and 2.66 g (pump); liquid foundation, 0.54 g and 0.36 g; shampoo, 11.76 g and 9.56 g; body wash, 11.3g and 9.5 g; and solid antiperspirant, 0.61 g and 0.45 g. The mean and median usage per day for the six product types were: spray perfume, 0.53 g and 0.34 g; hairspray, 3.57 g and 2.71 g (aerosol); 5.18 g and 3.74 g (pump); liquid foundation, 0.67 g and 0.45 g; shampoo, 12.80 g and 10.75 g; body wash, 14.5 g and 12.9 g; and solid antiperspirant, 0.79 g and 0.59 g. The mean number of applications per day for spray perfume, hairspray, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash, and

  16. Randomized Control Trial: Evaluating Aluminum-Based Antiperspirant Use, Axilla Skin Toxicity, and Reported Quality of Life in Women Receiving External Beam Radiotherapy for Treatment of Stage 0, I, and II Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Linda C., E-mail: Linda.watson@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Interdisciplinary Practice, Community Oncology, Alberta Health Services-Cancer Care, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gies, Donna [Department of Radiation Oncology Nursing, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Alberta Health Services-Cancer Care, Calgary, AB (Canada); Thompson, Emmanuel [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary Faculty of Science, Calgary, AB (Canada); Thomas, Bejoy [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Alberta Health Services-Cancer Care, Calgary, AB (Canada); Department of Psychosocial Oncology, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Standard skin care instructions regarding the use of antiperspirants during radiotherapy to the breast varies across North America. Women have articulated that when instructed to not use antiperspirant, the potential for body odor is distressing. Historical practices and individual opinions have often guided practice in this field. The present study had 2 purposes. To evaluate whether the use of aluminum-based antiperspirant while receiving external beam radiotherapy for stage 0, I, or II breast cancer will increase axilla skin toxicity and to evaluate whether the use of antiperspirant during external beam radiotherapy improves quality of life. Methods: A total of 198 participants were randomized to either the experimental group (antiperspirant) or control group (standard care-wash only). The skin reactions in both groups were measured weekly and 2 weeks after treatment using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 3, toxicity grading criteria. Both groups completed the Functional Assessment for Chronic Illness Therapy's questionnaire for the breast population quality of life assessment tool, with additional questions evaluating the effect of underarm antiperspirant use on quality of life before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment during the study. Results: The skin reaction data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation. No statistically significant difference was seen in the skin reaction between the 2 groups over time. The quality of life data also revealed no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups over time. Conclusions: Data analysis indicates that using antiperspirant routinely during external beam radiotherapy for Stage 0, I, or II breast cancer does not affect the intensity of the skin reaction or the self-reported quality of life. This evidence supports that in this particular population, there is no purpose to restrict these women from

  17. Randomized Control Trial: Evaluating Aluminum-Based Antiperspirant Use, Axilla Skin Toxicity, and Reported Quality of Life in Women Receiving External Beam Radiotherapy for Treatment of Stage 0, I, and II Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Standard skin care instructions regarding the use of antiperspirants during radiotherapy to the breast varies across North America. Women have articulated that when instructed to not use antiperspirant, the potential for body odor is distressing. Historical practices and individual opinions have often guided practice in this field. The present study had 2 purposes. To evaluate whether the use of aluminum-based antiperspirant while receiving external beam radiotherapy for stage 0, I, or II breast cancer will increase axilla skin toxicity and to evaluate whether the use of antiperspirant during external beam radiotherapy improves quality of life. Methods: A total of 198 participants were randomized to either the experimental group (antiperspirant) or control group (standard care-wash only). The skin reactions in both groups were measured weekly and 2 weeks after treatment using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 3, toxicity grading criteria. Both groups completed the Functional Assessment for Chronic Illness Therapy’s questionnaire for the breast population quality of life assessment tool, with additional questions evaluating the effect of underarm antiperspirant use on quality of life before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment during the study. Results: The skin reaction data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation. No statistically significant difference was seen in the skin reaction between the 2 groups over time. The quality of life data also revealed no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups over time. Conclusions: Data analysis indicates that using antiperspirant routinely during external beam radiotherapy for Stage 0, I, or II breast cancer does not affect the intensity of the skin reaction or the self-reported quality of life. This evidence supports that in this particular population, there is no purpose to restrict these women from using

  18. Qualification of a precise and easy-to-handle sweat casting imprint method for the prediction and quantification of anti-perspirant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, R; Scheede, S; Thielecke, I; Wenck, H; Schmucker, R; Schreiner, V; Ennen, J; Herpens, A

    2009-06-01

    A time- and cost-effective sweat casting method using the forearm as test site to assess the efficacy of several anti-perspirant formulations with a low number of test subjects has been evaluated and qualified. The imprint sweat casting method is based on a 2-component silcone-imprint technique to measure the efficacy of more than eight products in parallel with the same test subject. In studies using aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH) formulations as test anti-perspirants, a clear-cut correlation could be demonstrated between sweat gland activities measured by the imprint method and gravimetric measurement of sweat gland activities. Concentration-dependent inhibition of sweat gland activity could be observed with the imprint technique up to an ACH concentration of 15%, and all formulations containing 2% ACH or above resulted in statistically significant reduction of sweat gland activity (P anti-perspirant activity as determined by the imprint protocol and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Guideline compliant gravimetric hot-room protocol revealed that the test results for anti-perspirant activity obtained with the imprint protocol are similar to those obtained with the hot-room protocol. Moreover, the data generated with the imprint protocol have a high predictive value for the outcome of a later guideline-compliant hot-room test. As the imprint casting method tends to be a little more sensitive for formulations with low anti-perspirant activity, and seems to be associated with less interassay variability than the standard gravimetric hot-room test, the imprint casting method may select products which later fail to pass the standard gravimetric hot-room test. Meanwhile the imprint sweat casting has proven to be a robust method useful to support efficacy-oriented product development. Therefore, in later stages of utilization it might even evolve into an efficient claim substantiation tool.

  19. Accounting for intended use application in characterizing the contributions of cyclopentasiloxane (D5) to aquatic loadings following personal care product use: antiperspirants, skin care products and hair care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Beta P; Price, Bradford B; van Egmond, Roger A

    2013-10-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, commonly known as D5 (cyclopentasiloxane) has a wide application of use across a multitude of personal care product categories. The relative volatility of D5 is one of the key properties attributed to this substance that provide for the derived performance benefits from the use of this raw material in personal care formulations. On this basis, rapid evaporative loss following use of many products comprising D5 is expected following typical use application and corresponding wear time. Studies were conducted on three key product categories containing D5 (antiperspirants, skin care products and hair care products) to characterize the amount of D5 that may be destined to 'go down the drain' following simulated typical personal care use scenarios. Marketed antiperspirants and skin care products were applied to human subjects and hair care products were applied to human hair tressesand subsequently rinsed off at designated time points representative of typical consumer cleansing and personal hygiene habits. Wash water was collected at 0, 8 and 24h (antiperspirant and hair care analysis) and additionally at 4h (skin care analysis) post product application and samples were analyzed by isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to quantify the concentration of D5 destined to be available to go down the drain in captured wash water. It is demonstrated that significant amounts of D5 in 'leave-on' application products evaporate during typical use and that the concentration of D5 available to go down the drain under such conditions of use is only a very small (negligible) fraction of that delivered immediately upon product application.

  20. [Antiperspirants and deodorants--ingredients and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, V A; Korting, H C

    1989-01-01

    Antitranspirants and deodorants gain more and more interest. Aluminium chlorohydrate and aluminium zirkonium tetrachlorohydrate glycine complex are the most frequently used active ingredients in commercial antitranspirants today. Aluminium chloride and propantheline bromide, the anticholinergic substance, are important alternatives although less common. Active ingredients of deodorants are mainly perfumes or bactericidal/bacteriostatic substances, such as triclosan. In addition, there are substances which are meant to bind offending smells (e.g. zinc ricinoleate) or to influence the skin surface pH (e.g. triethyl citrate). As in the cosmetics industry in general, both safety and efficacy of a product are major parameters in the experimental and clinical evaluation. Establishment of efficacy is based on olfactory tests in model situations as well as on the detection of associated effects (e.g. influence on cutaneous microflora). PMID:2656175

  1. 小儿止汗合剂的制备及临床观察%Preparation and clinical observation of Pedo- Antiperspirant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张献菊; 张茂

    2004-01-01

    目的:研究制定小儿止汗合剂制备工艺及方法,并观察其临床治疗小儿汗证的近期疗效.方法:采用药典所载合剂制备方法制备,将患者随机分为治疗组与对照组.结果:治疗组显效率与总有效率均高于对照组(P《0.05).结论:我院自制小儿止汗合剂制备合理,疗效可靠.

  2. Formulasi Sediaan Deodoran Antiperspiran Bentuk Batang (Stick) Dengan Aluminium Kalium Sulfat (Tawas)

    OpenAIRE

    Lase, Bertha Dwi Julinta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antiperspirant is a cosmetic which is used to suppress sweating by stricted pores of sweat glands, including eccrine and apocrine. Alum (potassium aluminum sulfate) is a traditional antiperspirant, which serves to improve body odor works by inhibiting the secretion of sweat with narrow the pores. In trade, alum is available in powder form antiperspirant deodorant. This form is less effective because it can be dissolved with sweat. Deodorant cosmetic preparations have several forms...

  3. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Stimulants. (r) Antitussives. (s) Allergy treatment products. (t) Cold remedies. (u) Antirheumatic products.... (f) Antiperspirants. (g) Sunburn prevention and treatment products. (h) Vitamin-mineral products....

  4. The effect of aluminium chlorhydrate on sweat gland activity in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees-Jones, A M; Jenkinson, D M

    1978-03-01

    Topical application of aluminium chlorhydrate had no appreciable antiperspirant action on the epitrichial glands of cattle. There was no evidence of penetration of the salt into the dermis or of any change in the morphology of the glands. It is probable that the antiperspirant activity of aluminium chlorhydrate in the human axilla, is only on the atrichial glands. PMID:632617

  5. Do deodorants/underarm cosmetics cause cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Öztürkcan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of deodorant use on breast cancer development has generated considerable interest in both the scientific community and the mainstream media. Primary observational studies and numerous reviews investigating the effect of regular deodorant use on breast cancer development have been undertaken. There is no consensus in this regard. Some epidemiological studies have attempted to directly address the issue of underarm cosmetic use and breast cancer. On the other hand, many studies found no association between antiperspirant use and the risk of breast cancer. There is no difference in the current use of antiperspirant/deodorant products between breast cancer patients and nonaffected matched controls. There is no scientific evidence or research data that ingredients in underarm antiperspirants or deodorants cause cancer.

  6. 21 CFR 250.250 - Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18022, September 8, 1971), “Deodorant/Antiperspirant.” 5. DESI No. 6270 (36 FR 23330, December 8, 1971... humans, especially the skin of premature babies or damaged skin. Human toxicity reports include data on... occurred. The accumulated evidence of toxicity is sufficient to require that continued marketing...

  7. 75 FR 64673 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Limiting Emissions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...) antiperspirants or deodorants, (5) charcoal lighter materials, and (6) floor wax strippers. Regulation 1141...-mail at becoat.gregory@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background On June 18, 2010 (75 FR 34671... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58...

  8. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  9. Sweat control in male by the use of alunogen and cypripedium pubescens

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Martini,

    2015-01-01

    Aim of my study is to investigate upon the quality and quantity of the free fatty acids secreted by apocrine glands, as chief index to determine the real efficacy of a new model of antiperspirant-deodorant, that interferes directly with apocrine glands (by reducing drastically the secretion of free fatty acids) and indirectly with eccrine glands, by minimising the salted water secretion. I created an innovative cosmetic formula that comprises the Alunogen, idest the heptadecahydra...

  10. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jennrich; Claus Schulte-Uebbing

    2016-01-01

    Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includ...

  11. [Ventricular fibrillation following deodorant spray inhalation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, F; Le Tacon, S; Maria, M; Pierrard, O; Monin, P

    2008-01-01

    We report one case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation following butane poisoning after inhalation of antiperspiration aerosol. An early management using semi-automatic defibrillator explained the success of the resuscitation. The mechanism of butane toxicity could be an increased sensitivity of cardiac receptors to circulating catecholamines, responsible for cardiac arrest during exercise and for resuscitation difficulties. The indication of epinephrine is discussed.

  12. Body malodours and their topical treatment agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2011-08-01

    Body malodour, including foot odour, suppresses social interaction by diminishing self-confidence and accelerating damage to the wearer's clothes and shoes. Most treatment agents, including aluminium anti-perspirant salts, inhibit the growth of malodourous bacteria. These metallic salts also reduce sweat by blocking the excretory ducts of sweat glands, minimizing the water source that supports bacterial growth. However, there are some drawback effects that limit the use of aluminium anti-perspirant salts. In addition, over-the-counter anti-perspirant and deodourant products may not be sufficiently effective for heavy sweaters, and strong malodour producers. Body odour treatment agents are rarely mentioned in the literature compared with other cosmetic ingredients. This review briefly summarizes the relationship among sweat, skin bacteria, and body odour; describes how odourous acids, thiols, and steroids are formed; and discusses the active ingredients, including metallic salts and herbs, that are used to treat body odour. A new class of ingredients that function by regulating the release of malodourants will also be described. These ingredients do not alter the balance of the skin flora. PMID:21401651

  13. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V

    2002-06-01

    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function.

  14. Body malodours and their topical treatment agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2011-08-01

    Body malodour, including foot odour, suppresses social interaction by diminishing self-confidence and accelerating damage to the wearer's clothes and shoes. Most treatment agents, including aluminium anti-perspirant salts, inhibit the growth of malodourous bacteria. These metallic salts also reduce sweat by blocking the excretory ducts of sweat glands, minimizing the water source that supports bacterial growth. However, there are some drawback effects that limit the use of aluminium anti-perspirant salts. In addition, over-the-counter anti-perspirant and deodourant products may not be sufficiently effective for heavy sweaters, and strong malodour producers. Body odour treatment agents are rarely mentioned in the literature compared with other cosmetic ingredients. This review briefly summarizes the relationship among sweat, skin bacteria, and body odour; describes how odourous acids, thiols, and steroids are formed; and discusses the active ingredients, including metallic salts and herbs, that are used to treat body odour. A new class of ingredients that function by regulating the release of malodourants will also be described. These ingredients do not alter the balance of the skin flora.

  15. An in vitro investigation of the astringency property of certain anhidrotic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michniak-Mikołajczak, B B

    1985-01-01

    Compounds effective in vivo in the rat as anhidrotic wee found to precipitate egg white protein. There was little correlation between the effectiveness of a compound as an antiperspirant and its ability to precipitate protein. Lanthanum chloride was an exception since it was found to be the most effective anhidrotic in the rat and also produced the highest levels of precipitate. The addition of calcium or magnesium chloride increased the quantity of protein precipitated by the anhidrotic solutions, in contrast to their effect in vivo.

  16. [Acute axillary eczema caused by mercury compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippen, H

    1979-01-01

    Not every axillary dermatitis is caused by an allergy against corresponding cosmetics (deodorants or anti-perspirants). This is shown in a 24-year-old man with an acute contact dermatitis in the left axilla. Sensitization probably developed against mercury salts due to the regular use of thermometers which were kept in a disinfecting solution containing phenylmercuric borate. The patient was in two hospitals for a check up before heart surgery and temperature was regularly measured in the left axilla. In both clincis phenylmercuric borate was used for desinfection of the thermometers. The sensitivity was proofed by positive patch tests.

  17. [Management of hyperhidrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, H; Lecouflet, M

    2015-04-01

    Hyperhidrosis continues to be undertreated in our view, despite its propensity to considerably impair quality of life. We shall break down therapeutic approaches to hyperhidrosis into several steps: (a) determine the physiological causes of excess sweating; (b) establish the type of hyperhidrosis involved and screen for causes of secondary hyperhidrosis before diagnosing essential hyperhidrosis; (c) evaluate the severity of the hyperhidrosis by means of a validated scale (HDSS score), Minor's starch-iodine test or gravimetric analysis; (d) select one of the medical therapies currently available, i.e. topical therapy (antiperspirants, iontophoresis or botulinum toxin injection), systemic therapy (oxybutynin) or surgery (thoracic sympathectomy). PMID:25697587

  18. Special topical approach to the treatment of acne. Suppression of sweating with aluminum chloride in an anhydrous formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, H J; Shelley, W B

    1978-12-01

    A new topical approach to acne treatment--the use of aluminum chloride hexahydrate in anhydrous ethanol (ACAE)--was studied in 141 patients. Using sequential treatment schedules, paired comparison techniques, and various concentrations of ACAE, we established maximal efficacy with minimal local irritation for the 6.25% strength solution. Clinical efficacy and lack of toxicity of this formulation were confirmed by the additional clinical study of 65 patients. The antiperspirant and antibacterial actions of 6.25% ACAE solution were then verified on acne skin areas. It is postulated that the clinical improvement in acne that follows the topical use of ACAE results from one or both of these actions.

  19. Effects of aluminium chloride and aluminium chlorohydrate on DNA repair in MCF10A immortalised non-transformed human breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasani, A; Darbre, P D

    2015-11-01

    Use of underarm aluminium (Al)-based antiperspirant salts may be a contributory factor in breast cancer development. At the 10th Keele meeting, Al was reported to cause anchorage-independent growth and double strand DNA breaks in MCF10A immortalised non-transformed human breast epithelial cells. We now report that exposure of MCF10A cells to Al chloride or Al chlorohydrate also compromised DNA repair systems. Long-term (19-21 weeks) exposure to Al chloride or Al chlorohydrate at a 10(-4) M concentration resulted in reduced levels of BRCA1 mRNA as determined by real-time RT-PCR and BRCA1 protein as determined by Western immunoblotting. Reduced levels of mRNA for other DNA repair genes (BRCA2, CHK1, CHK2, Rad51, ATR) were also observed using real-time RT-PCR. Loss of BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene function has long been associated with inherited susceptibility to breast cancer but these results suggest that exposure to aluminium-based antiperspirant salts may also reduce levels of these key components of DNA repair in breast epithelial cells. If Al can not only damage DNA but also compromise DNA repair systems, then there is the potential for Al to impact on breast carcinogenesis.

  20. Vitriols do guarantee an efficacious reduction of the human sweat when secreted from eccrine glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eccrine glands in human body are designed to secrete a salty solution containing variable percentages of urea and/or lactic acid and/or lactates. Aim: We want to demonstrate that it is possible to determine the preponderance of the former or of the latter in order to achieve the astringency of the same eccrine glands using vitriols, that is white or blue vitriol (zinc sulphate or copper sulphate. Results and Conclusion: The results are really thrilling, and it is suggestive to notice that gymnastical exercises and climate temperatures may or not influence the production of urea and/or lactic acid, nevertheless vitriols are exceptional to achieve the desired expectations, as far as astringency and anti-perspiration is concerned.

  1. Reversibility of hyperhidrosis post axillary depilatory laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Josiane; Habre, Maya; Soutou, Boutros; Maatouk, Ismael; Ibrahim, Tony; Tomb, Roland

    2014-03-01

    Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis were lately reported as novel side effects of laser-assisted removal of axillary hair. The goal of our study was to evaluate the reversibility of these two side effects. An observational, single-center cohort study included over a 30-month screening period 30 patients with newly reported hyperhidrosis and/or bromhidrosis related to axillary depilatory laser. After 26 weeks of follow-up, each patient was assessed for spontaneous reversibility. A 12-week duration treatment with topical aluminum chloride was evaluated in patients with persisting hyperhidrosis. Hyperhidrosis was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS). Spontaneous reversibility was observed in 20% of patients. In total, 23 out of 30 patients recovered normal axillary transpiration either spontaneously or after treatment. Mean HDSS score was significantly lower in the treated group. It appears that axillary hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis, secondary to laser depilation, reverse either spontaneously or after using topical antiperspirant. PMID:23887660

  2. Influence of various environmental parameters on sweat gland activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Roger L; Gillece, Tim; Lu, Guojin; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The choice of environmental conditions when conducting antiperspirant studies greatly affects the quantity of sweat output. Our initial goal in this work was to develop an in-house procedure to test the efficacy of antiperspirant products using replica techniques in combination with image analysis. To ameliorate the skin replica method, we conducted rheological studies using dynamic mechanical analysis of the replica formulation. In terms of sweat output quantification, our preliminary results revealed a considerable amount of variation using the replica technique, leading us to conduct more fundamental studies of the factors that influence sweating behavior and how to best design the experimental strategy. In accordance with the FDA's protocol for antiperspirant testing, we carried out gravimetric analyses of axillae sweating under a variety of environmental conditions including temperature and humidity control. Subjects were first acclimatized in an environmentally controlled room for 30 min, and then placed in a sauna for an additional 30 or 45 min, depending on which test we administered. In Test 1 (30 min total in the sauna), the first 10 min in the sauna was another equilibration period, followed by a 20 min sweat production stage. We monitored axillae sweating during the last 20 min in the sauna by gravimetric analysis. At time (t) = 30 min in the sauna, skin replicas were taken and later analyzed using imaging and image analysis techniques. Test 1 was carried out on over 25 subjects, both male and female, from various racial backgrounds. In Test 2, subjects spent 45 min in the sauna after the initial 30-min period in the environmental room. During the 45 min, we obtained gravimetric readings of absorbent pads placed in the axillae. We conducted studies at various temperature and relative humidity settings. We also studied the influence of several external parameters on sudoriferous activity. Test 2 was a range-finding experiment on two subjects to determine

  3. Detection of potentially skin sensitizing hydroperoxides of linalool in fragranced products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Susanne; Dkhil, Hafida; Hendarsa, Prisca; Ellis, Graham; Natsch, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    On prolonged exposure to air, linalool can form sensitizing hydroperoxides. Positive hydroperoxide patch tests in dermatitis patients have frequently been reported, but their relevance has not been established. Owing to a lack of analytical methods and data, it is unclear from which sources the public might be exposed to sufficient quantities of hydroperoxides for induction of sensitization to occur. To address this knowledge gap, we developed analytical methods and performed stability studies for fine fragrances and deodorants/antiperspirants. In parallel, products recalled from consumers were analysed to investigate exposure to products used in everyday life. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with high mass resolution was found to be optimal for the selective and sensitive detection of the organic hydroperoxide in the complex product matrix. Linalool hydroperoxide was detected in natural linalool, but the amount was not elevated by storage in a perfume formulation exposed to air. No indication of hydroperoxide formation in fine fragrances was found in stability studies. Aged fine fragrances recalled from consumers contained a geometric mean linalool concentration of 1,888 μg/g and, corrected for matrix effects, linalool hydroperoxide at a concentration of around 14 μg/g. In antiperspirants, we detected no oxidation products. In conclusion, very low levels of linalool hydroperoxide in fragranced products may originate from raw materials, but we found no evidence for oxidation during storage of products. The levels detected are orders of magnitude below the levels inducing sensitization in experimental animals, and these results therefore do not substantiate a causal link between potential hydroperoxide formation in cosmetics and positive results of patch tests.

  4. Do cosmetic products which are prevent sweating cause breast cancer?Terlemeyi önleyen kozmetik ürünler meme kanserine mi neden oluyor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Güler Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, underarm and antiperspirant deodorants are extensively consumed cosmetic products in order to prevent sweating. Increasing use of these products is revived the claims of increasing of breast cancer risk. While discussing these claims, drawn attention at society, in the popular press and on the Internet, it has begun to discuss in the scientific literature at the same time. There are academic studies which are shown the relation between underarm cosmetic products and breast cancer as well as the opposites. In this article, literature about whether there is relationship between underarm cosmetic products and breast cancer is reviewed and obtained findings are explained.    Özet Günümüzde koltuk altı ve antiperspirant deodorantlar terlemeyi önlemek amacıyla yaygın olarak kullanılan kozmetik ürünlerdir. Bu ürünlerin kullanımının artması, özellikle meme kanseri riskini arttırdığı iddialarını gündeme getirmiştir. Toplumun ilgisini de çeken bu iddialar popüler basın ve internet üzerinde tartışılırken, aynı zamanda bilimsel literatürde de tartışılmaya başlamıştır. Literatürde koltuk altı kozmetik ürünlerle meme kanseri arasında ilişki olduğunu belirten çalışmaların yanı sıra ilişki olmadığını gösteren çalışmalarda yer almaktadır. Bu makalede, koltuk altı kozmetik ürünlerle meme kanseri arasında ilişki olup olmadığına ilişkin literatür taranmış ve elde edilen bulgular açıklanmıştır.

  5. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Dalton

    Full Text Available Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120 rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.

  6. Sweat control in male by the use of alunogen and cypripedium pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of my study is to investigate upon the quality and quantity of the free fatty acids secreted by apocrine glands, as chief index to determine the real efficacy of a new model of antiperspirant-deodorant, that interferes directly with apocrine glands (by reducing drastically the secretion of free fatty acids and indirectly with eccrine glands, by minimising the salted water secretion. I created an innovative cosmetic formula that comprises the Alunogen, idest the heptadecahydrated form of aluminium sulphate, since the generic aluminium sulphate has been recently accused of the onset of the Alzheimer’s disease, when penetrating the epidermis, although definitive scientific proof is difficult to establish due to the lack of longitudinal studies, and therefore could be banished in the very next future. The formula comprises also the concrète of Cypripedium Pubescens (Lady’s slipper which contains, inter alia, the cypripedin, a quinine-analog, endowed by anticholinergic activities, that can be reputed useful as astringent agent with regards to eccrine glands, synergically to the action upon apocrine glands performed by alunogen. I recruited 11 young men, 11 bricklayers that customarily have to work 9 hours pro day after the hot summer sun and assert without doubt to sweat copiously, in order to carry out my experience.

  7. Aluminium and breast cancer: Sources of exposure, tissue measurements and mechanisms of toxicological actions on breast biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, Philippa D; Mannello, Ferdinando; Exley, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This review examines recent evidence linking exposure to aluminium with the aetiology of breast cancer. The human population is exposed to aluminium throughout daily life including through diet, application of antiperspirants, use of antacids and vaccination. Aluminium has now been measured in a range of human breast structures at higher levels than in blood serum and experimental evidence suggests that the tissue concentrations measured have the potential to adversely influence breast epithelial cells including generation of genomic instability, induction of anchorage-independent proliferation and interference in oestrogen action. The presence of aluminium in the human breast may also alter the breast microenvironment causing disruption to iron metabolism, oxidative damage to cellular components, inflammatory responses and alterations to the motility of cells. The main research need is now to investigate whether the concentrations of aluminium measured in the human breast can lead in vivo to any of the effects observed in cells in vitro and this would be aided by the identification of biomarkers specific for aluminium action.

  8. Aluminium, carbonyls and cytokines in human nipple aspirate fluids: Possible relationship between inflammation, oxidative stress and breast cancer microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannello, F; Ligi, D; Canale, M

    2013-11-01

    The human breast is likely exposed to Al (aluminium) from many sources including diet and personal care products. Underarm applications of aluminium salt-based antiperspirant provide a possible long-term source of exposure, especially after underarm applications to shaved and abraded skin. Al research in breast fluids likely reflects the intraductal microenvironment. We found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids (NAF) from 19 breast cancer patients compared with 16 healthy control subjects (268 vs 131 μg/l, respectively; p Aluminium content and carbonyl levels showed a significant positive linear correlation (r(2) 0.6628, p aluminium salts) we also found a significantly increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 p70, and TNF-α) and chemoattractant CC and CXC chemokines (IL-8, MIP-1α and MCP-1). In 12 invasive cancer NAF samples we found a significant positive linear correlation among aluminium, carbonyls and pro-inflammatory IL-6 cytokine (Y = 64.79x-39.63, r(2) 0.8192, p aluminium ions in oxidative and inflammatory status perturbations of breast cancer microenvironment, suggesting aluminium accumulation in breast microenvironment as a possible risk factor for oxidative/inflammatory phenotype of breast cells.

  9. Characterization of the Anti-Influenza Activity of the Chinese Herbal Plant Paeonia lactiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yuan Ho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bai Shao (BS, the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., a common Chinese herb in many recipes used to treat viral infection and liver diseases, is recognized for its ability to nourish menstruation, its Yin convergence, and as an antiperspirant. However, the mechanism and components for its antiviral function remain to be elucidated. In this study, an ethanolic extract of BS was further partitioned into aqueous and organic parts (EAex for in vitro functional study and in vivo efficacy testing. EAex exhibited an IC50 of 0.016 ± 0.005 mg/mL against influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1, with broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against different strains of human influenza A viruses, including clinical oseltamivir-resistant isolates and an H1N1pdm strain. The synthesis of both viral RNA and protein was profoundly inhibited when the cells were treated with EAex. A time-of-addition assay demonstrated that EAex exerted its antiviral activity at various stages of the virus replication cycle. We addressed its antiviral activity at virus entry and demonstrated that EAex inhibits viral hemagglutination and viral binding to and penetration into host cells. In vivo animal testing showed that 200 mg/kg/d of EAex offered significant protection against viral infection. We conclude that BS possesses antiviral activity and has the potential for development as an anti-influenza agent.

  10. Effect of shaving on axillary stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, V P J; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Paterson, S E; Watkinson, A; Rawlings, A V

    2003-08-01

    Removal of underarm hair is an intrinsic part of the care regimen for the majority of female consumers, with most using a wet shave with a disposable razor. However, little is known of the impact of shaving on axillary skin, and it is a particularly neglected area of research. To investigate this, we have studied the acute and chronic effects of shaving ultrastructurally, biochemically and functionally. A forearm patch test protocol was devised for antiperspirant (AP) product screening, which involved a pre-shave of the test site with a dry razor just prior to patching. Comparison of the irritation caused by a series of AP products confirmed that shaving leads to increased irritation consistent with enhanced sensitivity. The effect of regular shaving in the axilla was assessed in a 4-week in-use study with shaving either once a week or once a day, both combined with the application of an AP. Expert visual assessment of skin condition showed that more frequent shaving promoted a higher level of visible irritation. However, indirect measurement using corneosurfametry indicated no significant changes to the lipid barrier over the study period irrespective of shaving frequency. Nevertheless, digital images of the axillary skin after dry shaving show distinct opaque lines because of uplifting skin flakes with a corresponding increase in scaliness parameter. Moreover, histamine iontophoresis to assess skin sensitivity demonstrated a significant enhancement of histamine-induced itch and neurogenic flare.

  11. Identification of possible sources of particulate matter in the personal cloud using SEM/EDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Teri L.; Williams, Ronald W.

    2004-10-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) conducted the Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly during the summer of 1998. The study design included PM2.5 samples obtained from elderly (65+ years of age) retirement facility residents using personal exposure sampling devices. These sampling devices were also used to obtain PM2.5 samples at fixed locations within the personal monitoring subjects' apartments. Selected personal and apartment samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy with individual-particle X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), providing a qualitative assessment of the chemical and physical characteristics of geological and trace element particles collected within these micro-environments at the retirement facility. This information was used to identify possible indoor source particles. The manual surveys of the personal samples revealed that some particles larger than 2.5 μm reached the filter surface. Using SEM/EDX, several particle types with possible indoor origins were identified. The Al-Zr-Cl particle is likely to have originated from a personal antiperspirant product. Particles with a talc or alumino-silicate composition point to cosmetics as a possible source. Large cadmium-containing particles were also found, which may indicate the use of art pigments or ceramic glazes, or emissions from television screen phosphors. A greater variety of particles was observed in a personal sample compared with its corresponding fixed-location apartment sample.

  12. Effective prevention of stress-induced sweating and axillary malodour formation in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A; Hellhammer, J; Hero, T; Max, H; Schult, J; Terstegen, L

    2011-02-01

    Emotional sweating and malodour production represent a relevant challenge to today's antiperspirant (AP) and deodorant products as stress in everyday life increases continuously. The aim of this study was to investigate stress-induced sweating in teenagers who are known to experience various stressful situations, e.g. exams at school or job interviews. To induce emotional sweating in 20 female and 20 male adolescents (16-18 years of age), we applied the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), considered today to be the most reliable and standardized stress protocol. In this study, we demonstrate that the TSST induces high amounts of sweat and strong axillary malodour in the tested age group. Notably, male teenagers showed significantly higher stress-induced odour scores than female subjects, although no gender differences were detected concerning other physiological stress markers. Testing of a novel deodorant/AP product developed to specifically address the needs of adolescent consumers revealed excellent deodorant and AP efficacy under the challenging conditions of the TSST. PMID:20646085

  13. 小儿原发性局灶性多汗症治疗进展%Progress in treatment of pediatric primary focal hyperhidrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑香

    2012-01-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a disorder of excessive sweating beyond physiological thermoregulation.It can affect the armpits,palms,soles,face,and so on.The etiology and pathogenesis is unclear.The latest study in pathogenesis is the secretory clear cell of the eccrine sweat gland.Apart from the use of antiperspirants and anticholinesterase drugs,other treatments include the injection of botulinum toxin A and surgery.%原发性局灶性多汗症是指人体腋窝、手心、脚底和(或)头面部出汗远超过体温调节所需的一种疾病状态.其病因和发病机制目前还不完全清楚.在发病机制方面取得的新进展主要有小汗腺透明细胞的发现;治疗上,除了止汗剂、抗乙酰胆碱等药物,还可选择肉毒杆菌毒素注射、手术治疗等.

  14. 中药黄芪在保健品中的应用概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霜琪; 李冰菲; 苏慧; 朱艳华

    2016-01-01

    黄芪为常用补气药,始载于《神农本草经》,列为上品,本文查阅经典中医药著作和大量的现代文献,整理黄芪药理作用及其在保健方面与各味中药的联合应用,论述了黄芪在保健方面的应用概况和使用概率,旨在为广大医药工作者对黄芪在保健方面的使用和研究提供理论依据。%This article look over classic Chinese medicine works,Astragalus is used as qi drug commonly ,In the《integrated medicine》,《medicine spectrum》,《Drugs of justice》are recorded. Initially included in the《Shen Nong's Herbal Classic》, As a top grade, sweet and warm, qi Sun, solid form antiperspirant, detoxification and drainage, water swelling and tissue regeneration and other effects. Sort out pharmacological effects of astragalus and combination with various herbs in the health aspect. This article discusses the application of astra-galus in health aspect, designed to help the majority of medical workers on the use of astragalus in health care and research, and that the astragalus has wide application in health care.

  15. Astragaloside IV Attenuates Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells through Raf-MEK-ERK Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongcai Yue

    Full Text Available Astragaloside IV (AGS-IV is a main active ingredient of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge, a medicinal herb prescribed as an immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, antiperspirant, a diuretic or a tonic as documented in Chinese Materia Medica. In the present study, we employed a high-throughput comparative proteomic approach based on 2D-nano-LC-MS/MS to investigate the possible mechanism of action involved in the neuroprotective effect of AGS-IV against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Differential proteins were identified, among which 13 proteins survived the stringent filter criteria and were further included for functional discussion. Two proteins (vimentin and Gap43 were randomly selected, and their expression levels were further confirmed by western blots analysis. The results matched well with those of proteomics. Furthermore, network analysis of protein-protein interactions (PPI and pathways enrichment with AGS-IV associated proteins were carried out to illustrate its underlying molecular mechanism. Proteins associated with signal transduction, immune system, signaling molecules and interaction, and energy metabolism play important roles in neuroprotective effect of AGS-IV and Raf-MEK-ERK pathway was involved in the neuroprotective effect of AGS-IV against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. This study demonstrates that comparative proteomics based on shotgun approach is a valuable tool for molecular mechanism studies, since it allows the simultaneously evaluate the global proteins alterations.

  16. [Removal of weremit from the abdomen. Interpretation and efficacy of an ancient Egyptian prescription by the newest scientific results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Júlia; Győry, Hedvig; Blázovics, Anna

    2015-12-13

    Significant percentage of today's knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine has been acquired from papyri left behind from various periods of Egyptian history. The longest and the most comprehensive is the Ebers papyrus, kept at the University Museum of Leipzig, which was written more than one thousand years before Hippocrates (c. 460-377 BC). One of the riddles among the prescriptions of the Ebers papyrus Eb20 has been used in order to remove the so called "wemyt" weremit from the abdomen with the help of a drink, which consists of "jnnk", Conyza dioscoridis in milk or sweet beer. The authors assume that the disease could be an infection of Schistosoma haematobium and/or Schistosoma mansoni. Nowadays the tea of Conyza dioscoridis is widely used as an important part of traditional medicine against rheumatism, intestinal distention and cramps, as well as an antiperspirant, and with external use for wound healing. The authors' intent is to interpret the efficacy of the above-mentioned ancient prescription with the help of modern medical and pharmaceutical knowledge. PMID:26639646

  17. Toxic effects of the easily avoidable phthalates and parabens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-09-01

    Some environmental toxins like DDT and other chlorinated compounds accumulate in the body because of their fat-soluble nature. Other compounds do not stay long in the body, but still cause toxic effects during the time they are present. For serious health problems to arise, exposure to these rapidly-clearing compounds must occur on a daily basis. Two such classes of compounds are the phthalate plasticizers and parabens, both of which are used in many personal care products, some medications, and even foods and food preservation. The phthalates are commonly found in foods and household dust. Even though they have relatively short half-lives in humans, phthalates have been associated with a number of serious health problems, including infertility, testicular dysgenesis, obesity, asthma, and allergies, as well as leiomyomas and breast cancer. Parabens, which can be dermally absorbed, are present in many cosmetic products, including antiperspirants. Their estrogenicity and tissue presence are a cause for concern regarding breast cancer. Fortunately, these compounds are relatively easy to avoid and such steps can result in dramatic reductions of urinary levels of these compounds.

  18. Optical response of the cultured bovine lens; testing opaque or partially transparent semi-solid/solid common consumer hygiene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W; Sivak, J G; Moran, K L

    2003-01-01

    This study determines the relative ocular lens irritancy of 16 common partially transparent or non-transparent consumer hygiene products. The irritancy was found by measuring the changes in the sharpness of focus [referred to as the back vertex distance (BVD) variability] of the cultured bovine lens using a scanning laser In Vitro Assay System. This method consists of a laser beam that scans across the lens, and a computer, which then analyses the average focal length (mm), the BVD variability (mm), and the intensity of the beam transmitted. Lenses were exposed to the 16 hygiene products and the lens' focusing ability was monitored over 192 h. The products are semi-solids or solids (e.g. gels, lotions, shampoos). They are categorized into six groups: shampoos, body washes, lotions, toothpastes, deodorant, and anti-perspirant. Damage (measured by > 1 mm BVD variability) occurred slower for the shampoos, especially in the case of baby shampoo. The results indicate that shampoos exhibit the lowest level of ocular lens toxicity (irritability) while the deodorant is the most damaging.

  19. Zirconium: biomedical and nephrological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David B N; Roberts, Martin; Bluchel, Christian G; Odell, Ross A

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of zirconium (Zr)-containing compounds in artificial internal organs. Examples include dental implants and other restorative practices, total knee and hip replacement, and middle-ear ossicular chain reconstruction. In nephrological practice, Zr-containing sorbents have been used in hemofiltration, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and in the design and construction of wearable artificial kidneys. Zr compounds continue to be widely and extensively used in deodorant and antiperspirant preparations. In the public health arena, Zr compounds have been studied or used in controlling phosphorus pollution and in the reclamation of poison and bacteria-contaminated water. Experimental and clinical studies support the general consensus that Zr compounds are biocompatible and exhibit low toxicity. Reports on possible Zr-associated adverse reactions are rare and, in general, have not rigorously established a cause-and-effect relationship. Although publications on the use of Zr compounds have continued to increase in recent years, reports on Zr toxicity have virtually disappeared from the medical literature. Nevertheless, familiarity with, and continued vigilant monitoring of, the use of these compounds are warranted. This article provides an updated review on the biomedical use of Zr compounds.

  20. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute and late radiation reactions from the MASCC Skin Toxicity Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebecca K S; Bensadoun, René-Jean; Boers-Doets, Christine B; Bryce, Jane; Chan, Alexandre; Epstein, Joel B; Eaby-Sandy, Beth; Lacouture, Mario E

    2013-10-01

    Radiation dermatitis (RD) results from radiotherapy and often occurs within the first 4 weeks of treatment, although late effects also occur. While RD may resolve over time, it can have a profound effect on patients' quality of life and lead to dose modifications. A study group of international, interdisciplinary experts convened to develop RD prevention and treatment guidelines based on evidence from randomized, controlled trials. Evidence-based recommendations were developed after an extensive literature review. Randomized, controlled trials with standardized measurement of outcomes were considered the best evidence, and a majority of the recommendations were formulated from this literature. The adoption of washing with water, with or without a mild soap, and allowing the use of antiperspirants is supported by randomized trials. Use of topical prophylactic corticosteroids (mometasone) is recommended to reduce discomfort and itching. There is some evidence that silver sulfadiazine cream can reduce dermatitis score. There is insufficient evidence to support, and therefore the panel recommends against the use of trolamine, topical sulcrate, hyaluronic acid, ascorbic acid, silver leaf dressing, light-emitting diode lasers, Theta cream, dexpanthenol, calendula, proteolytic enzymes, sulcralfate, oral zinc, and pentoxifylline. Moreover, there is no evidence to support the superiority for any specific intervention in a reactive fashion. For patients with established radiation-induced telangiectasia and fibrosis, the panel suggests the use of pulse dye laser for visual appearance, and the use of pentoxifylline and vitamin E for the reduction of fibrosis.

  1. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Pamela; Mauté, Christopher; Jaén, Cristina; Wilson, Tamika

    2013-01-01

    Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120) rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors. PMID:24130845

  2. Aluminum-26 as a biological tracer using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flarend, Richard Edward

    1997-06-01

    The development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has provided a practical method of detection for the only isotope of aluminum suitable as a tracer, 26Al. The use of 26Al as a tracer for aluminum has made possible the study of aluminum metabolism and the pharmacokinetics of aluminum-containing drugs at physiological levels. An overview of the various advantages of using 26Al as a tracer for aluminum and a general description of the AMS technique as applied to bio-medical applications is given. To illustrate the versatility of 26Al as a tracer for aluminum, 26Al studies of the past several years are discussed briefly. In addition, Two novel investigations dealing with 26Al-labeled drugs will be presented in more detail. In one of these studies, it was found that 26Al from aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvants appeared in the blood just one hour after intramuscular injection. This is a surprising result since the currently held theory of how adjuvants work assumes that adjuvants remain insoluble and hold the antigen at the injection site for a long period of time. In another project, 26Al-labeled antiperspirants are being characterized by combining AMS with traditional analytical and chromatographic techniques. Future directions for this and other possible studies are discussed.

  3. Nineteen cases of persistent pruritic nodules and contact allergy to aluminium after injection of commonly used aluminium-adsorbed vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfors, Elisabet; Björkelund, Cecilia; Trollfors, Birger

    2005-11-01

    Rare cases of persistent pruritic nodules, sometimes associated with aluminium (Al) allergy, have been reported after the use of several Al adsorbed vaccines. During vaccine trials in the 1990s a high incidence of pruritic nodules (645 cases/76,000 recipients), in 77% associated with Al allergy, was observed after the administration of diphtheria-tetanus / acellular pertussis (DT/aP) vaccines from a single producer. In the present report 19 children with pruritic nodules after vaccination with Al hydroxide-adsorbed DTaP/polio+Hib (Infanrix, Pentavac) are described. The children had intensely itching nodules at the injection site, often aggravated during upper respiratory tract infections, and local skin alterations. So far, the symptoms have persisted for up to 7 years. The median time between vaccination and onset of symptoms was 1 month. 16 children were epicutaneously tested for Al, all with positive reactions indicating delayed hypersensitivity to Al. The condition is not commonly known but is important to recognise, as the child and the family may suffer considerably. Future vaccinations with Al-adsorbed vaccines may cause aggravation of the symptoms and the Al allergy. Al-containing skin products, such as antiperspirants, may cause contact dermatitis. Nodules may be mistaken for tumours. Even though the incidence of itching nodules and Al allergy after administration of Infanrix, Pentavac and other Al-adsorbed vaccines is probably low, research to replace Al adjuvants seems appropriate. We conclude that intensely itching subcutaneous nodules, lasting for many years, and hypersensitivity to aluminium may occur after DTaP/polio+Hib vaccination of infants.

  4. Aluminium and human breast diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D; Pugazhendhi, D; Mannello, F

    2011-11-01

    The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from the same breast. We have recently found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids taken from breast cancer patients (mean 268 ± 28 μg/l) compared with control healthy subjects (mean 131 ± 10 μg/l) providing evidence of raised aluminium levels in the breast microenvironment when cancer is present. The measurement of higher levels of aluminium in type I human breast cyst fluids (median 150 μg/l) compared with human serum (median 6 μg/l) or human milk (median 25 μg/l) warrants further investigation into any possible role of aluminium in development of this benign breast disease. Emerging evidence for aluminium in several breast structures now requires biomarkers of aluminium action in order to ascertain whether the presence of aluminium has any biological impact. To this end, we report raised levels of proteins that modulate iron homeostasis (ferritin, transferrin) in parallel with raised aluminium in nipple aspirate fluids in vivo, and we report overexpression of mRNA for several S100 calcium binding proteins following long-term exposure of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro to aluminium chlorhydrate. PMID:22099158

  5. 原发性多汗症治疗进展%Treatment of primary hyperhidrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉丹; 周平玉

    2016-01-01

    原发性多汗症是一种不符合人体正常体温调节、出汗过多,并影响患者生活质量的慢性疾病.普通人群中患病率为2.8%~16.3%.原发性多汗症的治疗分为保守治疗和手术治疗.保守治疗包括局部止汗剂、抗胆碱能药物、电离子渗透疗法、肉毒素局部注射和激光、射频等.手术治疗主要包括腋窝汗腺的切除术、腋下吸脂术和交感神经切除术等.治疗应根据患者的自身情况,采用个体化治疗,其要点应按照保守治疗到手术治疗的原则进行.%Primary hyperhidrosis (PH) is a chronic disease characterized by abnormally increased sweating in excess of normal physiologic needs of the body,and severely affects the quality of life in patients.The incidence of PH ranges from 2.8% to 16.3% in the general population.Its treatment includes conservative therapy and surgical therapy.Conservative therapy of PH involves topical antiperspirants,oral anticholinergics,ionotherapy,botulinum toxin injection,lasers,radio frequency,etc.Surgical therapy involves excision of axillary sweat glands,axillary liposuction and sympathectomy.Individualized treatment is recommended for PH.Surgical therapy should be reserved for patients who fail to respond to conservative therapy.

  6. Hyperhidrosis in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroodi, Aniseh Saffar; Shirbeigi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excessive sweating is a medical condition in which a person sweats much more than needed. The medical name of this disorder is hyperhidrosis known as a common dermal problem that affects people of all ages and leads to negative impact on the quality of life. During the last decades, several studies have shown that in many cases of hyperhidrosis there is no evidence of systemic disease. Therefore, most treatments are temporary and symptomatic therapy. According to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), different approaches are mentioned for hyperhidrosis. Methods: This study has reviewed ITM textbooks, such as “Canon of Medicine and Exir-e-azam” as well as scientific references and databases of modern medicine (ISI, PubMed, etc.) with specific keywords. Contents and related concepts were classified and results prepared. Results: In modern medicine, hyperhidrosis has been defined as an abnormal excessive sweating, which is either primary (idiopathic) or secondary to other systemic diseases such as hyperthyroidism, neurological condition or heart disease. Current modalities for treatment are topical anti-perspiration, iontophoresis, Botox injection (Botulinum toxin type A) and eventually thoracic sympathectomy as the last therapeutic modalities. From the viewpoint of the Iranian traditional medicine as a holistic doctrine, hyperhidrosis etiologies include overfilled and repletion of body due to the accumulation of humors, excessive intake of food, excessive dilated skin pores, vigorous exercise, or physical activity. Therefore, therapeutic plan for hyperhidrosis was based on its cause, which includes reduction in the amount of food, increasing physical activity, purging the body from the excess humors and adjustment in temperament. Conclusion: Hyperhidrosis is not an important or dangerous disorder; however, due to the negative impact on quality of life and failure to achieve perfect answer in modern medicine treatments it seems that the recommendations

  7. Management of primary hyperhidrosis: a summary of the different treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Maureen; de Berker, David

    2003-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a common and distressing condition involving increased production of sweat. A variety of treatment modalities are used to try to control or reduce sweating. Sweat is secreted by eccrine glands innervated by cholinergic fibers from the sympathetic nervous system. Primary hyperhidrosis most commonly affects palms, axillae and soles. Secondary hyperhidrosis is caused by an underlying condition, and treatment involves the removal or control of this condition. The treatment options for primary hyperhidrosis involve a range of topical or systemic medications, psychotherapy and surgical or non-surgical invasive techniques. Topical antiperspirants are quick and easy to apply but they can cause skin irritation and have a short half life. Systemic medications, in particular anticholinergics, reduce sweating but the dose required to control sweating can cause significant adverse effects, thus, limiting the medications' effectiveness. Iontophoresis is a simple and well tolerated method for the treatment of hyperhidrosis without long-term adverse effects; however, long-term maintenance treatments are required to keep patients symptom free. Botulinum toxin A has emerged as a treatment for hyperhidrosis over the past 5-6 years with studies showing good results. Unfortunately, botulinum toxin A is not a permanent solution, and patients require repeat injections every 6-8 months to maintain benefits. Psychotherapy has been beneficial in a small number of cases. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided phenol sympathicolysis achieved good results but has a high long-term failure rate. Surgery has also been shown to successfully reduce hyperhidrosis but, like other therapies, has several complications and patients need to be informed of these prior to undergoing surgery. The excision of axillary sweat glands can cause unsightly scarring and transthoracic sympathectomy (either open or endoscopic) can be associated with complications of compensatory and gustatory

  8. Use of Axillary Deodorant and Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Noninferiority Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prospectively determine the effect of deodorant use on acute skin toxicity and quality of life during breast radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Before breast RT, 84 patients were randomly assigned to the deodorant group (n = 40) or the no-deodorant group (n = 44). The patients were stratified by axillary RT and previous chemotherapy. Toxicity evaluations were always performed by the principal investigator, who was unaware of the group assignment, at the end of RT and 2 weeks after completion using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute skin toxicity criteria. Symptoms of acute skin toxicity (i.e., discomfort, pain, pruritus, sweating) and quality of life were self-evaluated. For each criterion, the point estimate of rate difference with the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit was computed. To claim noninferiority owing to deodorant use, the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit had to be lower than the noninferiority margin, fixed to 12.8%. Results: In the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, Grade 2 axillary radiodermatitis occurred in 23% vs. 30%, respectively, satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .019). Grade 2 breast radiodermatitis occurred in 30% vs. 34% of the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, respectively, also satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .049). Similar results were observed for the self-reported evaluations. The deodorant group reported less sweating (18% vs. 39%, p = .032). No Grade 3 or 4 radiodermatitis was observed. Conclusion: According to our noninferiority margin definition, the occurrence of skin toxicity and its related symptoms were statistically equivalent in both groups. No evidence was found to prohibit deodorant use (notwithstanding the use of an antiperspirant with aluminum) during RT for breast cancer.

  9. ANÁLISE SOBRE OS MÉTODOS E ESTRATÉGIAS DE PERDA DE PESO EM ATLETAS DE MIXED MARTIAL ARTS (M.M.A. EM PERÍODO PRÉ-COMPETITIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Maria Leite de Oliveira e Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed Martial Arts (M.M.A. is a sport that combines various types of fight modes in a single combat rule. It requires heavy training and attention to all details of the mixed martial arts in order for the athlete to be 100% fit and precise in the day of the fight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods and strategies used in M.M.A. for weigh loss in the athlete’s physiological system, as well as to evaluate their performance. A questionnaire was given to the M.M.A. athletes for them to answer what they practice in order to accomplish rapid body mass loss. The program, Microsoft Excel 2007, was utilized for tab graphics. A total of 8 male athletes, from the ages of 21 to 35, responded to the questionnaire. The method used for weight loss by using sauna and antiperspirant clothes was 90% and the restriction of carbohydrate was 80% and liquid was 40%, being that this restriction and weight loss occurs in the pre-competitive week. These strategies cause harmful effects to the M.M.A. athletes, such as hormonal imbalance, electrolyte imbalance, cardiovascular system alterations, decreased renal function, impaired mental status in the long term, as well as mood changes. An Inadequate diet and short recovery time can lower the athlete's anaerobic performance, which prevails in M.M.A. This research can teach M.M.A athletes that through gradual changes and some nutritional rules, they can obtain a solution to impede rapid weight loss.

  10. A survey of phthalate esters in consumer cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubinger, Jean C

    2010-01-01

    Certain phthalate esters have been shown to cause reproductive toxicity in animal models. For this reason, the FDA has been monitoring the use of phthalate esters in cosmetics. In this study, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a limited survey of 84 adult-use and baby-care cosmetic products for the presence of five phthalate esters: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (Figure 1). The analytes were extracted from a cosmetic product/Celite mixture with hexane, and the extract was then analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance chromatography (HPLC) on an instrument equipped with an ultraviolet radiation (UV) detector set at 230 nm. The analytes were separated on a Partisil octadecylsilane (ODS)-3 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5μm). The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 50% water, 34% acetonitrile, 13% 2-propanol, and 3% methanol that was changed linearly (35 minutes) to 15% water, 55% acetonitrile, 25% 2-propanol, and 5% methanol and held for an additional ten minutes. Spiked recoveries in antiperspirant and nail color ranged from 88% to 104%. Thirty-one of the 60 adult-use cosmetic products were found to contain at least one phthalate ester. Twenty products contained DEP and 11 nail products contained DBP. Concentrations of DBP ranged from 123 μg/g to 62,607 μg/g. Concentrations of DEP ranged from 80 μg/g to 36,006 μg/g. Five of the 24 baby-care products contained DEP at concentrations ranging from 10 μg/g to 274 μg/g.

  11. Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-25 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-75 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-120 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-10 propylene glycol, PEG-8 propylene glycol cocoate, and PEG-55 propylene glycol oleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W

    2001-01-01

    The ingredients considered in this safety assessment are polyethylene glycol ethers of either propylene glycol itself, propylene glycol stearate, propylene glycol oleate, or propylene glycol cocoate. They function in cosmetic formulations as surfactant--cleansing agents; surfactant-solubilizing agents; surfactant--emulsifying agents; skin conditioning agents--humectant; skin-conditioning agents--emollient; and solvents. Those in current use are used in only a small number of cosmetic formulations. Some are not currently used. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Propylene Glycol Cocoates and PEG Propylene Glycol Oleates are produced by the esterification of polyoxyalkyl alcohols with lauric acid and oleic acid, respectively. Although there is no information available on the method of manufacture of the other polymers, information was available describing impurities, including ethylene oxide (maximum 1 ppm), 1,4-dioxane (maximum 5 ppm), polycyclic aromatic compounds (maximum 1 ppm), and heavy metals-lead, iron, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, and arsenic included (maximum 10 ppm combined). In an acute oral toxicity study, PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate was not toxic. An antiperspirant product containing 2.0% PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate was nonirritating to mildly irritating to the eyes of rabbits. This product was also practically nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in single-insult occlusive patch tests. In a guinea pig sensitization test, PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate was classified as nonallergenic at challenge concentrations of 25% and 50% in petrolatum. PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate and PEG-55 Propylene Glycol Oleate were negative in clinical patch tests. Based on the available data, it was concluded that these ingredients are safe as used (concentrations no greater than 10%) in cosmetic formulations. Based on evidence of sensitization and nephrotoxicity in burn patients treated with a PEG-based antimicrobial preparation, the ingredients included in this review

  12. The hydrolytic products of aluminum and their biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, P M

    1990-03-01

    The relative distribution of Al between its various organic and inorganic complexes dictates its mobility in the environment, bioavailability, and toxicity. In recent years, there has been significant progress made in understanding the differential bioavailability and toxicity of various chemical species of Al to plants and certain aquatic organisms. Far less information concerning chemical speciation and differential uptake and transport of Al in humans is available. Among the important inorganic complexes of interest are the hydrolyzed-Al species, particularly the nonequilibrium, metastable polynuclear complexes, which form readily, have a fairly wide stability range, and have been demonstrated toxic to plants and fish. In recent years(27)Al NMR spectroscopy has provided significant direct information on the polynuclear complexes existing in a wide range of aqueous solutions. The [Al12O4(OH)24+n(H2O)12-n]((7-n)+) polynuclear complex is often found to be the predominant species in partially neutralized Al solutions and has recently been demonstrated to be more toxic to certain plants than the hexaaqua Al cation. It is also the principal component of Al-chlorohydrate, a highly soluble antiperspirant, present in many hydrolyzed Al solutions utilized in water and waste water treatment, and, as hypothesized herein, a primary constituent of many hydroxide gels utilized as antacids. This polynuclear has a wide pH stability range, reportedly forms copolynuclears with Si, and contains tetrahedrally coordinated Al within its structure, all features that may be relevant to the recently reported properties of Al associated with neuritic plaque cores.

  13. Aluminium induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated cell death in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line is independent of p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa Rizvi, Syed Husain; Parveen, Arshiya; Verma, Anoop K; Ahmad, Iqbal; Arshad, Md; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust and its compounds are used in the form of house hold utensils, medicines and in antiperspirant etc. Increasing number of evidences suggest the involvement of Al+3 ions in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Here, we have attempted to investigate the role of Al in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the regulation of p53 during neuronal apoptosis using neuroblastoma cell line. We observed that Al caused oxidative stress by increasing ROS production and intracellular calcium levels together with depletion of intracellular GSH levels. We also studied modulation of key pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and found significant alterations in the levels of Nrf2, NQO1, pAKT, p21, Bax, Bcl2, Aβ1-40 and Cyt c together with increase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related proteins like CHOP and caspase 12. However, with respect to the role of p53, we observed downregulation of its transcript as well as protein levels while analysis of its ubiquitination status revealed no significant changes. Not only did Al increase the activities of caspase 9, caspase 12 and caspase 3, but, by the use of peptide inhibitors of specific and pan-caspases, we observed significant protection against neuronal cell death upon inhibition of caspase 12, demonstrating the prominent role of endoplasmic reticulum stress generated responses in Al toxicity. Overall our findings suggest that Al induces ER stress and ROS generation which compromises the antioxidant defenses of neuronal cells thereby promoting neuronal apoptosis in p53 independent pathway.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of sorbitol acetalation reaction with paramethylbenzaldehyde to nucleator%山梨醇与对甲基苯甲醛合成山梨醇缩醛反应的热力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万林; 史建公; 王桂荣

    2011-01-01

    分析和计算山梨醇与对甲基苯甲醛合成山梨醇缩醛反应的热力学对于开发该反应的催化剂和反应工艺具有重要意义.首次利用Benson法计算了山梨醇一缩对甲基苯甲醛(MPBS)、山梨醇二缩对甲基苯甲醛(DPBS)和山梨醇三缩对甲基苯甲醛(TPBS)的热力学参数,建立了MPBS、DPBS和TPBS的热容与温度的关系方程.在此基础上,利用Kirchhoff方程,分别建立了山梨醇与对甲基苯甲醛缩合为MPBS、DPBS和TPBS 3个反应的焓变与温度的关系方程,计算表明在300 K~1000K温度范围内,山梨醇与对甲基苯甲醛缩合生成MPBS、DPBS和TPBS的3个反应均为放热反应.%Dibenzylidene sorbitol acetals("DBS"), subistituted DBS, such as can be made with alkyl substituted aromatic aldehydes, and related acetals nave found utility as nucleating agents, clarifying agents, gelling agents, processing aids, and strength modifiers in polyolefin resins, polyester resins, deodorant, and antiperspirant compositions; hydrocarbon fuels; waste liquids, especially those containing organic impurities ;and paint. How to analyse and calculate the reaction thermodynamic data of sorbitol acetalation with aromatic aldehydes has a very important role in determining the reaction conditions and selecting the catalyst. But so far, the thermodynamics for synthesizing sorbitol acetals from sorbitol and aromatic aldehydes have not been reported, because of the lack of thermodynamic data of sorbitol acetals. Thermodynamic parameters of monoparabenzylidenesorbitol (MPBS), diparabenzylidenesorbitol(DPBS), and triparabenzylidenesorbitol(TPBS) were calculated by Benson method firstly in the article, the relationship equation between heat capacity and temperature of MPBS, DPBS and TPBS were established respectively. Meanwhile, on the basis of above data and equations, the fomulas between the reaction enthalpy changes and temperature of MPBS, DPBS and TPBS synthesized by sorbitol and benzaldehyde were

  15. Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C.; Karyakina, Nataliya A.; Yokel, Robert A.; Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Wisniewski, Thomas M.; Arnold, Ian M. F.; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    leads to intrinsic apoptosis. In contrast, the toxicity of the insoluble Al oxides depends primarily on their behavior as particulates. Aluminum has been held responsible for human morbidity and mortality, but there is no consistent and convincing evidence to associate the Al found in food and drinking water at the doses and chemical forms presently consumed by people living in North America and Western Europe with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Neither is there clear evidence to show use of Al-containing underarm antiperspirants or cosmetics increases the risk of AD or breast cancer. Metallic Al, its oxides, and common Al salts have not been shown to be either genotoxic or carcinogenic. Aluminum exposures during neonatal and pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) can impair bone mineralization and delay neurological development. Adverse effects to vaccines with Al adjuvants have occurred; however, recent controlled trials found that the immunologic response to certain vaccines with Al adjuvants was no greater, and in some cases less than, that after identical vaccination without Al adjuvants. The scientific literature on the adverse health effects of Al is extensive. Health risk assessments for Al must take into account individual co-factors (e.g., age, renal function, diet, gastric pH). Conclusions from the current review point to the need for refinement of the PTWI, reduction of Al contamination in PN solutions, justification for routine addition of Al to vaccines, and harmonization of OELs for Al substances. PMID:25233067

  16. Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C; Karyakina, Nataliya A; Yokel, Robert A; Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Wisniewski, Thomas M; Arnold, Ian M F; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    oxidative damage that leads to intrinsic apoptosis. In contrast, the toxicity of the insoluble Al oxides depends primarily on their behavior as particulates. Aluminum has been held responsible for human morbidity and mortality, but there is no consistent and convincing evidence to associate the Al found in food and drinking water at the doses and chemical forms presently consumed by people living in North America and Western Europe with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neither is there clear evidence to show use of Al-containing underarm antiperspirants or cosmetics increases the risk of AD or breast cancer. Metallic Al, its oxides, and common Al salts have not been shown to be either genotoxic or carcinogenic. Aluminum exposures during neonatal and pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) can impair bone mineralization and delay neurological development. Adverse effects to vaccines with Al adjuvants have occurred; however, recent controlled trials found that the immunologic response to certain vaccines with Al adjuvants was no greater, and in some cases less than, that after identical vaccination without Al adjuvants. The scientific literature on the adverse health effects of Al is extensive. Health risk assessments for Al must take into account individual co-factors (e.g., age, renal function, diet, gastric pH). Conclusions from the current review point to the need for refinement of the PTWI, reduction of Al contamination in PN solutions, justification for routine addition of Al to vaccines, and harmonization of OELs for Al substances.