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Sample records for antioxidant vitamin supplementation

  1. The effect of vitamin C and cobalt supplementation on antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. The effect of vitamin C and cobalt supplementation on antioxidant status in healthy and diabetic rats. Özlem Yildirim. Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 06100, Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey. E -mail: yildirim@science.ankara.edu.tr Tel: +90-312-212-6720 ...

  2. Levels of the Antioxidant Nutrients Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database: NHANES Data Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory evidence indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of certain cancers by protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals or other mechanisms. Many dietary supplements containing antioxidant constituents (e.g., vitamin C) are available to consumers. Th...

  3. Effects of supplementation of antioxidant vitamins and lipid peroxidation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Carla R; Borges, Fernanda; Lameu, Edson; Franca, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Critical patients present systemic inflammatory process that can be followed by decrease in plasma concentrations of antioxidant vitamins. [corrected] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of antioxidant vitamins in critical patients and their relation with lipid peroxidation. 23 patients went on a standard diet (G1) and 11 went on a diet with daily supplementation of 10,000 IU of vitamin A, 400 mg of vitamin E and 600 mg of vitamin C (G2). The APACHE II score was made. Serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, vitamins C and E, malondialdehyde (MDA) and C-reactive protein was measured before (T0) and on the 8th day after the beginning of the nutritional therapy (T1). The groups had been monitored on T0, T1 and T2, (at discharges or death) on the following parameters: mechanical ventilation; hospitalization days; mortality; infection incidence. Serum concentrations of MDA and vitamin E were significantly lower in G2 after intervention and strong tendency to increase vitamin C. There were not significant differences between the groups regarding the clinical parameters. The doses of vitamin A, C and E that were indicated were effective for the current lipid peroxidation reduction. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of vitamin C and cobalt supplementation on antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and the treated rats were received 1 g/l vitamin C with 0.5 mM CoCl2 in drinking water for eigth weeks. In all tissues, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase activities, lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels were significantly increased in diabetic rats at the end of ...

  5. French adults' cognitive performance after daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses: a post hoc analysis of the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Fezeu, Léopold; Jeandel, Claude; Ferry, Monique; Andreeva, Valentina; Amieva, Hélène; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar

    2011-09-01

    Antioxidant properties of some vitamins and trace elements may help to prevent cognitive decline. The aim of the current study was to estimate the long-term effects of antioxidant nutrient supplementation on the cognitive performance of participants in the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) study 6 y after the end of the trial. This study included 4447 French participants aged 45-60 y who were enrolled in the SU.VI.MAX study (1994-2002), which was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. From 1994 to 2002, participants received daily vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 μg), and zinc (20 mg) in combination or as a placebo. In 2007-2009, the cognitive performance of participants was assessed with 4 neuropsychological tests (6 tasks). Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed to identify cognitive-function summary scores. Associations between antioxidant supplementation and cognitive functions, in the full sample and by subgroups, were estimated through ANOVA and expressed as mean differences and 95% CIs. Subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline characteristics. Subjects receiving active antioxidant supplementation had better episodic memory scores (mean difference: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.02, 1.20). PCA indicated 2 factors that were interpreted as showing verbal memory and executive functioning. Verbal memory was improved by antioxidant supplementation only in subjects who were nonsmokers or who had low serum vitamin C concentrations at baseline. This study supports the role of an adequate antioxidant nutrient status in the preservation of verbal memory under certain conditions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.

  6. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer R; Lawrenson, John G

    2017-07-30

    There is inconclusive evidence from observational studies to suggest that people who eat a diet rich in antioxidant vitamins (carotenoids, vitamins C, and E) or minerals (selenium and zinc) may be less likely to develop age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether or not taking antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplements, or both, prevent the development of AMD. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 29 March 2017), Embase Ovid (1947 to 29 March 2017), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database) (1985 to 29 March 2017), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/); searched 29 March 2017, the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch); searched 29 March 2017, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 29 March 2017 and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 29 March 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplement (alone or in combination) to control. Both review authors independently assessed risk of bias in the included studies and extracted data. One author entered data into RevMan 5; the other author checked the data entry. We pooled data using a fixed-effect model. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We included a total of five RCTs in this review with data available for 76,756 people. The trials were conducted in Australia, Finland, and the USA, and investigated vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and multivitamin supplements. All trials were judged to be at low risk of bias.Four studies reported the comparison of vitamin E with placebo. Average treatment and follow-up duration ranged from 4 to 10 years. Data were

  7. Effect of vitamin C and E supplementation on total antioxidant content of human breastmilk and infant urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarban, Asghar; Toroghi, Mahsa Mostafavi; Asli, Marziye; Jafari, Masumeh; Vejdan, Morteza; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2015-05-01

    After delivery and birth, mothers and neonates are exposed to oxidative stress. The present study examined the effect of supplementation of the diet of breastfeeding mothers with vitamin C and E to improve the antioxidant content of breastmilk and evidence of antioxidant activity in infant urine. The subjects were 60 healthy lactating breastfeeding mothers and their infants 1-6 months of age. They were randomly allocated to a control group (n=30) consuming a free diet or an experimental group (n=30) consuming a free diet supplemented each day with effervescent tablets of vitamin C (500 mg) and chewable tablets of vitamin E (100 IU). After 30 days, the total antioxidant content of the mothers' breastmilk and evidence of antioxidant activity in the infants' urine were measured by the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. The free radical scavenging activity of the urine samples was measured by the α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Differences pre- and postintervention were compared within and between the groups. Significantly higher levels of antioxidants in the breastmilk (610±295.5 to 716±237.5 μmol/L) and infant urine (43.2±21.8 to 75.0±49.2 μmol/mg creatinine) were observed in the experimental group over the control group (pvitamin C and E supplements appears to have a positive effect on total antioxidant content of breastmilk and evidence of antioxidant activity in infant urine.

  8. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  9. Effect of supplementation during pregnancy with L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins in medical food on pre-eclampsia in high risk population: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Espino, Salvador; Avila-Vergara, Marco Antonio; Ibarra, Isabel; Ahued, Roberto; Godines, Myrna; Parry, Samuel; Macones, George; Strauss, Jerome F

    2011-05-19

    To test the hypothesis that a relative deficiency in L-arginine, the substrate for synthesis of the vasodilatory gas nitric oxide, may be associated with the development of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk. Randomised, blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial. Tertiary public hospital in Mexico City. Pregnant women with a history of a previous pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia, or pre-eclampsia in a first degree relative, and deemed to be at increased risk of recurrence of the disease were studied from week 14-32 of gestation and followed until delivery. Supplementation with a medical food-bars containing L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, antioxidant vitamins alone, or placebo-during pregnancy. Development of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. 222 women were allocated to the placebo group, 228 received L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, and 222 received antioxidant vitamins alone. Women had 4-8 prenatal visits while receiving the bars. The incidence of pre-eclampsia was reduced significantly (χ(2) = 19.41; P L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins compared with placebo (absolute risk reduction 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.21). Antioxidant vitamins alone showed an observed benefit, but this effect was not statistically significant compared with placebo (χ(2) = 3.76; P = 0.052; absolute risk reduction 0.07, 0.005 to 0.15). L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins compared with antioxidant vitamins alone resulted in a significant effect (P = 0.004; absolute risk reduction 0.09, 0.05 to 0.14). Supplementation during pregnancy with a medical food containing L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins reduced the incidence of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk of the condition. Antioxidant vitamins alone did not have a protective effect for prevention of pre-eclampsia. Supplementation with L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins needs to be evaluated in a low risk population to determine the generalisability of the protective effect, and the relative

  10. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize additional ...

  11. Effect of supplementation during pregnancy with L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins in medical food on pre-eclampsia in high risk population: randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Espino, Salvador; Avila-Vergara, Marco Antonio; Ibarra, Isabel; Ahued, Roberto; Godines, Myrna; Parry, Samuel; Macones, George; Strauss, Jerome F

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that a relative deficiency in L-arginine, the substrate for synthesis of the vasodilatory gas nitric oxide, may be associated with the development of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk. Design Randomised, blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial. Setting Tertiary public hospital in Mexico City. Participants Pregnant women with a history of a previous pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia, or pre-eclampsia in a first degree relative, and deemed to be at increased risk of recurrence of the disease were studied from week 14-32 of gestation and followed until delivery. Interventions Supplementation with a medical food—bars containing L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, antioxidant vitamins alone, or placebo—during pregnancy. Main outcome measure Development of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Results 222 women were allocated to the placebo group, 228 received L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, and 222 received antioxidant vitamins alone. Women had 4-8 prenatal visits while receiving the bars. The incidence of pre-eclampsia was reduced significantly (χ2=19.41; Pvitamins compared with placebo (absolute risk reduction 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.21). Antioxidant vitamins alone showed an observed benefit, but this effect was not statistically significant compared with placebo (χ2=3.76; P=0.052; absolute risk reduction 0.07, 0.005 to 0.15). L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins compared with antioxidant vitamins alone resulted in a significant effect (P=0.004; absolute risk reduction 0.09, 0.05 to 0.14). Conclusions Supplementation during pregnancy with a medical food containing L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins reduced the incidence of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk of the condition. Antioxidant vitamins alone did not have a protective effect for prevention of pre-eclampsia. Supplementation with L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins needs to be evaluated in a low risk population to determine the

  12. Effect of Vitamin E and Selenium Supplement on Paraoxonase-1 Activity, Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein and Antioxidant Defense in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Rashidi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on serum paraoxonase (PON1 activity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty two female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group (n=8 received a standard diet; streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats (n=12, received corn oil and physiological solution; and vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic rats (n=12 were treated with oral administration of vitamin E (300 mg/kg and sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Results: Significantly lower total antioxidant status (TAS, PON1and erythrocyte SOD activities and a higher fasting plasma glucose level were observed in the diabetic rats compared to the control. A significant increase in SOD and GPX activities in vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic group was observed after 5 weeks of the experiment. Compared to the normal rats, malondialdehyde (MDA and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL levels were higher in the diabetic animals; however, these values reduced significantly following vitamin E and selenium supplementation. Conclusion: Vitamin E and selenium supplementation in diabetic rats has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects and may slow down the progression of diabetic complications through its protective effect on PON1 activity and lipoproteins oxidation.

  13. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  14. Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Cınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  15. Natural antioxidant vitamins: A review of their beneficial roles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review supports the use of antioxidant vitamins as therapeutic agents in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications, and also provides an insight into the potential pharmacological effects of natural antioxidant vitamins in diabetic conditions. These antioxidant vitamins can be used as safe supplements to ...

  16. Efficacy of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) and/N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Supplementation on Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Male Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirabbasi, Elham; Shahar, Suzana; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Manap, Roslina Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant therapy has a potential to be introduced as therapeutic modality for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to determine the effect of antioxidant supplementation [ascorbic acid and N-Acetylcysteine (NAC)] on nutritional and antioxidant status in male COPD patients. A parallel and single blind randomised controlled clinical trial (RCT) was conducted at two medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Seventy-nine subjects were recruited and randomly divided into four trial arms (i.e., NAC, vitamin C, NAC+vitamin C and control groups) for six mo. The primary outcome was changes in body mass index by estimating power of 90% and significance level of psupplementation of NAC or vitamin C improved nutritional and antioxidant status of subjects.

  17. Effect of vitamin A and vitamin C supplementation on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV and TB infections are both associated with elevated oxidative stress parameters. Anti-oxidant supplementation may offer beneficial effects in positively modulating oxidative stress parameters in HIV and HIV-TB infected patients. We investigated the effects of vitamin A and C supplementation on oxidative ...

  18. Association of Antioxidant Supplement Use and Dementia in the Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease by Vitamin E and Selenium Trial (PREADViSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryscio, Richard J; Abner, Erin L; Caban-Holt, Allison; Lovell, Mark; Goodman, Phyllis; Darke, Amy K; Yee, Monica; Crowley, John; Schmitt, Frederick A

    2017-05-01

    Oxidative stress is an established dementia pathway, but it is unknown if the use of antioxidant supplements can prevent dementia. To determine if antioxidant supplements (vitamin E or selenium) used alone or in combination can prevent dementia in asymptomatic older men. The Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease by Vitamin E and Selenium (PREADViSE) trial began as a double-blind randomized clinical trial in May 2002, which transformed into a cohort study from September 2009 to May 2015. The PREADViSE trial was ancillary to the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), a randomized clinical trial of the same antioxidant supplements for preventing prostate cancer, which closed in 2009 owing to findings from a futility analysis. The PREADViSE trial recruited 7540 men, of whom 3786 continued into the cohort study. Participants were at least 60 years old at study entry and were enrolled at 130 SELECT sites, and Cox proportional hazards models were used in a modified intent-to-treat analysis to compare hazard rates among the study arms. Participants were randomized to vitamin E, selenium, vitamin E and selenium, or placebo. While taking study supplements, enrolled men visited their SELECT site and were evaluated for dementia using a 2-stage screen. During the cohort study, men were contacted by telephone and assessed using an enhanced 2-stage cognitive screen. In both phases, men were encouraged to visit their physician if the screen results indicated possible cognitive impairment. Dementia case ascertainment relied on a consensus review of the cognitive screens and medical records for men with suspected dementia who visited their physician for an evaluation or by review of all available information, including a functional assessment screen. The mean (SD) baseline age of the 7540 participants was 67.5 (5.3) years, with 3936 (52.2%) reporting a college education or better, 754 (10.0%) reporting black race, and 505 (6.7%) reporting Hispanic ethnicity. Dementia

  19. Supplementing with vitamin C the diet of honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica) parasitized with Varroa destructor: effects on antioxidative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjan, Marek; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2014-05-01

    We studied a total of eight developmental stages of capped brood and newly emerged workers of Apis mellifera carnica colonies naturally parasitized with Varroa destructor. During winter and early spring four colonies were fed syrup containing 1.8 mg vitamin C kg(-1) (ascorbic acid group; group AA) while four colonies were fed syrup without the vitamin C (control group C). Selected elements of the antioxidative system were analysed including total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione content and antioxidative enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase). Body weight, protein content and indices of infestation were also determined. The prevalence (8.11%) and intensity (1·15 parasite per bee) of the infestation were lower in group AA compared with group C (11.3% and 1.21, respectively). Changes in the indicators of antioxidative stress were evidence for the strengthening of the antioxidative system in the brood by administration of vitamin C. In freshly emerged worker bees of group AA, despite the infestation, protein content, TAS, and the activity of all antioxidative enzymes had significantly higher values in relation to group C.

  20. The Effects of Different Amount of Protein and Vitamin e Supplementation in Rations on Lipid and Antioxidant Metabolism of Broilers Exposed to Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HS Erol

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Heat stress, causes economic losses and has negative effects on both broiler husbandry and animal welfare. Nutritional strategies are applied for minimizing the negative effects of heat stress. In the present study, at the finishing period (24-39 days of age of heat stress, the effects of diet involving 21% and 19% proteins and vitamin E on lipid metabolism and antioxidant mechanism of action, aimed to be identified. This study was carried out in six groups as: HPC (24oC heat + 21% crude protein (CP, HPS (34oC heat + 21% CP, LPC (24oC heat + 19% CP, LPS (34oC heat + 19% CP, HPSVE (34oC heat + 21% CP + Vitamin E and LPSVE (34oC heat + 19% CP + vitamin E groups. Superficial pectoral muscles (breast and liver tissues were used for oxidative stress and antioxidant defence determinations. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels have also been determined in blood serums. During the research, it is found that heat stress increased serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels, where Vitamin E has recovered triglyceride levels limitedly and cholesterol levels significantly. It is also observed that the adverse effect of high temperature was directly related to oxidative stress. Protein levels and vitamin supplementation relatively ameliorated these adverse effects, suggesting the tissue specificity. Consequently, the importance of feeding strategies such as the presence of Vitamin E and protein ratios on broiler nutrition in heat stress was established.

  1. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  2. Effect of vitamin A and vitamin C supplementation on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: HIV and TB infections are both associated with elevated oxidative stress parameters. Anti-oxidant supplemen- tation may offer beneficial effects in positively modulating oxidative stress parameters in HIV and HIV-TB infected patients. We investigated the effects of vitamin A and C supplementation on ...

  3. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Çınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, İlkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  4. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to vitamin and mineral success is eating a balanced diet. Before taking vitamin and mineral supplements, talk to ... healthy diet. There’s just no substitute for a balanced, nutritious diet that limits excess calories, saturated fat, trans fat, ...

  5. Effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin C on growth, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant enzyme activity of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) juveniles exposed to nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zuoyong; Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Liu, Mingxing; Wang, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Different amounts of vitamin C were added to diets fed to juveniles (2.5 ± 0.15 g) of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonic u s (Selenka) in an attempt to reduce the stress response of specimens exposed to nitrite stress. A commercial feed was used as the control diet and three experimental diets were made by supplementing 1 000, 1 500, or 2 000 mg vitamin C/kg diet to control diet separately in a 45-day experiment. Sea cucumbers were exposed to three different levels (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/L) of nitrite stress for 4, 8, and 12 h at four time intervals (0, 15, 30, and 45 d). Growth of the animals was recorded during the experiment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (i.e. hydroxyl free radical (-OH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were measured. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the effect of multiple factors on ROS indices and enzyme activities. Weight gain (WG) and special growth rate (SGR) of vitamin C supplementation groups were significantly higher than those of control group ( P effectively the effects of nitrite exposure.

  6. An increase in vitamin E requirement induced by high supplementation of vitamin C in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L H

    1981-06-01

    Weanling rats were maintained on purified diets with graded levels of vitamin E at 50, 60, 100, 200, or 500 IU/kg diet; each group was further divided into two subgroups, each with six rats and received vitamin C at 0 or 1.5 g/kg diet. After 1 or 2 months, the determination of antioxidant status showed that the high supplementation of vitamin C at the marginally adequate vitamin E level significantly increased in vitro erythrocyte hemolysis and liver lipid peroxidation, and significantly lowered erythrocyte level of reduced glutathione and plasma level of vitamin E; thus lowering the overall antioxidant potential of the animals. A small increase in vitamin E level counteracted the hemolytic and peroxidative effect of the high supplementation of vitamin C. A greater increase in vitamin E level counteracted the effect of high supplementation of vitamin C in decreasing glutathione level and plasma vitamin E level. These results indicate that the adverse effect of the high supplementation of vitamin C on tissue antioxidant potential may be overcome by increasing the supplementation level of vitamin E, and suggest that vitamin E requirement may be increased with increased vitamin C supplementation.

  7. Sesame Lignans and Vitamin E Supplementation Improve Subjective Statuses and Anti-Oxidative Capacity in Healthy Humans With Feelings of Daily Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Daisuke; Yasutake, Yoko; Tomimori, Namino; Ono, Yoshiko; Shibata, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Sesamin has anti-oxidative functions in vivo. Fatigue is caused in part by oxidative stress. We evaluated whether sesame lignans (sesamin/episesamin = 1/1, 10 mg) with vitamin E (55 mg of α-tocopherol) (SVE) could improve subjective statuses and anti-oxidative capacity in humans using questionnaires on fatigue, sleep and physical appearance, as well as low-density lipoprotein oxidation lag time. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted with subjects experiencing daily fatigue. After a run-in period, subjects were administered oral SVE or a placebo (P) for 8 weeks. A questionnaire regarding fatigue, sleep and physical appearance was conducted at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Plasma low-density lipoprotein oxidation lag time was measured as an indicator of anti-oxidative capacity. The per-protocol analysis revealed significant improvements in fatigue status at 4 and 8 weeks compared to 0 weeks in both groups (p subject subgroup analysis (aged 40 and over), the sleep and physical appearance significantly improved compared to the P group (p < 0.05), and fatigue status showed a tendency for improvement compared to the P group. Anti-oxidative capacity in the SVE group significantly increased compared to the P group (p < 0.01). No adverse events relating to SVE supplementation were confirmed. These results suggest SVE supplementation could safely alleviate daily fatigue and oxidative stress. PMID:26153159

  8. ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS LEVELS IN MALARIA PARASITEMIC PREGNANT WOMEN MAY INFLUENCE THE VIRULENCE OF THE PARASITES: RE-APPRAISING SUPPLEMENTATIONS IN MALARIA-ENDEMIC AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some biochemical and haematological changes have been reported in malaria parasitemic pregnant women in urban and rural malaria-endemic areas, indicating different oxidative status of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some antioxidant vitamins in symptomatic malaria parasitemic pregnant women to re-appraise the need and extent of vitamin supplementations in this condition. It is a cross-sectional study done between September, 2011 and March, 2012. The study involved 119 pregnant women aged between 24 and 36years, who presented in antenatal clinics with full symptoms of malaria infection. They were within the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Malaria density was determined by absolute malaria parasite count while the vitamins (A, C and E were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Our results showed that vitamin A concentrations in controls, mild and moderate malaria densities were 16.48 and plusmn; 0.75 and micro;g/ml, 15.72 and plusmn; 0.58 and micro;g/ml and 16.19 and plusmn; 1.40 and micro;g/ml respectively, vitamin C were 31.31 and plusmn; 0.97mg/dL; 38.33 and plusmn; 2.73mg/dL and 52.17mg/dL respectively while vitamin E were 0.89 and plusmn; 0.09mg/dL; 2.05 and plusmn; 0.27mg/dL and 3.32 and plusmn; 0.23mg/dL respectively. The results indicated that there were no significant changes in vitamin A while vitamins C and E increased significantly as malaria density increased. The changes in these vitamins are indications of increased endogenous mobilization to fight oxidative stress. We opine that the results are suggestive of extra oxidative stress in symptomatic malaria parasitemia, and that inadequate concentrations of these antioxidants can potentiate the virulence of these parasites.

  9. Antioxidant Activity of The Crude Carotenoid Pigment Extract from Yellow Ambon Banana (M. parasidiaca sapientum Peel: Its Potency as Vitamin A Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2012-06-01

    Method: The total vitamin A carotenoid in the banana peel was assessed using the double beam Varian Cary 50 spectrophotometer at 470 nm. Then it was converted to microgram per gram of the banana peel using the NAS-NRC equation. The extraction was conducted using acetone. The antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH (1.1-difenil-2-dipikrilhidrazil. The antioxidant activity of carotenoid crude extract was compared to that of marker â-karoten antioxidant (E-Merck, No. 1.02236. IC50 values were calculated using the regression formula. The dried carotenoid crude extract was encapsulated with dextrin filler. Result: The water content level of ambon banana was 50.68 % ± 3.35 %. The peel of the yellow ambon banana has a total carotenoid of 6.203 ± 0.004 μg/g. The converted carotenoid vitamin A was 124.06 ± 0.08 IU. The IC50 value of the yellow ambon banana crude extract was 2350.3 ppm meaning higher than the marker â-caroten (565.76 ppm. The encapsulation technique increased the pigment stabilization of the yellow ambon banana which will be used for vitamin A supplement. Conclusion: The crude extract of carotenoid pigment of the yellow ambon banana peel has an antioxidant potential although it is less efficient compared to that of â-carotene. The IC50 value of the crude extract of carotenoid pigment of the yellow banana ambon is 2350.3 ppm, higher than marker â -caroten (Sains Medika, 4(1:78-88.

  10. Effect of supplementation with B vitamins and antioxidants on levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and C-reactive protein (CRP): a double-blind, randomised, factorial design, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Gilchrist, Sarah E C M; Young, Ian S; McKinley, Michelle C; Yarnell, John W G; Gey, K Fred; Evans, Alun; Skidmore, Paula M L; Woodside, Jayne V

    2010-12-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors such as elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)/C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine are potentially related to essential micronutrients such as certain B vitamins and antioxidant vitamins. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplementation with moderate doses of B vitamins and/or antioxidants could alter either ADMA and/or CRP concentrations in middle-aged, apparently healthy men with mildly elevated homocysteine levels. A randomised, double-blind, factorial design, intervention study was carried out on 132 men with mildly elevated homocysteine levels, allocated to four groups (a) B vitamins alone--1 mg folic acid, 7.2 mg pyridoxine, 0.02 mg cyanocobalamin daily, (b) antioxidants alone--150 mg ascorbic acid, 67 mg vitamin E, 9 mg β-carotene daily, (c) B vitamins with antioxidant vitamins, or (d) placebo. A total of 101 men completed the study to 8 weeks. When the percentage of baseline ADMA and CRP was examined at 8 weeks, no statistically significant differences were observed between the four groups (p = 0.21 and p = 0.90, respectively). Similar non-significant results were observed when analysis was stratified based on baseline CRP levels (B vitamins and/or antioxidants did not alter either ADMA or CRP concentrations in these middle-aged, apparently healthy men with mildly elevated homocysteine levels.

  11. Radioiodine-induced oxidative stress in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and effect of supplementation with vitamins C and E and selenium (antioxidants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Batista, Kelly Cristina Siqueira; Calsolari, Maria Regina, E-mail: pedrowsrosario@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study, in addition to confirming that therapy with {sup 131}I causes oxidative stress, was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with vitamins C and E and selenium on this phenomenon by measuring plasma 8-epi-PGF2α, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Subjects and methods: Forty patients with thyroid cancer submitted to thyroidectomy, who received 3.7 GBq {sup 131}I after levothyroxine withdrawal, were selected; 20 patients did not receive (control group) and 20 patients received (intervention group) daily supplementation consisting of 2000 mg vitamin C, 1000 mg vitamin E and 400 μg selenium for 21 days before {sup 131}I. Plasma 8-epi-PGF2α was measured immediately before and 2 and 7 days after {sup 131}I. Results: A significant increase in plasma 8-epi-PGF2α after {sup 131}I was observed in the two groups. The concentrations of 8-epi-PGF2α were significantly higher in the control group before and 2 and 7 days after {sup 131}I. The percentage of patients with elevated 8-epi-PGF2α was also significantly higher in the control group before and after {sup 131}I. Furthermore, the increase (percent) in 8-epi-PGF2α was significantly greater in the control group (average of 112.3% versus 56.3%). Only two patients (10%) reported side effects during supplementation. Conclusions: Ablation with {sup 131}I causes oxidative stress which can be minimized by the use of antioxidants. (author)

  12. Effect of Antioxidants Supplementation on Aging and Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    If aging is due to or contributed by free radical reactions, as postulated by the free radical theory of aging, lifespan of organisms should be extended by administration of exogenous antioxidants. This paper reviews data on model organisms concerning the effects of exogenous antioxidants (antioxidant vitamins, lipoic acid, coenzyme Q, melatonin, resveratrol, curcumin, other polyphenols, and synthetic antioxidants including antioxidant nanoparticles) on the lifespan of model organisms. Mechanisms of effects of antioxidants, often due to indirect antioxidant action or to action not related to the antioxidant properties of the compounds administered, are discussed. The legitimacy of antioxidant supplementation in human is considered. PMID:24783202

  13. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on and the association of body condition score with changes in peroxidative biomarkers and antioxidants around calving in dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Bouwstra, R.J.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Jorritsma, R.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on oxidative status in blood, liver, milk, and ovarian follicular fluid in periparturient heifers. Vitamin E supplementation started 8 wk before calving and continued until 8 wk postpartum. Grass silage was the

  14. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    prevent or reverse oxidative stress, c) to collect pilot data on the effect of vitamin E supplementation on lung function and impaired wound healing. We...by vitamin E supplementation, b) to prevent or reverse oxidative stress, c) to collect pilot data on the effect of vitamin E supplementation on lung...We anticipate that vitamin E supplements will prevent vitamin E depletion, reduce oxidative stress, attenuate the development of lung dysfunction

  15. A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J; Ray, Sidhartha D

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S=sage; T=tea; G=guarana) and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart), serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG) or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X=daily human dose) diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation) in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys) and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein) showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant combination of

  16. A Novel Dietary Supplement Containing Multiple Phytochemicals and Vitamins Elevates Hepatorenal and Cardiac Antioxidant Enzymes in the Absence of Significant Serum Chemistry and Genomic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elida Bulku

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S, sage; T, tea; G, guarana and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart, serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X = daily human dose diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST/LDH for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant

  17. Antioxidant Vitamins and Their Use in Preventing Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Levy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis remains one of the leading causes of death in Western populations. Subsequent to the discovery that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, vitamins C and E, along with other antioxidants, were studied as potential therapies for the disease. However, while in vitro and in vivo studies showed promising antiatherogenic effects for vitamins C and E, clinical trials in which patients were given high doses of vitamin E or C showed no benefit and even possible harm. This review will attempt to summarize the known mechanistic data regarding the biochemical effects of vitamins C and E and their relevance to atherosclerosis, and offer an explanation for the failure of clinical trials to show that supplementation with these vitamins provides any benefit when given indiscriminately. We provide one example of how pharmacogenomics may be used to identify a sub-population which may indeed benefit from antioxidant supplementation.

  18. Vitamin E and Vitamin C supplementation does not prevent glucose intolerance in obese-prone rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity-induced glucose intolerance affects over 70 million Americans. Elevated oxidative stress is associated with development of glucose intolerance. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that supplementation with the anti-oxidants vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol acetate; 0.4 g/kg diet) and vitamin...

  19. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  20. PROTEIN OXIDATION AND ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS IN LEPROSY

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Girish

    2011-01-01

    Methods: Total 30 leprosy cases were studied. Patients were subjected to various tests like, serum protein carbonyl as an index of protein oxidation, while serum Vitamin C and Vitamin E levels as endogenous antioxidants.Aims The presence of carbonyl groups in proteins has been used as a marker of ROS-mediated protein oxidation. The present work was undertaken to study the importance of endogenous antioxidants like Vitamin C and vitamin E in different types of leprosy patients.Results: An i...

  1. Modulatory Role of Antioxidant Vitamins C and E on Erythrocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin C and E supplements were administered to sodium nitrate-treated rats in order to examine the possible ameliorative effects of these antioxidants on erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Seventy adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups (n=10) and administered drugs or distilled water orally using a metallic ...

  2. Vitamin E supplementation and endurance exercise: are there benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanami, Y; Iwane, H; Kawai, Y; Shimomitsu, T

    2000-02-01

    It has been widely noted that vitamin E shows numerous beneficial effects through and beyond its antioxidative properties; consequently, vitamin E is expected to prevent degenerative diseases. In the field of sports medicine, many studies dealing with vitamin E have been conducted originally from the point of view of its effects on physical performance. Although some earlier studies indicated that vitamin E supplementation could improve physical performance, defects in the study design or statistical analysis were pointed out at a later time. The majority of subsequent well controlled studies have reported no significant effect on physical performance from vitamin E supplementation. Recent studies suggest that endurance exercise may promote free radical generation in the body, and vitamin E may play an important role in preventing the free radical damage associated with endurance exercise. Although there is evidence of free radical involvement in exercise-induced muscle injury, vitamin E supplementation might not be expected to prevent muscle damage caused by exercise in humans without a vitamin E deficiency. Since it is still unclear whether exercise induces lipid peroxidation in the human body, the beneficial effect of vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation has not yet been established. However, it is proposed that as a result of exercise vitamin E may be mobilised from store tissues and redistributed in the body to prevent oxidative damage. Therefore, we are convinced that vitamin E contributes to preventing exercise-induced lipid peroxidation. It has also been indicated that strenuous endurance exercise may enhance the production of oxidised low density lipoprotein (LDL), which plays a key role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. It is also suggested that this enhanced production of oxidised LDL could be reduced if a higher vitamin E status is maintained. Supplementation with 100 to 200mg of vitamin E daily can be

  3. [Dual action of vitamin C versus degradation and supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliś, Katarzyna

    2015-11-17

    The article discusses vitamin C from the point of view of its supplementation with food and in the form of oral supplements. The dual action of vitamin C is connected with the presence of oxygen, which may reduce the amount of the vitamin in food products, influence thermal resistance, cause degradation and show an antioxidation effect. Vitamin C stimulates the immune cells and collagen synthesis. It may protect the LDL fraction against oxidation, and therefore it is interesting for cosmetology, rheumatology, immunology and dietetics. The latest research with respect to vitamin C proved that it has the ability to dissolve neurotoxic senile plaques. Equally effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is the oxidised form of vitamin C, i.e. dehydroascorbic acid. Vitamin C may be used in a combined vitamin E supplementation to avoid the pro-oxidative effect and reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 complications. In the review there is a description of the types of vitamin C degradation depending on a specific factor such as pH, temperature, oxygen, enzyme and the impact of diet on the quantity of the supplied vitamin. The literature data confirmed the positive influence of vitamin C as an addition to food. The last part of the article presents the methods of vitamin C protection used in food processing technology and of determining its content in food products. Additionally, the article describes the problems related to vitamin C oxidation processes during food processing and storage. The presented research results indicate that an adequate diet contains a sufficient amount of vitamin C for healthy people. In the case of chronic patients it is better to use supplementation.

  4. Dual action of vitamin C versus degradation and supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kaliś

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses vitamin C from the point of view of its supplementation with food and in the form of oral supplements. The dual action of vitamin C is connected with the presence of oxygen, which may reduce the amount of the vitamin in food products, influence thermal resistance, cause degradation and show an antioxidation effect. Vitamin C stimulates the immune cells and collagen synthesis. It may protect the LDL fraction against oxidation, and therefore it is interesting for cosmetology, rheumatology, immunology and dietetics. The latest research with respect to vitamin C proved that it has the ability to dissolve neurotoxic senile plaques. Equally effective in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease is the oxidised form of vitamin C, i.e. dehydroascorbic acid. Vitamin C may be used in a combined vitamin E supplementation to avoid the pro-oxidative effect and reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 complications. In the review there is a description of the types of vitamin C degradation depending on a specific factor such as pH, temperature, oxygen, enzyme and the impact of diet on the quantity of the supplied vitamin. The literature data confirmed the positive influence of vitamin C as an addition to food. The last part of the article presents the methods of vitamin C protection used in food processing technology and of determining its content in food products. Additionally, the article describes the problems related to vitamin C oxidation processes during food processing and storage. The presented research results indicate that an adequate diet contains a sufficient amount of vitamin C for healthy people. In the case of chronic patients it is better to use supplementation.

  5. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes

    OpenAIRE

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J; Ray, Sidhartha D

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S, sage; T, tea; G, guarana) and assessed changes in target organ anti...

  7. A Novel Dietary Supplement Containing Multiple Phytochemicals and Vitamins Elevates Hepatorenal and Cardiac Antioxidant Enzymes in the Absence of Significant Serum Chemistry and Genomic Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J.; Ray, Sidhartha D.

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S, sage; T, tea; G, guarana) and assessed changes in target organ anti...

  8. Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knekt, Paul; Ritz, John; Pereira, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have suggested a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) at higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, and whole grain. Whether this association is due to antioxidant vitamins or some other factors remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We studied the relation between the intake...... of antioxidant vitamins and CHD risk. DESIGN: A cohort study pooling 9 prospective studies that included information on intakes of vitamin E, carotenoids, and vitamin C and that met specific criteria was carried out. During a 10-y follow-up, 4647 major incident CHD events occurred in 293 172 subjects who were...... free of CHD at baseline. RESULTS: Dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins was only weakly related to a reduced CHD risk after adjustment for potential nondietary and dietary confounding factors. Compared with subjects in the lowest dietary intake quintiles for vitamins E and C, those in the highest...

  9. Effects of exogenous vitamin E supplementation on the levels of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oxidative stress has been recognized as a central feature of smoke induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant enzymes is also an established fact in these patients. But studies in regard to stable COPD patients and effect of vitamin E supplementation are lacking.

  10. Effects of exogenous vitamin E supplementation on the levels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oxidative stress has been recognized as a central feature of smoke induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant enzymes is also an established fact in these patients. But studies in regard to stable COPD patients and effect of vitamin E supplementation are lacking.

  11. Vitamin C Supplementation Does not Improve Hypoxia-Induced Erythropoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Bello, Vladimir E.; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Martinez-Bello, Daniel; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Martinez-Bello,Vladimir E., Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Daniel Martinez-Bello, Gloria Olaso-Gonzalez, Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, and Jose Viña. Vitamin C Supplementation Does Not Improve Hypoxia-Induced Erythropoiesis. High Alt Med Biol 13:269–274, 2012.—Hypoxia induces reactive oxygen species production. Supplements with antioxidant mixtures can compensate for the decline in red cell membrane stability following intermittent hypobaric hypoxia by decreasing protein and lipid oxidation. We aimed to ...

  12. Antioxidant supplementation for lung disease in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway infection leads to progressive damage of the lungs in cystic fibrosis and oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology. Supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients (vitamin E, vitamin C, ß-carotene and selenium) or glutathione may therefore potentially help maintain...... an oxidant-antioxidant balance. Current literature suggests a relationship between oxidative status and lung function. OBJECTIVES: To synthesize existing knowledge of the effect of antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, ß-carotene, selenium and glutathione in cystic fibrosis lung disease. SEARCH METHODS......: The Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register and PubMed were searched using detailed search strategies. We contacted authors of included studies and checked reference lists of these studies for additional, potentially relevant studies.Last search of Cystic Fibrosis...

  13. Supplementation with Vitamin E and Vitamin C inversely alters mitochondrial copy number and mitochondrial protein in obese, exercising rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data...

  14. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  15. Effect of Omega-3 and Vitamins E + C Supplements on the Concentration of Serum B-Vitamins and Plasma Redox Aminothiol Antioxidant Status in Elderly Men after Strength Training for Three Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Tonje Holte; Stølevik, Solvor B; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ezzathkah Bastani, Nasser; Paulsen, Gøran; Lohne Seiler, Hilde; Hetlelid, Ken J; Blomhoff, Rune; Mansoor, Mohammad Azam

    2016-01-01

    Data on redox plasma aminothiol status in individuals on strength training are very limited. Therefore, we studied the effect of omega-3 and vitamins E + C supplementation on the concentration of B-vitamins and redox aminothiol status in elderly men after strength training for 3 months. Healthy men, age 60 ± 6 (mean ± SD) were randomly divided into 3 groups: group I received placebo (n = 17), group II consumed omega-3 (700 mg, n = 17), and group III consumed vitamins E + C (235 mg +1 g, n = 16) daily for 3 months. All participants completed a strength training program for the same period. The concentration of serum vitamin B12 decreased and the concentration of serum folate increased in group I after the intervention (p = 0.01, p = 0.009). The concentration of plasma 5-pyridoxal phosphate decreased in groups II and III (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01), whereas the concentration of serum uric acid decreased only in group II (p = 0.02). We detected an increase in the concentration of reduced form of aminothiols in all groups (p vitamins E + C supplementation affect the concentrations of serum B-vitamins and redox plasma aminothiol status in healthy elderly men on strength training. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    age and gender differences. Contrary to prevailing stereotypes the optimization must involve not only an increase in the consumption of vitamins (vitamins E, B group) and carotenoids, but sometimes, conversely, their decline (vitamin A) to a level corresponding to the physiological needs. The revealed vitamin B2 deficiency may very likely indicate a lack of other B group vitamins. In this connection it is necessary to draw attention to the need to eliminate the existing vitamin deficiency, and not to focus exclusively on antioxidant vitamins. The most reasonable and at the same time a safe way to restore the lack of vitamins in the diet of most athletes is consistently including in the diet of athletes vitamin and mineral supplements and/or fortified foods, containing a complete set of all or at least most of vitamins, and in doses that are not excessive and are adequate to maintain optimum vitamin status.

  17. Neonatal Vitamin A supplementation | Humphrey | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem throughout the developing world, affecting an estimated 124 million young children and accounting for more than 1 million child deaths each year.' A meta-analysis of eight controlled trials estimated that community-based vitamin A supplementation resulted in a 23% ...

  18. Vitamin D supplementation: a pharmacologic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullata, Joseph I

    2010-11-01

    Vitamin D supplementation is expected to increase as clinicians try to optimize their patients' vitamin D status. This review integrates newer information into a perspective on vitamin D disposition and effect. Vitamin D is being considered for indications beyond bone health. The limited dose-response data vary by indication, but generally target a goal serum 25(OH)D concentration of 80-120 nmol/l. Although oral vitamin D is adequately absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and utilized before being excreted, these factors may vary with baseline vitamin D status, genetic polymorphism, and the form of vitamin D being administered. Additionally, the responses to vitamin D can be tissue-specific and are not always well described. There is still a need to better characterize the disposition and effect of vitamin D supplementation. Data will need to be more specific to the therapeutic indication and demonstrate health outcomes. Long-term effects of high-dose supplementation at the tissue level will be especially important to describe.

  19. Influence of mineral and vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Haram, Kjell

    2012-10-01

    The literature was searched for publications on minerals and vitamins during pregnancy and the possible influence of supplements on pregnancy outcome. Maternal iron (Fe) deficiency has a direct impact on neonatal Fe stores and birth weight, and may cause cognitive and behavioural problems in childhood. Fe supplementation is recommended to low-income pregnant women, to pregnant women in developing countries, and in documented deficiency, but overtreatment should be avoided. Calcium (Ca) deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth restriction. Supplementation may reduce both the risk of low birth weight and the severity of pre-eclampsia. Gestational magnesium (Mg) deficiency may cause hematological and teratogenic damage. A Cochrane review showed a significant low birth weight risk reduction in Mg supplemented individuals. Intake of cereal-based diets rich in phytate, high intakes of supplemental Fe, or any gastrointestinal disease, may interfere with zinc (Zn) absorption. Zn deficiency in pregnant animals may limit fetal growth. Supplemental Zn may be prudent for women with poor gastrointestinal function, and in Zn deficient women, increasing birth weight and head circumference, but no evidence was found for beneficial effects of general Zn supplementation during pregnancy. Selenium (Se) is an antioxidant supporting humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Low Se status is associated with recurrent abortion, pre-eclampsia and IUGR, and although beneficial effects are suggested there is no evidence-based recommendation for supplementation. An average of 20-30% of pregnant women suffer from any vitamin deficiency, and without prophylaxis, about 75% of these would show a deficit of at least one vitamin. Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia, gestational carbohydrate intolerance, hyperemesis gravidarum, and neurologic disease of infants. About 25% of pregnant women in India are folate deficient. Folate deficiency may lead to

  20. Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knekt, Paul; Ritz, John; Pereira, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have suggested a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) at higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, and whole grain. Whether this association is due to antioxidant vitamins or some other factors remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We studied the relation between the intake...

  1. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2012-01-01

    and secondary prevention randomised clinical trials on antioxidant supplements (beta-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium) versus placebo or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three authors extracted data. Random-effects and fixed-effect model meta-analyses were conducted. Risk......BACKGROUND: Our systematic review has demonstrated that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. We have now updated this review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched...... years). The mean proportion of women was 46%. Of the 78 trials, 46 used the parallel-group design, 30 the factorial design, and 2 the cross-over design. All antioxidants were administered orally, either alone or in combination with vitamins, minerals, or other interventions. The duration...

  2. Vitamins supplementation affects the onset of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-mei Fu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia may affect between 2–8% of all pregnancies. It seriously affects maternal health after pregnancy. This meta-analysis was performed to define the efficacy of vitamins supplementation on the risk of preeclampsia. Potential articles were systematically searched on the databases of Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science up to May 2016. Relative risk (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs were used to analyze the relationship of vitamins supplementation with risk of preeclampsia. Cochran Q test was used to test inter-study heterogeneity. Begg's funnel plot was adopted to assess the potential publication bias. 28 eligible studies were selected. Pooled results indicated that vitamins supplementation could reduce the risk of preeclampsia (RR = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.64–0.86. The studies with non-randomized controlled trial (RCT analysis also suggested the significant relationship of vitamins supplementation with risk of preeclampsia (RR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.42–0.85. However, negative results were observed in studies with RCT analysis. Subgroup analysis by vitamin type was performed among the studies with RCT analysis. The results indicated that vitamin D supplementation could significantly reduce the risk of preeclampsia (RR = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.22–0.78. Similar results were observed in the studies with multivitamins supplementation (RR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.51–0.93. Vitamins supplementation could reduce the onset of preeclampsia.

  3. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  4. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. Objectives To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2011), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 October 2011) and also contacted relevant organisations (8 April 2011). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results The search strategy identified 34 potentially eligible references. We included six trials assessing a total of 1023 women, excluded eight studies, and 10 studies are still ongoing. Five trials involving 623 women compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation/placebo and one trial with 400 women compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation. Only one trial with 400 women reported on pre-eclampsia: women who received 1200 IU vitamin D along with 375 mg of elemental calcium per day were as likely to develop pre-eclampsia as women who received no supplementation (average risk ratio (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.35). Data from four trials

  5. Vitamin A supplementation for postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Menegozzo, Julicristie M; Bergamaschi, Denise P; Middleton, Philippa; East, Christine E

    2010-10-06

    In vitamin A deficient populations, the amount of vitamin A may be insufficient for maintenance of maternal health and levels in breast milk may be insufficient for breastfeeding infants' needs. To assess the effects of postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation on maternal and infant health. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2010), LILACS (1982 to July 2010), Web of Science (1945 to July 2010) and Biological Abstracts (1998 to July 2010). Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effects of postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation. Two review authors assessed the studies independently. We included 12 trials at moderate risk of bias, enrolling 25,465 mother-baby pairs and comparing several postpartum doses (200,000-400,000 IU) of vitamin A or 7.8 mg daily beta-carotene, with placebo, iron or no supplement; or higher (400,000 IU) versus lower dose (200,000 IU). The majority of infants in all studies were at least partially breastfed for six months.Maternal: we observed no impact of vitamin A on maternal mortality (two trials of 9,126 women), morbidity (one trial of 50 women) or adverse effects (subset of 786 women in one trial). Vitamin A enhanced serum and breast milk retinol at three months in five trials, but these improvements were generally not sustained.Infant: we observed no significant differences for infant mortality RR 1.14 95% CI 0.84 to 1.57 (five trials (6,170 infants) or morbidity (three trials) except for fewer episodes of fever with vitamin A in one small trial. No significant differences in infant vitamin A status were seen with maternal vitamin A supplementation (five trials).No beneficial effects for maternal or infant health were associated with higher compared to lower doses of vitamin A in two trials. The lack of effect on maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, with exception of some improved infant morbidity in one small study, and the improvement in maternal vitamin A status

  6. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B; Price, Amy I

    2017-08-22

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. This is an updated version of the review. To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 30 January 2017. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a cross-over design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration of serum vitamin K and undercarboxylated osteocalcin

  7. The influence of vitamin E supplementation on the oxidative status of rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurašević S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested to see if the additional intake of vitamin E in the form of α-tocopheryl-succinate would improve liver antioxidative protection. Thus, we studied the tissue oxidative status in rats supplemented by two doses of the antioxidant over a four week period of time. Our results confirmed that the additional intake of vitamin E decreased the liver lipid peroxidation level and SOD activity level and preserved its vitamin C content. However, the hydrogen peroxide content and catalase activity remained unchanged, probably due to the mechanism of vitamin E liver metabolism. .

  8. Calcium response to vitamin D supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Spivacow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies show the importance of serum vitamin D sufficient levels to prevent multiple chronic diseases. However, vitamin D supplementation and its effects on urine calcium excretion remain controversial. The objective of this prospective and interventional study was to evaluate urine calcium excretion in women with normal calciuria or hypercalciuria, once serum vitamin D sufficiency was achieved. We studied 63 women with idiopathic hypercalciuria, (9 with renal lithiasis and 50 normocalciuric women. Both groups had serum vitamin D levels low (deficiency or insufficiency. Baseline urine calcium excretion was measured before being supplemented with vitamin D2 or D3 weekly or vitamin D3 100.000 IU monthly. Once serum vitamin D levels were corrected achieving at least 30 ng/ml, a second urine calcium excretion was obtained. Although in the whole sample we did not observe significant changes in urine calcium excretion according to the way of supplementation, some of those with weekly supplementation had significant higher urine calcium excretion, 19% (n = 12 of hypercalciuric women and 12% (n = 6 of the normocalciuric group. Monthly doses, also showed higher urine calcium excretion in 40% of hypercalciuric women (n = 4/10 and in 44% (n = 4/9 of the renal lithiasis hypercalciuric patients. In conclusion, different ways of vitamin D supplementation and adequate serum levels are safe in most patients, although it should be taken into account a subgroup, mainly with monthly loading doses, that could increase the calciuria significantly eventually rising renal lithiasis risk or bone mass loss, if genetically predisposed.

  9. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria De-Regil

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether oral supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (23 February 2015, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (31 January 2015, the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 January 2015 and also contacted relevant organisations (31 January 2015. Selection criteria: Randomized and quasi-randomized trials with randomization at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently i assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii extracted data from included studies, and iii assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: In this updated review we included 15 trials assessing a total of 2833 women, excluded 27 trials, and 23 trials are still ongoing or unpublished. Nine trials compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo and six trials compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium with no supplementation. Risk of bias in the majority of trials was unclear and many studies were at high risk of bias for blinding and attrition rates. Vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo Data from seven trials involving 868 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements

  10. Meta-regression analyses, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses of the effects of supplementation with Beta-carotene, vitamin a, and vitamin e singly or in different combinations on all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias.......Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias....

  11. [Physical activity in patients with symptoms of metabolic syndrome reduces the concentration of plasma antioxidant vitamins - protective effect of vitamin C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godala, Małgorzata; Materek-Kuśmierkiewicz, Izabela; Moczulski, Dariusz; Rutkowski, Maciej; Szatko, Franciszek; Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Tokarski, Sławomir; Kowalski, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Patients with cardiovascular diseases, including those with the symptoms of metabolic syndrome (MS), are recommended regular exercise but many studies indicate its role in the production of reactive oxygen species. Vitamin C supplementation may enhance the antioxidant barrier in MS patients. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of regular physical activity (PA)and vitamin C supplementation on plasma vitamin A, C and E levels in patients with MS. The study included 62 patients with MS according to International Diabetes Federation criteria, 32 men and 30 women, aged 38-57 years (mean age 51,24 ± 5,29 years). The patients were divided in two groups: group I (MS+PA) - 31 patients with recommended regular physical activity; group II ( MS+PA+C) - 31 patients with recommended regular physical activity and vitamin C supplementation per os. The control group consisted of 23 healthy individuals without MS, 17 men and 6 women, aged 49-56 years (mean age 53,21 ± 3,6 years), who were not recommended any vitamin supplementation nor physical activity. Plasma vitamin A, C and E levels were estimated in MS patients with spectrophotometry using T60V spectrophotometer (PG Instruments) before and after regular exercise with and without vitamin C supplementation. In the control group plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins were assessed only once. The plasma vitamin A, C and E levels were significantly lower (pvitamins was observed in MS patients. In the group of patients with regular physical activity and vitamin C supplementation there was detected a significant rise in the level of all the tested vitamins close to the levels in control group. Regular physical activity enhances the decrease in plasma antioxidant vitamin level in patients with MS. Vitamin C supplementation conducted in parallel with regular physical activity normalize plasma vitamin A, C and E levels in these patients. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  12. DNA repair phenotype and dietary antioxidant supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarnieri, Serena; Loft, Steffen; Riso, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemicals may protect cellular DNA by direct antioxidant effect or modulation of the DNA repair activity. We investigated the repair activity towards oxidised DNA in human mononuclear blood cells (MNBC) in two placebo-controlled antioxidant intervention studies as follows: (1) well-nourished......Phytochemicals may protect cellular DNA by direct antioxidant effect or modulation of the DNA repair activity. We investigated the repair activity towards oxidised DNA in human mononuclear blood cells (MNBC) in two placebo-controlled antioxidant intervention studies as follows: (1) well......-nourished subjects who ingested 600 g fruits and vegetables, or tablets containing the equivalent amount of vitamins and minerals, for 24 d; (2) poorly nourished male smokers who ingested 500 mg vitamin C/d as slow- or plain-release formulations together with 182 mg vitamin E/d for 4 weeks. The mean baseline levels...

  13. Vitamin A supplementation on child morbidity | Haidar |

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A supplementation on child morbidity. ... J. Haidar, D. Tsegaye, D.H. Mariam, H.N. Tibeb, N.M. Muroki ... Results: Vitamin A capsule coverage of 87% in all the villages of the Weredas and a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the prevalence of Bitot's spot (from 1.5 to 0.5), fever (from 29.8 to 14.2), diarrhoea ...

  14. Assessment of vitamin A supplementation coverage and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin A plays vital role in the physiology of vision and immunity. Globally quarters of a billion children are Vitamin A deficient. Vitamin A supplementation of children and mothers during postpartum period is a key strategy to avert the deficiency. However the effect of Vitamin A supplementation on incidence of ...

  15. Vitamin C Supplementation Reduces Peroxidative Damage without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to assess the effects of vitamin C supplementation on the lung function tests and peroxidative damage in asthmatic children. Methodology: Fifteen asthmatics aged between 8 - 14 years, all in the stable state were used in this study. Three millilitres of blood were drawn from the antecubital ...

  16. Vitamin A supplementation and risk of atopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiraly, Nicholas; Balde, Aliu; Lisse, Ida Marie

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for children above six months of age in low-income countries. VAS has been associated with up-regulation of the Th2 response. We aimed to determine if VAS is associated with atopy in childhood....

  17. Vitamin D supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Janet H; Chang, Anne B

    2014-05-14

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder with multiorgan effects. In a subgroup with pancreatic insufficiency malabsorption of the fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur. Vitamin D is involved in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralisation and may have extraskeletal effects. This review examines the evidence for vitamin D supplementation in cystic fibrosis. To assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the frequency of vitamin D deficiency, respiratory outcomes and vitamin D toxicity in the cystic fibrosis population. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 08 July 2013. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled studies of vitamin D supplementation compared to placebo in the cystic fibrosis population regardless of exocrine pancreatic function. Both authors independently assessed the risk of bias of each included study and extracted outcome data (from published study information) for assessment of bone mineralization, growth and nutritional status, frequency of vitamin D deficiency, respiratory status, quality of life and adverse events. Six studies (239 participants) are included, although only three studies provided data from 69 adults and children with cystic fibrosis for analysis. One study compared a single high dose of vitamin D (250,000 IU) to placebo at the time of hospital admission with a respiratory exacerbation in 30 pancreatic insufficient adults with cystic fibrosis. The second study compared supplemental 800 international units (IU) vitamin D and placebo for 12 months in 30 osteopenic pancreatic insufficient adults; both groups continued 900 IU vitamin D daily. The third study compared supplemental 1 g calcium alone, 1600 IU vitamin D alone, 1600 IU vitamin D and 1 g calcium and placebo in a double

  18. [Studying the mechanism of antioxidant effect of vitamins and flavonoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, V G; Makarova, M N; Selezneva, A I

    2005-01-01

    In work antiradical activity of vitamins and flafonoids in relation to hydroxyl radical is established. The most antiradical activity is established for flavonoids quercetin, routin, daidzein, biochanin A and luteolin-7glucosid, Among vitamins of group in the most antiradical activity have shown vitamins B12, B2, B5, Bc. In group of fat-soluble vitamins ascorbic palmitat, vitamin K1, vitamin A and beta-carotin have shown activity above, than a known antioxidant vitamin E. The carried out work allows to draw a conclusion that antiradical activity in the relation hydroxyl radical shows the broad audience of vitamins that probably is one of aspects of their therapeutic action.

  19. Effects of Vitamin C Supplementation on Plasma and Urinary Vitamin C Concentration in Korean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jayoung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2017-01-01

    Although vitamin C supplements were consumed for health maintenance and fatigue recovery, the effects of high doses of vitamin C supplement remains controversial. Our study performed the effects of 100 mg and 2,000 mg vitamin C supplements on plasma and urinary vitamin C concentration in Korean women. Twenty-four women completed the 4 weeks intervention. Anthropometric data, plasma and urinary vitamin C concentrations, superoxide dismutase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBA...

  20. Vitamin D supplementation for sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Htoo Htoo Kyaw; Abas, Adinegara Bl; Than, Nan Nitra; Ni, Han; Singh, Jaspal; Said, Abdul Razzak Bin Mohd; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa

    2017-01-20

    Sickle cell disease is a genetic chronic haemolytic and pro-inflammatory disorder. The clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease result from the presence of mutations on the beta globin genes that generate an abnormal haemoglobin product (called haemoglobin S) within the red blood cell. Sickle cell disease can lead to many complications such as acute chest syndrome, stroke, acute and chronic bone complications (including painful vaso-occlusive crisis, osteomyelitis, osteonecrosis and osteoporosis). With increased catabolism and deficits in energy and nutrient intake, individuals with sickle cell disease suffer multiple macro- and micro-nutritional deficiencies, including vitamin D deficiency. Since vitamin D maintains calcium homeostasis and is essential for bone mineralisation, its deficiency may worsen musculoskeletal health problems encountered in sickle cell disease. Therefore, there is a need to review the effects and the safety of vitamin D supplementation in sickle cell disease. To investigate the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in children and adults with sickle cell disease.To determine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on general health such as growth status and health-related quality of life; on musculoskeletal health including bone mineral density, pain crises, bone fracture and muscle health; on respiratory health which includes lung function tests, acute chest syndrome, acute exacerbation of asthma and respiratory infections; and the safety of vitamin D supplementation in children and adults with sickle cell disease. We searched the Cochrane Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched database such as PubMed, clinical trial registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search: 15 December 2016. Randomised controlled studies and quasi

  1. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial? Lessons learned from randomised controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik E

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  2. Antioxidant vitamins in the context of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio da Veiga Ued

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the importance of antioxidant vitamins, analyzed in the context of dietary intake, its plasma levels, and its current use as a supplementation treatment in obese children and adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. DATA SOURCES: The articles were identified in Lilacs, Ibecs, SciELO, PubMed/Medline, and Scopus databases. To conduct the survey, the "fatty liver" descriptor was associated to the following words: "children", "antioxidants" and "vitamins". The search was limited to articles written in Portuguese, Spanish and English, with publication date until December, 2012. DATA SYNTHESIS: Six studies were selected. The survey revealed a low dietary intake and low antioxidant vitamins serum levels in this population. The changes in lifestyle, with adequate dietary intake of vitamins, and the increase in physical activity were associated with a significant improvement in liver histology and in laboratory tests. Vitamin supplementation also improved the disease progression markers, as the alanine aminotransferase serum levels and the histological characteristics of lobular inflammation and hepatocellular damage. However, these improvements were not statistically significant in all studies. CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to recommend or to refute antioxidant supplementation in patients with simple steatosis or steatohepatitis. The changes in lifestyle seem to be, at the present time, the more advisable therapy.

  3. Effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E and organic selenium on the oxidative stability of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, M N; Monahan, F J; Fallon, R J; Allen, P

    2001-11-01

    The effects of supplementation of beef cattle diets with organic Se (0.3 mg/kg) and vitamin E (300 I.U. alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed), for 55 d preceding slaughter, on the antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle was examined. Dietary vitamin E supplementation led to an increase (P plasma, and longissimus muscle alpha-tocopherol levels. In minced longissimus muscle stored in 80% 02:20% CO2, lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation were lower (P vitamin E-supplemented animals compared with unsupplemented animals. Dietary Se supplementation did not significantly affect muscle Se levels, glutathione peroxidase activity, or susceptibility to lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation in the presence or absence of vitamin E. Covariance analysis indicated that, in addition to muscle alpha-tocopherol, differences in muscle glutathione peroxidase activity, and pH could account for variation in the susceptibility of muscle to lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation.

  4. Antioxidant supplements for liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2011-01-01

    Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal.......Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal....

  5. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on the libido and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of vitamin E supplementation on the libido and reproductive capacity of Large White boars. ... The 70 IU supplementation of dietary vitamin E per kg diet to pigs resulted in the highest number of mounts, combats, head-kicks and anogenital sniffs with the shortest RT in comparison to the 40 and 0 IU vitamin E ...

  6. Vitamin b 12 supplementation: effects on some biochemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenytoin is known to have some toxicological implications. Vitamin B12 supplementation during phenytoin administration was investigated to assess the benefits and risks of single vitamin supplementation. This study evaluated the biochemical and haematological effects of vitamin B12 on phenytoin toxicity. Twenty-four ...

  7. Factors influencing Vitamin A supplementation among mothers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin A supplementation is one of the best-proven and most costeffective interventions to improve vitamin A status and save children's lives. Objective: To assess factors affecting practices and utilisation of Vitamin A supplementation services among mothers with children below five years attending Mbagathi ...

  8. Vitamin C and E chronic supplementation differentially affect hepatic insulin signaling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mennatallah A; Eid, Rania M H M; Hanafi, Mervat Y

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin C and vitamin E supplementations and their beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been subjected to countless controversial data. Hence, our aim is to investigate the hepatic molecular mechanisms of any diabetic predisposing risk of the chronic administration of different doses of vitamin E or vitamin C in rats. The rats were supplemented with different doses of vitamin C or vitamin E for eight months. Vitamin C and vitamin E increased fasting blood glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA). Vitamin C disrupted glucose tolerance by attenuating upstream hepatic insulin action through impairing the phosphorylation and activation of insulin receptor and its subsequent substrates; however, vitamin E showed its effect downstream insulin receptor in the insulin signaling pathway, reducing hepatic glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and phosphorylated protein kinase (p-Akt). Moreover, both vitamins showed their antioxidant capabilities [nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), total and reduced glutathione] and their negative effect on Wnt pathway [phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (p-GSK-3β)], by altering the previously mentioned parameters, inevitably leading to severe reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) below the physiological levels. In conclusion, a detrimental effect of chronic antioxidant vitamins supplementation was detected; leading to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance obviously through different mechanisms. Overall, these findings indicate that the conventional view that vitamins promote health benefits and delay chronic illnesses and aging should be modified or applied with caution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Vitamin D Supplementation in Australia: Implications for the Development of Supplementation Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Bilinski, Kellie; Talbot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    High rates of vitamin D deficiency and testing have been reported in Australia, yet there are few reports regarding vitamin D supplement use. Australian wholesale sales data was obtained for vitamin D supplements for the period 2000–2011. There has been a threefold increase in supplement sales over the past decade, whereby over A$94 million supplements containing vitamin D in Australia were sold during the year 2010. There were eighty-nine manufacturers that produce a variety o...

  10. Vitamin A supplementation awareness among mothers of children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency is one of the leading micro-nutrient deficiencies of public health importance in Kenya. Provision of vitamin A supplements every six months is an inexpensive, safe, quick and effective way to improve vitamin A status and save children's lives. Objectives: To determine vitamin A ...

  11. Sepsis in the central nervous system and antioxidant strategies with N-acetylcysteine, vitamins and statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckert, Amanda Valnier; de Castro, Adalberto Alves; Quevedo, Joao; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2014-02-01

    Sepsis is the complex syndrome characterized by an imbalance between proinflammatory and antiinflammatory response to infection. The brain may be affected during the sepsis, and acute and long-term brain dysfunctions have been observed in both animal models and septic patients. Oxidative stress and antioxidant systems may prove the basis underling brain dysfunction in sepsis. The antioxidant therapy may be theoretically achieved by the following strategies: restoring endogenous antioxidants and nutrients and supplementation with exogenous trace elements, vitamins, and nutrients with antioxidant proprieties; or administering drugs that reduce oxidative stress, such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamins and statins. In the review, we described below the involvement of oxidative stress and antioxidants defenses and potential utility of these strategies and present data regarding their use in sepsis.

  12. Which circulating antioxidant vitamins are confounded by socioeconomic deprivation? The MIDSPAN family study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Talwar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant vitamins are often described as having "independent" associations with risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD and mortality. We aimed to compare to what extent a range of antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids are associated with adulthood and childhood markers of socioeconomic deprivation and to adverse lifestyle factors.Socioeconomic and lifestyle measures were available in 1040 men and 1298 women from the MIDSPAN Family Study (30-59 years at baseline together with circulating levels of vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene. Markers of socioeconomic deprivation in adulthood were consistently as strongly associated with lower vitamin C and carotenoid levels as markers of adverse lifestyle; the inverse association with overcrowding was particularly consistent (vitamin C and carotenoids range from 19.1% [95% CI 30.3-6.0] to 38.8% [49.9-25.3] lower among those in overcrowded residencies. These associations were consistent after adjusting for month, classical CVD risk factors, body mass index, physical activity, vitamin supplements, dietary fat and fibre intake. Similar, but weaker, associations were seen for childhood markers of deprivation. The association of vitamin A or E were strikingly different; several adult adverse lifestyle factors associated with higher levels of vitamin A and E, including high alcohol intake for vitamin A (9.5% [5.7-13.5] and waist hip ratio for vitamin E (9.5% [4.8-14.4], with the latter associations partially explained by classical risk factors, particularly cholesterol levels.Plasma vitamin C and carotenoids have strong inverse associations with adulthood markers of social deprivation, whereas vitamin A and E appear positively related to specific adverse lifestyle factors. These findings should help researchers better contextualize blood antioxidant vitamin levels by illustrating the potential limitations associated with making causal inferences without

  13. Antioxidant supplementation and obesity have independent effects on hepatic oxylipin profiles in insulin-resistant, obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklo, Matthew J; Newman, John W

    2015-12-01

    Obesity-induced changes in lipid metabolism are mechanistically associated with the development of insulin resistance and prediabetes. Recent studies have focused on the extent to which obesity-induced insulin resistance is mediated through oxylipins, derived from enzymatic and nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation. Vitamin E and vitamin C are widely used antioxidant supplements, but conflicting data exist as to whether supplementation with vitamins E and C reduces insulin resistance. The purpose of this work is (1) to test the hypothesis that supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C prevents the development of insulin resistance and (2) to determine the extent to which antioxidant supplementation modifies obesity-induced changes in hepatic oxylipins. Using obesity-prone Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat, hypercaloric diet, we found that vitamin E and C supplementation did not block the development of insulin resistance, despite increased plasma levels of these antioxidants and decreased hepatic F2-isoprostane (F2-IsoP) concentrations. The obese phenotype was associated with increased hepatic concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-dependent linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid-derived epoxides. Antioxidant supplementation, but not obesity, decreased levels of the lipoxygenase (LOX)-dependent, arachidonic acid-derived products lipoxin A4 (LXA4), 8,15-dihydroxtetraenoate (8,15-DiHETE), and 5,15-DiHETE. Our data demonstrate that antioxidant supplementation and obesity impact hepatic LOX- and CYP450-dependent oxylipin metabolism. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB...... and DN) independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted data. Outcome measures were gastrointestinal cancers, overall mortality, and adverse effects. Outcomes were reported as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) based on random-effects and fixed-effect model meta...

  15. Does vitamin e supplementation influence serum oestradiol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight mature gilts, randomly selected, individually housed and placed into two groups – vitamin E supplemented and non-supplemented were compared for serum ovarian levels of progesterone and estradiol. This was to access the influence of vitamin E supplementation on the concentrations of progesterone and estradiol ...

  16. Effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplementation on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have indicated that vitamin A (VA) and β-carotene (BC) supplementation have some effects on udder health and milk yield in dairy cows whose intake is below 110 IU/kg BW/day. If low quality forage is fed, supplementation of VA should be considered. Supplementation of B-vitamin has important effects on milk ...

  17. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2014-01-01

    from substantial dropout of participants. Combined vitamin D₃ and calcium supplements increased nephrolithiasis, whereas it remains unclear from the included trials whether vitamin D₃, calcium, or both were responsible for this effect. We need more trials on vitamin D supplementation, assessing......BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether vitamin D supplementation is effective in decreasing cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register...... included randomised trials that compared vitamin D at any dose, duration, and route of administration versus placebo or no intervention in adults who were healthy or were recruited among the general population, or diagnosed with a specific disease. Vitamin D could have been administered as supplemental...

  18. The hepatoprotective potential of Spirulina and vitamin C supplemention in cisplatin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli; Mehta, Pooja

    2012-02-01

    Spirulina platensis is a microalgae with potent dietary phyto-antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. We investigated the mechanism of cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity and whether this natural antioxidant provided protection against cisplatin hepatotoxicity. The study was carried out in a mice model where the animals were segregated into different groups according to their treatments, e.g. control group with no treatment, cisplatin treated, cisplatin + Spirulina treated, cisplatin + vitamin C treated and cisplatin + Spirulina + vitamin C treated. The liver marker enzymes were found to be elevated following cisplatin treatment, signifying hepatotoxicity. The supplementation of Spirulina and vitamin C could effectively bring down the levels of these enzymes. Light microscopy also showed that cisplatin treatment induced liver injury and that histopathological abnormalities were prevented by Spirulina and vitamin C supplementation. This protective effect was further substantiated by the estimation of antioxidant levels and extent of lipid peroxidation in the Spirulina, vitamin C and Spirulina + vitamin C supplemented groups as compared to cisplatin alone.

  19. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial? Lessons learned from randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik E

    2010-05-01

    In contrast to the promised 'antioxidant miracle' of the 1980s, several randomised controlled trials have shown no effect of antioxidant supplements on hard endpoints such as morbidity and mortality. The former over-optimistic attitude has clearly called for a more realistic assessment of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials.

  20. Role of vitamin C and E supplementation on IL-6 in response to training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yfanti, Christina; Fischer, Christian P.; Nielsen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin C and E supplementation has been shown to attenuate the acute exercise-induced increase in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration. Here, we studied the effect of antioxidant vitamins on the regulation of IL-6 expression in muscle and the circulation in response to acute exercise before...... and after high-intensity endurance exercise training. Twenty-one young healthy men were allocated into either a vitamin (VT; vitamin C and E, n = 11) or a placebo (PL, n = 10) group. A 1-h acute bicycling exercise trial at 65% of maximal power output was performed before and after 12 wk of progressive...... indicate that, although vitamin C and E supplementation may attenuate exercise-induced increases in plasma IL-6 there is no clear additive effect when combined with endurance training....

  1. The pro-oxidant chemistry of the natural antioxidants vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Haan, L. de; Spenkelink, B.; Awad, H.M.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Zanden, J.J. van; Woude, H. van der; Alink, G.M.; Koeman, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Natural antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, and polyphenols like flavonoids, are at present generally considered to be beneficial components from fruit and vegetables. The anti-oxidative properties of these compounds are often claimed to be responsible for various beneficial health

  2. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation in ultraendurance triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Wade L; Peake, Jonathan M

    2010-12-01

    Ultraendurance exercise training places large energy demands on athletes and causes a high turnover of vitamins through sweat losses, metabolism, and the musculoskeletal repair process. Ultraendurance athletes may not consume sufficient quantities or quality of food in their diet to meet these needs. Consequently, they may use oral vitamin and mineral supplements to maintain their health and performance. We assessed the vitamin and mineral intake of ultraendurance athletes in their regular diet, in addition to oral vitamin and mineral supplements. Thirty-seven ultraendurance triathletes (24 men and 13 women) completed a 7-day nutrition diary including a questionnaire to determine nutrition adequacy and supplement intake. Compared with dietary reference intakes for the general population, both male and female triathletes met or exceeded all except for vitamin D. In addition, female athletes consumed slightly less than the recommended daily intake for folate and potassium; however, the difference was trivial. Over 60% of the athletes reported using vitamin supplements, of which vitamin C (97.5%), vitamin E (78.3%), and multivitamins (52.2%) were the most commonly used supplements. Almost half (47.8%) the athletes who used supplements did so to prevent or reduce cold symptoms. Only 1 athlete used supplements on formal medical advice. Vitamin C and E supplementation was common in ultraendurance triathletes, despite no evidence of dietary deficiency in these 2 vitamins.

  3. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P 0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  4. [Are antioxidant supplements effective in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia-Luján, Ramón; De Paz Fernández, José Antonio; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo

    2014-10-05

    In recent years, antioxidant supplements have become popular to counter the effects of free radicals and muscle damage symptoms, including delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). To conduct a systematic review in different databases to determine the effects of antioxidant supplements on DOMS. We conducted a search in databases; Cochrane, Pubmed, Scopus and SportDiscus and Web of Science (WOS). The words and acronyms used were; Delayed onset muscle soreness, exercise induced muscle damage, DOMS, EIMD, antioxidant and oxidative stress. 54 articles were identified of which 48 were retreived, all in English, 17 related to vitamin C and E, supplements polyphenolic correspond to fourteen, eleven other antioxidant supplements and six to commercial supplements, all of them used to diminish the DOMS and other variables. Both vitamins and commercial supplements have low effectiveness in reducing DOMS, while polyphenols and other antioxidant supplements show moderate to good effectiveness in combating DOMS. However, most of the studies have effectiveness in reducing other symptoms of muscle damage besides helping in the post-exercise recovery. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial? Lessons learned from randomised controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik E

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the promised 'antioxidant miracle' of the 1980s, several randomised controlled trials have shown no effect of antioxidant supplements on hard endpoints such as morbidity and mortality. The former over-optimistic attitude has clearly called for a more realistic assessment of the ben......In contrast to the promised 'antioxidant miracle' of the 1980s, several randomised controlled trials have shown no effect of antioxidant supplements on hard endpoints such as morbidity and mortality. The former over-optimistic attitude has clearly called for a more realistic assessment...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  6. Antioxidant supplementation and obesity have independent effects on hepatic oxylipin profiles in insulin resistant, obese-prone rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective - Elevated oxidative stress is associated with development of glucose intolerance. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate; 0.4 g/kg diet) and vitamin C (0.5 g/kg diet) prevents glucose intolerance in obese-pro...

  7. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  8. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Na-Young

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet, and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet. After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.

  9. A strategy for scaling up vitamin A supplementation for young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Zimbabwe. Addressing vitamin A deficiency has the potential to enhance resistance to disease and reduce mortality, especially in children aged <5 years. Objective. To describe a vitamin A supplementation outreach strategy implemented in one of the remote ...

  10. Stroke: roles of B vitamins, homocysteine and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Martín, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    In the present review concerning stroke, we evaluate the roles of B vitamins, homocysteine and antioxidant vitamins. Stroke is a leading cause of death in developed countries. However, current therapeutic strategies for stroke have been largely unsuccessful. Several studies have reported important benefits on reducing the risk of stroke and improving the post-stroke-associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in micronutrients, including B vitamins and antioxidant vitamins E and C. Folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 are all cofactors in homocysteine metabolism. Growing interest has been paid to hyperhomocysteinaemia as a risk factor for CVD. Hyperhomocysteinaemia has been linked to inadequate intake of vitamins, particularly to B-group vitamins and therefore may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Hence, poor dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 are associated with increased risk of stroke. Elevated consumption of fruits and vegetables appears to protect against stroke. Antioxidant nutrients have important roles in cell function and have been implicated in processes associated with ageing, including vascular, inflammatory and neurological damage. Plasma vitamin E and C concentrations may serve as a biological marker of lifestyle or other factors associated with reduced stroke risk and may be useful in identifying those at high risk of stroke. After reviewing the observational and intervention studies, there is an incomplete understanding of mechanisms and some conflicting findings; therefore the available evidence is insufficient to recommend the routine use of B vitamins, vitamin E and vitamin C for the prevention of stroke. A better understanding of mechanisms, along with well-designed controlled clinical trials will allow further progress in this area.

  11. Parity related changes in obesity and some antioxidant vitamins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-29

    Feb 29, 2012 ... Following the adverse effects of overweight, obesity, deficiency and excess of antioxidant vitamins on health of both, the mother and the baby, it is now being recommended that women of child-bearing age and their healthcare providers should work .... with vitamins C and E after preterm premature rupture.

  12. [Vitamins and nutritional supplements in older persons: How to diagnose and when to substitute?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, D; von Arnim, C A F

    2015-11-01

    Despite an excellent food supply in Germany, a large percentage of older persons living at home or institutionalized older persons suffer from or are at risk for malnutrition. The purpose of this article is to highlight the association between nutrient deficiencies and age-related diseases and give rational recommendations for substitution. Both malnutrition and low levels of specific nutrients are associated with cognitive and functional impairment, dementia, and depression in older persons. Most prevalent are deficiencies in vitamin B1, vitamin B12, and vitamin D. Serum levels are often misleading and show false negative results in vitamin B1 and B12 deficiencies; therefore, determination of erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA) and the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) effect for vitamin B1 and of methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamine for vitamin B12 is recommended. Prophylactic supplementation with vitamins is not supported by prospective trials; however, positive data from observational studies support a Mediterranean diet combined with intake of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids. Older persons should be regularly screened for malnutrition and the threshold for determination of vitamin B1, B12, and vitamin D should be low. Vitamin substitution should be reserved for proven deficits. There is now data regarding cognition from prospective trials on effects of a healthy diet combined with other life-style factors like physical and cognitive activity.

  13. Dietary Formulas Fortify Antioxidant Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The astronaut's life and work is so different from our own daily experiences that it s easy to forget that astronauts are people, too. Just like everyone else, astronauts have basic nutritional needs, such as five to nine servings of fruit and vegetables per day, in order to maintain optimal health. Here on Earth, it can be a challenge to incorporate the recommended amount of fruit and veggies into our diets, despite easy access to fresh produce. In space, it becomes even more difficult, as astronauts must take everything they need with them. And in the harsh conditions of space, many miles from medical assistance, proper nutrition takes on added importance. As NASA makes plans to send astronauts on missions that could take months and even years, the Agency explores new ways to provide astronauts with a daily dose of nutrition equivalent to that provided by fresh produce. These foods are critically important because they provide the essential vitamins, minerals, pigments, and other micronutrients (substances required in small amounts for human health) that promote everything from healthy skin to a strong heart.

  14. Garlic and vitamin E provides antioxidant defence in tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotine is known to induce oxidative stress in rat tissues and the antioxidant properties of garlic have been reported. This study was designed to determine if the peroxidative damage caused by nicotine administration can be effectively prevented with garlic juice, and vitamin E, a known antioxidant.Four groups of six rats ...

  15. Positive Association of Vitamin E Supplementation with Hemoglobin Levels in Mildly Anemic Healthy Pakistani Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Tanveer; Azam, Iqbal; Moiz, Bushra; Mehboobali, Naseema; Perwaiz Iqbal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin levels slightly below the lower limit of normal are common in adults in the general population in developing countries. A few human studies have suggested the use of antioxidant vitamins in the correction of mild anemia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of vitamin E supplementation in mildly anemic healthy adults with post-supplemental blood hemoglobin levels in the general population of Karachi, Pakistan. In a single-blinded and placebo-controlled randomized trial, 124 mildly anemic subjects from the General Practitioners' Clinics and personnel of the Aga Khan University were randomized into intervention (n = 82) and control (n = 42) group. In the intervention group, each subject was given vitamin E (400 mg) everyday for a period of three months, while control group subjects received a placebo. Eighty six subjects completed the trial. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and after three months of supplementation. Hemoglobin levels and serum/plasma concentrations of vitamin E, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, total-antioxidant-status and erythropoietin were measured and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression. The adjusted regression coefficients (β) and standard error [SE(β)] of the significant predictors of post-supplemental hemoglobin levels were serum concentration of vitamin E (0.983[0.095]), gender (- 0.656[0.244]), sTfR (- 0.06[0.02]) and baseline hemoglobin levels (0.768[0.077]). The study showed a positive association between vitamin E supplementation and enhanced hemoglobin levels in mildly anemic adults.

  16. Immunological effects of feeding macroalgae and various vitamin E supplements in Norwegian white sheep-ewes and their offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novoa-Garrido, M; Aanensen, L; Lind, V

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that ewes raised in areas with long indoor winter feeding periods need to be supplemented with vitamins or other substances that help to maintain the health status of the animals. Various supplements are available on the market, but the most widely used supplemental antioxidant...... for small ruminants. Sources tested were meal of the seaweed Ascophylum nodosum and natural RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate. Forty pregnant ewes were randomly allocated to four treatment group with two replicates (5 ewes in each replicate). The treatments were supplements containing seaweed (SW: 546 g Ascophylum...... nodosum/kg), natural vitamin E (NatE: 562.5 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), synthetic vitamin E (SyntE: 1125 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), or no extra seaweed or vitamin E (control). The supplements were fed at an isoenergetic daily rate, on average 144 g DM/ewe for SW and 114 g DM/ewe...

  17. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenbaek, K.; Friis, H.; Hansen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status. Methods We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on serum alanine aminotransferase, plasma hepa...... and catalase) or plasma levels of oxidative markers (malondialdehyde and 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde) were found. Conclusion Supplementation with vitamin C, E and selenium increased the antioxidant status, but had no effects on alanine aminotransferase, viral load or oxidative markers....

  18. The impact of 1-year vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, E.M.P.; Tieland, M.; Maase, K.; Kies, A.K.; Mensink, M.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de L.C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives:To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Dutch athletes and to define the required dosage of vitamin D3 supplementation to prevent vitamin D deficiency over the course of a year.Subjects/Methods:Blood samples were collected from 128 highly trained

  19. Effect of different levels dietary vitamin C on growth performance, muscle composition, antioxidant and enzyme activity of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamalai Asaikkutti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study was conducted to examine the effects and interactions of dietary vitamin C levels on the growth performance, antioxidant ability, muscle composition and enzyme activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (M. malcolmsonii. Additional, the vitamins C was dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn M. malcolmsonii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with M. malcolmsonii at the rates of 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented vitamin C was fed in M. malcolmsonii for a period of 90 days. In the present investigation revealed that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C shows enhanced (P  0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR were observed in prawn fed different diets. Addition, prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C supplemented diets achieved significant (P  0.05 alterations in prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamin C supplemented diets. Therefore, the present study proposed that 100 mg/kg of vitamin C could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival; growth, antioxidant defense system and production of M. malcolmsonii. Keywords: Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, Vitamin, Growth performance, Biochemical compositions, Antioxidant enzyme

  20. Zinc and antioxidant vitamin deficiency in patients with severe sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanato, R.M. W.

    2006-01-01

    Patients with severe sickle cell anemia (SCA) have a higher potential for oxidative damage due to chronic redox imbalance in red blood cells that often leads to hemolysis, endothelial injury and recurrent vaso-occlusive episodes. This study evaluated the plasma levels of Vitamin A, C and E as indicators of antioxidants status. In addition, serum levels of zinc and copper were also estimated. Twenty-five adult patients with severe sickle cell anemia (12 males and 13 females aged 29.72+-12.94 years) and 25 matched controls were studied. Plasma levels of vitamin A, C and E were measured by HPLC technique. Serum zinc and copper levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. There was significant decrease in plasma levels of vitamins A, C and E and in serum levels of zinc in patients with SCA as compared with controls (P<0.0001). Serum copper levels were significantly elevated compared with controls (P<0.0001). These findings emphasized the significant deficiencies of the antioxidant vitamins A, C and E and the trace element zinc along with the significant elevation of serum copper in patients with severe sickle cell disease. Further studies are needed to find out whether supplementation of antioxidant vitamins and zinc may ameliorate some sickle cell disease complications. (author)

  1. Vitamin E and N-Acetylcysteine as Antioxidant Adjuvant Therapy in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tonbary, Youssef; Al-Haggar, Mohammad; EL-Ashry, Rasha; EL-Dakroory, Sahar; Azzam, Hanan; Fouda, Ashraf

    2009-01-01

    Although cancer therapies have experienced great success nowadays, yet the associated toxic response and free radicals formation have resulted in significant number of treatment-induced deaths rather than disease-induced fatalities. Complications of chemotherapy have forced physicians to study antioxidant use as adjunctive treatment in cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant role of vitamin E and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in overcoming treatment-induced toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during the intensive period of chemo-/radiotherapy, almost the first two months of treatment. Forty children newly diagnosed with ALL were enrolled in this study. Twenty children (group I) have taken vitamin E and NAC supplementations with chemotherapy and the other twenty children (group II) have not taken any adjuvant antioxidant therapy. They were evaluated clinically for the occurrence of complications and by the laboratory parameters (blood levels of glutathione peroxidase (Glu.PX) antioxidant enzyme, malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), liver enzymes, and bone marrow picture). Results revealed reduced chemotherapy and radiotherapy toxicity as evidenced by decreasing level of MDA, increasing level of Glu.Px and decreased occurrence of toxic hepatitis, haematological complications, and need for blood and platelet transfusions in group I compared to group II. We can conclude that vitamin E and NAC have been shown to be effective as antioxidant adjuvant therapy in children with ALL to reduce chemo-/radiotherapy-related toxicities during the initial period of treatment. PMID:19960046

  2. Vitamin E and N-Acetylcysteine as Antioxidant Adjuvant Therapy in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Al-Tonbary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cancer therapies have experienced great success nowadays, yet the associated toxic response and free radicals formation have resulted in significant number of treatment-induced deaths rather than disease-induced fatalities. Complications of chemotherapy have forced physicians to study antioxidant use as adjunctive treatment in cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant role of vitamin E and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC in overcoming treatment-induced toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL during the intensive period of chemo-/radiotherapy, almost the first two months of treatment. Forty children newly diagnosed with ALL were enrolled in this study. Twenty children (group I have taken vitamin E and NAC supplementations with chemotherapy and the other twenty children (group II have not taken any adjuvant antioxidant therapy. They were evaluated clinically for the occurrence of complications and by the laboratory parameters (blood levels of glutathione peroxidase (Glu.PX antioxidant enzyme, malondialdehyde (MDA, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-, liver enzymes, and bone marrow picture. Results revealed reduced chemotherapy and radiotherapy toxicity as evidenced by decreasing level of MDA, increasing level of Glu.Px and decreased occurrence of toxic hepatitis, haematological complications, and need for blood and platelet transfusions in group I compared to group II. We can conclude that vitamin E and NAC have been shown to be effective as antioxidant adjuvant therapy in children with ALL to reduce chemo-/radiotherapy-related toxicities during the initial period of treatment.

  3. Vitamin E Supplementation Reduces Cellular Loss in the Brain of a Premature Aging Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fata, G; van Vliet, N; Barnhoorn, S; Brandt, R M C; Etheve, S; Chenal, E; Grunenwald, C; Seifert, N; Weber, P; Hoeijmakers, J H J; Mohajeri, M H; Vermeij, W P

    2017-01-01

    Aging is a highly complex biological process driven by multiple factors. Its progression can partially be influenced by nutritional interventions. Vitamin E is a lipid-soluble anti-oxidant that is investigated as nutritional supplement for its ability to prevent or delay the onset of specific aging pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed here to investigate the effect of vitamin E during aging progression in a well characterized mouse model for premature aging. Xpg-/- animals received diets with low (~2.5 mg/kg feed), medium (75 mg/kg feed) or high (375 mg/kg feed) vitamin E concentration and their phenotype was monitored during aging progression. Vitamin E content was analyzed in the feed, for stability reasons, and in mouse plasma, brain, and liver, for effectiveness of the treatment. Subsequent age-related changes were monitored for improvement by increased vitamin E or worsening by depletion in both liver and nervous system, organs sensitive to oxidative stress. Mice supplemented with high levels of vitamin E showed a delayed onset of age-related body weight decline and appearance of tremors when compared to mice with a low dietary vitamin E intake. DNA damage resulting in liver abnormalities such as changes in polyploidy, was considerably prevented by elevated amounts of vitamin E. Additionally, immunohistochemical analyses revealed that high intake of vitamin E, when compared with low and medium levels of vitamin E in the diet, reduces the number of p53-positive cells throughout the brain, indicative of a lower number of cells dying due to DNA damage accumulated over time. Our data underline a neuroprotective role of vitamin E in the premature aging animal model used in this study, likely via a reduction of oxidative stress, and implies the importance of improved nutrition to sustain health.

  4. Redistribution of vitamin A after iron supplementation in Indonesion infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; West, C.E.; Thurnham, D.I.; Muhilal,; Meer, van der J.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Deficiencies of iron and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide. Single-micronutrient supplementation is widely used to combat these deficiencies. However, micronutrient deficiencies often occur concurrently, and there are many interactions between micronutrients. Objective: This study

  5. Redistribution of vitamin A after iron supplementation in Indonesian infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; West, C.E.; Thurnham, D.I.; Muhilal, .; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of iron and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide. Single-micronutrient supplementation is widely used to combat these deficiencies. However, micronutrient deficiencies often occur concurrently, and there are many interactions between micronutrients. OBJECTIVE: This study

  6. Effects of antioxidant vitamins on newborn and placental traits in gestations at high altitude: comparative study in high and low altitude native sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraguez, Víctor H; Atlagich, Miljenko; Araneda, Oscar; García, Carlos; Muñoz, Andrés; De Los Reyes, Mónica; Urquieta, Bessie

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the hypothesis that the effects of hypoxia on sheep pregnancies at high altitude (HA) are mediated by oxidative stress and that antioxidant vitamins may prevent these effects. Both HA native and newcomer ewes were maintained at an altitude of 3,589 m during mating and pregnancy. Control low altitude (LA) native ewes were maintained at sea level. Half of each group received daily oral supplements of vitamins C (500 mg) and E (350 IU) during mating and gestation. Near term, maternal plasma vitamin levels and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured. At delivery, lambs were weighed and measured, and placentas were recovered for macroscopic and microscopic evaluation. Vitamin concentrations in supplemented ewes were two- or threefold greater than in non-supplemented ewes. Plasma carbonyls and malondialdehyde in non-supplemented ewes were consistent with a state of oxidative stress, which was prevented by vitamin supplementation. Vitamin supplementation increased lamb birthweight and cotyledon number in both HA native and newcomer ewes, although placental weight and cotyledon surface were diminished. Placentas from vitamin-supplemented HA ewes were similar to those from ewes at sea level, making these placental traits (weight, number and diameter of cotyledons) similar to those from ewes at sea level. Vitamin supplementation had no effect on LA pregnancies. In conclusion, supplementation with vitamins C and E during pregnancy at HA prevents oxidative stress, improving pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Effectiveness of B vitamin supplementation following bariatric surgery: rapid increases of serum vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carolyn E; Sherman, Vadim

    2015-04-01

    Few prospective studies have compared changes of nutrient intake while assessing effectiveness of thiamin, vitamin B12, and folate supplementation to prevent B vitamin deficiencies immediately following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Therefore, we determined the response to 3 months supplementation on maintaining blood B vitamin concentrations. Women undergoing RYGB (n = 11) and SG (n = 11) consumed bariatric vitamin supplements (12 mg thiamin, 350 μg vitamin B12, 800 μg folic acid) daily for 3 months. Height, weight, body mass index, and blood vitamin concentrations were measured preoperatively and at 3 months. Wilcoxon signed-rank analyses compared body weight parameters, laboratory indices, and nutrient intake at baseline and 3 months. Supplementation for 3 months maintained blood thiamin, increased serum folate from 13.1 ± 5.4 to 16.3 ± 6.0 nmol/L (P = 0.049), and increased serum vitamin B12 concentrations from 498 ± 150 to 736 ± 340 pg/mL (P = 0.005). Dietary intake of thiamin and folate decreased in the combined surgical groups, while dietary intake of B12 was maintained. Bariatric B vitamin supplements provided multiple intakes of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (1090% thiamin, 14,583% vitamin B12, 200% folate). Although energy intake decreased 64%, B vitamin supplementation for 3 months resulted in a 48% increase of serum vitamin B12, a modest increase of serum folate, and no reduction of blood thiamin concentrations. Long-term effects of the rapid rise of serum B12 levels attributed to the high content of supplements warrant further investigation.

  8. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it

  9. Effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on semen quality in Cairn Terriers with normospermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, K. T.; Failing, K.; Goericke-Pesch, S.

    2017-01-01

    Among others, selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VitE) have been provided to dogs to improve semen quality. However, scientific evidence documenting an effect in dogs is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of these antioxidants on various ejaculate parameters......, morphology, concentration) were performed before inclusion (D0) and after 1, 2 and 3 months (+1, +2, +3). At the same time, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and VitE in seminal plasma (SP) and GSH-PX in blood samples were determined. Vitamin E levels in SP were below the detection limit (1.0 mg/L) in all...

  10. Vitamin C and e supplementation effects in professional soccer players under regular training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, Claudio C; Hohl, Rodrigo; Silva, Fernando C; Lazarim, Fernanda L; Neto, Joaquim Mf Antunes; Stancanneli, Mirtes; Macedo, Denise V

    2006-12-13

    Exercise training is known to induce an increase in free radical production potentially leading to enhanced muscle injury. Vitamins C and E are well known antioxidants that may prevent muscle cell damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of these supplemental antioxidant vitamins on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage and performance of elite soccer players. Ten male young soccer players were divided into two groups. Supplementation group (n = 5) received vitamins C and E supplementation daily during the pre-competitive season (S group), while the placebo group (PL group, n = 5) received a pill containing maltodextrin. Both groups performed the same training load during the three-month pre-season training period. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, catalase and plasma carbonyl derivatives did not show any significant variation among the experimental groups. Similarly, fitness level markers did not differ among the experimental groups. However, S group demonstrated lower lipid peroxidation and muscle damage levels (p enhance performance.

  11. Vitamin C and E Supplementation Effects in Professional Soccer Players Under Regular Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancanneli Mirtes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exercise training is known to induce an increase in free radical production potentially leading to enhanced muscle injury. Vitamins C and E are well known antioxidants that may prevent muscle cell damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of these supplemental antioxidant vitamins on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage and performance of elite soccer players. Ten male young soccer players were divided into two groups. Supplementation group (n = 5 received vitamins C and E supplementation daily during the pre-competitive season (S group, while the placebo group (PL group, n = 5 received a pill containing maltodextrin. Both groups performed the same training load during the three-month pre-season training period. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, catalase and plasma carbonyl derivatives did not show any significant variation among the experimental groups. Similarly, fitness level markers did not differ among the experimental groups. However, S group demonstrated lower lipid peroxidation and muscle damage levels (p

  12. Does Vitamin C and E Supplementation Impair the Favorable Adaptations of Regular Exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis G. Nikolaidis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental outcomes associated with unregulated and excessive production of free radicals remains a physiological concern that has implications to health, medicine and performance. Available evidence suggests that physiological adaptations to exercise training can enhance the body’s ability to quench free radicals and circumstantial evidence exists to suggest that key vitamins and nutrients may provide additional support to mitigate the untoward effects associated with increased free radical production. However, controversy has risen regarding the potential outcomes associated with vitamins C and E, two popular antioxidant nutrients. Recent evidence has been put forth suggesting that exogenous administration of these antioxidants may be harmful to performance making interpretations regarding the efficacy of antioxidants challenging. The available studies that employed both animal and human models provided conflicting outcomes regarding the efficacy of vitamin C and E supplementation, at least partly due to methodological differences in assessing oxidative stress and training adaptations. Based on the contradictory evidence regarding the effects of higher intakes of vitamin C and/or E on exercise performance and redox homeostasis, a permanent intake of non-physiological dosages of vitamin C and/or E cannot be recommended to healthy, exercising individuals.

  13. Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

  14. Vitamin E supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Peter O; Kansra, Sonal; Barrett, Joanne

    2017-03-06

    People with cystic fibrosis are at an increased risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency including vitamin E. Vitamin E deficiency can cause a host of conditions such as haemolytic anaemia, cerebellar ataxia and cognitive difficulties. Vitamin E supplementation is widely recommended in cystic fibrosis and aims to ameliorate this deficiency. This is an updated version of the review. To determine the effects of any level of vitamin E supplementation on the frequency of vitamin E deficiency disorders in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register and also searched international trial registers for any ongoing clinical trials that were not identified during our register search.Date of last search of the Register: 10 October 2016. Date of last search of international trial registers: 15 February 2017. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing any preparation of vitamin E supplementation to placebo or no supplement, regardless of dosage or duration. Two authors extracted outcome data from each study (published information) and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. Four studies with a total of 141 participants were included in the review, two of these were in children (aged six months to 14.5 years), and the other two did not specify participants' age. All studies used different formulations and doses of vitamin E for various durations of treatment (10 days to six months). Two studies compared the supplementation of fat-soluble as well as water-soluble formulations to no supplementation in different arms of the same study. A third study compared a water-soluble formulation to a placebo; and in the fourth study a fat-soluble formulation of vitamin E was assessed against placebo.At one month, three months and six months, water-soluble vitamin E significantly improved serum vitamin E levels compared with control: at one month, two studies, mean difference 17.66 (95% confidence

  15. [The impact of ascorbic acid on the concentrations of antioxidative vitamins in the plasma of patients with non-small cell lung cancer undergoing first-line chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarski, Sławomir; Rutkowski, Maciej; Godala, Małgorzata; Mejer, Anna; Kowalski, Jan

    2013-09-01

    One of the main after-effects of chemotherapy used in cancer treatment is an augmented production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In turn ROS become a source of unwanted side effects of chemotherapy, often forcing the discontinuation of the therapy. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), being an antioxidant, can strengthen the antioxidative barrier of an organism. The aim of the study was an assessment of the concentrations of A, C and E vitamins in the plasma of NSCLC patients undergoing chemotherapy supplemented with vitamin C. 25 first-line chemotherapy patients with inoperable NSCLC, including 19 men and 6 women aged between 37-73 years (average age 60.1 +/- 8.8 years) have undergone the examination. Their chemotherapy has been supplemented with ascorbic acid (vitamin C dose of 600 mg per 24 hours). Control group consisted of 24 healthy individuals, including 18 men and 6 women aged between 49-71 years (average age 59.5 +/- 6.6 years). In cancer patients the concentration of A, C and E vitamins was assessed by spectrophotometry using T60V spectrophotometer (PG Instruments) before and after first-line chemotherapy which was supplemented with vitamin C. In control group the concentrations of antioxidative vitamins was assessed only once. In comparison to the control group the concentrations of the A, C and E vitamins in the plasma of NSCLC patients was significantly lower (p vitamin C a significant rise of concentrations (p vitamins tested for was observed. The biggest rise was noted for vitamin C (99.8%). The supplementation of the chemotherapy of NSCLC patients with C vitamin leads to rise of the low concentrations of A, C and E vitamins in the plasma. This suggests strengthening of the antioxidative barrier in patients.

  16. Effects of Antioxidants Supplemment, Astaxanthin, Vitamin E, C, in Rat Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Vahidinia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of antioxidants supplement and/or restricted diet on the development of obesity induced by feeding a high-fat (HF diet. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software using Colmogroph- Smirnov, One-Way ANOVA, and Two-Way ANOVA. Results: Dietary antioxidants suppressed body weight gain in the HF-diet ad libitum (-9.8%, and in HF restricted diet (-18.14%. Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Conclusion: results of this study suggest that antioxidants supplement might be of value in reducing the likelihood of obesity in rats fed with high-fat diets, especially when accompanying with restricted diets.

  17. Tocopherol activity correlates with its location in a membrane: A new perspective on the anti-oxidant Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Drew; Williams, Justin; Kucerka, Norbert; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Katsaras, John; Wassall, Stephen; Harroun, Thad

    2013-03-01

    There are no proven health benefits to supplementing with Vitamin E, so why do we require it for healthy living? The whole notion that vitamin E is an in-vivo antioxidant is now being seriously questioned. Using neutron diffraction and supporting techniques, we have correlated vitamin E's location in model membranes with its antioxidant activity. experiments were conducted using phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers whose fatty acid chains varied in their degree of unsaturation. We observe vitamin E up-right in all lipids examined, with its overall height in the bilayer lipid dependant. Interestingly we observe vitamin E's hydroxyl in the headgroup region of the bilayer for both the fully saturated and poly unsaturated lipids. Vitamin E was most effective at intercepting water borne oxidants than radical initiated within the bilayer core. However for lipids where vitamin E resides slightly lower (glycerol backbone) we observe comparable antioxidant activity against both water borne and hydrocarbon borne oxidants. Thus showing lipid species can modulate the location of vitamin E's activity.

  18. Serum levels of antioxidant vitamins and mineral elements of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of tumor necrosis factor α produced by activated macrophages during the course of HIV infection.[4] .... has been reported that HIV positive children have lowered antioxidant vitamins A, C and E compared ... R. Stimulation of free radical generation in human leukocytes by various agents including tumor necrosis factor is a ...

  19. Effects of grape pomace and vitamin E on performance, antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of grape pomace and vitamin E on performance, antioxidant status, immune response, gut morphology and histopathological responses in broiler chickens. ... The secondary titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was increased significantly in the birds fed 10% GP and the secondary IgG concentration of birds ...

  20. antioxidant vitamins status of hypertensive subjects in sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and inflammatory diseases (Coyne,. 2005). Hypertension being a degenerative disease, therefore, may be initiated as a result of peroxidation caused by free radicals. Vitamins A, C, and E posses antioxidant properties. Deficiency of these may thus.

  1. Serum Antioxidant Vitamins Levels in Children with Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sickle cell anaemia is associated with elevated oxidative stress via increase generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decline in antioxidant defences. Increased oxidative stress is thought to play a role in the development of sickle cell anaemic complications. In the current study, vitamins A, C, and E levels were ...

  2. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements Status of Diabetics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with elevated oxidative stress via increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decline in antioxidant defences. Increased oxidative stress is thought to play a role in the development of diabetic complications. In the current study, vitamins A, C, and E, chromium, manganese ...

  3. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements Status of Diabetics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is associated with elevated oxidative stress via increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decline in antioxidant defences. Increased oxidative stress is thought to play a role in the development of diabetic complications. In the current study, vitamins A, C, and E, chromium ...

  4. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers (Letter)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality.......Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality....

  5. Antioxidant supplementation does not alter endurance training adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yfanti, Christina; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a considerable commercial market, especially within the sports community, claiming the need for antioxidant supplementation. One argument for antioxidant supplementation in sports is that physical exercise is associated with increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS...... concentration, citrate synthase (CS), and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity in muscle were significantly higher in response to training (P

  6. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen and vitamin C and E supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bader, Nicolle; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Koch, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    healthy men were exposed to HBO (100 % O2; 240 kPa) before and after 4 weeks' supplementation with 500 mg vitamin C plus 165 mg alpha-tocopherol equivalents. Exposure to 21 % O2 at 100 kPa served as intra-individual controls (control). Samples for the analysis of plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress...

  7. Vitamin C supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khudairy, Lena; Flowers, Nadine; Wheelhouse, Rebecca; Ghannam, Obadah; Hartley, Louise; Stranges, Saverio; Rees, Karen

    2017-03-16

    Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient and powerful antioxidant. Observational studies have shown an inverse relationship between vitamin C intake and major cardiovascular events and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Results from clinical trials are less consistent. To determine the effectiveness of vitamin C supplementation as a single supplement for the primary prevention of CVD. We searched the following electronic databases on 11 May 2016: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (Ovid); Embase Classic and Embase (Ovid); Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); Health Technology Assessment Database and Health Economics Evaluations Database in the Cochrane Library. We searched trial registers on 13 April 2016 and reference lists of reviews for further studies. We applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials of vitamin C supplementation as a single nutrient supplement lasting at least three months and involving healthy adults or adults at moderate and high risk of CVD were included. The comparison group was no intervention or placebo. The outcomes of interest were CVD clinical events and CVD risk factors. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, abstracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. We included eight trials with 15,445 participants randomised. The largest trial with 14,641 participants provided data on our primary outcomes. Seven trials reported on CVD risk factors. Three of the eight trials were regarded at high risk of bias for either reporting or attrition bias, most of the 'Risk of bias' domains for the remaining trials were judged as unclear, with the exception of the largest trial where most domains were judged to be at low risk of bias.The composite endpoint, major CVD events was not different between the vitamin C and placebo group (hazard ratio (HR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval

  8. Vitamin C supplementation enhances compact morulae formation but reduces the hatching blastocyst rate of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Li, Rui-Zhe; Cui, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Zhe; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, is capable of significantly improving the developmental competence of porcine and mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of vitamin C on the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that vitamin C (40 μg/mL) positively affected the scavenging of intracellular ROS, cleavage rate at 24 h (76.67 vs. 68.26%, pvitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect the blastocyst formation rate and proportion of inner cell mass over total cells per blastocyst on day 7. Moreover, vitamin C supplementation obviously impaired the total cell numbers per blastocyst (97.20 ± 11.35 vs. 88.57 ± 10.43, pVitamin C supplementation preferentially improved the viability of bovine SCNT embryos prior to the blastocyst stage, but did not enhance the formation and quality of blastocysts in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of vitamin C on the development of bovine SCNT embryos is complex, and vitamin C is not a suitable antioxidant chemical for the in vitro culture of bovine SCNT embryos.

  9. Vitamin C affects the antioxidative/oxidative status in rats irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemiec, T.; Sawosz, E.; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    Four grups of twenty growing Wistar rats were irradiated with either UV, IR, UV+IR light or were not irradiated (control). Ten rats from each group received a diet supplemented with 0.6% of L-ascorbic acid. The effects of the mega-dose of vitamin C were evaluated by changes in the antioxidative....../oxidative status. UV and IR radiation promoted oxidative DNA degradation in rat livers and supplementation with ascorbic acid strengthened the prooxidative effects on DNA oxidation in rats irradiated with UV or IR light. Vitamin C also increased the tiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration...

  10. Effect of vitamin C supplementation in the prevention of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Moludi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF after cardiac surgery has been emphasized. Vitamin C as an antioxidant important role in reducing the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. This study aimed to investigate, administration of vitamin C, as a way to reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation after coronary bypass surgery. Methods: In this double-blind clinical study, 290 patients in Rajaee Heart Center, from March 2013 to December 2014 who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery were randomly divided into intervention and control groups to receive vitamin C and placebo. The intervention group before the surgery in the operating room received 2 grams of vitamin C intravenously then one gram per day for four days prior to surgery. After the operation, the two groups were compared in terms of the following: Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias after surgery, ICU stay and hospital stay and duration of intubation. Results: 113 cases and 177 controls (191 men and 99 women with a mean age of 55.40±14.40 years in both groups (vitamin C and placebo were enrolled. The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation was 55% in the placebo group to 35% in the vitamin C group decreased (P= 0.001. Duration of intubation in the intervention group 11.8 and the control group was 14.14 hours (P= 0.004. The amount of drainage was lower in vitamin C group (P= 0.003. Vitamin C had no effect on the rates of hospital and ICU stay (P= 0.075. There was no significant reduction in threatening arrhythmia (VT and VF in this period (P= 0.159. Conclusion: Vitamin C supplements may reduce atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery also can improve conditions such as reducing the duration of intubation. With regard to the safety, these supplements can be recommended for the prevention of atrial fibrillation before coronary artery bypass surgery.

  11. Vitamin supplementation and nutritional status in homeless men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnton-Hill, I; Sriskandarajah, N; Stewart, P M; Craig, G; Truswell, A S

    1993-09-01

    Homeless men and women are both physically and socially disadvantaged. Their nutritional status is also often compromised. In this sample of 107 homeless men in Sydney, about half reported taking vitamin supplements (with varying duration and regularity), usually a regimen consisting of thiamin, vitamin C, folic acid and a multivitamin-B-complex capsule. In this cross-sectional study, little effect could be seen on clinical health between those reporting taking vitamin supplementation and those not doing so. However, biochemical measurements showed significant differences. The numbers of men classified as deficient were higher by about 20 per cent for those reporting not taking vitamins. The mean biochemical levels were significantly better for the supplemented group for thiamin, as assessed by TPP per cent effect (P = 0.04), vitamin B6, as assessed by P5'P per cent effect (P = 0.002), vitamin C (P status, the supplemented group were better off and it is reasonable to presume that in the long term this would be reflected in improved clinical status.

  12. Assessment of adequacy of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skowrońska-Jóźwiak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Deficiency of vitamin D in pregnancy leads to higher incidences of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis, and also affects the health of the infants. According to Polish recommendations published in 2009, vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women should be provided from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy in daily dose of 800–1000 IU. The aim of the presented study is: 1 to estimate how many pregnant women comply with those recommendations and 2 to determine the 25(OHD levels in pregnant women. Patients and methods. The study included 88 pregnant women, aged 20–40 years, between 12–35 week of gestation. Vitamin D concentrations [25(OHD] were measured by a direct electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Elecsys, Roche. Results. 31 of 88 pregnant women (35.2% did not use any supplementation. Mean level of 25(OHD was 28.8±14.8 ng/mL (range from 4.0 – 77.5 ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency, defined as 25(OHD concentration below 20 ng/mL, was found in 31.8% of the women (28/88. Insufficiency of vitamin D [25(OHD concentration between 20–30 ng/mL] was present in 26.1% of the women (23/88. Optimal level of 25(OHD (over 30 ng/mL was present in 37/88 (42.0% women. Hence, in 46.2% of women taking vitamin D supplementation, the levels of 25(OHD were still below 30 ng/mL. Conclusions. Supplementation of vitamin D in the investigated group was inadequate. More than 35% of pregnant women did not take any supplements, while half of the subjects who had declared taking vitamin D, failed to achieve optimal serum 25(OHD concentration.

  13. Effect of antioxidants and B-group vitamins on risk of infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariballa, Salah; Afandi, Bachar; Abu Haltem, Mamoon; Yassin, Javed; Alessa, Awad

    2013-03-05

    Previous studies have revealed that diabetic patients have a decline in immunity and an increased risk of infections, and this may be associated with poor micronutrient status. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of dietary supplements on risk of infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hundred patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to receive an oral dose of daily B-group vitamins and antioxidant vitamins (n = 50) or an identical placebo (n = 50) daily for 90 days. Patients had baseline, three and 12 month assessment for nutritional status, fruits and vegetables intake, physical activity and self-reported infections. Supplementation with antioxidants and B-group vitamins significantly increased the plasma concentration of vitamin E and folate and reduced homocysteine in the intervention group (p-values were 0.006, 0.001 and 0.657, respectively). The number of infections reported by the treatment group after three months of supplements was less than that reported by the placebo group, 9 (27%) vs. 15 (36%) (p = 0.623). Corresponding numbers of infections at 12 months were 25 (67.5%) and 27 (56.3%), respectively (p = 0.488). Up to 90% of the diabetic patients were either overweight or obese with a sedentary life style, and their body weight increased further during three months of follow up. The study showed that multivitamin supplements improved vitamin blood concentrations; however, this did not reduce the number of infections in diabetic patients.

  14. Vitamin C supplement intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: interaction with dietary vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeau, Claire; Fournier, Agnès; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2016-07-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results on the relation between vitamin C intake and breast cancer risk. We investigated the relation between vitamin C supplement intake and breast cancer risk while considering dietary vitamin C intake. Between 1995 and 2008, 2482 invasive breast cancer cases occurred in 57,403 postmenopausal women from the Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) prospective cohort during 581,085 person-years. We estimated vitamin C intake from foods with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire that was sent to subjects in 1993-1995 and vitamin C supplement use via questionnaires sent in 1995, 2000, 2002, and 2005. Multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for primary invasive breast cancer were estimated with the use of Cox regression models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Vitamin C supplement use (ever compared with never) was not associated with breast cancer risk overall; it was associated with higher breast cancer risk in women in the fourth quartile of vitamin C intake from foods (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.67) but not in other quartiles of dietary vitamin C intake (P-interaction = 0.03). We observed that vitamin C supplement use was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women with high vitamin C intake from foods. Our data suggest a potential U- or J-shaped relation between total vitamin C intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk that deserves further investigation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Effect of processing on the antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant capacity of Vigna sinensis Var. Carilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblado, Rosa; Zielinski, Henryk; Piskula, Mariusz; Kozlowska, Halina; Muñoz, Rosario; Frías, Juana; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2005-02-23

    Cowpea (Vigna sinensis L. var. Carilla) flours obtained by fermentation with inoculum Lactobacillus plantarum (PF) or with the natural microorganisms present in the flour (NF) and subsequent heat treatment in an autoclave were prepared to study the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant vitamin content and on the antioxidant capacity. Bacterial counts and pH values, vitamins C and E, carotenoids, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase-like activity (SOD-like activity), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), lipid peroxidation in unilamillar liposomes, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were evaluated in raw and processed cowpea flours. gamma-Tocopherol and delta-tocopherol were found in raw cowpea, whereas vitamin C and carotenoids were not detected. An increase in the vitamin E activity was observed in PF, whereas vitamin C and carotenoids were not detected in fermented cowpea flours. Fermentation or heat treatment in an autoclave after fermentation produced processed cowpea flours with lower PRTC, glutathione content, and SOD-like activity than those of the raw seeds. However, those processes increased the capacity to inhibit the lipid peroxidation in unilamellar lipoposomes and TEAC. According to the results obtained in this study, the fermentation of cowpeas (naturally or with L. plantarum) and fermentation and subsequent heat treatment in an autoclave are good processes to obtain functional cowpea flours having higher antioxidant capacity than the raw legume.

  16. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    abejas, composicion quimica, propiedadesyusos industriales. Revista. Chilena de Nutricion.14: 185-191. Garrett, R.H., and Grisham, C.M. (2001). “Principles of. Biochemistry” with a Human Focus. Brooks/. Cole, USA. P. 223-225. Gheldof, N. and Engeseth, N. J. (2002). “Antioxidant capacity of honeys from various floral.

  17. Vitamin A supplementation on child morbidity | Haidar | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A supplementation on child morbidity. ... J. Haidar, D. Tsegaye, D.H. Mariam, H.N. Tibeb, N.M. Muroki ... Results: Vitamin A capsule coverage of 87% in all the villages of the Weredas and a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the prevalence of Bitot's spot (from 1.5 to 0.5), fever (from 29.8 to 14.2), diarrhoea ...

  18. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen and vitamin C and E supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bader, Nicolle; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Koch, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of normobaric and hyperbaric O2 (HBO) on plasma antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative stress in plasma and urine and to investigate the effect of a 4-week vitamin C plus E supplementation on HBO-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen...... healthy men were exposed to HBO (100 % O2; 240 kPa) before and after 4 weeks' supplementation with 500 mg vitamin C plus 165 mg alpha-tocopherol equivalents. Exposure to 21 % O2 at 100 kPa served as intra-individual controls (control). Samples for the analysis of plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress...... biomarkers were collected before and immediately after each treatment. The present results showed that when compared with 'control', a single exposure to HBO resulted in a decrease of plasma vitamin C (P = 0.027) and an increase of lipid peroxides (P = 0.0008) and urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxod...

  19. Regular vitamin C supplementation during pregnancy reduces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    synthesized from glucose) essential to human body and available from diet. Despite its broad availability in fruits and vegetables, in many developing countries the incidence of clinical symptoms due to the vitamin deficiency is still very high. Also ...

  20. Prior exercise and antioxidant supplementation: effect on oxidative stress and muscle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both acute bouts of prior exercise (preconditioning and antioxidant nutrients have been used in an attempt to attenuate muscle injury or oxidative stress in response to resistance exercise. However, most studies have focused on untrained participants rather than on athletes. The purpose of this work was to determine the independent and combined effects of antioxidant supplementation (vitamin C + mixed tocopherols/tocotrienols and prior eccentric exercise in attenuating markers of skeletal muscle injury and oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Methods Thirty-six men were randomly assigned to: no prior exercise + placebo; no prior exercise + antioxidant; prior exercise + placebo; prior exercise + antioxidant. Markers of muscle/cell injury (muscle performance, muscle soreness, C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase activity, as well as oxidative stress (blood protein carbonyls and peroxides, were measured before and through 48 hours of exercise recovery. Results No group by time interactions were noted for any variable (P > 0.05. Time main effects were noted for creatine kinase activity, muscle soreness, maximal isometric force and peak velocity (P Conclusion There appears to be no independent or combined effect of a prior bout of eccentric exercise or antioxidant supplementation as used here on markers of muscle injury in resistance trained men. Moreover, eccentric exercise as used in the present study results in minimal blood oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Hence, antioxidant supplementation for the purpose of minimizing blood oxidative stress in relation to eccentric exercise appears unnecessary in this population.

  1. Refrigerated storage of red deer epididymal spermatozoa in the epididymis, diluted and with vitamin C supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Santos, M R; Domínguez-Rebolledo, A E; Esteso, M C; Garde, J J; Martínez-Pastor, F

    2009-04-01

    We have approached the problem of refrigerated storage of epididymal sperm samples from red deer by comparing three options: storing the genital (testicles within the scrotum), diluting the semen in extender or diluting the semen in extender supplemented with an anti-oxidant. Twenty-nine pairs of testes were collected. Spermatozoa from one of each of the pairs were immediately recovered, and diluted to 400 x 10(6) sperm/ml in Tris-citrate-fructose with 20% egg yolk. Control group was stored as such, and Anti-oxidant group was supplemented with 0.8 mm vitamin C. The remaining epididymides and the diluted samples were stored at 5 degrees C and spermatozoa were analysed at 0, 24, 96 and 192 h for: motility [computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA)], acrosomal integrity, sperm viability (eosine/nigrosine staining), normal tails and chromatin status [sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA)]. In general, seminal quality decreased with storage time. Vitamin C supported progressive motility better at 24 h (median 42% vs 23% Control and 15% epididymis), reduced the incidence of tail abnormalities and protected chromatin. Storing the semen in the epididymis slowed down motility loss, but slightly increased the occurrence of tail abnormalities and viability was lower at 192 h. However, regarding chromatin status, sperm stored in the epididymis was protected similarly to those diluted in the medium supplemented with vitamin C. Although the differences between the three groups were small, there were some advantages in supplementing the extender with vitamin C. Besides, refrigerating the epididymis may be a good option when immediate processing is not available.

  2. [Vitamin-mineral supplements in nutrition of adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Pogozheva, A V; Gromova, O A; Shikh, E V

    2015-01-01

    The diet of population consisting of natural products is quite adequate and even excessive of energy consumption, but is not able to meet fully the need of organism in a number of micronutrients. Due to lack of sun exposure and long presence indoors endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in the skin by ultraviolet radiation does not provide the body’s need for this vitamin. Intake of vitaminmineral supplements (VMS) is appropriate because combined deficiency of vitamins and minerals takes place in population. Prophylactic doses (equal to physiological needs) provide a diet completeness and reduce the risk of vitamin deficiency and its consequences. The high incidence of combined deficiency of vitamins among population and the existence of vitamin interactions are the basis for the application of the multivitamins. The simultaneous intake of vitamins is more physiological, their combination is more effective than a separate or isolated destination of each of them. Efficacy of the VMS has been shown in the treatment and prevention of some diseases. The main requirements for the VMS are full list of vitamins and minerals, the lack of which is detected most frequently, in doses covering the needs of organism. For the health of the pregnant woman and her unborn child preference should be given for complexes, containing DHA and/or probiotics along with vitamins. The principles of the selection of the composition and vitamin doses in the VMS for using patients suffering from various pathologies should be based on data on the patient’s sufficiency with vitamins, the understanding of the role of vitamin deficiency in the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as on the composition of the diet and its modifications.

  3. Sunlight exposure or vitamin D supplementation for vitamin D-deficient non-western immigrants: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, I.S.; Boeke, A.J.P.; van der Meer, I.M.; van Schoor, N.M.; Knol, D.L.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Vitamin D deficiency is very common in non-western immigrants. In this randomized clinical trial, vitamin D 800 IU/day or 100,000 IU/3 months were compared with advised sunlight exposure. Vitamin D supplementation was more effective than advised sunlight exposure in improving vitamin D

  4. Improving Effect Of Vitamin E Supplementation In Rats Suffering From Zinc Deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E is a membrane-bound soluble lipid and naturally occurring antioxidant which protects animal tissues against oxidative damage. Several studies have suggested a possible interaction between zinc status and vitamin E in animals. The current investigation was conduced to elucidate the improving effect of vitamin E supplementation on some selected biochemical variables in the blood and tissues of albino rats suffering from zinc deficiency.Zinc deficiency was induced in rats by feeding male rats a low zinc diet for 6 weeks. Dietary vitamin E and zinc, separated or combined, were used to ameliorate the impacts of zinc deficiency in the last two weeks of the experiment. Fifty male albino rats weighing 70-80g in 5 equal groups were given for 6 weeks five semi purified diets different in their contents of vitamin E and zinc / kg diet as follows: Zn adequate diet (Zn =35 ppm) for group (I) served as control, Zn deficient diet (Zn = 3 ppm) for group (II), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc (Zn = 84 ppm) for group (III), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental vitamin E (50 IU) for group (IV) and Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc and vitamin E (Zn = 84 ppm + i.p. 50 IU vitamin E) for group (V). Supplemental zinc and vitamin E were only given on the last two weeks of the experiment.The obtained results revealed that Zn deficiency led to a significant (P 4 , T 3 and testosterone levels were declined significantly in Zn deficient rats as well as a significant (P < 0.05) rise in TSH level as compared with their levels in the Zn deficient rats supplemented with Zn and vitamin E.In contrast, the concentration of serum total cholesterol (T.Chol) and triglycerides (TG) in Zn deficient rats were significantly increased than those recorded in control group. On the other hand, the activities of cytochrome P450 reductase and microsomal NADPH reductase were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in liver homogenates while significant increase was recorded in their corresponding

  5. Adding a Vitamin D Supplement Likely Does Not Improve Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spotlight on Research Spotlight on Research Adding a Vitamin D Supplement Likely Does Not Improve Knee Osteoarthritis By Colleen Labbe, M.S. | June 1, 2013 Vitamin D supplements likely do not improve symptoms of knee ...

  6. Effect of Copper, Manganese and Zinc With Antioxidant Vitamins on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Hypertension and dyslipidemia are associated with oxidative stress and are major causes of cardiovascular diseases amounting to 30% of global death rate. The effect of antioxidants supplementation on pulse rate and lipid profile in salt-loaded albino rats were investigated using a randomized control study ...

  7. Beyond the antioxidant: the double life of vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tullio, Mario C

    2012-01-01

    . 159-172). All this has very little to do with the celebrated role of ascorbic acid (ASC) as an antioxidant. So, if the fate of ASC had to be found in its name, its role in the prevention of scurvy (i.e. beyond the antioxidant function) should be considered its main feature. But, in spite of more than 80 years of extensive research (34,424 hits in a PubMed query on January 6 2007), an unprecedented popularity among the general public, an estimated market of several billion dollars (Hancock RD, Viola R (2005) Improving the nutritional value of crops through enhancement of l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content: Rationale and biotechnological opportunities. J Agr Food Chem 53:5248-5257), we should honestly conclude that the fate of vitamin C is still in the first name it received, many years ago: we still ignore much of its actual relevance in cell metabolism, although we are progressively getting aware of the many facets of this fascinating molecule, and its direct involvement in the regulation of apparently unrelated pathways (Arrigoni O, De Tullio MC (2002) Ascorbic acid, much more than just an antioxidant. Biochim Biophys Acta 1569:1-9; De Tullio MC, Arrigoni O (2004) Hopes, disillusions and more hopes from vitamin C. Cell Mol Life Sci 61:209-219; Duarte TL, Lunec J (2005) When is an antioxidant not an antioxidant? A review of novel actions and reactions of vitamin C. Free Rad Res 39:671-686). Recent data on ASC involvement in cell signalling and gene expression open new perspectives, that will be presented and discussed in this chapter.

  8. Calcium supplements as source of trace elements: Adequacy and safety of supplements with vitamin C, vitamin D and phosphate formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Siddique, N.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry were used to quantify trace elements in different national and multinational Ca supplements categorized on the basis of Ca with vitamin D, vitamin C and phosphate formulations. The supplements were found to contain low levels of Co, Cr and Cu with elevated amounts of Fe, K and Na. Toxic elements (As, Cd and Sb) were detected in very few samples at very low concentrations. The essential elements contribute to >3% of their respective Dietary Reference Intakes. - Highlights: • INAA and AAS were used to quantify trace elements in different national and multinational Ca supplements. • The essential elements contribute to >3% of their respective DRIs. • Toxic elements (As, Cd and Sb) were detected in very few samples at very low concentrations. • All supplements can be considered safe for human intake with respect to trace nutrients

  9. Antioxidant food supplements in human health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiramatsu, Midori; Packer, Lester; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    1999-01-01

    ... of many of nature's antioxidant substances; grapes: starting source for red wine production; rich in antioxidants; onions: rich source of the bioflavonoid quercetin. This book is printed on acid-...

  10. Supplements (Part1): Vitamins | Jobson | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Family Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 45, No 5 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Supplements (Part1): Vitamins. R Jobson. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  11. Effects Of Dietary Supplementation Of Vitamin E And Selenium On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the combined effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E (Vit E) and selenium (Se) on total white blood cells, mononucleated cells, polymorphonucleated cells and packed cell volume of Trypanosoma congolense-infected rats (Rattus rattus). Ninety adult R. rattus of pure breed of ...

  12. Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on lipid and colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chickens were fed with diets containing 25 (control), 100, 200 or 300 mg vitamin E/kg of food for 20 days before slaughtering. Peroxide value (PV) and oxidation products specific extinctions (K232 and K270), chosen as markers for oxidative deterioration of lipids, were lower in chicken meat from animals supplemented with ...

  13. the effects of vitamin e supplementation on serum lipid peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. C.O.NWAIGWE

    SUMMARY. The effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E on feed intake and serum lipid peroxidation formation were examined in 200 light breed cockerels infected with infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus. The birds were reared from day-old in deep litter, and were divided into 8 groups of 25 birds each by day 21.

  14. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation associated with increased atopy in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, S; Kiraly, N; Da Costa, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) is currently being considered as policy in countries at risk of deficiency. A previous study suggested that NVAS may be associated with increased atopy. We examined the effect of NVAS on atopy by conducting long-term follow-up of a previous...

  15. factors influencing vitamin a supplementation among mothers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 89 No. 4 April 2012. FACTORS INFLUENCING VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION AMONG MOTHERS OF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE. YEARS OLD AT MBAGATHI DISTRICT HOSPITAL, KENYA. M. W. Kamau, BSc (Nurs), MSc (Public Health), Lecturer Presbyterian Universityof East Africa, ...

  16. The effects of vitamin E supplementation on serum lipid peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E on feed intake and serum lipid peroxidation formation were examined in 200 light breed cockerels infected with infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus. The birds were reared from day-old in deep litter, and were divided into 8 groups of 25 birds each by day 21. Half of each ...

  17. Ameliorative effects of selenium and vitamin e supplementation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on some haematological parameters and red blood cell osmotic fragility in Wistar rats subjected to water immersion restraint stress (WRS) (n= 35). Male Wistar rats, weighing 200-220 g were divided in to five groups of ...

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation of Vitamin A on fertility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Science ... to study the effects of dietary vitamin A supplementation on the fertility and the characteristics of the oviductal and uterine flushing's of gilts because in our thermally harsh environment pigs tend to consume less feeds than needed and so expose themselves to some nutritional stress.

  19. The effect of vitamin supplementation on the toxic effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dichlorvos (DDVP) is a widely used pesticide that is toxic to animals and humans but study of its effect on the microanatomy of the brain is scanty. This study was designed to investigate the ameliorating effect of vitamin supplementation on DDVP-induced neurotoxicity in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. 25 male Wistar rats ...

  20. VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION ON CHILD MORBIDITY J. HAIDAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-01-01

    Jan 1, 2003 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 80 No. 1 January 2003. VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION ON CHILD MORBIDITY. J. Haidar, MD, MSc, D. Tsegaye, MSc, Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, D.H. Mariam, MD, PhD, Department of Community. Health, Addis Ababa ...

  1. Proposed vitamin A supplementation programme for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. Based on an extensive review of the literature, the main components of a primary health care facility vitamin A supplementation programme were identified. The annual, recurrent cost of each of the programme component wer estimated for the nine provinces in South Africa. Immunisation coverage rates were used ...

  2. Effects of vitamin C supplement on vascular responses induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of vitamin C supplement on vascular responses induced by warmth or cold stimulation in normal Nigerians. SI Jaja, SI Aisuodionwe, S Gbenebitse, MO Kehinde. Abstract. No abstract. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol. 13(1-2): 61-64. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  3. Low dose vitamin C, vitamin E or L-arginine supplementation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of chronic low-dose supplementation with vitamin C (300mg/day for 6 weeks in adults or 100mg/day for 6 weeks in children) or vitamin E (100 IU/day for 6 weeks in adults) or L-Arginine (1g/day for 6 weeks in adults) in ameliorating the pathophysiology and combating the deleterious effects of sickle cell disease in ...

  4. Effect of B vitamin supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels in celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadithi, M. al; Mulder, C.J.J.; Stam, F.; Azizi, J.; Crusius, J.B.A.; Pena, A.S.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Smulders, Y.M.

    2009-01-01

    0.001, P = 0.007, for vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12, respectively). Lower plasma homocysteine levels were found in patients using vitamin supplements than in patients who did not (P = 0.001) or healthy controls (P = 0.003). However, vitamin B6 and folate, not vitamin B12, were significantly

  5. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity of Vitamin C in oral environment

    OpenAIRE

    Aratirika Chakraborthy; Pratibha Ramani; Herald Justin Sherlin; Priya Premkumar; Anuja Natesan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Antioxidant properties and Vitamin C. Background: Vitamin C is a naturally occurring organic compound and a potent antioxidant preventing oxidative damage to lipids and other macromolecules. It can also exhibit bimodal activity as a pro-oxidant at a higher concentration. Vitamin C has a switch over role from being an antioxidant in physiologic conditions to a pro-oxidant under pathologic conditions. A systematic review of this role would help to elucidate whether it is an antioxi...

  6. Plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide following supplementation with vitamin D or D plus B vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Awwad, Hussain M; Kirsch, Susanne H; Waldura, Christiane; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Graeber, Stefan; Geisel, Juergen

    2017-02-01

    We compared the effect of supplementation with vitamin D + B or vitamin D on plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and choline metabolites. This is a randomized single-blinded nonplacebo-controlled study. Twenty-seven participants received 1200 IU vitamin D3 and 800 mg calcium, and 25 participants received additionally 0.5 mg folic acid, 50 mg B6, and 0.5 mg B12 for 1 year. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy), TMAO, and choline metabolites were measured at baseline and 12 months later. TMAO declined in the vitamin D arm by 0.5 versus 2.8 μmol/L in the D + B arm (p = 0.005). Hcy decreased and betaine increased in the D + B compared to the D arm. Within-subject levels of plasma choline and dimethylglycine and urine betaine increased in both arms and changes did not differ between the arms. TMAO reduction was predicted by higher baseline TMAO and lowering Hcy in stepwise regression analysis. The test-retest variations of TMAO were greater in the D + B arm compared to vitamin D arm. B vitamins plus vitamin D lowered plasma fasting TMAO compared to vitamin D. Vitamin D caused alterations in choline metabolism, which may reflect the metabolic flexibility of C1-metabolism. The molecular mechanisms and health implications of these changes are currently unknown. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Determination of water-soluble vitamins in soft drinks and vitamin supplements using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Matthias; Razzazi, Ebrahim; Luf, Wolfgang

    2003-08-01

    A method for the determination of six water-soluble vitamins based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) operated in micellar mode was developed. Thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), nicotinamide (vitamin B3), and cobalamin (Vitamin B12) could be separated in a single run. All CE parameters such as buffer composition and operation temperature were optimized in order to achieve better separation. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the described method ranged from 1.08 to 3.68% (intra-day precision) and 1.26 to 3.35% (inter-day precision). The method was then used for measuring various soft drinks and vitamin supplements directly without any step of sample cleanup. The determination of niacin was successful for all samples tested, reaching recoveries near 100%. Riboflavin and pyridoxine were quantified successfully in some but not all samples. Therefore, an evaluation on a case-by-case basis is mandatory. When applicable, this method provides a fast, accurate, simple, and inexpensive way to quantify selected vitamins, and is therefore well suited for routine analysis in soft drink industry.

  8. The effect of vitamin E, L-carnitine, and ginger on production traits, immune response, and antioxidant status in two broiler strains exposed to chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zia Ur; Chand, Naila; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2017-12-01

    The present study was designed to find the effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the performance of two broiler strains under high ambient temperature. A total of 320 day-old chicks of Hubbard and Cobb were reared for a period for 21 days under the same nutritional and management systems. On day 21 onward, one subgroup was kept as control while other subgroups were provided with vitamin E (250 mg/kg), ginger (2 g/kg), and L-carnitine (500 mg/kg) in basal diets. Body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly (P L-carnitine supplemented birds irrespective of the strain. Antibody titer against infectious bursal disease (IBD) and paraoxonase (PON1) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vitamin E-supplemented birds compared to the other treatments. The number of heterophils and toal oxidant status (TOS) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in vitamin E-supplemented birds. Blood glucose was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in vitamin E-supplemented birds, while total protein was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vitamin E-supplemented group. In conclusion, the supplementation of vitamin E at the rate of 250 mg/kg improved the antioxidant status and immune response in the two broiler strains. Further, the two strains perform similarly in terms of performance and other health status parameters with no significant difference.

  9. Effect of vitamin A and vitamin C supplementation on oxidative stress in HIV and HIV-TB co-infection at Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, Oluwamayowa; Rotimi, Kunle; Ikumawoyi, Victor; Adeyemo, Titilope; Olayemi, Sunday

    2017-06-01

    HIV and TB infections are both associated with elevated oxidative stress parameters. Anti-oxidant supplementation may offer beneficial effects in positively modulating oxidative stress parameters in HIV and HIV-TB infected patients. We investigated the effects of vitamin A and C supplementation on oxidative stress in HIV infected and HIV-TB co-infected subjects. 40 HIV/TB co-infected and 50 HIV mono-infected patients were divided into 2 equal groups. Participants provided demographic information and blood was collected to determine oxidative stress parameters before and after vitamin A (5000 IU) and C (2600 mg) supplementation for 1 month. There was a significantly (p < 0.05) higher level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) at baseline for HIV infected subjects compared with HIV-TB co-infected subjects. There was a significantly (p < 0.05) lower level of MDA and higher level of Catalase (CAT) in subjects administered supplementation compared to subjects without supplementation for the HIV infected group. There was a significantly lower level of Reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and higher level of MDA after one month of supplementation compared with baseline levels for HIV/TB co infected subjects. A similar result was also obtained for the HIV mono-infected groups which had a significantly lower level of SOD, MDA and CAT compared to the baseline. There was a significantly lower level of GSH and SOD, and higher level of MDA after supplementation compared with the baseline for HIV/TB co-infected subjects. Comparing the indices at baseline and post no-supplementation in HIV/TB co-infection showed no significant differences in the oxidative stress parameters. HIV/TB co-infection and HIV mono-infection seems to diminish the capacity of the anti-oxidant system to control oxidative stress, however exogenous anti-oxidant supplementation appears not to have beneficial roles in positively modulating the associated oxidative stress.

  10. [Effect of antioxidant supplementation over oxidative stress and quality of life in cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Tarlovsky, V; Bejarano-Rosales, M; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, G; Casillas, M A; López-Alvarenga, J C; Ceballos-Reyes, G M

    2011-01-01

    Mexico has a high rate of cervical cancer which represents an important public health issue. The treatment for this disease depends on the extension of the tumor; for the initial stages surgery is recommended, and for locally advanced tumors, a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is used. All this process affects natural antioxidant consumption and Quality of Life (QoL). To find out the effect that supplementation with antioxidants (β-carotene, vitamin C y vitamin E) has on oxidative stress, and quality of life in patient diagnosed with cervical cancer during treatments with cisplatin and radiotherapy. We conducted a randomized, blind clinical trial in women with cervical cancer whose antineoplasic treatment was radiotherapy in and radiotherapy with cisplatin. Patients were randomly assigned to receive antioxidant therapy or a placebo. Plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), free carbonyls, dityrosines, and carbonyl/protein rate in two different moments, before oncologic therapy, and after finishing oncology treatment, we also evaluated food consumption by using a validated food frequency questionnaire and a QOL questionnaire before treatment and after it was over. The effect of the antioxidant treatment was assessed by the use t-student test for independent and paired samples, as well as frequencies and X² for categorical variables. We evaluated 103 patients who were randomly assigned to receive treatment with antioxidants 49 (47.60%) and placebo 54 (52.40%). We did not find statistically significant differences in food or antioxidant consumption according to the food frequency questionnaires. Most of the patients consumed more energy than needed to meet their requirement, but they did not consume enough of most of the antioxidants according to the Recommended Dailiy Allowance (RDA) recommendation. Serum levels of plasma free carbonyls and carbonil/mg of protein ratio were statistically significant (p stress in the supplemented group, this

  11. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meheroz H Rabadi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meheroz H Rabadi1, Bruce S Kristal2,31Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 2Burke Medical Research Institute, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 3Department of Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, White Plains, NY, USABackground and purpose: Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and β-carotene in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. Method: In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional independence measure (TFIM with 23 patients with ischemic stroke not taking Vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C 1000 mg daily was prescribed on admission to our unit mainly to patients who were undernourished (defined as significant weight loss and/or 90% or less ideal body weight for age and sex and those with pressure sores. The outcome measures were: change in the TFIM, FIM-Cognition (FIM-Cog, and FIM-Motor sub-scores, discharge disposition, and length of stay (LOS.Results: The change in TFIM (20 ± 13 standard deviation [SD] vs. 26 ± 6, p = 0.20, FIM-Cog (3 ± 3 SD vs. 4 ± 5, p = 0.41, FIM-Motor (15 ± 11 SD vs. 20 ± 13, p = 0.21 sub-scores were less in the vitamin C treated group, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in LOS (21 ± 9 SD vs. 23 ± 9, p = 0.59, and discharge disposition (home/institution (9/10 vs. 13/9, p = 0.60 between the vitamin C and the control groups.Conclusion: This study suggests vitamin C supplementation did not enhance functional recovery in undernourished ischemic stroke patients

  12. Decreasing Free Radicals Level on High Risk Person After Vitamin C and E Supplement Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitorus, M. S.; Anggraini, D. R.; Hidayat

    2017-03-01

    Has become a global issue that the increase in global warming mainly caused by high air pollution levels which are donated by motor vehicle emissions. As a rapidly developing country, Indonesia becomes vulnerable to health problems related to air pollution. Excessive free radicals that is produced by air pollution can initiate stress oxidative. Already known that, stress oxidative trigger many health problems. Vitamin C and E is a non enzymatic antioxidant that can neutralize free radicals. This study aims to investigate the decreasing free radicals level by administering vitamin C and E. This research using pre and post experimental design study. There are 24 operators gasoline station Pertamina as samples, with an average age of 26 years. The samples were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 (control), group 2, were given vitamin C doses of 500mg / day, group 3 was given vitamin E doses of 250 IU / day and the group 4 was given a combination of vitamins C and E. The treatment was given for 30 days. Free radicals level is obtained from malonaldehyde (MDA) level by spectrophotometer. Before treatment the average of MDA level is 5.540 µm. After the treatment, MDA is significantly decreased become 3.992 µm (T-test, sig<0.05). This result can be used as a sign of side affect of air pollutant in the operator SPBU. As reminding to protect the employee with safety aid and supplement.

  13. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. SETTING: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital...... months of age for infants who received vitamin A supplementation compared with those who received placebo. RESULTS: No interaction was observed between vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccine allocation (P=0.73). Vitamin A supplementation at birth was not significantly associated with mortality......: the MRR of vitamin A supplementation compared with placebo, controlled for randomisation to "early BCG" versus "no early BCG" was 1.08 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.47). Stratification by sex revealed a significant interaction between vitamin A supplementation and sex (P=0.046), the MRR of vitamin A supplementation...

  14. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation : Studies from infancy to young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Holmlund-Suila, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency in infancy and childhood impairs normal bone development and growth: defective bone mineralization leads to rickets. For many decades in Finland, vitamin D supplementation in infants has been successful in preventing rickets. However, along with increasing knowledge of non-skeletal vitamin D actions, optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration, has been under debate. The optimal vitamin D status and the dose of supplemental vitamin D in different populations m...

  15. BONE CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILERS SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN D

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    S Colet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTVitamin D is added to broiler diets to supply its physiological requirement for bone formation. The fast growth rate of modern broilers is often associated with poor bone formation. Increasing vitamin D supplementation levels and the use of more available sources have applied to try to prevent leg problems, to increase carcass yield, and to improve the performance of broilers. The present study evaluated three vitamin D supplementation levels (1 3,500 IU (control; (2 control + 1,954 IU of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol; and (3 control + 3,500 IU of vitamin D in broiler diets supplied up to 21 days of age. The objective was to investigate if the vitamin D levels above the recommendations could reduce leg problems in broilers. In this experiment, a total of 1,296 one-day-old male and female Cobb(r 500 broilers were used. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of two sexes and three vitamin D levels. No difference was found between the levels of vitamin D (p > 0.05, the performance of males or females, the gait score, the valgus and varus incidence, the tibial dyschondroplasia incidence, the occurance of femoral degeneration, the bone colorimetric, and the carcass yield. Parts yield differences were found (p > 0.05, except for liver and intestine yields. We concluded that the lowest tested vitamin D level (3,500 IU per kilogram of feed added to the diet was the best choice in terms of cost/benefit to help minimizing leg problems in broilers.

  16. Production of antioxidant vitamins, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E, by two-step culture of Euglena gracilis Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, H; Kanamaru, A; Yoshino, Y; Kakuta, H; Kawamura, Y; Matsunaga, T

    1997-01-20

    Euglena gracilis Z is one of the few microorganisms which simultaneously produces antioxidant vitamins such as beta-carotene and vitamins C and E. Photoheterotrophically cultured E. gracilis Z produced larger levels of biomass but with a lower content of antioxidant vitamins than photoautotrophically grown cultures. For efficient production of these vitamins, a two-step culture was performed. Cells were grown photoheterotrophically and then transferred to photoautotrophic conditions. When E. gracilis Z cells were grown in fed-batch culture under photoheterotrophic conditions, their density reached 19 g/L after 145 h. Subsequent transfer of these cells to photoautotrophic conditions increased vitamin content, enhancing the total vitamin yields, which were 71.0 mg/L of beta-carotene, 30.1 mg/L of vitamin E, and 86.5 mg/L of vitamin C. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Antioxidant effects of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate-induced hepatic injury in rats

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    Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate -induced hepatic injury in rats. Five groups of rats were used in this study, Control, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 0.5 g/kg Spirulina, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 1 g/kg Spirulina and Lead acetate + 25 mg/100 g Vitamin C (reference drug. All experimental groups received the oral treatment by stomach tube once daily for 4 weeks. Lead intoxication resulted in a significant increase in serum alanine transaminae (ALT, aspartate transaminae (AST activities, liver homogenate tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, caspase-3, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO levels and a significant decline of total serum protein, liver homogenate reduced glutathione (GSH level and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Both doses of Spirulina supplement as well as Vitamin C succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of serum and liver and prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and antioxidant status of the liver. Both doses of Spirulina supplement had the same anti-apoptotic activity and high dose exhibited more antioxidant activity than that of low dose. In conclusion, the results of the present work revealed that Spirulina supplement had protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects on lead acetate-induced hepatic damage.

  18. Vitamin B Supplementation: What's the Right Choice for Your Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Laura G

    2017-07-01

    As many patients turn to vitamins and supplements to enhance energy, relieve fatigue, or generally feel better, it is important to understand the connection between the B vitamins and psychiatric symptomatology. Vitamins B6, B8, and B12 have been shown not only to reduce psychiatric symptoms but also shorten the duration of illness. Vitamin B9, also known as folate or folic acid, has also been associated with psychiatric symptoms. However, when patients lack a specific genetic enzyme, which converts folate/folic acid to its most usable form, L-methylfolate, the neuroprotective and neuropsychiatric benefits are lost. L-methylfolate allows for the synthesis of the three major neurochemicals-serotonin, nor-epinephrine, and dopamine-across the blood-brain barrier. Exploring the conversion of folate/folic acid into L-methylfolate and the various polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and examining the B vitamins associated with the treatment of psychiatric symptoms will further allow nurses to comprehensively treat their patients with the appropriate B vitamins. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(7), 7-11.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  20. Vitamin A and iron supplementation of Indonesian pregnant women benefits vitamin A status of their infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.; Muslimatun, S.; West, C.E.; Schultink, W.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Many Indonesian infants have an inadequate nutritional status, which may be due in part to inadequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy. This study was designed to investigate whether infant nutritional status could be improved by maternal vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation. Mothers

  1. Vitamins B status and antioxidative defense in patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Che; Liu, Wen-Hu; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2011-10-01

    The impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection upon B vitamins status and antioxidative defense in infected patients was examined. Dietary record and blood levels of B vitamins and oxidative stress-associated biomarkers were determined for 195 healthy controls, 132 HBV, and 114 HCV patients. HBV-infected patients had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA), and lower ghrelin level (p vitamins B(2) and B(6) levels, and HCV infection significantly decreased vitamins B(2,) B(6) and folate levels in RBC and/or plasma (p vitamin B(2) versus serum FFA in HBV patients, RBC vitamins B(2) and B(6) versus HCV RNA and Ishak inflammation score, and plasma vitamin B(6) vs Ishak inflammation score in HCV patients were B vitamins in circulation. In order to avoid other healthy risk, nutrition status should be monitored and limitation or supplementation of certain nutrients might be helpful for HBV- or HCV-infected patients.

  2. Vitamin D supplementation in bipolar depression: A double blind placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Wendy K; Penny, Jessica L; Rothschild, Anthony J

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar depression is difficult to treat. Vitamin D supplementation is well tolerated and may improve mood via its neurotransmitter synthesis regulation, nerve growth factor enhancement and antioxidant properties. Vitamin D adjunct reduces unipolar depression, but has not been tried in bipolar depression. 18-70yos with DSM IV bipolar depression and Vitamin D deficiency (Vitamin D 3 po qday supplementation versus placebo for twelve weeks. Change in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), medication, and tolerance were assessed q2weeks. 16 VitD vs 17 placebo subjects did not differ in baseline characteristics (mean = 44 yo, SD = 13), VitD level (19.2 ± 65.8  g/ml vs 19.3 ± 5.5 ng/ml respectively) or mood ratings (MADRS 21.3 ± 6.4 vs 22.8 ± 6.9 respectively). At 12wks, the placebo group VitD levels remained unchanged, while the VitD group levels increased to 28 ng/ml. MADRS score decreased significantly in both placebo (mean = 6.42 (95% CI [2.28 to 10.56]) and VitD groups (mean = 9.54 (95% CI[3.51 to 15.56]) (p = 0.031), but there were no differences between treatment groups (time by treatment interaction estimate: 0.29, t (23)  = 0.14, p = 0.89); VitD and placebo groups had similar reductions in YMRS and HAM-A. Vitamin D 3 was well tolerated. In this small study, despite a greater rise in Vitamin D levels in the VitD supplementation group, there was no significant difference reduction in depressive symptoms. However both groups' VitD levels remained deficient. Vitamin D 3 supplementation vs placebo did not improve reduction in mood elevation or anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION IN THE TREATMENT OF AGING-ASSOCIATED DISEASES

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    Valeria eConti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is generally considered an imbalance between pro- and antioxidants species, which often results into indiscriminate and global damage at the organismal level. Elderly people are more susceptible to oxidative stress and this depends, almost in part, from a decreased performance of their endogenous antioxidant system. As many studies reported an inverse correlation between systemic levels of antioxidants and several diseases, primarily cardiovascular diseases, but also diabetes and neurological disorders, antioxidant supplementation has been foreseen as an effective preventive and therapeutic intervention for aging-associated pathologies. However, the expectations of this therapeutic approach have often been partially disappointed by clinical trials. The interplay of both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the systemic redox system is very complex and represents an issue that is still under debate. In this review a selection of recent clinical studies concerning antioxidants supplementation and the evaluation of their influence in aging-related diseases is analyzed. The controversial outcomes of the antioxidants supplementation therapy that might partially depend, among others, from an underestimation of the patient specific metabolic demand and genetic background, are presented.

  4. Pengimbuhan Vitamin-E dalam Ransum Kaya Asam Lemak Tidak Jenuh Terhadap Profil Darah Induk Domba Laktasi§ (VITAMIN-E SUPPLEMENTATION ON RICH POLY-UNSATURATED FATTY ACID RATION TO BLOOD PROFILE OF LACTATION EWES

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    Dilla Mareistia Fassah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oil is a source of rich poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA mainly Linoleic acid. PUFA on theewes ration was very useful due to its function as the precursors of prostaglandin. It plays an importantrole in the health and reproduction regulation. Early lactation was the critical period where the bodymetabolism is on an increasing stage. However, high level of PUFA on ewe’s lactation ration was also verysusceptible to induce lipid peroxidation which can cause health problems in the affected animals. Thesupplementation of vitamin E as antioxidant is needed to prevent the PUFA from oxidation damage. Theaim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E supplementation in the rich PUFA diet on theblood profile of lactating ewes. Fifteen ewes on lactation period were used in completely randomizednested design. The level of vitamin E supplementation was 30 IU, 60 IU and 90 IU then the blood profileevaluation was carried out on 28 and 56 days of lactation. The measured variables were haemoglobin,packed cell volume (PCV, erythrocytes, leukocytes, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The number of erythrocytesof ewes was 5.53-9.85 x 106/mm3, the MCV value was 32.19-46.20 fl and the MCH value was 10.91-17.27pg on day-28. The results showed that Vitamin E supplementation has significant effect on the number oferythrocytes (p<0,05, and the high significant effect on MCV as well as MCH values(P<0.01 of lactationewes blood. The Vitamin E supplementation until 90 IU was able to maintain the ewe’s blood profile onthe lactation periods.

  5. Vitamin D3 increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue after supplementation with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Allan; Burild, Anders; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    stored in all adipose tissue in the body, the median body store was 6.6 mg vitamin D-3 and 0.12 mg 25(OH)D-3 in those given vitamin D-3. Conclusions: Subcutaneous adipose tissue may store large amounts of vitamin D-3. The clinical importance of this storage needs to be determined.......Objective: The objective was to assess the amount of vitamin D-3 stored in adipose tissue after long-term supplementation with high dose vitamin D-3. Design: A cross-sectional study on 29 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with vitamin D-3...... 20 000 IU (500 mu g) per week vs placebo for 3-5 years. Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained by needle biopsy for the measurements of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3). Body fat was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum 25(OH)D-3 level...

  6. Changes in the human transcriptome upon vitamin D supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasing, Yvonne; Fenton, Christopher Graham; Jorde, Rolf; Paulssen, Ruth Hracky

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D is hydroxylated in the liver and kidneys to its active form, which can bind to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The VDR is present in a wide variety of different cells types and tissues and acts as a transcription factor. Although activation of the VDR is estimated to regulate expression of up to 5% of the human genome, our study is the first analysing gene expression after supplementation in more than 10 subjects. Subjects of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) received either vitamin D 3 (n=47) in a weekly dose of 20,000 IU or placebo (n=47) for a period of three to five years. For this study, blood samples for preparation of RNA were drawn from the subjects and mRNA gene expression in blood was determined using microarray analysis. The two study groups were similar regarding gender, age, BMI and duration of supplementation, whereas the mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level as expected was significantly higher in the vitamin D group (119 versus 63nmol/L). When analysing all subjects, nearly no significant differences in gene expression between the two groups were found. However, when analysing men and women separately, significant effects on gene expression were observed for women. Furthermore, when only including subjects with the highest and lowest serum 25(OH)D levels, additional vitamin D regulated genes were disclosed. Thus, a total of 99 genes (p≤0.05, log2 fold change ≥|0.2|) were found to be regulated, of which 72 have not been published before as influenced by vitamin D. These genes were particularly involved in the interleukin signaling pathway, oxidative stress response, apoptosis signaling pathway and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor pathway. Thus, our results open the possibility for many future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status

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    Patricia H. C. Rondó

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA and iron deficiencies are important nutritional problems, affecting particularly preschool children, as well as pregnant and lactating women. A PubMed (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA literature review was carried out to search for clinical trials published from 1992 to 2013 that assessed the influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status. Simultaneous use of iron and vitamin A supplements seemed to be more effective to prevent iron deficiency anemia than the use of these micronutrients alone. Some studies did not include a placebo group and only a few of them assessed vitamin A status of the individuals at baseline. Moreover, the studies did not consider any inflammatory marker and a reasonable number of iron parameters. Another important limitation was the lack of assessment of hemoglobin variants, especially in regions with a high prevalence of anemia. Assessment of hemoglobin variants, inflammatory markers and anemia of chronic inflammation would be important to the studies investigated. Studies involving different populations are necessary to elucidate the interaction between the two micronutrients, especially regarding iron absorption and modulation of erythropoiesis.

  8. The influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelazzo, Fernanda B; Oliveira, Julicristie M; Stefanello, Juliana; Luzia, Liania A; Rondó, Patricia H C

    2013-11-07

    Vitamin A (VA) and iron deficiencies are important nutritional problems, affecting particularly preschool children, as well as pregnant and lactating women. A PubMed (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA) literature review was carried out to search for clinical trials published from 1992 to 2013 that assessed the influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status. Simultaneous use of iron and vitamin A supplements seemed to be more effective to prevent iron deficiency anemia than the use of these micronutrients alone. Some studies did not include a placebo group and only a few of them assessed vitamin A status of the individuals at baseline. Moreover, the studies did not consider any inflammatory marker and a reasonable number of iron parameters. Another important limitation was the lack of assessment of hemoglobin variants, especially in regions with a high prevalence of anemia. Assessment of hemoglobin variants, inflammatory markers and anemia of chronic inflammation would be important to the studies investigated. Studies involving different populations are necessary to elucidate the interaction between the two micronutrients, especially regarding iron absorption and modulation of erythropoiesis.

  9. Associations between antioxidant vitamins and the risk of invasive cervical cancer in Chinese women: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Liyuan; Zhu, Hong; Lin, Chengjun; Che, Jianhua; Tian, Xiujuan; Han, Shiyu; Zhao, Honghui; Zhu, Yumei; Mao, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the associations between dietary antioxidant vitamins and the risk of cervical cancer remain inconsistent, and little evidence is available for serum antioxidant vitamins, which provide more accurate measurements of these nutrients. We conducted a case-control study of 458 incident cases with invasive cervical cancer and 742 controls to assess the effects of diet or serum antioxidant vitamins. Higher serum antioxidant vitamins were associated with a lower risk of cervical ...

  10. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

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    Dumoulin M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40–70, with facial dull complexion. Subjects were supplemented orally with a daily dosage of 150 mg of an antioxidant-rich formulation containing superoxide dismutase-rich melon concentrate, grape seed extract rich in monomers of flavanols, vitamin C, and zinc for 8 weeks. Each subject served as her own control. The C.L.B.T.™ test has been used to evaluate facial skin coloring (C, luminosity (L, brightness (B, and transparency (T involved in skin radiance. Facial skin imperfections have been assessed by clinical assessment. Firmness has been evaluated by clinical assessment and cutometer measurement. Finally, an auto-questionnaire has been carried out in order to evaluate the satisfaction of the subjects concerning different parameters involved in skin radiance and the global efficacy of the supplement.Results: Skin “red pink” and “olive” colors were significantly improved after supplementation (P<0.0001. Luminosity was increased by 25.9% (P<0.0001 whereas brightness and transparency were not affected by the supplementation. Facial skin imperfections were significantly reduced after the antioxidant-rich formulation intake (global reduction: –18.0%; P<0.0001. Indeed, dark circles, redness, and spots significantly diminished after oral treatment. Firmness and elasticity have been shown to be improved. Subjects were globally satisfied by the product (82.4% and have found improvements on their facial skin. Furthermore, 64.7% reported to look

  11. Both Mother and Infant Require a Vitamin D Supplement to Ensure That Infants’ Vitamin D Status Meets Current Guidelines

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    Fariba Aghajafari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association between maternal vitamin D intake during breastfeeding with their infants’ vitamin D status in infants who did or did not receive vitamin D supplements to determine whether infant supplementation was sufficient. Using plasma from a subset of breastfed infants in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition cohort, vitamin D status was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal and infants’ dietary data were obtained from APrON’s dietary questionnaires. The median maternal vitamin D intake was 665 International Units (IU/day, while 25% reported intakes below the recommended 400 IU/day. Of the 224 infants in the cohort, 72% were exclusively breastfed, and 90% were receiving vitamin D supplements. Infants’ median 25(OHD was 96.0 nmol/L (interquartile ranges (IQR 77.6–116.2, and 25% had 25(OHD < 75 nmol/L. An adjusted linear regression model showed that, with a 100 IU increase in maternal vitamin D intake, infants’ 25(OHD increased by 0.9 nmol/L controlling for race, season, mid-pregnancy maternal 25(OHD, birthweight, and whether the infant received daily vitamin D supplement (β = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.002, 0.13. These results suggest that, to ensure infant optimal vitamin D status, not only do infants require a supplement, but women also need to meet current recommended vitamin D intake during breastfeeding.

  12. Effect of Antioxidants and B-Group Vitamins on Risk of Infections in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Alessa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that diabetic patients have a decline in immunity and an increased risk of infections, and this may be associated with poor micronutrient status. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of dietary supplements on risk of infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hundred patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to receive an oral dose of daily B-group vitamins and antioxidant vitamins (n = 50 or an identical placebo (n = 50 daily for 90 days. Patients had baseline, three and 12 month assessment for nutritional status, fruits and vegetables intake, physical activity and self-reported infections. Supplementation with antioxidants and B-group vitamins significantly increased the plasma concentration of vitamin E and folate and reduced homocysteine in the intervention group (p-values were 0.006, 0.001 and 0.657, respectively. The number of infections reported by the treatment group after three months of supplements was less than that reported by the placebo group, 9 (27% vs. 15 (36% (p = 0.623. Corresponding numbers of infections at 12 months were 25 (67.5% and 27 (56.3%, respectively (p = 0.488. Up to 90% of the diabetic patients were either overweight or obese with a sedentary life style, and their body weight increased further during three months of follow up. The study showed that multivitamin supplements improved vitamin blood concentrations; however, this did not reduce the number of infections in diabetic patients.

  13. Iron and Vitamin C Co-Supplementation Increased Serum Vitamin C Without Adverse Effect on Zinc Level in Iron Deficient Female Youth

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    Mohammad Reza Khoshfetrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron supplementation can decrease the absorption of zinc and influence other antioxidants levels such as vitamin C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of iron supplements alone and in combination with vitamin C on zinc and vitamin C status in iron deficient female students. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trail, 60 iron deficient students were selected from 289 volunteers residing in dormitory. After matching, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I (50 mg elemental iron supplements and Group II (50 mg elemental iron + 500 mg ascorbic acid. Serum ferritin, iron, serum zinc, and plasma vitamin C concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spectrophotometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, and colorimeter, respectively after 6 and 12 weeks supplementation. Student′s t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data using SPSS software. Results: Serum zinc levels had no significant differences between 2 groups at the baseline; however, its concentration decreased from 80.9 ± 4.2-68.9 ± 2.7 μg/dl to 81.2 ± 4.5-66.1 ± 2.9 μg/dl (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively after 6 weeks of supplementation. Continuous supplementation increased serum zinc concentration to baseline levels (79.0 ± 2.9 μg/dl; P < 0.01 in Group I and 70.5 ± 3.1 μg/dl in Group II following 12 weeks of supplementation. Plasma vitamin C increased from 3 ± 0/1-3.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl to 2.7 ± 0. 1-4.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl (P < 0.01 in Groups I and II, respectively. At the end of study, plasma vitamin C significantly increased from 3.3 ± 0.3-4.7 ± 0.3 (P < 0.01 to 4.2 ± 0.2-7.1 ± 0.2 (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Iron supplementation with and without vitamin C led to reduction in serum Zn in iron-deficient female students after 6 weeks. However, the decreasing trend stops after repletion of iron stores and Zn levels returned to the

  14. Vitamin C modulates cadmium-induced hepatic antioxidants' gene transcripts and toxicopathic changes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Yasser S; El-Gazzar, Ahmed M; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Ashry, Khaled M

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the naturally occurring heavy metals having adverse effects, while vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is an essential micronutrient for fish, which can attenuate tissue damage owing to its chain-breaking antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties. The adult Nile tilapia fish were exposed to Cd at 5 mg/l with and without vitamin C (500 mg/kg diet) for 45 days in addition to negative and positive controls fed with the basal diet and basal diet supplemented with vitamin C, respectively. Hepatic relative mRNA expression of genes involved in antioxidant function, metallothionein (MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST-α1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), was assessed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hepatic architecture was also histopathologically examined. Tilapia exposed to Cd exhibited upregulated antioxidants' gene transcript levels, GST-⍺1, GPx1, and MT by 6.10-, 4.60-, and 4.29-fold, respectively. Histopathologically, Cd caused severe hepatic changes of multifocal hepatocellular and pancreatic acinar necrosis, and lytic hepatocytes infiltrated with eosinophilic granular cells. Co-treatment of Cd-exposed fish with vitamin C overexpressed antioxidant enzyme-related genes, GST-⍺1 (16.26-fold) and GPx1 (18.68-fold), and maintained the expression of MT gene close to control (1.07-fold), averting the toxicopathic lesions induced by Cd. These results suggested that vitamin C has the potential to protect Nile tilapia from Cd hepatotoxicity via sustaining hepatic antioxidants' genes transcripts and normal histoarchitecture.

  15. Antioxidant and sensorial properties of acacia honey supplemented with prunes

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    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in total phenol and flavonoid content, as well as antioxidant activity was monitored in acacia honey supplemented with prunes in 20, 30 and 40% mass concentrations. The total phenolic content increased by 2.5 times (from 16.18 to 41.64 mg GAE/100 g with increasing concentration of prunes in honey, while the increase in flavonoid content was even higher, approximately 11.5-fold (from 2.65 to 30.86 mg RE/100 g. The addition of prunes also improved the antioxidant activity of acacia honey. The honey samples with highest content of prunes, 40%, exhibited the best antioxidant activity measured by hydroxyl radical sacvenging assay (EC50 •OH=4.56 mg/ml, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay (EC50 DPPH=16.48 mg/ml, and reducing power (EC50 RP=81.17 mg/ml. Judging from the high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.771 to 0.947 for total phenolics, and from 0.862 to 0.993 for total flavonoids, it is obvious that these compounds were associated with the antioxidant mechanisms. On the other hand, sensorial properties of supplemented honeys were lower than that of pure acacia honey, where flavor of supplemented honey was the least affected. Our results indicate that the supplementation of honey with prunes improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition, with slight modifications in sensorial characteristics.

  16. Suboptimal vitamin K status despite supplementation in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kelly A; Schall, Joan I; Stallings, Virginia A

    2010-09-01

    For children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency, the efficacy of routine vitamin K supplementation to normalize vitamin K status remains unclear. This study examined and determined predictors of vitamin K status in subjects aged 8-25 y with CF and pancreatic insufficiency taking various vitamin K supplements. In 97 subjects, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], dietary intake, vitamin K supplement intake, and vitamin K statusmdashdetermined on the basis of the percentage of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC; sufficient: lt 20%) and plasma proteins induced by vitamin K absence-factor II (PIVKA-II; n = 60; sufficient: le 2 microg/L)mdashwere assessed. The vitamin K supplementation groups were as follows: lt 150 microg/d (low; multivitamins or no supplement), 150-999 microg/d (middle; CF-specific vitamins), and ge 1000 microg/d (high; mephyton). %ucOC values were compared with 140 healthy subjects aged 6-21 y. In subjects with CF, the median (range) %ucOC was 35% (3%, 76%) and the median (range) for PIVKA-II was 2 (0, 42) micro g/L. Subjects with CF had a higher %ucOC with low [45% (10%, 76%)] and medium [41% (3%, 66%)] supplement intakes but not with a high supplement intake [16% (4%, 72%)] compared with healthy subjects [23% (0%, 43%); both P lt 0.05]. Supplementation group for males and females and 25(OH)D and age for males were significant predictors of vitamin K status. Vitamin K status was often suboptimal despite routine supplementation. Only subjects taking high-dose vitamin K achieved a status similar to healthy subjects, and only the vitamin K supplementation dose predicted vitamin K status for males and females. These data suggest that higher doses of vitamin K are required.

  17. Vitamin status in elderly people in relation to the use of nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, E; Bogner, M; Kickinger, A; Wagner, K H; Elmadfa, I

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the status of several vitamins and to investigate the effect of regular individual supplementation on their status in this population. An observational study. State of Burgenland, Austria. A total of 102 non-institutionalized subjects (49% supplementing regularly, 51% without supplementation) aged between 70-90 years were recruited. Plasma levels of vitamins A, D, E, K and C were determined by HPLC. The functional parameters of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, i.e. the activities of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, were analyzed photometrically; plasma folate and vitamin B12 were determined by RIA. The status of vitamins A, E and C was generally satisfactory. Eighty-eight percent and 42% of participants were deficient in vitamins D and K, respectively, as were 29% for B6; up to 10% of participants were deficient in vitamins B1, B2, B12 and folate. A considerable percentage of participants was, however, at risk for vitamin deficiencies (vitamins B1, B6, B12, folate: 20-30%, vitamin B2: 60%). Except for vitamins A and K, regular intake of supplements had a significant positive influence on vitamin levels. These results indicate that use of supplements significantly improved the status of several vitamins in elderly people. Due to age-related problems concerning the intake and digestion of nutrients, a moderate, regular supplementation might be a useful option for older people who are otherwise unable to satisfy their micronutrient requirements.

  18. Supplementation with α-lipoic acid, CoQ10, and vitamin E augments running performance and mitochondrial function in female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkan Abadi

    Full Text Available Antioxidant supplements are widely consumed by the general public; however, their effects of on exercise performance are controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an antioxidant cocktail (α-lipoic acid, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 on exercise performance, muscle function and training adaptations in mice. C57Bl/J6 mice were placed on antioxidant supplement or placebo-control diets (n = 36/group and divided into trained (8 wks treadmill running (n = 12/group and untrained groups (n = 24/group. Antioxidant supplementation had no effect on the running performance of trained mice nor did it affect training adaptations; however, untrained female mice that received antioxidants performed significantly better than placebo-control mice (p ≤ 0.05. Furthermore, antioxidant-supplemented females (untrained showed elevated respiratory capacity in freshly excised muscle fibers (quadriceps femoris (p ≤ 0.05, reduced oxidative damage to muscle proteins (p ≤ 0.05, and increased expression of mitochondrial proteins (p ≤ 0.05 compared to placebo-controls. These changes were attributed to increased expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α (p ≤ 0.05 via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK (p ≤ 0.05 by antioxidant supplementation. Overall, these results indicate that this antioxidant supplement exerts gender specific effects; augmenting performance and mitochondrial function in untrained females, but does not attenuate training adaptations.

  19. Supplementation with α-Lipoic Acid, CoQ10, and Vitamin E Augments Running Performance and Mitochondrial Function in Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Arkan; Crane, Justin D.; Ogborn, Daniel; Hettinga, Bart; Akhtar, Mahmood; Stokl, Andrew; MacNeil, Lauren; Safdar, Adeel; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant supplements are widely consumed by the general public; however, their effects of on exercise performance are controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an antioxidant cocktail (α-lipoic acid, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10) on exercise performance, muscle function and training adaptations in mice. C57Bl/J6 mice were placed on antioxidant supplement or placebo-control diets (n = 36/group) and divided into trained (8 wks treadmill running) (n = 12/group) and untrained groups (n = 24/group). Antioxidant supplementation had no effect on the running performance of trained mice nor did it affect training adaptations; however, untrained female mice that received antioxidants performed significantly better than placebo-control mice (p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, antioxidant-supplemented females (untrained) showed elevated respiratory capacity in freshly excised muscle fibers (quadriceps femoris) (p ≤ 0.05), reduced oxidative damage to muscle proteins (p ≤ 0.05), and increased expression of mitochondrial proteins (p ≤ 0.05) compared to placebo-controls. These changes were attributed to increased expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) (p ≤ 0.05) via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (p ≤ 0.05) by antioxidant supplementation. Overall, these results indicate that this antioxidant supplement exerts gender specific effects; augmenting performance and mitochondrial function in untrained females, but does not attenuate training adaptations. PMID:23565271

  20. Vitamin E tocotrienol supplementation improves lipid profiles in chronic hemodialysis patients

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    Daud ZAM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Zulfitri A Mat Daud,1 Boniface Tubie,2 Marina Sheyman,2 Robert Osia,2 Judy Adams,2 Sharon Tubie,2 Pramod Khosla1 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Great Lake Dialysis Clinic, LLC, Detroit, MI, USA Purpose: Chronic hemodialysis patients experience accelerated atherosclerosis contributed to by dyslipidemia, inflammation, and an impaired antioxidant system. Vitamin E tocotrienols possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the impact of dietary intervention with Vitamin E tocotrienols is unknown in this population. Patients and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial was conducted in 81 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Subjects were provided daily with capsules containing either vitamin E tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF (180 mg tocotrienols, 40 mg tocopherols or placebo (0.48 mg tocotrienols, 0.88 mg tocopherols. Endpoints included measurements of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6, oxidative status (total antioxidant power and malondialdehyde, lipid profiles (plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as cholesteryl-ester transfer protein activity and apolipoprotein A1. Results: TRF supplementation did not impact any nutritional, inflammatory, or oxidative status biomarkers over time when compared with the baseline within the group (one-way repeated measures analysis of variance or when compared with the placebo group at a particular time point (independent t-test. However, the TRF supplemented group showed improvement in lipid profiles after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention when compared with placebo at the respective time points. Normalized plasma triacylglycerols (cf baseline in the TRF group were reduced by 33 mg/dL (P=0.032 and 36 mg/dL (P=0.072 after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention but no significant improvement was seen in the placebo group. Similarly

  1. Expression of vitamin D receptor and vitamin D status in patients with oral neoplasms and effect of vitamin D supplementation on quality of life in advanced cancer treatment

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    Akshay Anand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Vitamin D receptor (VDR expression and serum vitamin D scores in oral premalignant lesions and oral cancer have not been widely analyzed. The role of vitamin D supplementation in advanced oral cancer for improving quality of life (QOL is also a matter of research. Material and methods: Vitamin D receptor expression and vitamin D scores were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 95, leukoplakia (n = 23 and oral cancer (n = 87. 45 patients with advanced oral cancer subjected to chemoradiation were evaluated for the effect of vitamin D supplementation on most observable QOL parameters such as oral mucositis, swallowing performance and overall QOL. Results: Vitamin D receptor expression was increased in oral neoplastic lesions. Vitamin D scores were significantly lower in cases compared to healthy controls (p = 0.002. Vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced the therapy-related toxicities in advanced cancer, thus reducing morbidity and improving QOL. Conclusions : Vitamin D receptor expression is increased in premalignant lesions and oral cancer. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are prevalent in patients with oral neoplastic lesions. Vitamin D supplementation has a role in reducing treatment-related toxicities, especially in advanced cancer.

  2. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on superoxide and malondialdehyde generation in acute celphos poisoning

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    C Biwas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aluminum phosphide is one of the most commonly used grain fumigants and aluminum phosphide poisoning (ALP has been reported as the most common cause of acute poisoning in India. Aluminum toxicity has been reported to increase the rate of lipid peroxidation and free radical formation. Materials and Methods: The present study was designed to investigate the role of vitamin E supplementation on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation in acute aluminium phosphide poisoning in rats. Thirty disease free albino rats were taken to study the effect of acute aluminium phosphide poisoning (ALP poisoning were further divided into 3 subgroups of ten rats each: A, B and C. Group A: given vehicle (Ginni Oil only. Group B: given 5 ml 'celphos mixture' (or 0.3mg/g body wt.. Group C: rats with acute Celphos poisoning along with vitamin E (1.5 mg vitamin E/g body weight of rat. The MDA levels and superoxide levels (Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT reduction were estimated. Results: MDA levels were significantly higher in the group B as compared to Group A. In group C, administration of vitamin E resulted in decreased MDA level compared to group B. MDA levels in group C still remained significantly higher as compared to group A. NBT reduction was significantly increased in group B as compared to group A. Administration of vitamin E to rats of group C resulted in significant decrease of NBT reduction. Conclusion: Findings of the present study showed that vitamin E via its antioxidant action and anti-inflammatory effects has protective effect on phosphine-induced toxicity in rats.

  3. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  4. Use of vitamin D supplements during infancy in an international feeding trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Eveliina; Ormisson, Anne; Nucci, Anita

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between...... supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80% of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (> 60%). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g., 71% v. 44% at 6 months...... of age). Less than 2% of infants in the U.S.A. and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the infants received vitamin D...

  5. Serum 25 Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Oral Vitamin D Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Upender K; Graziano, Pauline D; Meunier, Kara; Ludke, Jennifer; Rios, Angel

    2017-11-03

    Vitamin D supplementation in preterm infants has been recommended by American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) however its efficacy and safety has not been well studied. To study 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels as a marker of vitamin D status of very low birth weight infants while on vitamin D supplementation during NICU hospitalization. Retrospective study of preterm infants with birth weight supplementation. Serum 25OHD level were checked at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age or before discharge and the levels were stratified as deficient 100 ng/ml. 301 infants were enrolled, 186 very low birth weight VLBW (1000 -1499 g) infants and 115 extremely low birth weight ELBW (supplementation VLBW infants increased their 25OHD levels significantly by 8 and 12 weeks of age while ELBW infants lagged behind at 8 weeks and increased their 25OHD levels by 12 weeks of age. Eighty percent of ELBW and VLBW infants have either deficient or insufficient vitamin D status at 4 weeks of age. Vitamin D supplementation helps in improving the vitamin D levels, VLBW infants significantly more than ELBW infants. AAP recommendation appears to be safe, however if using higher supplement dosing, 25OHD level should be monitored to avoid high and very high vitamin D levels.

  6. Vitamin C, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Broccoli Florets Grown under Different Nitrogen Treatments Combined with Selenium

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    Peñas Elena

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli consumption is rising worldwide and fertilization is a tool to increase its production. However, little is known about the effect of mineral supplementation to the soil on the bioactive compounds. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to analyze the content of vitamin C, total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of broccoli florets cultivated under different nitrogen (N conditions in combination with selenium (IV and VI. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in broccoli grown in commercial soil treated with different N sources [(NH42SO4, NaNO3, NH4NO3 or CO(NH22 at 160 kg N/ha]. In addition, selenium (Se salts [Na2SeO3 (Se IV or Na2SeO4 (Se VI at 10 and 20 kg Se/ha] were applied. There were no evidences of the influence of N treatment on vitamin C content whilst Se (IV or VI uptake led to a significant reduction of this vitamin in broccoli florets, irrespective of the N source. In contrast, total phenolics content and antioxidant capacity underwent a significant increment under N application. However, their combination with Se salts modified total phenolic content and antioxidant capacities in broccoli florets depending on N source and Se doses. Among all the experimental trials, application of NH4NO3 combined with 10 g Se (IV/ha was the elective treatment strategy to produce broccoli florets with higher content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity and, therefore, enhanced functionality.

  7. EFFECTS OF PALM VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION ON EXERCISE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN THE HEAT

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    Chen Chee Keong

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and endurance performance in the heat. In a double blind, cross-over study, eighteen healthy, male recreational athletes completed two endurance running trials, until exhaustion, on a motorized treadmill at 70% VO2max on two separate occasions following a 6-week supplementation regimen of either tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E (E or placebo (P. Both trials were conducted in the heat (31oC, 70% relative humidity. During the trials, rectal temperature (Trec, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and oxygen uptake (VO2 were recorded. Blood samples were collected for the determination of plasma volume changes (PVC, malondialdehyde (MDA, creatine kinase (CK, total antioxidant status (TAS and vitamin E. After the supplementation regimen, serum alpha-tocopherol increased ~33% but serum concentrations of tocotrienols were negligible. No significant differences were evident in mean Trec, RPE, VO2 or in the time to exhaustion between the E-supplemented and the placebo- supplemented groups. Similarly, mean PVC, CK and TAS were also not different between the two groups. Resting plasma mean MDA concentration in the E-supplemented group was significantly lower than that in the placebo-supplemented group. At exhaustion, plasma mean MDA was higher than the resting values in both groups. Although tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation decreased lipid peroxidation at rest and, to some extent, during exercise in the heat, as evident from the lower MDA levels, it however did not enhance endurance running performance or prevent exercise-induced muscle damage or influenced body core temperature or plasma volume changes during exercise in the heat

  8. The effects of dietary boric acid and borax supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, and DNA damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki; Fatih Fidan, A; Eryavuz, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of high dietary supplementation with boric acid and borax, called boron (B) compounds, on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some vitamin levels, and DNA damage in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with a supra-nutritional amount of boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA damage, the protein carbonyl content (PCO) level in blood, and glutathione (GSH) concentration in the liver, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity in the kidney. The B compounds increased GSH concentration in blood and the vitamin C level in plasma. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases LPO, and enhances the antioxidant defense mechanism and vitamin status. There are no differences in oxidant/antioxidant balance and biochemical parameters except for serum vitamin A and liver GSH concentration, between the boron compounds used in this study. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of antioxidant supplementation on clinical outcomes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the English literature was performed to determine the effect of antioxidant micronutrient supplementation on clinically important outcomes in the critically ill. Pubmed, Google Scholar and Science Direct electronic databases were searched for papers published ...

  10. Antioxidants from diet or supplements do not alter inflammatory markers in adults with cardiovascular disease risk. A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Tsao, Philip; Rigdon, Joseph; Gardner, Christopher D

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidants have been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects, but there is a lack of research comparing food to supplement antioxidant sources. The aim of this study was to determine if increases in intake of foods naturally rich in antioxidants would lower blood levels of inflammatory markers more than consuming antioxidant supplements among adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Eighty-eight generally healthy adults with ≥1 elevated risk factor for cardiovascular disease were randomized in a single-blind (diets)/double-blind (supplements), parallel-group study for 8 weeks. Participants consumed (1) usual diet and placebo pills (n = 29), (2) usual diet and antioxidant supplements (n = 29), or (3) antioxidant-rich foods closely matched to antioxidant content of supplements and placebo (n = 30). Usual diet combined with antioxidant supplements or increased antioxidant-rich food intake was designed to approximately double daily habitual antioxidant intake. Antioxidant pills included carotenoids, mixed tocopherols, vitamin C, and selenium. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for inflammatory marker concentrations of interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Participants in the intervention groups successfully doubled most antioxidants as verified by diet records and elevated blood concentrations in treatment groups. Baseline levels of inflammatory markers for the entire study group were 110 ± 65 pg/mL for monocyte chemotactic protein-1, 0.9 ± 0.7 pg/mL for interleukin-6, and 217 ± 56 ng/mL for soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (means ± standard deviation) and did not differ by treatment arm. After 8 weeks, there were no significant within-group changes or between-group 8-week change differences in inflammatory marker concentrations. In conclusion, no beneficial effects were detected on the inflammatory markers investigated in response to antioxidants from foods or supplements. Copyright

  11. Effects of Oral Supplementation of Vitamin E on Fragility of RBC in Hemolytic Anemic Patients with G6PD Deficiency

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    Nayma Sultana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin E has role in maintaining the integrity of red cell membrane by preventing oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and thereby protects cells from oxidative stress- induced lysis in G6PD deficiency, which can be reflected by changes in osmotic fragility of RBC and some absolute values like MCV, MCH & MCHC. Objective: To observe the effects of vitamin E supplementation on fragility of RBC in order to evaluate role of this antioxidant vitamin in reducing chronic hemolysis in G6PD deficient patients. Methods: For this, a total number of 102 subjects with age ranged from 5 to 40 years of both sexes were included in the study. Among them 68 were G6PD enzyme deficient patients, of whom 34 were in supplemented group (study group and 34 were in non-supplemented group (control group. The supplemented group received vitamin E supplementation for 60 consecutive days at a dose of 800 IU/day for adult and 400 IU/day for children < 12 years (in a divided dose i,e. 4 times daily. Age and sex matched 34 apparently healthy subjects with normal blood G6PD level were taken to observe the base line data (healthy control and also for comparison. All the G6PD deficient patients were selected from Out Patient Department (OPD of Hematology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period of July 2005 to June 2006 and all the healthy subjects were selected from personal contact. Blood G6PD level, osmotic fragility of RBC were measured by standard techniques and MCV, MCH, and MCHC were obtained by calculation. All the parameters were measured on day 1 (one of their first visit and also were on day 60 in deficient group. Data were compared among the deficient groups, also in supplemented group just before and after supplementation. Analysis of data was done by appropriate statistical method. Results: Mean starting and completing points of osmotic fragility of RBC were significantly higher but MCV, MCH, MCHC were

  12. Adequate Vitamin D3 Supplementation During Pregnancy: Decreasing the Prevalence of Asthma and Food Allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Finkel, Jonathan; Cira, Courtney; Mazzella, Leanne; Bartyzel, Jim; Ramanna, Annisce; Strimel, Kayla; Waturuocha, Amara; Musser, Nathan; Burress, James; Brammer, Sarah; Wetzel, Robert; Horzempa, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosterol that is naturally synthesized in the skin upon contact with ultraviolet rays. This vitamin can also be acquired from dietary and nutritional supplements. The active form, vitamin D3, is primarily responsible for calcium homeostasis and bone health. However, many recent studies have associated low levels of vitamin D3 with asthma and food allergies. In this review, we discuss literature to explore the potential that vitamin D3 deficiency may be contributing toward the...

  13. Examination of Vitamin Intakes among US Adults by Dietary Supplement Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003–2006 (n=8,860). Results Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusions Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. PMID:22709770

  14. Relationship of mineral and vitamin supplementation with mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritee Gangwar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifty lactating buffaloes were divided into five groups viz. four treated and one control group. The treated groups received Ashwagandha, Vitamin E, Selenium, Copper and Zinc in different combinations. Animals of group IV (provided with 50 gm of Ashwagandha and 500 IU Vitamin E, 800 mg zinc methionine, 250 mg copper sulphate and 5 mg of selenium showed highest recovery (80.00% with an average post treatment CMT score point 1.53 + 0.75, as compared to rest of the treated groups. Supplementation of trace minerals is only required at low levels to improve immune functions such as decreasing the incidence of mastitis. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(4.000: 103-104

  15. Management of endocrine disease: value and limitations of assessing vitamin D nutritional status and advised levels of vitamin D supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Pepe, Jessica; Piemonte, Sara; Cipriani, Cristiana; Minisola, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    The growing attention to the role of vitamin D in skeletal and extra-skeletal diseases over the last decade induced an increased demand for vitamin D determination as well as a dramatic rise of sales of vitamin D supplement. However, several critical points in this field remain to be clarified. We lack a clear consensus about the definition of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency. The identification of different thresholds defining vitamin D status has relevant implications in clinical practice. In fact, the worldwide prevalence of low vitamin D status is highly varying according to the level of 25(OH)D utilized to define sufficiency. Therefore, the assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may have a critical role, but a number of different technical problems associated with its determination may interfere in interpreting the results. The hydrophobic nature of vitamin D and the tight binding to its carrier (vitamin D binding protein), the different forms circulating in blood, and the issue of standardization are among the most important factors influencing the measurement of this metabolite. Another controversial point relies on the conflicting guidance on prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency endorsed by different medical and scientific communities. In particular, uncertainty exists about how to replete vitamin D stores, how to maintain normal 25(OH)D levels after repletion, which form of vitamin D is preferable for supplementation, and which route of administration and dosing regimens are advisable. Finally, concerns have been raised regarding vitamin D toxicity and its adverse effects.

  16. No Effects of Antioxidant Supplementation in Triathletes on Maximal Oxygen Uptake, 31P-NMRS Detected Muscle Energy Metabolism and Muscle Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.N.; Mizuno, M.; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    1999-01-01

    Antioxidative vitamins, coenzyme Q 10 electrical stimulation, isometric exercise, low frequency fatigue......Antioxidative vitamins, coenzyme Q 10 electrical stimulation, isometric exercise, low frequency fatigue...

  17. The effects of vitamin C supplementation on pre-eclampsia in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda: a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kiondo, Paul; Wamuyu-Maina, Gakenia; Wandabwa, Julius; Bimenya, Gabriel S; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Okong, Pius

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Supplementing women with antioxidants during pregnancy may reduce oxidative stress and thereby prevent or delay the onset pre-eclampsia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing vitamin C in pregnancy on the incidence of pre-eclampsia, at Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Methods This was a (parallel, balanced randomization, 1:1) placebo randomized controlled trial conducted at Mulago...

  18. Effect of Vitamin D3 Fortification and Saskatoon Berry Syrup Addition on the Flavor Profile, Acceptability, and Antioxidant Properties of Rooibos Tea (Aspalathus linearis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jennifer; Ryland, Donna; Isaak, Cara K; Prashar, Suvira; Siow, Yaw L; Taylor, Carla G; Aliani, Michel

    2017-03-01

    The unique characteristics and healthful reputation of caffeine-free rooibos tea (RT) make it an ideal carrier for vitamin D 3 supplementation, and a potential base for the addition of Saskatoon berry syrup (SBS), a natural flavor additive. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D 3 fortification and SBS addition on the flavor profile, consumer acceptability, and antioxidant properties of RT. Six formulations (RT, RT with SBS, RT with SBS and vitamin D 3 , RT with vitamin D 3 , green tea [GT], and GT with SBS) were evaluated by 12 trained panelists and 114 consumers. The formulations were also assessed for antioxidant capacity, physical characteristics, and untargeted phytochemical content. Sensory results revealed that the mean intensity values for berry and sweet attributes were significantly higher (P syrup. Acceptability of flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability were also significantly higher for the RT with SBS. The addition of SBS to RT significantly increased the antioxidant capacities which may increase the related health benefits of RT. SBS contributed several polyphenols, particularly flavonoids, to the tea. Vitamin D 3 added to RT formulations did not significantly affect the sensory attributes, acceptability, or antioxidant content. For the development of a functional vitamin D 3 fortified iced-tea beverage that can be consumed as part of the daily diet, SBS could be a favorable flavoring additive that may provide additional health benefits. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. FATSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the cell biocatalysts, indispensable factors in performing the basic body functions. Fat-soluble vitamins are not involved in processes related to musscle contractions and energy expenditure, but they can affect physical performance indirectly because they are important for immune function (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, antioxidant function (vitamin A, vitamin E or bone methabolism (vitamin D, vitamin K. Currently there are no clear recommendations for increase of fat-solubile vitamins intake in athletes, as well as evidence that athletic performance may be improved due to fat-solubile vitamins supplementation. In a small number of studies, it was shown that an antioxidant effect of beta carotene and vitamin E can prevent muscle damage and facilitate recovery after exercise. Also, athletes who perform the exercises in the halls should be informed about the necessity of sun exposure, as vitamin D is synthesised in the skin. Most athletes are not familiar with their needs for vitamins and trace elements, and take these compounds as supplements without consulting a nutritionist. It is important to emphasize that liposulubile vitamins are deposited in the body and can cause hypervitaminosis and toxic effects if taken in excess. It is indisputable that the lack of any fat-soluble vitamin cause problems in normal physiological processes, but supplementation is generally not required in athlets who have a well-balanced diet.

  20. The effects of selenium, zinc and vitamin E supplementation on performance of Broiler Breeder Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zezza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from the literature and practical experiences suggests that nutritional factors are perhaps the most crucial for their direct effects on the reproductive phenomenon. Several studies and reviews (Barnes et al., 1996; Brake and Garlich, 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Donoghue et al., 1995; Donoghue et al., 1997; Froman et al., 1997; Hocking and Bernard, 1997; Holm, 1998 describe the effects of quantitative feed and energy on reproductive performance of farm animals but only recently there was an increasing attention for the effects of micronutrients intake. The aim of the present work was to verify and compare the effects of a supplementation of selenium, zinc and vitamin E on quality of poultry semen, with a particular attention to the selenium, because its beneficial effects on reproduction (Surai, 2002 needs further elucidation. These micronutrients were chosen because play a fundamental role in semen quality, in fact it was known that chicken semen contains the natural antioxidant vitamin E (Surai, 1997; Surai, 2000 together with antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD...

  1. Vitamin A Oral Supplementation Induces Oxidative Stress and Suppresses IL-10 and HSP70 in Skeletal Muscle of Trained Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyvia Lintzmaier Petiz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training intensity is the major variant that influences the relationship between exercise, redox balance, and immune response. Supplement intake is a common practice for oxidative stress prevention; the effects of vitamin A (VA on exercise training are not yet described, even though this molecule exhibits antioxidant properties. We investigated the role of VA supplementation on redox and immune responses of adult Wistar rats subjected to swimming training. Animals were divided into four groups: sedentary, sedentary + VA, exercise training, and exercise training + VA. Over eight weeks, animals were submitted to intense swimming 5 times/week and a VA daily intake of 450 retinol equivalents/day. VA impaired the total serum antioxidant capacity acquired by exercise, with no change in interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. In skeletal muscle, VA caused lipid peroxidation and protein damage without differences in antioxidant enzyme activities; however, Western blot analysis showed that expression of superoxide dismutase-1 was downregulated, and upregulation of superoxide dismutase-2 induced by exercise was blunted by VA. Furthermore, VA supplementation decreased anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 and heat shock protein 70 expression, important factors for positive exercise adaptations and tissue damage prevention. Our data showed that VA supplementation did not confer any antioxidative and/or protective effects, attenuating exercise-acquired benefits in the skeletal muscle.

  2. Oral supplementation of vitamin E reduces osmotic fragility of RBC in hemolytic anemic patients with G6PD deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, N.; Begum, S.; Begum, N.; Ali, T.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E has role in maintaining the integrity of red cell member by preventing oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, thus protects cells from oxidative stress-induced lysis in G6PD deficiency. Changes in osmotic fragility of RBC and some absolute values like MCV, MCH and MCHC may occur in haemolytic anaemic patients with G6PD deficiency. To observe the effects of vitamin E supplementation on these changes in order to evaluate the role of this anti-oxidant vitamin in reducing chronic haemolysis in G6PD deficient patients. A total number of 102 subjects with age ranged of 5 to 40 years of both sexes were included in the study. Among them 68 were G6PD enzyme deficient patients, of whom 34 were in supplemented group (experimental group) and 34 were in non-supplemented group (control group). The supplemented group received vitamin E supplementation for 60 consecutive days at a dose of 800 IU/day for adult and 400 IU/day for children ?12 years (in a divided dose, i.e., 4 times daily). Age and sex matched 34 apparently healthy subjects with normal blood G6PD level were taken to observe the base line data (healthy control) and also for comparison. All the G6PD deficient patients were selected from Out Patient Department (OPD) of Haematology, Banglabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2005 to June 2006 and all healthy subjects were selected from personal contact. Blood G6PD level, osmotic fragility of RBC were measured by standard techniques and MCV, MCH, and MCHC were obtained by calculation. All the parameters were measured on day 1 of their first visit and also were on day 60 in deficient group. Data were compared among the deficient groups, also in supplemented group just before and after supplementation. Analysis of data was done by appropriate statistical method. Mean starting and completing points of osmotic fragility of RBC were significantly higher but MCV. MCH, MCHC were significantly lower in patients suffering from

  3. Benefits of antioxidant supplements for knee osteoarthritis: rationale and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Ashok Kumar; Samson, Sue E

    2016-01-05

    Arthritis causes disability due to pain and inflammation in joints. There are many forms of arthritis, one of which is osteoarthritis whose prevalence increases with age. It occurs in various joints including hip, knee and hand with knee osteoarthritis being more prevalent. There is no cure for it. The management strategies include exercise, glucosamine plus chondroitin sulfate and NSAIDs. In vitro and animal studies provide a rationale for the use of antioxidant supplements for its management. This review assesses the reality of the benefits of antioxidant supplements in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Several difficulties were encountered in examining this issue: poorly conducted studies, a lack of uniformity in disease definition and diagnosis, and muddling of conclusions from attempts to isolate the efficacious molecules. The antioxidant supplements with most evidence for benefit for pain relief and function in knee osteoarthritis were based on curcumin and avocado-soya bean unsaponifiables. Boswellia and some herbs used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine may also be useful. The benefits of cuisines with the appropriate antioxidants should be assessed because they may be more economical and easier to incorporate into the lifestyle.

  4. Association of body fat and vitamin D status and the effect of body fat on the response to vitamin D supplementation in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Lundby, M.; Mølgaard, C.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both prevalent conditions in the northern countries, especially among immigrants. The aims were to assess the possible relationship between body fat and vitamin D status, and to investigate the effect of body fat on the response to oral vitamin D supplementation...... in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark. Data were obtained from a 1-year double-blind randomised controlled trial with oral vitamin D supplementation. A total of 122 women and men received either vitamin D3 supplementation (10 or 20 μg/day) or placebo. No association was found between body fat percentage...... no effect on the response to vitamin D supplementation....

  5. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity of Vitamin C in oral environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborthy, Aratirika; Ramani, Pratibha; Sherlin, Herald Justin; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant properties and Vitamin C. Vitamin C is a naturally occurring organic compound and a potent antioxidant preventing oxidative damage to lipids and other macromolecules. It can also exhibit bimodal activity as a pro-oxidant at a higher concentration. Vitamin C has a switch over role from being an antioxidant in physiologic conditions to a pro-oxidant under pathologic conditions. A systematic review of this role would help to elucidate whether it is an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant in the oral environment. To review studies reported in the literature elucidating the activity of Vitamin C and determine whether it is an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant. Articles were searched in PubMed, MEDLINE using appropriate key words like "Vitamin C," "antioxidant activity," "pro-oxidant activity," "oral health" "oral disease." Hand search of journals was also performed. Articles were reviewed and analyzed. Search strategy reviewed 10 relevant articles which studied the dual role of Vitamin C. 65% of authors analyzed antioxidant action of ascorbic acid compared to 35% of the pro-oxidant potential. Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant and a pro-oxidant by a plethora of mechanisms. Factors determining its bimodal activity were studied, and the frequencies of their occurrence in the literature were depicted in percentage. The data validates the role of Vitamin C as an antioxidant under physiologic conditions exhibiting a cross over role as a pro-oxidant in pathological conditions. Further studies are required to substantiate its pro-oxidant activity to draw concrete conclusions.

  6. Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Guligowska, Agnieszka; Prymont-Przymińska, Anna; Godala, Małgorzata; Kolmaga, Agnieszka; Nowak, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-07-09

    It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 ( n = 43) with lower and group 2 ( n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma-FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 ( p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP.

  7. Potential role of antioxidant food supplements, preservatives and colorants in the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaknun, Daniela; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Kurz, Katharina; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase in the incidence of allergy and asthma has been observed during the past decades. The background of this phenomenon has not been well explained, but changes in lifestyle and habits are heavily discussed as contributing factors. Among these is a too clean environment, which may predispose individuals to increased sensitivity to allergic responses. Also the increase in dietary supplements including preservatives and colorants may contribute to this. In vitro, we and others have shown in freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that antioxidant compounds like vitamins C and E as well as food preservatives and colorants exert significant suppressive effects on the Th1 immune activation cascade. The effects observed may be based on the interaction of antioxidant compounds with proinflammatory cascades involving important signal transduction elements such as nuclear factor-κB. Although only obtained in vitro, these results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity. This review article discusses the potential role of increased use of antioxidant food supplements as well as preservatives and colorants in the increase in allergy and asthma in the Western world. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Vitamin D deficiency in Crohn's disease: prevalence, risk factors and supplement use in an outpatient setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Suibhne, Treasa Nic

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency impacts on bone health and has potential new roles in inflammation. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and to explore vitamin D supplement usage in patients with Crohn\\'s disease (CD) in an outpatient setting, compared with controls.

  9. Efficacy of Supplementation with B Vitamins for Stroke Prevention: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongli; Pi, Fuhua; Ding, Zan; Chen, Wei; Pang, Shaojie; Dong, Wenya; Zhang, Qingying

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke. A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients) comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions. B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12. B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied.

  10. Effect of dietary vitamin D 3 supplementation on meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumers' interest of indigenous chicken meat is increasing. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on meat quality of indigenous male naked neck chickens. Different supplementation levels of 0, 2000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 IU of vitamin D3 per kg DM of feed were used.

  11. High-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with vaccinations after 6 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Bale, Carlito; Jørgensen, Mathias Jul

    2013-01-01

    WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after six months of age. The effect of this recommendation on mortality has not been evaluated.......WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after six months of age. The effect of this recommendation on mortality has not been evaluated....

  12. Nutritional vitamin D supplementation in dialysis: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Ishir; Dobens, Dorothy; Tamez, Hector; Deferio, Joseph J; Li, Yan Chun; Warren, H Shaw; Ankers, Elizabeth; Wenger, Julia; Tucker, J Kevin; Trottier, Caitlin; Pathan, Fridosh; Kalim, Sahir; Nigwekar, Sagar U; Thadhani, Ravi

    2015-04-07

    Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25[OH]D) deficiency is common in patients initiating long-term hemodialysis, but the safety and efficacy of nutritional vitamin D supplementation in this population remain uncertain. This randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group multicenter trial compared two doses of ergocalciferol with placebo between October 2009 and March 2013. Hemodialysis patients (n=105) with 25(OH)D levels ≤32 ng/ml from 32 centers in the Northeast United States were randomly assigned to oral ergocalciferol, 50,000 IU weekly (n=36) or monthly (n=33), or placebo (n=36) for a 12-week treatment period. The primary endpoint was the achievement of vitamin D sufficiency (25[OH]D >32 ng/ml) at the end of the 12-week treatment period. Survival was assessed through 1 year. Baseline characteristics were similar across all arms, with overall mean±SD 25(OH)D levels of 21.9±6.9 ng/ml. At 12 weeks, vitamin D sufficiency (25[OH]D >32 ng/ml) was achieved in 91% (weekly), 66% (monthly), and 35% (placebo) (Pvitamin D treatment did not differ between groups. All-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations and adverse events were similar between groups during the intervention period. Lower all-cause mortality among ergocalciferol-treated participants was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 1.19). Oral ergocalciferol can increase 25(OH)D levels in incident hemodialysis patients without significant alterations in blood calcium, phosphate, or parathyroid hormone during a 12-week period. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Supplementation with vitamins C and E inhibits the release of interleukin-6 from contracting human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Christian P; Hiscock, Natalie J; Penkowa, Milena

    2004-01-01

    Contracting human skeletal muscle is a major contributor to the exercise-induced increase of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6). Although antioxidants have been shown to attenuate the exercise-induced increase of plasma IL-6, it is unknown whether antioxidants inhibit transcription, translation...... or translocation of IL-6 within contracting human skeletal muscle. Using a single-blind placebo-controlled design with randomization, young healthy men received an oral supplementation with either a combination of ascorbic acid (500 mg day(-1)) and RRR-alpha-tocopherol (400 i.u. day(-1)) (Treatment, n= 7...... in Control, but not in Treatment. In conclusion, our results show that supplementation with vitamins C and E attenuated the systemic IL-6 response to exercise primarily via inhibition of the IL-6 protein release from the contracting skeletal muscle per se....

  14. The importance of the oxidative status of dairy cattle in the periparturient period: revisiting antioxidant supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows are especially vulnerable to health disorders during the transition period, when they shift from late pregnancy to the onset of lactation. Diseases at this stage affect not only the animals' well-being, but also cause a major economic impact in dairy farms, because apart from treatment costs, affected cows will not reach their peak milk-producing capacity. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, which has been identified as an underlying factor of dysfunctional inflammatory responses. Supplementation with vitamins and trace elements attempts to minimize the harmful consequences of excessive ROS production, thereby trying to improve animals' health status and to reduce disease incidence. However, results regarding the effects of supplementing antioxidants on dairy cows' health and performance have been inconsistent, because in most cases, the antioxidant potential of the animals was not assessed beforehand and the nutritional strategy planned accordingly. Therefore, reviewing the physiological and harmful effects of ROS production, along with the different options available for assessing the redox balance in dairy cattle and some of the key findings of different supplementation trials, could bring one step forward the on-farm application of determinations of oxidative status for establishing nutritional strategies early enough in the dry period that could improve transition cow health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on pulmonary function in postmenopausal women following an aquatic exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, Rodrigo; Moreira, Linda D F; Bocalini, Danilo S; Fronza, Fernanda C A O; Marin, Rosangela Villa; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation and aquatic exercise on pulmonary function in postmenopausal women. This prospective and controlled study included 104 women (62 ± 6.5 years) divided into three groups: a control group lacking vitamin D and calcium supplementation which remained sedentary (CG; n = 17); a control group receiving vitamin D and calcium supplementation which remained sedentary (CDG, n = 33); and a group that completed aquatic exercises three times a week and received vitamin D and calcium supplementation (DTG, n = 54). Data before and after 6 months of the study were analyzed, including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and calcium concentrations, peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced vital capacity (FVC), and cirtometry. We observed significant increases in 25(OH)D concentrations in CDG (52.9 ± 2.4 to 69.1 ± 2.2; nmol/L; p vitamin D supplementation improves pulmonary function parameters in postmenopausal women.

  16. Serum antioxidant vitamins and the risk of oral cancer in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-05

    Jun 5, 2011 ... Objectives: Tobacco and alcohol are major risk factors of oral cancer, but nutritional deficiency may also contribute to development of oral cancer. This study compared serum antioxidant vitamin levels in oral cancer patients and controls in order to validate the role of vitamin deficiencies in the etiology of ...

  17. Serum antioxidant vitamins and the risk of oral cancer in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Tobacco and alcohol are major risk factors of oral cancer, but nutritional deficiency may also contribute to development of oral cancer. This study compared serum antioxidant vitamin levels in oral cancer patients and controls in order to validate the role of vitamin deficiencies in the etiology of oral cancer.

  18. Intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements and breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Stine B; Tjønneland, Anne; Stripp, Connie

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the vitamins A, C, and E on breast cancer development has not been clarified. An effect of a vitamin per se implicates similar patterns for the effects of the vitamin from dietary and supplemental sources. We examined how the breast cancer incidence rate among postmenopausal women...... was related to intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements....

  19. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for food antioxidants: vitamins, polyphenolics, and flavonoids in food extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektas Oğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds through their combat with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and free radicals that may cause tissue damage leading to various diseases. This work reports the development of a simple and widely applicable antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols, vitamins C and E, and plasma antioxidants utilizing the copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent. This novel method based on an electron-transfer mechanism was named by our research group as 'cupric reducing antioxidant capacity', abbreviated as the CUPRAC method. The method is comprised of mixing the antioxidant solution with aqueous copper(II) chloride, alcoholic neocuproine, and ammonium acetate aqueous buffer at pH 7, and subsequently measuring the developed absorbance at 450 nm after 30 min. Since the color development is fast for compounds like ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin but slow for naringin and naringenin, the latter compounds are assayed after incubation at 50 degrees C on a water bath for 20 min. The flavonoid glycosides are hydrolyzed to their corresponding aglycones by refluxing in 1.2 M: HCl-containing 50% MeOH so as to exert maximal reducing power towards Cu(II)-Nc. The CUPRAC antioxidant capacities of synthetic mixtures are equal to the sum of individual capacities of antioxidant constituents, indicating lack of chemical deviations from Beer's law. Tests on antioxidant polyphenols demonstrate that the highest CUPRAC capacities are observed for epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, fisetin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and caffeic acid in this order, in accord with the number and position of the -OH groups as well the conjugation level of the molecule. The parallelism of the linear calibration curves of pure antioxidants in water and in a given complex matrix (plant extract) demonstrates that there are no chemical interactions of interferent nature among the solution constituents

  20. The relations between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake and oxidative stress in follicular fluid and ART outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress (OS) in the follicular environment may affect on oocyte competence and antioxidant vitamins may modify its effects. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary intake of vitamin A, C and E on OS in follicular environment and assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this obsevationalprospective study, the intake levels of vitamin A, C, and E were matured by validated food frequency questionnaire and ...

  1. Hydrophilic acrylic biomaterials derived from vitamin E with antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, C; Vázquez, B; San Román, J

    1999-06-05

    Hydrogels based on polymeric derivatives of vitamin E for biomedical purposes have been prepared by copolymerization reaction of the alpha-tocopheryl methacrylate (V) with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (H) in a range of composition between 5-20 wt % of V. The swelling behavior of the hydrogels in water, alkaline, and acidic media showed a slight decrease in the equilibrium water content with the content of V in the copolymer although in all cases it was superior to an EWC > 20%. The diffusion mechanism followed a Fickian behavior in all media. The values of the diffusion coefficients were in the range 2.5-1.6 10(-7) cm2/s. The states of water in the hydrogels were determined by DSC. A decrease in the content of freezing water was obtained with the V content for all media, and for all compositions lower values of freezing water were obtained in acidic or basic pHs than in distilled water. The copolymeric xerogels, analyzed by contact angle measurements, deviated from those expected taking into consideration those of the homopolymers and the average fraction of the monomers in the copolymer. The polar contribution dropped with the introduction of a small content (4 wt %) of the vitamin E-containing monomer, and it reached a value similar to that of poly-V for a composition of 49 wt % of V in the copolymer. This behavior is accounted for by the segregation of the macromolecular chains of both kinds of monomers, due mainly to differences in their polarity, molecular weights, and the reactivity of both monomers. Finally, thermogravimetric analysis showed a higher thermal (antioxidant) stability of the poly-V with respect to poly-H, giving rise to a residue of 18 wt %. The V-containing copolymers also showed an improved stability (antioxidant behavior), indicating the possibility of the V unit's interfering with the oxidative process, based on free-radical species, and, therefore, with the aging process at the cellular level. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. A Comparison of Natural (D-α-tocopherol) and Synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol Acetate) Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Oxidative Status of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K; Niu, Y; Zheng, X C; Zhang, H; Chen, Y P; Zhang, M; Huang, X X; Zhang, L L; Zhou, Y M; Wang, T

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the supplementation of natural (D-α-tocopherol) and synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E on the growth performance, meat quality, muscular antioxidant capacity and genes expression related to oxidative status of broilers. A total of 144 1 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 8 birds each. Birds were given a basal diet (control group), and basal diet supplemented with either 20 IU D-α-tocopherol or DL-α-tocopherol acetate for 42 days, respectively. The results indicated that treatments did not alter growth performance of broilers (p>0.05). Compared with the control group, concentration of α-tocopherol in the breast muscle was increased by the supplementation of vitamin E (pnatural vitamin E group (pnatural vitamin E group (pnatural rather than synthetic vitamin E reduced MDA accumulation in the thigh (pnatural nor synthetic vitamin E supplementation altered muscular mRNA abundance of genes related to oxidative stress (p>0.05). It was concluded that vitamin E supplementation, especially the natural vitamin E, can enhance the retention of muscular α-tocopherol, improve meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity of broilers.

  3. Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Sara; Fiore, Filippo; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Dimauro, Corrado; Nudda, Anna; Cocco, Raffaella

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a long-term antioxidant-supplemented diet to regulate the oxidative stress and general health status of dogs involved in animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exercise-induced oxidative stress can increase muscle fatigue and fiber damage and eventually leads to impairment of the immune system. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical evaluation was conducted with 11 healthy therapy dogs: 6 females and 5 males of different breeds and with a mean age of 2.7 ± 0.8 y (mean ± SEM). The dogs were divided into 2 groups, 1 fed a high quality commercial diet without antioxidants (CD) and the other a high quality commercial diet supplemented with antioxidants (SD) for 18 wk. After the first 18 wk, metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen metabolite-derivatives (d-ROMs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels were monitored and showed a significant reduction of d-ROMs, triglycerides, and creatinine values in the SD group ( P dogs.

  4. Vitamin profiles in two free-living passerine birds under a metal pollution gradient - A calcium supplementation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sandra R; Espín, Silvia; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M; Eeva, Tapio

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin and carotenoid deficiency may impair development in free-living vertebrates, because of the importance of these micronutrients to growth, antioxidant defense and calcium regulation. Micronutrient and calcium insufficiency can be intensified by metal pollution which can interfere with nutrient homeostasis or indirectly reduce food availability. Furthermore, absorption of dietary heavy metals is dependent on food calcium and vitamin levels. We investigated the effect of calcium on plasma vitamin and carotenoid profiles and how these affected growth and survival in two passerine birds with different calcium turnover living along a metal pollution gradient. Vitamins (A, D 3 and E) and carotenoids were quantified from blood plasma of great tit (Parus major) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings. Metal concentrations in soil and in feces from the same nestlings were used to assess the exposure to air pollution. Additionally, we examined the vitamin level variation between developmental stages (eggs and nestlings within the same brood). Our results showed that generally higher concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids circulate in blood of great tits than in pied flycatchers. In general, birds inhabiting the polluted zone presented lower concentrations of the studied micronutrients. Calcium supplementation and metal pollution decreased vitamin A concentration in pied flycatcher, but not in great tit, while vitamin A affected growth and survival in great tit and pied flycatcher respectively. Our results suggest that populations under exposure to metal pollution may experience increased vitamin A deficiency, and that the two passerine species, while obtaining similar micronutrients in food, respond differently to environmental disturbance of nutrients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional status of vitamin D and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Korean breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jung; Na, Bomi; No, So-Jung; Han, Heon-Seok; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Lee, Wonkuk; Han, Younghee; Hyeun, Taisun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the vitamin D status and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Korean breast-fed infants. The healthy term newborns were divided into 3 groups; A, formula-fed; B, breast-fed only; S, breast-fed with vitamin D supplementation. We measured serum concentrations of vitamin D (25OHD3), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (AP), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and bone mineral density (BMD) at 6 and 12 months of age. Using questionnaires, average duration of sun-light exposure and dietary intake of vitamin D, Ca and P were obtained. At 6 and 12 months of age, 25OHD3 was significantly higher in group S than in group B (PS>B), but total intake of Ca and P were higher in group A than in group B and S (P<0.001). In conclusion, breast-fed infants show lower vitamin D status and bone mineralization than formula-fed infants. Vitamin D supplementation (200 IU/day) in breast-fed infants increases serum 25-OH vitamin D(3), but not bone mineral density.

  6. Dietary Intake of Antioxidant Vitamins and Carotenoids and Risk of Developing Active Tuberculosis in a Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Avril Z; Chee, Cynthia B E; Wang, Yee-Tang; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2017-08-15

    Antioxidants may protect against oxidative stress, which is associated with tuberculosis (TB) disease. However, direct evidence for a protective association between dietary antioxidants and TB incidence in humans has been lacking. The relationship between intake of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and individual carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein) and TB incidence was examined in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 63,257 adults aged 45-74 years enrolled during 1993-1998. Baseline intake of these antioxidants was estimated using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire including questions on use of dietary supplements. After an average of 16.9 years of follow-up, 1,186 incident active TB cases were identified among cohort participants. Compared with the lowest quartile, reduced risk of active TB was observed for the highest quartile of vitamin A intake (hazard ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.85; P-trend carotenoids were not associated with TB risk. These results suggest that vitamin C may reduce TB risk among current smokers by ameliorating oxidative stress, while vitamin A and β-carotene may have additional antimycobacterial properties. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on health status in non-vitamin D deficient people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westra, S; Krul-Poel, Y H M; van Wijland, H J

    2016-01-01

    both groups was seen concerning the SF-36 domain role limitations due to physical problems in disadvantage of the vitamin D group. CONCLUSIONS: Six months of vitamin D supplementation did not improve HRQOL in non-vitamin D-deficient people with type 2 DM managed on oral antidiabetic therapy.......OBJECTIVE: Increased levels of depressive symptoms, fatigue or pain (all dimensions of reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL)) are common in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Earlier studies have reported associations between low vitamin D status and fatigue and depressive symptoms....... The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on dimensions of HRQOL in people with type 2 DM. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: The effect of monthly cholecalciferol 50,000 IU vs placebo on HRQOL was assessed in 275 adults...

  8. Vitamin D concentrations in fortified foods and dietary supplements intended for infants: Implications for vitamin D intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Seves, S Marije; Ocké, Marga C

    2017-04-15

    Due to potential overages to cover losses during shelf life, the actual vitamin D concentration of fortified foods and dietary supplements may deviate from the label. In this pilot study the vitamin D concentrations of fortified foods (n=29; follow-on formula, baby porridge, curd cheese dessert) and dietary supplements (n=15), both specifically intended for infants, were analytically determined. Compared to the declared values, the vitamin D content ranged from 50% to 153% for fortified foods and from 8% to 177% for supplements. In general, both instant follow-on formula and oil-based supplements had a measured vitamin D content similar to or higher than the labelled value. Ready-to-eat baby porridge was the only category in which all measured vitamin D concentrations were below the declared value (74-81%). The use of label information for fortified foods and dietary supplements may result in invalid estimations of vitamin D intake distributions of infants; both under- and overestimation may occur. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term vitamin E supplementation reduces atherosclerosis and mortality in LDLR -/- mice, but not when fed Western style diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence indicated potential health benefits of vitamin E supplementation on coronary heart disease (CHD), but several clinical trials reported no benefit from vitamin E supplementation on CHD. We hypothesized that supplemental intake of vitamin E from early age may...

  10. Vitamin C and E supplementation hampers cellular adaptation to endurance training in humans: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Holden, Geir; Hallén, Jostein; Rønnestad, Bent Ronny; Sveen, Ole; Skaug, Arne; Paur, Ingvild; Bastani, Nasser E; Østgaard, Hege Nymo; Buer, Charlotte; Midttun, Magnus; Freuchen, Fredrik; Wiig, Havard; Ulseth, Elisabeth Tallaksen; Garthe, Ina; Blomhoff, Rune; Benestad, Haakon B; Raastad, Truls

    2014-04-15

    In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endurance training adaptations in humans. Fifty-four young men and women were randomly allocated to receive either 1000 mg of vitamin C and 235 mg of vitamin E or a placebo daily for 11 weeks. During supplementation, the participants completed an endurance training programme consisting of three to four sessions per week (primarily of running), divided into high-intensity interval sessions [4-6 × 4-6 min; >90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] and steady state continuous sessions (30-60 min; 70-90% of HRmax). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max ), submaximal running and a 20 m shuttle run test were assessed and blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected, before and after the intervention. Participants in the vitamin C and E group increased their VO2 max (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5%) and performance in the 20 m shuttle test (10 ± 11%) to the same degree as those in the placebo group (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5% and 14 ± 17%, respectively). However, the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX4) and cytosolic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α) increased in the m. vastus lateralis in the placebo group by 59 ± 97% and 19 ± 51%, respectively, but not in the vitamin C and E group (COX4: -13 ± 54%; PGC-1α: -13 ± 29%; P ≤ 0.03, between groups). Furthermore, mRNA levels of CDC42 and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) in the trained muscle were lower in the vitamin C and E group than in the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Daily vitamin C and E supplementation attenuated increases in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis following endurance training. However, no clear interactions were detected for improvements in VO2 max and running performance. Consequently, vitamin C and E supplementation hampered cellular adaptations in the exercised muscles, and although this did not translate to the performance tests

  11. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenqiang; Malihi, Zarintaj; Stewart, Alistair W; Lawes, Carlene Mm; Scragg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence from previous qualitative reviews on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on pain. To determine with quantitative methods if vitamin D supplementation lowers pain levels. Quantitative meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This meta-analysis examined all studies involving the effect of vitamin D supplementation on pain score. Electronic sources (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, clinical trials website, and Google scholar) were systematically searched for RCTs of vitamin D supplementation and pain from inception of each database to October 2015. Nineteen RCTs with 3,436 participants (1,780 on vitamin D supplementation and 1,656 on placebo) were included in the meta-analysis. For the primary outcome (mean change in pain score from baseline to final follow-up), 8 trials with 1,222 participants on vitamin D and 1,235 on placebo reported a significantly greater mean decrease in pain score for the vitamin D group compared to placebo (mean difference -0.57, 95% CI: -1.00 to -0.15, P = 0.007). The effect from vitamin D was greater in patients recruited with pre-existing pain (P-value for interaction = 0.03). Fourteen studies (1,548 on vitamin D, 1,430 on placebo) reported the mean pain score at final follow-up outcome, and no statistical difference was observed (mean difference -0.06, 95%CI: -0.44 to 0.33, P = 0.78). In 4 studies which reported pain improvement (209 on vitamin D, 146 on placebo), the effect size although not significant, shows participants in the vitamin D supplementation group were more likely to report pain improvement compared with the placebo group (relative risk 1.38, 95%CI: 0.93 to 2.05, P = 0.11). Only a few studies reported the mean score change from baseline to final follow-up, and we do not have enough data to determine any modifying effect of baseline vitamin D status and different doses of vitamin D supplementation on pain. A significantly greater mean

  12. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation on reproductive characteristics of male broiler breeders during the post-peak production phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Eugênio Triques

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of their membrane constitution, sperm cells of male broiler breeders are prone to lipid peroxidation, which affects their fertilizing capacity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antioxidant diet supplementation on the reproductive characteristics of 12 male broiler breeders (Cobb older than 50 weeks. The roosters were randomly distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with two treatments (treatment 1: commercial feed; treatment 2: commercial feed supplemented with canthaxanthin, lycopene, and vitamin C and 6 replicates. Semen samples were collected by abdominal massage, and then underwent evaluation of semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, vigor, and morphology. Morphometric analyses of testes, combs, and dewlaps were performed at 68 weeks. Testes samples were collected for morphometric analysis of seminiferous tubules and analysis of cellular proliferation in the germinal epithelium by using immunohistochemical staining with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (anti-PCNA antibodies. Statistical data analysis was performed using the SAS software (SAS, 2002. No significant effects of antioxidant supplementation were observed on semen characteristics (p > 0.05. A significant positive effect of the antioxidant blend was observed on the percentage of normal sperm, dewlap weight and width, and testes weight and length (p < 0.05. PCNA-positive cell counts and morphometry of the seminiferous tubules were not affected by the treatment. Dietary antioxidant supplementation may represent a nutritional tool to increase fertility in male broiler breeder flocks during the post-peak production phase.

  13. Minerals, vitamin C, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of Amaranthus leafy vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentrations and antioxidant activity levels in 15 leafy Amaranthus species. Across species, the concentration ranges of Ca, K, Mg, P and phenolics, and activity ranges of antioxidants in amaranth leaves were 1....

  14. Efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose (25,000 IU weekly) vitamin D3 supplementation in obese children with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, Nalini N E; van Vliet, Mariska; Poland, Dennis C W; Weijer, Olivier; Beijnen, Jos H; Brandjes, Dees P M; Diamant, Michaela; von Rosenstiel, Ines A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recommended dose of vitamin D supplementation of 400 IU/day might be inadequate to treat obese children with vitamin D insufficiency. Therefore, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose vitamin D3 supplementation of 25,000 IU weekly in multiethnic obese

  15. How should we give vitamin D supplementation? evaluation of the pediatricians' knowledge in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Elitok, Gizem; Bulbul, Lida; Zubarioglu, Umut; Kıray Bas, Evrim; Acar, Duygu; Uslu, Sinan; Bulbul, Ali

    2017-10-17

    We aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes of Turkish pediatricians concerning vitamin D supplement. The study was planned cross-sectional to be carried out between April-May 2015 in Turkey. A questionnaire form that determined the participants' opinions and practices concerning vitamin D supplement was completed via face-to-face interview. A total of 107 pediatricians (49.3%) and 110 pediatric residents (50.7%) participated in the study. Of the physicians, 85.2% recommended vitamin D supplement for all infants and children regardless of diet, 13.4% recommended for the infants which are solely breastfed. Vitamin D supplement is recommended at a dose of 400 IU/day by 88.8% of pediatricians and by 90% of pediatric residents. Of the pediatricians and pediatric residents, 72% and 68.2%, respectively commence vitamin D supplement when the newborn is 15 days old. The rates of recommending vitamin D supplement until the age of one and two years were higher among pediatricians (48.6% and 41.1%, respectively) than pediatric residents (40.9% and 32.7%, respectively). The rate of starting vitamin D supplement for fontanelle closure was significantly higher among pediatric residents (15.5%) than pediatricians (3.7%) (p = 0.002). It was determined that the rate of prescribing vitamin D supplement until fontanelle closure was higher among pediatric residents (18.2%) than pediatricians (0.9%). The present study suggest that the knowledge of pediatricians about recommendation of vitamin D needs to be enhanced by education programs in addition to free vitamin D supplement provided by the Ministry of Health.

  16. Seasonal variation of serum vitamin D and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Irish community-dwelling older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2011-03-01

    Ireland is at 53°N, and its population risk of vitamin D deficiency is high. Previous Irish studies suggested a significant seasonality of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and a beneficial effect of supplementation in raising 25(OH)D levels. However, in Irish older people, little is known about the magnitude of the supplementation effect and whether supplementation affects 25(OH)D seasonality.

  17. The Antioxidant Status and Concentrations of Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin E in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hua Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E and the antioxidant status in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS. Subjects with MS (n=72 were included according to the criteria for MS. The non-MS group (n=105 was comprised of healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The plasma coenzyme Q10, vitamin E concentrations, lipid profiles, and antioxidant enzymes levels (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase were measured. The subjects with MS had significantly higher concentrations of plasma coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E than those in the non-MS group, but these differences were not significant after being normalized for triglyceride level. The levels of antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group. The subjects with the higher antioxidant enzymes activities had significant reductions in the risk of MS (P<0.01 after being adjusted for coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E. In conclusion, the subjects with MS might be under higher oxidative stress resulting in low levels of antioxidant enzyme activities. A higher level of antioxidant enzymes activities was significantly associated with a reduction in the risk of MS independent of the levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E.

  18. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized pla...

  19. Do antioxidant vitamins ameliorate the beneficial effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Exercise training has numerous health benefits, and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, it can improve insulin sensitivity and glucose control. A recent publication suggests that antioxidant vitamins (C and E) block these effects on blood glucose. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether antioxidant vitamins ameliorate the beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training (CRET) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We assessed CHD risk factors, including clinical indices of glucose metabolism, and evaluated the effects of exercise training in 315 patients with CHD with diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome before and after a 3-month program of CRET. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on self-reported antioxidant vitamin (vitamins C and E) consumption. Both groups, 113 patients (36%) consuming vitamins (Vits group) and 202 patients (64%) who reported no vitamin use (no-Vits group) were statistically similar at baseline. Following CRET, patients improved exercise capacity (10%, P vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C) do not ameliorate the health benefits of exercise training, including fasting blood glucose, in CHD patients

  20. Relations between antioxidant vitamins in adipose tissue, plasma, and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Brants, H.A.M.; Berg, H. van den; Schoonhoven, J. van; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    For an evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in adipose tissue as biomarkers of intake, estimates of usual intake of β-carotene, total vitamin A, and vitamin E (assessed by food frequency questionnaire) were compared with plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of β-carotene, retinol,

  1. Vitamin E supplementation in elderly lowers the oxidation rate of linoleic acid in LDL.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waart, de F.; Moser, U.; Kok, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    .Oxidation of LDL–linoleic acid (LDL–LA), a major substrate for lipid peroxidation, may be counteracted by the antioxidant vitamin E. In a 3-month randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 83 apparently healthy Dutch elderly, aged 67–85 years, the direct protective effect of 100 IU vitamin

  2. Vitamin E supplementation and atherosclerosis : epidemiological studies in elderly and smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waart, de F.

    2000-01-01

    The antioxidant vitamin E may have beneficial effects on several indicators of human health. We studied the impact on atherosclerosis, immune response and total mortality in smokers and elderly people, who are at risk for increased oxidative stress. Vitamin E may exert its effect on

  3. The Effect of Various Vitamin D Supplementation Regimens in Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppone, Luke J.; Huston, Alissa J.; Reid, Mary E.; Rosier, Randy N.; Zakharia, Yousef; Trump, Donald L.; Mustian, Karen M.; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Purnell, Jason Q.; Morrow, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vitamin D deficiency in patients treated for breast cancer is associated with numerous adverse effects (bone loss, arthralgia, and falls). The first aim of this study was to assess vitamin D status, determined by 25-OH vitamin D levels, among women diagnosed with breast cancer according to demographic/clinical variables and bone mineral density (BMD). The second aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily low-dose and weekly high-dose vitamin D supplementation on 25-OH vitamin D levels. Methods This retrospective study included 224 women diagnosed with Stage 0-III breast cancer who received treatment at the James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Total 25-OH vitamin D levels (D2 + D3) were determined at baseline for all participants. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a 25-OH vitamin D level < 20 ng/mL, insufficiency as 20-31 ng/mL, and sufficiency as ≥ 32 ng/mL. BMD was assessed during the period between 3 months prior to and 6 months following the baseline vitamin D assessment. Based on the participants’ baseline levels, they received either no supplementation, low-dose supplementation (1,000 IU/day), or high-dose supplementation (≥ 50,000 IU/week), and 25-OH vitamin D was reassessed in the following 8-16 weeks. Results Approx 66.5% had deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels at baseline. Deficiency/insufficiency was more common among non-Caucasians, women with later-stage disease, and those who had previously received radiation therapy (p<0.05). Breast cancer patients with deficient/insufficient 25-OH vitamin D levels had significantly lower lumbar BMD (p=0.03). Compared to the no supplementation group, weekly high-dose supplementation significantly increased 25-OH vitamin D levels, while daily low-dose supplementation did not significantly increase levels. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were common among women with breast cancer and associated with reduced BMD in the spine

  4. The effect of various vitamin D supplementation regimens in breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Alissa J.; Reid, Mary E.; Rosier, Randy N.; Zakharia, Yousef; Trump, Donald L.; Mustian, Karen M.; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Purnell, Jason Q.; Morrow, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency in the patients treated for breast cancer is associated with numerous adverse effects (bone loss, arthralgia, and falls). The first aim of this study was to assess vitamin D status, determined by 25-OH vitamin D levels, among women diagnosed with breast cancer according to demographic/clinical variables and bone mineral density (BMD). The second aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily low-dose and weekly high-dose vitamin D supplementation on 25-OH vitamin D levels. This retrospective study included 224 women diagnosed with stage 0–III breast cancer who received treatment at the James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Total 25-OH vitamin D levels (D2 + D3) were determined at baseline for all participants. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a 25-OH vitamin D level < 20 ng/ml, insufficiency as 20–31 ng/ml, and sufficiency as ≥32 ng/ml. BMD was assessed during the period between 3 months before and 6 months following the baseline vitamin D assessment. Based on the participants’ baseline levels, they received either no supplementation, low-dose supplementation (1,000 IU/day), or high-dose supplementation (≥50,000 IU/week), and 25-OH vitamin D was reassessed in the following 8–16 weeks. Approximately 66.5% had deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels at baseline. Deficiency/insufficiency was more common among non-Caucasians, women with later-stage disease, and those who had previously received radiation therapy (P < 0.05). Breast cancer patients with deficient/insufficient 25-OH vitamin D levels had significantly lower lumbar BMD (P = 0.03). Compared to the no-supplementation group, weekly high-dose supplementation significantly increased 25-OH vitamin D levels, while daily low-dose supplementation did not significantly increase levels. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were common among women with breast cancer and associated with reduced BMD in the spine. Clinicians should

  5. The effect of omega-3 supplements on antioxidant capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hajianfar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: With regard to the results of the present study, patients with type 2 diabetes increase their antioxidant capacity, enhance their antioxidant defense system, and probably prevent diabetes complications and related disease progress by taking omega-3 supplements.

  6. Antioxidant vitamin levels among preschool children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sokoto, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghedo FI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Festus I Aghedo,1 Resqua A Shehu,2 Rabiu A Umar,2 Mohammed N Jiya,3 Osaro Erhabor4 1Department of Haematology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria; 2Department of Biochemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 4Department of Haematology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria Objective: To assess antioxidant vitamin levels among preschool children with plasmodium malarial infection. Methods: We assessed antioxidant vitamin levels by using a standard procedure in 130 malaria-parasitized preschool children. Packed cell volume and parasite density were also evaluated. Forty healthy age- and gender-matched nonparasitized children were included as controls. Results: Plasmodium falciparum was the causative species in all subjects. The mean malaria parasitemia was 4529.45 ± 1237.5/µL. The mean antioxidant concentrations for vitamins A, C, and E among plasmodium-parasitized subjects were 33.15 ± 1.79 µg/dL, 0.51 ± 0.02 mg/dL, and 0.61 ± 0.02 mg/dL, respectively. The mean concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E among the non-malaria-parasitized controls were 69.72 ± 1.71 µg/dL, 1.25 ± 0.04 mg/dL, and 1.31 ± 0.04 mg/dL respectively. We observed that the mean antioxidant concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E were significantly lower among plasmodium-parasitized subjects compared with non-parasitized controls (P = 0.01. Malaria parasitemia correlated negatively with antioxidant concentrations and packed cell volume (r = -0.736 and -0.723, P = 0.001. We observed that the higher the level of parasitemia, the lower the antioxidant concentration. Conclusion: Our study has shown that the antioxidant levels in plasmodium-parasitized children in the North-West of Nigeria are low and that the more severe the malarial infection, the lower the antioxidant level and the

  7. Maternal Versus Infant Vitamin D Supplementation During Lactation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L; Howard, Cynthia R; Ebeling, Myla; Shary, Judy R; Smith, Pamela G; Taylor, Sarah N; Morella, Kristen; Lawrence, Ruth A; Hulsey, Thomas C

    2015-10-01

    Compare effectiveness of maternal vitamin D3 supplementation with 6400 IU per day alone to maternal and infant supplementation with 400 IU per day. Exclusively lactating women living in Charleston, SC, or Rochester, NY, at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum were randomized to either 400, 2400, or 6400 IU vitamin D3/day for 6 months. Breastfeeding infants in 400 IU group received oral 400 IU vitamin D3/day; infants in 2400 and 6400 IU groups received 0 IU/day (placebo). Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) L. 2400 IU group ended in 2009 as greater infant deficiency occurred. Maternal serum vitamin D, 25(OH)D, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations and urinary calcium/creatinine ratios were measured at baseline then monthly, and infant blood parameters were measured at baseline and months 4 and 7. Of the 334 mother-infant pairs in 400 IU and 6400 IU groups at enrollment, 216 (64.7%) were still breastfeeding at visit 1; 148 (44.3%) continued full breastfeeding to 4 months and 95 (28.4%) to 7 months. Vitamin D deficiency in breastfeeding infants was greatly affected by race. Compared with 400 IU vitamin D3 per day, 6400 IU/day safely and significantly increased maternal vitamin D and 25(OH)D from baseline (P breastfeeding infant 25(OH)D in the 400 IU group receiving supplement, infants in the 6400 IU group whose mothers only received supplement did not differ. Maternal vitamin D supplementation with 6400 IU/day safely supplies breast milk with adequate vitamin D to satisfy her nursing infant's requirement and offers an alternate strategy to direct infant supplementation. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Relationship between vitamin intake and total antioxidant capacity in elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lucia Ojeda Arredondo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of foods high in natural antioxidants, like fruits and vegetables, is associated with a lower risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the plasma antioxidant capacity in adults over fifty and their intake of vitamin A, C, and E. We evaluated 118 24-hour recalls of intake of foods. The intake of vitamin A, C, and E was quantified using food composition tables. We quantified plasma phenols using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was determined using the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC and Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC methods. Correlation analyses were performed between the studied variables and a positive correlation was found in most cases. However, none of the correlations was statistically significant. In all cases p-value was >0.05. The quantification of nutrient intake is not an adequate predictor of plasma antioxidant capacity in individuals over fifty

  9. Total, Dietary, and Supplemental Vitamin C Intake and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. Prospective cohort analysis. 156,735 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II and 40,536 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Total, dietary, and supplemental vitamin C intake, adjusted for age, body mass index, thiazide use, and dietary factors. Incident kidney stones. During a median follow-up of 11.3 to 11.7 years, 6,245 incident kidney stones were identified. After multivariable adjustment, total vitamin C intake (vitamin C intake for the 500- to 999-mg/d category was ∼700mg/d. Supplemental vitamin C intake (no use [reference], vitamin C intake was not associated with stones among men or women, although few participants had dietary intakes > 700mg/d. Nutrient intakes derived from food-frequency questionnaires, lack of data on stone composition for all cases. Total and supplemental vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher risk for incident kidney stones in men, but not in women. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vitamin D supplementation, body weight and human serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittermann, Armin; Ernst, Jana B; Gummert, Jan F; Börgermann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable variation in incremental circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels on vitamin D supplements, even when similar age groups and identical vitamin D doses are compared. We therefore aimed to investigate the importance of body weight for the dose-response relation in circulating 25OHD. We performed a systematic review of randomized placebo-controlled vitamin D supplementation trials in all age groups ≥10 years to clarify the influence of body weight and other parameters on incremental circulating 25OHD levels (difference between baseline and in-study values) in vitamin D-deficient and non-deficient individuals. We included 144 cohorts from 94 independent studies, published from 1990 to November 2012, in our systematic review. There was a logarithmic association between vitamin D dose per kg body weight per day and increment in circulating 25OHD. In multivariable regression analysis, vitamin D dose per kg body weight per day could explain 34.5% of variation in circulating 25OHD. Additional significant predictors were type of supplement (vitamin D2 or vitamin D3), age, concomitant intake of calcium supplements and baseline 25OHD, explaining 9.8, 3.7, 2.4 and 1.9%, respectively, of the variation in circulating 25OHD. This systematic review demonstrates that body weight is an important predictor of variation in circulating 25OHD in cohorts on vitamin D supplements. Our model provides an estimate of the daily vitamin D dose that is necessary for achieving adequate circulating 25OHD levels in vitamin D-insufficient or vitamin D-deficient individuals/cohorts with different body weights and ages.

  11. Supplementation with low doses of vitamin E protects LDL from lipid peroxidation in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, H.M.G.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Buytenhek, R.; Laarse, A. van der; Poppel, G. van; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van

    1995-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that oxidative modification of LDL is an important step in the process of atherogenesis and that antioxidants may protect LDL from oxidation. We and others have previously shown that ingestion of pharmacological doses of the antioxidant D,L-α-tocopherol (vitamin E),

  12. The effect of vitamin C and E supplementation in the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria infects a number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa and is gradually becoming endemic in this region. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of malaria on antioxidant status and also to ascertain whether antioxidant vitamins could be useful in the treatment of malaria. The study group comprised of 40 patients ...

  13. Vitamin D supplementation and growth in urban Mongol school children: Results from two randomized clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davaasambuu Ganmaa

    Full Text Available Symptomatic vitamin D deficiency is associated with slowed growth in children. It is unknown whether vitamin D repletion in children with asymptomatic serum vitamin D deficiency can restore normal growth.We tested the impact of vitamin D-supplementation on serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and short-term growth in Mongol children, with very low serum vitamin D levels in winter.We conducted two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in urban school age children without clinical signs of rickets. The Supplementation Study was a 6-month intervention with an 800 IU vitamin D3 supplement daily, compared with placebo, in 113 children aged 12-15 years. A second study, the Fortification Study, was a 7-week intervention with 710 ml of whole milk fortified with 300 IU vitamin D3 daily, compared with unfortified milk, in 235 children aged 9-11 years.At winter baseline, children had low vitamin D levels, with a mean (±SD serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentration of 7.3 (±3.9 ng/ml in the Supplementation Study and 7.5 (±3.8 ng/ml in the Fortification Study. The serum levels increased in both vitamin D groups-by 19.8 (±5.1 ng/ml in the Supplementation Study, and 19.7 (±6.1 ng/ml in the Fortification Study. Multivariable analysis showed a 0.9 (±0.3 SE cm greater increase in height in the vitamin-D treated children, compared to placebo treated children, in the 6-month Supplementation Study (p = 0.003. Although the children in the 7-week Fortification Study intervention arm grew 0.2 (±0.1 cm more, on average, than placebo children this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.2. There were no significant effects of vitamin D supplements on differences in changes in weight or body mass index in either trial. For the Fortification Study, girls gained more weight than boys while taking vitamin D 3 (p-value for interaction = 0.03, but sex was not an effect modifier of the relationship between vitamin D3 and

  14. Genotype variability in composition of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in vegetable amaranth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Umakanta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty five vegetable amaranth genotypes were evaluated to investigate the antioxidant vitamins and minerals composition and its genetic variability in a RCBD with three replications at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University in Bangladesh during kharif1 season 2012 and 2013, respectively. Significant Mean Sum of Square revealed a wide range of genotypic variability among traits. Vegetable amaranth was rich in iron, zinc, manganese, magnesium and potassium. Ten strains gave the best (more than 5 kg foliage yield with rich in antioxidant minerals and vitamins. Selection of these genotypes would be economically useful for antioxidant vitamins, minerals and yield aspects. On the other hand, eight genotypes had high amounts of antioxidant vitamins and minerals with below average foliage yield and could be utilized as donor parents for introgression of genes in vitamins and minerals deficient lines. Considering genetic parameter six traits i e., Fe, Zn, Mn, ascorbic acid, number of leaves plant and foliage yield would be selected for the improvement of vegetable amaranth genotypes under study. However, correlation study revealed that selection based on Fe, Mn, ascorbic acid and number of leaves per plant could lead to increase the foliage yield of vegetable amaranth strains. Insignificant genotypic correlations between foliage yield with most of the antioxidant vitamins and minerals traits indicating that selection for high vitamins and minerals content might be possible without compromising yield loss. Based on mean, genetic parameters and correlation coefficient values, five vegetable amaranth genotypes i. e., AA19, AA10, AA3, AA24 and AA7 might be selected as high vitamin and minerals containing high yielding vegetable amaranth varieties.

  15. Vitamin D supplementation: what's known, what to do, and what's needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Stuart T; Park, Sharon K

    2012-04-01

    The use of vitamin D supplements to prevent and treat a wide range of illnesses has increased substantially over the last decade. Epidemiologic evidence links vitamin D deficiency to autoimmune disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, depression, dementia, infectious diseases, musculoskeletal decline, and more. The Institute of Medicine published an exhaustive report in 2010 that concluded that vitamin D supplementation for indications other than musculoskeletal health was not adequately supported by evidence and that most North Americans receive sufficient vitamin D from their diet and sun exposure. These conclusions are at odds with some clinical practice guidelines; thus, we sought to summarize the best available evidence regarding the benefits of vitamin D supplementation, to examine the potential risks, and to provide practical dosing advice. The adequacy of vitamin D stores is determined by measuring the 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations. The demarcations between deficiency (Vitamin D in doses of 800-5000 IU/day improve musculoskeletal health (e.g., reduces the rate of fractures and falls in older adults (aged ≥ 65 yrs). In patients with documented vitamin D deficiency, a cumulative dose of at least 600,000 IU administered over several weeks appears to be necessary to replenish vitamin D stores. Single large doses of 300,000-500,000 IU should be avoided. Vitamin D supplementation should not be offered routinely to other patient populations. Although results from some prospective clinical trials are promising, most have not been robustly designed and executed. The decision by young, otherwise healthy adults to take vitamin D in doses of 2000 IU/day or lower is unlikely to cause harm. For patients who are not at risk for developing vitamin D deficiency, sensible sun exposure is an inexpensive and enjoyable way to maintain vitamin D stores. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  16. Vitamin and Mineral Supplements Have a Nutritionally Significant Impact on Micronutrient Intakes of Older Adults Attending Senior Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Older adults frequently report use of vitamin and mineral (VM) supplements, though the impact of supplements on dietary adequacy remains largely unknown. Despite possible improvements in dietary intake, concern remains over potential excessive nutrient consumption from VM supplement us...

  17. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    -fed chickens, meat color was similar to the heat stressed group. Shear force was not influenced by heat stress, but pair-fed chickens showed the tenderest meat. In conclusion, reduction in growth performance and negative changes in meat color in heat stressed chickens were attributed to depression in feed intake, whereas negative changes in body composition, higher meat pH and cooking loss were credited to high ambient temperature per se. Diet supplementation with vitamins C and E as antioxidants did not mitigate any of these negative effects.

  18. [Factors influencing on the Silesian University students' decisions concerning purchasing of vitamin and mineral food supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiołek, Katarzyna; Kościołek, Aneta; Kania, Justyna; Hartman, Magdalena; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Correctly composed diet covers the demands of a healthy adult for nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Nowadays constant increase of vitamin and mineral supplements of diet intake is observed. Customers have a great choice of diet supplements on Polish market. They are diversified under the quality and quantitative accounts. The main aim of this study was to evaluate main factors of Silesian University students' choice while they are purchasing particular diet supplements. The questionnaire survey was conducted in a group of 208 students at the age of 19 to 24. 99.5% of them admitted that they have supplemented their diets with vitamin and mineral preparations until the moment of the experiment. The results indicate that main factors that influence the students' decisions on purchasing these preparations are: composition of the supplement, price and convenient dosing regimen. Respondents indicate the internet as a main source of information on the supplements being discussed in the following study.

  19. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD....... Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated...

  20. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    . Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated......We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...

  1. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (Pdiet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin B-12 Supplementation during Pregnancy and Early Lactation Increases Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Measures of Vitamin B-12 Status12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Kurpad, Anura V.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women supplementation with vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12–supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12–supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P vitamin B-12–supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862. PMID:24598885

  3. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on the auditory threshold in sensorineural hearing loss: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Maria Eduarda Di Cavalcanti Alves de; Costa, Klinger Vagner Teixeira da; Vitorino, Paulo Augusto; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Menezes, Pedro de Lemos

    2017-08-26

    Hearing loss is conceptualized as any impairment of the ability to hear and/or detect speech or environment sounds, regardless of cause, type, or degree. It may occur at different stages of life; during pregnancy or childbirth, in childhood, adulthood or old age. It should be noted that aging is the most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss followed by noise-induced hearing loss, and both are closely related to the formation of reactive oxygen species. Dietary antioxidant supplementation has been employed as a therapeutic strategy to prevent and/or delay the risks of major human diseases. To assess randomized clinical trials to determine the effect of antioxidant supplementation on the auditory thresholds in patients of different age groups with sensorineural hearing loss. This systematic review consisted of a search in the following databases: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, SciELO and ClinicalTrials.gov. Additionally, the gray literature was also searched. The search strategy included terms related to the intervention (antioxidant supplementation), primary outcome (sensorineural hearing loss), as well as terms related to randomized clinical trials to improve search sensitivity. Based on 977 potentially relevant records identified through the search in the databases, ten full-text publications were retrieved for further evaluation. The increase in threshold at the 4kHz frequency was statistically higher in the control group (1.89 [1.01-2.78], p<0.0001) when compared to the NAC group and the ginseng group, whereas at 6kHz, the threshold increase was higher in the control group (1.42 [-1.14-3.97], p=0.28), but no statistically significant differences were found between groups. Ginseng was the antioxidant agent that showed the best effect in preventing auditory threshold worsening at the frequency of 4kHz, but not at 6kHz in patients with sensorineural hearing loss caused by exposure to high sound pressure levels. There was no

  4. Levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation prevents oxidative stress and cognitive deficit in experimental hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tianrong; Zhong, Mingkui; Zhong, Xing; Zhang, Yanqing; Zhu, Defa

    2013-04-01

    Hypothyroidism has a variety of adverse effects on cognitive function. The treatment of levothyroxine alone cannot restore cognitive defects of hypothyroid patients. Antioxidant vitamin E supplementation could be useful in disturbances which are associated with oxidative stress and could effectively slow the progression of Alzheimer disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress status of the serum and hippocampus in hypothyroidism and to examine the effects of levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation on cognitive deficit. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, PTU group, PTU + Vit E group, PTU + L-T4 group, and PTU + L-T4 + Vit E group. Serum and hippocampus malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined using the thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances method. Serum and hippocampus superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined by measuring its ability to inhibit the photoreduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze test. In the present study, we found that the rats of PTU + Vit E group spent less time to find the platform on days 2, 3, 4, and 5 than the PTU group. Moreover, the rats of PTU + L-T4 + Vit E group spent less time to find the platform on days 4 and 5 than the PTU + L-T4 group. The time spent in the target quadrants was measured in the probe test and no difference was observed in all groups. Oxidative damage has been observed in the serum and hippocampus of hypothyroidism rat. SOD levels of serum and hippocampus tissue were significantly increased and MDA levels were significantly decreased in the PTU + Vit E and PTU + L-T4 + Vit E groups than the PTU and PTU + L-T4 groups. Therefore, these findings indicate that levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation may ameliorate cognitive deficit in PTU-induced hypothyroidism through the decrease of oxidative stress status.

  5. Characterization and Quantitation of Vitamin B12Compounds in Various Chlorella Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Bito, Mariko; Asai, Yusuke; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tago, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Masato; Mizoguchi, Toru; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-11-16

    Vitamin B 12 was determined and characterized in 19 dried Chlorella health supplements. Vitamin contents of dried Chlorella cells varied from Chlorella tablets, respectively. In four Chlorella tablet types with high and moderate vitamin B 12 contents, the coenzyme forms of vitamin B 12 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (approximately 32%) and methylcobalamin (approximately 8%) were considerably present, whereas the unnaturally occurring corrinoid cyanocobalamin was present at the lowest concentrations. The species Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly Chlorella pyrenoidosa) is commonly used in dietary supplements and did not show an absolute requirement of vitamin B 12 for growth despite vitamin B 12 uptake from the medium being observed. In further experiments, vitamin B 12 -dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase activities were detected in cell homogenates. In particular, methionine synthase activity was significantly increased following the addition of vitamin B 12 to the medium. These results suggest that vitamin B 12 contents of Chlorella tablets reflect the presence of vitamin B 12 -generating organic ingredients in the medium or the concomitant growth of vitamin B 12 -synthesizing bacteria under open culture conditions.

  6. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth may affect atopy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiraly, N; Benn, Christine Stabell; Biering-Sørensen, S

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that immunogenic interventions such as vaccines and micronutrients may affect atopic sensitization and atopic disease. We aimed to determine whether neonatal BCG vaccination, vitamin A supplementation and other vaccinations affect atopy in childhood....

  7. One year B and D vitamins supplementation improves metabolic bone markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfgang; Kirsch, Susanne H; Kruse, Vera; Eckert, Rudolf; Gräber, Stefan; Geisel, Jürgen; Obeid, Rima

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin D and vitamin B deficiency are common in elderly subjects and are important risk factors for osteoporosis and age-related diseases. Supplementation with these vitamins is a promising preventative strategy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamins D3 and B supplementation on bone turnover and metabolism in elderly people. Healthy subjects (n=93; >54 years) were randomly assigned to receive either daily vitamin D3 (1200 IU), folic acid (0.5 mg), vitamin B12 (0.5 mg), vitamin B6 (50 mg), and calcium carbonate (456 mg) (group A) or only vitamin D3 plus calcium carbonate (group B) in a double blind trial. We measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of supplementation vitamins, metabolites, and bone turnover markers. At baseline mean plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] was low (40 or 30 nmol/L) and parathormone was high (63.7 or 77.9 pg/mL). 25(OH)D and parathormone correlated inversely. S-Adenosyl homocysteine and S-adenosyl methionine correlated with bone alkaline phosphatase, sclerostin, and parathormone. One year vitamin D3 or D3 and B supplementation increased plasma 25(OH)D by median 87.6% (group A) and 133.3% (group B). Parathormone was lowered by median 28.3% (A) and 41.2% (B), bone alkaline phosphatase decreased by 2.8% (A) and 16.2% (B), osteocalin by 37.5% (A) and 49.4% (B), and tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase 5b by 6.1% (A) and 36.0% (B). Median total homocysteine (tHcy) was high at baseline (group A: 12.6, group B: 12.3 µmol/L) and decreased by B vitamins (group A) to 8.9 µmol/L (29.4%). tHcy lowering had no additional effect on bone turnover. One year vitamin D3 supplementation with or without B vitamins decreased the bone turnover significantly. Vitamin D3 lowered parathormone. The additional application of B vitamins did not further improve bone turnover. The marked tHcy lowering by B vitamins may modulate the osteoporotic risk.

  8. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on perinatal depression: in Iranian pregnant mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Vaziri, Farideh; Nasiri, Samira; Tavana, Zohreh; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Jafari, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background Mood disorders in pregnancy and post-partum period are common and considered as a public health issue. Researchers have studied the relationship between low serum vitamin D concentration and perinatal depression, although no clinical trial has been conducted on vitamin D?s effects on depression related to childbirth. This study evaluated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on perinatal depression scores. Methods This randomized clinical trial was done in pregnant women who wer...

  9. Maternal supplementation with natural or synthetic vitamin E and its levels in human colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Heleni A; Ramalho, Heryka M M; Lima, Mayara S R; Grilo, Evellyn C; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Newborns are considered a high-risk group for vitamin E deficiency. Breast milk is a source of alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH), a form of vitamin E that prevents deficiency. The present study aimed to assess whether supplementation with a natural or synthetic form of α-TOH, in addition to maternal sources of vitamin E, would increase the concentration of α-TOH in colostrum. A total of 109 healthy lactating women were recruited from a Brazilian public maternity clinic and randomized into 3 groups: control without supplementation (n = 36), natural α-TOH supplementation (n = 40), and synthetic α-TOH supplementation (n = 33). Blood and colostrum samples were collected before and after supplementation to check the nutritional status of these women by high-performance liquid chromatography. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for independent samples, and Tukey test was used for 2-way analysis of the averages of the groups. The baseline nutritional status of vitamin E of all of the lactating women enrolled in the trial was considered adequate. Women who received supplementation had higher concentrations of α-TOH in colostrum than the control group, with 57% and 39% increases in women supplemented with the natural and synthetic forms of α-TOH, respectively. Supplementation with both forms of α-TOH increased vitamin E concentrations in colostrum; however, the natural form was more efficient in increasing the levels.

  10. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation: state of the art for daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, R.Y.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Geusens, P.P.; Lems, W.F.; van den Bergh, J.P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calcium and vitamin D play an essential role in bone metabolism but deficiency and/or inadequate intake are common. Objectives: To describe a practical approach based on the literature regarding clinically important aspects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Methods: A systematic

  11. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of low-birthweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no evidence of improvement in neonatal or post-neonatal respiratory problems associated with vitamin A supplementation. Vitamin A and placebo groups did not differ in the occurrence or duration of respiratory distress or the need for head-box oxygen. There were also no significant differences in the cumulativ.e ...

  12. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on serum DHEA and neopterin levels in elderly subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, van J.; Horst-Graat, van der J.; Bischoff, E.; Steerenberg, P.; Opperhuizen, A.; Schouten, E.G.

    2005-01-01

    Contradictory results have been published on the immune-stimulating effects of vitamin E. Using a randomized placebo-controlled design, the effect of 15 month¿s daily supplementation with 200 mg vitamin E on two biomarkers of immunocompetence, i.e. serum DHEA sulfate ester (DHEA-S) and neopterin,

  13. Vitamin D3 supplementation in multiple sclerosis: Symptoms and biomarkers of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Linda; Muris, Anne-Hilde; Bol, Yvonne; Damoiseaux, Jan; Smolders, Joost; Hupperts, Raymond

    2017-07-15

    Depressive symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and both depression and MS have been associated with a poor vitamin D status. As cytokine-mediated inflammatory processes play a role in the pathogenesis of both disorders, we hypothesized that vitamin D 3 supplementation reduces depressive symptoms in MS via its immunomodulatory properties. In this randomized pilot study relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients received either vitamin D 3 supplementation (n=20; 14.000IU/day) or placebo (n=20) during 48weeks. Pre- and post-supplementation depression scores, measured using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) depression subscale (HADS-D), showed a significant decrease within the vitamin D 3 group (median HADS-D 4.0 to 3.0, p=0.02), a trend towards a decrease within the placebo group (median HADS-D 3.0 to 2.0, p=0.06), but no significantly different reductions between groups (p=0.78). Furthermore, no reductions in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balances, secreted by stimulated leukocytes and CD8 + T cells, were found in the vitamin D 3 compared to the placebo arm. Therefore, we found no evidence for a reduction of depressive symptoms or related biomarkers upon vitamin D 3 supplementation in RRMS patients in this exploratory study. Whether vitamin D 3 supplementation is of benefit in manifest depression in MS needs to be assessed by additional studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Can Supplementation of Vitamin D Improve Aerobic Capacity in Well Trained Youth Soccer Players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzębska Maria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no clear evidence that vitamin D effectively improves physical capacity in high-level athletes. The aim of this study was to confirm that vitamin D supplementation of soccer players during eight-week high-intensity training would have a significant effect on their aerobic capacity. The subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental one that was supplemented with vitamin D (SG, n = 20, and the placebo group (PG, n = 16, not supplemented with vitamin D. All the players were subjected to the same soccer training described as High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT. The data of the vitamin D level, PWC170, lactate threshold (LT were collected just before and after the intervention. A significant increase in vitamin D concentration (119% was observed in the supplemented group, while the non-supplemented group showed a decrease of 8.4%. The studied subjects improved VO2max results by 20% in the SG, and by 13% in the PG. The improvement in velocity at the LT was similar in both groups. Results of this study show that vitamin D can have a positive, though moderate, effect on aerobic performance in players subjected to high-intensity training in the form of small-sided games for 8 weeks.

  15. Associations between antioxidant vitamins and the risk of invasive cervical cancer in Chinese women: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liyuan; Zhu, Hong; Lin, Chengjun; Che, Jianhua; Tian, Xiujuan; Han, Shiyu; Zhao, Honghui; Zhu, Yumei; Mao, Dongwei

    2015-09-04

    Previous studies on the associations between dietary antioxidant vitamins and the risk of cervical cancer remain inconsistent, and little evidence is available for serum antioxidant vitamins, which provide more accurate measurements of these nutrients. We conducted a case-control study of 458 incident cases with invasive cervical cancer and 742 controls to assess the effects of diet or serum antioxidant vitamins. Higher serum antioxidant vitamins were associated with a lower risk of cervical cancer after adjusting for potential confounders. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.46-0.93; P = 0.024) for α-carotene, 0.63 (95% CI = 0.45-0.90; P = 0.006) for β-carotene, 0.53 (95% CI = 0.37-0.74; P vitamin E, and 0.48 (95% CI = 0.33-0.69; P vitamin C. Dietary intakes of vitamins E and C were inversely associated with the risk of cervical cancer. Risk of cervical cancer from serum antioxidant vitamins was more evident in passive smokers than non-passive smokers. These findings indicated that antioxidant vitamins (mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, and vitamins E and C) might be beneficial in reducing the risk of invasive cervical cancer in Chinese women, especially in passive smokers.

  16. Effect of Incubation Time and Vitamin E Supplementation on Sperm Motility, Viability and DNA Fragmentation in Asthenoteratozoospermic Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Ghafarizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: In Asthenoteratozoospermic‎ men, low motility, defected DNA and highly oxidative stress in ‎sperm ‎‎cause ‎poor‎ assisted reproductive techniques (ART outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Vitamin E (Vit E, as a potent antioxidant, on sperm motility, viability and DNA integrity at different times of in vitro incubation (after 2, 4 and 6-h to improve asthenoteratozoospermic semen samples for ART. Materials and Methods: Asthenoteratozoospermic semen samples of 50 volunteers were collected and examined. Each sample was divided into two groups of control and vitamin E (2mM and kept in the 37 °C and 6 % CO2 for 2, 4 and 6 hours. After this incubation, sperm motility, viability and sperm DNA fragmentation (SCD were evaluated in each group. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement of ANOVA and T-test. The means were considered significantly different at p<0.05. Results:Significant decrease in total and progressive motility and viability as well as significant increase in sperm DNA damage (after 6h of incubation were found in control group vs. the control group before incubation (p<0.05. The sperm motility and viability was significantly higher in vitamin E group compared to untreated control group (p<0.05. Our results also showed that DNA fragmentation significantly was lower after 6h of vitamin E treatment (p<0.05. Conclusion: In vitro supplementation of vitamin E in asthenoteratozoospermia semen samples may protect spermatozoa from maltreatment effect of ROS during sperm sampling via keeping enzymatic and antioxidant process in optimum condition.

  17. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  18. Study of antioxidant activity of natural food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Lozova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE This article describes the results of a study of antioxidant activity of natural food supplements suggested for use in flour confectionery production. Oxidation rate of the model substance - cumene - was measured using a volumetric unit. Diagram of absorbed oxygen amount as a function of time (∆HO2 over t was built by measuring time in minutes and absorbed oxygen volume in cm3. This diagram was subsequently used to graphically determine the oxidation rate as the slope ratio of the line in specified coordinates. Afterwards, the oxidation rate was measured at a different initiation rate (different azobisisobutyronitrile solution volume, while all other parameters of the experiment remained unaltered. On the basis of the resulting data, diagrams of oxidation rate as a function of initiation rate were built for all investigated substances (both extracts and powders. The study revealed that apian products, including pollen and propolis, as well as kidney bean powder and phytosupplements (leaves of leather bergenia, lime blossom, heartsease, wild chamomile, pepper mint, bog rosemary, and elderflowers, possessed high antioxidant activity. According to the research data, the highest activity was detected in propolis  0.482·20 pollen 0.802 and powdered forms of pepper mint 1.066 leather bergenia leaves 0.937 heartsease 0.385 lime blossom 0.331 and kidney beans 0.323. Relatively lower antioxidant activity was found in powdered bog rosemary 0.242 elderflowers 0.238 and wild chamomile 0.212. (Introduction of the investigated supplements will allow inhibiting oxidation processes in the lipide fraction of foodstuffs, including flour confectionery, to ensure stability of their qualitative characteristics over a longer period.

  19. The Role of Vitamin D Supplements in Women's Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M. Bohon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is pivotal to the absorption of calcium and maximizing bone health. Women suffer great morbidity and mortality related to osteoporosis and fractures, which may be decreased by interventions such as vitamin D. In addition, extraskeletal benefits of vitamin D have been postulated including positive effects on cancer. Both the classical and nonclassical functions of vitamin D will be discussed here, with a focus on women.

  20. Antioxidant supplementation to the exercising horse Suplementação de antioxidantes para cavalos atletas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey A. Williams

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of oxidative stress in horses has been described in reports dealing with intense and endurance exercise. Oxidative stress occurs when antioxidant systems are insufficient causing oxidation to potentially damage DNA, proteins, and lipids, and contribute to degenerative changes. Vitamin E is the most commonly supplemented antioxidant in horses and has been shown that horses in exercise conditioning may require higher intakes of vitamin E than recommended. Also in various species vitamin C potentiates the effects of vitamin E; however, under maintenance conditions horses have the ability to synthesize sufficient ascorbate, the demand increases as stress on the body is increased. Competitive endurance horses were estimated to consume 1.2 to 5-times higher levels of vitamin E than recommended intakes. In these horses a negative correlation was found between the vitamin E intake and creatine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Similarly, three-day event horses have vitamin E average intakes about 50% over recommended levels, and it was also found that intake of vitamin E negatively correlated with inflammatory markers. However, large doses of vitamin E at about 10-times the recommended levels could potentially interfere with beta-carotene absorption. While some studies have shown benefits of lipoic acid supplementation in endurance trained horses similar to that of vitamin E, other studies failed to show any benefit of supplemental superoxide dismutase in intensely exercising horses. The implications from this broad scope of work show potential benefits for supplementing various antioxidants however, before assuming efficacy from other species horse specific studies should be performed.Evidência de estresse oxidativo em eqüinos tem sido descrita em artigos que lidam com exercícios intensos e de resistência. O estresse oxidativo ocorre quando sistemas antioxidantes são insuficientes, causando oxidação com potencial de danificar DNA

  1. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2014-01-01

    Available evidence on the effects of vitamin D on mortality has been inconclusive. In a recent systematic review, we found evidence that vitamin D3 may decrease mortality in mostly elderly women. The present systematic review updates and reassesses the benefits and harms of vitamin D...

  2. Effects of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials123

    OpenAIRE

    Juraschek, Stephen P; Guallar, Eliseo; Appel, Lawrence J; Miller, Edgar R

    2012-01-01

    Background: In observational studies, increased vitamin C intake, vitamin C supplementation, and higher blood concentrations of vitamin C are associated with lower blood pressure (BP). However, evidence for blood pressure–lowering effects of vitamin C in clinical trials is inconsistent.

  3. Klinische betekenis van extra vitaminen uit supplementen en verrijkte voedingsmiddelen [Clinical importance of extra vitamins from supplements and enriched foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, R.J.J.; Severs, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    -Consumers increasingly use vitamin supplements. Also, since June 1996, foodstuffs enriched with vitamins are available on the Dutch market. -These sources of extra vitamins may be useful for groups at risk for marginal vitamin deficiencies. -These risk groups include the chronically ill (e.g.

  4. The Effect of Different Doses of Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Resistance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastegar Hoseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and vitamin D deficiency are both too common during menopause. Since the effect of different doses of vitamin D supplements on blood sugar, insulin concentration  and insulin resistance are unknown, the present study aimed at investigating the effects of different doses of the vitamin D supplements on visceral fat, blood sugar, insulin concentration,  and insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods: In this randomized experimental study, 32 female Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal groups  as follows: three groups . that received vitamin D supplements (high, moderate, and low dose and one control group. After 8 weeks of different doses of vitamin D supplementation plasma concentration of glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were measured  in the three groups. The obtained data  was statistically analyzed by means of dependent t-test and ANOVA . at the significance level of P<0.05. Results: After a period of eight-week  intervention, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat, insulin, blood glucose and HOMA-IR at high, moderate, and low doses of vitamin D supplementation were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05. High dose of vitamin D compared with moderate and low doses significantly caused reduction in insulin, blood glucose, and HOMA-IR (P<0.001 for all three variables. Conclusion: The findings of the current study showed that a high dose of vitamin D causes significant improvements in FPG, insulin, and insulin resistance  evaluated by HOMA-IR. It was also found that adding vitamin D supplements can improve glucose control in menopause model of rats.

  5. Glycemic changes after vitamin D supplementation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid S Aljabri; Somoa A Bokhari; Murtadha J. Khan

    2010-01-01

    A prospective, nonblinded and nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation would improve glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who have vitamin D deficiency. Patients and 0 Eighty patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels less than 50 nmol/L were assigned to receive 4000 IU of vitamin D3. Calcium supplements were provided to ensure a total calcium intake of 1200 mg/d. Glycosylated hemoglobin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured at baseline and at 12 weeks.There was a significant difference in mean (SD) glycosylated hemoglobin level (%) between the groups that achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 51 nmol/L at 12 weeks (P=.02). There was a significant difference in glycosylated hemoglobin change from baseline between the groups that achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 51 nmol/L at 12 weeks (P=.04). There was a significant difference in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level between the groups that achieved glycosylated hemoglobin levels of 9.9 at 12 weeks (P=.001). Patients were more likely to achieve lower glycosylated hemoglobin levels at 12 weeks if they had higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at 12 weeks (r=-0.4, P=.001).There was an observed effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control in vitamin D-replete, type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. Further studies are needed to determine if these findings are applicable (Author).

  6. Vitamin D3supplementation does not modify cardiovascular risk profile of adults with inadequate vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Eric; Lehmann, Ulrike; Riedel, Annett; Ulrich, Christof; Hirche, Frank; Brandsch, Corinna; Dierkes, Jutta; Girndt, Matthias; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-03-01

    The Nutrition Societies in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland recommend a daily intake of 20 µg vitamin D 3 for adults when endogenous synthesis is absent. The current study aimed to elucidate whether this vitamin D 3 dose impacts cardiovascular risk markers of adults during the winter months. The study was conducted in Halle (Saale), Germany (51 o northern latitude) as a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised trial (from January to April). A total of 105 apparently healthy subjects (male and female, 20-71 years old) were included. Subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. One group received a daily 20-µg vitamin D 3 dose (n = 54), and the other group received a placebo (n = 51) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included blood pressure, heart rate, concentrations of renin, aldosterone, serum lipids and vascular calcification markers, and haematologic variables such as pro-inflammatory monocytes. Blood pressure and systemic cardiovascular risk markers remained unchanged by vitamin D 3 supplementation, although serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 increased from 38 ± 14 to 73 ± 16 nmol/L at week 12. The placebo and vitamin D groups did not differ in their final cardiovascular risk profile. Daily supplementation of 20 µg vitamin D 3 during winter is unlikely to change cardiovascular risk profile.

  7. Maternal vitamin D supplementation to meet the needs of the breastfed infant: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Doria K; Senti, Jeanine L; Anderson, Cindy M

    2013-05-01

    Maternal vitamin D insufficiency during lactation, related to lack of sun exposure and minimal intake of vitamin D from the diet, contributes to low breast milk vitamin D content and, therefore, infant vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this review was to examine the literature regarding evidence for achieving maternal vitamin D status that promotes sufficient vitamin D transfer from mother to infant exclusively from breast milk. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched using the terms lactation or breastfeeding or milk, human and vitamin D. The resulting articles were further limited to those written in English, published within the last 10 years, and involving clinical or randomized controlled trials of humans. The search yielded 13 studies, 3 of which provide evidence for maternal intake of vitamin D and the correlation with exclusively breastfed infants' serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. A strong positive correlation exists between maternal vitamin D intake during exclusive breastfeeding and infant serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. There is support to conclude that when maternal vitamin D intake is sufficient, vitamin D transfer via breast milk is adequate to meet infant needs. In the reviewed studies, doses up to 10 times the current recommended daily intake of vitamin D were needed to produce sufficient transfer from mother to breastfed infant. Further research is needed to refine the dose and gestational timing of maternal vitamin D supplementation. Due to the high rates of vitamin D deficiency during lactation and the correlations between vitamin D deficiency and multiple diseases, providers should consider monitoring lactating mothers' vitamin D status.

  8. Efficacy of Supplementation with B Vitamins for Stroke Prevention: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Dong

    Full Text Available Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke.A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions.B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12.B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied.

  9. Supplementation of a western diet with golden kiwifruits (Actinidia chinensis var.'Hort 16A': effects on biomarkers of oxidation damage and antioxidant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomhoff Rune

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health positive effects of diets high in fruits and vegetables are generally not replicated in supplementation trials with isolated antioxidants and vitamins, and as a consequence the emphasis of chronic disease prevention has shifted to whole foods and whole food products. Methods We carried out a human intervention trial with the golden kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis, measuring markers of antioxidant status, DNA stability, plasma lipids, and platelet aggregation. Our hypothesis was that supplementation of a normal diet with kiwifruits would have an effect on biomarkers of oxidative status. Healthy volunteers supplemented a normal diet with either one or two golden kiwifruits per day in a cross-over study lasting 2 × 4 weeks. Plasma levels of vitamin C, and carotenoids, and the ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP were measured. Malondialdehyde was assessed as a biomarker of lipid oxidation. Effects on DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes were estimated using the comet assay with enzyme modification to measure specific lesions; another modification allowed estimation of DNA repair. Results Plasma vitamin C increased after supplementation as did resistance towards H2O2-induced DNA damage. Purine oxidation in lymphocyte DNA decreased significantly after one kiwifruit per day, pyrimidine oxidation decreased after two fruits per day. Neither DNA base excision nor nucleotide excision repair was influenced by kiwifruit consumption. Malondialdehyde was not affected, but plasma triglycerides decreased. Whole blood platelet aggregation was decreased by kiwifruit supplementation. Conclusion Golden kiwifruit consumption strengthens resistance towards endogenous oxidative damage.

  10. Effects of antioxidants on CD4 and viral load in HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa - dietary supplements vs. local diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkengfack, Germaine N; Torimiro, Judith N; Englert, Heike

    2012-02-01

    In sub-Sahara Africa, micronutrient deficiency, especially of antioxidant micronutrients including vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, selenium, zinc, and polyphenols is very common in HIV-positive patients. Amongst adults, women are the most vulnerable. Antioxidants are known to play a vital role in the immune system, reducing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is induced by excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), due to the HIV infection. Such damage may be prevented or moderated through adequate oral intake of antioxidants, scavenging ROS, as well as protecting cells and tissues against oxidative stress. Antioxidants can be provided to the body through locally available antioxidant rich-diets such as fruit-and-vegetable-based diets and/or dietary supplements. Provision of antioxidants through local diets or dietary supplements exercise beneficial effects on biological markers of the immune system (CD4 and viral load). However, while dietary supplements represent a costly and short-term strategy to limiting antioxidant deficiency, local diets, combined with adequate nutritional education, can provide a low-cost and long-term strategy to reduce oxidative stress, prevent micronutrient deficiency, and slow down HIV disease progression. The former can be applicable in countries around the West, Central, and South coast of Africa, which are rich in natural food resources. In contrast with significant evidence that dietary supplements confer benefits in HIV patients, fewer data are available relating to the benefits of local diets. Thus the need to do more research in this area arises. This review compares available data on effects of antioxidants on CD4 and viral load in HIV-positive women noneligible for antiretroviral therapy. Intake of antioxidants though dietary supplements and local diet, associated with nutritional education, is compared. Studies conducted in sub-Sahara Africa are considered.

  11. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on chronic liver disease: systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Mosannen Mozaffari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is long known that vitamin D deficiency was common in patients with liver disease, but little is known on the therapeutic effects of vitamin D, especially in patients with chronic liver disease. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the literatures and study the evidences in which the effects of vitamin D supplementation had been investigated on the severity of chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed by using the following key terms “vitamin D supplementation” and “chronic liver disease” in the PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar to find relevant articles. After collecting the eligible documents, data were extracted and described based on the purpose of this review.Result: Of total 196 articles found, only 7 relevant documents with 518 studied patients were included. The results of this study showed that the levels of 25(OH D were considerably lower in patients with chronic liver disease. Findings showed that vitamin D supplementation can rise up the mean serum level of 25(OH D in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency, especially patients with liver cirrhosis.Conclusion:The results of this review showed that vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of liver disease and may have prognostic value in the assessment of liver disease. Also, it was shown that vitamin D supplementation may be helpful for the treatment of liver disease at least in certain groups of patients.

  12. Does vitamin D supplementation of healthy Danish Caucasian girls affect bone turnover and bone mineralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard, C.; Larnkjaer, A.; Cashman, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    and after 12 months whereas physical activity and dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D were assessed at baseline. Serum (S) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), S-osteocalcin, S-parathyroid hormone, S-calcium, S-inorganic phosphate, urinary (U) pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxpyridinoline (Dpyr) were measured......Introduction: A high peak bone mass may be essential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis later in life and a sufficient vitamin D level during puberty may be necessary for optimal bone accretion and obtaining a high peak bone mass. Dietary intake and synthesis during winter of vitamin D might...... be limited but the effect of vitamin D supplementation in adolescence on bone mass is not well established. Objective: To investigate the effect of supplementation with 5 and 10 mu g/day vitamin D-3 for 12 months in 11- to 12-year-old girls on bone mass and bone turnover as well as the possible influence...

  13. High-dose Vitamin D supplementation precipitating hypercalcemic crisis in granulomatous disorders

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    Vijaya Sarathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D supplementation precipitating hypercalcemic crisis is often the first manifestation in patients with granulomatous disorders. Methods: We report our experience on patients presenting with hypercalcemic crisis due to granulomatous disorder and the role of Vitamin D supplementation in the precipitation of hypercalcemic crisis in them. Results: The study included five patients with granulomatous disorders who presented with hypercalcemic crisis. All patients initially presented with nonspecific constitutional symptoms to other health-care centers to receive high-dose Vitamin D supplementation (60,000 U/week or 600,000 U intramuscular single dose. All of these patients presented with hypercalcemic crisis (serum calcium: 16.04 ± 0.3 mg/dl to our centers after a period of 32.8 ± 9.62 days. Three patients were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis, and two were diagnosed to have tuberculosis. All five patients had parathyroid hormone-independent hypercalcemia with elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme level was elevated in all the three patients with sarcoidosis. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed in two patients with sarcoidosis which demonstrated diffusely increased tracer uptake in liver. In these two patients, liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusions: High-dose Vitamin D supplementation is most often the underlying cause of hypercalcemic crisis in patients with granulomatous disorders. Hence, high-dose Vitamin D supplementation should be used judiciously.

  14. Vitamin supplement use and its correlates among elderly Japanese men residing on Oahu, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Nomura, A M; Stemmermann, G N; Chyou, P H

    1992-01-01

    Use of vitamin supplements and the association with personal characteristics were investigated among 4,654 American men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii. A total of 58 percent of the subjects who were ages 68 to 90 took vitamin supplements. Among supplement users, multivitamins were most commonly used (77 percent), followed by vitamin C (53 percent), E (43 percent), and A (10 percent). Ninety-two percent of users took at least seven pills per week when all types of pills were combined. Vitamin supplement users were more educated, more physically active, more likely to be married, and less obese than nonusers. They also slept less, smoked less, and drank less alcohol and caffeine. They took more analgesics and stomach medication and had fewer days of hospitalization in the previous 10 years compared with nonusers. Except for physical activity, use of stomach medicines, and hospitalization, the other characteristics were also positively correlated with the amount of vitamin pill intake. These findings indicate that vitamin supplement users have different health patterns compared with nonusers.

  15. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joyce Ramalho; Rosa, Érica Patrícia Cunha; Nunes, Ivone Freires de Oliveira Costa; Carvalho, Cecilia Maria Resende Gonçalves de

    The objective of this systematic review was to analyze clinical trials carried out for the investigation of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on systemic lupus erythematosus. The research was performed from August to September 2016, without limits regarding year of publication, restriction of gender, age, and ethnicity. For the guiding question, the PICO strategy was employed. To evaluate the quality of the publications the PRISMA protocol and Jadad scale were used. The risk of bias analysis of the clinical trials was performed using the Cochrane collaboration tool. After the process of article selection and removal of duplicates, four articles were identified as eligible. The results of three studies showed a positive effect of supplementation on disease activity reduction and significant improvement in levels of inflammatory markers, fatigue, and endothelial function. Only one study showed no improvement in disease activity after supplementation. Moreover, all studies showed an increase in serum vitamin D levels. The data from this review provide evidence on the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in patients with lupus and vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. However, it is still necessary to elucidate whether vitamin D acts in the protection against this metabolic disorder, as well as the standardization of the type, dose and time of vitamin D supplementation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. Haptoglobin phenotype, preeclampsia risk and the efficacy of vitamin C and E supplementation to prevent preeclampsia in a racially diverse population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey L Weissgerber

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin's (Hp antioxidant and pro-angiogenic properties differ between the 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2 phenotypes. Hp phenotype affects cardiovascular disease risk and treatment response to antioxidant vitamins in some non-pregnant populations. We previously demonstrated that preeclampsia risk was doubled in white Hp 2-1 women, compared to Hp 1-1 women. Our objectives were to determine whether we could reproduce this finding in a larger cohort, and to determine whether Hp phenotype influences lack of efficacy of antioxidant vitamins in preventing preeclampsia and serious complications of pregnancy-associated hypertension (PAH. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which 10,154 low-risk women received daily vitamin C and E, or placebo, from 9-16 weeks gestation until delivery. Hp phenotype was determined in the study prediction cohort (n = 2,393 and a case-control cohort (703 cases, 1,406 controls. The primary outcome was severe PAH, or mild or severe PAH with elevated liver enzymes, elevated serum creatinine, thrombocytopenia, eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, medically indicated preterm birth or perinatal death. Preeclampsia was a secondary outcome. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression. Sampling weights were used to reduce bias from an overrepresentation of women with preeclampsia or the primary outcome. There was no relationship between Hp phenotype and the primary outcome or preeclampsia in Hispanic, white/other or black women. Vitamin supplementation did not reduce the risk of the primary outcome or preeclampsia in women of any phenotype. Supplementation increased preeclampsia risk (odds ratio 3.30; 95% confidence interval 1.61-6.82, p<0.01 in Hispanic Hp 2-2 women. Hp phenotype does not influence preeclampsia risk, or identify a subset of women who may benefit from vitamin C and E supplementation to prevent preeclampsia.

  17. Increased 3-nitrotyrosine levels in mitochondrial membranes and impaired respiratory chain activity in brain regions of adult female rats submitted to daily vitamin A supplementation for 2 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Lorenzi, Rodrigo; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Morrone, Maurílio; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2011-10-10

    Vitamin A supplementation among women is a common habit worldwide in an attempt to slow aging progression due to the antioxidant potential attributed to retinoids. Nonetheless, vitamin A elicits a myriad of side effects that result from either therapeutic or inadvertent intake at varying doses for different periods. The mechanism behind such effects remains to be elucidated. In this regard, we performed the present work aiming to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation at 100, 200, or 500IU/kgday(-1) for 2 months on female rat brain, analyzing tissue lipid peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzyme activities (both Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase - SOD - and Mn-SOD); glutathione S-transferase (GST) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme activity; mitochondrial respiratory chain activity and redox parameters in mitochondrial membranes, as well as quantifying α- and β-synucleins, β-amyloid peptide(1-40), immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein/78kDa glucose-regulated protein (BiP/GRP78), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), D2 receptor, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contents in rat frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum. We observed increased lipid peroxidation marker levels, altered Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD enzyme activities, mitochondrial nitrosative stress, and impaired respiratory chain activity in such brain regions. On the other hand, we did not find any change in MAO and GST enzyme activities, and on α- and β-synucleins, β-amyloid peptide(1-40), GRP78/BiP, RAGE, D2 receptor, and TNF-α contents. Importantly, we did not observed any evidence regarding an antioxidant effect of such vitamin at low doses in this experimental model. The use of vitamin A as an antioxidant therapy among women needs to be reexamined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of B-vitamin supplementation on stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: B vitamins have been extensively used to reduce homocysteine levels; however, it remains uncertain whether B vitamins are associated with a reduced risk of stroke. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of B vitamins on stroke. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify studies for our analysis. Relative risk (RR was used to measure the effect of B-vitamin supplementation on the risk of stroke. The analysis was further stratified based on factors that could affect the treatment effects. Of the 13,124 identified articles, we included 18 trials reporting data on 57,143 individuals and 2,555 stroke events. B-vitamin supplementation was not associated with a significant reduction in the risk of stroke (RR, 0.91, 95%CI: 0.82-1.01, P = 0.075; RD, -0.003, 95%CI: -0.007-0.001, P = 0.134. Subgroup analyses suggested that B-vitamin supplementation might reduce the risk of stroke if included trials had a man/woman ratio of more than 2 or subjects received dose of folic acid less than 1 mg. Furthermore, in a cumulative meta-analysis for stroke, the originally proposed nonsignificant B-vitamin effect was refuted by the evidence accumulated up to 2006. There is a small effect with borderline statistical significance based on data gathered since 2007. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study indicates that B-vitamin supplementation is not associated with a lower risk of stroke based on relative and absolute measures of association. Subgroup analyses suggested that B-vitamin supplementation can effectively reduce the risk of stroke if included trials had a man/woman ratio of more than 2 or subjects received dose of folic acid less than 1 mg.

  19. Prevention of vasculopathy by vitamin K supplementation: can we turn fiction into fact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Vincent M; Schurgers, Leon J; Kaesler, Nadine; Püsche, Katrin; van Gorp, Rick H; Leftheriotis, Georges; Reinartz, Sebastian; Koos, Ralf; Krüger, Thilo

    2015-05-01

    With the discovery that vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP) is a strong and modifiable factor in the prevention of arterial calcification, vitamin K was put forward as novel treatment option in cardiovascular disease. The vasculoprotective properties of vitamin K are in part based on the ability to improve gamma-glutamylcarboxylation of MGP, which is a prerequisite for MGP as a calcification inhibitor. Data from experimental animal models reveal that high intake of vitamin K can prevent and even reverse vascular calcifications. In addition, clinical data demonstrate that prescription of vitamin K antagonists for long-term oral anticoagulant therapy accelerates vascular calcification. However, controlled data from randomized prospective vitamin K interventional trials are lacking, thereby weakening a general recommendation for supplementation. The present article summarizes our current knowledge on the association between vitamin K and cardiovascular health. Additionally, we focus on an outlook on important ongoing prospective vitamin K intervention studies. These studies address the issues whether vitamin K substitution helps modifying relevant cardiovascular surrogates such as vascular calcification and whether non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants provide an alternative to support cardiovascular health benefits. So research about cardiovascular protection by vitamin K is an evolving field in which we expect a boost of novel and relevant evidence shortly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Albert; Kehoe, Laura; Hennessy, Áine; Walton, Janette

    2017-12-01

    To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. SML of nutrients in supplements were lower for children than for adults, except for calcium and iron. Daily energy intake from fortified foods in high consumers (95th percentile) varied by nutrient from 138 to 342 kcal in adults and 40-309 kcal in children. SML (/100 kcal) of nutrients in fortified food were lower for children than adults for vitamins B6 and D, higher for vitamin E, with little difference for other nutrients. Including 25 % 'overage' for nutrients in fortified foods and supplements had little effect on SML. Nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to supplements and fortified foods for these population subgroups. The estimated SML of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements may be considered safe for these population subgroups over the long term given the food composition and dietary patterns prevailing in the respective dietary surveys. This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources.

  1. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity on exposure to acute restraint stress in sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, G.M.; Hussain, M.M.; Aslam, M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects of ascorbic acid (AA) and alpha tocopherol (AT) supplementation on stress induced changes in serum malondialdehyde and serum superoxide dismutase levels in male Sprague Dawley rats. Study design: Quasi experimental study Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad during March 2009 to September 2009. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups with sixteen rats in each group. Group I served as control without stress and group II exposed to restraint stress for 06 hours, group III given ascorbic acid, group IV alpha tocopherol and group V was supplemented with both vitamins along with standard diet for one month. All antioxidant supplemented groups were exposed to restraint stress for six hours. Immediately after stress, the blood samples were analyzed colorimetrically to estimate serum malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase by commercially available kits. Results: There was no significant fall in serum malondialdehyde in rats supplemented with ascorbic acid alone, however rats supplemented with alpha tocopherol or combination of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol revealed significant fall in serum malondialdehyde and increment in superoxide dismutase activity. Conclusions: Alpha tocopherol alone and in combination with ascorbic acid is effective to prevent reactive oxygen species induced increase in lipid peroxidation and fall in super oxide dismutase activity thereby conferring protection against oxidative stress. (author)

  2. Antioxidant supplement and long-term reduction of recurrent adenomas of the large bowel. A double-blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Luigina; Puntoni, Matteo; Gatteschi, Beatrice; Massa, Paolo; Missale, Guido; Munizzi, Francesco; Turbino, Laura; Villanacci, Vincenzo; De Censi, Andrea; Bruzzi, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    Patients who undergo polypectomy are at increased risk of adenoma recurrence. The preventive potential of vitamins (A, C and E) and selenium supplementation represent an interesting opportunity for colorectal cancer prevention. To assess the efficacy of a combination of these micronutrients in reducing the incidence of recurrent adenomas in subjects on post-polypectomy endoscopic follow-up, a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was started in Italy in 1988. A total of 411 patients were randomized to receive either an active compound (200 μg selenium, 30 mg zinc, 2 mg vitamin A, 180 mg vitamin C, 30 mg vitamin E) or a placebo daily for 5 years. Of them, 330 had follow-up colonoscopy (164 in the intervention and 166 in the placebo group). After a median follow-up of 4 years (range 1-15 years), 100 patients had recurrence: 38 in the intervention and 62 in the placebo arm. The 15-year cumulative incidence of recurrence was 48.3% in the intervention and 64.5% in the placebo arm (HR = 0.59; log-rank P = 0.009). A 39% reduction of the risk of recurrence was observed in the intervention compared to the placebo group (adjusted HR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.41-0.92): the risk reduction was similar for small tubular (adjusted HR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.37-0.99) and advanced adenomas (adjusted HR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.24-1.01). Our study showed a statistically significant effect of antioxidant supplementation on adenoma recurrence. Further clinical trials are needed to address the role of antioxidants in subgroups of subjects at increased risk for colorectal cancer.

  3. Variety and Harvesting Season Effects on Antioxidant Activity and Vitamins Content of Citrus sinensis Macfad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cardeñosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Five sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck varieties cultivated in Huelva (Spain and picked at two seasons during two consecutive years, were characterized for their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition and vitamin content (vitamin E and vitamin C. The effects induced by sweet orange variety and stage of maturity were comprehensively compared by applying 2-way ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. The results indicated higher differences in antioxidant activity and vitamin contents in response to the effect of the harvesting season, when compared to the effect of sweet orange variety. Nevertheless, the results observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the assayed sweet orange varieties. Either way, it might be concluded that oranges sampled in January show the highest antioxidant activity and vitamin contents. Furthermore, concerning the properties evaluated in this work, all sweet orange varieties represent good alternatives, except for Rhode Summer, which would not be the preferable choice as a target to enhance sweet orange overall characteristics.

  4. Variety and Harvesting Season Effects on Antioxidant Activity and Vitamins Content of Citrus sinensis Macfad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Arenas-Arenas, Francisco J; Moreno-Rojas, José M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-05-07

    Five sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) varieties cultivated in Huelva (Spain) and picked at two seasons during two consecutive years, were characterized for their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and vitamin content (vitamin E and vitamin C). The effects induced by sweet orange variety and stage of maturity were comprehensively compared by applying 2-way ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. The results indicated higher differences in antioxidant activity and vitamin contents in response to the effect of the harvesting season, when compared to the effect of sweet orange variety. Nevertheless, the results observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the assayed sweet orange varieties. Either way, it might be concluded that oranges sampled in January show the highest antioxidant activity and vitamin contents. Furthermore, concerning the properties evaluated in this work, all sweet orange varieties represent good alternatives, except for Rhode Summer, which would not be the preferable choice as a target to enhance sweet orange overall characteristics.

  5. Serum levels of antioxidant vitamins in sicklers and non-sicklers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tocopherol) of paediatric- age group were determined in sicklers and non-sicklers within the Sokoto metropolis. The levels of the antioxidant vitamins ... This shall be the subject of our future investigation(s). Key Words: Sicklers, Non- sicklers, ...

  6. Antioxidant Vitamin Levels Do Not Exhibit Negative Correlation with the Extent of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mužáková, V.; Vojtíšek, P.; Meloun, M.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Toušar, T.; Červinková, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2005), s. 623-629 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; MSM0021627502 Keywords : Antioxidant vitamin s * α-Tocopherol * β-Carotene Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  7. Serum levels of antioxidant vitamins in foetal haemoglobin (HbF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is one of the commonest health problems of Nigerian children. Method: The serum levels of antioxidant vitamins A (retinol), C (ascorbic acid) and E (alpha-tocopherol) were determined in foetal haemogbobin persistent sickle cell anaemic (Hb SS + F), sickle cell anaemic (Hb SS) and ...

  8. Biomimetic 'Green' Synthesis of Nanomaterials Using Antioxidants-Vitamins, Glutathione and Polyphenols from Tea and Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation summarizes our recent activity in chemical synthesis of nanomaterials via benign biomimetic ‘greener’ alternatives,1 such as the use antioxidants present in a variety of natural products, and ubiquitous glutathione in aqueous media.2 Vitamins B1, B2, C, and tea ...

  9. [Impact of supplementation of vitamins and minerals on nutritional status of women in suburb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liyun; Wang, Sishun; Jia, Jianbin; Jia, Fengmei; Liu, Changqing; Liu, Aidong; Ping, Bo; Zhai, Fengying

    2003-09-01

    In order to investigate the effect of vitamins-minerals supplementation on the nutritional status of Chinese women, 252 villagers aged 20-50 years old were selected as the participants in the study in Longli County, Guizhou Province. Within Twenty two weeks, half of the participants received the supplements and half had placebo. The results showed that in comparison with the control, the women with supplementation represented a higher urine excretion of vitamin B1 and B2 after a loading dosage and, a higher concentration of serum iron and zinc and a lower prevalence of anemia. They kept their facial moisture and grease better than those of the controls. They also felt better in sleeping, having appetite, and doing physical activities. The results indicated that the supplementation of vitamins-minerals might improve the nutritional status of rural Chinese women.

  10. The relationship between oxidative damage and vitamin E concentration in blood, milk, and liver tissue from vitamin E supplemented and nonsupplemented periparturient heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwstra, R J; Goselink, R M A; Dobbelaar, P; Nielen, M; Newbold, J R; van Werven, T

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between oxidative damage and the effect of vitamin E supplementation in blood, milk, and liver tissue in 16 periparturient heifers. The question is whether measurements of oxidative and vitamin E status in blood of a periparturient cow are representative of the total body, given that blood concentrations of both vitamin E and oxidative stress products change around this period. The daily vitamin E intake of the vitamin E-supplemented Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 8) was 3,000 international units and was started 2 mo before calving; the control heifers (n = 8) were not supplemented. Oxidative damage was determined on the basis of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Blood was sampled 9 times before calving, on calving day, and twice after calving. Liver biopsies were taken at wk -5, -1, and 2 relative to calving day. Milk was obtained from all heifers immediately after calving, the first 2 milkings and on d 3, 7, and 14 at 0600 h. Serum and liver tissue were analyzed for vitamin E, cholesterol, and MDA; and milk samples were analyzed for vitamin E, MDA, fat, protein, and somatic cell count. The results showed that vitamin E supplements increased both absolute vitamin E concentrations and the ratio of vitamin E to cholesterol in blood and liver tissue. Absolute vitamin E concentration in milk tended to be greater in supplemented cows. Based on the increased MDA blood concentrations at calving, it seems that dairy heifers experience oxidative stress. The effect of vitamin E on MDA differs between the blood, liver, and mammary gland. Vitamin E supplementation could not prevent the increase in blood MDA at calving, but the significantly lower MDA blood concentrations of supplemented cows in the 2 wk after calving suggest that vitamin E has a role in recovery from parturition-related oxidative stress. Vitamin E supplementation reduced oxidative damage in liver, whereas no obvious effect was found on milk MDA concentrations. A

  11. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hossein-nezhad

    Full Text Available Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3 or 2000 IUs (n = 5 vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified.Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin D.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.

  12. Routine vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of blindness due to measles infection in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bello, Segun; Meremikwu, Martin M; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced vitamin A concentration increases the risk of blindness in children infected with the measles virus. Promoting vitamin A supplementation in children with measles contributes to the control of blindness in children, which is a high priority within the World Health Organization...... (WHO) VISION 2020 The Right to Sight Program. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in children with measles without prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL 2015, Issue 11, MEDLINE (1950 to December week 3, 2015), Embase...... (1974 to December 2015) and LILACS (1985 to December 2015). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in well-nourished children diagnosed with measles but with no prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. DATA COLLECTION...

  13. Vitamin C and E supplementation blunts increases in total lean body mass in elderly men after strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnsen, T; Salvesen, S; Berntsen, S; Hetlelid, K J; Stea, T H; Lohne-Seiler, H; Rohde, G; Haraldstad, K; Raastad, T; Køpp, U; Haugeberg, G; Mansoor, M A; Bastani, N E; Blomhoff, R; Stølevik, S B; Seynnes, O R; Paulsen, G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on changes in muscle mass (lean mass and muscle thickness) and strength during 12 weeks of strength training in elderly men. Thirty-four elderly males (60-81 years) were randomized to either an antioxidant group (500 mg of vitamin C and 117.5 mg vitamin E before and after training) or a placebo group following the same strength training program (three sessions per week). Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle thickness by ultrasound imaging. Muscle strength was measured as one-repetition maximum (1RM). Total lean mass increased by 3.9% (95% confidence intervals: 3.0, 5.2) and 1.4% (0, 5.4) in the placebo and antioxidant groups, respectively, revealing larger gains in the placebo group (P = 0.04). Similarly, the thickness of m. rectus femoris increased more in the placebo group [16.2% (12.8, 24.1)] than in the antioxidant group [10.9% (9.8, 13.5); P = 0.01]. Increases of lean mass in trunk and arms, and muscle thickness of elbow flexors, did not differ significantly between groups. With no group differences, 1RM improved in the range of 15-21% (P strength training in elderly men. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. New Advances about the Effect of Vitamins on Human Health: Vitamins Supplements and Nutritional Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    García Uribe, Noelia; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2017-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a crucial period for the identification and biological-chemical-physical characterisation of vitamins. From then until now, many studies have attempted to clarify into detail the biological role of the vitamins in humans and their direct connection with certain diseases, either in a negative way (appearance of deficiency diseases due to vitamin deficiency) or a positive way (use of vitamins to treat diseases and/or to improve human health). The aim of this work...

  15. Free Radical Attack on Membrane Lipid and Antioxidant Vitamins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eclampsia, its pathogenesis is still yet to be ascertained. Oxidative stress (oxidant (free radical) in excess of antioxidant) injury is one of the recently suggested pathogenetic mechanisms. This study, however, was designed to determine second and ...

  16. [Recommendations on vitamin D and calcium supplements for adults in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigueira García, Ana Isabel

    2012-10-01

    Calcium supplements and vitamin D are involved in current debates of health, as cardiovascular safety of calcium, and correction of vitamin levels. The aim is to review the possibilities of making better use of supplements marketed in Spain, depending on their availability, information and related epidemiology. Analysis of comercial offer and available information about pharmacological aspects of Spanish medicinal supplements in data-sheets (39), guides and reports current institutional and professional, with additional search of this information and epidemiological data related Spanish in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ®, PubMed ® (tool "Clinical Queries"), Dialnet database and hand search of Spanish journals directly related. There is no uniformity in terms of indication, expression of content, dosages, precautions and safety in data sheets or technical reports. The literature search found more recent publications volume for vitamin D than calcium, No evidence was found to establish appropriate dosing regimens indisputable or universal, or cholecalciferol bioavailability tests with aqueous vehiculización. In Spain nutritional situation is found generally suitable for the calcium but a status mostly unsuitable for vitamin D with several references for insufficiency and vitamin deficiency in adults. Corrective treatments primarily affect calcium supplements. There is an ample supply of calcium and vitamin D in Spain, whose drug design should rethink because don't respond to the needs identified or correction possibilities currently recommended. It should also improve and update their information, with particular interest in health status related to hypovitaminosis D.

  17. Lipid oxidation in buffalo meat from animals with dietary supplementation of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chianese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis meat is not widely used in the diet, but it is recently reconsidered due to its valuable nutritional qualities. New strategies aiming to improve the quality of buffalo meat have to be applied particularly to face the problem of lipid peroxidation, one of the most important causes of meat food deterioration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid oxidation of buffalo meat (muscles Caput longum tricipitis brachii, Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus, coming from animals fed with two different amount of vitamin E (600 IU/die and 1500 IU/die for 102 -123 days considering, as markers for lipid oxidation, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA by HPLC-UV and TBA test. Moreover it was evaluated, by HPLC-DAD, vitamin E concentration in the meat samples. Muscles coming from animals with vitamin E supplementation were in mean 2 times more enriched of vitamin E than control (p < 0.05. Meat from buffalo fed with 600 IU/die vitamin E had significant lower MDA concentration in comparison with control (in mean -53%, n= 4. Both for MDA and vitamin E concentrations not significant differences were found between the supplementation of 600 IU/die and 1500 IU/die. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with Vitamin E is a promising strategy to prevent lipid oxidation of buffalo meat and to prolong its shelf-life.

  18. Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OHD concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OHD concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OHD response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OHD, aging, body mass index(BMI/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation and environment (season are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OHD, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined.

  19. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy--does it decrease rates of preterm birth? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, Paul; Thorp, John; Allen, Ian

    2014-02-01

    To assess the evidence available on the use of vitamin C supplementation greater than recommended dietary intake to reduce preterm birth rates. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials using vitamin C alone or with one other supplement other than iron. Trials must report preterm birth rates but can have other primary outcomes. Preterm birth is defined as birth at less than 37 weeks' gestational age for this review. Review focused on studies with populations representative of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Inadequate level of evidence on the use of vitamin C alone to prevent preterm birth rates in low-risk populations based on one study. Three studies provided convincing evidence of no benefit in low-risk groups of use of vitamins C and E combined. Three studies provided adequate evidence of no benefit in high-risk groups of use of vitamins C and E combined. The available evidence supports no benefit gained from using vitamin C to prevent preterm birth. Evidence does not support limiting use of vitamin C supplementation for other indications. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Influence of vitamin E supplementation on glycaemic control: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfan Xu

    Full Text Available Observational studies have revealed that higher serum vitamin E concentrations and increased vitamin E intake and vitamin E supplementation are associated with beneficial effects on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, whether vitamin E supplementation exerts a definitive effect on glycaemic control remains unclear. This article involves a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of vitamin E to better characterise its impact on HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were electronically searched from the earliest possible date through April 2013 for all relevant studies. Weighted mean difference (WMD was calculated for net changes using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Standard methods for assessing statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were used. Fourteen randomised controlled trials involving individual data on 714 subjects were collected in this meta-analysis. Increased vitamin E supplementation did not result in significant benefits in glycaemic control as measured by reductions in HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin. Subgroup analyses revealed a significant reduction in HbA1c (-0.58%, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.34 and fasting insulin (-9.0 pmol/l, 95% CI -15.90 to -2.10 compared with controls in patients with low baseline vitamin E status. Subgroup analyses also demonstrated that the outcomes may have been influenced by the vitamin E dosage, study duration, ethnic group, serum HbA1c concentration, and fasting glucose control status. In conclusion, there is currently insufficient evidence to support a potential beneficial effect of vitamin E supplementation on improvements of HbA1c and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in subjects with T2DM.

  1. Influence of vitamin E supplementation on glycaemic control: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renfan; Zhang, Shasha; Tao, Anyu; Chen, Guangzhi; Zhang, Muxun

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have revealed that higher serum vitamin E concentrations and increased vitamin E intake and vitamin E supplementation are associated with beneficial effects on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, whether vitamin E supplementation exerts a definitive effect on glycaemic control remains unclear. This article involves a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of vitamin E to better characterise its impact on HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were electronically searched from the earliest possible date through April 2013 for all relevant studies. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated for net changes using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Standard methods for assessing statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were used. Fourteen randomised controlled trials involving individual data on 714 subjects were collected in this meta-analysis. Increased vitamin E supplementation did not result in significant benefits in glycaemic control as measured by reductions in HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin. Subgroup analyses revealed a significant reduction in HbA1c (-0.58%, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.34) and fasting insulin (-9.0 pmol/l, 95% CI -15.90 to -2.10) compared with controls in patients with low baseline vitamin E status. Subgroup analyses also demonstrated that the outcomes may have been influenced by the vitamin E dosage, study duration, ethnic group, serum HbA1c concentration, and fasting glucose control status. In conclusion, there is currently insufficient evidence to support a potential beneficial effect of vitamin E supplementation on improvements of HbA1c and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in subjects with T2DM.

  2. Awareness, attitude and practice of vitamin A supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Vitamin A deficiency is a major nutritional concern in poor societies, especially in lower income countries like Nigeria. Africa and South East Asia bear the highest burden of pre-school age children and pregnant women with biochemical vitamin A deficiency and night blindness. The aim of this study is to ...

  3. Effect of Vitamin C Supplementation on platelet aggregation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease condition characterised by hyperglycemia; free radical and abnormal haematological indices. Vitamin C can reduce free radical generation and ameliorate adverse conditions of diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of vitamin C on platelet aggregation ...

  4. Effects of Submaximal Endurance Training and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Pain Threshold in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jalal Taherabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to beneficial effects of endurance training and vitamin D3 in diabetes mellitus, purpose of this study is effects submaximal endurance training and vitamin D3 supplementation on pain threshold in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (250±20 g, N=40 were made diabetic by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, subcutaneously. 72 h after injection diabetes induction was confirmed by tail vein blood glucose concentration (>300 mg/dl. Then animals were divided to five groups: diabetic control (DC, diabetic trained (DT, diabetic -vitamin D (DD, diabetic trained and vitamin D (DTD, and control (C. Animals were submitted to endurance training by treadmill and vitamin D3 treatment (twice aweek, intrapretonally for 4 weeks. 48 h after at the end of exercise and treatment protocol, we used tail-flick to assess the effects of training and vitamin D3 on thermal pain threshold. We used one way ANOVA statistical analysis to compare differences between groups, significance level of p<0.05 was considered.Results: Diabetic induced hyperalgesia were decreased significantly by vitamin D but not 4 weeks endurance exercise training. Concurrent effects of training and vitamin D on thermal pain threshold were not significantly higher than vitamin D effects alone.Conclusion: It is concluded that vitamin D administration given at the time of diabetes induction may be able to restore thermal hyperalgesia. But effects of endurance exercise training needs to more investigation in diabetic rats.

  5. Vitamin D — Effects on Skeletal and Extraskeletal Health and the Need for Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wacker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and infectious diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a global pandemic. The major cause for vitamin D deficiency is the lack of appreciation that sun exposure has been and continues to be the major source of vitamin D for children and adults of all ages. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a healthy skeleton throughout life. There remains some controversy regarding what blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be attained for both bone health and reducing risk for vitamin D deficiency associated acute and chronic diseases and how much vitamin D should be supplemented.

  6. Effect of maternal supplementation with vitamin E on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisse Rayanne Miranda de Melo

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effect of maternal supplementation with vitamin E on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum and its supply to the newborn. Method: This randomized clinical trial enrolled 99 healthy adult pregnant women; of these, 39 were assigned to the control group and 60 to the supplemented group. After an overnight fast, 5 mL of blood and 2 mL of colostrum were collected. After the first sampling (0 h milk, the supplemented group received 400 IU of supplementary vitamin E. Another 2 mL milk aliquot was collected in both groups 24 h after supplementation (24 h milk. The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The α-tocopherol content provided by colostrum was calculated by considering a daily intake of 396 mL of milk and comparing the resulting value to the recommended daily intake for infants aged 0-6 months (4 mg/day. Results: The initial mean concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum was 1509.3 ± 793.7 µg/dL in the control group and 1452.9 ± 808.6 µg/dL in the supplemented group. After 24 h, the mean α-tocopherol concentration was 1650.6 ± 968.7 µg/dL in the control group (p > 0.05 and 2346.9 ± 1203.2 µg/dL in the supplemented group (p < 0.001, increasing the vitamin E supply to the newborn to 9.3 mg/day. Initially, 18 women in the supplemented group provided colostrum α-tocopherol contents below 4 mg/day; after supplementation only six continued to provide less than the recommended amount. Conclusion: Maternal vitamin E supplementation increases the supply of the vitamin to the infant by providing more than twice the Recommended Daily Intake.

  7. Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialvera, Theodora-Eirini; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Richter, Dimitris J; Yfanti, Georgia; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Micha, Renata; Goumas, Giorgos; Diamantopoulos, Emmanouil; Zampelas, Antonis

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have observed decreased levels of lipophilic antioxidants after supplementation with phytosterols and stanols. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of phytosterol supplementation on plasma total antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome. In a parallel arm, randomized placebo-controlled design, 108 patients with metabolic syndrome were assigned to consume yogurt beverage which provided 4 g of phytosterols per day or yogurt beverage without phytosterols. The duration of the study was 2 months and the patients in both groups followed their habitual westernized type diet. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 2 months, and the total antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power of plasma and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. After 2 months of intervention, plasma total antioxidant capacity did not differ between and within the intervention and the control groups. Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant status.

  8. Viability and growth characteristics of Lactobacillus in soymilk supplemented with B-vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Wan-Abdullah, Wan-Nadiah; Liong, Min-Tze

    2010-02-01

    Ten strains of Lactobacillus were evaluated for their viability in soymilk. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, L. acidophilus FTDC 8833, L. acidophilus FTDC 8633 and L. gasseri FTDC 8131 displayed higher viability in soymilk and were thus selected to be evaluated for viability and growth characteristics in soymilk supplemented with B-vitamins. Pour plate analyses showed that the supplementation of all B-vitamins studied promoted the growth of lactobacilli to a viable count exceeding 7 log CFU/ml. alpha-Galactosidase specific activity of lactobacilli as determined spectrophotometrically showed an increase upon supplementation of B-vitamins. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that this led to increased hydrolysis of soy oligosaccharides and subsequently higher utilization of simple sugars. Production of organic acids as determined via high-performance liquid chromatography also showed an increase, accompanied by a decrease in pH of soymilk. Additionally, the supplementation of B-vitamins also promoted the synthesis of riboflavin and folic acid by lactobacilli in soymilk. Our results indicated that B-vitamin-supplemented soymilk is a good proliferation medium for strains of lactobacilli.

  9. Nutritionally relevant supplementation of vitamin B6 in lactating women: effect on plasma prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Howard, M P; Moser, P B; Reynolds, R D

    1985-11-01

    Pharmacologic doses of vitamin B6 administered to lactating women have been reported to suppress plasma prolactin. As a result, some physicians have recommended restriction of vitamin B6 intake for lactating women. In the present investigation, 20 lactating women were given supplemental doses of vitamin B6, 0.5 to 4.0 mg/d, beginning 24 hours after delivery. Plasma prolactin, plasma pyridoxal phosphate, and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations were determined during the first 9 months postpartum. Women receiving the supplement of 4.0 mg compared with 0.5 mg of vitamin B6 per day had significantly higher plasma pyridoxal phosphate (P less than .01) and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations (P less than .05) beginning at 1 month postpartum and continuing through the duration of the study. Plasma prolactin concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. The percentage of all women, regardless of treatment, in whom lactation persisted at 1 and 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months were 100%, 100%, 100%, 90%, 80%, and 65%, respectively. All women who ceased to lactate during the study reported doing so by choice. Nutritionally relevant doses of vitamin B6 elevated plasma pyridoxal phosphate and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations of lactating women without reducing plasma prolactin concentration or halting lactation.

  10. Trends in Vitamin A, C, D, E, K Supplement Prescriptions From Military Treatment Facilities: 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Travis Y; Bolin, Jeremy T; Attipoe, Selasi; Jones, Donnamaria R; Stephens, Mark B; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-07-01

    Although prior studies have examined the prevalence of dietary supplement use among various populations, data on single vitamins prescribed by health care providers are limited. This study examined trends in single-vitamin supplement (A, C, D, E, K) prescriptions by providers from military treatment facilities from 2007 to 2011. We examined prescription data from the Department of Defense Pharmacy Data Transaction Service to determine trends in the aforementioned single-vitamin supplement prescriptions. Prescription rates per 1,000 active duty personnel were estimated using population data retrieved from the Defense Medical Epidemiology Database (i.e., [number of prescriptions/population size] × 1,000). Across the 5-year period, the number of vitamin D prescriptions per 1,000 active duty personnel increased 454%. In contrast, the number of vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin K prescriptions per 1,000 active duty personnel decreased by 32%, 53%, and 29% respectively. Vitamin C prescriptions remained relatively constant. Across all age groups, total single-vitamin supplement prescriptions increased by 180%. Together, prescriptions examined in this study increased steadily from 2007 to 2011, primarily because of the increase in vitamin D prescriptions. The exhibited trend reflects the current general-population pattern of dietary supplement use, with large increases in vitamin D and declines in vitamin E. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  11. Vitamin A supplementation modifies the association between mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses and resolution of enteric pathogen infections123

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Kurt Z; Santos, José Ignacio; Rosado, Jorge L; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa; Haas, Meredith; Al Mamun, Abdullah; DuPont, Herbert L; Nanthakumar, Nanda N

    2011-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of vitamin A supplementation on diarrheal disease morbidity may reflect the divergent effects that supplementation has on pathogen-specific immune responses and pathogen-specific outcomes.

  12. Vitamin D and probiotics supplement use in young children with genetic risk for type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jimin; Tamura, Roy N.; Uusitalo, Ulla M.; Aronsson, Carin A.; Silvis, Katherine; Riikonen, Anne; Frank, Nicole; Joslowski, Gesa; Winkler, Christiane; Norris, Jill M.; Virtanen, Suvi M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Vitamin D and probiotics are nutrients of interest in the context of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with vitamin D and probiotic supplementations among young children with genetic risk of T1D. Subjects/Methods Use of supplements during the first two years of life was collected prospectively from 8 674 children in the Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Results Single and/or multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements were reported by 81% of the children. The majority of participants in Finland, Germany, and Sweden (97-99%) and 50% in the US received vitamin D supplements that were mostly MVMs. Probiotics use varied from 6% in the US to 60% in Finland and was primarily from probiotics-only preparations. More than 80% of the vitamin D and probiotics supplementation was initiated during infancy, and more than half of the uses lasted longer than a year. Being the first child, longer duration of breastfeeding, born in a later year, older maternal age, and higher maternal education level were associated with both vitamin D and probiotics use. Shorter gestational age and mother not smoking during pregnancy were associated with a higher likelihood of probiotics supplementation only. Conclusion Vitamin D and probiotics supplementations are popular in children 0–2 years old and are associated with common factors. Data documented here will allow evaluation of the relationship between early childhood dietary intake and the development of islet autoimmunity and progression to T1D. PMID:28901336

  13. Effect of Processing on the Antioxidants (Vitamin C and Flavonoids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different processing methods: fresh milling (FRM), sun drying (SND), oven drying (OVD), steaming (STM) and a combination of these methods on the vitamin C and flavonoids constituents of selected leafy vegetables Vernonia amygdalina, Gnetum africana, Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum gratissimum was ...

  14. Antioxidant Vitamins Status of Hypertensive Subjects in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increased evidence that hypertension is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress markers. The current work aimed to estimate blood pressure, vitamins A, C, and E levels in 54 hypertensives attending the outpatient clinic of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and the ...

  15. Are the amounts of vitamins in commercially available dietary supplement formulations relevant for the management of psychiatric disorders in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J; Harris, Amy L; Shaw, Ian C

    2014-04-11

    To investigate whether micronutrient supplements shown through research to have perceived benefits in the treatment of psychological/psychiatric symptoms in children have similar vitamin ingredients and doses to over-the-counter dietary supplements. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that used micronutrients for the treatment of psychological/psychiatric symptoms in children with documented benefits; 13 different supplements were identified that included vitamin ingredients. They were compared with the vitamin composition of 22 over-the-counter child-targeted supplements available in New Zealand. The vitamin ingredients were comparable across the research and commercially available supplements. However, the median vitamin daily doses in research supplements were found to be greater than those of over-the-counter supplements, with most mean differences being significant, including vitamins B1, B3, B6, B7, B12, C and D (pB5 and B9 (pvitamins A or B2. Micronutrient supplements found to show potential benefit in research with a focus on improving psychological/psychiatric symptoms in children have a significantly greater vitamin dose than over-the-counter supplements. Therefore, the results found in micronutrient research studies cannot be extrapolated to over-the-counter supplements. Comparing the myriad ingredients and dosages in micronutrient supplements is, however, a complex process and further investigation is required to understand fully the importance of our findings.

  16. Standard multivitamin supplementation does not improve vitamin D insufficiency after burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, David N.; Chen, Tai C.; Kulp, Gabriela; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Children suffering severe burns develop progressive vitamin D deficiency because of inability of burned skin to produce normal quantities of vitamin D3 and lack of vitamin D supplementation on discharge. Our study was designed to determine whether a daily supplement of a standard multivitamin tablet containing vitamin D2 400 IU (10 μg) for 6 months would raise serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] to normal. We recruited eight burned children, ages 5–18, whose families were deemed reliable by the research staff. These children were given a daily multivitamin tablet in the hospital for 3 months in the presence of a member of the research staff and then given the remainder at home. At 6 months, the subjects returned for measurements of serum levels of 25(OH)D,1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), Ca, P, albumin, and total protein as well as bone mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum 25(OH)D levels were compared to a group of seven age-matched burned children studied at an earlier date without the vitamin supplement but with the same method of determination of 25(OH)D at 6 months post-burn. In addition, the chewable vitamins were analyzed for vitamin D2 content by high performance liquid chromatography. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was 21 ± 11(SD) ng/ml (sufficient range 30–100) with only one of the eight children having a value in the sufficient range. In comparison, the unsupplemented burn patients had mean serum 25(OH)D level of 16 ± 7, P = 0.33 versus supplemented. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D, iPTH, Ca, P, albumin, and total protein were all normal in the supplemented group. Vitamin D2 content of the chewable tablets after being saponified and extracted was 460 ± 20 IU. Bone mineral content of the total body and lumbar spine, as well as lumbar spine bone density, failed to increase as expected in the supplemented group. No correlations were found between serum 25(OH)D levels and age, length of stay

  17. [Vitamin D, determinant of bone and extrabone health. Importance of vitamin D supplementation in milk and dairy products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Valverde, Cristina; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel

    2015-04-07

    proper supplementation of milk with vitamin D is an attractive chance and a challenge for Public Health of Spain and the European Union. It has provided excellent results in the US, Canada, Northern Europe Countries, etc. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in vitamin and mineral supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis in the Pathways Study: a prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlee, Heather; Hershman, Dawn L; Neugut, Alfred I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Ergas, Isaac J; Strizich, Garrett; Roh, Janise M; Wilson, Allegra T; Lee, Marion; Sherman, Karen J; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin and mineral supplement use after a breast cancer diagnosis is common and controversial. Dosages used and the timing of initiation and/or discontinuation of supplements have not been clearly described. We prospectively examined changes in use of 17 vitamin/mineral supplements in the first six months following breast cancer diagnosis among 2,596 members (28% non-white) of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine demographic, clinical, and lifestyle predictors of initiation and discontinuation. Most women used vitamin/mineral supplements before (84%) and after (82%) diagnosis, with average doses far in excess of Institute of Medicine reference intakes. Over half (60.2%) reported initiating a vitamin/mineral following diagnosis, 46.3% discontinuing a vitamin/mineral, 65.6% using a vitamin/mineral continuously, and only 7.2% not using any vitamin/mineral supplement before or after diagnosis. The most commonly initiated supplements were calcium (38.2%), vitamin D (32.01%), vitamin B6 (12.3%) and magnesium (11.31%); the most commonly discontinued supplements were multivitamins (17.14%), vitamin C (15.97%) and vitamin E (45.62%). Higher education, higher intake of fruits/vegetables, and receipt of chemotherapy were associated with initiation (p-values <0.05). Younger age and breast-conserving surgery were associated with discontinuation (p-values <0.05). In this large cohort of ethnically diverse breast cancer patients, high numbers of women used vitamin/mineral supplements in the 6 months following breast cancer diagnosis, often at high doses and in combination with other supplements. The immediate period after diagnosis is a critical time for clinicians to counsel women on supplement use

  19. Prenatal vitamin D supplementation reduces risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Helene M; Chawes, Bo L; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently published two independent randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy, both indicating a >20% reduced risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze in the offspring by 3 years of age. However, neither reached statistical significance. OBJECTIVE: To perform......) or placebo. All women also received a prenatal vitamin containing 400 IU/d vitamin D3. The primary outcome was asthma/recurrent wheeze from 0-3yrs. Secondary end-points were specific IgE, total IgE, eczema and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). We conducted random effects combined analyses......-points. CONCLUSIONS: This combined analysis shows that vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy results in a significant reduced risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze in the offspring, especially among women with 25(OH)D level ≥ 30 ng/ml at randomization, where the risk was almost halved. Future studies should examine...

  20. Proposed Criteria for the Use of Low-Dose Vitamin K Supplementation in Patients Using Vitamin K Antagonists: A Literature Review of a Clinical Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Christy E; Getchell, Katerine E; Ivy, Delaney R

    2018-04-01

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been used for decades to prevent thromboembolic events, but can be burdensome to patients based on numerous factors impacting anticoagulation control. Low-dose vitamin K supplementation has been theorized to improve anticoagulation control in patients on VKAs that may be vitamin K deficient. The objective of this literature review is to propose criteria for implementing low-dose vitamin K supplementation in patients on VKAs. The CHEST 2012 antithrombotic guidelines recommended against routine use of vitamin K supplementation in patients on VKAs. An observational study and three randomized controlled trials pertaining to this recommendation were evaluated. A literature review was also performed on other studies looking at the impact of low-dose vitamin K supplementation on anticoagulation control through a search in PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. One retrospective and two prospective studies were reviewed. Six of the seven studies demonstrated a non-statistically significant trend in data supporting improvement in anticoagulation control with low-dose vitamin K supplementation. While many of the studies did not achieve significant results, the majority demonstrated a trend in support of the improvement of anticoagulation control with low-dose vitamin K supplementation in patients on VKAs.

  1. We need studies of the mortality effect of vitamin A supplementation, not surveys of vitamin A deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell

    2017-01-01

    the need for continuing or stopping VAS programs based on studies of the biochemical prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). This is no longer a tenable assumption. The justification for using VAS is to reduce child mortality, but there is now doubt that VAS has any effect on overall child mortality......It is usually acknowledged that high‐dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) provides no sustained improvement in vitamin A status, and that the effect of VAS on mortality is more likely linked to its immunomodulating effects. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that we can deduce something about....... What we need now are not surveys of VAD, but proper randomized trials to evaluate whether VAS has beneficial effects on overall child survival....

  2. We Need Studies of the Mortality Effect of Vitamin A Supplementation, Not Surveys of Vitamin A Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stabell Benn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is usually acknowledged that high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS provides no sustained improvement in vitamin A status, and that the effect of VAS on mortality is more likely linked to its immunomodulating effects. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that we can deduce something about the need for continuing or stopping VAS programs based on studies of the biochemical prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD. This is no longer a tenable assumption. The justification for using VAS is to reduce child mortality, but there is now doubt that VAS has any effect on overall child mortality. What we need now are not surveys of VAD, but proper randomized trials to evaluate whether VAS has beneficial effects on overall child survival.

  3. Prenatal vitamin d supplementation and child respiratory health: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Stephen T; Griffiths, Chris J; Martineau, Adrian R; Robinson, Stephen; Yu, Christina; Poulton, Sheree; Kirkby, Jane C; Stocks, Janet; Hooper, Richard; Shaheen, Seif O; Warner, John O; Boyle, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Observational studies suggest high prenatal vitamin D intake may be associated with reduced childhood wheezing. We examined the effect of prenatal vitamin D on childhood wheezing in an interventional study. We randomised 180 pregnant women at 27 weeks gestation to either no vitamin D, 800 IU ergocalciferol daily until delivery or single oral bolus of 200,000 IU cholecalciferol, in an ethnically stratified, randomised controlled trial. Supplementation improved but did not optimise vitamin D status. Researchers blind to allocation assessed offspring at 3 years. Primary outcome was any history of wheeze assessed by validated questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included atopy, respiratory infection, impulse oscillometry and exhaled nitric oxide. Primary analyses used logistic and linear regression. We evaluated 158 of 180 (88%) offspring at age 3 years for the primary outcome. Atopy was assessed by skin test for 95 children (53%), serum IgE for 86 (48%), exhaled nitric oxide for 62 (34%) and impulse oscillometry of acceptable quality for 51 (28%). We found no difference between supplemented and control groups in risk of wheeze [no vitamin D: 14/50 (28%); any vitamin D: 26/108 (24%) (risk ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.49, 1.50; P = 0.69)]. There was no significant difference in atopy, eczema risk, lung function or exhaled nitric oxide between supplemented groups and controls. Prenatal vitamin D supplementation in late pregnancy that had a modest effect on cord blood vitamin D level, was not associated with decreased wheezing in offspring at age three years. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN68645785.

  4. Vitamin B6 Supplementation Improves Oxidative Stress and Enhances Serum Paraoxonase/Arylesterase Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Taş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (Vit B6 on oxidant and antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C, control + Vit B6 group (C + Vit B6, diabetes (D, and diabetes + Vit B6 group (D + Vit B6. Vit B6 (4 mg/kg body weight was administered in drinking water for 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Vitamin B6 reduced serum total cholesterol level in the C + Vit B6 (P < 0.01 and D + Vit B6 (P < 0.05 groups. Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde levels were reduced in the C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were higher in the D group (P < 0.05. GSH-Px and SOD activities were increased in C + Vit B6 group while these parameters decreased in the D + Vit B6 group. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were decreased in the D group while they were increased in C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. The results of present study suggest that vitamin B6 supplementation might be a promising adjunctive agent for improving oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and for preventing diabetic complications including atherogenesis.

  5. Global health in conflict. Understanding opposition to vitamin A supplementation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah K

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts.

  6. Moderate 'multivitamin' supplementation improved folate and vitamin B12 status in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Sari; Stern, Felicia; Polyak, Zeev; Ichelzon, Ina; Dror, Yosef

    2016-11-01

    The dependent elderly are widely considered to be at higher risk of nutritional problems. Suboptimal micronutrient intake might put the elderly, especially those living in nursing homes, at high risk of morbidity. So far, no public authority, except for the Israel Ministry of Health, has issued particular recommendations for micronutrient supplementation for the elderly. We hypothesized that moderate 'multivitamin' supplementation could improve the vitamin status of the dependent elderly. The study took place in two nursing homes and included 144 dependent elderly (males/females, 35/109). Demographic and clinical data as well as routine blood tests were retrieved from the patient electronic medical records. After a two-year daily 'multivitamin' supplementation, containing 120μg of folic acid, there was a small and non-significant increase of 12% in serum folate; the same 'multivitamin' preparatory, containing 2.4μg of vitamin B12, significantly increased serum vitamin B12 by 8%. Three models of evaluation clearly showed the effect of a two- year vitamin supplementation: 1. The number of subjects with the lowest baseline concentration range, decreased, with moderate concentration, increased, with no difference at the higher concentrations; 2. Above each vitamin concentration, the number of subjects was higher than at baseline; 3. The two vitamins at the two lower concentration tertiles increased, and at the highest tertile, folate was not affected, whereas vitamin B12 decreased. Therefore, very moderate 'multivitamin' supplementation, as practiced in our study, has a high probability of improving vulnerable old population health status without causing any adverse effects to others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of micellized natural (D-α-tocopherol) vs. synthetic (DL-α-tocopheryl acetate) vitamin E supplementation given to turkeys on oxidative status and breast meat quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, A I; Segura, J; Olivares, A; Cerisuelo, A; Piñeiro, C; López-Bote, C J

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation source (micellized natural vs. the synthetic form) and dosage (40, 80, or 120 mg/kg) on α-tocopherol concentration in plasma and muscle, antioxidant capacity, and breast meat quality in turkeys. Three hundred female turkeys were randomly selected at an average live weight 63.2 g±0.5 and distributed into 7 groups. One group (control) was fed a standard diet without vitamin E supplementation and the other 6 were given mixed diets supplemented with the natural (d-α-tocopherol) or synthetic (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate) form of vitamin E in 3 dosages (40, 80, or 120 mg/kg). Following 11 wk feeding, results showed that performance parameters were not modified either by source or dosage of vitamin E supplementation to the turkeys. Plasma and muscle α-tocopherol at d 9 of refrigerated storage were higher when turkeys were supplemented with the natural form at higher doses. Losses in the concentration of α-tocopherol in meat between the beginning and the end of the 9 d refrigerated storage were greater in the groups supplemented with the synthetic form of vitamin E compared to those receiving the natural supplementation. The relationship between plasma α-tocopherol and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity followed a different trend depending on the vitamin E source. Intramuscular fat was not significantly affected by the vitamin E source supplementation; however the slope of the linear regression equation was lower for the natural form than for the synthetic form. Turkeys given the natural form had higher C18:1n-9 but lower C15:1, C17:1, C20:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in breast muscle. Meat samples from turkeys supplemented with natural vitamin E had higher deoxymyoglobin at d 3, 6, and 9 and lower metmyoglobin at d 9 of refrigerated storage than those receiving the synthetic form. Dietary supplementation with medium doses (80 mg/kg) micellized d-α-tocopherol is an interesting feeding strategy for

  8. α-Tocopherol incorporation in mitochondria and microsomes upon supranutritional vitamin E supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is a major lipid-soluble chain-breaking antioxidant in humans and mammals and plays an important role in normal development and physiology. The localization of α-tocopherol within the highly unsaturated phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes provides a means of controlling...

  9. A systematic review of the role of vitamin insufficiencies and supplementation in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiligianni, Ioanna G.; van der Molen, Thys

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary inflammation, oxidants-antioxidants imbalance, as well as innate and adaptive immunity have been proposed as playing a key role in the development of COPD. The role of vitamins, as assessed either by food frequency questionnaires or measured in serum levels, have been reported

  10. Influence of selenium and vitamin e supplementation during pregnancy on udder health and milk quality in dairy cows at parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Zigo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium and vitamin E ranks among very important antioxidant agents protecting the organism from the effect of reactive oxygen forms. The deficiency of both nutrients during pregnancy in cows often result in metabolic disorders and increased of cases of related diseases (mastitis, retained placenta and other reproductive disorders. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of different dose of parenteral administration selenium and vitamin E in dairy cows prior to parturition on selected metabolic parameters, udder health and milk quality. A total in herd of 270 Holstein cattle in east of Slovakia in a two-four lactation-gestation cycle the control group (C and 2 experimental groups (D, D1 were selected. All groups were similarly housed, managed and fed with the diet containing from 36 to 42 mg vitamin E and 0.2 mg.kg-1 Se of DM through the study period. In group D a products containing vitamin E and selenium were administered IM four weeks prior to the expected date of parturition in total dose of 1000 mg of dl-α-tocopherol acetate and of 44 mg sodium selenite per cow, respectively. In group D1 the same products were administered twice, four and two weeks prior to parturition. Blood samples were 4 weeks prior to predicted calving date (the time of treatment, on parturition day and at 14th day after calving for assessment of plasma vitamin E and selenium concentrations. Blood samples of the calves were drawn from jugular vein at birth and first colostrum was also collected. The occurrence of the mastitis and retained placenta during the first 14th day after calving were evaluated in all groups. Higher plasmatic and colostral concentrations of selenium and vitamin E were found only in group with repeat application of Se and vitamin E (D1 collected on the day of parturition. At the 14th day of postpartal period a trend of lower occurrence of mastitis was observed in group D1 compared to D group, administered IM once and control

  11. Vitamin E supplementation protects erythrocyte membranes from oxidative stress in healthy Chinese middle-aged and elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongye; Ma, Aiguo; Li, Yong; Han, Xiuxia; Wang, Qiuzhen; Liang, Hui

    2012-05-01

    Elderly people are subject to higher levels of oxidative stress than are young people. Vitamin E, as a powerful antioxidant residing mainly in biomembranes, may provide effective protection against oxidative membrane damage and resultant age-related deterioration, especially in the elderly. We hypothesized that appropriate levels of vitamin E supplementation would protect erythrocyte membranes from oxidative stress and thus improve membrane fluidity in healthy middle-aged and elderly people. To test this, we conducted a 4-month double-blind, randomized trial in which 180 healthy subjects (55-70 years old) were randomly divided into 4 groups: group C (control), and 3 treatment groups in which daily doses of 100 mg (VE1), 200 mg (VE2), and 300 mg (VE3) dl-α-tocopheryl acetate were administered. We measured plasma α-tocopherol concentration, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels, erythrocyte hemolysis, and erythrocyte membrane fluidity at the beginning and end of the trial. After 4 months supplementation, plasma α-tocopherol concentrations in the 3 treatment groups had increased by 71%, 78%, and 95%, respectively (all P stress in healthy middle-aged to elderly people, at least in part by improving erythrocyte membrane fluidity and reducing erythrocyte hemolysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on serumic levels of lipids and lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Khayat Nouri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. High blood cholesterol affects the general health and increases the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. High levels of cholesterol in the diet increases LDL levels and decreases the activity of LDL receptors in the liver. Oxidation of vascular LDL lipoproteins increases the development of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have indicated that consumption of antioxidants decreases hypercholesterolemia. This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation on blood lipid levels in high cholesterol-fed rats. In this experimental study, three groups of male rats (n=10 for each group were used. The control group received basic diet and one of the other two groups received a diet containing one percent cholesterol and while the other received the same diet plus vitamin E supplement (2500 IU/kg in dry matter of the diet for one month. After determining the values of TC, LDL, VLDL, HDL and TG the results indicated that in rats fed with 1% cholesterol apart from HDL and VLDL the other lipids had increased significantly compared with the control group (p

  13. A meta-analysis of high dose, intermittent vitamin D supplementation among older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Ting Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effects of intermittent, high dose vitamin D treatment in older adults have not been documented. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of the efficiency of intermittent, high dose vitamin D treatment on falls, fractures, and mortality among older adults. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs on high dose, intermittent vitamin D supplementation among older adults. Two researchers independently screened the literature according to specified inclusive and exclusive criteria to extract the data. Meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.1.0 software. RESULTS: Nine trials were included in this meta-analysis. High dose, intermittent vitamin D therapy did not decrease all-cause mortality among older adults. The risk ratio (95% CI was 1.04 (0.91-1.17. No benefit was seen in fracture or fall prevention. The risk ratio for hip fractures (95% CI was 1.17 (0.97-1.41 while for non-vertebral fractures (95% CI it was 1.06 (0.91-1.22, and the risk ratio for falls (95% CI was 1.02 (0.96-1.08. Results remained robust after sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of intermittent, high dose vitamin D may not be effective in preventing overall mortality, fractures, or falls among older adults. The route of administration of vitamin D supplements may well change the physiological effects.

  14. Vitamin K supplementation for meat quail in growth of 1 to 14 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Espejo Stanquevis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried outto determine the levels of vitamin K for meat quails (Coturnixcoturnixsp from 1 to 14 days of age. Atotal of 2200 birds were used, complete by random experimental design, with 8 treatments, 5 repetitions and 55 meat quails per experimental unit. The levels of vitamin K supplementation were 0; 0.7; 1.0; 1.3; 1.6; 1.9; 2.2; 2.5 mg/kg diets. The performance was measured through weighing weekly from the birds and feed, and at the end of the experiment was carried out collects blood and bones for the assessment of bone quality parameters. The levels of vitamin K supplementation had no influence on performance orbone quality, except thatthe bone density and calcium concentration of the femur and the bone density of the tibia showeda quadratic effect, with estimates of 0.98; 0.92 and 1.18 respectively. The length of the tibia showed a linear increase according to the levels of vitamin K. There was no effect in the concentration of serum calcium, but there was a quadratic effect in the concentration of alkaline phosphatase. The vitamin K supplementation did not affect the performance of the meat quails from 1 to 14 days of age, showing that the amount of vitamin K present in ground corn and soybean meal-based diets is sufficient to meet the needs of the birds’ performance.

  15. Reevaluation of vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows: bioavailability, animal health and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, I

    2012-09-01

    Although vitamin E has been known as an essential nutrient for almost 80 years, we are far from a complete understanding of all the aspects related to bioavailability and its effects on health and milk quality in dairy cows. Vitamin E is a generic descriptor for two families of lipid-soluble compounds, the tocopherols and the tocotrienols, of which α-tocopherol has the highest biological activity. Commercially available α-tocopherol supplements for dairy cows contain either the natural RRR form or the synthetic (all-rac) form, which contains all the eight possible stereoisomers (four possessing the 2R and four possessing the 2S configuration) in equimolar amounts. Recent data clearly suggest that an almost complete discrimination against the 2S isomers occurs in dairy cows. Thus, 1 g of the all-rac form is essentially equivalent to 0.5 g of the RRR form. With respect to the effect of vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows on health and milk quality, the majority of published studies suggests that vitamin E supplementation at the level 1000 to 4000 IU/cow per day during the dry period reduces both the frequency of intramammary infection and that of clinical mastitis and improves milk quality, as shown by a reduction in the levels of somatic cell count (SCC)/ml in milk, decreased plasmin activity and increased oxidative stability of milk. However, a recent study from the Netherlands suggested that vitamin E supplementation at the 3000 IU/cow per day level during the dry period when combined with high levels of plasma vitamin E at dry-off (>14.5 μmol/l) increases the incidence of mastitis. Data from previously unpublished survey studies and those from published vitamin E feeding trials, in which high levels of blood vitamin E were observed, were reanalyzed. All farms selected for the analysis implemented oral administration of vitamin E at the 3000 IU/cow per day level throughout or during the late dry period (4 weeks before the expected day of parturition). Dairy

  16. Nordic Walking Training Causes a Decrease in Blood Cholesterol in Elderly Women Supplemented with Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Prusik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDifferent studies have demonstrated that regular exercise can induce changes in the lipid profile, but results remain inconclusive. Available data suggest that correction of vitamin D deficiency can improve the lipid profile. In this study, we have hypothesized that Nordic Walking training will improve lipid profile in elderly women supplemented with vitamin D.MethodsA total of 109 elderly women (68 ± 5.12 years old took part in the study. First group [experimental group (EG: 35 women] underwent 12 weeks of Nordic Walking (NW training combined with vitamin D supplementation (4,000 IU/day, second group [supplementation group (SG: 48 women] was only supplemented with vitamin D (4,000 IU/day, and third group [control group (CG: 31 women] was not subject to any interventions. Blood analysis of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and 25-OH-D3 was performed at baseline and after the 12 weeks of NW training. Additionally, a battery of field tests specifically developed for older adults was used to assess the components of functional fitness. The same blood analysis was repeated for the EG 6 months after the main experiment.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of NW training and vitamin D supplementation, in the EG a decrease in TC, LDL-C, and TG was observed. In the SG, no changes in the lipid profile were observed, whereas in the CG an increase in the HDL-C level was noticed. Positive physical fitness changes were only observed in the EG.ConclusionOur obtained data confirmed baseline assumption that regular exercise induces positive alternations in lipid profile in elderly women supported by supplementation of vitamin D.

  17. Vitamin D-Fortified Bread Is as Effective as Supplement in Improving Vitamin D Status: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Neyestani, Tirang R; Zahedirad, Maliheh; Mohammadi, Mehrdad; Hosseini, S Hedayat; Abdollahi, Zahra; Salehi, Foroozan; Mirzay Razaz, Jalaledin; Shariatzadeh, Nastaran; Kalayi, Ali; Lotfollahi, Neda; Maleki, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-06-01

    Bread can potentially be a suitable vehicle for fortification with vitamin D. This study was undertaken to evaluate the following: 1) the bioavailability of vitamin D from the fortified Iranian bread and 2) the possible effects of daily consumption of the fortified bread on certain health aspects. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted over 8 weeks in 90 healthy subjects aged 20-60 years. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups: 1) fortified bread (FP; 50 g bread fortified with 25 μg vitamin D3 plus placebo daily; n = 30); 2) supplement (SP; 50 g plain bread plus 25 μg vitamin D supplement daily; n = 30); and 3) control (CP; 50 g plain bread plus placebo daily; n = 30). Initial and final anthropometric and biochemical assessments were performed. The within-group changes of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were 39.0 ± 22.6 (P bread could be potentially effective in raising circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of the population to nearly adequate levels.

  18. Effect of supplementation of water-soluble vitamins on oxidative stress and blood pressure in prehypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talikoti, Prashanth; Bobby, Zachariah; Hamide, Abdoul

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of water-soluble vitamins on oxidative stress and blood pressure in prehypertensives. Sixty prehypertensives were recruited and randomized into 2 groups of 30 each. One group received water-soluble vitamins and the other placebo for 4 months. Further increase in blood pressure was not observed in the vitamin group which increased significantly in the placebo group at the end of 4 months. Malonedialdehyde and protein carbonylation were reduced during the course of treatment with vitamins whereas in the placebo group there was an increase in the level of malondialdehyde. In conclusion, supplementation of water-soluble vitamins in prehypertension reduces oxidative stress and its progression to hypertension.

  19. The role of vitamin D supplementation in patients with rheumatic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2013-01-01

    the function of the immune, cardiovascular and endocrine systems. Vitamin D deficiency, due to insufficient sunlight exposure, dietary uptake and/or abnormalities in its metabolism, has been associated with rheumatic diseases, and both the classical and nonclassical effects of vitamin D might be of relevance...... to patients with rheumatic disease. However, conclusive data from intervention trials demonstrating the relationship between vitamin D levels and pathogenetic processes separate from classical effects of this molecule are lacking. Furthermore, the majority of studies linking vitamin D to health outcomes...... in the treatment of the many rheumatic conditions in which deficiency of this compound has been implicated. Herein, we review the evidence for vitamin D supplementation in the management of patients with rheumatic diseases....

  20. Effect of Copper, Manganese and Zinc With Antioxidant Vitamins on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groups 3-5 were treated with Vitamins (A, C and E) with Cu, Mn and Zn respectively. Hypertension and dyslipidemia were induced using Salt-loading method (8% NaCl) for a period of five (5) weeks where Group 1 received normal rat feed and Groups 2-5 received salt-loaded diet. The heart rate of the rats was measured ...

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin C and vitamin E and their combination on growth performance, some biochemical parameters, and oxidative stress induced by copper toxicity in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Miyase; Yildirim, Ebru; Yigit, A Arzu; Yalcinkaya, Ilkay; Duru, Ozkan; Kisa, Uçler; Atmaca, Nurgul

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E on performance, biochemical parameters, and oxidative stress induced by copper toxicity in broilers. A total of 240, 1-day-old, broilers were assigned to eight groups with three replicates of 10 chicks each. The groups were fed on the following diets: control (basal diet), vitamin C (250 mg/kg diet), vitamin E (250 mg/kg diet), vitamin C + vitamin E (250 mg/kg + 250 mg/kg diet), and copper (300 mg/kg diet) alone or in combination with the corresponding vitamins. At the 6th week, the body weights of broilers were decreased in copper, copper + vitamin E, and copper + vitamin C + vitamin E groups compared to control. The feed conversion ratio was poor in copper group. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, iron, copper concentrations, and erythrocyte malondialdehyde were increased; plasma vitamin A and C concentrations and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were decreased in copper group compared to control. Glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, and iron levels were increased; aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and copper levels were decreased in copper + vitamin C group, while superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and vitamin E concentrations were increased; aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased in copper with vitamin E group compared to copper group. The vitamin C concentrations were increased; copper, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and malondialdehyde were decreased in copper + vitamin C + vitamin E group compared to copper group. To conclude, copper caused oxidative stress in broilers. The combination of vitamin C and vitamin E addition might alleviate the harmful effects of copper as demonstrated by decreased lipid peroxidation and hepatic enzymes.

  2. Serum antioxidant vitamins levels in non-insulin-dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence is accumulating that most of the degenerative diseases including diabetes mellitus have their origin in deleterious free radical reactions. Humans are well endowed with antioxidant defences primarily by free radical scavengers, such as ascorbic acid, alphatocopherol, betacarotene, and trace elements.

  3. A Randomized Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation on Vascular Function in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Lal, Anupam; Kumar, Vinod; Singhal, Manphool; Billot, Laurent; Gupta, Krishan Lal; Banerjee, Debasish; Jha, Vivekanand

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency associates with mortality in patients with CKD, and vitamin D supplementation might mitigate cardiovascular disease risk in CKD. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on vascular function in 120 patients of either sex, aged 18-70 years, with nondiabetic CKD stage 3-4 and vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≤20 ng/ml). We randomized patients using a 1:1 ratio to receive either two directly observed oral doses of cholecalciferol (300,000 IU) or matching placebo at baseline and 8 weeks. The primary outcome was change in endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation at 16 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included changes in pulse wave velocity and circulating biomarkers. Cholecalciferol supplementation significantly increased endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation at 16 weeks, whereas placebo did not (between-group difference in mean change: 5.49%; 95% confidence interval, 4.34% to 6.64%; P vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D supplementation may improve vascular function. This study is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry of India (no.: CTRI/2013/05/003648). Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Antioxidant system parameters in children from different follow-up groups who suffered from Chernobyl accident and their changes at application of antioxidants (vitamin E and iskador)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipkyin, Yu.G.; Pochinok, T.V.; Omel'chenko, L.Yi.; Arabs'ka, L.P.; Osins'ka, L.F.; Vasyuk, O.M.

    1998-01-01

    Low-dose radiation causes changes in the lipid peroxidation-antioxidant protective system in children who frequently suffer from acute respiratory virus infections. To improve the general condition and to normalize the metabolic disturbances it is advisable to administer antioxidants (vitamin E, Iskador)

  5. Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment Before and After Vitamin Supplementation in a Patient With Vitamin A Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel; S?daba, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin A is an essential fat-soluble vitamin important for the function of various body systems. In the eye, vitamin A is essential for the synthesis of visual pigments in photoreceptors. Vitamin A deficiency is a rare condition in the developed countries and might follow bariatric or intestinal bypass surgery. We present the case of a 67-year-old male that complained of visual loss and nyctalopia. Patient had bariatric surgery 15 years before for weight loss. Low serum levels of vi...

  6. Prenatal vitamin D supplementation reduces risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Helene M; Chawes, Bo L; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently published two independent randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy, both indicating a >20% reduced risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze in the offspring by 3 years of age. However, neither reached statistical significance. OBJECTIVE: To perform......) or placebo. All women also received a prenatal vitamin containing 400 IU/d vitamin D3. The primary outcome was asthma/recurrent wheeze from 0-3yrs. Secondary end-points were specific IgE, total IgE, eczema and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). We conducted random effects combined analyses...

  7. Vitamin D supplementation during rehabilitation in COPD: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornikx Miek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale Pulmonary rehabilitation is an important treatment for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, who are often vitamin D deficient. As vitamin D status is linked to skeletal muscle function, we aimed to explore if high dose vitamin D supplementation can improve the outcomes of rehabilitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Material and methods This study is a post-hoc subgroup analysis of a larger randomized trial comparing a monthly dose of 100.000 IU of vitamin D with placebo to reduce exacerbations. 50 Subjects who followed a rehabilitation program during the trial are included in this analysis. We report changes from baseline in muscle strength and exercise performance between both study arms after 3 months of rehabilitation. Results Vitamin D intervention resulted in significantly higher median vitamin D levels compared to placebo (51 [44-62] ng/ml vs 15 [13-30] ng/ml; p 0.050. Conclusion High dose vitamin D supplementation during rehabilitation may have mild additional benefits to training.

  8. Vitamin C supplementation improve the sputum conversion culture rate in pulmonary tuberculosis treatment while rifampicin susceptible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, L.; Siregar, Y.; Kusumawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    The failure of first-line tuberculosis treatment greatly affects multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis. In vitro study of vitamin C induces the death of M. tuberculosis bacteria and accelerates healing of tuberculosis, so the multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis can be avoided. This research aimed to identify the effect of vitamin C as a supportive treatment on the sputum conversion rate. The randomizedand double group with a parallel design by matching pair method was used to collect samples. The first group was treated with standard tuberculosis treatment, and the other was given vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C plasma level analyzation was performed before and after two months of treatment. Sputum conversion was evaluated every week for eight weeks. The comparison of vitamin C plasma level in pre and post-treatment group was significant (p=0.03) but not in the other group. There was no significant difference in vitamin C plasma level between two groups (p=0.21). The proportion of sputum conversion rate in both group in the first week was 0% vs. 9.6% (p=0.83) and the last week of study was 83.9% vs. 100% (p=0.02). In conclusion, vitamin C supplementation has effects in improving the healing process of tuberculosis patients as indicated by higher in sputum conversion rate.

  9. Effect of maternal supplementation with vitamin E on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Larisse Rayanne Miranda de; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Dantas, Raquel Costa Silva; Ramalho, Héryka Myrna Maia; Dimenstein, Roberto

    To evaluate the effect of maternal supplementation with vitamin E on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum and its supply to the newborn. This randomized clinical trial enrolled 99 healthy adult pregnant women; of these, 39 were assigned to the control group and 60 to the supplemented group. After an overnight fast, 5mL of blood and 2mL of colostrum were collected. After the first sampling (0h milk), the supplemented group received 400IU of supplementary vitamin E. Another 2mL milk aliquot was collected in both groups 24h after supplementation (24h milk). The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The α-tocopherol content provided by colostrum was calculated by considering a daily intake of 396mL of milk and comparing the resulting value to the recommended daily intake for infants aged 0-6 months (4mg/day). The initial mean concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum was 1509.3±793.7μg/dL in the control group and 1452.9±808.6μg/dL in the supplemented group. After 24h, the mean α-tocopherol concentration was 1650.6±968.7μg/dL in the control group (p>0.05) and 2346.9±1203.2μg/dL in the supplemented group (pvitamin E supply to the newborn to 9.3mg/day. Initially, 18 women in the supplemented group provided colostrum α-tocopherol contents below 4mg/day; after supplementation only six continued to provide less than the recommended amount. Maternal vitamin E supplementation increases the supply of the vitamin to the infant by providing more than twice the Recommended Daily Intake. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Ameliorative effect of antioxidants (vitamins C and E against abamectin toxicity in liver, kidney and testis of male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilson Magdy

    2016-10-01

    In conclusion, it appears that vitamins C and E, or in combination (as antioxidants ameliorate the hepato-renal and testicular toxicity of abamectin, but are not completely protective, especially in liver tissue.

  11. Systematic review: primary and secondary prevention of gastrointestinal cancers with antioxidant supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements prevent gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. AIM: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: Using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology, we reviewed...... the randomized trials comparing antioxidant supplements with placebo or no intervention on the occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. We searched electronic databases and reference lists until October, 2007. Our outcome measures were gastrointestinal cancers, overall mortality and adverse events. Outcomes were....... The antioxidant supplements were without a significant effect on the occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83-1.06, I(2) = 54.0%). The heterogeneity seemed to be explained by bias risk (low-bias risk trials RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13 compared to high-bias risk trials RR 0.59, 95% CI 0...

  12. Antioxidant and Cytotoxicological Effects of Aloe vera Food Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, food industries use supplements from Aloe vera as highly concentrated powders (starting products, which are added to the final product at a concentration of 1x, meaning 10 g/L for decolourized and spray-dried whole leaf powder (WLP or 5 g/L for decolourized and spray-dried inner leaf powder (ILG and also for nondecolourized and belt-dried inner leaf powder (ILF. Flavonoids, tannins, or saponins could not be detected for any starting product at this concentration and their total phenol concentration of 68–112 μM gallate-eq. was much lower than in fresh extract; however, their antioxidant capacity of 90–123 μM ascorbate-eq. for DPPH was similar to the fresh extract. Starting products, dissolved at 1x, had an aloin concentration of 0.04 to 0.07 ppm, a concentration much lower than the industry standard of 10 ppm for foodstuff. While decolourized starting products (i.e., treated with activated carbon exhibited low cytotoxicity on HeLa cells (CC50 = 15 g/L ILG or 50 g/L WLP, ILF at CC50 = 1–5 g/L exhibited cytotoxic effects, that is, at concentrations even below the recommended for human consumption. Probable causes for the cytotoxicity of ILF are the exposure to high temperatures (70–85°C combined with a high fibre content.

  13. Arsenic-Induced Antioxidant Depletion, Oxidative DNA Breakage, and Tissue Damages are Prevented by the Combined Action of Folate and Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Nirmallya; Deb, Bimal; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a grade I human carcinogen. It acts by disrupting one-carbon (1C) metabolism and cellular methyl (-CH3) pool. The -CH3 group helps in arsenic disposition and detoxification of the biological systems. Vitamin B12 and folate, the key promoters of 1C metabolism were tested recently (daily 0.07 and 4.0 μg, respectively/100 g b.w. of rat for 28 days) to evaluate their combined efficacy in the protection from mutagenic DNA-breakage and tissue damages. The selected tissues like intestine (first-pass site), liver (major xenobiotic metabolizer) and lung (major arsenic accumulator) were collected from arsenic-ingested (0.6 ppm/same schedule) female rats. The hemo-toxicity and liver and kidney functions were monitored. Our earlier studies on arsenic-exposed humans can correlate carcinogenesis with DNA damage. Here, we demonstrate that the supplementation of physiological/therapeutic dose of vitamin B12 and folate protected the rodents significantly from arsenic-induced DNA damage (DNA fragmentation and comet assay) and hepatic and renal tissue degeneration (histo-architecture, HE staining). The level of arsenic-induced free-radical products (TBARS and conjugated diene) was significantly declined by the restored actions of several antioxidants viz. urate, thiol, catalase, xanthine oxidase, lactoperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the tissues of vitamin-supplemented group. The alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, urea and creatinine (hepatic and kidney toxicity marker), and lactate dehydrogenase (tissue degeneration marker) were significantly impaired in the arsenic-fed group. But a significant protection was evident in the vitamin-supplemented group. In conclusion, the combined action of folate and B12 results in the restitution in the 1C metabolic pathway and cellular methyl pool. The cumulative outcome from the enhanced arsenic methylation and antioxidative capacity was protective against arsenic induced mutagenic DNA breakages and tissue damages.

  14. The relation between serum Vitamin D levels and body antioxidant status in ischemic stroke patients: A case?control study

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    Afshari, Laleh; Amani, Reza; Soltani, Farhad; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Afsharmanesh, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is the second cause of death among elderly people. Oxidative stress plays an important role in brain damage after stroke. Currently, Vitamin D has been shown as an antioxidant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of Vitamin D, antioxidant enzymes, and the relation between them in ischemic stroke patients. Materials and Methods: This case?control study was carried out on 36 patients with ischemic stroke patients and 36 matched subjects as controls. Intake of fru...

  15. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  16. Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage

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    Shekar Meera

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+ approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania Methods We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1 during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999; and (2 three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002. A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Results Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1–2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10–18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72–81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70% (p = 0.04. Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Conclusion Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a

  17. Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanja, Honorati; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Mshinda, Hassan M; Shekar, Meera; Mugyabuso, Joseph K L; Ndossi, Godwin D; de Savigny, Don

    2006-11-01

    Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+) approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1) during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999); and (2) three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002). A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1-2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10-18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72-81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70%) (p = 0.04). Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a need to monitor the effect of such campaigns on the routine health

  18. Different doses of supplemental vitamin D maintain interleukin-5 without altering skeletal muscle strength: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in vitamin D sufficient adults

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    Barker Tyler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplemental vitamin D modulates inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle function, but results are inconsistent. It is unknown if these inconsistencies are dependent on the supplemental dose of vitamin D. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different doses of supplemental vitamin D on inflammatory cytokines and muscular strength in young adults. Methods Men (n = 15 and women (n = 15 received a daily placebo or vitamin D supplement (200 or 4000 IU for 28-d during the winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, cytokine concentrations and muscular (leg strength measurements were performed prior to and during supplementation. Statistical significance of data were assessed with a two-way (time, treatment analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference to test multiple pairwise comparisons. Results Upon enrollment, 63% of the subjects were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25(OHD ≥ 30 ng/ml. Serum 25(OHD and interleukin (IL-5 decreased (P P P P Conclusion In young adults who were vitamin D sufficient prior to supplementation, we conclude that a low-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D prevents serum 25(OHD and IL-5 concentration decreases, and that muscular strength does not parallel the 25(OHD increase induced by a high-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D. Considering that IL-5 protects against viruses and bacterial infections, these findings could have a broad physiological importance regarding the ability of vitamin D sufficiency to mediate the immune systems protection against infection.

  19. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis K; Hardacre, Allan; Mutukumira, Anthony N; Weber, Janet L; Brough, Louise; Coad, Jane

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa is high in spite of vitamin A supplementation programmes among children in most countries. Plant-based complementary foods remain the key source of nutrients in addition to breast milk for infants in lower income countries. Cereal-legume blends are superior in protein and energy densities compared with maize, millet or sorghum-only porridge. However, unfortified cereal-legume and cereal-only porridges are low in vitamin A. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food, rich in vitamin A, has been developed to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa. A composite flour containing sweet potato, soybean, soybean oil and fishmeal was processed as complementary food by oven toasting (denoted oven-toasted ComFa). The oven-toasted ComFa and enriched Weanimix (processed from dehulled maize, dehulled soybean, groundnut and fishmeal) were assessed for suitability as complementary food based on the nutrient composition using specifications in the Codex Standard (CS) as a reference. The sweet potato-based formulation and enriched Weanimix met the energy, protein, fructose and fat specifications but barely met the amino acid score as indicated in the CS. However, only the oven-toasted ComFa met the calcium and almost half the vitamin A levels as specified in the CS. Oven-toasted ComFa was slightly lower in energy, protein and fat by a difference not greater than 4.0% but was higher by more than 100% in fructose and vitamin A levels. Therefore, the sweet potato-based complementary food is likely to support vitamin A supplementation initiatives in low-income countries better than the cereal-based formulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Current Recommended Vitamin D Prenatal Supplementation and Fetal Growth: Results From the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rui-Xue; Meng, Deng-Hon; Li, Jing-Jing; Tong, Shi-Lu; Hao, Jia-Hu; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fang-Biao; Zhu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Maternal vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with fetal growth restriction. However, the effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation on fetal growth has not been confirmed. To assess the effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) during pregnancy on the neonatal vitamin D status and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA). As part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort study, maternal sociodemographic characteristics, food intake, lifestyle, information on vitamin D supplementation, and birth outcomes were prospectively collected. For participants, 600 IU/d of vitamin D3 was routinely advised to take during pregnancy. Cord blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, and phosphorus were measured in 1491 neonates who were divided into three groups based on the duration of maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. Mean cord blood concentrations of 25(OH)D were 3.5 nmol/L higher [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8, 6.2] in neonates (median, 37.9 nmol/L) whose mother took vitamin D supplementation for >2 months during pregnancy compared with those (median, 34.3 nmol/L) whose mother did not take any supplement. These significant differences on cord blood concentrations of 25(OH)D occurred regardless of the season of birth. The adjusted risk of SGA in pregnant women with vitamin D supplementation for >2 months was significantly decreased than that in women without any vitamin D supplementation (11.8% vs 6.9%; adjusted odds ratio = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.32, 0.87). The findings from China suggest that maternal vitamin D supplementation recommended by the IOM results in a slight but significantly higher fetal level of 25(OH)D and improves fetal growth.

  1. Impact of DDGS-supplemented diet with or without vitamin E and selenium supplementation on the fatty acid profile of beef

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    Holló I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of supplementation of vitamin E or organic selenium in DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles diet on fatty acid composition in two meat cuts of finishing Holstein bulls was investigated. Twenty-four Holstein bulls were allotted to treatments in three groups of eight bulls per group for a 100-day trial. The treatments were adequate Se and vitamin E supplementation in control group (C, supranutritional vitamin E supplementation in vitamin Group E (E, supranutritional Se supplementation in selenium group (Se. At similar age, slaughtering Group C had higher slaughter/carcass weight and EUROP fat score than Se counterparts. The killing out percentage and proximate composition of muscles differed among treatments. Inclusion of the vitamin E or Se supplement led to expected increases (P < 0.05 in vitamin E and Se contents of the brisket and loin. Higher vitamin E concentration caused significant lower SFA and greater PUFA. Higher Se level influenced significant SFA in brisket and PUFA in both muscles. Vitamin E or Se dietary treatments in DDGS-supplemented diet resulted in beef meat cuts considerably beneficial PUFA/SFA but markedly higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and even higher health index in both meat samples opposite to Group C.

  2. Infant vitamin d supplementation and allergic conditions in adulthood: northern Finland birth cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyppönen, Elina; Sovio, Ulla; Wjst, Matthias; Patel, Swatee; Pekkanen, Juha; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Järvelinb, Marjo-Riitta

    2004-12-01

    Allergen-induced secretion of Th2-type cytokines and IgE production have recently been reported to be increased in mice treated with 1,25(OH)(2)D, the active form of vitamin D. Our objective was to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation in infancy is associated with the risk of atopy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. The Northern Finland Birth Cohort consists of all individuals in the two most northern provinces of Finland who were due to be born in 1966. Data on vitamin D supplementation during the first year of life was obtained in 1967. Current asthma and allergic rhinitis were reported at age 31 years (n = 7,648), and atopy determined by skin-prick test in a sub-sample still living in northern Finland or the Helsinki area (n = 5,007). The prevalence of atopy and allergic rhinitis at age 31 years was higher in participants who had received vitamin D supplementation regularly during the first year compared to others (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.4-2.0, and OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.1-1.6, respectively). A similar association was observed for asthma (OR 1.35, 95%CI 0.99-1.8). These associations persisted after adjustment for a wide range of behavioral and social factors (adjusted: OR 1.33 for all, P = 0.01 for atopy, P = 0.001 for allergic rhinitis, and P = 0.08 for asthma). We observed an association between vitamin D supplementation in infancy and an increased risk of atopy and allergic rhinitis later in life. Further study is required to determine whether these observations reflect long-term effects on immune regulation or differences in unmeasured determinants of vitamin D supplementation.

  3. Smoking,serum antioxidant vitamin levels and age-related macular degeneration

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    Sezen Akkaya Çakir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate associations between the grades of age related macular degeneration(AMDand serum levels of antioxidant vitamins(vitamin A, C and Eand smoking. METHODS: Fifty-three AMD patients and 31 individuals having ages matching with the patient group were enrolled the study. Colored fundus photographs of the macula were used to place participants(n=84into one of the five groups(Grade I-Vbased on the frequency and severity of the lesions associated with AMD. Serum antioxidant vitamin levels were measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC. Smoking status was classified as non-smoker, ex-smoker and current smoker. Total number of packs smoked per year, was defined.RESULTS: The distribution of vitamin A, E, and C levels were 0.874±0.326mg/L, 10.739±4.874mg/L, 1.737±0.447mg/L in control group and 0.880±0.305mg/L, 9.487±6.060mg/L, 1.870±2.191mg/L in AMD group, respectively. The difference between AMD and control group was not statistically significant for vitamin A, E and C levels(P>0.05. There were no significant differences between subgroups of AMD for vitamin A(P=0.881and vitamin E(P=0.293but there was a contradicting rise of vitamin C levels(P=0.044with increasing levels of the disease. There were no significant differences between AMD and control group regarding smoking status, but there was a significant difference for total number of packs smoked per year(P=0.02. An increase of number of total packs smoked per year was determined along with the rising grade of AMD(P=0.007. CONCLUSION: We found no relation between AMD and serum levels of vitamin A and E but vitamin C levels was increase with AMD grades unexpectedly. We found dose-response relationship between smoking and AMD.

  4. Vitamin E supplementation increases the attractiveness of males' scent for female European green lizards.

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    Renáta Kopena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite that chemoreception is important in sexual selection for many animals, such as reptiles, the mechanisms that confer reliability to chemical signals are relatively unknown. European green lizards (Lacerta viridis have substantial amounts of α-tocopherol ( = vitamin E in their femoral secretions. Because vitamin E is metabolically important and can only be attained from the diet, its secretion is assumed to be costly. However, its role in intraspecific communication is unknown.Here, we experimentally show that male European green lizards that received a dietary supplement of vitamin E increased proportions of vitamin E in their femoral secretions. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that females preferred to use areas scent marked by males with experimentally increased vitamin E levels in their secretions. Finally, female preferences were stronger when vitamin E differences between a pair of males' secretions were larger.Our results demonstrate that female green lizards are able to discriminate between males based on the vitamin E content of the males' femoral secretions. We suggest that the possible cost of allocating vitamin E to secretions, which might be dependent on male quality, may be a mechanism that confers reliability to scent marks of green lizards and allows their evolution as sexual signals.

  5. Vitamin E supplementation increases the attractiveness of males' scent for female European green lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopena, Renáta; Martín, José; López, Pilar; Herczeg, Gábor

    2011-04-28

    In spite that chemoreception is important in sexual selection for many animals, such as reptiles, the mechanisms that confer reliability to chemical signals are relatively unknown. European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) have substantial amounts of α-tocopherol ( = vitamin E) in their femoral secretions. Because vitamin E is metabolically important and can only be attained from the diet, its secretion is assumed to be costly. However, its role in intraspecific communication is unknown. Here, we experimentally show that male European green lizards that received a dietary supplement of vitamin E increased proportions of vitamin E in their femoral secretions. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that females preferred to use areas scent marked by males with experimentally increased vitamin E levels in their secretions. Finally, female preferences were stronger when vitamin E differences between a pair of males' secretions were larger. Our results demonstrate that female green lizards are able to discriminate between males based on the vitamin E content of the males' femoral secretions. We suggest that the possible cost of allocating vitamin E to secretions, which might be dependent on male quality, may be a mechanism that confers reliability to scent marks of green lizards and allows their evolution as sexual signals.

  6. Very high vitamin D supplementation rates among infants aged 2 months in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada

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    Crocker Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets and possibly other poor health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. Breast milk is the best food for infants but does not contain adequate vitamin D. Health Canada recommends all breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU; however, there appears to be limited current Canadian data as to whether parents or caregivers are following this advice. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of vitamin D supplementation among 2-month old infants in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Mothers of all healthy infants born between April and May 2010 were approached to participate. Telephone surveys were conducted with 577 mothers (response rate 56% when their infants turned 2 months. Results Over half of the infants received only breast milk in the week prior to the survey. One third received a mixture of breast milk and infant formula and 10% received only formula. About 80% of the infants were supplemented with vitamin D at 2 months. Infants who received only breast milk were most likely to be supplemented with vitamin D (91%. Over 60% of the infants had a total vitamin D intake of 300- Conclusions About 90% of the infants received breast milk at 2 months of age. The vitamin D supplementation rate was 80%. Future studies are needed to monitor breastfeeding duration and vitamin D supplementation rates as infants get older.

  7. Variations in infant and childhood vitamin D supplementation programmes across Europe and factors influencing adherence

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    Suma Uday

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional rickets is a growing global public health concern despite existing prevention programmes and health policies. We aimed to compare infant and childhood vitamin D supplementation policies, implementation strategies and practices across Europe and explore factors influencing adherence. Methods: European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Bone and Growth Plate Working Group members and other specialists completed a questionnaire on country-specific vitamin D supplementation policy and child health care programmes, socioeconomic factors, policy implementation strategies and adherence. Factors influencing adherence were assessed using Kendall’s tau-b correlation coefficient. Results: Responses were received from 29 of 30 European countries (97%. Ninety-six per cent had national policies for infant vitamin D supplementation. Supplements are commenced on day 1–5 in 48% (14/29 of countries, day 6–21 in 48% (14/29; only the UK (1/29 starts supplements at 6 months. Duration of supplementation varied widely (6 months to lifelong in at-risk populations. Good (≥80% of infants, moderate (50–79% and low adherence (<50% to supplements was reported by 59% (17/29, 31% (9/29 and 10% (3/29 of countries, respectively. UK reported lowest adherence (5–20%. Factors significantly associated with good adherence were universal supplementation independent of feeding mode (P = 0.007, providing information at neonatal unit (NNU discharge (P = 0.02, financial family support (P = 0.005; monitoring adherence at surveillance visits (P = 0.001 and the total number of factors adopted (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Good adherence to supplementation is a multi-task operation that works best when parents are informed at birth, all babies are supplemented, and adherence monitoring is incorporated into child health surveillance visits. Implementation strategies matter for delivering efficient prevention policies.

  8. Vitamin D supplementation has no effect on insulin sensitivity or secretion in vitamin D-deficient, overweight or obese adults: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Aya; Naderpoor, Negar; de Courten, Maximilian Pj; Teede, Helena; Kellow, Nicole; Walker, Karen; Scragg, Robert; de Courten, Barbora

    2017-06-01

    Background: Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as a potential strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes. Existing clinical trials have been limited by short duration, low doses of vitamin D, variability in participants' vitamin D-deficiency status, and the use of surrogate measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Objective: To address existing knowledge gaps, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation that is provided in a sufficient dose and duration to vitamin D-deficient individuals would improve insulin sensitivity or secretion as measured with the use of gold-standard methods. We hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation would improve insulin sensitivity and secretion compared with placebo. Design: Sixty-five overweight or obese, vitamin D-deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration ≤50 nmol/L) adults were randomly assigned to receive either a bolus oral dose of 100,000 IU cholecalciferol followed by 4000 IU cholecalciferol/d or a matching placebo for 16 wk. Before and after the intervention, participants received gold-standard assessments of body composition (via dual X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (via hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps), and insulin secretion [via intravenous-glucose-tolerance tests (IVGTTs)]. Results: Fifty-four participants completed the study [35 men and 19 women; mean ± SD age: 31.9 ± 8.5 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 30.9 ± 4.4]. 25(OH)D increased with vitamin D supplementation compared with placebo (57.0 ± 21.3 compared with 1.9 ± 15.1 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.02). Vitamin D and placebo groups did not differ in change in insulin sensitivity (0.02 ± 2.0 compared with -0.03 ± 2.8 mg · kg -1 · min -1 , respectively; P = 0.9) or first-phase insulin secretion (-21 ± 212 compared with 24 ± 184 mU/L, respectively; P = 0.9). Results remained nonsignificant after adjustment for age, sex

  9. Antioxidant intervention of smoking-induced lung tumor in mice by vitamin E and quercetin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Li, Jun-Wen; Wang, Lu; Chen, Zhaoli; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Jin, Min; Wang, Xin-Wei; Zheng, Yufei; Qiu, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jing-feng

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological and in vitro studies suggest that antioxidants such as quercetin and vitamin E (VE) can prevent lung tumor caused by smoking; however, there is limited evidence from animal studies. In the present study, Swiss mouse was used to examine the potential of quercetin and VE for prevention lung tumor induced by smoking. Our results suggest that the incidence of lung tumor and tumor multiplicity were 43.5% and 1.00 ± 0.29 in smoking group; Quercetin has limited effects on lung tumor prevention in this in vivo model, as measured by assays for free radical scavenging, reduction of smoke-induced DNA damage and inhibition of apoptosis. On the other hand, vitamin E drastically decreased the incidence of lung tumor and tumor multiplicity which were 17.0% and 0.32 ± 0.16, respectively (p < 0.05); and demonstrated prominent antioxidant effects, reduction of DNA damage and decreased cell apoptosis (p < 0.05). Combined treatment with quercetin and VE in this animal model did not demonstrate any effect greater than that due to vitamin E alone. In addition, gender differences in the occurrence of smoke induced-lung tumor and antioxidant intervention were also observed. We conclude that VE might prevent lung tumor induced by smoking in Swiss mice

  10. Impact of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial and inflammatory markers in adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbalalah, Tari; Hughes, Stephen F; Freeborn, Ellen J; Mushtaq, Sohail

    2017-10-01

    This systematic review aims to evaluate randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation in adults. An electronic search of published randomised controlled trials, using Cochrane, Pubmed and Medline databases was conducted, with the search terms related to vitamin D and endothelial function. Inclusion criteria were RCTs in adult humans with a measure of vitamin D status using serum/plasma 25(OH)D and studies which administered the intervention through the oral route. Among the 1107 studies retrieved, 29 studies met the full inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Overall, 8 studies reported significant improvements in the endothelial/inflammatory biomarkers/parameters measured. However, in 2 out of the 8 studies, improvements were reported at interim time points, but improvements were absent post-intervention. The remaining 21 trial studies did not show significant improvements in the markers of interest measured. Evidence from the studies included in this systematic review did not demonstrate that vitamin D supplementation in adults, results in an improvement in circulating inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers/parameters. This systematic review does not therefore support the use of vitamin D supplementation as a therapeutic or preventative measure for CVD in this respect. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant effects of alpha-tocopherol (vitamine E on testis regeneration in busulfan-treated mice

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    Fatemeh Rohnavaz

    2016-09-01

    (35, 40 mg/kg body weight intraperitonealy. The effects of busulfan was examinned on destruction of testis tissue, semen parameters and catalase enzymatic activity compared with control group after 30 days. Finally, fter determining the effective dose of busulfan, Vitamin E was injected to the mice as an antioxidant enzyme  and its effects on semen parameters and testis tissue was examined after one month.  Results: The results showed that oxidative stress was increased in busulfan-treated mice during 30 days. Catalase enzymatic activity decreased significantly in testis of Busulfan-treated mice in comparison with control group. A significant decrease of sperm number was observed according to treatment by Busulfan. After finding the most damaging dose of busulfan (40 mg/kg in destruction of testis tissue, these mice were injected by vitamine E. The results showed that the oxidative stress and percentage of abnormal sperm were decreased in Busulfan-treated mice that exposed a dose of 100 mg/kg vitamin E. The number of sperm and antioxidant activity of catalase was increased. Conclusion: Vitamin E improves a revival of spermatogenesis and improves testicular parameters in these patients. 

  12. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

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    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total

  13. Vitamin A supplementation for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very-low-birth-weight premature Thai infants: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatchoosakun, Pakaphan; Jirapradittha, Junya; Panthongviriyakul, M Charnchai; Khampitak, Tueanjit; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Boonsiri, Patcharee

    2014-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one ofthe most significant complications among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants. Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of BPD in VLBWinfants. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in VLBW premature Thai infants. Randomized control trial. Eighty premature infants weighing supplementation at 24 hours ofage-admitted to Neonatal units ofSrinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand-were assigned to receive either intramuscular vitaminA 5, 000 IU3 times/week (treatment group) or sham procedure (control group) for four weeks. Serum vitamin A levels were measured before and after administration of the vitamin A. The baseline of mean serum vitamin A levels were similar in both groups. The mean serum level of vitamin A was significantly higher in the vitamin A supplemented infants than in the control infants on day 7 (1.41 +/- 0.48 vs. 0.92+0.38 pmol/ L, psupplementation. None of the infants in the vitamin A supplemented group, compared to 5% of the infants in the control group, had vitamin A level supplemented group required oxygen supplementation at 36 weeks postmenstrual age than in the control group albeit not statistically significant (22.5 vs. 35% relative risk 0.71; 95% CI 0.40 +/- 1.26; p = 0.21). Supplementation with vitamin A was also associated with a significant reduction in the duration ofintubation (10.8 +/- 3.1 days vitamin A supplemented group vs. 26.1 +/- 6.4 days control group, p = 0.03), days on oxygen therapy (29.8 +/- 5.1 days vitamin A supplemented group vs. 58.2 +/- 9.1 days control group, p = 0.01) and length of hospital stay (61.9 +/- 4.2 days vitamin A supplemented group vs. 88.3 +/- 7.2 days control group, p = 0.002). The dose of vitamin A used in this study reduced biochemical evidence of vitamin A deficiency and, without complications, resulted in reducing duration of intubation, days of oxygen therapy, and length of

  14. Deficiencies of vitamins in CAPD patients: the effect of supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeschoten, E. W.; Schrijver, J.; Krediet, R. T.; Schreurs, W. H.; Arisz, L.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of the vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, folic acid, A, E and beta-carotene were determined in blood and 24-h dialysate in 44 CAPD patients. Twenty-five of these patients were studied during chronic treatment (mean 313 days, range 60-1034 days). Nineteen patients were studied during

  15. Effect of Vitamin C Supplementation on Platelet Aggregation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    when compared to the control group. Although the RBC values were within normal range, the decrease in Hb and MCHC in DM group when taken together reflects anaemia. Morales-Ramirez et al. (1998) reported that Vitamin C increases the haematocrit through enhanced iron absorption. (Atanasova et al., 2004) and as ...

  16. Does Vitamin D Supplementation Enhance Musculoskeletal Performance in Individuals Identified as Vitamin D Deficient through Blood Spot Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kellie A.

    This thesis investigated possible changes in performance after one month of vitamin D supplementation in individuals found to be vitamin D deficient or insufficient through blood spot testing. Thirty-two males, ages 18-32, participated. Each subject visited the lab three times in one-month, completing four performance tests each session, including an isometric mid-thigh pull and a vertical jump on a force plate, a isometric 90-degree elbow flexion test using a load cell, and a psychomotor vigilance test on a palm pilot. The initial lab included blood spot tests to find vitamin D levels. In a single blind manner, 16 subjects were assigned vitamin D and 16 the placebo. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=2.626, p=0.364), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.282, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.304, p=0.999) for maximum force production during an isometric mid-thigh pull. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.323, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.510, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.625, p=0.860) for rate of force production during a vertical jump. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.194, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=2.452, p=0.513), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.179, p=0.999) for maximal force production during a 90-degree isometric elbow flexion. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.710, p=0.804), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.471, p=0.94), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 0.293, p=0.999) for mean reaction time to random stimuli during the psychomotor vigilance test. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.530, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.141, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.784 p=0

  17. Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons : A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, Paul; Graafmans, Wilco C.; Ooms, Marcel E.; Bezemer, P. Dick; Bouter, Lex M.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether vitamin D supplementation decreases the incidence of hip fractures and other peripheral bone fractures. Design: Prospective, double-blind trial. Setting: Community setting (Amsterdam and surrounding area). Patients: 2578 persons (1916 women, 662 men) 70 years of age

  18. Re: errors in the NOF meta-analysis of calcium and vitamin D supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript entitled "Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and risk of fractures: an updated meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation" sought to update a former AHRQ evidence report. The study was commissioned by the NOF to inform the organization, since a significant controversy...

  19. Vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in Indonesia : micronutrient interactions and effects of supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Wieringa, F.T.

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was concerned with vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in infants. The effects of supplementation withβ-carotene, iron and zinc on micronutrient status, growth, pregnancy outcome and immune function, and interactions

  20. Effects of Oral Supplements Regimes of Vitamins C and E on Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emerging role of oxidants as a causal factor in disease conditions in general and poor fertility, particularly in the male, necessitated investigation of the effects of oral supplements of vitamins C and E on sperm count in Wistar rats. Methodology: Twenty (20) male fully matured Wistar rats aged twelve (12) weeks with ...

  1. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 defiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Clarke, R.J.; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Supplementation with high doses of oral cobalamin is as effective as cobalamin administered by intramuscular injection to correct plasma markers of vitamin B12 deficiency, but the effects of lower oral doses of cobalamin on such markers are uncertain. Methods We conducted a randomized,

  2. Neonatal hypocalcemia and its relation to vitamin D and calcium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsary, Asmaa Y; Elgameel, Alkassem A; Mohammed, Wael S; Zaki, Osman M; Taha, Shaimaa A

    2018-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of hypocalcemia in outpatient clinic neonates and its relation to vitamin D and calcium supplementation.  Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital from May to October 2016. Data were collected from 100 neonates by interviewing mothers using a structured questionnaire; which included socio-demographic information, maternal and neonatal history; in addition to investigations of serum calcium total and ionized and serum vitamin D level. Results: The prevalence of hypocalcemia was 76%, late hypocalcemia represent 52% of hypocalcemic neonates. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 38%. Hypocalcemia was found more prevalent among neonates with no history of vitamin D supplementation (98.7%), no history of maternal calcium supplementation (57.9%), while they had a history of neonatal jaundice on phototherapy (46.1%) which increased to 53.8% with late hypocalcemia. Conclusion: Neonatal hypocalcemia is widely prevalent in Fayoum governorate with significant association with a history of neonatal jaundice on phototherapy, not receiving maternal calcium or neonatal vitamin D supplementation.

  3. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the urinary retinol excretion in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Bettina; Longardt, Ann Carolin; Loui, Andrea; Bührer, Christoph; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J

    2016-03-01

    Despite high-dose vitamin A supplementation of very low birth weight infants (VLBW, supplementation on the urinary vitamin A excretion in VLBW infants was investigated. Sixty-three VLBW infants were treated with vitamin A (5000 IU intramuscular, 3 times/week for 4 weeks); 38 untreated infants were classified as control group. On days 3 and 28 of life, retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and Tamm-Horsfall protein were quantified in urine. On day 3 of life, substantial retinol and RBP4 losses were found in both groups, which significantly decreased until day 28. Notwithstanding, the retinol excretion was higher (P supplementation as compared to infants of the control group. On day 28 of life, the urinary retinol concentrations were predictive for serum retinol concentrations in the vitamin A treated (P supplementation efficacy in VLBW infants. Advanced age and thus postnatal kidney maturation seems to be an important contributor in the prevention of urinary retinol losses.

  4. Validation Protocol of Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients with HIV-Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Lerma-Chippirraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism are frequent among HIV-infected patients. As there are no data about the best supplementation therapy both in treatment and in maintenance, we conducted an observational study of 300 HIV-infected patients for whom vitamin D and parathormone (PTH had been measured in order to validate a protocol of vitamin D supplementation in patients with HIV-infection. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25(OHD 65 pg/mL were supplemented with cholecalciferol 16.000IU (0.266 mg weekly (if deficiency or fortnightly (if insufficiency or high PTH levels. Rates of normalization of 25(OHD (levels above 20 ng/mL and PTH levels (<65 pg/mL were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of factors related to normalization was carried out. With a median follow-up of 2 years, 82.1% of patients with deficiency and 83.9% of cases with insufficiency reached levels above 20 ng/mL. However, only 67.2% of individuals with hyperparathyroidism at baseline reached target levels (<65 pg/mL. Independent factors for not achieving PTH objective were tenofovir (TDF and protease inhibitors use. In HIV-infected patients with hypovitaminosis, the protocol of cholecalciferol supplementation normalized vitamin D levels regardless of antiretroviral regimen in a high proportion of patients but it was less effective to correct hyperparathyroidism.

  5. Effects of vitamin C and L-carnitine supplementation on metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fasting as a means of protest or religious purposes have increased in the last two decades, individuals involved take only water and supplements. This study investigated the roles of vitamin C and L-carnitine on metabolic parameters during fasting and re-feeding. Methods: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats ...

  6. Interaction between neonatal vitamin A supplementation and timing of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario L; Fisker, Ane B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months...

  7. The prevalence and determinants of use of vitamin D supplements among children in Alberta, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Munasinghe, Lalani L.; Willows, Noreen; Yuan, Yan; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited cutaneous synthesis due to low sun exposure and inadequate dietary intake makes vitamin D supplementation a necessity for many Canadian children. Identification of the factors associated with supplement use is necessary for public health awareness campaigns, but they have not been identified previously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and the determinants of the use of vitamin D supplements among children in the province of Alberta, Canada....

  8. Pharmacokinetics of inorganic cobalt and a vitamin B12 supplement in the Thoroughbred horse: Differentiating cobalt abuse from supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, L L; Ridd, Z; Fenwick, S; Hincks, P; Paine, S W

    2018-05-01

    While cobalt is an essential micronutrient for vitamin B 12 synthesis in the horse, at supraphysiological concentrations, it has been shown to enhance performance in human subjects and rats, and there is evidence that its administration in high doses to horses poses a welfare threat. Animal sport regulators currently control cobalt abuse via international race day thresholds, but this work was initiated to explore means of potentially adding to application of those thresholds since cobalt may be present in physiological concentrations. To devise a scientific basis for differentiation between presence of cobalt from bona fide supplementation and cobalt doping through the use of ratios. Six Thoroughbred horses were given 10 mL vitamin B 12 /cobalt supplement (Hemo-15 ® ; Vetoquinol, Buckingham, Buckinghamshire, UK., 1.5 mg B 12 , 7 mg cobalt gluconate = 983 μg total Co) as an i.v. bolus then an i.v. infusion (15 min) of 100 mg cobalt chloride (45.39 mg Co) 6 weeks later. Pre-and post-administration plasma and urine samples were analysed for cobalt and vitamin B 12 . Urine and plasma samples were analysed for vitamin B 12 using an immunoassay and cobalt concentrations were measured via ICP-MS. Baseline concentrations of cobalt in urine and plasma for each horse were subtracted from their cobalt concentrations post-administration for the PK analysis. Compartmental analysis was used for the determination of plasma PK parameters for cobalt using commercially available software. On administration of a vitamin B 12 /cobalt supplement, the ratio of cobalt to vitamin B 12 in plasma rapidly increased to approximately 3 and then rapidly declined below a ratio of 1 and then back to near baseline over the next week. On administration of 100 mg cobalt chloride, the ratio initially exceeded 10 in plasma and then declined with the lower 95% confidence interval remaining above a ratio of 1 for 7 days. For two horses with extended sampling, the plasma ratio remained above one for

  9. Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams James B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin/mineral supplements are among the most commonly used treatments for autism, but the research on their use for treating autism has been limited. Method This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled three month vitamin/mineral treatment study. The study involved 141 children and adults with autism, and pre and post symptoms of autism were assessed. None of the participants had taken a vitamin/mineral supplement in the two months prior to the start of the study. For a subset of the participants (53 children ages 5-16 pre and post measurements of nutritional and metabolic status were also conducted. Results The vitamin/mineral supplement was generally well-tolerated, and individually titrated to optimum benefit. Levels of many vitamins, minerals, and biomarkers improved/increased showing good compliance and absorption. Statistically significant improvements in metabolic status were many including: total sulfate (+17%, p = 0.001, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM; +6%, p = 0.003, reduced glutathione (+17%, p = 0.0008, ratio of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH; -27%, p = 0.002, nitrotyrosine (-29%, p = 0.004, ATP (+25%, p = 0.000001, NADH (+28%, p = 0.0002, and NADPH (+30%, p = 0.001. Most of these metabolic biomarkers improved to normal or near-normal levels. The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than the placebo group on the Parental Global Impressions-Revised (PGI-R, Average Change, p = 0.008, and on the subscores for Hyperactivity (p = 0.003, Tantrumming (p = 0.009, Overall (p = 0.02, and Receptive Language (p = 0.03. For the other three assessment tools the difference between treatment group and placebo group was not statistically significant. Regression analysis revealed that the degree of improvement on the Average Change of the PGI-R was strongly associated with several biomarkers (adj. R2 = 0.61, p Conclusions Oral vitamin/mineral supplementation is beneficial in

  10. EFFECTS OF SEED IRRADIATION ON 14C FIXATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF VITAMIN C AND TOTAL PHENOLS OF CANOLA LEAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAMEL, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Seeds of canola were gamma irradiated with doses of 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Gy then cultivated in 30 cm plastic pots containing 7 kg clay soil. After 45 days of cultivation, plants were used to measure 14 C fixation capacity, vitamin C, total phenol, free proline and peroxidase activity in addition to the antioxidant activity. The results showed decrease in the chlorophyll content and 14 C fixation at all gamma doses. Irradiation of canola seeds caused significant reduction in vitamin C and phenol content, while significant increase was occurred in free proline and peroxidase activity. Antioxidant activity of vitamin C was higher than that of phenols at all doses used

  11. The effect of vitamin A supplementation on postnatal adipose tissue development of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, A; Mendizabal, J A; Alzón, M; Soret, B; Purroy, A

    2008-12-01

    Vitamin A (retinoic acid) is known to be an adipogenic factor influencing both in vitro and in vivo cell development. This study aimed to determine its effect on lamb adipose tissue development during the early phase of postnatal development until 100 d of age. Male lambs (n = 24) of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were used. At birth, lambs were assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: 1) the control (C) group, which received feed without vitamin A supplementation, and 2) the vitamin A (V) group, which received a supplement of 500,000 IU/animal twice per week from birth to slaughter. The effect of vitamin A supplementation was studied at 16.8 +/- 0.35 kg of BW (58 +/- 0.7 d of age) and at 27.8 +/- 0.78 kg of BW (101 +/- 6.5 d of age). The variables of lamb growth, carcass, LM area, and lipid content were analyzed. To study adipose tissue development, the amount of adipose tissue accumulated, the size and number of adipocytes, and lipogenic enzyme activities (glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) of the omental, perirenal, and s.c. depots were quantified. Results showed that vitamin A supplementation had no influence on growth, carcass variables, LM area, and lipid content during lamb growth but that the number of adipocytes in the perirenal depot was 30% greater in lambs of the V group (P vitamin A during the whole period of growth of the lambs influenced the processes of hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the different adipose depots, depending on their degree of maturity.

  12. Effects of vitamin C supplementation on performance, iron status and immune function of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junmei; Li, Defa; Piao, Xiangshu; Yang, Wenjun; Wang, Fenglai

    2002-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation on performance, iron status and immune function of pigs during the 21-day post-weaning period. In experiment one, 48 crossbred pigs (Chester White x Large White x Yorkshire), weaned at 30 days of age and weighing 7.7 +/- 0.9 kg, were allotted to diets containing either 0 or 300 mg/kg vitamin C. In experiment two, 96 crossbred pigs (Chester White x Large White x Yorkshire), weaned at 20 +/- 2 days and weighing 7.1 +/- 0.5 kg, were allotted to diets containing 0.75 or 300 mg/kg vitamin C. Six replicate pens were assigned to each treatment in experiment one while experiment two had eight replicates. All pens housed two barrows and two gilts. In both experiments, no improvement (P > 0.05) in growth rate, feed intake or feed conversion was observed as a result of vitamin C supplementation. Plasma iron concentration increased (P immunity (P > 0.05). In trial 2, the plasma levels of the immunoglobulin IgG showed a linear (P = 0.07) increase with increasing levels of vitamin C and the same trend was noted in trial 1. Antibody titers to bovine serum albumin also tended to increase in both trials but the increases were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the overall results of these experiments indicate that weanling pig performance is not improved as a result of vitamin C supplementation. Whether or not vitamin C plays a role in stimulating humoral immune function in pigs requires further study since the results of our experiments do not completely rule out the possibility that such a role exists.

  13. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Turnover Markers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Schwetz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone turnover markers (BTMs are used to evaluate bone health together with bone mineral density and fracture assessment. Vitamin D supplementation is widely used to prevent and treat musculoskeletal diseases but existing data on vitamin D effects on markers of bone resorption and formation are inconsistent. We therefore examined the effects of vitamin D supplementation on bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP, osteocalcin (OC, C-terminal telopeptide (CTX, and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP. This is a post-hoc analysis of the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial, a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT performed at the Medical University of Graz, Austria (2011–2014. Two hundred individuals with arterial hypertension and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels <75 nmol/L were randomized to 2800 IU of vitamin D daily or placebo for eight weeks. One hundred ninety-seven participants (60.2 ± 11.1 years; 47% women were included in this analysis. Vitamin D had no significant effect on bALP (mean treatment effect (MTE 0.013, 95% CI −0.029 to 0.056 µg/L; p = 0.533, CTX (MTE 0.024, 95% CI −0.163 to 0.210 ng/mL, p = 0.802, OC (MTE 0.020, 95% CI −0.062 to 0.103 ng/mL, p = 0.626, or P1NP (MTE −0.021, 95% CI −0.099 to 0.057 ng/mL, p = 0.597. Analyzing patients with 25(OHD levels <50 nmol/L separately (n = 74 left results largely unchanged. In hypertensive patients with low 25(OHD levels, we observed no significant effect of vitamin D supplementation for eight weeks on BTMs.

  14. Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Helen; Hart, Kathryn; Smith, Colin P; Bucca, Giselda; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Hyppönen, Elina; Berry, Jacqueline; Vieth, Reinhold; Lanham-New, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Currently, there is a lack of clarity in the literature as to whether there is a definitive difference between the effects of vitamins D2 and D3 in the raising of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Objective: The objective of this article was to report a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have directly compared the effects of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 on serum 25(OH)D concentrations in humans. Design: The ISI Web of Knowledge (January 1966 to July 2011) database was searched electronically for all relevant studies in adults that directly compared vitamin D3 with vitamin D2. The Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry, International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number register, and clinicaltrials.gov were also searched for any unpublished trials. Results: A meta-analysis of RCTs indicated that supplementation with vitamin D3 had a significant and positive effect in the raising of serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared with the effect of vitamin D2 (P = 0.001). When the frequency of dosage administration was compared, there was a significant response for vitamin D3 when given as a bolus dose (P = 0.0002) compared with administration of vitamin D2, but the effect was lost with daily supplementation. Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicates that vitamin D3 is more efficacious at raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations than is vitamin D2, and thus vitamin D3 could potentially become the preferred choice for supplementation. However, additional research is required to examine the metabolic pathways involved in oral and intramuscular administration of vitamin D and the effects across age, sex, and ethnicity, which this review was unable to verify. PMID:22552031

  15. Effects of amaranth addition on the pro-vitamin A content, and physical and antioxidant properties of extruded pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswa, Daniso; Dlamini, Nomusa R; Amonsou, Eric O; Siwela, Muthulisi; Derera, John

    2016-01-15

    Pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks with added leafy vegetable may have a potential as nutritious and health-promoting products, especially in addressing vitamin A deficiency, which is prevalent in developing regions. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of adding amaranth leaf powder on the physical, antioxidant properties and pro-vitamin A content of extruded pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks. Extruded snacks were processed using four pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize varieties that were composited with amaranth leaf powder at 0%, 1% and 3% (w/w) substitution levels. At higher amaranth concentration, the expansion ratio of the snacks decreased, while their hardness increased by as much as 93%. The physical quality of the snacks may therefore need improvement. As amaranth was increased, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the snacks increased as well as the pro-vitamin A content. Pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize with added amaranth has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks. There are limited studies reporting on processing pro-vitamin A maize with complementary plant foods, which is common with white maize in southern Africa; thus the current study serves as a baseline. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Carvedilol Enhances the Antioxidant Effect of Vitamins E and C in Chronic Chagas Heart Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budni, Patrícia; Pedrosa, Roberto Coury; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Dalmarco, Juliana Bastos; Frode, Tânia Sílvia; Wilhelm, Danilo Filho

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is still an important endemic disease in Brazil, and the cardiac involvement is its more severe manifestation. To verify whether the concomitant use of carvedilol will enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamins E and C in reducing the systemic oxidative stress in chronic Chagas heart disease. A total of 42 patients with Chagas heart disease were studied. They were divided into four groups according to the modified Los Andes classification: 10 patients in group IA (normal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no cardiac involvement); 20 patients in group IB (normal electrocardiogram and abnormal echocardiogram; mild cardiac involvement); eight patients in group II (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no heart failure; moderate cardiac involvement); and four patients in group III (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram with heart failure; severe cardiac involvement). Blood levels of markers of oxidative stress were determined before and after a six-month period of treatment with carvedilol, and six months after combined therapy of carvedilol with vitamins E and C. The markers analyzed were as follows: activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reductase, myeloperoxidade and adenosine deaminase; and the levels of reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, vitamin E, and nitric oxide. After treatment with carvedilol, all groups showed significant decrease in protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione levels, whereas nitric oxide levels and adenosine activity increased significantly only in the less severely affected group (IA). In addition, the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes was decreased in the less severely affected groups (IA and IB). By combining the vitamins with carvedilol, a reduction in protein damage, in glutathione levels, and in the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes were observed. The decrease in oxidative

  17. Carvedilol Enhances the Antioxidant Effect of Vitamins E and C in Chronic Chagas Heart Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budni, Patrícia, E-mail: budnip@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Pedrosa, Roberto Coury [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Dalmarco, Juliana Bastos; Frode, Tânia Sílvia; Wilhelm, Danilo Filho [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Chagas disease is still an important endemic disease in Brazil, and the cardiac involvement is its more severe manifestation. To verify whether the concomitant use of carvedilol will enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamins E and C in reducing the systemic oxidative stress in chronic Chagas heart disease. A total of 42 patients with Chagas heart disease were studied. They were divided into four groups according to the modified Los Andes classification: 10 patients in group IA (normal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no cardiac involvement); 20 patients in group IB (normal electrocardiogram and abnormal echocardiogram; mild cardiac involvement); eight patients in group II (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no heart failure; moderate cardiac involvement); and four patients in group III (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram with heart failure; severe cardiac involvement). Blood levels of markers of oxidative stress were determined before and after a six-month period of treatment with carvedilol, and six months after combined therapy of carvedilol with vitamins E and C. The markers analyzed were as follows: activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reductase, myeloperoxidade and adenosine deaminase; and the levels of reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, vitamin E, and nitric oxide. After treatment with carvedilol, all groups showed significant decrease in protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione levels, whereas nitric oxide levels and adenosine activity increased significantly only in the less severely affected group (IA). In addition, the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes was decreased in the less severely affected groups (IA and IB). By combining the vitamins with carvedilol, a reduction in protein damage, in glutathione levels, and in the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes were observed. The decrease in oxidative

  18. Vitamin D status assessed by a validated HPLC method: within and between variation in subjects supplemented with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assessing vitamin D status as 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25OHD2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25OHD3) in serum. Material and methods. We assessed the within- and between-subject variat......Objective. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assessing vitamin D status as 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25OHD2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25OHD3) in serum. Material and methods. We assessed the within- and between......-subject variation of vitamin D status in serum samples from four different dietary intervention studies in which subjects (n=92) were supplemented with different doses of vitamin D3 (5-12 g/day) and for different durations (4-20 months). Results. The HPLC method was applicable for 4.0-200 nmol S-25OHD/L, while...... the within-day and between-days variations were 3.8 % and 5.7 %, respectively. There was a concentration-dependent difference between results obtained by a commercial radioimmunoassay and results from the HPLC method of -5 to 20 nmol 25OHD/L in the range 10-100 nmol 25OHD/L. The between-subject variation...

  19. Effects of Antioxidants and Vitamins on the Proliferation of Human Diploid Cells

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    Gaziza Dаnlybaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microelements, essential nutrients that are needed in small amounts including minerals such as calcium, zinc, iron and other vitamins (A, B, C, and etc., are macronutrients necessary for a healthy life. The role of micronutrients in vivo is well known, and there are several publications that have examined the effects of micronutrients on genomic stability. Furthermore, a number of vitamins and microelements are substrates and/or cofactors in metabolic pathways, which regulate DNA synthesis and/or repair and gene expression. A deficiency in such nutrients may result in disruption of genomic integrity and alterations in DNA methylation patterns, linking cellular nutrition with change in gene expression. For example, lack of vitamin C is known to cause increased DNA oxidation and chromosomal damage. Vitamin A, as well as other micronutrients, have a protective effect, whereas higher concentrations are associated with increased DNA damage. Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10 and dihydroquercetin are used in therapy as antioxidant compounds and electron carriers, which reduce lipid peroxidation of cell membranes. However, previous studies indicate that various ubiquinone analogs may cause a divergent effect on oxidative stress and oxidative phosphorylation. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of vitamins A and C, coenzyme Q10, and dihydroquercetin on the proliferative potential of cultured human embryonic diploid fibroblasts (M-22. Methods: In the first series of experiments, nontoxic concentrations of vitamins for the cells were identified using MTT assay. Results: Vitamins A and C, dihydroquercetin of 1µM, and coenzyme Q10 of 5µM were nontoxic for human skin fibroblasts. In the second series of experiments, cell cultivation was carried out with nontoxic concentrations. A vitamin C concentration of 1µM for 7 consecutive passages increased the proliferation index (PI compared to the control. Thus, the average PI in the

  20. Predictors of Vitamin D-Containing Supplement Use in the Australian Population and Associations between Dose and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations

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    Lucinda J. Black

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite concerns about vitamin D deficiency in the Australian population, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use. We described the use of vitamin D-containing supplements, and investigated associations between supplemental vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations, using a single 24-h dietary recall from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey (n = 12,153; ages ≥ 2 years. Multiple regression models were used to investigate predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults, and associations between dose and serum 25(OHD concentrations/vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 10%, 6% and 19% in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults included being female, advancing age, higher educational attainment, higher socio-economic status, not smoking, and greater physical activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, a 40 IU (1 µg increase in vitamin D intake from supplements was associated with an increase of 0.41 nmol/L in serum 25(OHD concentrations (95% CI 0.35, 0.47; p < 0.001. However, the prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was generally low in the Australian population, particularly for single vitamin D supplements, with most supplement users obtaining only low levels of vitamin D from other supplement types.

  1. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on maternal and neonatal outcome: A randomized clinical trial

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    Mahdieh Mojibian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been supposed to defend against adverse gestational outcomes. Objective: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted to assess the effects of 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks supplementation on the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and preterm labor, vitamin D status at term and neonatal outcomes contrasted with pregnant women that received 400 IU vitamin D daily. Materials and Methods: 500 women with gestational age 12-16 weeks and serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25 (OH D less than 30 ng/ml randomly categorized in two groups. Group A received 400 IU vitamin D daily and group B 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks orally until delivery. Maternal and Neonatal outcomes were assessed in two groups. Results: The incidence of GDM in group B was significantly lower than group A (6.7% versus 13.4% and odds ratio (95% Confidence interval was 0.46 (0.24-0.87 (P=0.01. The mean ± SD level of 25 (OH D at the time of delivery in mothers in group B was significantly higher than A (37.9 ± 19.8 versus 27.2 ± 18.8 ng/ml, respectively (P=0.001. There were no differences in the incidence of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, preterm labor, and low birth weight between two groups. The mean level of 25 (OH D in cord blood of group B was significantly higher than group A (37.9 ± 18 versus 29.7 ± 19ng/ml, respectively. Anthropometric measures between neonates were not significantly different. Conclusion: Our study showed 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks decreased the incidence of GDM.

  2. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of incident diabetes in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ian H; Tinker, Lesley F; Connelly, Stephanie; Curb, J David; Howard, Barbara V; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Larson, Joseph C; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolis, Karen L; Siscovick, David S; Weiss, Noel S

    2008-04-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic studies suggest that calcium and vitamin D may reduce the risk of developing diabetes. We examined the effect of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on the incidence of drug-treated diabetes in postmenopausal women. The Women's Health Initiative Calcium/Vitamin D Trial randomly assigned postmenopausal women to receive 1,000 mg elemental calcium plus 400 IU of vitamin D3 daily, or placebo, in a double-blind fashion. Among 33,951 participants without self-reported diabetes at baseline, we ascertained by treatment assignment new diagnoses of diabetes treated with oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. Effects of the intervention on fasting measurements of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance were examined among a subset of participants. Over a median follow-up time of 7 years, 2,291 women were newly diagnosed with diabetes. The hazard ratio for incident diabetes associated with calcium/vitamin D treatment was 1.01 (95% CI 0.94-1.10) based on intention to treat. This null result was robust in subgroup analyses, efficacy analyses accounting for nonadherence, and analyses examining change in laboratory measurements. Calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation did not reduce the risk of developing diabetes over 7 years of follow-up in this randomized placebo-controlled trial. Higher doses of vitamin D may be required to affect diabetes risk, and/or associations of calcium and vitamin D intake with improved glucose metabolism observed in nonrandomized studies may be the result of confounding or of other components of foods containing these nutrients.

  3. Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on cognitive function in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R K

    2001-09-01

    To determine whether supplementation with vitamins and trace elements in modest amounts influences cognitive function in apparently healthy, elderly subjects. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-six, apparently healthy, independent men and women older than 65 y of age were recruited and randomized to receive a supplement of trace elements and vitamins or a placebo daily for 12 mo. Blood-nutrient levels were estimated at baseline and at the end of the study. The major outcome measure assessed was cognitive function consisting of immediate and long-term memory, abstract thinking, problem-solving ability, and attention. Eighty-six subjects completed the 1-y trial. The supplemented group showed a significant improvement in all cognitive tests (P 0.1). Those whose blood-nutrient levels were below the reference standard showed lower responses on cognitive tests. There was no significant correlation between individual nutrient levels and performance on various cognitive function tests. Cognitive functions improved after oral supplementation with modest amounts of vitamins and trace elements. This has considerable clinical and public health significance. We recommend that such a supplement be provided to all elderly subjects because it should significantly improve cognition and thus quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Such a nutritional approach may delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease.

  4. [Vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease, clinical-epidemiological analysis and report after vitamin d supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, Nereida; Linares Torres, Pedro; Joáo Matias, Diana; Jorquera Plaza, Francisco; Olcoz Goñi, Jose Luis

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin D (VD) is known to have multiple extra-skeletal health functions. There is emerging interest in exploring the relationship between vitamin D and chronic liver disease (CLD). To determine the prevalence of VD deficiency in patients with CLD in our setting and to assess whether VD supplementation influences plasma levels and is associated with improved liver function. We conducted a study in 2 phases. First, we analysed clinical and epidemiological characteristics in 94 patients with CLD; second, different doses of calcifediol (25-OH-VD) were administered to patients with VD deficiency (C (7.75ng/mL). After VD supplementation, optimal serum levels were achieved in 94% of patients and significant improvements were observed in platelet count, albumin levels (P<.05) and functional status assessed by the Child-Pugh scale (P<.05). Given the high prevalence of VD deficiency or insufficiency, the need for screening should be considered in the population with CLD. VD supplementation could be safe and effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  5. Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency and Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Metabolic Complications in Obesity: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamberg, Louise; Pedersen, Steen B; Rejnmark, Lars; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2015-12-01

    Obese subjects are often characterized by low plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) levels. Many explanations for this association have been proposed. Low plasma 25OHD is associated with obesity-related comorbidities such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and low-grade inflammation. In this review, we discuss the proposed mechanisms for low 25OHD in obesity and explore the results of recent RCTs on vitamin D (VD) supplementation on obesity and its metabolic complications such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Although the results from these clinical randomized controlled trials vary, the general picture is that VD treatment of obese individuals does not seem to be an effective treatment of obesity-related metabolic complications.

  6. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

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    Gianluca Rizzo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  7. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism. PMID:27916823

  8. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-11-29

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  9. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

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    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  10. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2008-11-19

    We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50-69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985-1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases). Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495), risk ratio (RR) = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22). Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054), RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53), and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328), RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08). The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  11. Vitamin D Supplementation for Childhood Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Bruno D Riverin

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that vitamin D plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma but it is unclear whether supplementation during childhood may improve asthma outcomes.The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation as a treatment or adjunct treatment for asthma.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and CINAHL through July 2014.We included RCTs that evaluated vitamin D supplementation in children versus active control or placebo for asthma.One reviewer extracted data and one reviewer verified data accuracy. We qualitatively summarized the main results of efficacy and safety and meta-analyzed data on comparable outcomes across studies. We used GRADE for strength of evidence.Main planned outcomes measures were ED visits and hospitalizations. As secondary outcomes, we examined measures of asthma control, including frequency of asthma exacerbations, asthma symptom scores, measures of lung function, β2-agonist use and daily steroid use, adverse events and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.Eight RCTs (one parallel, one crossover design comprising 573 children aged 3 to 18 years were included. One study (moderate-quality, n = 100 reported significantly less ED visits for children treated with vitamin D. No other studies examined the primary outcome (ED visits and hospitalizations. There was a reduced risk of asthma exacerbations in children receiving vitamin D (low-quality; RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.63, 3 studies, n = 378. There was no significant effect for asthma symptom scores and lung function. The serum 25(OHD level was higher in the vitamin D group at the end of the intervention (low-quality; MD 19.66 nmol/L, 95% CI 5.96 nmol/L to 33.37 nmol/L, 5 studies, n = 167.We identified a high degree of clinical diversity (interventions and outcomes and methodological heterogeneity (sample size and risk of bias in included trials.Randomized controlled trials provide some low

  12. [Effect of supplementation with peach palm as source of vitamin A: study with rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, L K; Cozzolino, S M

    1996-02-01

    The effect of supplementation with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.), as an alternative source of vit. A, in the regional diet of Manaus, AM, Brazil, in which the pulp was cooked and transformed into flour, was studied. The biological trial involved rats which were depleted in zinc and vitamin A, followed by repletion using the regional diet (RD), RD plus peach palm and RD plus vitamin A. The parameters used to determine the utilization of vitamin A were the vitamin A concentrations in the liver and plasma, and the growth of the animals. The diet was prepared according to the data of Shrimpton and Giugliano for families earning less than two legal minimum salaries. Adult post-partum rats were used, with six male pups each, which received a diet based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, without the addition of zinc or vitamin A for a period of 25 days, for the purpose of obtaining newly-weaned animals which were deficient in Zn and Vit.A. A control group received a diet also based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, but with all the nutrients in the quantities suggested by the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. The repletion period of the newly-weaned rats was of 30 days and the experimental design was entirely randomized with four groups of eight rats each. The diet supplementation followed the recommendations of the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that rats which consumed the diet based on the regional diet of Manaus supplemented with either peach palm or vitamin A showed a significantly greater concentration of vitamin A in the liver, 43.3 +/- 6.5 micrograms/g, 42.0 +/- 4.3 micrograms/g, respectively in relation to the regional diet, 5.5 +/- 1.1 micrograms/g (p < 0.05). The amount of zinc present in the regional diet, 10.7 mg per day, was bioavailable as determined by the concentration of zinc in the femurs. The results suggest that the regional diet of Manaus needs to be supplemented with vitamin A to maintain the

  13. The efficacy of vitamin D supplementation during a prolonged submarine patrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasier, Heath G; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Colin R; McAdams, Douglas C; Lutz, Laura J; McClung, James P

    2014-09-01

    Submariners spend prolonged periods submerged without sunlight exposure and may benefit from vitamin D supplementation to maintain vitamin D status. The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of daily vitamin D supplementation on maintenance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) during a 3-month submarine patrol. Submariners were randomly divided into three groups: placebo (n = 16), 1,000 IU/day (n = 20), or 2,000 IU/day (n = 17). Anthropometrics, self-reported dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, serum markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) parameters of the tibia were determined before and after the patrol. Prior to departure, 49 % of the subjects were vitamin D insufficient (<50 nmol/L). Following the patrol, 25(OH)D increased in all groups (p < 0.001): 3.3 ± 13.1 (placebo), 4.6 ± 11.3 (1,000 IU/day), and 13 ± 14 nmol/L (2,000 IU/day). The changes in 25(OH)D levels were dependent upon the baseline concentration of 25(OH)D and body mass (p < 0.001). Osteocalcin increased by 38 % (p < 0.01), and pQCT analyses revealed small, yet significant increases in indices of tibial structure and strength (p < 0.05) that were independent of supplementation. These data suggest that vitamin D status was low prior to the patrol, and the subsequent changes in vitamin D status were dependent on the baseline 25(OH)D levels and body mass. Furthermore, short-term skeletal health does not appear to be negatively affected by 3 months of submergence in spite of a suboptimal response to vitamin D supplementation.

  14. Neonatal dexamethasone accelerates spreading depression in the rat, and antioxidant vitamins counteract this effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-de-Morais, Andréia Albuquerque Cunha; Mendes-da-Silva, Rosângela Figueiredo; dos-Santos, Eryka Maria; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2014-12-03

    The use of dexamethasone (Dex) to treat chronic lung disease in preterm infants may produce adverse effects in the developing brain. Here, we evaluated the effects of neonatal Dex on the propagation of cortical spreading depression (CSD), and tested the action of vitamins C and E against the effect of Dex. Five groups of Wistar rats received, respectively: [1] no treatment (Naïve); [2] Vehicle (V); [3] tapering doses of Dex (Dex; 0.5mg/kg, 0.3mg/kg, and 0.1mg/kg) on postnatal day (PND) 1-3; [4] Dex plus 200mg/kg vitamin C and 100mg/kg vitamin E (DexCE); [5] only vitamins C and E (CE). Vehicle and vitamins were administered on PND 1-6. CSD was recorded after the pups reached maturity (PND 60-70). The Dex-treated group presented with higher CSD velocities (mean values ± SD, in mm/min: 4.14 ± 0.22, n=10) compared with the control groups (Naïve: 3.52 ± 0.13, n=8; V: 3.57 ± 0.18, n=10; CE: 3.51 ± 0.24, n=10; pVitamins C and E antagonized this effect (DexCE group; CSD velocity: 3.43 ± 0.12, n=9). No intergroup difference was observed concerning P-wave amplitude and duration. In all groups, after the cortex underwent CSD, the electrocorticogram (ECoG) amplitude increased approximately 50% compared with the baseline amplitude for the same animal (CSD-induced ECoG potentiation); however, no intergroup difference was observed. Data suggest that coadministration of antioxidant vitamins with Dex may be a helpful therapeutic strategy to reduce brain adverse effects of dexamethasone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidation and antioxidant status: effects on shelf-life of meat from Limousine cattle fed with supplements of α-tocopherol

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    Domenico Gatta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant status of meat from cattle fed diets supplemented with vitamin E (α-tocopherol acetate during the finishing period and to evaluate the effect of this treatment on meat shelf-life. Twenty purebred Limousine calves reared in the same farm, were randomly selected, divided into control group (n=10 and treated group (n=10 and fed a total mixed ration: treated group received a supplementation of vitamin E (900 mg/kg of CMF for a period of 150 days before slaughter. Meat quality was evaluated by the following analyses: pH, water holding capacity (drip loss, colour (L*, a*, b*, C*, H*, chemical forms of myoglobin, substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (MDA and enzymatic antioxidant activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutation peroxidase. Dietary vitamin E supplementation had a positive effect on water holding capacity; in the control group a considerable increase in drip loss from the 2nd to 6th day of conservation was observed (2.83% vs 7.54%, while in the treated group during the same time period this increase appeared to be much more gradual and occurred to a lesser degree (2.31% vs 4.15%. Moreover, administration of vitamin E led to greater stability of colorimetric coordinates and reduced discoloration of the longissimus dorsi muscle during conservation as indicated by the redness a* (control: 23.85 and 23.87 vs 19.34 at 2h, 2 and 6 days, respectively; treated: 24.88, 23.91 and 24.01 at 2h, 2 days and 6 days, respectively and in the Chroma* (control: 26.89 and 26.77 vs 21.90 at 2h, 2 days and 6 days, respectively; treated: 27.67, 26.57 and 26.77 at 2h, 2 and 6 days, respectively. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly greater in the meat from cattle treated with vitamin E compared to that observed in the meat from controls (0.204 vs 0.167. The study showed that vitamin E supplementation in the finishing diets of calves caused only slight modifications in the

  16. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on clinical evolution in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, according to serum levels of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, A C; Souza, G G; Moreira, V; Ramalho, A

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A and zinc are powerful antioxidants with synergy between them, thus protecting the organism against oxidative stress during the pre and postoperative periods. Our aim was to investigate the evolution clinical in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting while receiving vitamin A supplements according to their zinc nutritional status. They were randomly divided into two groups (2:1): Control group (G1 = 60); and Supplemented group (G2 = 30) and subdivided according to the nutritional status of zinc. Serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, zinc and levels of malondialdehyde were measured prior to (T0) and on the 21st day (T1) following surgery. After surgery, was found a significant difference between G1 and G2 when comparing retinol (G1 = 38.7 ± 17.1 μg/dL and G2 = 62.1 ± 20.3 μg/dL; p vitamin A supplementation may have a positive impact in combating the oxidative stress to which these patients are exposed above all in patients with adequate levels of zinc.

  17. The predicted lifetime costs and health consequences of calcium and vitamin D supplementation for fracture preventio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, G.; Wisløff, T.; Sønbø Kristiansen, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Some studies indicate that calcium supplementation increases cardiovascular risk. We assessed whether such effects could counterbalance the fracture benefits from supplementation. Accounting for cardiovascular outcomes, calcium may cause net harm and would not be cost-effective. Clinicians...... may do well considering cardiovascular effects when prescribing calcium supplementation. Introduction: Accounting for possible cardiovascular effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation (CaD), the aims of this study were to assess whether CaD on balance would improve population health...... and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of such supplementation. Methods: We created a probabilistic Markov simulation model that was analysed at the individual patient level. We analysed 65-year-old Norwegian women with a 2.3 % 10-year risk of hip fracture and a 9.3 % risk of any major fracture according...

  18. Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El Arab, A.; Ayad, S.K.Y.; El Fouly, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum

  19. Vitamin A supplementation at birth might prime the response to subsequent vitamin A supplements in girls. Three year follow-up of a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Within a randomised trial of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS) in Guinea-Bissau, neonatal VAS did not affect overall infant mortality. We conducted a post-hoc analysis to test the hypothesis that neonatal VAS primes the response to subsequent vitamin A. METHODS: All trial...... children were offered VAS after follow-up ended at 1 year of age (FU-VAS). We compared mortality between 1 and 3 years of age according to initial randomization to neonatal VAS or placebo in Cox-regression models; we expected that children randomized to neonatal VAS compared with those randomized...... to placebo would have lower mortality after reception of FU-VAS. RESULTS: Of 4345 infants enrolled in the original trial, 3646 lived in the study area at 1 year of age and 2958 received FU-VAS. Between 1 and 3 years of age, 112 children died. After FU-VAS, neonatal VAS was associated with lower mortality...

  20. Oxidative stability of fish oil supplemented with carnosic acid compared with synthetic antioxidants during long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Fang; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Han; Qu, Shengzhuo; Zhang, Ying

    2011-09-01

    The effects of carnosic acid (CA) of different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3mg/g) and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in fish oil stored for 66days at different temperatures (30 and 4°C) were compared. The investigation focused on the increase in peroxide and conjugated diene values, as well as free fatty acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. The changes in trans fatty acid and aldehyde compound contents were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while the changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid content were monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the three CA concentrations were more effective in restraining fish oil oxidation, in which a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of CA was stronger than that of vitamin E, but still weaker than that of tertiary-butyl hydroquinone. Fish oil supplemented with 0.2mg/g CA exhibited favourable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Biosynthesis, Accumulation and Antioxidant Activityof Vitamin E in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. during Kernel Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn kernels were used in this research to study the dynamics of vitamin E, by evaluatingthe expression levels of genes involved in vitamin E synthesis, the accumulation of vitamin E, and the antioxidant activity during the different stage of kernel development. Results showed that expression levels of ZmHPT and ZmTC genes increased, whereas ZmTMT gene dramatically decreased during kernel development. The contents of all the types of vitamin E in sweet corn had a significant upward increase during kernel development, and reached the highest level at 30 days after pollination (DAP. Amongst the eight isomers of vitamin E, the content of γ-tocotrienol was the highest, and increased by 14.9 folds, followed by α-tocopherolwith an increase of 22 folds, and thecontents of isomers γ-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, δ-tocopherol,δ-tocotrienol, and β-tocopherol were also followed during kernel development. The antioxidant activity of sweet corn during kernel development was increased, and was up to 101.8 ± 22.3 μmol of α-tocopherol equivlent/100 g in fresh weight (FW at 30 DAP. There was a positive correlation between vitamin E contents and antioxidant activity in sweet corn during the kernel development, and a negative correlation between the expressions of ZmTMT gene and vitamin E contents. These results revealed the relations amongst the content of vitamin E isomers and the gene expression, vitamin E accumulation, and antioxidant activity. The study can provide a harvesting strategy for vitamin E bio-fortification in sweet corn.

  2. Evaluation of Biosynthesis, Accumulation and Antioxidant Activityof Vitamin E in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) during Kernel Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lihua; Yu, Yongtao; Mao, Jihua; Liu, Haiying; Hu, Jian Guang; Li, Tong; Guo, Xinbo; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-12-20

    Sweet corn kernels were used in this research to study the dynamics of vitamin E, by evaluatingthe expression levels of genes involved in vitamin E synthesis, the accumulation of vitamin E, and the antioxidant activity during the different stage of kernel development. Results showed that expression levels of Zm HPT and Zm TC genes increased, whereas Zm TMT gene dramatically decreased during kernel development. The contents of all the types of vitamin E in sweet corn had a significant upward increase during kernel development, and reached the highest level at 30 days after pollination (DAP). Amongst the eight isomers of vitamin E, the content of γ-tocotrienol was the highest, and increased by 14.9 folds, followed by α-tocopherolwith an increase of 22 folds, and thecontents of isomers γ-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, δ-tocopherol,δ-tocotrienol, and β-tocopherol were also followed during kernel development. The antioxidant activity of sweet corn during kernel development was increased, and was up to 101.8 ± 22.3 μmol of α-tocopherol equivlent/100 g in fresh weight (FW) at 30 DAP. There was a positive correlation between vitamin E contents and antioxidant activity in sweet corn during the kernel development, and a negative correlation between the expressions of Zm TMT gene and vitamin E contents. These results revealed the relations amongst the content of vitamin E isomers and the gene expression, vitamin E accumulation, and antioxidant activity. The study can provide a harvesting strategy for vitamin E bio-fortification in sweet corn.

  3. Bedeutung einer