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Sample records for antioxidant therapeutic options

  1. Therapeutic options for severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Jilcy; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Chandy, Dipak

    2012-01-01

    As the overall prevalence of asthma has escalated in the past decades, so has the population of patients with severe asthma. This condition is often difficult to manage due to the relative limitation of effective therapeutic options for the physician and the social and economic burden of the disease on the patient. Management should include an evaluation and elimination of modifiable risk factors such as smoking, allergen exposure, obesity and non-adherence, as well as therapy for co-morbidit...

  2. [Hepatocellular Carcinoma: therapeutic options 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiß, Michael; Bettinger, Dominik; Neeff, Hannes P; Brunner, Thomas B; Thimme, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common neoplasm, is rising and the prognosis is poor. Many factors have to be taken into account when deciding on the best mode of therapy, like tumor size and number, liver function, sequelae of portal hypertension or other comorbidities. These factors are reflected in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. Resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and liver transplantation can be seen as curative therapies for the early and localized HCC. For the intermediate state of the HCC, there are other therapeutic modalities in therapy available: transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT, rarer occasions), off label: stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). At the moment, Sorafenib is the only option in treating advanced stages of HCC. Alternative treatment strategies, like e.g. immunological therapies, are being investigated. PMID:26182255

  3. Emerging therapeutic options for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colice, Gene L

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Due to these pathologic features, the foundation of asthma treatment has historically been anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Numerous factors in addition to IgE and eosinophils, however, likely play important roles in mediating the airway inflammatory response characteristic of asthma. ICSs are effective therapy for some patients with persistent asthma, but clinical trials have shown that even increasing doses of ICSs under carefully controlled situations does not always result in acceptable asthma control. Consequently, other classes of medications, in addition to ICSs, are recommended in those patients with more severe asthma. The class of medication most commonly used in more severe asthma, along with ICSs, is long-acting inhaled beta2-agonists, but leukotriene modifying agents and anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies may also be used. Agents such as tiotropium, a long-acting inhaled anti-muscarinic agent, and those aimed at inhibiting cytokines, such as mepoluzimab, daclizumab, and etanercept, hold promise in the treatment of asthma. Other agents under investigation include phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors and oligonucleotides. Bronchial thermoplasty, a nonpharmacologic option, may also be beneficial in patients with poorly controlled asthma. As our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of asthma increases, it will enable the development of novel therapeutic approaches for patients who are not responding well to traditional treatments. Although more studies are necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety of both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches, there is future promise for therapeutic advances in severe, persistent asthma. PMID:21761958

  4. Postperfusion lung syndrome: physiopathology and therapeutic options

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Postperfusion lung syndrome is rare but can be lethal. The underlying mechanism remains uncertain but triggering inflammatory cascades have become an accepted etiology. A better understanding of the pathophysiology and the roles of inflammatory mediators in the development of the syndrome is imperative in the determination of therapeutic options and promotion of patients' prognosis and survival. Postperfusion lung syndrome is similar to adult respiratory distress syndrome in clinical features...

  5. Future therapeutic options in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenmann, P A

    2003-12-01

    Up to 5% of young children and 2% of adults suffer from food allergy. Among them many have immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy, a condition with potentially fatal allergic reactions. Several studies have addressed possible definite treatment options for food allergy. Immunotherapy, by the oral route or by systemic injections shows promising preliminary results, but current interpretation of these therapeutic options are mostly handicapped by studies with insufficient scientific support, or by severe side-effects. Currently, no studies can support pharmacotherapy. Finally, most promising results were recently published with anti-IgE antibodies in a human trial, or various approaches in a mouse model of food allergy (chinese herbal medicine, specific modulation of the T cell response). Rapidly evolving findings might provide hope for a cure of food allergy in the near future. PMID:14616094

  6. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. New therapeutical options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seculini Patiño, Carina E; Tabares, Aldo H

    2016-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated adverse reaction due to antibodies to a multimolecular complex of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4) characterized by moderate thrombocytopenia and paradoxical arterial or venous thrombosis. It is a relatively infrequent complication related to the administration of any type of heparin. In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization or coronary artery by-pass graft the prevalence of HIT is higher than in other clinical settings. Recognizing clinical and laboratory features of HIT allow immediate discontinuation of heparin and the use of alternative anticoagulants to avoid serious thrombotic complications. In this review, we summarize different therapeutic options for the treatment of HIT with special emphasis on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACS) such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban. DOACS might represent a therapeutic alternative for HIT treatment.

  7. PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYST – ACTUAL THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Săndulescu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic pseudocyst (PP is one of the most frequent complications of acute and chronic pancreatitis; patients with these disorders often benefit from interventional treatment, or minimally invasive surgery. Progress of new minimally invasive interventional techniques (endoscopic internal drainage, external drainage guided by ultrasound / CT / laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of pancreatic pseudocyst formed the basis for the arguments of this article.AIM: The purpose of this article is to analyze and highlight the above views on a series of consecutive cases of pancreatic pseudocyst. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We studied 46 patients diagnosed with pancreatic pseudocyst in a period of 6 years, from 2006 to 2011. RESULTS: 26 patients (56.52% were treated conservatively and followed periodically by imaging (ultrasound, CT; 20 patients (43.47% required therapeutic attitude because of symptomatic PP or lack of tendency to resorption (increase in size at successive examinations. 2 patients (4.34% were drained externally under ultrasound/CT guidance. 10 patients (21.7% were submitted to endoscopic drainage as follows: 2 transpapillary drainage, 5 transgastric and 3 transduodenal drainage, respectively. Surgical interventions were performed in 8 patients (17.39%, 4 cysto-gastrostomy, 3 cysto-jejunostomy and 3 external drainages (2 patients with dual localization of PP. We noted a postoperative complication after cysto-jejunostomy: upper gastrointestinal bleeding at 6th postoperative day from splenic artery hemorrhage, inside the PP. It was diagnosed by angiography and re-operation was required for hemostasis. Data from the literature concerning the therapeutic protocol in pancreatic pseudocyst ere reviewed. CONCLUSION: The PP management depends on PP site, size and “matureness” and is individualized for each case. Different treatment options are available: external drainage under CT / ultrasound guidance, endoscopic drainage, surgical

  8. Postperfusion lung syndrome: physiopathology and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Postperfusion lung syndrome is rare but can be lethal. The underlying mechanism remains uncertain but triggering inflammatory cascades have become an accepted etiology. A better understanding of the pathophysiology and the roles of inflammatory mediators in the development of the syndrome is imperative in the determination of therapeutic options and promotion of patients' prognosis and survival. Postperfusion lung syndrome is similar to adult respiratory distress syndrome in clinical features, diagnostic approaches and management strategies. However, the etiologies and predisposing risk factors may differ between each other. The prognosis of the postperfusion lung syndrome can be poorer in comparison to acute respiratory distress syndrome due to the secondary multiple organ failure and triple acid-base imbalance. Current management strategies are focusing on attenuating inflammatory responses and preventing from pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury. Choices of cardiopulmonary bypass circuit and apparatus, innovative cardiopulmonary bypass techniques, modified surgical maneuvers and several pharmaceutical agents can be potential preventive strategies for acute lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass.

  9. Secukinumab: a promising therapeutic option in spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Ficco, Hernan; Perez-Alamino, Rodolfo; Maldonado-Cocco, José A

    2016-09-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is the second most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is another less common but equally chronic and disabling spondyloarthritis (SpA). Therapeutic agents for the treatment of these diseases have been somewhat lacking as compared with those available for rheumatoid arthritis, which represents a significant challenge for both the treating physician and the pharmaceutical industry. A promising development for our understanding of the physiopathology of PsA and AS involves new targets to interrupt IL-17 and IL-12/IL-23 pathways. Up to 30-40 % of SpA patients have inadequate or poor response, or are intolerant to anti-TNF therapies. Therefore, there has been a clear unmet medical need in an important group of these patients. As a result, new therapeutic targets have emerged for the treatment of both axial and peripheral SpA. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is increased in psoriatic lesions as well as in the synovial fluid of patients with PsA and in sites of enthesitis in SpA. IL-23 has been shown to play an important role in the polarization of CD4+ T-cells to become IL-17 producers. Based on these evidences, blockade of the cytokine IL-17 or its receptors was considered to have therapeutic implications for the treatment of psoriasis, as well as PsA and AS.This article presents a thorough review of an IL-17 A blocking agent, its mechanism of action, its clinical efficacy and its therapeutic safety. PMID:27437696

  10. Polymyxins: Antimicrobial susceptibility concerns and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Balaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a great challenge to the treating physicians. The paucity of newer effective antimicrobials has led to renewed interest in the polymyxin group of drugs, as a last resort for treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. There is a dearth of information on the pharmacological properties of colistin, leading to difficulties in selecting the right dose, dosing interval, and route of administration for treatment, especially in critically-ill patients. The increasing use of colistin over the last few years necessitates the need for accurate and reliable in vitro susceptibility testing methods. Development of heteroresistant strains as a result of colistin monotherapy is also a growing concern. There is a compelling need from the clinicians to provide options for probable and possible colistin combination therapy for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in the ICU setting. Newer combination drug synergy determination tests are being developed and reported. There are no standardized recommendations from antimicrobial susceptibility testing reference agencies for the testing and interpretation of these drug combinations. Comparison and analysis of these reported methodologies may help to understand and assist the microbiologist to choose the best method that produces accurate results at the earliest. This will help clinicians to select the appropriate combination therapy. In this era of multidrug resistance it is important for the microbiology laboratory to be prepared, by default, to provide timely synergistic susceptibility results in addition to routine susceptibility, if warranted. Not as a favour or at request, but as a responsibility.

  11. Targeting α-synuclein: Therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehay, Benjamin; Decressac, Mickael; Bourdenx, Mathieu; Guadagnino, Irene; Fernagut, Pierre-Olivier; Tamburrino, Anna; Bassil, Fares; Meissner, Wassilios G; Bezard, Erwan

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of the central role of α-synuclein (αSyn) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has powered, in the last decade, the emergence of novel relevant models of this condition based on viral vector-mediated expression of the disease-causing protein or inoculation of toxic species of αSyn. Although the development of these powerful tools and models has provided considerable insights into the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in PD, it has also been translated into the expansion of the landscape of preclinical therapeutic strategies. Much attention is now brought to the proteotoxic mechanisms induced by αSyn and how to block them using strategies inspired by intrinsic cellular pathways such as the enhancement of cellular clearance by the lysosomal-autophagic system, through proteasome-mediated degradation or through immunization. The important effort undertaken by several laboratories and consortia to tackle these issues and identify novel targets warrants great promise for the discovery not only of neuroprotective approaches but also of restorative strategies for PD and other synucleinopathies. In this viewpoint, we summarize the latest advances in this new area of PD research and will discuss promising approaches and ongoing challenges. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:26926119

  12. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pierrakos, Charalampos; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Scolletta, Sabino; Karamouzos, Vasilios; Velissaris, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a common entity in critical care. ARDS is associated with many diagnoses, including trauma and sepsis, can lead to multiple organ failure and has high mortality. The present article is a narrative review of the literature on ARDS, including ARDS pathophysiology and therapeutic options currently being evaluated or in use in clinical practice. The literature review covers relevant publications until January 2011. Recent developments in the therapeut...

  13. Fetal cardiac interventions: an update of therapeutic options

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to present updated therapeutic options for fetal congenital heart diseases. Methods: Data source for the present study was based on comprehensive literature retrieval on fetal cardiac interventions in terms of indications, technical approaches and clinical outcomes. Results: About 5% of fetal congenital heart diseases are critical and timely intrauterine intervention may alleviate heart function. Candidates for fetal cardiac interventions are limited. The...

  14. Therapeutic options for intermediate-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Ming Zhang; Jin-Xing Guo; Zi-Chao Zhang; Nan Jiang; Zhen-Ya Zhang; Li-Jie Pan

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies, ranking the sixth in the world, with 55% of cases occurring in China. Usually, patients withHCC did not present until the late stage of the disease,thus limiting their therapeutic options. Although surgical resection is a potentially curative modality for HCC,most patients with intermediate-advanced HCC are not suitable candidates. The current therapeutic modalities for intermediate-advanced HCC include: (1) surgical procedures,such as radical resection, palliative resection,intraoperative radiofrequency ablation or cryosurgical ablation, intraoperative hepatic artery and portal vein chemotherapeutic pump placement, two-stage hepatectomy and livertransplantation; (2) interventional treatment,such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization,portal vein embolization and image-guided locoregional therapies; and (3) molecularly targeted therapies. So far, how to choose the therapeutic modalities remains controversial. Surgeons are faced with the challenge of providing the most appropriate treatment for patients with intermediate-advanced HCC. This review focuses on the optional therapeutic modalities for intermediateadvanced HCC.

  15. Antioxidant Action and Therapeutic Efficacy of Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Capasso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum (L. is rich in antioxidants which help destroy free radicals particles that can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause over time. The antioxidant activity of fresh Allium sativum L. (garlic is well known and is mainly due to unstable and irritating organosulphur compounds. Fresh garlic extracted over a prolonged period (up to 20 months produces odourless aged garlic extract (AGE containing stable and water soluble organosulphur compounds that prevent oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals. The aim of this review was to understand the mechanism of antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of garlic.

  16. Therapeutic options in idiopathic burning mouth syndrome: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziara, Ivan; Chagury, Azis; Vargas, Camila; Freitas, Ludmila; Mahmoud, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the tongue, palate, lips, or gums of no well-defined etiology. The diagnosis and treatment for primary BMS are controversial. No specific laboratory tests or diagnostic criteria are well established, and the diagnosis is made by excluding all other possible disorders. Objective To review the literature on the main treatment options in idiopathic BMS and compare the best results of the main studies in 15 years. Data Synthesis We conducted a literature review on PubMed/MEDLINE, SciELO, and Cochrane-BIREME of work in the past 15 years, and only selected studies comparing different therapeutic options in idiopathic BMS, with preference for randomized and double-blind controlled studies. Final Comments Topical clonazepam showed good short-term results for the relief of pain, although this was not presented as a definitive cure. Similarly, α-lipoic acid showed good results, but there are few randomized controlled studies that showed the long-term results and complete remission of symptoms. On the other hand, cognitive therapy is reported as a good and lasting therapeutic option with the advantage of not having side effects, and it can be combined with pharmacologic therapy. PMID:25992157

  17. Review article: current therapeutic options for radiation proctopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J J; Park, W; Ehrenpreis, E D

    2001-09-01

    Radiation proctopathy is a common unfortunate complication following radiation therapy of pelvic malignancies. Symptoms of chronic radiation proctopathy include haematochezia, urgency, constipation, tenesmus, diarrhoea and rectal pain. Currently, a wide variety of pharmacological options, endoscopic cautery techniques and surgical procedures have been proposed for the treatment of chronic radiation proctopathy. Although these have been proposed primarily as treatment for rectal bleeding, the control of other symptoms has been noted with some of these agents. Pharmacological options include 5-aminosalicylic acid preparations, coticosteroid enemas, sucralfate (oral, enemas), formalin, short chain fatty acid enemas, oestrogen/progesterone, hyperbaric oxygen, antioxidants, sodium pentosan polysulphate and misoprostol rectal suppositories. Of these, sucralfate and formalin therapy appear to be effective for bleeding control. Misoprostol rectal suppositories and oral sucralfate may be useful in the prevention of acute and chronic symptoms of radiation proctopathy. Endoscopic cautery techniques have included the use of Nd:YAG laser and argon laser for coagulation of bleeding neovascular telangiectasias. Argon plasma coagulation offers a safe non-contact method of delivering haemostasis which has proven to be particularly useful in targeting difficult to reach lesions tangentially. Surgery is generally reserved for severe refractory cases involving ongoing haemorrhage, obstruction, stricture formation, fistulas and perforation. Given that formal randomized placebo-controlled studies are lacking for most treatments, the management of these patients is often challenging and unclear. Hence, there is a need for more research and education on radiation proctopathy. PMID:11552895

  18. Therapeutic Options for the Management of the Cardiorenal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Koniari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with heart failure often present with impaired renal function, which is a predictor of poor outcome. The cardiorenal syndrome is the worsening of renal function, which is accelerated by worsening of heart failure or acute decompensated heart failure. Although it is a frequent clinical entity due to the improved survival of heart failure patients, still its pathophysiology is not well understood, and thus its therapeutic approach remains controversial and sometimes ineffective. Established therapeutic strategies, such as diuretics and inotropes, are often associated with resistance and limited clinical success. That leads to an increasing concern about novel options, such as the use of vasopressin antagonists, adenosine A1 receptor antagonists, and renal-protective dopamine. Initial clinical trials have shown quite encouraging results in some heart failure subpopulations but have failed to demonstrate a clear beneficial role of these agents. On the other hand, ultrafiltration appears to be a more promising therapeutic procedure that will improve volume regulation, while preserving renal and cardiac function. Further clinical studies are required in order to determine their net effect on renal function and potential cardiovascular outcomes. Until then, management of the cardiorenal syndrome remains quite empirical.

  19. THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TO CANCER BY VEGETABLES WITH ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

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    Pandey Govind

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of human deaths in the world. However, the potential treatment of cancer is still under investigation. In fact, the plants may occupy a good place in the treatment of cancer with no ill effect. The medicinal plants and their products, particularly vegetables have antioxidant activity leading to anticancer effect. Thus, more than 80% people in developing countries depend on traditional medicine or plants for their primary health needs. Plants used as vegetables prevent human from several diseases, including cancer. Many doctors recommend that people wish to reduce the risk of cancer must eat several portions of vegetables every day. The vegetables contain many phytochemicals having antioxidant activity. The antioxidants protect the cells from damage caused by ‘free oxygen radicals’. The main phytochemicals which show antioxidant activity are vitamins, carotenoids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, saponins, enzymes and minerals. Hence, the present article gives a better therapeutic approach to cancer by the maximum use of antioxidant vegetables against different cancers.

  20. Antioxidants as a Potential Preventive and Therapeutic Strategy for Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Borowska, Sylwia; Tomczyk, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide a growing number of evidences that chronic exposure to relatively low levels of cadmium (Cd), nowadays taking place in industrialized countries, may cause health hazard. Thus, growing interest has been focused on effective ways of protection from adverse effects of exposure to this heavy metal. Because numerous effects to Cd's toxic action result from its prooxidative properties, it seems reasonable that special attention should be directed to agents that can prevent or reduce this metal-induced oxidative stress and its consequences in tissues, organs and systems at risk of toxicity, including liver, kidneys, testes, ears, eyes, cardiovascular system and nervous system as well as bone tissue. This review discusses a wide range of natural (plant and animal origin) and synthetic antioxidants together with many plant extracts (e.g. black and green tea, Aronia melanocarpa, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Ocimum sanctum, Phoenix dactylifera, Physalis peruviana, Zingiber officinale) that have been shown to prevent from Cd toxicity. Moreover, some attention has been focused on the fact that substances not possessing antioxidative potential may also prevent Cd-induced oxidative stress and its consequences. So far, most of the data on the protective effects of the natural and synthetic antioxidants and plant extracts come from studies in animals' models; however, numerous of them seem to be promising preventive/therapeutic strategies for Cd toxicity in humans. Further investigation of prophylactic and therapeutic use of antioxidants in populations exposed to Cd environmentally and occupationally is warranted, given that therapeutically effective chelation therapy for this toxic metal is currently lacking. PMID:25944010

  1. Clostridium difficile infection: New insights into therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachrimanidou, Melina; Sarmourli, Theopisti; Skoura, Lemonia; Metallidis, Symeon; Malisiovas, Nikolaos

    2016-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in healthcare settings and represents a major social and economic burden. The major virulence determinants are large clostridial toxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), encoded within the pathogenicity locus. Traditional therapies, such as metronidazole and vancomycin, frequently lead to a vicious circle of recurrences due to their action against normal human microbiome. New disease management strategies together with the development of novel therapeutic and containment approaches are needed in order to better control outbreaks and treat patients. This article provides an overview of currently available CDI treatment options and discusses the most promising therapies under development. PMID:25955884

  2. New therapeutic options for advanced non-resectable malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Simone; Weina, Kasia; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Utikal, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor which is inclined to metastasize promptly into the lymphatic system and other organs such as lung, liver, brain or bone. Therefore early diagnosis remains crucial for improving clinical outcome for melanoma patients. Current chemotherapy and chemo-immunotherapy regimes have shown little clinical benefit with no improvement in overall survival. However, new advances in melanoma biology such as the discovery of predisposed gene signatures and key somatic events have changed clinical practice. New therapeutic approaches are being tested or have been approved by the FDA/EMA recently including targeted therapies, such as BRAF- and MEK-inhibitors, and novel immunotherapies, such as anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1 therapies. For these therapies an improvement of progression-free and overall survival has been seen in patients with advanced non-resectable melanoma. The following review summarizes recent therapeutic options after the ASCO and ESMO annual meetings 2014 for the treatment of malignant melanoma. PMID:25596540

  3. Acupuncture as a therapeutic treatment option for threatened miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betts Debra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatened miscarriage involves vaginal bleeding in a pregnancy that remains viable. This is a common early pregnancy complication with increased risk factors for early pregnancy loss, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM, preterm delivery, low birth weight babies and maternal antepartum haemorrhage. Currently there are no recommended medical treatment options, rather women receive advice that centres on a 'wait and see' approach. For women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage providing supportive care in a subsequent pregnancy improves live birthing outcomes, but the provision of supportive care to women experiencing threatened miscarriage has to date not been examined. Discussion While it is known that 50-70% of miscarriages occur due to chromosomal abnormalities, the potential for therapeutic intervention amongst the remaining percentage of women remains unknown. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have the potential to provide supportive care for women presenting with threatened miscarriage. Within fertility research, acupuncture demonstrates beneficial hormonal responses with decreased miscarriage rates, raising the possibility acupuncture may promote specific beneficial effects in early pregnancy. With the lack of current medical options for women presenting with threatened miscarriage it is timely to examine the possible treatment benefits of providing CAM therapies such as acupuncture. Summary Despite vaginal bleeding being a common complication of early pregnancy there is often reluctance from practitioners to discuss with women and medical personal how and why CAM may be beneficial. In this debate article, the physiological processes of early pregnancy together with the concept of providing supportive care and acupuncture are examined. The aim is to raise awareness and promote discussion as to the beneficial role CAM may have for women presenting with threatened miscarriage.

  4. Hepatitis C virus: molecular biology & current therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suresh D

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small (approximately 55 to 65 nm), spherical, enveloped, hepatotropic RNA virus that causes acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. Persistent virus infection with HCV often leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). At present there is neither a selective antiviral therapy nor a preventive vaccine. The only available treatment option is a long-acting pegylated-interferon-alpha, given in combination with nucleoside analog ribavirin, which is not very effective. Molecular studies of HCV began with the successful cloning of its genome in 1989. For many years, research to develop therapeutics was stalled by the inability to grow virus in tissue culture. A major milestone was achieved with the recent development of a robust cell culture system for HCV propagation. HCV proteins assemble and form replication complexes on modified host membranes, called as membranous webs. Even though HCV is detected and targeted by host immune mechanisms, it establishes and maintains a life-long persistent infection. HCV has evolved multiple strategies to survive and persist in hostile cellular environments; and the viral population is known to rapidly change during the course of a natural infection thereby escaping immune surveillance. Rapid mutations also help virus to survive by selecting for the variants which are resistant to antiviral drugs. Although precise mechanisms regulating HCV entry into hepatic cells via receptors remain unknown, HCV also has the capability of direct cell-to-cell transmission. The extremely complex and incompletely understood nature of the HCV lifecycle has complicated the discovery of new therapies. A complete understanding of the functional roles played by the HCV proteins during HCV lifecycle is vital for developing a successful cure. This review deals with current status of efforts in addressing these daunting tasks and challenges in developing therapeutics against chronic and rapidly changing hepatitis C virus

  5. Therapeutic options in chronic heart failure. Findings on chest X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution covers drugless therapeutic options for chronic heart failure: the implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the interventional catheter treatment of functional mitral insufficiency, and mechanical heart supporting systems and heart transplantation.

  6. Acupuncture as a therapeutic treatment option for threatened miscarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Betts Debra; Smith Caroline A; Hannah Dahlen G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Threatened miscarriage involves vaginal bleeding in a pregnancy that remains viable. This is a common early pregnancy complication with increased risk factors for early pregnancy loss, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), preterm delivery, low birth weight babies and maternal antepartum haemorrhage. Currently there are no recommended medical treatment options, rather women receive advice that centres on a 'wait and see' approach. For women with a history of unex...

  7. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: Current and future therapeutic options

    OpenAIRE

    Wiendl, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (notably polymyositis and dermatomyositis) are relatively uncommon diseases with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Only a few randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have been performed, measures to assess outcome and response to treatment have to be validated. Initial treatment options of first choice are corticosteroids, although rarely tested in randomized, controlled trials. Unfortunately, not all patients respond to them and many develo...

  8. Antioxidant Action and Therapeutic Efficacy of Allium sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Capasso

    2013-01-01

    Allium sativum (L.) is rich in antioxidants which help destroy free radicals particles that can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause over time. The antioxidant activity of fresh Allium sativum L. (garlic) is well known and is mainly due to unstable and irritating organ...

  9. Hydrophilic carbon clusters as therapeutic, high capacity antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Errol L. G.; Duong, MyLinh T.; Bitner, Brittany R.; Marcano, Daniela C.; James M. Tour; Kent, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress reflects an excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is a hallmark of several acute and chronic human pathologies. While many antioxidants have been investigated, the majority have demonstrated poor efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we discuss limitations of current antioxidants and describe a new class of nanoparticle antioxidants, poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized hydrophilic carbon clusters (PEG-HCCs). PEG-HCCs show high capacity to annihilate ROS su...

  10. Novel Therapeutic Targets in Depression and Anxiety: Antioxidants as a Candidate Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ying; Wang, Chuang; Klabnik, Jonathan J; O’Donnell, James M

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the imbalance between oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system may be associated with the development neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Major depression and anxiety are presently correlated with a lowered total antioxidant state and by an activated oxidative stress (OS) pathway. The classical antidepressants may produce therapeutic effects other than regulation of monoamines by increasing the antioxidant levels and normalizin...

  11. Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita: From Pathophysiology to Novel Therapeutic Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperkiewicz, Michael; Sadik, Christian D; Bieber, Katja; Ibrahim, Saleh M; Manz, Rudolf A; Schmidt, Enno; Zillikens, Detlef; Ludwig, Ralf J

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a prototypic organ-specific autoimmune disease induced by autoantibodies to type VII collagen causing mucocutaneous blisters. In the inflammatory (bullous pemphigoid-like) EBA variant, autoantibody binding is followed by a lesional inflammatory cell infiltration, and the overall clinical picture may be indistinguishable from that of bullous pemphigoid, the latter being the most common autoimmune bullous disease. The last decade witnessed the development of several mouse models of inflammatory EBA that facilitated the elucidation of the pathogenesis of autoantibody-induced, cell-mediated subepidermal blistering diseases and identified new therapeutic targets for these and possibly other autoantibody-driven disorders. PMID:26763420

  12. Is tetrahydrobiopterin a therapeutic option in diabetic hypertensive patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Francisco Rubio-Guerra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Francisco Rubio-Guerra1, Hilda Vargas-Robles2, Luz Maria Ramos-Brizuela1, Bruno Alfonso Escalante-Acosta21Metabolic Clinic, Hospital General de Ticomán SS DF, Mexico; 2Department of Molecular Biomedicine, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, MexicoAbstract: Nitric oxide (NO is an important regulator of vascular tone, and is also an antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiatherogenic factor. Endothelial function is altered in patients with coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease, and endothelial dysfunction correlates with the risk factor profile for a patient. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for vascular disease, and are both pathologies characterized by loss of NO activity. Indeed, endothelial dysfunction is usually present in diabetic and/or hypertensive patients. Tetrahydrobiopterin is an essential cofactor for the NO synthase enzyme, and insufficiency of this cofactor leads to uncoupling of the enzyme, release of superoxide, endothelial dysfunction, progression of hypertension, and finally, proatherogenic effects. Tetrahydrobiopterin is also an important mediator of NO synthase regulation in type 2 diabetes and hypertension, and may be a rational therapeutic target to restore endothelial function and prevent vascular disease in these patients. The aim of this paper is to review the rationale for therapeutic strategies directed to biopterins as a target for vascular disease in type 2 diabetic hypertensive patients.Keywords: tetrahydrobiopterin, endothelial dysfunction, diabetes, hypertension, oxidative stress, nitric oxide, eNOS synthase uncoupling

  13. DIABETIC CARDIOMYOPATHY: INSIGHTS INTO PATHOGENESIS, DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGES, AND THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan N. Mehta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy is the presence of myocardial dysfunction in the absence of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Hyperglycemia seems to be central to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy and to trigger a series of maladaptive stimuli that result in myocardial fibrosis and collagen deposition. These processes are thought to be responsible for altered myocardial relaxation characteristics and manifest as diastolic dysfunction on imaging. Sophisticated imaging technologies also have permitted the detection of subtle systolic dysfunction in the diabetic myocardium. In the early stages, these changes appear reversible with tight metabolic control, but as the pathologic processes become organized, the changes are irreversible and contribute to an excess risk of heart failure among diabetic patients independently of common comorbidities, such as coronary artery disease and hypertension. Therapeutic agents specifically targeting processes that lead to these pathophysiologic changes are in the early stages of development. Although glycemic control and early administration of neuro-hormonal antagonists remain the cornerstones of therapeutic approaches, newer treatment targets are currently being explored.

  14. Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

    2014-05-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

  15. Newer therapeutic options for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitwaard, Krista; van Doorn, Pieter A

    2009-05-29

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated disorder with variable symptoms and severity that can be difficult to diagnose. Intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange and corticosteroids have all been proven to be beneficial in randomized controlled trials, although the proof for corticosteroids is less clear. Although these treatments are likely to be similar in efficacy, they differ in terms of their cost, availability and adverse effects. These characteristics should be taken into account when deciding which treatment to offer a patient. If there is no response to the first treatment option, one of the other treatments should be tried. Patients with a pure motor CIDP may deteriorate after corticosteroid treatment. Some patients do not respond or become refractory or intolerant to these conventional treatments. Those who become unresponsive to therapy should be checked again for the appearance of a monoclonal protein or other signs of malignancy. Over the years, small non-randomized studies have reported possible beneficial effects of various immunosuppressive agents. A Cochrane review concluded that currently there is insufficient evidence to decide whether these immunosuppressive drugs are beneficial in CIDP. When giving immunosuppressive drugs, one should be aware that some might even cause demyelinating disease. It is difficult to prove beneficial effects of these newer treatments since they have only been used in small groups of patients, who are refractory to other treatments, and often in combination with other treatments. CIDP patients can deteriorate during or after infections or improve spontaneously, making it more difficult to judge treatment efficacy. Various treatments for CIDP are described such as azathioprine, ciclosporin, cyclophosphamide, interferons, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab and etanercept. An overview of these newer treatments, their mode of action, adverse effects and

  16. Latest insights in therapeutic options for systemic right ventricular failure: a comparison with left ventricular failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Winter; B.J. Bouma; M. Groenink; T.C. Konings; J.G.P. Tijssen; D.J. van Veldhuisen; B.J.M. Mulder

    2009-01-01

    The number of adult patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV) is steadily increasing. Survival is relatively good in these patients, but deterioration of the systemic RV seems inevitable. Although therapeutic options for patients with LV failure are well established, their role in patients with

  17. Comparison of antioxidant properties of different therapeutic albumin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantier, Jean-Luc; Duretz, Véronique; Devos, Véronique; Urbain, Rémi; Jorieux, Sylvie

    2016-07-01

    Albumin displays several important functions for homeostasis amongst which the maintenance of the plasma redox-state. The study aim was to compare the redox state of pharmaceutical human albumin preparations since it reflects the oxidation-reduction status of the surrounding environment. Using an array of analytical methods, four commercially available albumins were compared with respect to their structural characteristics (cobalt ion binding, glycation, spectrophotometric and fluorometric profiles) and their ability to scavenge hydroxyl, peroxyl or free radicals. The different albumins exhibited a similar structural profile as well as hydroxyl and peroxyl scavenging activities. By contrast, the albumin from LFB (Vialebex(®)) possessed a significantly higher capacity to transfer electrons to DPPH, as compared with other albumins that was correlated with the level of free cysteine-34. Commercially available albumins differed for some of their antioxidant properties. The albumin preparation possessing the highest level of free cysteine-34 exhibited the highest antioxidant potential. PMID:27156143

  18. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CUCUMIS MELO VAR. AGRESTIS SEEDS FOR THEIR THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Manpreet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an endeavor to evaluate antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Cucumis melo var. agrestis seeds for their therapeutic potential. In- vitro antioxidant activity was performed by 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The methanolic seed extract was found to have significant scavenging activity 75.59% at 300 µg/ml by 1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl method and 69.86% at 400 µg/ml by Hydrogen peroxide method as compared to standard (ascorbic acid. Presence of phytochemicals like triterpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, coumarin glycosides, carbohydrates might contribute to observed antioxidant activity.

  19. THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TO CANCER BY VEGETABLES WITH ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey Govind; Madhuri S.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of human deaths in the world. However, the potential treatment of cancer is still under investigation. In fact, the plants may occupy a good place in the treatment of cancer with no ill effect. The medicinal plants and their products, particularly vegetables have antioxidant activity leading to anticancer effect. Thus, more than 80% people in developing countries depend on traditional medicine or plants for their primary health needs. Plants used as vegetabl...

  20. Herbal Medicine Offered as an Initiative Therapeutic Option for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Ru; Qiu, Hong-Cong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant cancer and is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Effective treatment of this disease is limited by the complicated molecular mechanism underlying HCC pathogenesis. Thus, therapeutic options for HCC management are urgently needed. Targeting the Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, Notch, and Hippo-YAP signaling pathways in cancer stem cell development has been extensively investigated as an alternative treatment. Herbal medicine has emerged as an initiative therapeutic option for HCC management because of its multi-level, multi-target, and coordinated intervention effects. In this article, we summarized the recent progress and clinical benefits of targeting the above mentioned signaling pathways and using natural products such as herbal medicine formulas to treat HCC. Proving the clinical success of herbal medicine is expected to deepen the knowledge on herbal medicine efficiency and hasten the adoption of new therapies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26879574

  1. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss Part II: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Therapeutic Options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    The great majority of hearing disorders generates from pathologies in the inner ear, mainly the outer hair cells, as mentioned in the first part of this review. Very often, however, hearing loss appears suddenly and even without external causes like noise exposure. This sudden hearing loss is mostly unilateral, recovers very often spontaneously and should be treated, if persisting. Only in this acute stage there are therapeutic options available. If the inner ear hearing loss is chronic there is no curative therapy, an effective management of the hearing disorder is only possible through rehabilitation. This is due to the fact, that hair cells of all mammals, incl. humans, have no regenerative capacity and neither pharmaceutic agents nor other means can induce regeneration and recovery of hair cells. Even a gen-therapy is not available yet. In the second part of this review the main focus lies in sudden hearing loss and general therapeutic options for inner ear hearing loss. PMID:27392187

  2. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss Part II: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Therapeutic Options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    The great majority of hearing disorders generates from pathologies in the inner ear, mainly the outer hair cells, as mentioned in the first part of this review. Very often, however, hearing loss appears suddenly and even without external causes like noise exposure. This sudden hearing loss is mostly unilateral, recovers very often spontaneously and should be treated, if persisting. Only in this acute stage there are therapeutic options available. If the inner ear hearing loss is chronic there is no curative therapy, an effective management of the hearing disorder is only possible through rehabilitation. This is due to the fact, that hair cells of all mammals, incl. humans, have no regenerative capacity and neither pharmaceutic agents nor other means can induce regeneration and recovery of hair cells. Even a gen-therapy is not available yet. In the second part of this review the main focus lies in sudden hearing loss and general therapeutic options for inner ear hearing loss.

  3. Chronic ankle instability. Which tests to assess the lesions? Which therapeutic options?

    OpenAIRE

    TOURNE, Yves; Besse, Jean-Luc; MABIT, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper purpose is to suggest an in-depth approach to diagnose the causes and lesions associated with and consecutive to chronic ankle instability due to ankle collateral ligament laxity. The different therapeutic and medicosurgical options adapted to this diagnostic approach are identified. The diagnostic aim is to precisely locate the ligamentous injuries of the tibiofibular, subtalar, talar and calcanean system, to identify the predisposing factors such as the hindfoot morphology, and a...

  4. Vagus nerve stimulation may be a sound therapeutic option in the treatment of refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S. Meneses

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Refractory epilepsy accounts for 20 to 30% of epilepsy cases and remains a challenge for neurologists. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS is an option for palliative treatment. OBJECTIVE: It was to study the efficacy and tolerability of VNS in patients implanted with a stimulator at the Curitiba Institute of Neurology (INC. METHODS: A case study of six patients with refractory epilepsy submitted to a VNS procedure at the INC in the last four years was described and discussed. RESULTS: Mean age at time of implantation was 29 years. Mean follow-up was 26.6 months. Seizure frequency decreased in all patients (40-50% (n=2 and >80% (n=4. Three patients no longer required frequent hospitalizations. Two patients previously restricted to wheelchairs started to walk, probably because of improved mood. CONCLUSION: In this population, VNS proved to be a sound therapeutic option for treating refractory epilepsy.

  5. Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protus Arrey Tarkang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf, Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves, used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total phenolic content (TPC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500 mg kg−1 activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P<0.05 and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang.

  6. Porous antioxidant polymer microparticles as therapeutic systems for the airway inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dahee; Kang, Changsun; Jung, Eunkyeong; Yoo, Donghyuck; Wu, Dongmei; Lee, Dongwon

    2016-07-10

    Inhaling steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is the most common treatment for airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. However, frequent steroid administration causes adverse side effects. Therefore, the successful clinical translation of numerous steroidal drugs greatly needs pulmonary drug delivery systems which are formulated from biocompatible and non-immunogenic polymers. We have recently developed a new family of biodegradable polymer, vanillyl alcohol-containing copolyoxalate (PVAX) which is able to scavenge hydrogen peroxide and exert potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this work, we report the therapeutic potential of porous PVAX microparticles which encapsulate dexamethasone (DEX) as a therapeutic system for airway inflammatory diseases. PVAX microparticles themselves reduced oxidative stress and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the lung of ovalbumin-challenged asthmatic mice. However, DEX-loaded porous PVAX microparticles showed significantly enhanced therapeutic effects than PVAX microparticles, suggesting the synergistic effects of PVAX with DEX. In addition, PVAX microparticles showed no inflammatory responses to lung tissues. Given their excellent biocompatibility and intrinsic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, PVAX microparticles hold tremendous potential as therapeutic systems for the treatment of airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PMID:27151077

  7. Lactic acid bacteria as mucosal delivery vehicles: a realistic therapeutic option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Gao, Zeqian; Zhang, Yongguang; Pan, Li

    2016-07-01

    Recombinant lactic acid bacteria (LAB), in particular lactococci and lactobacilli, have gained increasing interest as mucosal delivery vehicles in recent years. With the development of mucosal vaccines, studies on LAB expression systems have been mainly focused on the generation of genetic tools for antigen expression in different locations. Recombinant LAB show advantages in a wide range of aspects over other mucosal delivery systems and represent an attractive candidate for the delivery of therapeutic and prophylactic molecules in different applications. Here, we review the recent data on the use of recombinant LAB as mucosal delivery vectors and the associated health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), autoimmune disorders, and infections by pathogenic microorganisms from mucosal surfaces. In addition, we discuss the use of LAB as vehicles to deliver DNA directly to eukaryotic cells. Researches from the last 5 years demonstrate that LAB as vectors for mucosal delivery of therapeutic molecules seem to be a realistic therapeutic option both in human and animal diseases.

  8. Lactic acid bacteria as mucosal delivery vehicles: a realistic therapeutic option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Gao, Zeqian; Zhang, Yongguang; Pan, Li

    2016-07-01

    Recombinant lactic acid bacteria (LAB), in particular lactococci and lactobacilli, have gained increasing interest as mucosal delivery vehicles in recent years. With the development of mucosal vaccines, studies on LAB expression systems have been mainly focused on the generation of genetic tools for antigen expression in different locations. Recombinant LAB show advantages in a wide range of aspects over other mucosal delivery systems and represent an attractive candidate for the delivery of therapeutic and prophylactic molecules in different applications. Here, we review the recent data on the use of recombinant LAB as mucosal delivery vectors and the associated health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), autoimmune disorders, and infections by pathogenic microorganisms from mucosal surfaces. In addition, we discuss the use of LAB as vehicles to deliver DNA directly to eukaryotic cells. Researches from the last 5 years demonstrate that LAB as vectors for mucosal delivery of therapeutic molecules seem to be a realistic therapeutic option both in human and animal diseases. PMID:27154346

  9. Therapeutic options for old world cutaneous leishmaniasis and new world cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-11-01

    Estimated worldwide incidence of tegumentary leishmaniasis (cutaneous leishmaniasis [CL] and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis [MCL]) is over 1.5 million cases per year in 82 countries, with 90 % of cases occurring in Afghanistan, Brazil, Iran, Peru, Saudi Arabia and Syria. Current treatments of CL are poorly justified and have sub-optimal effectiveness. Treatment can be based on topical or systemic regimens. These different options must be based on Leishmania species, geographic regions, and clinical presentations. In certain cases of Old World CL (OWCL), lesions can spontaneously heal without any need for therapeutic intervention. Local therapies (thermotherapy, cryotherapy, paromomycin ointment, local infiltration with antimonials) are good options with less systemic toxicity, reserving systemic treatments (azole drugs, miltefosine, antimonials, amphotericin B formulations) mainly for complex cases. The majority of New World CL (NWCL) types require systemic treatment (mainly with pentavalent antimonials), either to speed the healing or to prevent dissemination to oral-nasal mucosa as MCL (NWMCL). These types of lesions are potentially serious and always require systemic-based regimens, mainly antimonials and pentamidine; however, the associated immunotherapy is promising. This paper is an exhaustive review of the published literature on the treatment of OWCL, NWCL and NWMCL, and provides treatment recommendations stratified according to their level of evidence regarding the species of Leishmania implicated and the geographical location of the infection. PMID:24170665

  10. Acute flaccid paraplegia:neurological approach, diagnostic workup, and therapeutic options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gentian Vyshka; Altin Kuqo; Serla Grabova; Eris Ranxha; Liro Buda; Jera Kruja

    2015-01-01

    Acute flaccid paraplegia is a clinical occurrence with extreme importance, due to the dramatic presentation, the severity of the underlying disorder, and the generally poor prognosis that follows such a condition. Among etiological factors, the traumatic events are of particular interest, with the clinical treating dealing with a severely ill patient, following fall from height, motor vehicle collisions, and direct shocks applied over the vertebral column. The non-traumatic list is more numerous;however the severity of the acute paraplegia is not necessarily of a lesser degree. Viral infections, autoimmune disorders, and ischemic events involving feeding spinal arteries have been imputed. However, chemical and medications injected during procedures or accidentally intrathecal administration can produce acute flaccid paraplegia. A careful neurological assessment and complete electrophysiological and imaging studies must follow. In spite of the poor prognosis, different therapeutic options have been proposed and applied. Neurosurgical and orthopedic interventions are often necessary when trauma is present, with high dose glucocorticoids treatment preceding the intervention, in a hope to decrease edema-related compression over the spinal cord. Immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis are logical and helpful options when a polyradiculoneuritis produces such a clinical picture. The role of decompression, as neurosurgical exclusivity, has been considered as well.

  11. Harnessing the immunological properties of stem cells as a therapeutic option for diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addio, Francesca; Trevisani, Alessio; Ben Nasr, Moufida; Bassi, Roberto; El Essawy, Basset; Abdi, Reza; Secchi, Antonio; Fiorina, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading and possibly the most devastating complication of diabetes, with a prevalence ranging from 25 to 40 % in diabetic individuals, and as such represents an important challenge for public health worldwide. As a major cause of end-stage renal disease, diabetic nephropathy also accounts for a large proportion of deaths in diabetic individuals. To date, therapeutic options for overt diabetic nephropathy include medical interventions to reduce blood glucose levels and to control blood pressure and proteinuria. Recent evidence suggests a strong role for inflammation in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Various immune cells, cytokines and chemokines have been implicated in the onset of diabetic nephropathy, while immune-related transcription factors and adhesion molecules have been correlated with the establishment of a renal proinflammatory microenvironment. Both inflammation and immune activation may promote severe distress in the kidney, with subsequent increased local fibrosis, ultimately leading to the development of end-stage renal disease. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells capable of regenerating virtually any organ or tissue and bearing important immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Due to the aforementioned considerations, significant interest has been ignited with regard to the use of stem cells as novel therapeutics for diabetic nephropathy. Here, we will be examining in detail how anti-inflammatory properties of different populations of stem cells may offer novel therapy for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  12. Central venous catheters: detection of catheter complications and therapeutical options; Zentralvenoese Katheter: Diagnostik von Komplikationen und therapeutische Optionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, B.; Beck, A. [Universitaetsmedizin Charite, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde; Wagner, H.J. [Vivantes-Kliniken, Friedrichshain und Am Urban, Berlin (Germany). Radiologie; Vivantes-Kliniken, Hellersdorf und Prenzlauer Berg (Germany). Radiologie

    2008-06-15

    For modern medicine central venous catheters play an important role for diagnostic and therapeutic options. Catheter implantation, complication detection and therapy of catheter complications are an increasing demand for the radiologist. The review article provides an overview of different catheter types, their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Catheter malpositions are usually detectable in conventional X-ray. Most malpositions are correctable using interventional-radiological techniques. In addition therapeutical options for thrombotic complications (venous thrombosis, catheter occlusion, fibrin sheath) are discussed. In case of an infectious catheter complication, usually a catheter extraction and re-implantation is necessary.

  13. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome: Perspectives for immunogenetics, multimodal imaging, and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silpa-Archa, Sukhum; Silpa-Archa, Narumol; Preble, Janine M; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKH) is a bilateral, diffuse granulomatous uveitis associated with neurological, audiovestibular, and dermatological systems. The primary pathogenesis is T-cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards melanocyte or melanocyte-associated antigens causing inflammation of the choroidal layer. This phenomenon usually leads to diffuse inflammatory conditions throughout most parts of eye before ocular complications ensue. The diagnosis is achieved mainly by clinical features according to the revised diagnostic criteria of VKH published in 2001, without confirmatory serologic tests as a requirement. However, ancillary tests, especially multimodal imaging, can reliably provide supportive evidence for the diagnosis of early cases, atypical presentations, and evaluation of management. Prompt treatment with systemic corticosteroids and early non-steroidal immunosuppressive drug therapy can lessen visually threatening ocular complications and bring about good visual recovery. Close monitoring warrants visual stabilization from disease recurrence and ocular complications. This article review aims not only to update comprehensive knowledge regarding VKH but also to emphasize three major perspectives of VKH: immunogenetics as the major pathogenesis of the disease, multimodal imaging, and therapeutic options. The role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and drug-induced VKH is also provided.

  14. High-throughput screening for the identification of new therapeutic options for metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Giubellino

    Full Text Available Drug repurposing or repositioning is an important part of drug discovery that has been growing in the last few years for the development of therapeutic options in oncology. We applied this paradigm in a screening of a library of about 3,800 compounds (including FDA-approved drugs and pharmacologically active compounds employing a model of metastatic pheochromocytoma, the most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in children and adults. The collection of approved drugs was screened in quantitative mode, testing the compounds in compound-titration series (dose-response curves. Analysis of the dose-response screening data facilitated the selection of 50 molecules with potential bioactivity in pheochromocytoma cells. These drugs were classified based on molecular/cellular targets and signaling pathways affected, and selected drugs were further validated in a proliferation assay and by flow cytometric cell death analysis. Using meta-analysis information from molecular targets of the top drugs identified by our screening with gene expression data from human and murine microarrays, we identified potential drugs to be used as single drugs or in combination. An example of a combination with a synergistic effect is presented. Our study exemplifies a promising model to identify potential drugs from a group of clinically approved compounds that can more rapidly be implemented into clinical trials in patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma.

  15. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome: Perspectives for immunogenetics, multimodal imaging, and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silpa-Archa, Sukhum; Silpa-Archa, Narumol; Preble, Janine M; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKH) is a bilateral, diffuse granulomatous uveitis associated with neurological, audiovestibular, and dermatological systems. The primary pathogenesis is T-cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards melanocyte or melanocyte-associated antigens causing inflammation of the choroidal layer. This phenomenon usually leads to diffuse inflammatory conditions throughout most parts of eye before ocular complications ensue. The diagnosis is achieved mainly by clinical features according to the revised diagnostic criteria of VKH published in 2001, without confirmatory serologic tests as a requirement. However, ancillary tests, especially multimodal imaging, can reliably provide supportive evidence for the diagnosis of early cases, atypical presentations, and evaluation of management. Prompt treatment with systemic corticosteroids and early non-steroidal immunosuppressive drug therapy can lessen visually threatening ocular complications and bring about good visual recovery. Close monitoring warrants visual stabilization from disease recurrence and ocular complications. This article review aims not only to update comprehensive knowledge regarding VKH but also to emphasize three major perspectives of VKH: immunogenetics as the major pathogenesis of the disease, multimodal imaging, and therapeutic options. The role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and drug-induced VKH is also provided. PMID:27060382

  16. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Asthma: Implications for Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hemachandra Reddy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a complex, inflammatory disorder characterized by airflow obstruction of variable degrees, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and airway inflammation. Asthma is caused by environmental factors and a combination of genetic and environmental stimuli. Genetic studies have revealed that multiple loci are involved in the etiology of asthma. Recent cellular, molecular, and animal-model studies have revealed several cellular events that are involved in the progression of asthma, including: increased Th2 cytokines leading to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the airway, and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction in the activated inflammatory cells, leading to tissue injury in the bronchial epithelium. Further, aging and animal model studies have revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved and play a large role in asthma. Recent studies using experimental allergic asthmatic mouse models and peripheral cells and tissues from asthmatic humans have revealed antioxidants as promising treatments for people with asthma. This article summarizes the latest research findings on the involvement of inflammatory changes, and mitochondrial dysfunction/oxidative stress in the development and progression of asthma. This article also addresses the relationship between aging and age-related immunity in triggering asthma, the antioxidant therapeutic strategies in treating people with asthma.

  17. Cyclosporine as Monotherapy for Psoriasis in the Setting of Chronic HCV Infection: A Forgotten Therapeutical Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria Giovanna Brunasso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of psoriasis in the setting of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is diffcult, because standard therapies like methotrexate are associated with increased hepatic toxicity. Due to the HCV suppressive effect. Cyclosporine may represent a valid systemic alternative for psoriatic-HCV patients.Objectives: In this study, we report the successful usage of intermittent cycles of cyclosporine in the setting of chronic HCV infection and we try to call the attention once again in a very effective and forgotten therapeutic option for severe chronic plaque psoriasis.Observation: We describe a 48 years - old patient who has a 20 year history of severe chronic plaque psoriasis and HCV infection (aminotransferase levels are three times normal; HCV genotype 2a-2c and HCV-RNA titer of 2.050.000 UI-ml. Five courses (range of duration of three to six months of oral cyclosporine (5 mg/kg/day were followed during a 38 month period. The viral load and the transaminases’ levels diminished during the 38 months of intermittent cyclosporine therapy to the lowest level measured at 36th month. The good psoriatic response was associated to a slight improvement of the liver condition, even though the HCV-RNA was reduced by less than 1 log10 without normalization of aminotransferase’ levels.Conclusions: The reduced liver toxicity, the potential anti-HCV properties and the well-known systemic anti-inflammatory effect, make cyclosporine a good alternative for recalcitrant psoriatic patients with HCV-liver disease.

  18. The therapeutic potential of antioxidants, ER chaperones, NO and H2S donors, and statins for treatment of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza eCindrova-Davies

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a complex multifactorial disease. Placental oxidative stress, a result of deficient spiral artery remodeling, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Antiangiogenic factors secreted from malperfused placenta are instrumental in mediating maternal endothelial dysfunction and consequent symptoms of preeclampsia; the mechanism is likely to involve increased ET-1 secretion and reduced NO bioavailability. Therapeutic interventions so far remain only experimental and there is no established remedy for the treatment of preeclampsia. This review concentrates on the evidence for the therapeutic potential of antioxidants, ER chaperones, NO and H2S donors, and statins. These compounds display pleitropic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-angiogenic effects in animal and in vitro studies. Although clinical trials on the use of antioxidant vitamins in pregnancy proved largely unsuccessful, the scope for their use still exists given the beneficial cardioprotective effects of antioxidant-rich Mediterranean diet, periconceptual vitamin use and the synergistic effect of vitamin C and l-arginine. Encouraging clinical evidence exists for the use of NO donors, and a clinical trial is underway testing the effect of statins in treatment of preeclampsia. H2S recently emerged as a novel therapeutic agent for cardiovascular disease, and its beneficial effects were also tested in animal models of preeclampsia. It is risky to prescribe any medication to pregnant women on a large scale, and any future therapeutic intervention has to be well tested and safe. Many of the compounds discussed could be potential candidates.

  19. IFN-αα induced psoriatic arthritis and HCV-related liver cirrhosis. Therapeutic options and patient’s opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in the setting of Psoriatic Arthritis is an additional variable to be considered in the therapeutic approach to the disease because of the complications of an immunosuppressive treatment in the course of a chronic infection and the possible hepatotoxicity of many drugs conventionally used to treat psoriatic arthritis. The case reported explores the therapeutic options in a patient with IFN-α induced psoriatic arthritis, characterised by severe arthritis and psoriasis but also the concomitant presence of HCV chronic hepatitis, in light of the patient’s concerns

  20. New development of breast cancer histological evaluation related to determination of therapeutic option for the patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kentaro Tamaki; Hironobu Sasano

    2011-01-01

    @@ Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease with molecular alterations, cellularcomposition, and clinical outcome.The more we know about the tumor characteristics underlying the heterogeneity of the disease, the greater the opportunity to refine treatment options.Great emphasis has been placed uponhistopathological characteristics of breast carcinoma cells in order to define bettertreatment options for breast cancer patients[1-2].

  1. New therapeutic option for irritable bowel syndrome: serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Larry; Rosario, Roxanne; Panas, Raymond

    2015-03-21

    Oral prescription medical foods have long been used in hospital settings but are also appropriate therapies for gastrointestinal disorders in outpatient medical practice. Oral serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) has been shown in clinical studies to reduce loose stools and improve stool consistency as well as other symptoms (i.e., abdominal pain, bloating, and urgency) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) and human immunodeficiency virus-associated enteropathy. This case series reports the outcomes of 14 IBS patients who received SBI as an addition to standard of care at an individual physician's clinical practice. The patients: 2 IBS with constipation (IBS-C), 7 IBS-D, 2 mixed diarrhea and constipation IBS (IBS-M) and 3 undefined IBS (IBS-U; also described by some physicians as IBS-Bloating), ranged in age from 22-87 years. SBI (5 g or 10 g daily dose) was added to the patient's current standard care and followed for several weeks to determine if symptoms were improved with the addition of SBI. Overall, 12 of the 14 patients indicated some level of improvement through direct questioning of the patients regarding changes from the prior visit. One IBS-Bloating patient had a resolution of symptoms and two patients (1 IBS-Bloating and 1 IBS-C) discontinued therapy because of insufficient relief. The 12 patients who continued on therapy reported an overall improvement in symptoms with better stool consistency, decreased frequency as well as reductions in abdominal pain, bloating, distention, and incontinence. In most cases, therapeutic effects of SBI were seen within the first four weeks of therapy with continued improvements at subsequent visits. SBI has a multifaceted mechanism of action and may help to manage IBS by providing a distinct protein source required to normalize bowel function, gastrointestinal microbiota, and nutritionally enhance tight junction protein expression between intestinal epithelial cells. SBI

  2. Melatonin: A Potential Anti-Oxidant Therapeutic Agent for Mitochondrial Dysfunctions and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Dar, Tanveer Ali; Bhat, Aashiq Hussain; Dar, Khalid B; Anees, Suhail; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal; Masood, Akbar

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondria play a central role in cellular physiology. Besides their classic function of energy metabolism, mitochondria are involved in multiple cell functions, including energy distribution through the cell, energy/heat modulation, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), calcium homeostasis, and control of apoptosis. Simultaneously, mitochondria are the main producer and target of ROS with the result that multiple mitochondrial diseases are related to ROS-induced mitochondrial injuries. Increased free radical generation, enhanced mitochondrial inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production, decreased respiratory complex activity, impaired electron transport system, and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores have all been suggested as factors responsible for impaired mitochondrial function. Because of these, neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), and aging, are caused by ROS-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions. Melatonin, the major hormone of the pineal gland, also acts as an anti-oxidant and as a regulator of mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Melatonin is selectively taken up by mitochondrial membranes, a function not shared by other anti-oxidants, and thus has emerged as a major potential therapeutic tool for treating neurodegenerative disorders. Multiple in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown the protective role of melatonin for preventing oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction seen in experimental models of PD, AD, and HD. With these functions in mind, this article reviews the protective role of melatonin with mechanistic insights against mitochondrial diseases and suggests new avenues for safe and effective treatment modalities against these devastating neurodegenerative diseases. Future insights are also discussed. PMID:26087000

  3. Existing and potential therapeutic uses for N-acetylcysteine: the need for conversion to intracellular glutathione for antioxidant benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, Gordon F; Megson, Ian L

    2014-02-01

    N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has long been used therapeutically for the treatment of acetaminophen (paracetamol) overdose, acting as a precursor for the substrate (l-cysteine) in synthesis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) depleted through drug conjugation. Other therapeutic uses of NAC have also emerged, including the alleviation of clinical symptoms of cystic fibrosis through cysteine-mediated disruption of disulfide cross-bridges in the glycoprotein matrix in mucus. More recently, however, a wide range of clinical studies have reported on the use of NAC as an antioxidant, most notably in the protection against contrast-induced nephropathy and thrombosis. The results from these studies are conflicting and a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the merits or otherwise of NAC in the antioxidant setting. This review seeks to re-evaluate the mechanism of action of NAC as a precursor for GSH synthesis in the context of its activity as an "antioxidant". Results from recent studies are examined to establish whether the pre-requisites for effective NAC-induced antioxidant activity (i.e. GSH depletion and the presence of functional metabolic pathways for conversion of NAC to GSH) have received adequate consideration in the interpretation of the data. A key conclusion is a reinforcement of the concept that NAC should not be considered to be a powerful antioxidant in its own right: its strength is the targeted replenishment of GSH in deficient cells and it is likely to be ineffective in cells replete in GSH.

  4. Existing and potential therapeutic uses for N-acetylcysteine: the need for conversion to intracellular glutathione for antioxidant benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, Gordon F; Megson, Ian L

    2014-02-01

    N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has long been used therapeutically for the treatment of acetaminophen (paracetamol) overdose, acting as a precursor for the substrate (l-cysteine) in synthesis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) depleted through drug conjugation. Other therapeutic uses of NAC have also emerged, including the alleviation of clinical symptoms of cystic fibrosis through cysteine-mediated disruption of disulfide cross-bridges in the glycoprotein matrix in mucus. More recently, however, a wide range of clinical studies have reported on the use of NAC as an antioxidant, most notably in the protection against contrast-induced nephropathy and thrombosis. The results from these studies are conflicting and a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the merits or otherwise of NAC in the antioxidant setting. This review seeks to re-evaluate the mechanism of action of NAC as a precursor for GSH synthesis in the context of its activity as an "antioxidant". Results from recent studies are examined to establish whether the pre-requisites for effective NAC-induced antioxidant activity (i.e. GSH depletion and the presence of functional metabolic pathways for conversion of NAC to GSH) have received adequate consideration in the interpretation of the data. A key conclusion is a reinforcement of the concept that NAC should not be considered to be a powerful antioxidant in its own right: its strength is the targeted replenishment of GSH in deficient cells and it is likely to be ineffective in cells replete in GSH. PMID:24080471

  5. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders. PMID:27322226

  6. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der Jiun Ooi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  7. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  8. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  9. Free radicals and other reactive oxygen metabolites: clinical relevance and the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkley, G B

    1993-05-01

    As in any new field, justifiable enthusiasm for the potential for antioxidant therapy has led to hyperbole, hastily designed, poorly conceived clinical trials, and premature reporting of uncontrolled, anecdotal indicators of efficacy that have not held up when subjected to close scrutiny or more careful, controlled trial design. This tendency has been augmented by strong pressure for early positive results from a few, but not most, members of the pharmaceutical industry and by a few clinicians in highly competitive fields who were anxious not to be left behind. The sobering reality of negative or, even worse, indeterminate clinical trials has culled the field and educated those that remain. As a result, we are beginning to see the publication of quite promising results from large, well-controlled, carefully designed clinical studies, many, but not all, of which are quite promising. This has been associated with a much better understanding of the basic mechanism of free radical-mediated human disease, without which further substantial progress would be quite limited. Because the manipulation of oxidant-mediated tissue injury represents treating disease at its most basic level, the therapeutic potential of this approach remains not only promising but exciting. PMID:8488463

  10. Lactulose: an effective preventive and therapeutic option for ischemic stroke by production of hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lactulose, a synthetic sugar not able to be digested and absorbed by human beings, is widely used to treat constipation and hepatic encephalopathy clinically. Through fermentation by the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, lactulose can produce considerable amount of hydrogen, which is protective for ischemic stroke as a unique antioxidant. We propose that lactulose can induce the production of endogenous hydrogen that in turn reduces oxidative stress and ameliorate the stroke damage in human beings.

  11. Lactulose: an effective preventive and therapeutic option for ischemic stroke by production of hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Xiao; Zhai Xiao; Kang Zhimin; Sun Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Lactulose, a synthetic sugar not able to be digested and absorbed by human beings, is widely used to treat constipation and hepatic encephalopathy clinically. Through fermentation by the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, lactulose can produce considerable amount of hydrogen, which is protective for ischemic stroke as a unique antioxidant. We propose that lactulose can induce the production of endogenous hydrogen that in turn reduces oxidative stress and ameliorate the stroke da...

  12. Combined therapeutic benefit of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ10, and angiotensin receptor blocker, losartan, on cardiovascular function

    OpenAIRE

    McLachlan, Jennifer; Beattie, Elisabeth; Murphy, Michael P; Koh-Tan, Caline H.H.; Olson, Erin; Beattie, Wendy; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Nicklin, Stuart A.; Graham, Delyth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the development of cardiovascular disease highlighting the need for novel targeted therapies. This study assessed the potential therapeutic benefit of combining the mitochondria-specific antioxidant, MitoQ10, with the low-dose angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), losartan, on attenuation of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. In parallel, we investigated the impact of MitoQ10 on cardiac hypertro...

  13. An Experience with Managing Cancer Patients Reportedly Previously Informed of the Absence of Additional Available Antineoplastic Therapeutic Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George River

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 5 years, a small group of cancer patients who stated their physicians had determined there were no additional available antineoplastic therapeutic options (including potential investigational strategies were seen for a ‘second opinion' in a cancer hospital-based oncology program and subsequently experienced what can reasonably be characterized as having achieved meaningful ‘clinical benefit' (functioning at a fairly high level for a minimum 1 year in the work, home, and/or family environments following the further delivery of a variety of treatment approaches. While recognized to be limited (or even simply ‘anecdotal', this experience emphasizes several clinically relevant conclusions, including the overall utility of a ‘second-opinion' strategy and the potential that the reported statement of an individual practitioner or cancer program that all rational options have been attempted may be inaccurate.

  14. Endovascular Therapeutic Occlusion of the Posterior Cerebral Artery: An Option for Ruptured Giant Aneurysm in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartini, Zeferino; Matos, Luiz Afonso Dias; Dos Santos, Marcio Luis Tostes; Cardoso-Demartini, Adriane de Andre

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population is low, and surgical clipping remains a good long-term treatment option. However, posterior circulation aneurysms are even more complex to manage in children than in adults. We report a case of a giant aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery in a 10-year-old boy presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Endovascular treatment with platinum coils was performed with total occlusion of the aneurysm and the affected arterial segment without complications. The patient achieved good recovery, and a late control angiogram confirmed exclusion of the aneurysm. Occurrence of special features of cerebral aneurysm in children, in comparison to adults, is also described. Parent artery sacrifice is an effective therapeutic option, but long-term follow-up is necessary to avoid recurrence and rebleeding.

  15. Therapeutic options in chronic heart failure. Findings on chest X-ray; Nicht medikamentoese Therapieoptionen der chronischen Herzinsuffizienz. Befunde in der Projektionsradiografie des Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granitz, M.R.; Meissnitzer, T.; Meissnitzer, M.W.; Hergan, K.; Altenberger, J.; Granitz, C. [Uniklinikum Salzburg - Landeskrankenhaus (Austria)

    2016-05-15

    The contribution covers drugless therapeutic options for chronic heart failure: the implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the interventional catheter treatment of functional mitral insufficiency, and mechanical heart supporting systems and heart transplantation.

  16. Cross-talk between two antioxidants, thioredoxin reductase and heme oxygenase-1, and therapeutic implications for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raninga, Prahlad V; Di Trapani, Giovanna; Vuckovic, Slavica; Tonissen, Kathryn F

    2016-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by an accumulation of abnormal clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Despite recent advancements in anti-myeloma therapies, MM remains an incurable disease. Antioxidant molecules are upregulated in many cancers, correlating with tumor proliferation, survival, and chemoresistance and therefore, have been suggested as potential therapeutic targets. This study investigated the cross-talk between two antioxidant molecules, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and their therapeutic implications in MM. We found that although auranofin, a TrxR inhibitor, significantly inhibited TrxR activity by more than 50% at lower concentrations, myeloma cell proliferation was only inhibited at higher concentrations of auranofin. Inhibition of TrxR using lower auranofin concentrations induced HO-1 protein expression in myeloma cells. Using a sub-lethal concentration of auranofin to inhibit TrxR activity in conjunction with HO-1 inhibition significantly decreased myeloma cell growth and induced apoptosis. TrxR was shown to regulate HO-1 via the Nrf2 signaling pathway in a ROS-dependent manner. Increased HO-1 mRNA levels were observed in bortezomib-resistant myeloma cells compared to parent cells and HO-1 inhibition restored the sensitivity to bortezomib in bortezomib-resistant myeloma cells. These findings indicate that concurrent inhibition of HO-1 with either a TrxR inhibitor or with bortezomib would improve therapeutic outcomes in MM patients. Hence, our findings further support the need to target multiple antioxidant systems alone or in combination with other therapeutics to improve therapeutic outcomes in MM patients. PMID:26795735

  17. Rivaroxaban - a safe therapeutic option in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome? Our experience in 23 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haładyj, Ewa; Olesińska, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    In the therapeutic approach to patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) with thrombotic manifestations, oral vitamin K antagonists (VKA) remain the standard of care. However, the use of VKA is very often associated with inability to achieve a therapeutic dose even in patients maintaining nutritional and therapeutic restrictions. The non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOAC) have a lot of advantages, but their efficacy and safety in APS have not been proven. We present 23 patients with APS treated with rivaroxaban in our department. Recurrence of thrombosis was observed only in 1 patient. No major or minor bleeding occurred. It proves the efficacy of treatment with rivaroxaban, but our observations require further prospective, randomized studies.

  18. Rivaroxaban – a safe therapeutic option in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome? Our experience in 23 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesińska, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    In the therapeutic approach to patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) with thrombotic manifestations, oral vitamin K antagonists (VKA) remain the standard of care. However, the use of VKA is very often associated with inability to achieve a therapeutic dose even in patients maintaining nutritional and therapeutic restrictions. The non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOAC) have a lot of advantages, but their efficacy and safety in APS have not been proven. We present 23 patients with APS treated with rivaroxaban in our department. Recurrence of thrombosis was observed only in 1 patient. No major or minor bleeding occurred. It proves the efficacy of treatment with rivaroxaban, but our observations require further prospective, randomized studies. PMID:27504026

  19. Orthodontics as a therapeutic option for temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Machado; Patricia Machado; Renésio Armindo Grehs; Paulo Afonso Cunali

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Orthodontics as an option for treatment and prevention of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) is a topic that has generated discussion over time. While an occlusion current defends Orthodontics as an alternative to treatment, another current defends more conservative and reversible treatments. The objective of this study, through a systematic literature review, was to analyze the relationship between Orthodontics and TMD, checking the effects of orthodontic therapy in treatment and p...

  20. The challenge of Clostridium difficile infection: Overview of clinical manifestations, diagnostic tools and therapeutic options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, N.; Kiers, D.; Pickkers, P.

    2015-01-01

    The most important infectious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and colitis is Clostridium difficile, which is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus. In this overview we will discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients presenting with suspected

  1. Addressing Therapeutic Options for Ebola Virus Infection in Current and Future Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Azizul; Hober, Didier; Blondiaux, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with high fatality rates. Currently, no specific therapeutic agent or vaccine has been approved for treatment and prevention of Ebola virus infection of humans. Although the number of Ebola cases has fallen in the last few weeks, multiple outbreaks of Ebola virus infection and the likelihood of future exposure highlight the need for development and rapid evaluation of pre- and postexposure treatments. Here, we briefly review the existing and fu...

  2. Is the medical use of cannabis a therapeutic option for children?

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a psychoactive compound with a long history of recreational and therapeutic use. Current considerations regarding cannabis use for medical purposes in children have been stimulated by recent case reports describing its beneficial effect with refractory epilepsy. Overall, there are insufficient data to support either the efficacy or safety of cannabis use for any indications in children, and an increasing body of data suggests possible harm, most importantly in specific conditions....

  3. The Antidepressant Sertraline Provides a Promising Therapeutic Option for Neurotropic Cryptococcal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Bing; Wu, Cheng; Wang, Linqi; Matthew S. Sachs; Lin, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic treatment for systemic mycoses is severely hampered by the extremely limited number of antifungals. The difficulty of treatment of fungal infections in the central nervous system is further compounded by the poor central nervous system (CNS) penetration of most antifungals due to the blood-brain barrier. Only a few fungistatic azole drugs, such as fluconazole, show reasonable CNS penetration. Here we demonstrate that sertraline (Zoloft), the most frequently prescribed antidepressa...

  4. [PCSK9 - "missing link" in familial hypercholesterolemia : New therapeutic options in hypercholesterolemia and coronary artery disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, J; Burkhardt, R

    2016-06-01

    Lowering plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to individual therapeutic goals is one of the most effective measures for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Besides dietary measures, this can be achieved pharmaceutically by inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis with statins or inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption (e.g., ezetimibe and bile acid sequestrants). Decisive for lowering LDL is an increased hepatic uptake of circulating LDL via an increase in LDL receptors (LDLR) in hepatic cell membranes. The formation of new LDLR and recirculation of existing LDLR play a decisive role in this process. An important modulator of LDLR is proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). In the last years genetic studies have identified several mutations in the PCSK9 gene leading to a gain of function and carriers of these mutations suffer from autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia. In contrast, carriers of PCSK9 loss of function mutations show very low plasma LDL-C concentrations and a markedly reduced risk for coronary artery disease. These fundamental discoveries have sparked the development of a completely novel therapeutic approach to treating hypercholesterolemia. At present, inhibition of PCSK9 by monoclonal antibodies presents the most promising therapeutic approach. First human antibodies were recently approved as the first immunotherapeutic agents for the treatment of severe hypercholesterolemia and in patients with statin intolerance. An additional PCSK9 antibody is presently being studied in phase III clinical trials. PMID:27215417

  5. Is the medical use of cannabis a therapeutic option for children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a psychoactive compound with a long history of recreational and therapeutic use. Current considerations regarding cannabis use for medical purposes in children have been stimulated by recent case reports describing its beneficial effect with refractory epilepsy. Overall, there are insufficient data to support either the efficacy or safety of cannabis use for any indications in children, and an increasing body of data suggests possible harm, most importantly in specific conditions. The potential for cannabis as a therapeutic agent must be evaluated carefully for both efficacy and safety in treating specific paediatric health conditions. Smoking is not an acceptable mode of drug delivery for children. The use of cannabis for medical purposes in specific cases should not be construed as a justification for recreational cannabis use by adolescents. Recommendations for therapeutic use in exceptional paediatric cases are offered, always providing that this treatment course is carefully evaluated in individuals and in ongoing, well-designed research studies to determine safety and efficacy. PMID:26941559

  6. New direct oral anticoagulants--current therapeutic options and treatment recommendations for bleeding complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesbach, Wolfgang; Seifried, Erhard

    2012-10-01

    To date, clinical studies show that the incidence of spontaneous bleeding with new direct oral anticoagulants (DOAs) is comparable to that of established anticoagulants. However, unlike vitamin K antagonists, there are currently no clinically available antidotes or approved reversal agents for new DOAs. Restoring normal coagulation is important in many cases, such as emergency surgeries, serious bleedings, or anticoagulant overdosing. Attempts have been made to restore normal coagulation after treatment with new DOAs using compounds such as recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa), prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), or FEIBA (factor eight inhibitor bypassing activity). Limited pre-clinical data and even less clinical evidence are available on the usefulness of these methods in restoring normal coagulation for the emergency management of critical bleeding episodes. Evaluating the utility of DOAs is further complicated by the fact that it is unknown how predictive established test systems are of the bleeding risks. Clinical practice requires further evaluation of the emergency management options for the new DOAs to define the agents and the doses that are most useful. Furthermore, patients receiving long-term treatment with a DOA are likely to undergo elective surgery at some point, and there is lack of evidence regarding perioperative treatment regimens under such conditions. This review summarises potential bleeding management options and available data on the new DOAs. PMID:22782297

  7. Inhibition of CDK4/6 as a novel therapeutic option for neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rihani, Ali; Vandesompele, Jo; Speleman, Franki; VAN MAERKEN, TOM

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma is a neural crest-derived tumor and is the most common cancer in children less than 1 year of age. We hypothesized that aberrations in genes that control the cell cycle could play an important role in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma and could provide a tractable therapeutic target. Methods In this study, we screened 131 genes involved in cell cycle regulation at different levels by analyzing the effect of siRNA-mediated gene silencing on the proliferation of neurobl...

  8. [Novel therapeutic options in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubner, Katharina; Seufert, Jochen

    2016-06-01

    SGLT2 inhibitors represent a novel therapeutic approach for the tretment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Beyond glucose control, these drugs also induce weight loss and blod pressure reduction. In a specific cardiovascular outcome trial (EMPA-REG-OUTCOME), the SGLT 2 inhibitor empagliflozin has for the first time demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular and overall mortality as well as hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. These results will drastically affect future recommendations for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.). PMID:27176455

  9. Antibiotic therapeutic options for infections caused by drug-resistant Gram-positive cocci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwan, K; Senok, A C; Rotimi, V O

    2009-01-01

    Serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria are currently difficult to treat because many of these pathogens are now resistant to standard antimicrobial agents. As a result of the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens, new antimicrobial agents are urgently needed for clinical use. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of drugs that have activity against these Gram-positive pathogens. Daptomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin and dalbavancin are five antimicrobial agents that are useful for the treatment of infections due to drug-resistant Gram-positive cocci. This review focuses on their mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, spectrum of activity, clinical effectiveness, drug interaction and safety. These antimicrobial agents provide the clinician with additional treatment options among the limited therapies for resistant Gram-positive bacterial infection. PMID:20701863

  10. Therapeutic Options in the Management of Glaucoma Simplex in the Third Millennium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed H. Emarah

    2001-01-01

    @@ Glaucoma is now considered a generic term for a group of ocular disoders manifesting as progressive optic neuropathy, usually but not always, associated with elevated IOP, which is the main risk factor of optic neuropathy. In wellestablished cases, glaucomatous optic neuropathy is manifested by retinal nerve fiber layer thinning and optic nerve defects caused by apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells and their neurones leading to characteristic visual field loss. Several studies have shown that lowering of the IOP and improvement of the optic nerve head perfusion stop progression of the disease in at least two-thirds of glaucoma patients[1] . Hence, the objective of treating glaucoma patients is to lower their IOP to a level which is believed by the ophthalmologist to be safe for preventing further optic nerve damage. The management ofprimary open angle glaucoma needs a multifactorial therapeutic strategy. A planned management strategy should encompass an accurate diagnosis, identifying an individualized target pressure which is reevaluated periodically, setting out treatment goals, individualishing therapy for every patient and monitoring its therapeutic outcome. The target pressure is often 30 ~ 60 % below the pretreatment level[2]. Estimates infer that approximately 50 % of patients who suffer from glaucoma still remain undiagnosed[3].

  11. Extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stromal cells: a therapeutic option in respiratory diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Soraia C; Weiss, Daniel J; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are plasma membrane-bound fragments released from several cell types, including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), constitutively or under stimulation. EVs derived from MSCs and other cell types transfer molecules (such as DNA, proteins/peptides, mRNA, microRNA, and lipids) and/or organelles with reparative and anti-inflammatory properties to recipient cells. The paracrine anti-inflammatory effects promoted by MSC-derived EVs have attracted significant interest in the regenerative medicine field, including for potential use in lung injuries. In the present review, we describe the characteristics, biological activities, and mechanisms of action of MSC-derived EVs. We also review the therapeutic potential of EVs as reported in relevant preclinical models of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, asthma, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Finally, we discuss possible approaches for potentiating the therapeutic effects of MSC-derived EVs so as to enable use of this therapy in clinical practice. PMID:27075363

  12. Therapeutic options for acute cough due to upper respiratory infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ian M

    2012-02-01

    Cough due to upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) is one of the most frequent complaints encountered by pediatric health-care providers, and one of the most disruptive symptoms for children and families. Despite the frequency of URIs, there is limited evidence to support the few therapeutic agents currently available in the United States (US) to treat acute cough due to URI. Published, well-designed, contemporary research supporting the efficacy of narcotics (codeine, hydrocodone) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved over-the-counter (OTC) oral antitussives and expectorants (dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, chlophedianol, and guaifenesin) is absent for URI-associated pediatric cough. Alternatively, honey and topically applied vapor rubs may be effective antitussives.

  13. Atypical Antipsychotics and Other Therapeutic Options for Treatment of Resistant Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan H. Young

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressant therapies, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, are current first-line treatments for Major Depressive Disorder. However, over 50% of treated patients show an inadequate response to initial antidepressant therapy. If the therapeutic outcomes from two antidepressant therapies are suboptimal, potentially resulting in Treatment Resistant Depression, subsequent strategies include switching to another antidepressant or augmenting treatment by combining with other agents. When combined with SSRIs, atypical antipsychotics have supplementary action on dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems. Studies on combined treatment with atypical antipsychotics have shown significantly increased remission rates, shortened response times, and favorable side effects. Augmentation of antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics is now an acceptable treatment strategy which leads to increased remission rates and better outcomes for patients.

  14. Therapeutic options for acute cough due to upper respiratory infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ian M

    2012-02-01

    Cough due to upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) is one of the most frequent complaints encountered by pediatric health-care providers, and one of the most disruptive symptoms for children and families. Despite the frequency of URIs, there is limited evidence to support the few therapeutic agents currently available in the United States (US) to treat acute cough due to URI. Published, well-designed, contemporary research supporting the efficacy of narcotics (codeine, hydrocodone) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved over-the-counter (OTC) oral antitussives and expectorants (dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, chlophedianol, and guaifenesin) is absent for URI-associated pediatric cough. Alternatively, honey and topically applied vapor rubs may be effective antitussives. PMID:21892785

  15. Therapeutic options for chronic myeloid leukemia: focus on imatinib (Glivec®, Gleevec™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Henkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 1Martin Henkes, 2Heiko van der Kuip, 1Walter E Aulitzky12nd Department of Internal Medicine, Oncology and Hematology, Robert Bosch Hospital, Auerbachstr. 110, Stuttgart, Germany; 2Dr Margarete Fischer-Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Auerbachstr. 112, Stuttgart, and University of Tuebingen, GermanyAbstract: Treatment options for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML have changed dramatically during the last decades. Interferon-α treatment and stem cell transplantation (SCT clearly improved survival over conventional chemotherapy and offered the possibility of complete and durable responses. With the advent of the small molecule inhibitor imatinib mesylate (Glivec®, GleevecTM targeting the causative Bcr-Abl oncoprotein, the era of molecular cancer therapy began with remarkable success especially in chronic phase patients. Today, imatinib is the first-line treatment for CML. However, imatinib does not appear to be capable to eliminate all leukemia cells in the patients and pre-existing as well as acquired resistance to the drug has been increasingly recognized. To overcome these problems, several strategies involving dose escalation, combinations with other agents, and novel Bcr-Abl inhibitors have been developed.Keywords: CML therapy, imatinib, SCT, novel kinase inhibitors

  16. Acute viral bronchiolitis in children- a very common condition with few therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Claire

    2010-03-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis remains a cause of substantial morbidity and health care costs in young infants. It is the most common lower respiratory tract condition and most common reason for admission to hospital in infants. Many respiratory viruses have been associated with acute viral bronchiolitis although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains the most frequently identified virus. Most infants have a mild self limiting illness while others have more severe illness and require hospital admission and some will need ventilatory support. Differences in innate immune function in response to the respiratory viral insult as well as differences in the geometry of the airways may explain some of the variability in clinical pattern. Young age and history of prematurity remain the most important risk factors although male gender, indigenous status, exposure to tobacco smoke, poor socioeconomic factors and associated co-morbidities such as chronic lung disease and congenital heart disease increase the risks of more severe illness. Supportive therapy remains the major treatment option as no specific treatments to date have been shown to provide clinically important benefits except for inhaled hypertonic saline. Prophylaxis of high risk infants with palivizumab should be considered although the cost effectiveness is still unclear. Many questions remain regarding optimal management approaches for infants requiring hospitalisation with bronchiolitis including use of nasogastric feeding, the optimal role of supplemental oxygen, optimal use of hypertonic saline and the role of combinations of therapies, the use of heliox or modern physiotherapy approaches.

  17. Antioxidants as therapeutics in the intensive care unit: Have we ticked the redox boxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritelis, Nikos V

    2016-09-01

    Critically ill patients are under oxidative stress and antioxidant administration reasonably emerged as a promising approach to combat the aberrant redox homeostasis in this patient cohort. However, the results of the antioxidant treatments in the intensive care unit are conflicting and inconclusive. The main objective of the present review is to highlight some inherent, yet widely overlooked redox-related issues about the equivocal effectiveness of antioxidants in the intensive care unit, beyond methodological considerations. In particular, the discrepancy in the literature partially stems from: (1) the largely unspecified role of reactive species in disease onset and progression, (2) our fragmentary understanding on the interplay between inflammation and oxidative stress, (3) the complex spatiotemporal specificity of in vivo redox biology, (4) the pleiotropic effects of antioxidants and (5) the divergent effects of antioxidants according to the temporal administration pattern. In addition, two novel and sophisticated practices with promising pre-clinical results are presented: (1) the selective neutralization of reactive species in key organelles after they are formed (i.e., in mitochondria) and (2) the targeted complete inhibition of dominant reactive species sources (i.e., NADPH oxidases). Finally, the reductive potential of NADPH as a key pharmacological target for redox therapies is rationalized. In light of the above, the recontextualization of knowledge from basic redox biology to translational medicine seems imperative to perform more realistic in vivo studies in the fast-growing field of critical care pharmacology.

  18. Extended Ultrastructural Characterization of Chordoma Cells: The Link to New Therapeutic Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Dagmar; Pritz, Elisabeth; Steinecker-Frohnwieser, Bibiane; Lohberger, Birgit; Deutsch, Alexander; Kroneis, Thomas; El-Heliebi, Amin; Dohr, Gottfried; Meditz, Katharina; Wagner, Karin; Koefeler, Harald; Leitinger, Gerd; Leithner, Andreas; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Zweytick, Dagmar; Rinner, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Chordomas are rare bone tumors, developed from the notochord and largely resistant to chemotherapy. A special feature of this tumor is the heterogeneity of its cells. By combining high pressure freezing (HPF) with electron tomography we were able to illustrate the connections within the cells, the cell-cell interface, and the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex that appears to play a special role among the characteristics of chordoma. These lipid raft-like regions are responsible for lipid syntheses and for calcium signaling. Compared to other tumor cells, chordoma cells show a close connection of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which may influence the sphingolipid metabolism and calcium release. We quantified levels of ceramide and glycosylceramide species by the methyl tert-butyl ether extraction method and we assessed the intracellular calcium concentration with the ratiometric fluorescent dye Fura-2AM. Measurements of the changes in the intracellular calcium concentration revealed an increase in calcium due to the application of acetylcholine. With regard to lipid synthesis, glucosylceramide levels in the chordoma cell line were significantly higher than those in normal healthy cells. The accumulation of glycosylceramide in drug resistant cancer cells has been confirmed in many types of cancer and may also account for drug resistance in chordoma. This study aimed to provide a deep morphological description of chordoma cells, it demonstrated that HPF analysis is useful in elucidating detailed structural information. Furthermore we demonstrate how an accumulation of glycosylceramide in chordoma provides links to drug resistance and opens up the field for new research options. PMID:25479055

  19. Extended ultrastructural characterization of chordoma cells: the link to new therapeutic options.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kolb

    Full Text Available Chordomas are rare bone tumors, developed from the notochord and largely resistant to chemotherapy. A special feature of this tumor is the heterogeneity of its cells. By combining high pressure freezing (HPF with electron tomography we were able to illustrate the connections within the cells, the cell-cell interface, and the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex that appears to play a special role among the characteristics of chordoma. These lipid raft-like regions are responsible for lipid syntheses and for calcium signaling. Compared to other tumor cells, chordoma cells show a close connection of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which may influence the sphingolipid metabolism and calcium release. We quantified levels of ceramide and glycosylceramide species by the methyl tert-butyl ether extraction method and we assessed the intracellular calcium concentration with the ratiometric fluorescent dye Fura-2AM. Measurements of the changes in the intracellular calcium concentration revealed an increase in calcium due to the application of acetylcholine. With regard to lipid synthesis, glucosylceramide levels in the chordoma cell line were significantly higher than those in normal healthy cells. The accumulation of glycosylceramide in drug resistant cancer cells has been confirmed in many types of cancer and may also account for drug resistance in chordoma. This study aimed to provide a deep morphological description of chordoma cells, it demonstrated that HPF analysis is useful in elucidating detailed structural information. Furthermore we demonstrate how an accumulation of glycosylceramide in chordoma provides links to drug resistance and opens up the field for new research options.

  20. [Nasal Highflow (NHF): A New Therapeutic Option for the Treatment of Respiratory Failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräunlich, J; Nilius, G

    2016-01-01

    The therapy of choice in hypoxemic respiratory failure (type 1) is the application of supplemental oxygen at flow rates of 1 to 15 l/min via nasal prongs or mask. Non-invasive or invasive positive pressure ventilation will be initiated when the oxygen therapy effects are not sufficient or if hypercapnic respiratory failure (type 2) is the underlying problem. Recently, an alternative therapy option is available, from the pathophysiology it can be classified between oxygen therapy and positive pressure ventilation. The therapy called Nasal High Flow (NHF) is based on the nasal application of a heated and humidified air oxygen mixture with a flow range of up to 60 l/min. The precise pathophysiological principles of NHF are only partly understood, yet various aspects are well studied already: it is possible to deliver high oxygen concentrations, airway dryness can be avoided, dead space ventilation reduced and clearance of nasal dead space is achieved. Additionally, an end expiratory positive pressure is built up, which helps to prevent airway collapse, thus resulting in an improvement of respiratory efficiency and reduction of breathing work. Current studies demonstrate improvement in gas exchange and reduction of reintubation rate when applying the NHF treatment in acute respiratory failure. Thus the NHF therapy attracts attention in intensive care medicine. The application in other fields like chronic respiratory insufficiency is less well clarified. The objectives of this review are to present the pathophysiological effects and mechanisms of NHF, as far as understood, and to give an overview over the current state of relevant studies. PMID:26789432

  1. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A New Therapeutic Option for Tooth Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanwei; Yu, Yongchun; Chen, Lin; Ye, Lanfeng; Cui, Junhui; Sun, Quan; Li, Kaide; Li, Zhiyong; Liu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Tooth regeneration is considered to be an optimistic approach to replace current treatments for tooth loss. It is important to determine the most suitable seed cells for tooth regeneration. Recently, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been regarded as a promising candidate for tissue regeneration. However, it has not been reported whether hUCMSCs can be employed in tooth regeneration. Here, we report that hUCMSCs can be induced into odontoblast-like cells in vitro and in vivo. Induced hUCMSCs expressed dentin-related proteins including dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and their gene expression levels were similar to those in native pulp tissue cells. Moreover, DSP- and DMP-1-positive calcifications were observed after implantation of hUCMSCs in vivo. These findings reveal that hUCMSCs have an odontogenic differentiation potency to differentiate to odontoblast-like cells with characteristic deposition of dentin-like matrix in vivo. This study clearly demonstrates hUCMSCs as an alternative therapeutic cell source for tooth regeneration.

  2. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A New Therapeutic Option for Tooth Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanwei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth regeneration is considered to be an optimistic approach to replace current treatments for tooth loss. It is important to determine the most suitable seed cells for tooth regeneration. Recently, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs have been regarded as a promising candidate for tissue regeneration. However, it has not been reported whether hUCMSCs can be employed in tooth regeneration. Here, we report that hUCMSCs can be induced into odontoblast-like cells in vitro and in vivo. Induced hUCMSCs expressed dentin-related proteins including dentin sialoprotein (DSP and dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1, and their gene expression levels were similar to those in native pulp tissue cells. Moreover, DSP- and DMP-1-positive calcifications were observed after implantation of hUCMSCs in vivo. These findings reveal that hUCMSCs have an odontogenic differentiation potency to differentiate to odontoblast-like cells with characteristic deposition of dentin-like matrix in vivo. This study clearly demonstrates hUCMSCs as an alternative therapeutic cell source for tooth regeneration.

  3. Viral bronchiolitis in children: a common condition with few therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, A; Ferrara, M; Schiavariello, C; Gentile, F; Grande, M E; Alessandroni, C; Midulla, F

    2013-10-01

    Even though bronchiolitis is a disease that has been recognized for many years, there are still few therapeutic strategies beyond supportive therapies. Bronchiolitis is the most frequent cause of hospital admission in children less than 1 year of age. The incidence is estimated to be about 150° million cases a year worldwide, and 2-3% of these cases require hospitalization. It is acknowledged that viruses cause bronchiolitis, but most of the studies focus on RSV. The RSV causes a more severe form of bronchiolitis in children with risk factors including prematurity, cardiovascular disease and immunodeficiency. Other viruses involved in causing bronchiolitis include RV, hMPV, hBoV and co-infections. The RV seems to be associated with a less severe acute disease, but there is a correlation between the early infection and subsequent wheezing bronchitis and asthma in later childhood and adulthood. The supportive therapies used are intravenous fluids and oxygen supplement administered by nasal cannula or CPAP in most complicated patients. Additional pharmacological therapies include epinephrine, 3% hypertonic saline and corticosteroids. The Epinephrine seems to have the greatest short-term benefits and reduces the need of hospital admission, whereas hypertonic saline and corticosteroids seem to reduce the length of hospital stay. As bronchiolitis is such a prevalent disease in children and RV seems to play an important role, perhaps more studies should center around the RV's contribution to the initial disease and following pathology.

  4. [Advanced luminal breast cancer (hormone receptor-positive, HER2 negative): New therapeutic options in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Hélène; Bally, Olivia; Kassem, Loay; Tredan, Olivier; Heudel, Pierre; Bachelot, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Despite improvements in early detection, surgery and systemic therapy, metastatic breast cancer remains a major cause of death. Luminal type breast cancers expressing hormone estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone (PR) and without HER2 overexpression are generally sensitive to endocrine therapy, but raise the issue of the occurrence of resistance to treatment, particularly at metastatic stage. A better understanding of hormone resistance may guide the development of new therapeutics. New strategies aim at enhancing and prolonging of endocrine sensitivity, by optimizing existing schemes, or by combining an endocrine therapy with a targeted therapies specific to hormone resistance pathways: ER signaling, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK). Key corners of 2014 include confirmation of benefit of high dose fulvestrant, and commercialization of everolimus as the first mTOR inhibitor in this indication. Other strategies are being tested dealing with new endocrine therapies or new molecular targets such as PI3K inhibitors, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-R) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Coming years may be fruitful and might radically change our way to treat these patients. PMID:26118876

  5. [Cell-based therapies - an innovative therapeutic option in ophthalmology: Treating corneal diseases with stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Ann-Christin; Langer, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Pathological changes and disorders of the cornea are a major cause of severe visual impairment and blindness. Replacement of a pathologically altered cornea with healthy corneal tissue from the eye of a suitable donor is among the most common and successful transplantation procedures in medicine. In Germany, approximately 5000-6000 corneal transplantations are performed each year, but the total demand per year is estimated to be twice as high. With a success rate of 90%, the outcome of cornea transplantation is very favourable. However, long-term maintenance and regeneration of a healthy new cornea requires tissue-specific corneal stem cells residing at the basal layer of the limbus, which is the annular transition zone between the cornea and sclera. When this important limbal stem cell population is destroyed or dysfunctional, a pathological condition known as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) manifests. Limbal stem cell deficiency describes conditions associated with impaired corneal wound healing and regeneration. In this situation, transplantation of healthy limbal stem cells is the only curative treatment approach for restoration of an intact and functional ocular surface. To date, treatment of LSCD presents a great challenge for ophthalmologists. However, innovative, cell-therapeutic approaches may open new, promising treatment perspectives. In February 2015, the European Commission granted marketing authorization to the first stem cell-based treatment in the European Union. The product named Holoclar® is an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) for the treatment of moderate to severe LSCD due to physical and chemical burns in adults. Further cell-based treatment approaches are in clinical development. PMID:26459569

  6. Mycoplasma genitalium infection: current treatment options, therapeutic failure, and resistance-associated mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couldwell DL

    2015-05-01

    failure, due to bacteria with coexistent macrolide-associated and fluoroquinolone-associated resistance mutations, were recently published by Australian investigators. Pristinamycin and solithromycin may be of clinical benefit for such multidrug-resistant infections. Further clinical studies are required to determine the optimal therapeutic dosing schedules for both agents to effect clinical cure and minimize the risk of emergent antimicrobial resistance. Continual inappropriate M. genitalium treatments will likely lead to untreatable infections in the future. Keywords: Mycoplasma genitalium, non-gonococcal urethritis, macrolide, fluoroquinolone, resistance, treatment failure

  7. Biologics and other novel approaches as new therapeutic options in myasthenia gravis: a view to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, Marinos C

    2012-12-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is caused by complement-fixing antibodies against the acetylcholine receptors (AChR). Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells), Th17 cells, and recognition of AChR epitopes by CD4(+) T cells are fundamental. Novel biological agents now in the offing, offer the potential for specific treatment options in MG by targeting the following: (1) T cell intracellular signaling pathways, costimulation, and transduction molecules; (2) B cells, against CD20 molecules, or the B cell trophic factors BAFF and APRIL; (3) complement, against C5 that intercepts the formation of MAC; (4) cytokines and cytokine receptors targeting interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and the Janus tyrosine kinases (JAK)1 and JAK3; and (5) cellular adhesion and T cell migration molecules. Reengineering of pathogenic antibodies (i.e., molecular decoys) by constructing recombinant antibodies that block the complement binding of the pathogenic AChR antibodies is an additional approach. The promising therapeutic profile of these agents should be weighted against excessive cost and rare complications necessitating the need for controlled trials to secure efficacy and balance benefit against risks.

  8. Splenomegaly in myelofibrosis—new options for therapy and the therapeutic potential of Janus kinase 2 inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhawa Jasleen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Splenomegaly is a common sign of primary myelofibrosis (PMF, post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis (post-PV MF, and post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis (post-ET MF that is associated with bothersome symptoms, which have a significant negative impact on patients’ quality of life. It may also be present in patients with advanced polycythemia vera (PV or essential thrombocythemia (ET. Until recently, none of the therapies used to treat MF were particularly effective in reducing splenomegaly. The discovery of an activating Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 activating mutation (JAK2V617F that is present in almost all patients with PV and in about 50-60 % of patients with ET and PMF led to the initiation of several trials investigating the clinical effectiveness of various JAK2 (or JAK1/JAK2 inhibitors for the treatment of patients with ET, PV, and MF. Some of these trials have documented significant clinical benefit of JAK inhibitors, particularly in terms of regression of splenomegaly. In November 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of the JAK1- and JAK2-selective inhibitor ruxolitinib for the treatment of patients with intermediate or high-risk myelofibrosis, including PMF, post-PV MF, and post-ET MF. This review discusses current therapeutic options for splenomegaly associated with primary or secondary MF and the treatment potential of the JAK inhibitors in this setting.

  9. The use of radiotherapy as a therapeutic option in the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: An update of results in 11 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare benign tumor composed of fibrous connective tissue and abundant vascular spaces lined with endothelium, almost exclusively male and adolescence. The recommended treatment of choice is surgical excision of the tumor after embolization, however, in patients with bulky tumors, in which no surgical treatment is possible or it is refused, or where excision was incomplete, or the case of recurrence, radiation therapy (RT) is a therapeutic option. Results are presented in a series of 11 patients suffering from juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, all male, between 9 and 16 years of age, treated at INOR from 1990 to 2005. Nine patients were used as initial therapy irradiated and 2 relapse treated. The radiation treatment was applied in the irradiation of the entire tumor volume with a margin of safety, dose between 40 and 60 Gy, 1.8 Gy per session, associated with RT, was used postirradiation interferon from 3 to 6 months in 10 poly chemotherapy patients and in 1 patient. They keep 10 of the 11 patients with sustained complete remission (90.9%) without recurrence. In one patient only partial remission was achieved, using then surgical treatment. Early complications were all patients, and late in some. In the management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, RT is a treatment that maintains its usefulness, with their specific indications. (Author)

  10. SOD1 and DJ-1 Converge at Nrf2 Pathway: A Clue for Antioxidant Therapeutic Potential in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Milani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases share diverse pathological features and among these oxidative stress (OS plays a leading role. Impaired activity and reduced expression of antioxidant proteins have been reported as common events in several aging-associated disorders. In this review paper, we first provide an overview of the involvement of reactive oxygen species- (ROS- induced oxidative damage in Parkinson's disease (PD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Subsequently, we focus on DJ-1 and SOD1 proteins, which are involved in PD and ALS and also exert a prominent role in the interaction between redox homeostasis and neurodegeneration. Interestingly, recent studies demonstrated that DJ-1 and SOD1 are both tightly connected with Nrf2 protein, a transcriptional factor and master regulator of the expression of many antioxidant/detoxification genes. Nrf2 is emerging as a key neuroprotective protein in neurodegenerative diseases, since it helps neuronal cells to cope with toxic insults and OS. We herein summarize the recent literature providing a detailed picture of the promising therapeutic efficacy of Nrf2 natural and synthetic inducers as disease-modifying molecules for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. The radiation-induced fibroatrophic process: therapeutic perspective via the antioxidant pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanian, Sylvie; Lefaix, Jean-Louis

    2004-11-01

    The radiation-induced fibroatrophic process (RIF) constitutes a late, local and unavoidable sequela to high-dose radiotherapy, traditionally considered irreversible. Today, this process is partly reversible, thanks to recent progress in understanding the physiopathology of the lesions it causes and the results of recent clinical trials using antioxidant therapy. This review includes a synthetic description of the static and dynamic features of the RIF process, as reflected by its clinical, instrumental and histopathological characteristics, and by its cellular and molecular regulation. Schematically, three successive clinical and histopathological phases can be distinguished: a pre-fibrotic aspecific inflammatory phase, a constitutive fibrotic cellular phase, and a matrix densification and remodelling phase, possibly ending in terminal tissular necrosis. The respective roles of the chief actors in the RIF process are defined, as well as their development with time. A fibroblastic stromal hypothesis is suggested revolving around a 'gravitational effect' exerted by the couple ROS (reactive oxygen species)--fibroblasts, and partly mediated by TGF-beta1. A variety of strategies have been tested for the management of RIF. In the light of the mechanisms described, a curative procedure has been proposed via the antioxidant pathway. In particular, it was showed that superoxide dismutase and combined pentoxifylline-tocopherol treatment enables the process of established radiation-induced fibroatrophy to be greatly reduced or even reversed, both in clinical practice and animal experiments. The efficacy of combined pentoxifylline-tocopherol treatment in superficial RIF was confirmed in a randomised clinical trial, and then in successful phase II trials especially in uterine fibroatrophy and osteoradionecrosis. It is of critical importance to evaluate these new management approaches in larger clinical trials and to improve the recording of results for better outcome analysis

  12. Novel enterobactin analogues as potential therapeutic chelating agents: Synthesis, thermodynamic and antioxidant studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingchun; Jin, Bo; Shi, Zhaotao; Wang, Xiaofang; Liu, Qiangqiang; Lei, Shan; Peng, Rufang

    2016-09-01

    A series of novel hexadentate enterobactin analogues, which contain three catechol chelating moieties attached to different molecular scaffolds with flexible alkyl chain lengths, were prepared. The solution thermodynamic stabilities of the complexes with uranyl, ferric(III), and zinc(II) ions were then investigated. The hexadentate ligands demonstrate effective binding ability to uranyl ion, and the average uranyl affinities are two orders of magnitude higher than 2,3-dihydroxy-N1,N4-bis[(1,2-hydroxypyridinone-6-carboxamide)ethyl]terephthalamide [TMA(2Li-1,2-HOPO)2] ligand with similar denticity. The high affinity of hexadentate ligands could be due to the presence of the flexible scaffold, which favors the geometric agreement between the ligand and the uranyl coordination preference. The hexadentate ligands also exhibit higher antiradical efficiency than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). These results provide a basis for further studies on the potential applications of hexadentate ligands as therapeutic chelating agents.

  13. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied Antioxidant Medicinal Plant Extracts in a Mouse Model of Experimental Dry Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of topical administration of antioxidant medicinal plant extracts in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE. Methods. Eye drops containing balanced salt solution (BSS or 0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% extracts were applied for the treatment of EDE. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (BUT, and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured 10 days after desiccating stress. In addition, we evaluated the levels of interleukin- (IL- 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, IL-6, interferon- (IFN- γ, and IFN-γ associated chemokines, percentage of CD4+C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 positive (CXCR3+ T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE positive cells, and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Results. Compared to the EDE and BSS control groups, the mice treated with topical application of the 0.1% extract showed significant improvements in all clinical parameters, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels, percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-HNE-positive cells, and extracellular ROS production (P<0.05. Conclusions. Topical application of 0.1% medicinal plant extracts improved clinical signs, decreased inflammation, and ameliorated oxidative stress marker and ROS production on the ocular surface of the EDE model mice.

  14. Lumbar sympathectomy under CT guidance: therapeutic option in critical limb ischaemia; la simpaticolisi TC guidata: alternativa terapeutica delle ischemie critiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieri, Stefano; Agresti, Paolo [Az. Osp. S. Camillo-Forlanini, Roma (Italy). U.O. di radiologia vascolare ed interventistica; Ialongo, Pasquale; Fedeli, Stefano [Radiologia diagnostica Busi, Roma (Italy); Di Cesare, Fabio; Ricci, Guiseppe [Az. Osp. S. Camillo-Forlanini, Roma (Italy). Chirurgia vascolare

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Lumbar sympathectomy is a complementary therapeutic option for patients with severe peripheral vascular occlusive disease presenting rest pain or gangrene and not eligible for surgical revascularisation. Traditional surgical sympathectomy was widely used in the past. However, due to its invasive character, it has increasingly been replaced by percutaneous techniques and, in some recent cases, by laparoscopic procedures. Percutaneous lumbar sympathectomy is a safe, cost-effective and widely available treatment option. We report our experience on 19 patients subjected to percutaneous sympathectomy under CT guidance. Materials and methods: Between 1998 and 2000, 19 patients underwent percutaneous sympathectomy under CT guidance. All patients had severe vascular disease of the lower extremities (Fontaine stage IV), with rest pain and gangrene. They were not eligible for surgical revascularization. Phenol was injected at the level of L2 and L4 using two 22 G needles (15 cm long). Signs of interrupted sympathetic activity usually occur 2'-15' after the procedure with warmth and flushing and dryness of the lower extremities. Results: Percutaneous sympathectomy under CT guidance is a simple, safe and well-tolerated procedure with a low rate of complications. Of the 19 patients, 9 (47.3%) showed clinical improvement, whereas 5 experienced a worsening of ischaemia in the month immediately following the procedure. Discussion: Results suggest that percutaneous lumbar sympathectomy causes a sympathetic blockade in patients with advanced vascular disease of the limb. CT guidance ensures a high level of precision in drug dosing, thus lowering the risk of complications. Although the results are demoralizing. the impossibility of achieving surgical revascularisation in advanced peripheral arteriosclerosis enhances the role of Ct-guided percutaneous sympathectomy in relieving rest pain and healing ulcers in order to postpone the amputation. [Italian] Scopo: La

  15. Total recall: Reconsolidation theory unifies cognitive psychology and neuroscience and creates new therapeutic options for memory-related disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Philip

    2011-01-01

    New research reveals that long-term memory is not entirely stable and can be modified or potentially erased. These insights open new therapeutic possibilities for a range of memory-related diseases and disorders.

  16. Subacute therapeutic dosing of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine combination preserves plasma cholesterol, renal antioxidant status, and organ weights in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Edewor, Gloria; Kale, Oluwafemi Ezekiel; Ekor, Martins

    2012-01-01

    Recent instances of breakdowns of malaria control programs and the constant emergence of drug-resistant parasites to monotherapies have shored up the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the malaria therapy of choice. We evaluated a subacute therapeutic dosing of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine on plasma cholesterol, renal antioxidants, and organ weights in rats. Sixteen albino rats were grouped into three. Group A (n = 5) served as the control. Groups B (n = 6) and C (n = 5) were administered, twice daily, oral therapeutic doses of artemether-lumefantrine (1.14/6.86 mg/kg/d) and artesunate-amodiaquine (2.86/8.58 mg/kg/d), respectively, for seven days. From our results, ACTs did not significantly (P > 0.05) alter catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, myeloperoxidase, and total glutathione levels when compared with the control. Plasma total cholesterol levels also decreased insignificantly (P > 0.05). Organ-system weights were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from control rats. Artesunate-amodiaquine, but not artemether-lumefantrine, significantly increased (P artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine may preserve renal antioxidants and organ weights in vivo. However, caution is required above therapeutic indications or in chronic doses as this may predispose to renal oxidative stress.

  17. Analysis of selected medicinal plants as antioxidants with therapeutic potential for treating diseases related to free radical damage

    OpenAIRE

    Pendry, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. Scientific research shows positive links between accumulated free radical damage and age-related diseases such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis. There is great interest in the possibility that the antioxidant potential of plant-derived compounds such as flavonoids may reduce the risk of developing these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of selected non-food plants, traditi...

  18. Alteration of the intestinal microbiota as a cause of and a potential therapeutic option in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, J; Brummer, R J

    2014-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota forms a complex ecosystem that is in close contact with its host and has an important impact on health. An increasing number of disorders are associated with disturbances in this ecosystem. Also patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show an altered composition of their gut microbiota. IBS is a multifactorial chronic disorder characterised by various abdominal complaints and a worldwide prevalence of 10-20%. Even though its aetiology and pathophysiology are complex and not well understood, it is widely accepted that aberrations along the microbe-gut-brain axis are involved. In this review, it will be discussed how exogenous factors, e.g. antibiotics, can cause disbalance in the intestinal microbiota and thereby contribute to the development of IBS. In addition, several new IBS treatment options that aim at re-establishing a healthy, beneficial ecosystem will be described. These include antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics and faecal transplantation. PMID:24583610

  19. Therapeutic options in docetaxel-refractory metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixian Zhong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is an established first-line therapy to treat metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC. Recently, abiraterone and cabazitaxel were approved for use after docetaxel failure, with improved survival. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE preliminary recommendations were negative for both abiraterone (now positive in final recommendation and cabazitaxel (negative in final recommendation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of abiraterone, cabazitaxel, mitoxantrone and prednisone for mCRPC treatment in US. METHODS: A decision-tree model was constructed to compare the two mCRPC treatments versus two placebos over 18 months from a societal perspective. Chance nodes include baseline pain as a severity indicator, grade III/IV side-effects, and survival at 18 months. Probabilities, survival and health utilities were from published studies. Model cost inputs included drug treatment, side-effect management and prevention, radiation for pain, and death associated costs in 2010 US dollars. RESULTS: Abiraterone is a cost-effective choice at $94K/QALY (quality adjusted life years compared to placebo in our base-case analysis. Cabazitaxel and abiraterone are the most effective, yet also most expensive agents. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER at base-case are $101K/QALY (extended dominated for mitoxantrone vs. placebo, $91K/QALY for abiraterone vs. mitoxantrone, $956K/QALY for cabazitaxel vs. abiraterone. Abiraterone becomes less cost-effective as its AWP increases, or if the cost of mitoxantrone side-effect management decreases. Increases in the percentage of patients with baseline pain leads to an increased ICER for both mitoxantrone and abiraterone, but mitoxantrone does relatively better. Cabazitaxel remains not cost-effective. CONCLUSION: Our base case model suggests that abiraterone is a cost-effective option in docetaxel-refractory mCRPC patients. Newer treatments will also

  20. [Are there alternative therapeutical options other than CPAP in the treatment of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerath, W; Bauer, M; Blau, A; Fietze, I; Galetke, W; Hein, H; Maurer, J T; Orth, M; Rasche, K; Rühle, K-H; Sanner, B; Stuck, B A; Verse, T

    2007-07-01

    Many patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) look for alternative conservative or surgical therapies to avoid to be treated with continuous positive airway pressure. In view of the high prevalence and the relevant impairment of the patients lots of methods are offered which promise definitive cure or relevant improvement of OSAS. The working group "Apnea" in the German Society of Sleep Medicine and Research established a task force to evaluate the scientific literature on non-CPAP therapies in the treatment of OSAS according to the standards of evidence-based medicine. This paper summarizes the results of the task force. The data were unsatisfactorily for most of the methods. Sufficient data were available for intraoral appliances (IOA) and the maxillomandibular osteotomy (MMO). IOA's can reduce mild to moderate respiratory disturbances, MMO are efficient in the short and long term but are performed only in special situations such as craniofacial dysmorphias. Weight reduction and body positioning cannot be recommended as a single treatment of OSAS. Most surgical procedures still lack sufficient data according to the criteria of evidence based medicine. Resections of muscular tissue within the soft palate have to be strictly avoided. But even success following gentle soft palate procedures is difficult to predict and often decreases after years. Results in other anatomical regions seem to be more stable over time. Today combined surgeries in the sense of multi-level surgery concepts are of increasing interest in the secondary treatment after failure of nasal ventilation therapy although more data from prospective controlled studies are needed. There is no evidence for any other treatment options. PMID:17538860

  1. Inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE 4): A new therapeutic option in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Małgorzata; Karczewski, Jacek; Lodyga, Martha; Żaba, Ryszard; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis are inflammatory diseases in which inflammation and sustained inducing lesions result from immune disorders associated with overactivity of T cells that produce multiple proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL): IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, IL-22 or IL-23. Modern treatment of these diseases is focused on reducing the inflammatory process responsible for the development of the disease. In recent years, the treatment of psoriasis is developing at a dynamic rate. Such therapeutic advances are contributed to the possibility of patient therapy through the use of some registered biologic agents, such as TNF-α inhibitors (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab), and an inhibitor of the p40 subunit common to IL-12 and IL-23 (ustekinumab). In addition to the already registered medications for the indications mentioned above, there is a large group of preparations that are currently undergoing clinical trials in Europe, Canada and the United States, which provides hopes of therapy efficacy and safety.

  2. 面颈部微静脉畸形的治疗%The therapeutic options for cervicofacial venular malformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦中平; 邰茂众; 李克雷; 刘学键; 葛春晓

    2011-01-01

    [Summary] Venular malformation, a disease also named nevus flammeus, or port-wine stain, mostly involves head and neck. Before the advent of laser therapy, numerous therapies, including freezing, isotope radiotherapy, sclerotherapy, chemical exfoliation,et al, were used clinically without ideal therapeutic effect. For the past few years, the application of photodynamic therapy and development of laser technology make a great progress in the treatment of venular malformation. All the methods are still not ideal with advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we discussed various treatment methods and evaluated their efficacy for venular malformations of the face and neck.%微静脉畸形又名鲜红斑痣、葡萄酒色斑,多发生于头颈部.以往治疗微静脉畸形的方法有冷冻、放射性核素敷贴、激光、硬化剂注射、化学剥脱等,疗效均不理想.近年来,随着医学激光技术的发展和光动力疗法的应用,微静脉畸形的治疗有了很大进展,但仍很不成熟.作者就目前临床常用的一些治疗方法及其疗效进行文献复习和讨论.

  3. MitraClip therapy in mitral regurgitation: a Markov model for the cost-effectiveness of a new therapeutic option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Patrice; Bourguignon, Sandrine; Jamet, Nicolas; Marque, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Mitral regurgitation is a heart condition resulting from blood flowing from the left ventricle towards the left atrium, increasing the risk of heart failure and mortality. While surgery can greatly reduce these risks, some patients are not eligible, resulting in medication being their only therapeutic alternative. The MitraClip (Abbot Vascular) is a medical device that is percutaneously implanted and designed to eliminate leaking of the mitral valve. Methods The efficacy of the MitraClip strategy vs medical management was assessed using a 4-state Markov model based on the mitral regurgitation grade (mitral regurgitation grade 0, I/II, and III/IV, and death). At each 1-month cycle, patients were or were not hospitalized. The model analyzed a fictional population of 1000 patients over a 5-year period from a national Health Insurance perspective. The primary end-point was the number of deaths avoided. Data from the EVEREST II High Risk Study patients were used along with a literature review. Results At 5 years, among the 1000 patients, 276 deaths were found to be avoidable with the MitraClip strategy. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was €93,363 per death avoided. The annual ICER was calculated to take into consideration excess costs resulting from the MitraClip over the first year (€29,984 vs €8557 for the reference strategy) and the reduction of costs in following years (€3122 for MitraClip vs €8557 for reference strategy). Thus, the mean ICER was calculated to be €20,720 per death avoided. Conclusion The MitraClip is a novel alternative therapy for mitral insufficiency in patients ineligible for surgery that may offer a medico-economic advantage. PMID:26909557

  4. The Role of Topical Brimonidine Tartrate Gel as a Novel Therapeutic Option for Persistent Facial Erythema Associated with Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew William; Johnson, Sandra Marchese

    2015-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that commonly presents with persistent facial erythema with or without the coincident presence of flushing, telangiectasias, inflammatory papules or pustules, phymatous changes, or ocular involvement. Patients often present with a constellation of various signs and symptoms of the disease, and an individualized treatment plan should be tailored to a patient's unique clinical presentation. Previously available medications for rosacea have all targeted the inflammatory erythematous papules and pustules frequently associated with the disease, leaving a therapeutic gap for the common manifestation of persistent facial erythema. Brimonidine tartrate 0.33% gel was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in August 2013 as the first medication available for the topical treatment of persistent facial erythema associated with rosacea. Brimonidine gel is a highly selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist with potent vasoconstrictive effects, which leads to significant reduction of persistent facial erythema in the majority of patients when applied once daily. Based on large-scale clinical trials and post-marketing reports, brimonidine gel has maintained a good safety profile with a minority of patients experiencing adverse effects from its use, most of which are cutaneous in nature, mild-to-moderate in degree, occur early after initiation of treatment, often resolve spontaneously with continued use, and generally resolve after discontinuation of use. Among the reported adverse effects, two distinct manifestations of worsened erythema have been described. Brimonidine gel can be integrated into a treatment regimen along with concomitant therapies for facial papules and pustules with no increased risk of adverse events with combination therapy. Education about optimal application methods, setting reasonable expectations for treatment, and minimizing inflammation are important factors for the successful use of brimonidine

  5. Subacute Therapeutic Dosing of Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine Combination Preserves Plasma Cholesterol, Renal Antioxidant Status, and Organ Weights in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiagoziem A. Otuechere

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent instances of breakdowns of malaria control programs and the constant emergence of drug-resistant parasites to monotherapies have shored up the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT as the malaria therapy of choice. We evaluated a subacute therapeutic dosing of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine on plasma cholesterol, renal antioxidants, and organ weights in rats. Sixteen albino rats were grouped into three. Group A (n=5 served as the control. Groups B (n=6 and C (n=5 were administered, twice daily, oral therapeutic doses of artemether-lumefantrine (1.14/6.86 mg/kg/d and artesunate-amodiaquine (2.86/8.58 mg/kg/d, respectively, for seven days. From our results, ACTs did not significantly (P>0.05 alter catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, myeloperoxidase, and total glutathione levels when compared with the control. Plasma total cholesterol levels also decreased insignificantly (P>0.05. Organ-system weights were not significantly (P>0.05 different from control rats. Artesunate-amodiaquine, but not artemether-lumefantrine, significantly increased (P<0.05 lactate dehydrogenase activity and also afforded a 27.2% decrease in heart weight when compared with control. Also, both ACTs increased (P<0.05 lipid peroxidation. Overall, artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine may preserve renal antioxidants and organ weights in vivo. However, caution is required above therapeutic indications or in chronic doses as this may predispose to renal oxidative stress.

  6. Placental endoplasmic reticulum stress in gestational diabetes: the potential for therapeutic intervention with chemical chaperones and antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Yung, H. W.; Alaes-Katjavivi, P.; Jones, C.J.P.; El-Bacha, T.; Golic, M.; A.C. Staff; Burton, G J

    2016-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to determine whether placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may contribute to the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to test the efficacy of chemical chaperones and antioxidant vitamins in ameliorating that stress in a trophoblast-like cell line in vitro. METHODS: Placental samples were obtained from women suffering from GDM and from normoglycaemic controls and were frozen immediately. Women with GDM had 2 h serum glucose ...

  7. Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae among patients in intensive care units in Greece: a multi-centre study on clinical outcome and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopidou, F; Giamarellou, H; Katerelos, P; Maragos, A; Kioumis, I; Trikka-Graphakos, E; Valakis, C; Maltezou, H C

    2014-02-01

    Infections due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) have emerged as a public health problem worldwide given their spread dynamics and the limited therapeutic options. Our aim was to study the clinical outcome of patients with CR-KP infections in relation to antimicrobial treatment. CR-KP infections that occurred in a 10-month period (September 2009 to June 2010) in patients admitted to 19 intensive care units all over Greece were studied. A total of 127 CR-KP infections were reported. Central venous catheter bacteraemia was the most frequent infection, followed by ventilator-associated pneumonia (39 (30.7%) and 35 (27.6%) cases, respectively). Resistance to colistin, tigecycline, gentamicin and amikacin was detected in 20%, 33%, 21% and 64% of isolates, respectively. Regarding treatment, 107 cases received active treatment, including 1 or ≥2 active antibiotics in 65 (60.7%) and 42 (39.3%) cases, respectively. The most frequent combination was colistin plus aminoglycoside and tigecycline plus aminoglycoside (17 and 11 cases, respectively). Forty-eight (45.2%) of the cases that received active treatment were considered clinical failures, with 23.5% mortality at 14 days. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age ≤55 years, non-immunocompromised patients and patients who received colistin had higher successful response rates, while patients ≤55 years old had lower mortality rates at 14 days after the introduction of active treatment. CR-KP infections are associated with a significant clinical failure rate. Colistin remains a valuable antimicrobial agent for treating these infections, while the rise of resistance to the last available antibiotics further limits treatment options.

  8. Antioxidant Effect of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Martius Extracts from Cariri-Ceará State (Brazil: Potential Involvement in Its Therapeutic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Augusti Boligon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stryphnodendron rotundifolium is a phytotherapic used in the northeast of Brazil for the treatment of inflammatory processes which normally are associated with oxidative stress. Consequently, we have tested the antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic (HAB and aqueous extracts (AB from the bark and aqueous extract (AL from the leaves of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium to determine a possible association between antioxidant activity and the popular use of this plant. Free radical scavenger properties were assessed by the quenching of 1′,1′-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and the calculated IC50 were: HAB = 5.4 ± 0.7, AB = 12.0 ± 2.6, and AL = 46.3 ± 12.3 µg/mL. Total phenolic contents were: HAB = 102.7 ± 2.8, AB = 114.4 ± 14.6, and AL = 93.8 ± 9.1 µg/mg plant. HPLC/DAD analyses indicated that gallic acid, catechin, rutin and caffeic acid were the major components of the crude extracts of S. rotundifolium. Plant extracts inhibited Fe(II-induced lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates. Iron chelation was also investigated and only HBA exhibited a weak activity. Taken together, the results suggest that S. rotundifolium could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  9. Antioxidant effect of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Martius extracts from Cariri-Ceará State (Brazil): potential involvement in its therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Dubois, Albys Ferrer; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Campos, Adriana Rolim; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Stryphnodendron rotundifolium is a phytotherapic used in the northeast of Brazil for the treatment of inflammatory processes which normally are associated with oxidative stress. Consequently, we have tested the antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic (HAB) and aqueous extracts (AB) from the bark and aqueous extract (AL) from the leaves of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium to determine a possible association between antioxidant activity and the popular use of this plant. Free radical scavenger properties were assessed by the quenching of 1',1'-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the calculated IC(50) were: HAB = 5.4 ± 0.7, AB = 12.0 ± 2.6, and AL = 46.3 ± 12.3 µg/mL. Total phenolic contents were: HAB = 102.7 ± 2.8, AB = 114.4 ± 14.6, and AL = 93.8 ± 9.1 µg/mg plant). HPLC/DAD analyses indicated that gallic acid, catechin, rutin and caffeic acid were the major components of the crude extracts of S. rotundifolium. Plant extracts inhibited Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates. Iron chelation was also investigated and only HBA exhibited a weak activity. Taken together, the results suggest that S. rotundifolium could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  10. The therapeutic potential of antioxidants, ER chaperones, NO and H2S donors, and statins for treatment of preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    TerezaCindrova-Davies

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex multifactorial disease. Placental oxidative stress, a result of deficient spiral artery remodeling, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Antiangiogenic factors secreted from malperfused placenta are instrumental in mediating maternal endothelial dysfunction and consequent symptoms of preeclampsia; the mechanism is likely to involve increased ET-1 secretion and reduced NO bioavailability. Therapeutic interventions so far remain only experi...

  11. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  12. Comparative evaluation of influence of drugs with antioxidant effect on therapeutic efficiency of radiotherapy and oxidative status in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masyagin V.A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the study is to carry out a comparative analysis of the effect of melatonin (melaxen and of 3-hy-droxypyridine (mexidol on antitumor and antimetastatic influence of radiotherapy and oxidative status in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma. Material: Experiments have been carried out on 95 mice of the line C57BI/6 and weight of 20-22 grams. Cyclophosphan has been intraabdominally administered two times in a dosage of 60mg/kg within the interval of 120 hours — 20-30 min before radiotherapy. It has been located on the area of initial tumor in a dosage of 2 Gr at the same time as cyclophosphan injection. Melaxen and mexidol have been intramuscularly injected in the dosage of 45 and 50 mg/ kg for 14 days. Antitumor and antimetastatic effect of the applied therapy and changes in the oxidative status of the animals have been estimated. The results: Melaxen and mexidol do not decrease antitumour and antimetastatic effects of radiotherapy and prevent the activation of free radical processes in animals with tumors. Mexidol has been more effective than melaxen in correction of superoxide dismutase activity in liver. The drugss under the study do not decrease radiotherapy-induced lipid peroxidation in the initial tumor. Conclusion: Melaxen and mexidol do not decrease the therapeutic efficiency of radiotherapy and correct oxidative status in mice with tumor following antineoplastic treatment.

  13. 神经病理性疼痛的机制分类与治疗策略%Pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic options of neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪梅; 许今; 王祥瑞

    2013-01-01

    Background Being an intractable and chronic syndrome that may arise from injury to somatosensory system,neuropathic pain (NP) seriously affects the life quality of patients.Objective This review presents recent progress in the pathophysiological mechanisms,diagnosis and therapeutic options for NP.Content Five aspects of maladaptive changes in the peripheral,central and autonomic nervous system are focused to illustrate the pathophysiological mechanisms:sensitization of nociceptors,abnormal ectopic excitability of affected neurons and disinhibition of nociception in the spinal inhibitory network,pronociceptive facilitation of the spinal dorsal horn,sympathetically maintained pain,as well as central nervous systerm reorganization processes.Recent progress of diagnosis,pharmacologic treatment and nonpharmacologic treatment of NP are also discussed.Trend A better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of NP will leads to a more effective and specific mechanism-based treatment approach.%背景 神经病理性疼痛(neuropathic pain,NP)是由于躯体感觉系统受损或病变而导致的顽固性疼痛,是严重影响患者生活质量的疾病. 目的 综述NP的发病机制、诊断与治疗的最新进展. 内容 从伤害感受器的敏感性增加、传入神经的异常电活动及中枢失抑制、脊髓背角变化促进伤害性感觉、交感系统对于伤害性感觉的维持和中枢重构5个方面阐述NP的发病机制,简介诊断方法,并从药物与非药物治疗的角度介绍现有的治疗方法. 趋向 根据发病机制的不同进行分类并采取相应的治疗措施将成为未来NP的防治方向,为患者提供更有效和精准的治疗策略.

  14. Antioxidant supplements for liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka;

    2011-01-01

    Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal.......Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal....

  15. Energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter focuses on energy options as a means of managing exposure to energy prices. An intuitive approach to energy options is presented, and traditional definitions of call and put options are given. The relationship between options and swaps, option value and option exercises, commodity options, and option pricing are described. An end-user's guide to energy option strategy is outlined, and straight options, collars, participating swaps and collars, bull and bear spreads, and swaption are examined. Panels explaining the defining of basis risk, and discussing option pricing and the Greeks, delta hedging, managing oil options using the Black-Scholes model, caps, floors and collars, and guidelines on hedging versus speculation with options are included in the paper

  16. Energy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, Michael [HDS Shipping (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This chapter focuses on energy options as a means of managing exposure to energy prices. An intuitive approach to energy options is presented, and traditional definitions of call and put options are given. The relationship between options and swaps, option value and option exercises, commodity options, and option pricing are described. An end-user's guide to energy option strategy is outlined, and straight options, collars, participating swaps and collars, bull and bear spreads, and swaption are examined. Panels explaining the defining of basis risk, and discussing option pricing and the Greeks, delta hedging, managing oil options using the Black-Scholes model, caps, floors and collars, and guidelines on hedging versus speculation with options are included in the paper.

  17. Indonesian options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunardi; Anderluh, J.H.M.; van der; Subanar; Sri Haryatmi

    2006-01-01

    Jakarta Stock Exchange Indonesia has started to trade Indonesian options at September 9th, 2004. An Indonesian option can be considered as an American style barrier option with immediate (forced) exercise if the price hits or crosses the barrier before maturity. The payoff of the option is based on

  18. Energy metabolic disorder is a major risk factor in severe influenza virus infection: Proposals for new therapeutic options based on animal model experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Hiroshi; Indalao, Irene L; Kim, Hyejin; Kimoto, Takashi; Sakai, Satoko; Takahashi, Etsuhisa

    2016-09-01

    Severe influenza is characterized by cytokine storm and multiorgan failure. Influenza patients with underlying diseases show a rapid progression in disease severity. The major mechanism that underlies multiorgan failure during the progressive stage of infection, particularly in patients with underlying risk factors, is mitochondrial energy crisis. The relationship between the factors that determine infection severity, such as influenza virus, cytokines, cellular trypsin as a hemagglutinin processing protease for viral multiplication, accumulation of metabolic intermediates and ATP crisis in mitochondria, is termed the "influenza virus-cytokine-trypsin" cycle. This occurs during the initial stages of infection, and is interconnected with the "metabolic disorders-cytokine" cycle in the middle to late phase of infection. Experiments using animal models have highlighted the complex relationship between these two cycles. New treatment options have been proposed that target the ATP crisis and multiorgan failure during the late phase of infection, rather than antiviral treatments with neuraminidase inhibitors that work during the initial phase. These options are (i) restoration of glucose oxidation in mitochondria by diisopropylamine dichloroacetate, which inhibits infection-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 activity, and (ii) restoration of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria by l-carnitine and bezafibrate, an agonist of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptors-β/δ, which transcriptionally upregulates carnitine palmitoyltransferase II. The latter is particularly effective in patients with influenza-associated encephalopathy who have thermolabile and short half-life compound variants of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II. PMID:27566378

  19. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches. PMID:27190572

  20. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches.

  1. Platelet-derived growth factor type BB and collagen matrix for soft tissue reconstruction after muco-epidermoid carcinoma removal: A possible therapeutic option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cicciù

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muco-epidermoid carcinoma (MEC is a rare malignant tumor occurring in major and minor salivary glands. The described case shows a patient undergoing tumor resection without neck dissection. A quick diagnosis performed through clinical investigation and incisional biopsy revealed the nature of the tumor. A porcine collagen matrix was applied after the surgery in order to improve soft tissue healing. The matrix was saturated with platelet-derived growth factor type BB in order to favorite healing process and then fixed on the palate with a dental support device. Follow-up visit performed at first, second, and third weeks highlighted a quick healing of oral mucosa. Here reported is a case of a 34-year-old man who developed a muco-epidermoid oral carcinoma localized in the left upper jaw palatal side. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings, plus differential diagnoses of the case and reconstructive treatment options are also presented.

  2. Dimethyl fumarate: a new oral treatment option for multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjana S. Atal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a slowly progressive, immunologically mediated disease of the CNS. The recent years have witnessed great efforts in establishing new therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis. There is a clear need for more effective, safe and at the same time orally available treatment options. Here we review the recently approved drug Dimethyl fumarate (DMF, Tecfidera® as a new therapeutic option for MS and its role in context to the existing oral treatment options for MS. Dimethyl fumarate is the methyl ester of fumaric acid and has been claimed to possess immunomodulatory properties and is already in clinical use as Fumaderm for severe systemic psoriasis. In addition, Dimethyl fumarate was also shown to act on the blood-brain barrier and exert neuroprotective properties via activation of anti-oxidative pathways and displayed beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a model mimicking many aspects of MS. Based on two global phase III studies. Dimethyl fumarate has been clinically proven to significantly reduce important measures of disease activity, including relapses and development of brain lesions, as well as to slow disability progression over time, while demonstrating a favourable safety and tolerability profile. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 849-856

  3. Genomics and drug profiling of fatal TCF3-HLF-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies recurrent mutation patterns and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ute; Forster, Michael; Rinaldi, Anna; Risch, Thomas; Sungalee, Stéphanie; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Bornhauser, Beat; Gombert, Michael; Kratsch, Christina; Stütz, Adrian M; Sultan, Marc; Tchinda, Joelle; Worth, Catherine L; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav; Badarinarayan, Nandini; Baruchel, André; Bartram, Thies; Basso, Giuseppe; Canpolat, Cengiz; Cario, Gunnar; Cavé, Hélène; Dakaj, Dardane; Delorenzi, Mauro; Dobay, Maria Pamela; Eckert, Cornelia; Ellinghaus, Eva; Eugster, Sabrina; Frismantas, Viktoras; Ginzel, Sebastian; Haas, Oskar A; Heidenreich, Olaf; Hemmrich-Stanisak, Georg; Hezaveh, Kebria; Höll, Jessica I; Hornhardt, Sabine; Husemann, Peter; Kachroo, Priyadarshini; Kratz, Christian P; Kronnie, Geertruy Te; Marovca, Blerim; Niggli, Felix; McHardy, Alice C; Moorman, Anthony V; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Petersen, Britt S; Raeder, Benjamin; Ralser, Meryem; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schäfer, Daniel; Schrappe, Martin; Schreiber, Stefan; Schütte, Moritz; Stade, Björn; Thiele, Ralf; Weid, Nicolas von der; Vora, Ajay; Zaliova, Marketa; Zhang, Langhui; Zichner, Thomas; Zimmermann, Martin; Lehrach, Hans; Borkhardt, Arndt; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Franke, Andre; Korbel, Jan O; Stanulla, Martin; Yaspo, Marie-Laure

    2015-09-01

    TCF3-HLF-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is currently incurable. Using an integrated approach, we uncovered distinct mutation, gene expression and drug response profiles in TCF3-HLF-positive and treatment-responsive TCF3-PBX1-positive ALL. We identified recurrent intragenic deletions of PAX5 or VPREB1 in constellation with the fusion of TCF3 and HLF. Moreover somatic mutations in the non-translocated allele of TCF3 and a reduction of PAX5 gene dosage in TCF3-HLF ALL suggest cooperation within a restricted genetic context. The enrichment for stem cell and myeloid features in the TCF3-HLF signature may reflect reprogramming by TCF3-HLF of a lymphoid-committed cell of origin toward a hybrid, drug-resistant hematopoietic state. Drug response profiling of matched patient-derived xenografts revealed a distinct profile for TCF3-HLF ALL with resistance to conventional chemotherapeutics but sensitivity to glucocorticoids, anthracyclines and agents in clinical development. Striking on-target sensitivity was achieved with the BCL2-specific inhibitor venetoclax (ABT-199). This integrated approach thus provides alternative treatment options for this deadly disease. PMID:26214592

  4. Pricing Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  5. Opciones terapéuticas en quistes odontogénicos: Revisión Therapeutic options in odontogenic cyst: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vega Llauradó

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Los huesos maxilares constituyen asiento de una gran variedad de quistes y neoplasias que pueden ser de difícil diagnóstico. De entre todos los procesos tumorales que se dan en el territorio maxilofacial, los quistes son de gran importancia debido a la frecuencia de su presentación. Los quistes maxilares tienen distinto origen y comportamiento clínico. A partir de la clasificación de la OMS de 1992, esta revisión estudia las características clínicas, radiográficas y epidemiológicas de los quistes del desarrollo odontógenos. Una adecuada exploración clínica y radiográfica por parte del odontólogo es suficiente para alcanzar un diagnóstico de presunción. Las consideraciones clínicas y terapéuticas de cada uno de estos quistes son variables, por lo que es necesario conocer el comportamiento epidemiológico de ellos. El diagnóstico de presunción, el tamaño de la lesión y la relación de esta con estructuras anatómicas vecinas condicionará el tipo de tratamiento. El diagnóstico definitivo lo dictaminará el análisis anatomopatológico.The maxillary bones constitute the base of a big variety of cyst and tumours that can be difficult to diagnose. Among all the tumor processes that can occur in the maxillofacial area, cysts are of the utmost importance due to their frequency. Jaw cysts have different origins and clinical behavior. After the OMS classification in 1992, this review examines the clinical, radiographic and epidemiological characteristics of the cyst of the odontogenic development. An appropriate clinical and radiographic exploration on the part of the dentist is enough to reach a presumptive diagnosis. The clinical and therapeutic considerations of each of these cysts are variable, so it is necessary to know their epidemiological behavior. The presumptive diagnosis, the size of the cyst and its relationship with neighboring anatomical structures will determine the type of treatment. The definitive diagnosis will

  6. Combination of nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy as a novel therapeutic application to manage the pain and treat many clinical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Salaheldin; Dickinson, Eva

    2014-02-01

    From hypertension to diabetes, cancer to HIV, stroke to memory loss and learning disorders to septic shock, male impotence to tuberculosis, there is probably no pathological condition where nitric oxide does not play an important role. Nitric oxide is an analgesic, immune-modulator, vasodilator, anti-apoptotic, growth modulator, angiogenetic, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and neuro-modulator. Because of the above actions of nitric oxide, many clinical conditions associated with abnormal Nitric oxide (NO) production and bioavailability. Our novel therapeutic approach is to restore the homeostasis of nitric oxide and replace the lost cells by combining nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy.

  7. Ascitis en los pacientes oncológicos: Fisiopatogenia y opciones de tratamiento Ascites in cancer patients: Physiopathology and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Plancarte

    2004-04-01

    ía comprende diversas alteraciones fisiopatológicas que han provocado la implementación de diversas modalidades de manejo tanto farmacológico como invasivas para el tratamiento eficaz de la misma.Ascites, defined as the presence of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, is a finding associated to several pathologies, mainly hepatic and cancer diseases. Between 15 and 50 per cent of patients with cancer develop ascites. Its incidence is high in ovary, breast, endometrium, colon, stomach, pancreas and bronchus cancer. Several factors are involved in its pathogenesis, included high hydrostatic pressure, low colloid-osmotic pressure, increased capillary permeability and fluid leakage to the peritoneal cavity. The ascitic fluid is analyzed for diagnostic (serum-ascitic albumin gradient, amylase and triglyceride levels; cell count, culture and Gram staining; pH, cytology, glucose and fibronectine determination and therapeutic purposes. A physical examination is essential for the diagnosis, with particular attention to classical signs such as convex flanks, wave sign, pleural effusion sign, limb, pelvic and genital edema, etc. Other specific studies are sometimes required in order to verify the presence of fluid in the abdominal cavity. Its treatment will depend on the etiology. In non-cancer patients, diet salt restriction and diuretics regimes obtain satisfactory results. In cancer patients, intra-peritoneal chemotherapy may be required. Patients with poor or null response are candidates for drainage of the ascitic fluid. This can be done using several techniques such as classical paracentesis, total paracentesis, placement of a semi-permanent or permanent drainage with or without image help, shunts, etc. In order to obtain the maximum benefit with the minimum risk, patient global status must be assessed prior to the procedure. It is concluded that ascites of any etiology encompass diverse physiopathological disorders that require both pharmacological and invasive therapies for their

  8. Potential Therapeutic Applications of Mucuna pruriens Peptide Fractions Purified by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography as Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Antioxidants, Antithrombotic and Hypocholesterolemic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Chalé, Francisco; Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Betancur-Ancona, David; Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi

    2016-02-01

    A Mucuna pruriens protein concentrate was hydrolyzed with a digestive (pepsin-pancreatin) enzymatic system. The soluble portion of the hydrolysate was fractionated by ultrafiltration and the ultrafiltered peptide fraction (PF) with lower molecular weight was purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The PF obtained were evaluated by testing the biological activity in vitro. Fractions showed that the ability to inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme had IC50 values that ranged from 2.7 to 6.2 μg/mL. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values ranged from 132.20 to 507.43 mM/mg. The inhibition of human platelet aggregation ranged from 1.59% to 11.11%, and the inhibition of cholesterol micellar solubility ranged from 0.24% to 0.47%. Hydrophobicity, size, and amino acid sequence could be factors in determining the biological activity of peptides contained in fractions. This is the first report that M. pruriens peptides act as antihypertensives, antioxidants, and inhibitors for human platelet aggregation and cholesterol micellar solubility in vitro. PMID:26854846

  9. Bioactivation antioxidant and transglycating properties of N-acetylcarnosine autoinduction prodrug of a dipeptide L-carnosine in mucoadhesive drug delivery eye-drop formulation: powerful eye health application technique and therapeutic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    A considerable interest in N-acetylcarnosine ocular drug design for eye health is based on clinical strategies to improve ocular drug delivery through metabolic enzymatic activation. Human biology aspects of ocular N-acetylcarnosine deacetylation during its pass through the cornea to the aqueous humor and dipeptide hydrolyzing enzymes are characterized. Novel approaches to ocular drug delivery increasing intraocular bioavailability of N-acetylcarnosine biologically activated metabolite carnosine become an integral development ensuring prolonged retention of the medication in the mucoadhesive precorneal area and facilitating transcorneal penetration of the natural dipeptide with the corneal promoters. A comprehensive list of techniques for peptide drug design, synthesis, purification, and biological analyses was considered: liquid chromatography (LC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1) H and (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity of therapeutics-targeted molecules was studied in aqueous solution and in a lipid membrane environment. A deglycation therapeutic system was developed involving removal, by transglycation of sugar or aldehyde moieties from Schiff bases by histidyl-hydrazide compounds or aldehyde scavenger L-carnosine. Clinical studies included ophthalmoscopy, visual acuity (VA), halometer disability glare tests, slit-image, and retro-illumination photography. N-acetylcarnosine 1% lubricant eye drops are considered as an auto-induction prodrug and natural ocular redox state balance therapies with implications in prevention and treatment of serious eye diseases that involve pathways of continuous oxidative damage to ocular tissues(cataracts, primary open-angle glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration) and sight-threatening glycosylation processes (diabetic retinopathy and consequent visual impairment) important for public health. The results of

  10. Natural Therapeutic Options in Endodontics - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Anand, Suresh; Abarajithan, Mohan; Sheriff, Sultan O.; Jacob, Pulikkotil S.; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Complete eradication of microbial biofilms and elimination of the smear layer are the key factors during endodontic treatment. Various chemical irrigants have been proposed in the literature for the same. The major setback with these chemical irrigants is that they are not bio-friendly to the dental and peri-radicular tissues. In the recent years, research to use natural products for root canal disinfection has gained importance. The aim of this article is to compile various herbal products that have been used as an irrigants and intracanal medicaments in the field of Endodontics to eradicate the biofilm and remove smear layer. PMID:27386007

  11. Therapeutic options in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitley, Joanna; Palace, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is a relapsing inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system that manifests predominantly with attacks of optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis; attacks are often severe. In contrast to multiple sclerosis, a secondary progressive phase is rare, and disability in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders is related to relapses. Thus, prompt and effective treatment of relapses, and early initiation of long-term immunosuppression to prevent subsequent attacks is required in order to prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:26840802

  12. Natural Therapeutic Options in Endodontics - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Anand, Suresh; Abarajithan, Mohan; Sheriff, Sultan O; Jacob, Pulikkotil S; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Complete eradication of microbial biofilms and elimination of the smear layer are the key factors during endodontic treatment. Various chemical irrigants have been proposed in the literature for the same. The major setback with these chemical irrigants is that they are not bio-friendly to the dental and peri-radicular tissues. In the recent years, research to use natural products for root canal disinfection has gained importance. The aim of this article is to compile various herbal products that have been used as an irrigants and intracanal medicaments in the field of Endodontics to eradicate the biofilm and remove smear layer. PMID:27386007

  13. Sporotrichosis: An Overview and Therapeutic Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram K. Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic granulomatous mycotic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, a common saprophyte of soil, decaying wood, hay, and sphagnum moss, that is endemic in tropical/subtropical areas. The recent phylogenetic studies have delineated the geographic distribution of multiple distinct Sporothrix species causing sporotrichosis. It characteristically involves the skin and subcutaneous tissue following traumatic inoculation of the pathogen. After a variable incubation period, progressively enlarging papulo-nodule at the inoculation site develops that may ulcerate (fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis or multiple nodules appear proximally along lymphatics (lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis. Osteoarticular sporotrichosis or primary pulmonary sporotrichosis are rare and occur from direct inoculation or inhalation of conidia, respectively. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis or involvement of multiple visceral organs, particularly the central nervous system, occurs most commonly in persons with immunosuppression. Saturated solution of potassium iodide remains a first line treatment choice for uncomplicated cutaneous sporotrichosis in resource poor countries but itraconazole is currently used/recommended for the treatment of all forms of sporotrichosis. Terbinafine has been observed to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis. Amphotericin B is used initially for the treatment of severe, systemic disease, during pregnancy and in immunosuppressed patients until recovery, then followed by itraconazole for the rest of the therapy.

  14. Prehypertension: Underlying pathology and therapeutic options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sulayma; Albarwani; Sultan; Al-Siyabi; Musbah; O; Tanira

    2014-01-01

    Prehypertension(PHTN) is a global major health risk that subjects individuals to double the risk of cardiovascular disease(CVD) independent of progression to overt hypertension. Its prevalence rate varies considerably from country to country ranging between 21.9% and 52%. Many hypotheses are proposed to explain the underlying pathophysiology of PHTN. The most notable of these implicate the renin-angiotensin system(RAS) and vascular endothelium. However, other processes that involve reactive oxygen species, the inflammatory cytokines, prostglandins and C-reactive protein as well as the autonomic and central nervous systems are also suggested. Drugs affecting RAS have been shown to produce beneficial effects in prehypertensives though such was not unequivocal. On the other hand, drugs such as β-adrenoceptor blocking agents were not shown to be useful. Leading clinical guidelines suggest using dietary and lifestyle modifications as a first line interventional strategy to curb the progress of PHTN; however, other clinically respected views call for using drugs. This review provides an overview of the poten-tial pathophysiological processes associated with PHTN, abridges current intervention strategies and suggests investigating the value of using the "Polypill" in prehypertensive subjects to ascertain its potential in delaying(or preventing) CVD associated with raised blood pressure in the presence of other risk factors.

  15. Acquired facial lipoatrophy: pathogenesis and therapeutic options

    OpenAIRE

    Szczerkowska-Dobosz, Aneta; Olszewska, Barbara; Lemańska, Małgorzata; Purzycka-Bohdan, Dorota; Nowicki, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Facial lipoatrophy refers to the loss of subcutaneous fat tissue presenting by flattening or indentation of convex contour of the face. Facial lipoatrophy is a feature of the normal ageing process. It may be also a manifestation of chronic diseases, most frequently it affects HIV-infected individuals treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and may constitute a complication of connective tissue diseases, like lupus erythematosus profundus or morphea. Early recognition and tre...

  16. Phytotherapy: emerging therapeutic option in urologic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sae Woong

    2012-01-01

    Phytotherapy belongs to the area of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the definition of phytotherapy is the use of plants or plant extracts for medicinal uses. Interest in phytotherapy is growing in both Asian and western countries for its use in the prevention and management of disease, improvement of general health and anti-aging. And also, there are several studies about the efficacy of phytotherapy in urologic diseases like benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), erectile dysfu...

  17. Vagus nerve stimulation may be a sound therapeutic option in the treatment of refractory epilepsy Estimulação no nervo vago pode ser uma excelente opção no tratamento de epilepsias refratárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S. Meneses

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Refractory epilepsy accounts for 20 to 30% of epilepsy cases and remains a challenge for neurologists. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS is an option for palliative treatment. OBJECTIVE: It was to study the efficacy and tolerability of VNS in patients implanted with a stimulator at the Curitiba Institute of Neurology (INC. METHODS: A case study of six patients with refractory epilepsy submitted to a VNS procedure at the INC in the last four years was described and discussed. RESULTS: Mean age at time of implantation was 29 years. Mean follow-up was 26.6 months. Seizure frequency decreased in all patients (40-50% (n=2 and >80% (n=4. Three patients no longer required frequent hospitalizations. Two patients previously restricted to wheelchairs started to walk, probably because of improved mood. CONCLUSION: In this population, VNS proved to be a sound therapeutic option for treating refractory epilepsy.INTRODUÇÃO: Epilepsias refratárias compreendem de 20 a 30% dos casos de epilepsia e constituem desafio clínico. A neuroestimulação do nervo vago (VNS é uma opção de tratamento paliativo. OBJETIVOS: Foi estudar a eficácia e a tolerabilidade da VNS nos pacientes implantados no Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de casos de seis pacientes com epilepsia refratária, submetidos à VNS no INC em quatro anos, foi descrito e discutido. RESULTADOS: A média de idade na implantação foi 29 anos. O seguimento médio foi 26,6 meses. A frequência de crises diminuiu em todos os pacientes (40-50% em um paciente e >80% em quatro. Três pacientes deixaram de internar frequentemente. Dois pacientes restritos a cadeiras de rodas começaram a andar, provavelmente por melhora de seu humor. CONCLUSÃO: Nesta população, a VNS provou ser uma excelente opção no tratamento de epilepsia refratária.

  18. Oxidative Stress Type Influences the Properties of Antioxidants Containing Polyphenols in RINm5F Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Auberval

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro methods currently used to screen bioactive compounds focus on the use of a single model of oxidative stress. However, this simplistic view may lead to conflicting results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of two natural extracts (a mix of red wine polyphenols (RWPs and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG with three models of oxidative stress induced with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, a mixture of hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase (HX/XO, or streptozotocin (STZ in RINm5F beta cells. We employed multiple approaches to validate their potential as therapeutic treatment options, including cell viability, reactive oxygen species production, and antioxidant enzymes expression. All three oxidative stresses induced a decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis, whereas the level of ROS production was variable depending on the type of stress. The highest level of ROS was found for the HX/XO-induced stress, an increase that was reflected by higher expression antioxidant enzymes. Further, both antioxidant compounds presented beneficial effects during oxidative stress, but EGCG appeared to be a more efficient antioxidant. These data indicate that the efficiency of natural antioxidants is dependent on both the nature of the compound and the type of oxidative stress generated.

  19. Therapeutic action of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on retinopathy in OXYS rats linked with improvement of VEGF and PEDF gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M Markovets

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the main cause of blindness in older patients in the developed countries, is increasing with the ageing population. At present there is no effective treatment for the prevailing geographic atrophy, dry AMD, whereas antiangiogenic therapies successful used in managing the wet form of AMD. Recently we showed that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant plastoquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium (SkQ1 is able to prevent the development and moreover caused regression of pre-existing signs of the retinopathy in OXYS rats, an animal model of AMD. Here we examine the effects of SkQ1 on expression of key regulators of angiogenesis vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF and its antagonist pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF genes in the retina of OXYS rats as evidenced by real-time PCR and an ELISA test for VEGF using Wistar rats as control. Ophthalmoscopic examinations confirmed that SkQ1 supplementation (from 1.5 to 3 months of age, 250 nmol/kg prevented development while eye drops SkQ1 (250 nM, from 9 to 12 months caused some reduction of retinopathy signs in OXYS rats and did not reveal any negative effects on the control Wistar rat's retina. Prevention of premature retinopathy by SkQ1 was connected with an increase of VEGF mRNA and protein in OXYS rat's retina up to the levels corresponding to the Wistar rats, and did not involve changes in PEDF expression. In contrast the treatment with SkQ1 drops caused a decrease of VEGF mRNA and protein levels and an increase in the PEDF mRNA level in the middle-aged OXYS rats, but in Wistar rats the changes of gene expression were the opposite. CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effects of SkQ1 on retinopathy connected with normalization of expression of VEGF and PEDF in the retina of OXYS rats and depended on age of the animals and the stage of retinopathy.

  20. Exercising options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In a recent speech to graduates of the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Physical Sciences at the University of Maryland, Anne Petersen, deputy director of the National Science Foundation, encouraged a new generation of scientists to embrace opportunity and choice, and to use their scientific training as an employment credential, not a limit. In her May 23 commencement address, Petersen exhorted students to view their freshly minted diplomas as tickets to a broad and diverse job market, not just one-way trips to the laboratory.“Looking for the options and alternatives open to us—and creating options for ourselves where they are not apparent—can give us a sense of direction and volition that enriches our lives immensely…

  1. Options theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature

  2. Lymphedema and Therapeutic Lymphangiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Saito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema is a disorder of the lymphatic vascular system characterized by impaired lymphatic return and swelling of the extremities. Lymphedema is divided into primary and secondary forms based on the underlying etiology. Despite substantial advances in both surgical and conservative techniques, therapeutic options for the management of lymphedema are limited. Although rarely lethal, lymphedema is a disfiguring and disabling condition with an associated decrease in the quality of life. The recent impressive expansion of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms governing lymphangiogenesis provides new possibilities for the treatment of lymphedema. This review highlights the lymphatic biology, the pathophysiology of lymphedema, and the therapeutic lymphangiogenesis using hepatocyte growth factor.

  3. Antioxidants in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Ira T

    2012-05-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have high levels of oxidative stress throughout the lifespan. Mouse models of DS share some structural and functional abnormalities that parallel findings seen in the human phenotype. Several of the mouse models show evidence of cellular oxidative stress and have provided a platform for antioxidant intervention. Genes that are overexpressed on chromosome 21 are associated with oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. The lack of balance in the metabolism of free radicals generated during processes related to oxidative stress may have a direct role in producing the neuropathology of DS including the tendency to Alzheimer disease (AD). Mitochondria are often a target for oxidative stress and are considered to be a trigger for the onset of the AD process in DS. Biomarkers for oxidative stress have been described in DS and in AD in the general population. However, intervention trials using standard antioxidant supplements or diets have failed to produce uniform therapeutic effect. This chapter will examine the biological role of oxidative stress in DS and its relationship to abnormalities in both development and aging within the disorder. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antioxidants and Antioxidant Treatment in Disease.

  4. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. PMID:23501254

  5. Lymphedema and Therapeutic Lymphangiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihiro Saito; Hironori Nakagami; Yasufumi Kaneda; Ryuichi Morishita

    2013-01-01

    Lymphedema is a disorder of the lymphatic vascular system characterized by impaired lymphatic return and swelling of the extremities. Lymphedema is divided into primary and secondary forms based on the underlying etiology. Despite substantial advances in both surgical and conservative techniques, therapeutic options for the management of lymphedema are limited. Although rarely lethal, lymphedema is a disfiguring and disabling condition with an associated decrease in the quality of life. The r...

  6. Antioxidant System in Dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şemsettin Karaca

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In healthy body, oxygen species and antioxidant defence mechanisms work in balance. Overproduction or inadequate removal of reactive oxygen species result in oxidative stress, leading to lipid peroxidation, DNA mutation or breakage, activation or inactivation of enzymes, protein oxidation. Clinically, these cause several unfavorable effects included erythema, edema, wrinkles, photoaging, inflammation, autoimmune reactions, hipersensitivity reactions, keratinization disorders, neoplastic or preneoplastic lesions. Although reactive oxygen species play a role in various skin diseases, their biological targets and pathogenic mode of action are still not fully understood. In addition, strategies in the therapeutic management of reactive oxygen species effects in are still lacking. The aim of this review is to give information to readers about reactive oxygen species, antioxidants and skin disorders influenced by reactive oxygen species.

  7. Therapeutic strategies for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: A current update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueven, Nuri; Faldu, Dharmesh

    2013-11-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a rare mitochondrial retinopathy, caused by mutations in subunits of complex I of the respiratory chain, which leads to elevated levels of oxidative stress and an insufficient energy supply. This molecular pathology is thought to be responsible for the dysfunction and eventual apoptotic loss of retinal ganglion cells in the eye, which ultimately results in blindness. Many strategies, ranging from neuroprotectants, antioxidants, anti-apoptotic- and anti-inflammatory compounds have been tested with mixed results. Currently, the most promising compounds are short-chain quinones that have been shown to protect the vision of LHON patients during the early stages of the disease. This commentary gives a brief overview on the current status of tested therapeutics and also addresses future developments such as the use of gene therapy that hopefully will provide safe and efficient therapy options for all LHON patients.

  8. Cordycepin protects PC12 cells against 6-hydroxydopamine induced neurotoxicity via its antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Feng, Yan; Olatunji, Oyenike O; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen; Su, Zhaoliang

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by degeneration and loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Increasing evidence has indicated that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Therapeutic options that target the antioxidant machinery may have potential in the treatment of PD. Cordycepin, a nucleoside isolated from Cordyceps species displayed potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. However, its neuroprotective effect against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity as well as underlying mechanisms is still unclear. In this present study, we investigated the protective effect of cordycepin against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity and its underlying mechanism. We observed that cordycepin effectively inhibited 6-OHDA-induced cell death, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Cordycepin also inhibited cell apoptosis induced by 6-OHDA as observed in the reduction of cytochrome c release from the mitochondrial as well as the inhibition of caspase-3. In addition cordycepin markedly reduced cellular malondialdehyde (MDA) content and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Cordycepin also significantly increased the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in 6-OHDA-treated cells. The results obtained unambiguously demonstrated that cordycepin protects PC12 cells against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity through its potent antioxidant activity. PMID:27261571

  9. An adjunctive preventive treatment for cancer: ultraviolet light and ginkgo biloba, together with other antioxidants, are a safe and powerful, but largely ignored, treatment option for the prevention of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eli, Robert; Fasciano, James A

    2006-01-01

    Cancer has surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death in the United States. The mortality rate for cancer is high (roughly 42%), and it increases dramatically with increasing age, especially in patients between the ages of 40 and 60 years old. Currently, the efforts at cancer prevention have been minimal. The drugs developed so far are expensive and have serious side effects. There are at least 18 vitamin D-sensitive cancers. Ultraviolet light, and specifically ultraviolet B (UVB), could reduce cancer by the limited exposure of suitable skin areas to UVB of an intensity and duration insufficient to produce skin cancer. An irrational fear of skin cancer is preventing this idea from being implemented. Though skin cancer incidence is significant, mortality from skin cancer is relatively rare. Roughly 1,000,000 Americans will be affected by skin cancer but only 10,000 deaths are expected in 2005 (a 1% mortality rate). Skin cancer is easily detected and often cured by excisional biopsy alone. Current practice among practicing clinicians is to use a prescription drug substitute for UV light, calcitriol (1-25 dihydroxycholcalciferol). However, high levels of (calcitriol) are dangerous, and there is no consensus on just what a high dose or a safe dose is. Apart from skin cancer, UV light exposure possesses few risks. Additionally, a number of botanical agents such as ginkgo biloba, vitamins E and C, carotenoids, selenium and proanthocyanidins can prevent the risk of skin cancer. Ginkgo biloba also possess the following additional cancer chemopreventive qualities: (1) promoting apoptosis of cancer cells; (2) an anti-clastogenic effect on chromosomes by repairing and reconstituting broken and damaged chromosomes; (3) a powerful therapeutic effect on the treatment of fibrosis-related cancer; (4) a therapeutic effect on free radical-induced cancer; (5) a therapeutic effect on the treatment of cancer incident to the result of numerous carcinogens; (6) a therapeutic

  10. Androgenetic Alopecia: An Update of Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Yanna; Blanco, Aline; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-09-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by a non-scarring progressive miniaturization of the hair follicle in predisposed men and women with a pattern distribution. Although AGA is a very prevalent condition, approved therapeutic options are limited. This article discusses the current treatment alternatives including their efficacy, safety profile, and quality of evidence. Finasteride and minoxidil for male androgenetic alopecia and minoxidil for female androgenetic alopecia still are the therapeutic options with the highest level evidence. The role of antiandrogens for female patients, the importance of adjuvant therapies, as well as new drugs and procedures are also addressed. PMID:27554257

  11. Adverse effects of antioxidative vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Maciej; Grzegorczyk, Krzysztof

    2012-06-01

    High doses of synthetic antioxidative vitamins: A, E, C and β-carotene are often used on long-term basis in numerous preventive and therapeutic medical applications. Instead of expected health effects, the use of those vitamins may however lead to cases of hypervitaminosis and even to intoxication. The article points out main principles of safety which are to be observed during supplementation with antioxidative vitamins. Toxic effects resulting from erroneous administration of high doses of those substances on organs and systems of the organism are also discussed. Attention is drawn to interactions of antioxidative vitamins with concomitantly used drugs, as well as intensification of adverse effects caused by various exogenous chemical factors. Moreover, the article presents the evaluation of supplementation with these vitamins, which was performed in large studies. PMID:22528540

  12. Options with Extreme Strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjiong Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this short paper, we study the asymptotics for the price of call options for very large strikes and put options for very small strikes. The stock price is assumed to follow the Black–Scholes models. We analyze European, Asian, American, Parisian and perpetual options and conclude that the tail asymptotics for these option types fall into four scenarios.

  13. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in antioxidant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Mañon Rossi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are used regularly in medical practice to provide objective markers of health status of a person, as well as the physiological response of the body to a pharmacological therapeutic intervention. In the specific case of the use of antioxidant products (antioxidant therapy, it is necessary to measure both biomarkers of oxidative stress level of the person as those that are specific to a physiological or pathological progression of a disease disorder. This paper describes the main biomarkers of oxidative general and specific stress as well as laboratory techniques, which should be taken into account when measuring the effectiveness of antioxidant therapies.

  14. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  15. Evaluation of call options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道平

    2002-01-01

    The European and American call options,for which the prices of their underlying asset follow compound Poisson process,are evaluated by a probability method.Formulas that can be used to evaluate the options are obtained,which include not only the elements of an option:the price of the call option,the exercise price and the expiration date,but also the riskless interest rate,nevertheless exclude the volatility of the underlying asset.In practice,the evaluated results obtained by these formulas can proved references of making strategic decision for an investor who buys the call option and a company who sells the call option.

  16. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  17. Generation of reactive oxygen species in the anterior eye segment. Synergistic codrugs of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant act as a powerful therapeutic platform for the treatment of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Senile cataract is a clouding of the lens in the aging eye leading to a decrease in vision. Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night. This may result in trouble driving, reading, or recognizing faces. Cataracts are the cause of half of blindness and 33% of visual impairment worldwide. Cataracts result from the deposition of aggregated proteins in the eye lens and lens fiber cells plasma membrane damage which causes clouding of the lens, light scattering, and obstruction of vision. ROS induced damage in the lens cell may consist of oxidation of proteins, DNA damage and/or lipid peroxidation, all of which have been implicated in cataractogenesis. The inner eye pressure (also called intraocular pressure or IOP) rises because the correct amount of fluid can't drain out of the eye. With primary open-angle glaucoma, the entrances to the drainage canals are clear and should be working correctly. The clogging problem occurs further inside the drainage canals, similar to a clogged pipe below the drain in a sink. The excessive oxidative damage is a major factor of the ocular diseases because the mitochondrial respiratory chain in mitochondria of the vital cells is a significant source of the damaging reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. However, despite the clinical importance of mitochondrial oxidative damage, antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success. This may be because the antioxidants are not selectively taken up by mitochondria, but instead are dispersed throughout the body, ocular tissues and fluids' moieties. This work is an attempt to integrate how mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are altered in the aging eye, along with those protective and repair therapeutic systems believed to regulate ROS levels in ocular tissues and how damage to these systems contributes to age-onset eye disease and cataract formation. Mitochondria

  18. In vitro Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Leaf and Root Extracts of Taraxacum Officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén García-Carrasco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue dysfunction constitutes a primary defect in obesity and might link this disease to severe chronic health problems. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of three extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion as well as their effects on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes concerning intracellular lipid accumulation and cytotoxicity, this would give indications regarding therapeutic interest of dandelion as potential anti-obesity candidate. Antioxidant activities of extracts from dandelion roots and leaves were evaluated in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhyorazyl (DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP methods at the concentration range used in cellular assays (300–600 µg/mL. The influence of the extracts on mature 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Lipid content was determined by Oil-red-O staining. The extracts showed effective antioxidant activity correlating with total flavonoid and polyphenol contents. However, the functionality level was weakly associated with the antioxidant activity. Further, our data demonstrated that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced in size and number when incubated with the extracts, which suggests a significant increase in lipolysis activity. Particularly, leaf extract and crude powdered root of dandelion reduced triglyceride accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes to a greater extent that the extract from the root. Our study shows anti-lipogenic effects of dandelion extracts on adipocytes as well as radical scavenging and reducing activity. Importantly, along with previous results indicating that cell populations cultivated in the presence of the dandelion extracts decrease in 3T3-L1 adipogenesis capacity, these results suggests that these extracts might represent a treatment option for obesity-related diseases by affecting different processes during the adipocyte life cycle.

  19. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  20. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  1. Teratoma cervical congênito gigante: relato de caso e revisão quanto às opções terapêuticas Giant congenital cervical teratoma: case report and review about therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ferro Miele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de teratoma cervical congênito, destacando a gravidade e as dificuldades terapêuticas associadas. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Mãe de 30 anos, com gestação por fertilização assistida. Com 23 semanas, diagnosticada malformação cervical fetal à direita. Parto cesáreo por indicação fetal com 31 semanas. Recém-nascido masculino, peso ao nascer de 1800g, Apgar 4 e 9, com volumoso processo expansivo à direita, ocupando toda a região cervical, comprometendo a mandíbula e estendendo-se para o terço superior do tórax. Com 40 horas de vida, apresentou insuficiência cardíaca congestiva de alto débito por roubo de fluxo pelo tumor. A partir de 54 horas de vida, houve progressiva deterioração hemodinâmica e respiratória, com hipotensão, anúria e labilidade de oxigenação, refratárias às aminas vasoativas, reposição de volume e aumento do suporte ventilatório. Indicada abordagem cirúrgica para ressecção tumoral, todavia o paciente não apresentou estabilidade clínica que permitisse seu transporte ao centro cirúrgico e faleceu com 70 horas de vida. COMENTÁRIOS: O caso demonstra as dificuldades relacionadas à abordagem pós-natal dos teratomas cervicais volumosos. Apesar do diagnóstico pré-natal, o paciente evoluiu com obstrução de vias aéreas, complicada por um choque cardiogênico refratário, que culminou no óbito. A abordagem intraparto é fundamental nesses pacientes, consistindo em exérese tumoral, enquanto a manutenção da circulação materno-fetal permite a oxigenação fetal contínua. A evolução neonatal no caso descrito é condizente com a literatura que mostra prognóstico reservado quando não é realizada a abordagem cirúrgica intraparto.OBJECTIVE: To report a case of congenital cervical teratoma, highlighting the severity and the therapeutic difficulties associated. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 30-year old mother, with pregnancy by assisted fertilization. At 23 weeks, a cervical fetal

  2. Meta-analysis: antioxidant supplements for liver diseases - the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, L L; Nikolova, D;

    2010-01-01

    Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal.......Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal....

  3. Antioxidant Therapy Against Trypanosome Infections: A Review Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Bindawa Isah, Murtala; Abdullahi Salman, Abdulmalik

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis is a serious parasitic disease that affects humans and animals resulting in heavy health and economic burdens. Disturbance of redox equilibrium represents a classical challenge for both the host and the parasite during infections with either extracellular African or intracellular American trypanosomes species. This is in spite of existing detoxification mechanisms in both the host and the parasite for maintaining oxidative balance. However, oxidative stress still plays vital roles in the induction of numerous host-associated pathological damages such as anemia, hepatic and renal damages as well as cardiomyopathy while on the other hand, drugs that specifically induce oxidative stress to the parasite have been effective. Therefore, antioxidants have been deemed to play a role in modulating trypanosome infections. This review provides a current update on most of the studies conducted on the potential use of antioxidants as therapeutic agents against trypanosomes. The most frequently studied plant-derived phenolic antioxidants are resveratrol, cucurmin, gallic acid and quercetin while other antioxidants such as vitamins (A, C, E) and trace elements (selenium and iron) have been investigated. Some of the investigations monitored the direct trypanocidal or trypanostatic effects of the antioxidants while others studied the potentials of the antioxidants as adjuncts to trypanocidal drugs. So far, none of these approaches has sufficient data to allow a definite statement on the actual therapeutic potential of antioxidants in the treatment of clinical trypanosomiasis. Therefore, suggestions are made on the most therapeutically and clinically relevant role of antioxidants in trypanosome infections. PMID:27072713

  4. Antioxidant activity of polar extracts from different botanical parts of Coleostephus myconis

    OpenAIRE

    Bessada, Sílvia; Barreira, João C.M.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; M. Beatriz P. P. Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Under stress, human body produce more reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) than enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants (e.g., vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, carotenoids, and flavonoids), causing an imbalance that may lead to cell damage and health problems [1]. Antioxidants can block the complex networks of oxidative damage pathways at different levels, yielding an overall therapeutic effect. Consequently, antioxidants that are exogenously acquired ...

  5. What's the Option?

    OpenAIRE

    Traeger, Chirstian

    2013-01-01

    Global warming, alterations of ecosystems, and sunk investments all imply irreversible changes with uncertain future costs and benefits. Two concepts measure how this combination of uncertainty and irreversibility changes the value of preserving an ecosystem or postponing an investment. First, the environmental and resource economics literature developed the Arrow-Fisher-Hanemann-Henry quasi-option value. Second, the real options literature developed the Dixit-Pindyck option value. This paper...

  6. Approximate option pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  7. Therapeutic ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Lawrence A [Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, 1013 NE 40th Street, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  8. Therapeutic alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Valerie

    2002-01-01

    I have been very fortunate in my journey of mental illness. I respond well to medication, but I don't think that is the complete answer to living successfully with serious, persistent mental illness. I believe a person's environment is also of utmost importance, enabling the person suffering with mental illness to continually grow in life. I found early in my struggle with mental illness a psychiatrist with whom I have always had a very good rapport. Until recently I didn't know that what I have with this psychiatrist is professionally known as a therapeutic alliance. Over the years, when I need someone to talk over anything that is troubling to me, I seek my psychiatrist. A therapeutic alliance is non-judgmental; it is nourishing; and finally it is a relationship of complete trust. Perhaps persons reading this article who have never experienced this alliance will seek it. I believe it can make an insecure person secure; a frightened person less frightened; and allow a person to continue the journey of mental health with a sense of belief in oneself. PMID:12433224

  9. Therapeutic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  10. Electricity Real Options Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Broszkiewicz-Suwaj, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a real option approach for the valuation of real assets is presented. Two continuous time models used for valuation are described: geometric Brownian motion model and interest rate model. The valuation for electricity spread option under Vasicek interest model is placed and the formulas for parameter estimators are calculated. The theoretical part is confronted with real data from electricity market.

  11. Pricing complexity options

    OpenAIRE

    Malihe Alikhani; Bj{\\o}rn Kjos-Hanssen; Amirarsalan Pakravan; Babak Saadat

    2015-01-01

    We consider options that pay the complexity deficiency of a sequence of up and down ticks of a stock upon exercise. We study the price of European and American versions of this option numerically for automatic complexity, and theoretically for Kolmogorov complexity. We also consider run complexity, which is a restricted form of automatic complexity.

  12. Changing Profiles of Diagnostic and Treatment Options in Subclavian Artery Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhout, B. P.; Zeebregts, C. J.; van den Dungen, J. J. A. M.; Reijnen, M. M. P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Subclavian artery aneurysms (SAAs) are rare and may cause life- and limb-threatening complications. Therapeutic options greatly differ as do access alternatives. The aim of the study was to assess its clinical presentation, diagnostics and therapeutic options as reported in the literatur

  13. Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Aging: Diagnosis, Mechanisms and Therapeutic Options

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sumbul; Garcia, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    By the year 2050, individuals over the age of 65 will comprise 20% of the US population. Loss of muscle mass and strength is common in this age group and it is associated with increased dependence, frailty and mortality. Sarcopenia defined as the loss of muscle mass and function associated with aging, and cachexia defined as weight loss due to an underlying illness, are muscle wasting disorders of particular relevance in the aging population but they go largely unrecognized. In this review we...

  14. [Adult Refsum disease. A retinal dystrophy with therapeutic options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüther, K

    2005-08-01

    Adult Refsum disease is one of the few forms of tapetoretinal degenerations accessible for therapy. The disease is characterized by an elevated plasma phytanic acid level and high concentrations of phytanic acid in a variety tissues. Beside tapetoretinal degeneration, additional symptoms are chronic polyneuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, anosmia, ichthyosis, skeletal malformations, and cardiac abnormalities. A diet low in phytanic acid leads to an amelioration of polyneuropathy and ataxia and slows or even stops the other manifestations. This beneficial effect of dietary precautions requires the need to get hold of as much patients as possible but better all of them. The ophthalmologist plays a crucial role to this end because of the early manifestation of the tapetoretinal degeneration. A delay of 11 years between the appearance of first symptoms and the diagnosis of Refsum disease, as reported in the literature, is not acceptable.

  15. Clostridium difficile Infection: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, and Therapeutic Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Goudarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and mortality rate of Clostridium difficile infection have increased remarkably in both hospital and community settings during the last two decades. The growth of infection may be caused by multiple factors including inappropriate antibiotic usage, poor standards of environmental cleanliness, changes in infection control practices, large outbreaks of C. difficile infection in hospitals, alteration of circulating strains of C. difficile, and spread of hypervirulent strains. Detection of high-risk populations could be helpful for prompt diagnosis and consequent treatment of patients suffering from C. difficile infection. Metronidazole and oral vancomycin are recommended antibiotics for the treatment of initial infection. Current treatments for C. difficile infection consist of supportive care, discontinuing the unnecessary antibiotic, and specific antimicrobial therapy. Moreover, novel approaches include fidaxomicin therapy, monoclonal antibodies, and fecal microbiota transplantation mediated therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown relevant efficacy to overcome C. difficile infection and reduce its recurrence.

  16. In vivo evaluation of therapeutic options in atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldhoff, Jantje Maria

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD, or atopic eczema) is an inflammatory itchy skin disease. AD patients often have high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, T-cell activation and eosinophilia in peripheral blood. The dermal infiltrate of AD contains mainly T-cells, eosinophils and dendritic cells. Epicutaneous

  17. In vivo evaluation of therapeutic options in atopic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Oldhoff, Jantje Maria

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD, or atopic eczema) is an inflammatory itchy skin disease. AD patients often have high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, T-cell activation and eosinophilia in peripheral blood. The dermal infiltrate of AD contains mainly T-cells, eosinophils and dendritic cells. Epicutaneous patch tests with aeroallergen application for 24-48 h can induce eczematous lesions in sensitized patients with AD. This is named the atopy patch test (APT). The APT is used as in vivo research mod...

  18. Therapeutic options in the management of autonomously functioning thyroid adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules or adenomas (AFTN or AFTA) was established as a clinical entity in 1918 by Goetsch correlating cellular mitochondrial content with nodular function and showing the inverse correlation between AFTN function and extra nodular tissue function. They are almost always benign and degeneration, which is common in AFTN, can result in the development of hyperthyroidism. It is therefore important to know the function of these nodules by requesting for the thyroid function tests namely T3, T4, and TSH. They are diagnosed by thyroid scans using I-131 or Tc 99m as a hot solitary nodule in one lobe with the other lobe not appearing on scan or suppressed. The frequency of AFTA worldwide is quite variable depending on geography. It ranges from 1% in North America to 10 % in some areas in Europe and Asia or in areas of iodine deficiency. The traditional methods of treatment of these nodules have been surgery and radioactive iodine ablation. Surgical treatment as a rule is indicated in young patients with nodules larger than 3 cm and those with local compressive symptoms. RAI is used in elderly patients and those who are poor surgical risks. The usual dose ranges from 20 to 30 mCi and is definitely larger that when treating Graves' disease. Others have resorted to PEI or percutaneous ethanol injection with reported success. There has been no definite management of these AFTA due to the variable natural history and some would only recommend observation for asymptomatic small adenomas, which are euthyroid. Therefore this paper studied the results of treatment using RAI ablation, surgery or plain observation for AFTA. Percutaneous ethanol injection is not being done in our center. In the local setting, where thyroid disease is still endemic, the incidence of AFTA is not so high. Graves' disease is still the predominating cause of hyperthyroidism followed by multinodular goiter. Toxic AFTA occurs in 3% of the total hyperthyroid patients. In a ten-year review of the course of the disease after treatment with any of the three modalities of surgery, RAI and purely observation, there still seem to be no common consensus, which the best treatment modality is. Forty-eight patients were included in the study. Among these patients were 43 females and 5 males. Majority were over fifty years old. Among the 48 patients, thirty-nine were toxic and 9 were non-toxic. Of the toxic patients, twelve patients underwent surgery of the affected lobe, undergoing lobectomy or nodulectomy, while 19 patients were given radioactive iodine with a dose range of 20 to 30 mCi. Eight patients just had antithyroid drugs and were just observed. Among the nine patients who were euthyroid, five were just observed but requiring periodic followup while four underwent surgery. Two of the total population, one hyperthyroid and one euthyroid patient while being observed after 6 months and three months respectively developed rapid growth of the nodules. FNAB was done which showed well differentiated CA (papillary and follicular) hence underwent total thyroidectomy or near total thyroidectomy, RAI ablation and lifetime thyroid hormone suppression. The results of the 3 modalities were compared and the best results were seen in the group given RAI in terms of cost effectiveness, diminished size of the nodules to disappearance of nodules and relief of symptoms. Hypothyroidism was not a problem as only two patients developed such. Those who were observed only still had the nodules, which became bigger in size with the antithyroids while the incidence of hypothyroidism secondary to surgery was higher in this study as seen in 4 patients. In conclusion, the three modes of treatment has its own weaknesses and strengths and treatment should be individualized depending on which age group the patient belongs (very important consideration) as well as patients choice, size of the nodule and function of the nodule. I-131 may still be the treatment of choice especially in the elderly since they have concomitant cardiac problems. However in the yo

  19. Pathophysiology and therapeutic options in osteogenesis imperfecta: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizola E

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evelise Brizola,1 Temis M Félix,2 Jay R Shapiro3 1Bone and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Department, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Medical Genetics Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 3Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Disorders Center, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a rare, heritable systemic disorder of bone and connective tissue, which in almost 90% of cases is due to mutations affecting the normal synthesis of type I collagen. In 1979, four OI phenotypes were categorized which were inherited as autosomal dominant characteristics. Individuals with OI present both genetic and phenotypic variabilities. Major characteristics of OI are bone fragility, blue sclerae, dentinogenesis imperfecta, short stature, scoliosis, and joint hyperextensibility. Both autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance are now recognized. Advances in molecular diagnosis have led to a major expansion in our understanding of the genetic basis for different OI phenotypes. To date, sequence variants in 17 genes are described as causative of OI. These genes regulate the synthesis of type I collagen pro-alpha polypeptide chains, proteins involved in type I collagen processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and proteins involved in osteoblast function. These new genetic associations have also led to uncertainty with regard to the current classification of OI phenotypes. Bisphosphonates have been widely used to improve bone mass and decrease fractures in both children and adults with OI. While effective in many but not all children when administered for 2–4 years, bisphosphonates have not proven effective in adults with OI. Studies are limited for treatment of adults with teriparatide and denosumab. Advances have been reported in the surgical management of OI. Although the role of physical therapy in the management of children and adults was previously described, this important treatment modality is significantly underutilized. Keywords: osteogenesis imperfecta, sequence variants, collagen, bisphosphonates, bone, treatment

  20. Functional foods as potential therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L; Poudyal, H; Panchal, S K

    2015-11-01

    Obesity as part of metabolic syndrome is a major lifestyle disorder throughout the world. Current drug treatments for obesity produce small and usually unsustainable decreases in body weight with the risk of major adverse effects. Surgery has been the only treatment producing successful long-term weight loss. As a different but complementary approach, lifestyle modification including the use of functional foods could produce a reliable decrease in obesity with decreased comorbidities. Functional foods may include fruits such as berries, vegetables, fibre-enriched grains and beverages such as tea and coffee. Although health improvements continue to be reported for these functional foods in rodent studies, further evidence showing the translation of these results into humans is required. Thus, the concept that these fruits and vegetables will act as functional foods in humans to reduce obesity and thereby improve health remains intuitive and possible rather than proven. PMID:26345360

  1. Aromatase inhibitors in men: effects and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Frank H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aromatase inhibitors effectively delay epiphysial maturation in boys and improve testosterone levels in adult men Therefore, aromatase inhibitors may be used to increase adult height in boys with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, idiopathic short stature and constitutional delay of puberty. Long-term efficacy and safety of the use of aromatase inhibitors has not yet been established in males, however, and their routine use is therefore not yet recommended.

  2. Therapeutic Options for Continuous Dopaminergic Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sujith, O. K.; Lane, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of Parkinson's disease aims to replace dopaminergic transmission at striatal synapses. In the normal state, nigral neurons fire continuously, exposing striatal dopamine receptors to relatively constant levels of dopamine. In the disease state, periodic dosing and the short half-life of antiparkinsonian drugs leads to more intermittent stimulation. Abnormal pulsatile sti...

  3. Therapeutic options in Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Stéphane; Magy, Laurent; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) diseases represent a heterogeneous genetic disorder (more than 80 genes are implicated in these inherited neuropathies), but sharing a similar phenotype. In recent years, advances in molecular genetics and molecular biology, and also the development of various animal models of CMT, have led to a better understanding. Taken together, this knowledge represents a prerequisite for the development of future therapies in CMT, and in peripheral nervous system disorders in general. The efficacy of various substances has been shown in vitro and also in vivo (in animal models); but, no significant positive effect has yet been confirmed in humans. However, some of these trials are still in development, and we may expect positive results in the future. Although CMT is still an incurable disease, symptomatic treatments (physiotherapy, surgery, analgesic, etc.) are crucial to improve the quality of life of CMT patients.

  4. Polyphenolic acetates : A newer anti-Mycobacterial therapeutic option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our research project was screening of various highly specific substrates of Acetoxy Drug: Protein Transacytylase (M.TAase for antimycobacterial activity. Mycobacterial culture was done in Middlebrook’s 7H9 media. Protein purification (Mycobacterial Tranacetylase, M.TAase was done by ion exchange chromatography and its demonstration was done on SDS- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and western blot. Middlebrook’s 7H9 broth was procured from Becton Dickinson. CM-Sepharose, DEAE-Sepharose and Q-Sephharose were purchased from Amersham Pharmacia. Anti acetyl lysine polyclonal antibody was purchased from Cell Signaling. The Middlebrook 7H9 medium was used for M. smegmatis culture. The media was prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The various Polyphenol acetate compounds were tested for their antimycobacterial activities. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC were calculated by Alamar blue dye assay method. The GST protein was used as a receptor protein and purified Mycobacterial Glutamine Synthetase (GS as TAase for acetylation by DAMC. To demonstrate the TAase catalyzed acetylation of GST by DAMC, purified M.TAase (GS was preincubated with GST and DAMC followed by western blot using anti acetyl lysine antibody, which avidly react with the acetylated proteins. The growth pattern of M. smegmatis was diminished under the influence of various polyphenolic acetates (PA tested for their anti-mycobacterial activity. DAMC and DAMC-5-carboxylic acid was found to have MIC of 40μg/ml whereas DAMC-6-carboxylic acid was reported to have MIC value of 35μg/ml and for ellagic acid tetra acetate (EATA it was 60μg/ml. Previous work in our lab has led to discovery of a novel enzyme acetoxy drug: protein transacetylase (TAase, catalyzing transfer of acetyl group from various polyphenolic peracetate (PA to certain receptor proteins such as cytochromes P-450, NADPH cytochrome reductase, nitric oxide synthase (NOS has been established in various eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic sources. PA(s irreversible inhibitors of mammalian CYP linked MFO, possibly due to modification of cytochrome p- 450 by acetylation in a reaction catalysed by M.TAase (GS utilizing PA(s as a donor of acetyl groups. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that the CYP51 of mycobacteria involved in the cell wall sterol synthesis could possibly be modified by our PA(s through the novel unknown action of GS as transacetylase leading to the death of mycobacterial cell by way of acetylation catalyzed by acetoxy drug: protein transacetylase (M.TAase or GS.

  5. Follicular unit extraction as a therapeutic option for Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sacchidanand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is a surgical procedure, which can be used to transplant follicular units into vitiliginous areas. Such follicular unit transplant has been recently used to repigment stable vitiligo patches. FUE was done for a 12-year-old female with a stable vitiligo patch with leukotrichia on the eyebrow. Repigmentation was noted in 6 weeks and complete pigmentation seen at 12 weeks. Leukotrichia resolved over a period of 6 months. No recurrence was noted at the end of 6 months follow-up with excellent colour match. This case is presented to highlight the simplicity, safety and effectiveness of FUE in stable vitiligo patches with leukotrichia.

  6. Diagnosis and therapeutic options for peripheral vasculitic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, Franz

    2015-04-01

    Vasculitis can affect the peripheral nervous system alone (nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy) or can be a part of primary or secondary systemic vasculitis. In cases of pre-existing systemic vasculitis, the diagnosis can easily be made, whereas suspected vasculitic neuropathy as initial or only manifestation of vasculitis requires careful clinical, neurophysiological, laboratory and histopathological workout. The typical clinical syndrome is mononeuropathia multiplex or asymmetric neuropathy, but distal-symmetric neuropathy can frequently be seen. Standard treatments include steroids, azathioprine, methotrexate and cyclophosphamide. More recently the B-cell antibody rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulins have shown to be effective in some vasculitic neuropathy types. PMID:25829955

  7. Diagnosis and therapeutic options for peripheral vasculitic neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Blaes, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Vasculitis can affect the peripheral nervous system alone (nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy) or can be a part of primary or secondary systemic vasculitis. In cases of pre-existing systemic vasculitis, the diagnosis can easily be made, whereas suspected vasculitic neuropathy as initial or only manifestation of vasculitis requires careful clinical, neurophysiological, laboratory and histopathological workout. The typical clinical syndrome is mononeuropathia multiplex or asymmetric neuropathy, ...

  8. [Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy - phenotype, genetics, therapeutic options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenmüller, C; Klopstock, T

    2014-03-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a rare genetic disorder affecting the retinal ganglion cells leading to a persistent severe bilateral loss of visual acuity within weeks or months. Males are much more likely to be affected than females, disease onset in most cases takes place between age 15 and 35 years. The disease is caused by point mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. The penetrance of the disease is incomplete, i.e., not all mutation carriers develop clinical symptoms. The phenotype is relatively uniform, but age at onset, severity and prognosis may vary even within the same family. Environmental and endocrine factors, optic disc anatomy as well as mitochondrial and nuclear genetic factors are discussed to influence penetrance as well as interindividual and intrafamilial variability. However, only cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption have been shown to trigger disease onset. The disease is characterised by a central visual field defect, impaired colour vision and fundoscopically a peripapillary microangiopathy in the acute phase. Most patients end up after some months with a severe visual loss below 0.1 and in most cases there is no significant improvement of visual acuity in the course. In rare cases patients experience a mostly partial visual recovery which depends on the type of mutation. For confirmation of the diagnosis a detailed ophthalmological examination with fundoscopy, family history and genetic analysis of the mitochondrial DNA is needed. To date, there is no proven causal therapy, but at early disease stages treatment with idebenone can be tried.

  9. Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?

    OpenAIRE

    N Sarala; Paknikar, SS

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The searc...

  10. A less aggressive therapeutic option for electrical storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertero, G; Agosti, S; Brunelli, C

    2013-01-01

    Electrical storm (ES) describes the rapidly clustering ventricular fibrillation (VF) that requires multiple cardioversions. Emerging evidence suggests that Purkinje arborization and sympathetic nerve regeneration play a major role in initiating malignant arrhythmias. We report the case of two patients who, after having survived an acute myocardial infarction (MI), developed repetitive episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and VF one week after percutaneous revascularization, triggered by monomorphic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). Owing to repetitive and drug-refractory VF episodes, temporary atrial overdrive pacing was attempted with complete suppression of VF. In the following month, recurrence of ventricular arrhythmia was inversely related to the atrial pacing rate. Although antiarrhythmic drugs other than beta-blockers had been discontinued, neither PVCs nor ventricular arrhythmias recurred at one-month follow-up when the lower pacing rate was set at 60 bpm. In conclusion in these patients, ES was likely related to nerve sprouting after ischemic injury. This chaotic phenomenon occurs early after tissue damage and shows a peak seven days after acute MI with degeneration of superfluous axon branches. High pacing rates can reduce early after depolarizations and suppress PVCs, thus preventing ES. On these grounds, ES patients may be treated with temporary overdrive pacing rather than early radiofrequency ablation. PMID:24217829

  11. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience show that hypothermia protects the brain from damage during ischaemia. There is a growing hope that the prevention of fever in stroke will improve outcome and that hypothermia may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. Body temperature...... is directly related to stroke severity and outcome, and fever after stroke is associated with substantial increases in morbidity and mortality. Normalisation of temperature in acute stroke by antipyretics is generally recommended, although there is no direct evidence to support this treatment. Despite its...... obvious therapeutic potential, hypothermia as a form of neuroprotection for stroke has been investigated in only a few very small studies. Therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in acute stroke but owing to serious side-effects--such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia--it is still thought...

  12. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Kross

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals.

  13. Sinigrin and Its Therapeutic Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Mazumder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sinigrin (allyl-glucosinolate or 2-propenyl-glucosinolate is a natural aliphatic glucosinolate present in plants of the Brassicaceae family, such as broccoli and brussels sprouts, and the seeds of Brassica nigra (mustard seeds which contain high amounts of sinigrin. Since ancient times, mustard has been used by mankind for its culinary, as well as medicinal, properties. It has been systematically described and evaluated in the classical Ayurvedic texts. Studies conducted on the pharmacological activities of sinigrin have revealed anti-cancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing properties and biofumigation. This current review will bring concise information about the known therapeutic activities of sinigrin. However, the information on known biological activities is very limited and, hence, further studies still need to be conducted and its molecular mechanisms also need to be explored. This review on the therapeutic benefits of sinigrin can summarize current knowledge about this unique phytocompounds.

  14. Emerging treatment options for early mycosis fungoides

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Guarino M

    2013-01-01

    Montserrat Fernandez-GuarinoDepartment of Dermatology, Hospital Central de la Cruz Roja, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Mycosis fungoides is a candidate for skin-directed therapies in its initial stages. In recent years, therapeutic options outside of the normal treatment recommendations such as topical imiquimod, topical tazarotene, topical methotrexate, excimer light sources, and photodynamic therapy have been published with variable results. These alternatives have been useful in cases of localize...

  15. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of bank’s interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the company’s detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the company’s detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a “good host” is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the manager’s powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the

  16. Preventive effects of Salvia officinalis L. against learning and memory deficit induced by diabetes in rats: Possible hypoglycaemic and antioxidant mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanein, Parisa; Felehgari, Zhila; Emamjomeh, Abbasali

    2016-05-27

    Learning and memory impairment occurs in diabetes. Salvia officinalis L. (SO) has been used in Iranian traditional medicine as a remedy against diabetes. We hypothesized that chronic administration of SO (400, 600 and 800mg/kg, p.o.) and its principal constituent, rosmarinic acid, would affect on passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory in streptozocin-induced diabetic and non-diabetic rats. We also explored hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of SO as the possible mechanisms. Treatments were begun at the onset of hyperglycemia. PAL was assessed 30days later. Retention test was done 24h after training. At the end, animals were weighed and blood samples were drawn for further analyzing of glucose and oxidant/antioxidant markers. Diabetes induced deficits in acquisition and retrieval processes. SO (600 and 800mg/kg) and rosmarinic acid reversed learning and memory deficits induced by diabetes and improved cognition of healthy rats. While the dose of 400mg/kg had no effect, the higher doses and rosmarinic acid inhibited hyperglycemia and lipid peroxidation as well as enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. SO prevented diabetes-induced acquisition and memory deficits through inhibiting hyperglycemia, lipid peroxidation as well as enhancing antioxidant defense systems. Therefore, SO and its principal constituent rosmarinic acid represent a potential therapeutic option against diabetic memory impairment which deserves consideration and further examination.

  17. Preventive effects of Salvia officinalis L. against learning and memory deficit induced by diabetes in rats: Possible hypoglycaemic and antioxidant mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanein, Parisa; Felehgari, Zhila; Emamjomeh, Abbasali

    2016-05-27

    Learning and memory impairment occurs in diabetes. Salvia officinalis L. (SO) has been used in Iranian traditional medicine as a remedy against diabetes. We hypothesized that chronic administration of SO (400, 600 and 800mg/kg, p.o.) and its principal constituent, rosmarinic acid, would affect on passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory in streptozocin-induced diabetic and non-diabetic rats. We also explored hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of SO as the possible mechanisms. Treatments were begun at the onset of hyperglycemia. PAL was assessed 30days later. Retention test was done 24h after training. At the end, animals were weighed and blood samples were drawn for further analyzing of glucose and oxidant/antioxidant markers. Diabetes induced deficits in acquisition and retrieval processes. SO (600 and 800mg/kg) and rosmarinic acid reversed learning and memory deficits induced by diabetes and improved cognition of healthy rats. While the dose of 400mg/kg had no effect, the higher doses and rosmarinic acid inhibited hyperglycemia and lipid peroxidation as well as enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. SO prevented diabetes-induced acquisition and memory deficits through inhibiting hyperglycemia, lipid peroxidation as well as enhancing antioxidant defense systems. Therefore, SO and its principal constituent rosmarinic acid represent a potential therapeutic option against diabetic memory impairment which deserves consideration and further examination. PMID:27113201

  18. Expensing options solves nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system.

  19. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, John K.

    2008-10-21

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  20. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  1. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  2. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Kross; Cleva Villanueva

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that...

  3. Potential Antioxidant Role of Tridham in Managing Oxidative Stress against Aflatoxin-B1-Induced Experimental Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Ravinayagam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most fatal cancers due to delayed diagnosis and lack of effective treatment options. Significant exposure to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, a potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin, plays a major role in liver carcinogenesis through oxidative tissue damage and p53 mutation. The present study emphasizes the anticarcinogenic effect of Tridham (TD, a polyherbal traditional medicine, on AFB1-induced HCC in male Wistar rats. AFB1-administered HCC-bearing rats (Group II showed increased levels of lipid peroxides (LPOs, thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARs, and protein carbonyls (PCOs and decreased levels of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants when compared to control animals (Group I. Administration of TD orally (300 mg/kg body weight/day for 45 days to HCC-bearing animals (Group III significantly reduced the tissue damage accompanied by restoration of the levels of antioxidants. Histological observation confirmed the induction of tumour in Group II animals and complete regression of tumour in Group III animals. This study highlights the potent antioxidant properties of TD which contribute to its therapeutic effect in AFB1-induced HCC in rats.

  4. Treatment Options Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... imaging Typical Advantages of Microsurgery over Radiation Typical Advantages of Microsurgery over Radiation Surgery removes the tumor ... area. Typical Advantages of Radiation over Microsurgery Typical Advantages of Radiation over Microsurgery Good option for patients ...

  5. Life Options Rehabilitation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Using the KDQOL-36™ to Improve Quality of Life (and Meet Surveyor Expectations) Presented on August 8, ... this article at our CE credit website . Free Life Options Materials Download our free print materials, research- ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Melanoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Melanoma Key ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  7. What's the Option?

    OpenAIRE

    Traeger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Global warming, alterations of ecosystems, and sunk investmentsall imply irreversible changes with uncertain future costs and benefits. Twoconcepts measure how this combination of uncertainty and irreversibilitychanges the value of preserving an ecosystem or postponing an investment.First, the environmental and resource economics literature developed theArrow-Fisher-Hanemann-Henry quasi-option value. Second, the real optionsliterature developed the Dixit-Pindyck option value. This paper clari...

  8. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of thei...

  9. Antioxidants in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadraj V Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants neutralize free radicals produced by various environmental insults such as ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoke and air pollutants, thereby preventing cellular damage. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants is known in diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer′s disease. Herein we discuss the effects of oxidative stress on the skin and role of antioxidants in dermatology.

  10. Antioxidants in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Varadraj V Pai; Pankaj Shukla; Naveen Narayanshetty Kikkeri

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants neutralize free radicals produced by various environmental insults such as ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoke and air pollutants, thereby preventing cellular damage. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants is known in diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer′s disease. Herein we discuss the effects of oxidative stress on the skin and role of antioxidants in dermatology.

  11. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  12. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  13. 抗氧化营养支持对慢性阻塞性肺疾病大鼠的治疗作用%Therapeutic Effects of Antioxidant Nutritional Support for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩芳; 程梦婕; 李晓迪; 刘晔

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨抗氧化营养支持对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)模型大鼠的治疗作用.方法 28只雄性SD大鼠随机分为四组:对照组(Control)、COPD阳性对照组(COPD-C)、COPD营养支持组(COPD-S)和COPD抗氧化营养支持组(COPD-A).以气管注射脂多糖联合被动吸烟4周建立大鼠COPD模型,1周适应性喂养后,再将三组COPD大鼠分别给予基础饲料、均营素匀浆膳及添加了抗氧化维生素和矿物质的均营素匀浆膳喂养5周.每周称量体质量,10周末处死动物,取血样、组织样.检测各组大鼠血清过氧化指标、抗氧化酶活性和前炎性因子含量.结果 10周末,三组COPD大鼠体质量均显著低于Control组(P<0.05),COPD-S和COPD-A组体重较COPD-C组显著增加(P<0.05);各组大鼠血清髓过氧化物酶(myeloperoxidase,MPO)、谷胱甘肽-S转移酶(glutathione S-transferase,GST)和过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)活性无显著差异(P>0.05),COPD-A组血清丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)浓度显著低于COPD-C和COPD-S组(P<0.05),还原型谷胱甘肽(glutathione,GSH)浓度显著高于COPD-C组(P<0.05),谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(glutathione peroxidase,GSH-Px)、超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)、及总抗氧化能力(total antioxidant capacity,T-AOC)活性显著高于COPD-C和COPD-S组(P<0.05);COPD-C和COPD-S组大鼠血清肿瘤坏死因子-α(tumor necrosis factor-α,TNF-α)浓度显著高于Control组(P<0.05),COPD-A组与Control组无统计学意义(P>0.05);三组COPD大鼠血清白细胞介素-6(interleukin-6,IL-6)浓度均显著高于Control组(P<0.05),三组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论抗氧化营养支持能改善COPD大鼠营养状况、抗氧化能力和炎性反应程度,对其有一定治疗作用.

  14. Antioxidant activity of potato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kowalczewski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The interest in potato juice as a therapeutic agent goes back to the 19th century but its application was not supported by any knowledge about biological activity of this raw material. Factors restricting the medical application of potato juice include its inattractive sensory and functional properties. The aim of the presented investigations was preliminary evaluation of the biological activity of potato juice and the impact on it of some technological operations such as: cryoconcentration and hydrolysis in a membrane reactor. Material and methods. Experiments comprised investigations of antioxidative potentials of fresh potato juice, products of its processing as well as fractions separated because of the size of their molecules using, for this purpose, Folin-Ciocalteu methods and reactions with the ABTS cation radical. Results. The value of the antioxidative potential of fresh potato juice determined by means of the ABTS reagent corresponded to approximately 330 μmol/100 g which is in keeping with literature data. As a result of the cryoconcentration process, the value determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method was found to increase only slightly whereas the value determined by means of the ABTS reagent almost tripled. The antioxidative potential was found to grow even more strongly in the case of the application of both methods when the process of enzymatic hydrolysis was employed. The total of 5 protein fractions of molecular masses ranging from 11 000 Da to over 600 000 Da, as well as an organic non-protein fraction of the molecular mass of 600 Da, were obtained as a result of the performed separation. All the examined fractions exhibited antioxidative activities. The highest values determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method were recorded for the protein fraction of 80 000 Da mean molecular mass, while using the ABTS reagent – for the organic, non-protein fraction. Conclusions. Potato juice possesses antioxidative activity which

  15. Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options What types of OTC antihistamines are available? Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines ...

  16. Antioxidant attributes of four lamiaceae essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of essential oils of four Lamiaceae plants i.e. Pogostemon cablin, Lavandula angustifolia, Melissa officinalis, and Salvia officinalis native to Pakistan. The essential oil contents from the aerial parts of P. cablin, L. angustifolia, M. officinalis and S. officinalis were found to be 1.98, 0.58, 0.25 and 0.46%, respectively. The principal chemical constituent established in P. cablin L. angustifolia, M. officinalis, and S. officinalis essential oils, were patchouli alcohol, linalool, citronellal, and 1,8-cineol, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), percent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and bleaching beta-carotene in linoleic acid system. The essential oils possessed appreciable antioxidant and radical scavenging activities revealing potential for therapeutic applications. (author)

  17. Coated with nanomaterials intraocular lenses, ophthalmic and human body implantable devices with high catalytic antioxidant activities: a new nanotechnology strategy of peroxidase cellular enzyme mimics increasing the biocompatibility and therapeutic deployment of the medical prosthetic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    attack. Coated IOLs according to the patented nanotechnology can address the vast majority of cataract surgery-induced complications, such as secondary cataract, intraocular inflammation (endophthalmitis) and foreign body reactions, cystoid macular oedema, corneal edema. The nanotechnology offers physicians and surgeons to develop and commercialize costeffective therapeutic medical implantable devices, products and support systems with metabolic activities for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases and of a wide range of pathological states and disorders which are treated by insertion of the implantable and prosthetic (polymeric) devices.

  18. Peppermint antioxidants revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachi, Liza G; De Maria, Carlos A B

    2015-06-01

    This review discusses the relationship between the chemical composition and antioxidant property of peppermint tisane and essential oil. Phenolic acids (e.g. rosmarinic and caffeic acids), flavones (e.g. luteolin derivatives) and flavanones (e.g. eriocitrin derivatives) are possibly the major infusion antioxidants. Vitamin antioxidants (e.g. ascorbic acid and carotenoids) are minor contributors to the overall antioxidant potential. Unsaturated terpenes having a cyclohexadiene structure (e.g. terpinene) and minor cyclic oxygenated terpenes (e.g. thymol), may contribute to antioxidant potential whilst acyclic unsaturated oxygenated monoterpenes (e.g. linalool) may act as pro-oxidants in essential oil. Findings on the antioxidant potential of major cyclic oxygenated terpenes (menthol and menthone) are conflicting. Antioxidant behaviour of aqueous/organic solvent extracts and essential oil as well as the effect of environmental stresses on essential oil and phenolic composition are briefly discussed. PMID:25624208

  19. Antioxidants in liver health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sael; Casas-Grajales; Pablo; Muriel

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals(FR).However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leadsto deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases.

  20. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex antioxidant system has been developed in mammals to relieve oxidative stress. However, excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen may still lead to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising in vivo therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits. In this review, PubMed was extensively searched for literature research. The keywords for searching oxidative stress were free radicals, reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, anti-oxidative therapy, Chinese medicines, natural products, antioxidants and liver diseases. The literature, including ours, with studies on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative therapy in liver diseases were the focus. Various factors that cause oxidative stress in liver and effects of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases were summarized, questioned, and discussed.

  1. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  2. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  3. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  4. In vitro antioxidant activities of Solanum surattense leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sridevi; Muruhan; Senthil; Selvaraj; Pugalendi; Kodukkur; Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant activity of alcoholic leaf-extract of Solanum surattense(Solanaceae)(S.surattense).Methods:Leaf extract were tested for in vitro free radical scavenging assays,such as hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide,inhibition of superoxide anion radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hvdrazyl radical(DPPH),total antioxidant activity and reducing ability.Further,total phenolic content of S.surattense was analyzed.Results:S.surattense extract effectively scavenged free radicals at all different concentrations and showed its potent antioxidant activity.Further,these effects were in a dose dependent manner.Results were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hvdroxytoluene,ascorbic acid andα-tocopherol.Conclusions:S.surattense have strong antioxidant potential.Further the study validates the therapeutic benefits of the Indian system of medicine.

  5. In vitro antioxidant activities of Solanum surattense leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sridevi Muruhan; Senthil Selvaraj; Pugalendi Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of alcoholic leaf-extract of Solanum surattense (Solanaceae) (S. surattense). Methods: Leaf extract were tested for in vitro free radical scavenging assays, such as hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide, inhibition of superoxide anion radical and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), total antioxidant activity and reducing ability. Further, total phenolic content of S. surattense was analyzed. Results: S. surattense extract effectively scavenged free radicals at all different concentrations and showed its potent antioxidant activity. Further, these effects were in a dose dependent manner. Results were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene, ascorbic acid andα-tocopherol. Conclusions: S. surattense have strong antioxidant potential. Further the study validates the therapeutic benefits of the Indian system of medicine.

  6. Options in Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Frimor, Hans; Munk, Claus

    2014-01-01

    We derive the optimal compensation contract in a principal–agent setting in which outcome is used to provide incentives for both effort and risky investments. To motivate investment, optimal compensation entails rewards for high as well as low outcomes, and it is increasing at the mean outcome...... to motivate effort. If rewarding low outcomes is infeasible, compensation consisting of stocks and options is a near-efficient means of overcoming the manager's induced aversion to undertaking risky investments, whereas stock compensation is not. However, stock plus option compensation may induce excessively...

  7. ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION IN THE TREATMENT OF AGING-ASSOCIATED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria eConti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is generally considered an imbalance between pro- and antioxidants species, which often results into indiscriminate and global damage at the organismal level. Elderly people are more susceptible to oxidative stress and this depends, almost in part, from a decreased performance of their endogenous antioxidant system. As many studies reported an inverse correlation between systemic levels of antioxidants and several diseases, primarily cardiovascular diseases, but also diabetes and neurological disorders, antioxidant supplementation has been foreseen as an effective preventive and therapeutic intervention for aging-associated pathologies. However, the expectations of this therapeutic approach have often been partially disappointed by clinical trials. The interplay of both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the systemic redox system is very complex and represents an issue that is still under debate. In this review a selection of recent clinical studies concerning antioxidants supplementation and the evaluation of their influence in aging-related diseases is analyzed. The controversial outcomes of the antioxidants supplementation therapy that might partially depend, among others, from an underestimation of the patient specific metabolic demand and genetic background, are presented.

  8. Nutraceutical Antioxidants as Novel Neuroprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Linseman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of antioxidant compounds derived from natural products (nutraceuticals have demonstrated neuroprotective activity in either in vitro or in vivo models of neuronal cell death or neurodegeneration, respectively. These natural antioxidants fall into several distinct groups based on their chemical structures: (1 flavonoid polyphenols like epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG from green tea and quercetin from apples; (2 non-flavonoid polyphenols such as curcumin from tumeric and resveratrol from grapes; (3 phenolic acids or phenolic diterpenes such as rosmarinic acid or carnosic acid, respectively, both from rosemary; and (4 organosulfur compounds including the isothiocyanate, L-sulforaphane, from broccoli and the thiosulfonate allicin, from garlic. All of these compounds are generally considered to be antioxidants. They may be classified this way either because they directly scavenge free radicals or they indirectly increase endogenous cellular antioxidant defenses, for example, via activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 transcription factor pathway. Alternative mechanisms of action have also been suggested for the neuroprotective effects of these compounds such as modulation of signal transduction cascades or effects on gene expression. Here, we review the literature pertaining to these various classes of nutraceutical antioxidants and discuss their potential therapeutic value in neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Our Energy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

    Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

  10. Idaho's Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  11. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula. Impli

  12. Career Options in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloli, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a credit/no credit course which focuses on career options in chemistry. The course (consisting of 15 one-hour seminar-type sessions) includes guest speakers for several sessions and an emphasis (in introductory sessions) on graduate school in chemistry, the chemical industry, resumes, and interviews. Also briefly describes an internship…

  13. Essays on mitigation options

    OpenAIRE

    Peinl, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Die kumulative Dissertation "Essays on mitigation options" untersucht in drei Artikeln Wälder, Erneuerbare Energien sowie technologische Treibhausgassenken (carbon capture and storage (CCS) als wesentliche Vermeidungsoptionen im Kontext des Klimawandels. Der erste Artikel analysiert im Rahmen eines forstökonomischen, dynamischen Partialmodells grundlegende theoretische Bedingungen einer erweiterten forstlichen Kohlenstoffeinspeicherung. Der zweite Artikel untersucht im Rahmen eines allgemeine...

  14. Stem cell therapeutic possibilities: future therapeutic options for male-factor and female-factor infertility?

    OpenAIRE

    Easley, Charles A.; Simerly, Calvin R.; Schatten, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproduction treatment have enabled some couples with severe infertility issues to conceive, but the methods are not successful in all cases. Notwithstanding the significant financial burden of assisted reproduction treatment, the emotional scars from an inability to conceive a child enacts a greater toll on affected couples. While methods have circumvented some root causes for male and female infertility, often the underlying causes cannot be treated, thus true cu...

  15. ANTIOXIDANT MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Preeti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms have been extensively studied and many antioxidant compounds such as phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids identified. The various antioxidant mechanisms of the mushroom species extracts may be attributed to strong hydrogen-donating ability, metal-chelating ability, and their effectiveness as good scavengers of superoxide and free radicals. This indicates the potential of mushrooms as panacea for many diseases and also reveals a novel potential to fight against tumors in man.

  16. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  17. Abrus precatorius Leaves: Antioxidant Activity in Food and Biological Systems, pH, and Temperature Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Vanitha Reddy Palvai; Sowmya Mahalingu; Asna Urooj

    2014-01-01

    Natural antioxidants present in foods and other biological materials have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional and therapeutic effects. Antioxidant constituents of plant materials act as radical scavengers and convert the radicals to less reactive species. Abrus precatorius (AP) was analyzed for its proximate and phytochemical composition. The leaves were extracted with methanol (ME) and analyzed for antioxidant activity by radical scaven...

  18. Clinical Effect of Antioxidant Glasses Containing Extracts of Medicinal Plants in Patients with Dry Eye Disease: A Multi-Center, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Choi

    Full Text Available To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of wearable antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants in patients with mild dry eye disease (DED.Fifty patients with mild DED were randomly assigned to wear either extracts of antioxidant medicinal plants containing (N = 25 or placebo glasses (N = 25. Patients wore the glasses for 15 min three times daily. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI score, tear film break up time (BUT, and Schirmer's test were evaluated and compared within the group and between the groups at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment.OSDI score and tear film BUT were significantly improved in the treatment group at 4 and 8 weeks after wearing glasses (all P < 0.001. Compared to the placebo group, the OSDI scores were significantly lower in the treatment group at 8 weeks (P = 0.007. The results of the Schirmer's test showed significant improvement in the treatment group at 4 weeks (P = 0.035, however there were no significant differences between the other groups or within the groups. No adverse events were reported during the study.Antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants were effective in improving in DED both subjectively and objectively. Wearing antioxidants glasses might be a safe and adjunctive therapeutic option for DED.ISRCTN registry 71217488.

  19. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria Zizanioides root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadradevi, Varadharajan; Asokkumar, Kuppusamy; Umamaheswari, Muthuswamy; Sivashanmugam, Andichettiarthirumalasia; Sankaranand, Rajakannu

    2010-10-01

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant activities such as reducing power ability, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, deoxyribose degradation assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and total flavonoid composition. The various antioxidant activities were compared with suitable antioxidants such as butyl hydroxy toluene, ascorbic acid, quercetin, alpha tocopherol, pyrocatechol and curcumin respectively. The generation of free radicals O2, H2O2 OH and N O were effectively scavenged by the ethanolic extract of V zizanioides. In all these methods, the extract showed strong antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained in the present study clearly indicates that V zizanioides scavenges free radicals, ameliorating damage imposed by oxidative stress in different disease conditions and serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The study provides a proof for the ethnomedical claims and reported biological activities. The plant has, therefore, very good therapeutic and antioxidant potential.

  20. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria Zizanioides root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadradevi, Varadharajan; Asokkumar, Kuppusamy; Umamaheswari, Muthuswamy; Sivashanmugam, Andichettiarthirumalasia; Sankaranand, Rajakannu

    2010-10-01

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant activities such as reducing power ability, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, deoxyribose degradation assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and total flavonoid composition. The various antioxidant activities were compared with suitable antioxidants such as butyl hydroxy toluene, ascorbic acid, quercetin, alpha tocopherol, pyrocatechol and curcumin respectively. The generation of free radicals O2, H2O2 OH and N O were effectively scavenged by the ethanolic extract of V zizanioides. In all these methods, the extract showed strong antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained in the present study clearly indicates that V zizanioides scavenges free radicals, ameliorating damage imposed by oxidative stress in different disease conditions and serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The study provides a proof for the ethnomedical claims and reported biological activities. The plant has, therefore, very good therapeutic and antioxidant potential. PMID:24409635

  1. Energy options?; Energie opties?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sark, W. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    March 2006 the so-called Options Document was published by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). The document is an overview of technical options to reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases up to 2020. Next to a brief summary of the document a few reactions and comments on the contents of the document are given. [Dutch] Maart 2006 publiceerde het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP) het zogenaamde Optiedocument energie en emissies 2010-2020. Daarin wordt een overzicht gegeven van de technische mogelijkheden voor vermindering van het energieverbruik en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen tot 2020. Naast een korte samenvatting van het document worden enkele reacties gegeven op de inhoud.

  2. Options and Market Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Trémolières; Anton Turko

    2009-01-01

    This paper follows a preceding paper by TREMOLIERES, TURKO, KARAM (2006) in which was proposed a specific behavioral model re vealing the functioning of option markets and the way equilibrium values can be observed. We shall make use of Utility theory and Stochastic dominance. This model was illustrated earlier on simplified financial data. But our aim was to conduct a more reali stic experimentation to reveal the logical pr...

  3. The safeguards options study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq's obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state

  4. The safeguards options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  5. Cyclodextrins and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Pilar; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the growth of the functional foods industry has increased research into new compounds with high added value for use in the fortification of traditional products. One of the most promising functional food groups is those enriched in antioxidant compounds of a lipophilic nature. In spite of the numerous advantages reported for such antioxidant molecules, they may also have disadvantages that impede their use in functional foods, although these problems may well avoided by the use of encapsulant agents such as cyclodextrins. This explains the recent increase in the number of research papers dealing with the complexation of different guest molecules possesing important antioxidant properties using natural and modified cyclodextrins. This paper presents a review of the most recent studies on the complexes formed between several important types of antioxidant compounds and cyclodextrins, focusing on the contradictory data reported in the literature concerning to the antioxidant activity of the host/guest molecule complexes, the different complexation constants reported for identical complexes, the bioavailability of the antioxidant compound in the presence of cyclodextrins and recommendation concerning the use of natural or modified cyclodextrins. Moreover, the use of cyclodextrins as antibrowning agents to prevent enzymatic browning in different foods is revised. Finally, we look at studies which suggest that cyclodextrins act as ''secondary antioxidants," enhancing the ability of traditional antioxidants to prevent enzymatic browning.

  6. Antioxidants of edible mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M.; Griensven, Van Leo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic

  7. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  8. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  9. Therapeutic lung lavages in children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teschler Helmut

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a rare disease, characterized by excessive intra-alveolar accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins. Therapeutic whole lung lavages are currently the principle therapeutic option in adults. Not much is known on the kinetics of the wash out process, especially in children. Methods In 4 pediatric and 6 adult PAP patients 45 therapeutic half lung lavages were investigated retrospectively. Total protein, protein concentration and, in one child with a surfactant protein C mutation, aberrant pro-SP-C protein, were determined during wash out. Results The removal of protein from the lungs followed an exponential decline and averaged for adult patients 2 – 20 g and Conclusion Following therapeutic half lung lavages by biochemical variables may help to estimate the degree of alveolar filling with proteinaceous material and to improve the efficiency of the wash out, especially in children.

  10. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  11. Installment options close to expiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alobaidi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We use an asymptotic expansion to study the behavior of installment options close to expiry. Installment options are contracts where the price is paid over the life of the option rather than as a lump sum at the time of purchase, and where the contract can be allowed to lapse at any time. Series solutions are obtained for the location of the free boundary and the price of the option.

  12. On Maximizing Annualized Option Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Higgins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While options do generally demonstrate an increase in prices as time increases, an annualized return of their excess premiums exhibit other characteristics including a lower return on options farther out of the money, that as the exercise price is farther out of the money that the expiration with the greatest annualized return is longer in time, and more interestingly that for underlying securities having larger standard deviations the greatest annualized option returns are found with options having shorter expirations.

  13. "Pricing Average Options on Commodities"

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichiro Shiraya; Akihiko Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approximation formula for pricing average options on commodities under a stochastic volatility environment. In particular, it derives an option pricing formula under Heston and an extended lambda-SABR stochastic volatility models (which includes an extended SABR model as a special case). Moreover, numerical examples support the accuracy of the proposed average option pricing formula.

  14. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, David Sherman [UND SMHS

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

  15. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D;

    2009-01-01

    ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although many...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  16. Martingale option pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, J. L.; Gunaratne, G. H.; Bassler, K. E.

    2007-07-01

    We show that our earlier generalization of the Black-Scholes partial differential equation (pde) for variable diffusion coefficients is equivalent to a Martingale in the risk neutral discounted stock price. Previously, the equivalence of Black-Scholes to a Martingale was proven for the case of the Gaussian returns model by Harrison and Kreps, but we prove it for a much larger class of returns models where the returns diffusion coefficient depends irreducibly on both returns x and time t. That option prices blow up if fat tails in logarithmic returns x are included in market return is also proven.

  17. Therapeutics in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, Annie; Biglan, Kevin M

    2012-02-01

    OPINION STATEMENT: There is no specific treatment for Huntington's disease (HD). Its many symptoms of motor, psychiatric, and cognitive deterioration are managed with symptomatic relief, rehabilitation, and support. The only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HD is an antichoreic agent, tetrabenazine, but this drug is used sparingly because of uneasiness regarding its propensity to cause depression and suicidality in this population, which is already at risk for these complications. Neuroleptics are still first-line treatments for chorea accompanied by comorbid depression and/or behavioral or psychotic symptoms, as is often the case. Psychiatric features, which have a significant impact on a patient's professional and personal life, often become the major focus of management. In addition to neuroleptics, commonly used medications include antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, and psychostimulants. In contrast, few treatment options are available for cognitive impairment in HD; this remains an important and largely unmet therapeutic need. HD patients typically lack insight into their disease manifestations, failing to recognize their need for treatment, and possibly even arguing against it. Multipurpose medications are employed advantageously to simplify the medication regimen, so as to facilitate compliance and not overwhelm the patient. For example, haloperidol can be prescribed for a patient with chorea, agitation, and anorexia, rather than targeting each symptom with a different drug. This approach also limits the potential for adverse effects, which can be difficult to distinguish from the features of the disease itself. With HD's complexity, it is best managed with a multidisciplinary approach that includes a movement disorders specialist, a genetic counselor, a mental health professional, a physical therapist, and a social worker for support and coordination of services. As the disease progresses, there

  18. Wound Healing and Indigenous Drugs: Role as Antioxidants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Somashekar Shetty

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine, especially herbal medicine has recently been receiving heightened interest all over the world. Man from the very beginning has been aware of the health problems and has been taking care of health through diet and drugs for which plants were used extensively. Molecular oxygen plays a central role in the pathogenesis and therapy of chronic wounds. When reactive oxygen species are overproduced, oxidative stress results in detrimental cytotoxic effects causing delayed wound healing. Therefore, elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS could be an important strategy to improve healing of chronic wounds. Currently therapeutic strategies targeting reactive oxygen species (ROS by antioxidants are being introduced into the treatment of chronic wounds. Natural compounds from medicinal plants having antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities are used as therapeutic agents. Indian medicinal plants with these activities have been identified and their antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects have been reviewed.

  19. Honey: A Novel Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer and Alzheimer's disease is on the rise. These diseases, which constitute the major causes of death globally, are associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as an “imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, potentially leading to damage”. Individuals with chronic diseases are more susceptible to oxidative stress and damage because they have elevated levels of oxidants and/or reduced antioxidants. This, therefore, necessitates supplementation with antioxidants so as to delay, prevent or remove oxidative damage. Honey is a natural substance with many medicinal effects such as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, reproductive, antihypertensive and antioxidant effects. This review presents findings that indicate honey may ameliorate oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, liver, pancreas, kidney, reproductive organs and plasma/serum. Besides, the review highlights data that demonstrate the synergistic antioxidant effect of honey and antidiabetic drugs in the pancreas, kidney and serum of diabetic rats. These data suggest that honey, administered alone or in combination with conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant in the management of chronic diseases commonly associated with oxidative stress. In view of the fact that the majority of these data emanate from animal studies, there is an urgent need to investigate this antioxidant effect of honey in human subjects with chronic or degenerative diseases.

  20. Retrieval options study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval;

  1. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  2. Retrieval options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  3. Antioxidant Stabilisation of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyapnikov, Yurii A.

    1981-06-01

    Physicochemical aspects of the stabilisation of polymers are discussed. Attention is paid mainly to the aging and stabilisation of polymers under processing conditions. Topics considered are the kinetics and mechanism of the high-temperature oxidation of polymers, critical phenomena in the inhibited oxidation of polymers, the theory of synergism and antagonism among antioxidants, the reasons for differences in efficiency of antioxidants, and certain aspects of the relation between the efficiency of antioxidants and their molecular structure. A list of 132 references is included.

  4. Patent Valuation and Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deger Alper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the knowledge economics grows rapidly, businesses increasingly invest intellectual property and the value of intellectual property; patent, trademark, copyright etc., more emphasized in business nowadays. Thus, the valuation of intellectual property, specifically patents, has been one of the most difficult investment problems both for practitioners and academics. Traditional valuation methods fail to account for the unique characteristics of patents; uncertainty and management flexibility. Patents are option-like assets that give the owner a bundle of options; to commercialize the products, to file foreign application, to license the innovation etc. Real options represent the application of options methodology to strategic business decisions, and real option method provides a richer framework to analyse the issues that confront the valuation of patent. This paper uses real option model as a framework to correctly evaluate patent and contains real option model application to patent valuation.

  5. New concept in nutrition for the maintenance of the aging eye redox regulation and therapeutic treatment of cataract disease; synergism of natural antioxidant imidazole-containing amino acid-based compounds, chaperone, and glutathione boosting agents: a systemic perspective on aging and longevity emerged from studies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Cataract, opacification of the lens, is one of the commonest causes of loss of useful vision during aging, with an estimated 16 million people world-wide affected. The role of nutritional supplementation in prevention of onset or progression of ocular disease is of interest to health care professionals and patients. The aging eye seems to be at considerable risk from oxidative stress. This review outlines the potential role of the new nutritional strategy on redox balance in age-related eye diseases and detail how the synergism and interaction of imidazole-containing amino acid-based compounds (nonhydrolized L-carnosine, histidine), chaperone agents (such as, L-carnosine, D-pantethine), glutathione-boosting agents (N-acetylcysteine, vitamin E, methionine), and N-acetylcarnosine eye drops plays key roles in the function and maintenance of the redox systems in the aging eye and in the treatment of human cataract disease. A novel patented oral health supplement is presented which enhances the anticataract activity of eye drops and activates functional visual acuity. The clinical data demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of a combined oral health care treatment with amino acids possessing chaperone-like activity with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops. L-carnosine and N-acetylcarnosine protected the chaperone activity of alpha-crystallin and reduced the increased posttranslational modifications of lens proteins. Biological activities of the nonhydrolyzed carnosine in the oral formulation are based on its antioxidant and antiglycating (transglycating) action that, in addition to heavy metal chelation and pH-buffering ability, makes carnosine an essential factor for preventing sight-threatening eye disorders having oxidative stress in their pathogenesis, neurodegeneration, and accumulation of senile features. The findings suggest that synergism is required between carnosine or other imidazole-containing compounds and reduced glutathione in tissues and cells for

  6. Designer blood vessels and therapeutic revascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Joseph D; Galis, Zorina S.

    2003-01-01

    Inadequate vascular perfusion leads to fatal heart attacks, chronic ulcers, and other serious clinical conditions. The body's capacity to restore vascular perfusion through angiogenesis and arteriogenesis is often impaired by pre-existing disease, and availability of native replacements for nonfunctional arteries is limited in many patients. Thus, recreating blood vessels of various calibres through novel engineering technologies has emerged as a radical option among therapeutic strategies fo...

  7. Radio-protective role of antioxidant agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shirazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species which attack various cellular components. Radio-protectors act as prophylactic agents to shield healthy cells and tissues from the harmful effects of radiation. Past research on synthetic radio-protectors has brought little success, primarily due to the various toxicity-related problems. Results of experimental research show that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and herbal products and melatonin, are protective against the damaging effects of radiation, with less toxicity and side effects. Therefore, we propose that in the future, antioxidant radio-protective agents may improve the therapeutic index in radiation oncology treatments.

  8. Atmospheric oxidation and antioxidants

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    1993-01-01

    Volume I reviews current understanding of autoxidation, largely on the basis of the reactions of oxygen with characterised chemicals. From this flows the modern mechanism of antioxidant actions and their application in stabilisation technology.

  9. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... prevention of caries in children, e.g. pit and fissure sealants and topically applied fluorides (including patient-applied fluoride toothpastes and professionally applied fluoride varnishes), but limited strong evidence for these techniques for secondary prevention--i.e. where early to established lesions...... conventional operative care, and since controlling the caries process prior to first restoration is the key to breaking the repair cycle and improving care for patients, future research should address the shortcomings in the current level of supporting evidence for the various traditional preventive treatment...

  10. Options for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Research Center at Juelich which in 1956 has been founded as an establishment offering the possibilities to catch up on scientific research in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and nuclear engineering, has since experienced an extension in the scope and goals of working programmes unexpected at that time. The activities of the large research center are funded by the Federal German Government and the Land Government of North-Rhine Westphalia, and today cover traditional and very novel research and development fields spanning a wide circle around the central topics of materials science, information science, and environmental protection. The work performed opens up manifold options for the future, and working conditions in such a center allowing a 'look into neighbours' gardens' have in many a case opened the door to new ideas, applications, and approaches. (orig.)

  11. HERBAL ANTIOXIDANTS- A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Swathi K; Priyenka Devi K S*; Sangeetha A

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species, circulating in the human body tend to react with the electron of other molecules which may initiate the chain reaction and contribute to adverse health effects in the body. Antioxidants possess anti-inflammatory property, antitumor property, anticarcinogenic property, antimutagenic property and metal chelating potential which inturn terminates the chain reaction by arresting free radical intermediates. Natural antioxidants derived from plant sources are effective and ...

  12. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  13. Plasma antioxidants from chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, M.; Bugianesi, R.; Maiani, G; Valtuena, S.; De Santis, S.; Crozier, A.

    2003-01-01

    There is some speculation that dietary flavonoids from chocolate, in particular (-)epicatechin, may promote cardiovascular health as a result of direct antioxidant effects or through antithrombotic mechanisms. Here we show that consumption of plain, dark chocolate results in an increase in both the total antioxidant capacity and the (-)epicatechin content of blood plasma, but that these effects are markedly reduced when the chocolate is consumed with milk or if milk is incorporated as milk ch...

  14. Early amplification options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Sandra Abbott; Schryer, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Children with permanent hearing loss have been remediated with hearing amplification devices for decades. The influx of young infants identified with hearing loss through successful newborn hearing screening programs has established a need for amplification resources for infants within the first six months of life. For the approximately two of every 1000 infants born who are identified with bilateral hearing loss [Mehl and Thomson, 1998, Pediatrics 101, p. e4], the use of amplification is commonly the first step in treating the sequella of their loss. The use of hearing aids, combined with early intervention, has been shown to significantly improve the speech and language skills of young children with hearing loss [Yoshinaga-Itano, 2000, Seminars in Hearing 21, p. 309]. Speech and language delays have contributed to compromised academic performance of school aged children with hearing loss [Johnson et al., 1997, Educational Audiology Handbook, Singular Publishing, San Diego]. Most hard-of-hearing and deaf children use hearing aids and other assistive listening devices every day throughout their lifetime and the life expectancy of a hearing aid is only five to eight years. The current challenge for pediatric audiologists is selecting and evaluating the available amplification to provide the best options for children and their families. Amplification technology has seen an explosion in growth the past few years and the options continue to expand rapidly. This article examines currently available amplification technology and reviews the selection criteria that may be used for infants and young children. Issues such as style, type, amplification features, signal processing strategies, and verification and validation tools are also discussed. PMID:14648816

  15. In-vitro antioxidant study of certain common fruits – Gooseberry, Guava, and Tamarind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most medicinal plants are used as antioxidants in traditional medicine, and their claim for therapeutic properties because of its capacity to scavenge oxygen free radical. As they have low levels of antioxidants or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes, cause oxidative stress, and may damage or kill cells. In the present work I demonstrated the antioxidant activity of some common fruits such as Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Guava (Psidium guavajava Linn and Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.The fruits extracts were applied at three different concentrations in the FeCL2-AA induced rat liver homogenate in vitro. Each of the aqueous fruit extracts at different concentration shows different antioxidant property. Gooseberry fruit extract at 100µg/ml concentration shows the highest antioxidant property by showing the significant MDA inhibition percentage as 70.86**. Guava fruit extract at 100µg/ml concentration shows the lowest antioxidant property by showing the non significant MDA inhibition percentage as 54.52. The antioxidant property not only depends on the fruit extracts but also depend on the concentration of its application. In some case application of high concentration is significant, but in other case high concentration is not much significant than the application of lower concentration. Some antioxidants shows significant antioxidant property at a particular concentration, in this increase or decrease in concentration of application shows insignificant antioxidant property. Antioxidant vitamins and other antioxidant compounds are rich in fruits when compared to that of processed foods with that antioxidants are essential for the good health. The present study indicates that the fruits with potent antioxidant effects are to be compulsorily included in the daily diet of adults and children have to enable them to lead a healthy and energetic life.

  16. Alopecia areata: Treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kasumagić-Halilović

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata (AA is a common cause of reversible hair loss afflictingapproximately1-2%ofthegeneralpopulation. It commonly present as round patches of hair loss which can be the firstmanifestationofamoreseverealopecia totalis or universalis. The cause of AA is unknown although most evidence supports the hypothesis that AA is an immunologically mediated disease. Treatment of AA may be divided into four different categories of widely accepted therapeutic modalities: immune inhibitors (steroid or psoralen and UVA light- PUVA, topicalsensitizers (squaric acid dibutylester and diphenylcyclopropenone, non-specificirritants(anthralinandthevasodilatator minoxidil. Improved future treatments may be immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory or they may otherwise protect hair follicles from the injurious effects of inflammation.Theaimofthisarticleistoreviewavailable data on current and potential agents for the treatment of AA.

  17. Multidimensional Black-Scholes options

    OpenAIRE

    esposito, francesco paolo

    2010-01-01

    In this article we propose an extension of the classical Black-Scholes option in a multidimensional setup. The underlying financial asset is a basket of equity stocks on which a general European type option pay$-$off is considered. Using the distributional Fourier transform, we derive a general formal solution and provide a sufficient condition to construct the former explicitly in a fairly rich set of functions. Finally, we develop two derivative options, which are given in closed$-$form: th...

  18. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    dynamics to be used for option pricing purposes in this framework, and we show that our model explains some of the mispricings found when using traditional option pricing models based on interdaily data. We then show explicitly that a Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic model with Normal...... benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes....

  19. Three essays in real options

    OpenAIRE

    Baranouskaya, Vera; Barone Adesi, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Real options refer to the investment, entry, exit and other strategic decisions of the firm that share three important characteristics: they are irreversible, they are made under uncertainty, and their timing is chosen by the firm. The term `real options' was introduced in 1977 by Stewart Myers in his paper `Determinants of corporate borrowing' that related risky debt holdings to the future investment policy of the firm. The literature on real options has since been active and growing with...

  20. Option Pricing and Bayesian Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Ola

    2007-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters devoted to both empirical and theoretical aspects of option pricing. The first chapter investigates the market for European options on the Swedish OMX index using daily data for the period 1993-2000. The assumption of constant volatility of the returns underlying the Black and Scholes option pricing formula is assessed by extracting the volatilities implied by the observed call prices and put prices. These are then related to moneyness and time to...

  1. Pricing options on defaultable stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Tayibov, Khayyam

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we develop stock option price approximations for a model which takes both the risk o default and the stochastic volatility into account. We also let the intensity of defaults be influenced by the volatility. We show that it might be possible to infer the risk neutral default intensity from the stock option prices. Our option price approximation has a rich implied volatility surface structure and fits the data implied volatility well. Our calibration exercise shows that an effect...

  2. Controversial reversal of nuclear option

    OpenAIRE

    Mesarović Miodrag

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear option is in a unique position to restore its original role of the main source of energy with an increased attention paid to the security of electricity supply as well as regulatory changes affecting fossil fuels, particularly with due introduction of climate change prevention measures. Recent developments indicate the advantages of nuclear option over other possible options in terms of sustainable development. However, a large number of controversial issues on nuclear energy make its...

  3. Free radicals, oxidative stress and importance of antioxidants in human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.I. Priyadarsini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS is a collective term used for oxygen containing free radicals, depending on their reactivity and oxidizing ability. ROS participate in a variety of chemical reactions with biomolecules leading to a pathological condition known as oxidative stress. Antioxidants are employed to protect biomolecules from the damaging effects of such ROS. In the beginning, antioxidant research was mainly aimed at understanding free radical reactions of ROS with antioxidants employing biochemical assays and kinetic methods. Later on, studies began to be directed to monitor the ability of anti-oxidants to modulate cellular signaling proteins like receptors, secondary messengers, transcription factors, etc. Of late several studies have indicated that antioxidants can also have deleterious effects on human health depending on dosage and bio-availability. It is therefore, necessary to validate the utility of antioxidants in improvement of human health in order to take full advantage of their therapeutic potential.

  4. The antioxidant master glutathione and periodontal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Vivek Kumar; Bains, Rhythm

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione, considered to be the master antioxidant (AO), is the most-important redox regulator that controls inflammatory processes, and thus damage to the periodontium. Periodontitis patients have reduced total AO capacity in whole saliva, and lower concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and periodontal therapy restores the redox balance. Therapeutic considerations for the adjunctive use of glutathione in management of periodontitis, in limiting the tissue damage associated with oxidative stress, and enhancing wound healing cannot be underestimated, but need to be evaluated further through multi-centered randomized controlled trials. PMID:26604952

  5. The antioxidant master glutathione and periodontal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Bains

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione, considered to be the master antioxidant (AO, is the most-important redox regulator that controls inflammatory processes, and thus damage to the periodontium. Periodontitis patients have reduced total AO capacity in whole saliva, and lower concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and periodontal therapy restores the redox balance. Therapeutic considerations for the adjunctive use of glutathione in management of periodontitis, in limiting the tissue damage associated with oxidative stress, and enhancing wound healing cannot be underestimated, but need to be evaluated further through multi-centered randomized controlled trials.

  6. New Pathogenic Concepts and Therapeutic Approaches to Oxidative Stress in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G.; Osorio-Alonso, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    In chronic kidney disease inflammatory processes and stimulation of immune cells result in overproduction of free radicals. In combination with a reduced antioxidant capacity this causes oxidative stress. This review focuses on current pathogenic concepts of oxidative stress for the decline of kidney function and development of cardiovascular complications. We discuss the impact of mitochondrial alterations and dysfunction, a pathogenic role for hyperuricemia, and disturbances of vitamin D metabolism and signal transduction. Recent antioxidant therapy options including the use of vitamin D and pharmacologic therapies for hyperuricemia are discussed. Finally, we review some new therapy options in diabetic nephropathy including antidiabetic agents (noninsulin dependent), plant antioxidants, and food components as alternative antioxidant therapies. PMID:27429711

  7. New Pathogenic Concepts and Therapeutic Approaches to Oxidative Stress in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedraza-Chaverri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In chronic kidney disease inflammatory processes and stimulation of immune cells result in overproduction of free radicals. In combination with a reduced antioxidant capacity this causes oxidative stress. This review focuses on current pathogenic concepts of oxidative stress for the decline of kidney function and development of cardiovascular complications. We discuss the impact of mitochondrial alterations and dysfunction, a pathogenic role for hyperuricemia, and disturbances of vitamin D metabolism and signal transduction. Recent antioxidant therapy options including the use of vitamin D and pharmacologic therapies for hyperuricemia are discussed. Finally, we review some new therapy options in diabetic nephropathy including antidiabetic agents (noninsulin dependent, plant antioxidants, and food components as alternative antioxidant therapies.

  8. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae leaf gall extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa

    2015-01-01

    nutraceuticals applications. Future work will be interesting in knowing the chemical composition and better understand the mechanism of action of the antioxidants present for development as drug for its therapeutic application.

  9. Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of Incontinence Diarrhea Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding a Doctor ...

  10. To evaluate and compare the hypoglycemic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect of lycopene with atorvastatin in hyperlipidemic New Zealand white rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Mulkalwar

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Findings suggest that lycopene may have considerable therapeutic benefit as an antioxidant and hypolipidemic agent, but may not be effective as a hypoglycemic agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 148-152

  11. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated. PMID:27155860

  12. AFCI Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2009-09-01

    This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

  13. Renoprotective effect of the antioxidant curcumin: Recent findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Trujillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, there have been studies based on the use of natural compounds plant-derived as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases in humans. Curcumin is a phenolic compound extracted from Curcuma longa rhizome commonly used in Asia as a spice, pigment and additive. In traditional medicine of India and China, curcumin is considered as a therapeutic agent used in several foods. Numerous studies have shown that curcumin has broad biological functions particularly antioxidant and antiinflammatory. In fact, it has been established that curcumin is a bifunctional antioxidant; it exerts antioxidant activity in a direct and an indirect way by scavenging reactive oxygen species and inducing an antioxidant response, respectively. The renoprotective effect of curcumin has been evaluated in several experimental models including diabetic nephropathy, chronic renal failure, ischemia and reperfusion and nephrotoxicity induced by compounds such as gentamicin, adriamycin, chloroquine, iron nitrilotriacetate, sodium fluoride, hexavalent chromium and cisplatin. It has been shown recently in a model of chronic renal failure that curcumin exerts a therapeutic effect; in fact it reverts not only systemic alterations but also glomerular hemodynamic changes. Another recent finding shows that the renoprotective effect of curcumin is associated to preservation of function and redox balance of mitochondria. Taking together, these studies attribute the protective effect of curcumin in the kidney to the induction of the master regulator of antioxidant response nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 (Nrf2, inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction, attenuation of inflammatory response, preservation of antioxidant enzymes and prevention of oxidative stress. The information presented in this paper identifies curcumin as a promising renoprotective molecule against renal injury.

  14. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  15. Coumarin hybrids as novel therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Sonali; Bansal, Yogita; Silakari, Om; Bansal, Gulshan

    2014-08-01

    Naturally occurring coumarins, having wide spectrum of activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, MAO-B inhibitory and antimicrobial, are frequently used by the researchers to develop novel synthetic and semisynthetic coumarin based therapeutic agents. Many of these agents are hybrid molecules, which are designed through concept of molecular hybridization and have shown multiple pharmacological activities. This multifunctional attribute of these hybrid compounds makes them potential drug candidates for the treatment of multifactorial diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic syndromes, AIDS, malaria, and cardiovascular diseases. The present review compiles research reports on development of different coumarin hybrids, classify these on the basis of their therapeutic uses and propose structure-activity relationships. It is intended to help medicinal chemist in designing and synthesizing novel and potent hybrid compounds for the treatment of different disorders. PMID:24934993

  16. Dragon's blood: botany, chemistry and therapeutic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Bleakley, Bruce; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2008-02-12

    Dragon's blood is one of the renowned traditional medicines used in different cultures of world. It has got several therapeutic uses: haemostatic, antidiarrhetic, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antiviral, wound healing, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, etc. Besides these medicinal applications, it is used as a coloring material, varnish and also has got applications in folk magic. These red saps and resins are derived from a number of disparate taxa. Despite its wide uses, little research has been done to know about its true source, quality control and clinical applications. In this review, we have tried to overview different sources of Dragon's blood, its source wise chemical constituents and therapeutic uses. As well as, a little attempt has been done to review the techniques used for its quality control and safety. PMID:18060708

  17. Antioxidant effect of Purple basil(Lamiaceae Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Mastaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants used in folk and traditional medicines have been accepted as therapeutic drug development in modern medicine. SinceOcimum basilicum cv. dark opal has been used in Persian traditional medicine and many Iranian dishes,it was considered important to determine the reductive capacity of the purple basil oils and extracts, as this may indicate their potential as antioxidants. Results indicated that the extracts have more powerful antioxidant activity than the oils.Also,the phytochemical analysis of the extracts has led to the identification of 3 phenolic. Our study, partially validates the traditional use of this medicinal herb as complementary medicine.

  18. Phytochemical profile, toxicity and antioxidant activity of Aloysia gratissima (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia B. Zeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloysia gratissima (Gill. et Hook Tronc. (Verbenaceae is native to South America with folk therapeutic applications for a wide range of diseases. The polyphenolic and carotenoid profile, toxicity, and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Aloysia gratissima were investigated. HPLC analyses showed high amounts of ferulic acid, trans-cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, and also trans-β- carotene and lutein which fluctuated throughout the seasons. Furthermore, the extract investigated not only exerted antioxidant activity but also inhibited lipid peroxidation. Toxicity was achieved only at the highest dose tested. Therefore, A. gratissima is a potential species for medicinal purposes.

  19. Role of antioxidants on the clinical outcome of patients with perennial allergic rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manish; Chauhan, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants have a preventive or therapeutic role in oxygen free radical–mediated cell and tissue damage. The study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of antioxidants and intranasal steroid fluticasone furoate (FF) on the clinical outcome of patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Methods: Subjects with perennial allergic rhinitis (n = 61) were randomly divided into two groups, group A (n = 30) received FF and group B (n = 31) received FF with antioxidants for 6 weeks. Nasal and ocular symptoms were evaluated weekly by using a four-point categoric scale. The efficacy of the study drug was assessed based on the mean change from baseline of the total daytime nasal symptom scores, total nighttime nasal symptom scores, and the composite symptom scores. Results: The combined therapy (FF with antioxidants) resulted in marked improvements (p ≤ 0.05) in the mean total daytime nasal symptom scores, total nighttime nasal symptom scores, and composite symptom scores of subjects compared with ones treated with intranasal steroid (FF) alone, which highlighted the therapeutic effect of antioxidants in allergic rhinitis. Conclusion: Significant improvement in clinical outcome was observed in subjects who received antioxidants along with FF. However, because this was an open-label study, the results must be interpreted with caution, and further double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trials supplemented with different antioxidants together with intranasal steroids are suggested.

  20. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  1. Investment opportunities as real options

    OpenAIRE

    Rovčanin, Adnan

    2005-01-01

    Opportunity (optional) approach to capital investment appraisal represents, completely new theoretical and methodological framework for investment analysis. Compared to traditional, discount cash flow (DCF) model of analysis, the optional approach provides opportunity for valuation and managing flexibility, i.e. possibility of approaching (amending the previous decisions) in compliance with market changes. Risk and uncertainty are inevitably following the capital investment. Therefore, the im...

  2. Therapeutic Roles of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Metabolic Diseases: Curcumin and Resveratrol Analogues as Possible Inducers of Heme Oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Son

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and obesity, are associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammatory stress, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Because the integration of these stresses is critical to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, agents and cellular molecules that can modulate these stress responses are emerging as potential targets for intervention and treatment of metabolic diseases. It has been recognized that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 plays an important role in cellular protection. Because HO-1 can reduce inflammatory stress, oxidative stress, and ER stress, in part by exerting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects, HO-1 has been suggested to play important roles in pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. In the present review, we will explore our current understanding of the protective mechanisms of HO-1 in metabolic diseases and present some emerging therapeutic options for HO-1 expression in treating metabolic diseases, together with the therapeutic potential of curcumin and resveratrol analogues that have their ability to induce HO-1 expression.

  3. Antioxidants and Health: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been shown to counteract oxidative stress in laboratory experiments (for example, in cells or animal studies). However, ... risk. Researchers have also studied antioxidants in laboratory experiments. These experiments showed that antioxidants interacted with free ...

  4. The Potential Therapeutic Effect of Green Tea in Treatment of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Mosallaei

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is a chronic, recurrent and severe ocular allergic disease, which is characterized by persistent allergic inflammation of the conjunctiva. It can be accompanied by ocular discomfort and visual disturbance. All forms are characterized by intense itching, tearing, mucous secretions and a severe photophobia, which often forces children to live virtually in dark places. Conjunctival proliferative changes, such as the formation of giant papillae are the characteristic findings of affected individuals. Giant papillae develop as a result of infiltration of inflammatory cells, changes in the epithelial layer, and increased deposition of extracellular matrix molecules such as collagen and proliferation of conjunctival fibroblasts. Currently several therapeutic options such as corticosteroids, mast cell stabilizers and cyclosporine are applied for treatment of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis but in long-term, the chronic and recurrent nature of this problem leads to failure or appearance of side effects of current treatment in many patients. Recently, Green tea extract and its principal active ingredient, epigallocatechin gallate , are gaining attention and increased usage due to its healthful properties. It has considerable anticatactogenic effect by inducing apoptosis in lens epithelial cells and antioxidant effects. Also its great benefits were achieved in attenuation of damaging influences to the retina caused by ischemia/reperfusion. Based on evidences supported beneficial effects of green tea, we hypothesize that local administration of green tea and its extract seems to be a proper substitute or adjunct to current treatments of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis. This plant contains a series of antioxidants that can abolish the process of allergic cascade. Moreover, by suppressing TNF-alpha potentially, it can reduce proinflammatory reaction, as well as fibroblast proliferation and subsequently decrease giant papilla formation

  5. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies. PMID:26585821

  6. Melatonin as an Antioxidant for Stroke Neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nate; Diamandis, Theo; Gonzales-Portillo, Chiara; Reyes, Stephanny; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone derived from the pineal gland that has a wide range of clinical applications. While melatonin was originally assessed as a hormone specializing in regulation of the normal circadian rhythm in mammals, it now has been shown to be an effective free radical scavenger and antioxidant. Current research has focused on central nervous system (CNS) disorders, stroke in particular, for potential melatonin-based therapeutics. As of now, the realm of potential therapy regimens is focused on three main treatments: exogenously delivered melatonin, pineal gland grafting, and melatonin-mediated stem cell therapy. All therapies contain both costs and benefits, and current research is still focused on finding the best treatment plan. While comprehensive research has been conducted, more research regarding the safety of such therapies is needed in order to transition into the clinical level of testing. Antioxidants such as traditional Chinese medicine, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and lavender oil, which have been used for thousands of years as treatment, are now gaining recognition as effective melatonin treatment alternatives. This review will further discuss relevant studies assessing melatonin-based therapeutics and provide evidence of other natural melatonin treatment alternatives for the treatment of stroke. PMID:26497887

  7. Long-term therapeutic efficacy of allogenic bone marrow transplantation in a patient with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutsugu Chinen

    2014-01-01

    In conclusion, the long-term study of hematopoetic stem cell transplantation has shown clinical improvements in respiratory function, radiograph findings, ADL, and biochemical findings, suggesting that it is a potential therapeutic option for patients with MPS IVA.

  8. Current and future treatment options in osteoporosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brewer, Linda

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The incidence of osteoporosis-related fractures will increase substantially over the coming decades as the population ages globally. This has important economic and public health implications, contributing substantially to morbidity and excess mortality in this population. METHODS: When prescribing for older patients the effectiveness profile of drugs needs to be balanced against their tolerability in individual patients. RESULTS: Currently we have good anti-fracture data to support the use of many available anti-resorptive and anabolic drugs including bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate and recombinant human parathyroid hormone. We also have evidence to demonstrate the importance of calcium and vitamin D repletion in these patients. However, in recent years our understanding of normal bone physiology and the mechanisms underlying the development of osteoporosis has significantly advanced and this has led to the development of new therapies. Novel agents, particularly denosumab, but also inhibitors of cathepsin K and anabolic agents that act on Wnt signalling, will increase the therapeutic options for clinicians in the coming years. CONCLUSION: This review discusses the evidence supporting the use of currently available treatment options for osteoporosis and potential future advances in drug therapy. Particular consideration should be given when prescribing for certain older patients who have issues with compliance or tolerance and also in those with co-morbidities or levels of frailty that may restrict the choice of therapy. Understanding the evidence for the benefit and possible harm of osteoporosis treatments is critical to appropriate management of this patient population.

  9. Treatment options for females with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila M. Quinn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hormon therapy of the female Kallmann’s Syndrome patient in the setting of a pulmonary embolism presents a challenge. A female with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is usually presented with two treatment options - combined gonadal hormone replacement or pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone. When a patient incurs a contraindication to hormonal therapy, the management of their endocrine disorder becomes much more challenging. Providers and patients must consider the advantages and disadvantages to each treatment option, including the possibility of not treating at all. Given the lack of literature on this rare combination of events, herein we review Kallmann’s Syndrome and its therapeutic options, as well as the hypercoagulability associated with hormone therapy to guide our decision-making process in a true case scenario.

  10. Therapeutic Recreation Practicum Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegas, Kay

    This manual provides information on the practicum program offered by Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) for students in its therapeutic recreation program. Sections I and II outline the rationale and goals for providing practical, on-the-job work experiences for therapeutic recreation students. Section III specifies MVCC's responsibilities…

  11. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  12. Recovering risk aversion from options

    OpenAIRE

    Bliss, Robert R.; Nikolaos Panigirtzoglou

    2001-01-01

    Cross-sections of option prices embed the risk-neutral probability densities functions (PDFs) for the future values of the underlying asset. Theory suggests that risk-neutral PDFs differ from market expectations due to risk premia. Using a utility function to adjust the risk-neutral PDF to produce subjective PDFs, we can obtain measures of the risk aversion implied in option prices. Using FTSE 100 and S&P 500 options, and both power and exponential utility functions, we show that subjective P...

  13. PHOTOPROTECTIVE ANTIOXIDANT PHYTOCHEMICALS

    OpenAIRE

    Deore, Sharada L.; Saroj Kombade; Baviskar, Bhushan A.; Khadabadi, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Many ayurvedic natural products have properties to rejuvenate and protect the skin from environmental pollution, chemicals, atmospheric temperature fluctuation, UVA and UVB radiation, wrinkling, hyperpigmentation (excessive tanning) and inflammation. The present review focuses on properties and mechanism of action of photoprotective antioxidant phytoconstituents obtained from ayurvedic plants such as flavonoids, carotenoids, phenolics which can be useful in development of effective photoprote...

  14. Antioxidant effects of carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, R. van den; Berg, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Surprisingly, neither the precise pharmacological effect nor the toxicological profile is usually established for food components. Carotenoids are no exception in this regard. Only limited insight into the pharmacology and toxicology of carotenoids exists. It is known that the antioxidant action of

  15. Antioxidant System in Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Şemsettin Karaca; Hüsna Güder

    2009-01-01

    In healthy body, oxygen species and antioxidant defence mechanisms work in balance. Overproduction or inadequate removal of reactive oxygen species result in oxidative stress, leading to lipid peroxidation, DNA mutation or breakage, activation or inactivation of enzymes, protein oxidation. Clinically, these cause several unfavorable effects included erythema, edema, wrinkles, photoaging, inflammation, autoimmune reactions, hipersensitivity reactions, keratinization disorders, neoplastic or pr...

  16. Cytokines and therapeutic oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G; Bidlingmaier, M; Eigler, A; Hacker, U; Endres, S

    1997-12-01

    Therapeutic oligonucleotides - short strands of synthetic nucleic acids - encompass antisense and aptamer oligonucleotides. Antisense oligonucleotides are designed to bind to target RNA by complementary base pairing and to inhibit translation of the target protein. Antisense oligonucleotides enable specific inhibition of cytokine synthesis. In contrast, aptamer oligonucleotides are able to bind directly to specific proteins. This binding depends on the sequence of the oligonucleotide. Aptamer oligonucleotides with CpG motifs can exert strong immunostimulatory effects. Both kinds of therapeutic oligonucleotides - antisense and aptamer oligonucleotides - provide promising tools to modulate immunological functions. Recently, therapeutic oligonucleotides have moved towards clinical application. An antisense oligonucleotide directed against the proinflammatory intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is currently being tested in clinical trials for therapy of inflammatory disease. Immunostimulatory aptamer oligonucleotides are in preclinical development for immunotherapy. In the present review we summarize the application of therapeutic oligonucleotides to modulate immunological functions. We include technological aspects as well as current therapeutic concepts and clinical studies. PMID:9740353

  17. Antioxidative and renoprotective effects of residue polysaccharides from Flammulina velutipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Cui, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianjun; Gao, Xia; Zhou, Meng; Xu, Nuo; Zhao, Huajie; Liu, Min; Zhang, Chen; Jia, Le

    2016-08-01

    Three extractable polysaccharides including Ac-RPS, Al-RPS and En-RPS were extracted from the residue of Flammulina velutipes and their antioxidative and renoprotective effects on STZ-induced mice were investigated. Biochemical and antioxidant analysis showed that the En-RPS had potential effects in decreasing the serum levels of CRE, BUN, ALB and GLU significantly, increasing the renal activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px remarkably, and reducing the renal contents of MDA prominently. Furthermore, the histopathological observations also displayed that En-RPS could alleviate kidney damage. These results demonstrated that En-RPS extracted from the residue of F. velutipes possessed potent antioxidant activities, and could be used as a promising therapeutic agent for inhibiting the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In addition, the monosaccharide compositions of these three RPS were also analyzed. PMID:27112888

  18. FS65 Disposition Option Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenz, Tracy R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-25

    This report outlines the options for dispositioning the MOX fuel stored in FS65 containers at LANL. Additional discussion regarding the support equipment for loading and unloading the FS65 transport containers is included at the end of the report.

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Melanoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Melanoma Key ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  3. Option compensation and industry competition

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, KP; Stoughton, NM

    2009-01-01

    Compensation policy has become one of the most important ingredients of corporate governance. In this paper we take a new look at the issue, by contrasting the use of options with that of stock. We do this by integrating the repricing or resetting aspect of options with that of industrial structure. We show that industry competition may play an important role in dictating which form of compensation is optimal. When aggressive competition for key professional staff is an issue, the flexibility...

  4. Semigroup theory applied to options

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Báez, D. I.; González-Rodríguez, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Black and Scholes (1973) proved that under certain assumptions about the market place, the value of a European option, as a function of the current value of the underlying asset and time, verifies a Cauchy problem. We give new conditions for the existence and uniqueness of the value of a European option by using semigroup theory. For this, we choose a suitable space that verifies some conditions, what allows us that the operator that appears in the Cauchy problem is the infinitesimal gener...

  5. Option pricing with Levy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Benhamou

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we assume that log returns can be modelled by a Levy process. We give explicit formulae for option prices by means of the Fourier transform. We explain how to infer the characteristics of the Levy process from option prices. This enables us to generate an implicit volatility surface implied by market data. This model is of particular interest since it extends the seminal Black Scholes [1973] model consistently with volatility smile.

  6. Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pavlátka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.

  7. Curcumin Stimulates the Antioxidant Mechanisms in Mouse Skin Exposed to Fractionated γ-Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh Chandra Jagetia; Golgod Krishnamurthy Rajanikant

    2015-01-01

    Fractionated irradiation is one of the important radiotherapy regimens to treat different types of neoplasia. Despite of the immense therapeutic gains accrued by delivering fractionated irradiation to tumors, the radiation burden on skin increases significantly. Low doses of irradiation to skin adversely affect its molecular and metabolic status. The use of antioxidant/s may help to alleviate the radiation-induced changes in the skin and allow delivering a higher dose of radiation to attain b...

  8. Investigation of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Methanol Extract and Fractions of Ballota limbata (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Waheed, I.; Ahmad, M.(National Centre for Physics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan); N-H. Syed; Romeeza Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Ballota limbata (Lamiaceae) has been used for its antispasmodic, antiulcer, diuretic, vermifuge and sedative effects in folk medicine. However, little is known about how does it work to produce these therapeutic actions. Present research investigated phytochemical components and antioxidant properties of methanol extract and different fractions of Ballota limbata. In this study, phytochemical investigation was done by performing different chemical tests. Here, antioxidant property of the extr...

  9. Antioxidant activity and protective effect against oxidative hemolysis of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f) Lindau.

    OpenAIRE

    Chantana Aromdee; Bunkerd Kongyingyoes; Pisamai Laupattarakasem; Upa Kukongviriyapan; Veerapol Kukongviriyapan; Patchareewan Pannangpetch

    2007-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative damage to cell components has an important pathophysiological role in many human diseases. The free radicals formed in cells can readily attack protein, DNA and unsaturated lipids resulting in their loss of function and damage. Red blood cells are highly susceptibleto oxidative damage which results in cell lysis. A natural antioxidant could be a potential therapeutic intervention. Thus, we examined the antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus nutans (CN...

  10. Clinacanthus nutans Extracts Are Antioxidant with Antiproliferative Effect on Cultured Human Cancer Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Yoke Keong Yong; Jun Jie Tan; Soek Sin Teh; Siau Hui Mah; Gwendoline Cheng Lian Ee; Hoe Siong Chiong; Zuraini Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (CN) have been used in traditional medicine but the therapeutic potential has not been explored for cancer prevention and treatment. Current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of CN, extracted in chloroform, methanol, and water, on cancer cell lines. Antioxidant properties of CN were evaluated using DPPH, galvinoxyl, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide based radical scavenging assays, whereas the tumoricidal effect was teste...

  11. Yucca: A medicinally significant genus with manifold therapeutic attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The genus Yucca comprising of several species is dominant across the chaparrals, canyons and deserts of American South West and Mexico. This genus has long been a source of sustenance and drugs for the Native Americans. In the wake of revived interest in drug discovery from plant sources, this genus has been investigated and startling nutritive and therapeutic capacities have come forth. Apart from the functional food potential, antioxidant, antiinflammation, antiarthritic, anticancer, antidi...

  12. Structural, Chemical and Biological Aspects of Antioxidants for Strategies Against Metal and Metalloid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J. S. Flora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of exposure to heavy metals/metalloid. Beneficial renal effects of some medications, such as chelation therapy depend at least partially on the ability to alleviate oxidative stress. The administration of various natural or synthetic antioxidants has been shown to be of benefit in the prevention and attenuation of metal induced biochemical alterations. These include vitamins, N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, melatonin, dietary flavonoids and many others. Human studies are limited in this regard. Under certain conditions, surprisingly, the antioxidant supplements may exhibit pro-oxidant properties and even worsen metal induced toxic damage. To date, the evidence is insufficient to recommend antioxidant supplements in subject with exposure to metals. Prospective, controlled clinical trials on safety and effectiveness of different therapeutic antioxidant strategies either individually or in combination with chelating agent are indispensable. The present review focuses on structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants particularly related to their chelating properties.

  13. Effect of combined Antioxidants on Acute Myocardial infarction size

    OpenAIRE

    B.Farahani; K.Hadiyan; A.Mohseni

    2001-01-01

    SummaryBackground and purpose : The role of oxygen-derived free radicals in destruction of myocardial cells during acute ischemia or reperfusion has been proved. This phenomenon made the workers to study and find the inhibitory therapeutic methods in order to reduce the myocardial cell destruction during acute myocardial infarction. This study evaluates the role of combined antioxidants on acute myocardial infarction sige in patients referring to vali asr hospital of Arak.Materials and Method...

  14. Role of Antioxidants in the Treatment of Burn Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jawad, F.H.; Sahib, A.S.; Al-Kaisy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Burns are a major health problem worldwide, with high mortality and morbidity in addition to causing changes in the quality of life of burn patients. Utilizing antioxidant therapeutic strategies depending on new mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of burns-related "oxidative stress" may be considered a promising step in burns management. This study involved 180 burn patients of varying age and either sex and with varying burns percentages. The patients were subdivided into six groups (A, ...

  15. Phytochemical profile, toxicity and antioxidant activity of Aloysia gratissima (Verbenaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia B. Zeni; Cláudia Almeida C. de Albuquerque; Filipe Gonçalves; Alexandra Latini; Carla I. Tasca; Rossana Podestá; Cristiane M. Pagliosa; Filipe S. Duarte; Thereza C. M. de Lima; Marcelo Maraschin

    2013-01-01

    Aloysia gratissima (Gill. et Hook) Tronc. (Verbenaceae) is native to South America with folk therapeutic applications for a wide range of diseases. The polyphenolic and carotenoid profile, toxicity, and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Aloysia gratissima were investigated. HPLC analyses showed high amounts of ferulic acid, trans-cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, and also trans-β- carotene and lutein which fluctuated throughout the seasons. Furthermore, the extract investigated...

  16. Engineering antibody therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mark L; Gilliland, Gary L

    2016-06-01

    The successful introduction of antibody-based protein therapeutics into the arsenal of treatments for patients has within a few decades fostered intense innovation in the production and engineering of antibodies. Reviewed here are the methods currently used to produce antibodies along with how our knowledge of the structural and functional characterization of immunoglobulins has resulted in the engineering of antibodies to produce protein therapeutics with unique properties, both biological and biophysical, that are leading to novel therapeutic approaches. Antibody engineering includes the introduction of the antibody combining site (variable regions) into a host of architectures including bi and multi-specific formats that further impact the therapeutic properties leading to further advantages and successes in patient treatment. PMID:27525816

  17. Health Promotion by Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyoku Nishino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Background: Various antioxidnats from daily foods are expected to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. For example, natural carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin seems to be a promising antioxidant, and based upon epidemiological data it was shown to be a possible cancer preventing agent. For this reason, we chose to study beta-cryptoxanthin more extensively.Methods and Results: From the result of clinical trial using beta-cryptoxanthin-enriched Mandarin orange juice, it was proven to potentiate the preventive activity of multi-carotenoid mixture against liver cancer in the patients with chronic viral hepatitis-induced liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, beta-cryptoxanthin also has preventive activity against alcohol-induced gamma-GTP elevation, and obesity.Conclusion: An antioxidant beta -cryptoxanthin seems to be valuable for health promotion.

  18. Feedback options in nonlinear numerical finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hugger, Jens; Mashayekhi, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Feedback options are options where information about the trading of the underlying asset is fed back into the pricing model. This results in nonlinear pricing models. A survey of the literature about feedback options in finance is presented. The pricing model for the full feedback option on an in......Feedback options are options where information about the trading of the underlying asset is fed back into the pricing model. This results in nonlinear pricing models. A survey of the literature about feedback options in finance is presented. The pricing model for the full feedback option...

  19. Neuropeptides as therapeutic targets in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, En-Ju D

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the classical neurotransmitters, neuropeptides represent an important class of modulators for affective behaviors and associated disorders, such as anxiety disorders. Many neuropeptides are abundantly expressed in brain regions involved in emotional processing and anxiety behaviors. Moreover, risk factors for anxiety disorders such as stress modulate the expression of various neuropeptides in the brain. Due to the high prevalence of anxiety disorders and yet limited treatment options, there is a clear need for more effective therapeutics. In this regard, the various neuropeptides represent exciting candidates for new therapeutic designs. In this review, I will provide an up-to-date summary on the evidences for the involvement of seven neuropeptides in anxiety: corticotropin-releasing factor, urocortins, vasopressin, oxytocin, substance P, neuropeptide Y and galanin. This review will cover the behavioral effects of these neuropeptides in animal models of anxiety by both genetic and pharmacological manipulations. Human studies indicating a role for these neuropeptides in anxiety disorders will also be discussed.

  20. PHOTOPROTECTIVE ANTIOXIDANT PHYTOCHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada L Deore

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Many ayurvedic natural products have properties to rejuvenate and protect the skin from environmental pollution, chemicals, atmospheric temperature fluctuation, UVA and UVB radiation, wrinkling, hyperpigmentation (excessive tanning and inflammation. The present review focuses on properties and mechanism of action of photoprotective antioxidant phytoconstituents obtained from ayurvedic plants such as flavonoids, carotenoids, phenolics which can be useful in development of effective photoprotective herbal cosmetic formulation.

  1. Is antioxidant therapy a viable alternative for mild cognitive impairment? Examination of the evidence. : Antioxidant therapy and cognitive decline

    OpenAIRE

    Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Christen, Yves; Ritchie, Karen

    2007-01-01

    International audience Therapeutic interventions for the prodromal stages of dementia are currently being sought with a view to delaying if not preventing disease onset. Uncertainty as to whether cognitive disorder in a given individual will progress towards dementia and adverse drug side effects has led to hesitancy on the part of drug regulators to instigate preventive pharmacotherapies. In this context, antioxidant therapies may provide a low-risk alternative, targeting very early biolo...

  2. Antimutagenic Profile of Antioxidant Vitamins in Drosophila Mulation Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.K.KHAN; S.P.SINHA

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the antimutagenicity of antioxidant vitamins(vitamins A,C,and E)as expressed by their efficacy to of X-chromosome linked recessive lethal mutations(XRLMs)in Drosophila.Larvae were exposed to dietary concentration of aflatoxins and/or the human therapeutic doses of any ofthe three antioxidant vitamins. Absence of normal eyedmales among M2 progeny gave an indication of mutation induction. Results Aflatoxin supplimentation significantly increased the incidence of XRLMs in Drosophila.Mutation frequency was also raised a little above the control level in case of vitamin treatment.However,notable mitigation in mutation frequency was registered when aflatoxin-treated larvae were concomitantly fed with any of the three antioxidant vitamins.Conclusion Aflatoxin exposure can enhance the frequency of gene mutation in Drosophila which is significantly lowered by each of the three antioxidant vitamins.The degree of amelioration produced by them is almost identical.This mitigation is based on the scavenging/trapping by antioxidant vitamins of DNA-reactive products (metabolites and radicals)emanating from aflatoxin metabofism.

  3. Oxidants, antioxidants and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gibanananda; Husain, Syed Akhtar

    2002-11-01

    Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), such as superoxide anions (O2*-) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (*OH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) are directly or indirectly involved in multistage process of carcinogenesis. They are mainly involved in DNA damage leading sometimes to mutations in tumour suppressor genes. They also act as initiator and/or promotor in carcinogenesis. Some of them are mutagenic in mammalian systems. O2*-, H2O2 and *OH are reported to be involved in higher frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosome breaks and gaps (CBGs). MDA, a bi-product of lipid peroxidation (LPO), is said to be involved in DNA adduct formations, which are believed to be responsible for carcinogenesis. NO, on the other hand, plays a duel role in cancer. At high concentration it kills tumour cells, but at low concentration it promotes tumour growth and metastasis. It causes DNA single and double strand breaks. The metabolites of NO such as peroxynitrite (OONO-) is a potent mutagen that can induce transversion mutations. NO can stimulate O2*-/H2O2/*OH-induced LPO. These deleterious actions of oxidants can be countered by antioxidant defence system in humans. There are first line defense antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). SOD converts O2*- to H2O2, which is further converted to H2O with the help of GPx and CAT. SOD inhibits *OH production. SOD also act as antipoliferative agent, anticarcinogens, and inhibitor at initiation and promotion/transformation stage in carcinogenesis. GPx is another antioxidative enzyme which catalyses to convert H2O2, to H2O. The most potent enzyme is CAT. GPx and CAT are important in the inactivation of many environmental mutagens. CAT is also found to reduce the SCE levels and chromosomal aberrations. Antioxidative vitamins such as vitamin A, E, and C have a number of biological activities such as immune stimulation, inhibition of

  4. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  5. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  6. Radiolanthanides in therapeutic nuclear oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolanthanides such as Holmium-166 (T1/2 26.8h), Samarium-153 (T1/2 46.3h) and Lutetium-177 (T1/2 6.7 days) all have beta emissions suitable for radiopharmaceutical therapy, bone marrow ablation and for pain palliation of skeletal metastases. They also emit gamma photons of energies which permit quantitative imaging on conventional gamma cameras which facilitates calculation of dosimetry in individual patients. The range of half-lives has the potential to match the irradiation of tumour cells to the residence time of the radiopharmaceutical thus minimising radiotoxicity to normal tissues. Relative ease and low cost of production of these radiolanthanides in rectors such as HIFAR at ANSTO render radiolanthanides a practical option for radiopharmaceutical treatment of cancer for patients in whom conventional therapy has failed. Radioimmunotherapy of cancer using various monoclonal antibodies targeted to specific tumor-cell antigens has been performed with Samarium-153, Holmium-166 and Lutetium-177-labelled antibodies in human tumor xenographs in nude mice and in clinical trials. The development of a large animal model of human cancer will be described, in particular in relation to improving the accuracy of prediction of dosimetry and preclinical evaluation of efficacy and toxicity of radiolanthanides in therapeutic nuclear oncology

  7. Option valuation for energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many industrial and economic situations, decision processes, both individual and collective, have to simultaneously face uncertainty and irreversibility of some kind. This is particularly valid for energy choices if they are linked to technological alternatives. The purpose of this book is to highlight specific aspects of these situations. This is done from the particular perspective of option valuation. The contributions to this book grew out of an international workshop on ''Option valuation in energy and environmental issues'' held at the Fraunhofer ISI in February 2003. This workshop brought together reseachers from energy economics, but also researchers working on option valuation in other empirical fields or with a more theoretical perspective. This is reflected in the organisation of the book, which starts with some theory-oriented contributions and subsequently presents more applied contributions in the field of energy economics with an extension to water infrastructure in the annex. (orig.)

  8. Investment opportunities as real options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Rovčanin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity (optional approach to capital investment appraisal represents, completely new theoretical and methodological framework for investment analysis. Compared to traditional, discount cash flow (DCF model of analysis, the optional approach provides opportunity for valuation and managing flexibility, i.e. possibility of approaching (amending the previous decisions in compliance with market changes. Risk and uncertainty are inevitably following the capital investment. Therefore, the importance of optional approach to investments is also that it provides possible better “treatment” of risks in the investment analysis, and also more rational allocation of resources, accordingly. This approach should be of more interest to the Countries in transition, considering the limited financial sources as well as risk and uncertainty are emphasized.

  9. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  10. Semigroup theory applied to options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Cruz-Báez

    2002-01-01

    function of the current value of the underlying asset and time, verifies a Cauchy problem. We give new conditions for the existence and uniqueness of the value of a European option by using semigroup theory. For this, we choose a suitable space that verifies some conditions, what allows us that the operator that appears in the Cauchy problem is the infinitesimal generator of a C0-semigroup T(t. Then we are able to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of the value of a European option and we also achieve an explicit expression of that value.

  11. Disposition Options for Uranium-233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program (MD), in support of the U.S. arms-control and nonproliferation policies, has initiated a program to disposition surplus weapons-usable fissile material by making it inaccessible and unattractive for use in nuclear weapons. Weapons-usable fissile materials include plutonium, high-enriched uranium (HEU), and uranium-233 (sup 233)U. In support of this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory led DOE's contractor efforts to identify and characterize options for the long-term storage and disposal of excess (sup 233)U. Five storage and 17 disposal options were identified and are described herein

  12. New options in the management of tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Maffulli

    2010-03-01

    lesion, but act only to denervate them. They include endoscopy, electrocoagulation, and minimally invasive stripping. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary to clarify better the best therapeutic options for the management of tendinopathy.Keywords: tendon, tendinopathy, management, injections, surgery, sports

  13. Emerging therapy options in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ranjit K; Khanal, Nabin; Giri, Smith; Pathak, Ranjan; Bhatt, Vijaya R

    2014-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a life and limb-threatening thrombotic complication of heparin, which is the result of platelet activation by anti-PF4/heparin antibodies. With lepirudin and danaparoid no longer available in the US, treatment options are limited to argatroban, fondaparinux (off-label use) and bivalirudin (for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention). Both argatroban and bivalirudin are parenteral drugs and require close monitoring and hospitalization. Fondaparinux is contraindicated in patients with significant renal impairment and is associated with a small risk of HIT. Anticoagulants approved for thromboprophylaxis and management of thromboembolic conditions such as rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and apixaban have fixed oral dose, rapid onset of action and does not require monitoring. These novel agents do not interact with anti-PF4/heparin antibody and offer attractive therapy options for HIT. Their utility in HIT has been supported by a few clinical reports, however, larger studies are needed before they can be utilized in clinical practice. Therapeutic plasma exchange has been utilized with some success in patients with HIT, who need heparin reexposure for cardiac surgery but their safety and efficacy needs further exploration. 2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin, which lacks any anticoagulant effect, has been shown to reduce the development of HIT in murine models. Finally, novel targets based on the molecular pathogenesis of HIT are being studied for therapeutic drug development. We hope that the availability of novel therapies in the future will expand the options available for the management of HIT. PMID:25374012

  14. THE STRATEGIC OPTIONS IN INVESTMENT PROJECTS VALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA SĂCUI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The topic of real options applies the option valuation techniques to capital budgeting exercises in which a project is coupled with a put or call option. In many project valuation settings, the firm has one or more options to make strategic changes to the project during its life. These strategic options, which are known as real options, are typically ignored in standard discounted cash-flow analysis where a single expected present value is computed. This paper presents the types of real options that are met in economic activity.

  15. Impact of Antioxidants on Cardiolipin Oxidation in Liposomes: Why Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Serves as an Apoptotic Signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhmatikov, Alexey V.; Voskoboynikova, Natalia; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Skulachev, Maxim V.; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Skulachev, Vladimir P.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Molecules of mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) get selectively oxidized upon oxidative stress, which triggers the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a chemical model most closely resembling the mitochondrial membrane—liposomes of pure bovine heart CL—we compared ubiquinol-10, ubiquinol-6, and alpha-tocopherol, the most widespread naturally occurring antioxidants, with man-made, quinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of an azo initiator in the absence and presence of diverse antioxidants, respectively. The kinetics of CL oxidation was monitored via formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm. We found that natural ubiquinols and ubiquinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants were equally efficient in protecting CL liposomes from peroxidation; the chromanol-based antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol, were 2-3 times less efficient. Amphiphilic antioxidants, but not natural ubiquinols and alpha-tocopherol, were able, additionally, to protect the CL bilayer from oxidation by acting from the water phase. We suggest that the previously reported therapeutic efficiency of mitochondrially targeted amphiphilic antioxidants is owing to their ability to protect those CL molecules that are inaccessible to natural hydrophobic antioxidants, being trapped within respiratory supercomplexes. The high susceptibility of such occluded CL molecules to oxidation may have prompted their recruitment as apoptotic signaling molecules by nature. PMID:27313834

  16. Solomon Islands : Health Financing Options

    OpenAIRE

    Somanathan, Aparnaa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this Policy Note is to provide an assessment of available options for financing health care in the Solomon Islands. In doing so, the analysis will factor in the country-specific economic, social and political factors, which will ultimately influence the performance of the health financing mechanisms. The Note was motivated by the Solomon Islands Government s (SIG) interest...

  17. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  19. Pluristem Therapeutics, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, William

    2008-01-01

    Pluristem Therapeutics, Inc., based in Haifa, Israel, is a regenerative, biotherapeutics Company dedicated to the commercialization of nonpersonalized (allogeneic) cell therapy products. The Company is expanding noncontroversial placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells via a proprietary 3D process, named PluriX, into therapeutics for a variety of degenerative, malignant and autoimmune disorders. Pluristem will be conducting Phase I trials in the USA with its first product, PLX-I, which addresses the global shortfall of matched tissue for bone marrow transplantation by improving the engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells contained in umbilical cord blood. PMID:18154467

  20. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  1. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by usi...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  2. Options, the Value of Capital, and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Abel; Dixit, Avinash K; Janice C. Eberly; Robert S. Pindyck

    1995-01-01

    Capital investment decisions must recognize the limitations on the firm's ability later to sell off or expand capacity. This paper shows how opportunities for future expansion or contraction can be valued as options, how this valuation relates to the q-theory of investment, and how these options affect the incentive to invest. Generally, the option to expand reduces the incentive to invest, while the option to disinvest raises it. We show how these options interact to determine the effect of ...

  3. Osteodistrofias do Osso Temporal: Revisão dos Conceitos Atuais, Manifestações Clínicas e Opções Terapêuticas Osteodysplasia of the Temporal Bone: Up-date Concepts, Clinical Presentations and Therapeutic Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Laércio M. Cruz

    Full Text Available Sob a designação de osteodistrofias do osso temporal, podemos encontrar uma série de doenças que apresentam em comum a desorganização da arquitetura ou da composição do tecido ósseo. A otospongiose é, com larga margem, a osteodistrofia mais comum nessa localização e suas alterações, repercussões clínicas e tratamentos são amplamente discutidos na literatura. Entretanto, formas menos freqüentes, como a displasia fibrosa e a osteogênese imperfeita, não são entidades raras e merecem atenção. Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir essas formas menos comuns de osteodistrofia do temporal através de uma revisão sobre os conceitos atuais dessas entidades, da apresentação de três exemplos clínicos e a discussão sobre opções de tratamento.Osteodysplasia of the temporal bone included a significant amount of osseous diseases sharing bone matrix structural and composition damage. Otospongiosis is, by far, the most frequent form of this involvement in the temporal bone. Nevertheless, fibrous dysplasia and osteogenesis imperfecta are not rare and deserve attention. In this article, the authors present a discussion about the recent concepts of those less frequent forms of osteodysplasia of temporal bone, its options of treatment, illustrated with three clinical cases.

  4. Fingerprinting antioxidative activities in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plieth Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plethora of concurrent cellular activities is mobilised in the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. This response can be quantified by physiological experiments or metabolic profiling. The intention of this work is to reduce the number of metabolic processes studied to a minimum of relevant parameters with a maximum yield of information. Therefore, we inspected 'summary parameters' characteristic for whole classes of antioxidative metabolites and key enzymes. Results Three bioluminescence assays are presented. A horseradish peroxidase-based total antioxidative capacity (TAC assay is used to probe low molecular weight antioxidants. Peroxidases are quantified by their luminol converting activity (LUPO. Finally, we quantify high molecular weight superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOSA using coelenterazine. Experiments with Lepidium sativum L. show how salt, drought, cold, and heat influence the antioxidative system represented here by TAC, LUPO, SOSA, catalase, and glutathione reductase (GR. LUPO and SOSA run anti-parallel under all investigated stress conditions suggesting shifts in antioxidative functions rather than formation of antioxidative power. TAC runs in parallel with GR. This indicates that a majority of low molecular weight antioxidants in plants is represented by glutathione. Conclusion The set of assays presented here is capable of characterising antioxidative activities in plants. It is inexpensive, quick and reproducible and delivers quantitative data. 'Summary parameters' like TAC, LUPO, and SOSA are quantitative traits which may be promising for implementation in high-throughput screening for robustness of novel mutants, transgenics, or breeds.

  5. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  6. Current options for the treatment of pathological scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetschke, Julian; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-05-01

    Scarring is the consequence of surgery, trauma or different skin diseases. Apart from fresh, immature scars,that transform into mature scars over the course of would healing and that do not require further treatment,linear hypertrophic scars, widespread hypertrophic scars, keloids and atrophic scars exist. Symptoms like pruritusand pain, stigmatization as well as functional and aesthetic impairments that are very disturbing for the affected patients can bethe basis for the desire for treatment. Today, a multitude of options for the treatment and prevention of scars exists. Topical agents based on silicone or onion extract, intralesional injections of cristalline glucocorticoids (oftentimes in combinationwith cryotherapy) or 5-Fluorouracil as well as ablative and nonablative laser treatment are used. Current guidelines summarize the multitude of available treatment options and the currently available datafor the treating physicians, allowing them to make clear therapy recommendations for every single scar type. Relieving patients of their discomfort and doing their aesthetic demands justice is thus possible. Apart from scar prevention becoming more and more important, the increased use of modernlaser treatment options constitutes a key point in clinical scar treatment. At the same time the attention is turned to evaluating current therapeutic options with the help of contemporary study designs so as to graduallyimprove the level of evidence in scar treatment. PMID:27119465

  7. Antioxidant relevance to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous.

  8. Implementation of power barrier option valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, Agatha C. P.; Sumarti, Novriana

    2015-09-01

    Options are financial instruments that can be utilized to reduce risk in stock investment. Barrier options are one of the major types of options actively used in financial markets where its life period depends on the path of the underlying stock prices. The features of the barrier option can be used to modify other types of options. In this research, the barrier option will be implemented into power option, so it is called power barrier option. This option is an extension of the vanilla barrier options where the Call payoff being considered is defined as P C =max (STβ-Kβ,0 ) , and the Put payoff being considered is defined as P P =max (Kβ-STβ,0 ) . Here β > 0 and β ≠ 1, K is the strike price of the option, and ST is the price of the underlying stock at time maturity T. In this paper, we generate the prices of stock using binomial method which is adjusted to the power option. In the conclusion, the price of American power barrier option is more expensive than the price of European power barrier option.

  9. Antioxidant and Anti-Cancer Potentials of Rheum emodi Rhizome Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatadri Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant and cytotoxic efficacies of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meissn. rhizome. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation and Fe3+ reducing antioxidant property have been used to investigate antioxidant properties of the extracts. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested on MDA-MB-435S and Hep3B cell lines. Both extracts displayed extensive cytotoxicity to the tested cell lines. The extracts were studied for their ability to protect pBR322 DNA from damage by UV induced photolysis of H2O2. The aqueous extract, though inferior to methanolic extract in its antioxidant potential exhibited efficiency in DNA protection, while the methanolic extract failed to protect the DNA. The amount of total polyphenolics in the extracts was measured by spectrophotometric method. The methanolic extract contained higher polyphenolic contents than aqueous extract. Significant positive correlations were observed (P < .05 between results of phenolic content estimation and that of antioxidant assays. Hence, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed to identify few major phenolic compounds that might be responsible for these therapeutic properties. These results indicate that rhizome of R. emodi possesses antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and therefore have therapeutic potential.

  10. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  11. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  12. Path Integral and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analytically study the problem of pricing an arithmetically averaged Asian option in the path integral formalism. By a trick about the Dirac delta function, the measure of the path integral is defined by an effective action functional whose potential term is an exponential function. This path integral is evaluated by use of the Feynman-Kac theorem. After working out some auxiliary integrations involving Bessel and Whittaker functions, we arrive at the spectral expansion for t...

  13. Option values and flexibility preference

    OpenAIRE

    Strazzera, Elisabetta

    1998-01-01

    Preference for flexibility is a behavioral attitude displayed by people that prefer reversible to irreversible actions, and that are willing to pay a premium in order to maintain the possibility of changing their decision. This paper provides a functional characterization of preference for flexibility, based on the notion of option value. The proposed theory is shown to be useful to explain the success of marketing policies that guarantee reimbursement in consumption goods and financial marke...

  14. Issues in hedging options positions

    OpenAIRE

    Saikat Nandi; Waggoner, Daniel F.

    2000-01-01

    Many financial institutions hold derivative securities in their portfolios, and frequently these securities need to be hedged for extended periods of time. Failure to hedge properly can expose an institution to sudden swings in the values of derivatives, such as options, resulting from large, unanticipated changes in the levels or volatilities of the underlying asset. Understanding the basic techniques employed for hedging derivative securities and their advantages and pitfalls is therefore o...

  15. Options for Steam Generator Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selecting the best option for decommissioning steam generators is a key consideration in preparing for decommissioning PWR nuclear power plants. Steam Generators represent a discrete waste stream of large, complex items that can lend themselves to a variety of options for handling, treatment, recycling and disposal. Studsvik has significant experience in processing full size Steam Generators at its metal recycling facility in Sweden, and this paper will introduce the Studsvik steam generator treatment concept and the results achieved to date across a number of projects. The paper will outline the important parameters needed at an early stage to assess options and to help consider the balance between off-site and on-site treatment solutions, and the role of prior decontamination techniques. The paper also outlines the use of feasibility studies and demonstration projects that have been used to help customers prepare for decommissioning. The paper discusses physical, radiological and operational history data, Pro and Contra factors for on- and off-site treatment, the role of chemical decontamination prior to treatment, planning for off-site shipments as well as Studsvik experience This paper has an original focus upon the coming challenges of steam generator decommissioning and potential external treatment capacity constraints in the medium term. It also focuses on the potential during operations or initial shut-down to develop robust plans for steam generator management. (authors)

  16. Therapeutic Strategies in HCC: Radiation Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallicchio, R.; Nardelli, A.; Mainenti, P.; Nappi, A.; Capacchione, D.; Simeon, V.; Sirignano, C.; Abbruzzi, F.; Barbato, F.; Landriscina, M.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) comply with an advanced disease and are not eligible for radical therapy. In this distressed scenario new treatment options hold great promise; among them transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and transarterial metabolic radiotherapy (TAMR) have shown efficacy in terms of both tumor shrinking and survival. External radiation therapy (RTx) by using novel three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy has also been used for HCC patients with encouraging results while its role had been limited in the past for the low tolerance of surrounding healthy liver. The rationale of TAMR derives from the idea of delivering exceptional radiation dose locally to the tumor, with cell killing intent, while preserving normal liver from undue exposition and minimizing systemic irradiation. Since the therapeutic efficacy of TACE is being continuously disputed, the TAMR with 131I Lipiodol or 90Y microspheres has gained consideration providing adequate therapeutic responses regardless of few toxicities. The implementation of novel radioisotopes and technological innovations in the field of RTx constitutes an intriguing field of research with important translational aspects. Moreover, the combination of different therapeutic approaches including chemotherapy offers captivating perspectives. We present the role of the radiation-based therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma patients who are not entitled for radical treatment. PMID:27563661

  17. Therapeutic Strategies in HCC: Radiation Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gallicchio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC comply with an advanced disease and are not eligible for radical therapy. In this distressed scenario new treatment options hold great promise; among them transarterial chemoembolization (TACE and transarterial metabolic radiotherapy (TAMR have shown efficacy in terms of both tumor shrinking and survival. External radiation therapy (RTx by using novel three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy has also been used for HCC patients with encouraging results while its role had been limited in the past for the low tolerance of surrounding healthy liver. The rationale of TAMR derives from the idea of delivering exceptional radiation dose locally to the tumor, with cell killing intent, while preserving normal liver from undue exposition and minimizing systemic irradiation. Since the therapeutic efficacy of TACE is being continuously disputed, the TAMR with 131I Lipiodol or 90Y microspheres has gained consideration providing adequate therapeutic responses regardless of few toxicities. The implementation of novel radioisotopes and technological innovations in the field of RTx constitutes an intriguing field of research with important translational aspects. Moreover, the combination of different therapeutic approaches including chemotherapy offers captivating perspectives. We present the role of the radiation-based therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma patients who are not entitled for radical treatment.

  18. Therapeutic Strategies in HCC: Radiation Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallicchio, R; Nardelli, A; Mainenti, P; Nappi, A; Capacchione, D; Simeon, V; Sirignano, C; Abbruzzi, F; Barbato, F; Landriscina, M; Storto, G

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) comply with an advanced disease and are not eligible for radical therapy. In this distressed scenario new treatment options hold great promise; among them transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and transarterial metabolic radiotherapy (TAMR) have shown efficacy in terms of both tumor shrinking and survival. External radiation therapy (RTx) by using novel three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy has also been used for HCC patients with encouraging results while its role had been limited in the past for the low tolerance of surrounding healthy liver. The rationale of TAMR derives from the idea of delivering exceptional radiation dose locally to the tumor, with cell killing intent, while preserving normal liver from undue exposition and minimizing systemic irradiation. Since the therapeutic efficacy of TACE is being continuously disputed, the TAMR with (131)I Lipiodol or (90)Y microspheres has gained consideration providing adequate therapeutic responses regardless of few toxicities. The implementation of novel radioisotopes and technological innovations in the field of RTx constitutes an intriguing field of research with important translational aspects. Moreover, the combination of different therapeutic approaches including chemotherapy offers captivating perspectives. We present the role of the radiation-based therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma patients who are not entitled for radical treatment.

  19. Cannabidiol and epilepsy: Rationale and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Antonio; Russo, Emilio; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-05-01

    Despite the introduction of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the quality of life and therapeutic response for patients with epilepsy remains still poor. Unfortunately, besides several advantages, these new AEDs have not satisfactorily reduced the number of refractory patients. Therefore, the need for different other therapeutic options to manage epilepsy is still a current issue. To this purpose, emphasis has been given to phytocannabinoids, which have been medicinally used since ancient time in the treatment of neurological disorders including epilepsy. In particular, the nonpsychoactive compound cannabidiol (CBD) has shown anticonvulsant properties, both in preclinical and clinical studies, with a yet not completely clarified mechanism of action. However, it should be made clear that most phytocannabinoids do not act on the endocannabinoid system as in the case of CBD. In in vivo preclinical studies, CBD has shown significant anticonvulsant effects mainly in acute animal models of seizures, whereas restricted data exist in chronic models of epilepsy as well as in animal models of epileptogenesis. Likewise, clinical evidence seems to indicate that CBD is able to manage epilepsy both in adults and children affected by refractory seizures, with a favourable side effect profile. However, to date, clinical trials are both qualitatively and numerically limited, thus yet inconsistent. Therefore, further preclinical and clinical studies are undoubtedly needed to better evaluate the potential therapeutic profile of CBD in epilepsy, although the actually available data is promising. PMID:26976797

  20. Is hormonal treatment still an option in acne today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettoli, V; Zauli, S; Virgili, A

    2015-07-01

    Hormonal treatment is indicated in cases of papulopustular, nodular and conglobate acne in females with identified hyperandrogenism, in adult women who have monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are unsuccessful or inappropriate. This review summarizes the latest information on hormonal therapies including: combined oral contraceptives; anti-androgens, such as cyproterone acetate, spironolactone and flutamide; low-dose glucocorticoids and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. It also shares the authors' recommendations for treatment based on the studies discussed here, and personal experience. PMID:25627824

  1. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-12-10

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. PMID:26264836

  2. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity......Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... and hence adjuvants are included to enhance and direct the immune response. Although the vaccine has been tested in ART naïve individuals, we recommend future testing of the vaccine during (early started) ART that improves immune function and to select individuals likely to benefit. Peptides representing...

  3. Antioxidants: potential antiviral agents for Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zehua; Chen, Huan; Chen, Zongtao; Tian, Yanping

    2014-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is prevalent throughout eastern and southern Asia and the Pacific Rim. It is caused by the JE virus (JEV), which belongs to the family Flaviviridae. Despite the importance of JE, little is known about its pathogenesis. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of viral infections has led to increased interest in its role in JEV infections. This review focuses mainly on the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of JEV infection and the antiviral effect of antioxidant agents in inhibiting JEV production. First, this review summarizes the pathogenesis of JE. The pathological changes include neuronal death, astrocyte activation, and microglial proliferation. Second, the relationship between oxidative stress and JEV infection is explored. JEV infection induces the generation of oxidants and exhausts the supply of antioxidants, which activates specific signaling pathways. Finally, the therapeutic efficacy of a variety of antioxidants as antiviral agents, including minocycline, arctigenin, fenofibrate, and curcumin, was studied. In conclusion, antioxidants are likely to be developed into antiviral agents for the treatment of JE. PMID:24780919

  4. Antioxidant Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Biology and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bryant C; Johnson, Monique E; Walker, Marlon L; Riley, Kathryn R; Sims, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Previously, catalytic cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs, nanoceria, CeO2-x NPs) have been widely utilized for chemical mechanical planarization in the semiconductor industry and for reducing harmful emissions and improving fuel combustion efficiency in the automobile industry. Researchers are now harnessing the catalytic repertoire of CNPs to develop potential new treatment modalities for both oxidative- and nitrosative-stress induced disorders and diseases. In order to reach the point where our experimental understanding of the antioxidant activity of CNPs can be translated into useful therapeutics in the clinic, it is necessary to evaluate the most current evidence that supports CNP antioxidant activity in biological systems. Accordingly, the aims of this review are three-fold: (1) To describe the putative reaction mechanisms and physicochemical surface properties that enable CNPs to both scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to act as antioxidant enzyme-like mimetics in solution; (2) To provide an overview, with commentary, regarding the most robust design and synthesis pathways for preparing CNPs with catalytic antioxidant activity; (3) To provide the reader with the most up-to-date in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence supporting the ROS-scavenging potential of CNPs in biology and medicine. PMID:27196936

  5. Antioxidant Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Biology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant C. Nelson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previously, catalytic cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs, nanoceria, CeO2-x NPs have been widely utilized for chemical mechanical planarization in the semiconductor industry and for reducing harmful emissions and improving fuel combustion efficiency in the automobile industry. Researchers are now harnessing the catalytic repertoire of CNPs to develop potential new treatment modalities for both oxidative- and nitrosative-stress induced disorders and diseases. In order to reach the point where our experimental understanding of the antioxidant activity of CNPs can be translated into useful therapeutics in the clinic, it is necessary to evaluate the most current evidence that supports CNP antioxidant activity in biological systems. Accordingly, the aims of this review are three-fold: (1 To describe the putative reaction mechanisms and physicochemical surface properties that enable CNPs to both scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS and to act as antioxidant enzyme-like mimetics in solution; (2 To provide an overview, with commentary, regarding the most robust design and synthesis pathways for preparing CNPs with catalytic antioxidant activity; (3 To provide the reader with the most up-to-date in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence supporting the ROS-scavenging potential of CNPs in biology and medicine.

  6. Antioxidant Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Biology and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bryant C.; Johnson, Monique E.; Walker, Marlon L.; Riley, Kathryn R.; Sims, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, catalytic cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs, nanoceria, CeO2-x NPs) have been widely utilized for chemical mechanical planarization in the semiconductor industry and for reducing harmful emissions and improving fuel combustion efficiency in the automobile industry. Researchers are now harnessing the catalytic repertoire of CNPs to develop potential new treatment modalities for both oxidative- and nitrosative-stress induced disorders and diseases. In order to reach the point where our experimental understanding of the antioxidant activity of CNPs can be translated into useful therapeutics in the clinic, it is necessary to evaluate the most current evidence that supports CNP antioxidant activity in biological systems. Accordingly, the aims of this review are three-fold: (1) To describe the putative reaction mechanisms and physicochemical surface properties that enable CNPs to both scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to act as antioxidant enzyme-like mimetics in solution; (2) To provide an overview, with commentary, regarding the most robust design and synthesis pathways for preparing CNPs with catalytic antioxidant activity; (3) To provide the reader with the most up-to-date in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence supporting the ROS-scavenging potential of CNPs in biology and medicine. PMID:27196936

  7. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmah A Matough

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is considered to be one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. There is a growing scientific and public interest in connecting oxidative stress with a variety of pathological conditions including diabetes mellitus (DM as well as other human diseases. Previous experimental and clinical studies report that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of complications of both types of DM. However, the exact mechanism by which oxidative stress could contribute to and accelerate the development of complications in diabetic mellitus is only partly known and remains to be clarified. On the one hand, hyperglycemia induces free radicals; on the other hand, it impairs the endogenous antioxidant defense system in patients with diabetes. Endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways. Their functions in human cells are to counterbalance toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS. Common antioxidants include the vitamins A, C, and E, glutathione (GSH, and the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GRx. This review describes the importance of endogenous antioxidant defense systems, their relationship to several pathophysiological processes and their possible therapeutic implications in vivo.

  8. Polycyclic peptide therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeriswyl, Vanessa; Heinis, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Owing to their excellent binding properties, high stability, and low off-target toxicity, polycyclic peptides are an attractive molecule format for the development of therapeutics. Currently, only a handful of polycyclic peptides are used in the clinic; examples include the antibiotic vancomycin, the anticancer drugs actinomycin D and romidepsin, and the analgesic agent ziconotide. All clinically used polycyclic peptide drugs are derived from natural sources, such as soil bacteria in the case of vancomycin, actinomycin D and romidepsin, or the venom of a fish-hunting coil snail in the case of ziconotide. Unfortunately, nature provides peptide macrocyclic ligands for only a small fraction of therapeutic targets. For the generation of ligands of targets of choice, researchers have inserted artificial binding sites into natural polycyclic peptide scaffolds, such as cystine knot proteins, using rational design or directed evolution approaches. More recently, large combinatorial libraries of genetically encoded bicyclic peptides have been generated de novo and screened by phage display. In this Minireview, the properties of existing polycyclic peptide drugs are discussed and related to their interesting molecular architectures. Furthermore, technologies that allow the development of unnatural polycyclic peptide ligands are discussed. Recent application of these technologies has generated promising results, suggesting that polycyclic peptide therapeutics could potentially be developed for a broad range of diseases. PMID:23355488

  9. Phytochemical and therapeutic potential of cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Nema, Neelesh K; Maity, Niladri; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2013-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family like melon, squash and pumpkins. It is a popular vegetable crop used in Indian traditional medicine since ancient times. This vegetable is very high in water content and very low in calories. It has potential antidiabetic, lipid lowering and antioxidant activity. Cucumber has a cleansing action within the body by removing accumulated pockets of old waste materials and chemical toxins. Fresh fruit juice is used for nourishing the skin. It gives a soothing effect against skin irritations and reduces swelling. Cucumber also has the power to relax and alleviate the sunburn's pain. The fruit is refrigerant, haemostatic, tonic and useful in hyperdipsia, thermoplegia etc. The seeds also have a cooling effect on the body and they are used to prevent constipation. Several bioactive compounds have been isolated from cucumber including cucurbitacins, cucumegastigmanes I and II, cucumerin A and B, vitexin, orientin, isoscoparin 2″-O-(6‴-(E)-p-coumaroyl) glucoside, apigenin 7-O-(6″-O-p-coumaroylglucoside) etc. Despite huge exploration of cucumber in agricultural field, comparatively very few studies have been published about its chemical profile and its therapeutic potential. This article reviews the therapeutic application, pharmacological and phytochemical profile of different parts of C. sativus. In this review we have explored the current phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge available with this well known plant and several promising aspects for research on cucumber. PMID:23098877

  10. Therapeutic Approach of Nanotechnology for Oxidative Stress Induced Ocular Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Rajendra N; Conley, Shannon M; Naash, Muna I

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a role in many different forms of neurodegenerative ocular disease. The imbalance between the generation of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their corresponding neutralization by endogenous antioxidant defense systems leads to cellular oxidative stress, oxidation of different bio-macromolecules, and eventually retinal disease. As a result, the administration of supplemental endogenous antioxidant materials or exogenous ROS scavengers is an interesting therapeutic approach for the treatment of forms of ocular disease associated with oxidative stress. Thus far, different dietary antioxidant supplements have been proven to be clinically reliable and effective, and different antioxidant gene therapy approaches are under investigation. In addition, various metal oxide nanoparticles were shown to be effective in defending against oxidative stress-associated injury. These benefits are due to free radical scavenging properties of the materials arising from non-stoichiometric crystal defects and oxygen deficiencies. Here we discuss the application of this approach to the protection of the retina. PMID:26427447

  11. ARE THE MELATONIN SUPPLEMENTS POTENTIAL TREATMENT OPTIONS? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhranil Saha*, Munmun Koley and Sandip Patra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melatonin is a neuro-hormone secreted from the pineal gland and involved in various regulatory activities in body. Ever-increasing use of melatonin supplements and enlarging research evidences make the authors undertook the review to arrive at a qualitative conclusion whether melatonin supplements can act as potential treatment options or not.Methodology: A comprehensive search was undertaken in different electronic databases using various search terms. A total of 225 studies were identified including clinical research studies and basic experiments. Data were extracted individually from the studies and compiled in the end.Results: Melatonin has been used successfully in chronic insomnia and as an anti-oxidant in cancer and other age-related neuro-degenerative disorders, especially Alzheimer’s disease and Autistic disorders. Its evidences of use in other conditions remained insufficient and inconclusive.Conclusion: Melatonin therapy may be considered as efficacious and safe in insomnia and as an anti-oxidant; however, other roles needs to be evaluated in further studies.

  12. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ...

  14. Quantitative estimation of phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of various extracts of different parts of Plumbago zeylanica Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ira; Mathur Manisha; Singh G.P; Rishi Anirudha

    2014-01-01

    Plumbagozeylanica (Chitrak) is used as medicinal plant in India. The root of the plant and its constituents are credited with potential therapeutic properties including anti-atherogenic,cardiotonic, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties. In recent times, interest hasfocused on phytochemicals as new sources of natural antioxidants. Therefore in the present study methanolic crude extracts of stem, leaves, roots of Plumbagozeylanica were screened for their antioxidant property, phenoli...

  15. In Vitro Assessment of Antioxidant, Phytochemical and Nutritional Properties of Extracts from the Leaves of Ocimum Gratissimum (Linn)

    OpenAIRE

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Uzunuigbe, Edwina O; Isoken H. Igbinosa; Emmanuel E. Odjadjare; Igiehon, Nicholas O.; Emuedo, Oke A

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant, phytochemical and nutritional properties of acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn) were investigated to evaluate the therapeutic and nutritional potential of the leaves of this plant. The antioxidant of the plant extracts were assessed against 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proan...

  16. Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples

  17. Recursive formula for arithmetic Asian option prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kyungsub Lee

    2013-01-01

    We derive a recursive formula for arithmetic Asian option prices with finite observation times in semimartingale models. The method is based on the relationship between the risk-neutral expectation of the quadratic variation of the return process and European option prices. The computation of arithmetic Asian option prices is straightforward whenever European option prices are available. Applications with numerical results under the Black-Scholes framework and the exponential L\\'evy model are...

  18. Accurate Finite Difference Methods for Option Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Jonas

    2006-01-01

    Stock options are priced numerically using space- and time-adaptive finite difference methods. European options on one and several underlying assets are considered. These are priced with adaptive numerical algorithms including a second order method and a more accurate method. For American options we use the adaptive technique to price options on one stock with and without stochastic volatility. In all these methods emphasis is put on the control of errors to fulfill predefined tolerance level...

  19. Viewpoint: Option prices, preferences, and state variables

    OpenAIRE

    René Garcia; Richard Luger; Éric Renault

    2005-01-01

    This paper surveys recent developments in the theory of option pricing. The emphasis is on the interplay between option prices and investors' impatience and their aversion to risk. The traditional view, steeped in the risk-neutral approach to derivative pricing, has been that these preferences play no role in the determination of option prices. However, the usual lognormality assumption required to obtain preference-free option pricing formulas is at odds with the empirical properties of fina...

  20. Option Prices, Preferences, and State Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Garcia; Richard Luger; Eric Renault

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys recent developments in the theory of option pricing. The emphasis is on the interplay between option prices and investors' impatience and their aversion to risk. The traditional view, steeped in the risk-neutral approach to derivative pricing, has been that these preferences play no role in the determination of option prices. However, the usual lognormality assumption required to obtain preference-free option pricing formulas is at odds with the empirical properties of fina...

  1. Option Implied Trees and Implied Moments

    OpenAIRE

    silvia Muzzioli; Alessio Ruggieri

    2013-01-01

    Implied trees are simple non-parametric discretizations of one- or two-dimension diffusions, aimed at introducing non-constant volatility in an option pricing model. The aim of the paper is twofold. First we investigate the ability of different option implied trees in pricing European options. Second, we compare the implied moments obtained with the use of option implied trees with the risk–neutral moments obtained with the use of Bakshi et al. (2003) formula and with realised physical moment...

  2. Ameliorating effects of antioxidative compounds from four plant extracts in experimental models of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinić Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that oxidative stress plays a major role in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and ultimate destruction, as well as in different complications of diabetes, therapy with antioxidants has assumed an important place in diabetes management. The relatively limited effects of established antioxidant compounds have stimulated efforts to develop new therapeutic strategies, e.g. to increase the endogenous antioxidant defenses through pharmacological modulation of key antioxidant enzymes. Plant extracts are gaining popularity in treating diabetes because many substances synthesized by higher plants and fungi possess antioxidant activities and can prevent or protect tissues against the damaging effects of free radicals. This review summarizes experimental models of diabetes and possible mechanisms that lie behind the antioxidative effects of α-lipoic acid (LA, a powerful antioxidant and compound that stimulates cellular glucose uptake, as well as of plant extracts from sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa, edible mushroom (Lactarius deterrimus and natural products containing β-glucans in the treatment of diabetes. Their roles in preventing pancreatic β-cell death and in ameliorating the effects of severe diabetic complications are discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173020

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Manihot esculenta Crantz in wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahekar, Satish Eknath; Kale, Ranjana Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The study aimed to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves (MEC) in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg were used in wistar rats of either sex. The oxidative stress was produced by overdose of acetaminophen and estimation of serum concentration of various enzymes such as malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) were measured by standard biochemical methods. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug for assessment of antioxidant status. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Student's unpaired t-test. Results: When compared with the standard antioxidant silymarin, MEC extract did not exhibit antioxidant activity in terms of MDA level reduction. However, it significantly increased serum levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, and CAT) exerting a potent antioxidant effect in a graded manner. Conclusions: The observed results suggest that MEC could be a potential source of antioxidants. However, further studies are required to explore this therapeutic property of plant. PMID:27134463

  4. Overview of Nrf2 as Therapeutic Target in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Carmona-Aparicio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a biochemical state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and antioxidant defenses. It is involved in the physiopathology of degenerative and chronic neuronal disorders, such as epilepsy. Experimental evidence in humans and animals support the involvement of oxidative stress before and after seizures. In the past few years, research has increasingly focused on the molecular pathways of this process, such as that involving transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which plays a central role in the regulation of antioxidant response elements (ARE and modulates cellular redox status. The aim of this review is to present experimental evidence on the role of Nrf2 in this neurological disorder and to further determine the therapeutic impact of Nrf2 in epilepsy.

  5. Overview of Nrf2 as Therapeutic Target in Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Granados-Rojas, Leticia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Hernández-Damián, Jacqueline; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Sampieri, Aristides; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí

    2015-08-07

    Oxidative stress is a biochemical state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and antioxidant defenses. It is involved in the physiopathology of degenerative and chronic neuronal disorders, such as epilepsy. Experimental evidence in humans and animals support the involvement of oxidative stress before and after seizures. In the past few years, research has increasingly focused on the molecular pathways of this process, such as that involving transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which plays a central role in the regulation of antioxidant response elements (ARE) and modulates cellular redox status. The aim of this review is to present experimental evidence on the role of Nrf2 in this neurological disorder and to further determine the therapeutic impact of Nrf2 in epilepsy.

  6. Overview of Nrf2 as Therapeutic Target in Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Granados-Rojas, Leticia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Hernández-Damián, Jacqueline; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Sampieri, Aristides III; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a biochemical state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and antioxidant defenses. It is involved in the physiopathology of degenerative and chronic neuronal disorders, such as epilepsy. Experimental evidence in humans and animals support the involvement of oxidative stress before and after seizures. In the past few years, research has increasingly focused on the molecular pathways of this process, such as that involving transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which plays a central role in the regulation of antioxidant response elements (ARE) and modulates cellular redox status. The aim of this review is to present experimental evidence on the role of Nrf2 in this neurological disorder and to further determine the therapeutic impact of Nrf2 in epilepsy. PMID:26262608

  7. [The development of therapeutics targeting oxidative stress in prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Masaki; Yokomizo, Akira; Naito, Seiji

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress is caused by increased reactive-oxygen species (ROS) due to augmented ROS production and impaired anti-oxidative capacity. Recently, oxidative stress has been revealed to promote castration resistance via androgen receptor(AR)-dependent pathway such as AR overexpression, AR cofactor, and AR post-translational modification as well as AR-independent pathway, leading to the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Therefore, antioxidants therapy using natural and chemical ROS scavengers and inhibitors of ROS production seems to be a promising therapy for CRPC as well as preventing castration resistance. However, at present, the application to therapeutics is limited. Therefore, further research on oxidative stress in prostate cancer, as well as on the development for clinical application would be needed.

  8. Therapeutic Lymphangiogenesis With Implantation of Adipose‐Derived Regenerative Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Yuuki; Shibata, Rei; Shintani, Satoshi; Ishii, Masakazu; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2012-01-01

    Background Lymphedema is one of the serious clinical problems that can occur after surgical resection of malignant tumors such as breast cancer or intra‐pelvic cancers. However, no effective treatment options exist at present. Here, we report that implantation of adipose‐derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) can induce lymphangiogenesis in a mouse model of reparative lymphedema. Methods and Results ADRCs were isolated from C57BL/6J mice. To examine the therapeutic efficacy of ADRC implantation i...

  9. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  10. Dimethyl fumarate modulates antioxidant and lipid metabolism in oligodendrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress contributes to pathology associated with inflammatory brain disorders and therapies that upregulate antioxidant pathways may be neuroprotective in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Dimethyl fumarate, a small molecule therapeutic for multiple sclerosis, activates cellular antioxidant signaling pathways and may promote myelin preservation. However, it is still unclear what mechanisms may underlie this neuroprotection and whether dimethyl fumarate affects oligodendrocyte responses to oxidative stress. Here, we examine metabolic alterations in oligodendrocytes treated with dimethyl fumarate by using a global metabolomic platform that employs both hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and shotgun lipidomics. Prolonged treatment of oligodendrocytes with dimethyl fumarate induces changes in citric acid cycle intermediates, glutathione, and lipids, indicating that this compound can directly impact oligodendrocyte metabolism. These metabolic alterations are also associated with protection from oxidant challenge. This study provides insight into the mechanisms by which dimethyl fumarate could preserve myelin integrity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  11. Antioxidant Activities and Cytotoxicity of Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith Rhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Nag

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith, popularly known as shampoo ginger, is one of the most commonly used ingredients in Indo-Malaysian traditional medicines. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the ethanolic extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome (ZZ was investigated. 2,2-di(4-tert-octylphenyl-1- picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays showed significant radical scavenging activities of ZZ. The extract was rich in polyphenol and flavonoids. Cytotoxicity was assessed in vitro by trypan blue exclusion test. Human peripheral blood lymphocyte cells were incubated in different concentrations of ZZ (0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 300 and 600 µg/ml for 3 h at 37 °C. The rhizome extract was found to be cytotoxic at concentrations higher for human consumption. In addition, HPLC analysis revealed ZZ as a rich source of kaempferol. Based on the results of the present investigation the rhizome may be used safely as a therapeutic antioxidant.

  12. Evaluation of diverse antioxidant activities of Galium aparine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Jasia; Khan, Muhammad R.; Shabbir, Maria; Rashid, Umbreen; Jan, Shumaila; Zai, Jawaid A.

    2013-02-01

    Methanol extract and its n-hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fraction of Galium aparine L. (Rubiacea) were evaluated in vitro for their antioxidant capacity (DPPH, superoxide radical, phosphomolybdate assay); reducing power (ABTS, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ ions) and to estimate total flavonoid and phenolic contents. All the free radical generating assay models depicted differential positive scavenging activity but considerable magnitude for all the fractions. The results showed that aqueous fraction strongly scavenge the DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between IC50 values of DPPH and superoxide radical with total phenolic content and phosphomolybdate assay with total flavonoid contents, respectively. These results suggested that aqueous fraction can be a good source of antioxidant therapeutic in oxidative stress damages.

  13. Option Strike Price and Managerial Investment Decisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸿雁; 张维

    2003-01-01

    The manager′s investment decisions is modeled when the manager is risk-averse and has stock options as compensation. It is found that the strike price of options is crucial to the investment incentives of managers, and that the correct value, or interval of values, of managerial stock option strike price can bring stockholder and manager interests in agreement.

  14. Analytic American Option Pricing and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbuelz, A.

    2003-01-01

    I use a convenient value breakdown in order to obtain analytic solutions for finitematurity American option prices.Such a barrier-option-based breakdown yields an analytic lower bound for the American option price, which is as price-tight as the Barone-Adesi and Whaley (1987) analytic value proxy fo

  15. Flexible Work Options within the Organisational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albion, Majella J.; Chee, Munli

    2006-01-01

    The availability of flexible work options provides an opportunity for individuals to shape their careers in order to optimise their work and life goals. This study takes a systems theory approach to examine how the use of flexible work options influences relationships and interactions in the workplace. The "Flexible Work Options Questionnaire"…

  16. Option trading and individual investor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bauer; M. Cosemans; P. Eichholtz

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of option trading on individual investor performance. The results show that most investors incur substantial losses on their option investments, which are much larger than the losses from equity trading. We attribute the detrimental impact of option trading on investor

  17. Real Option Applications to Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    Pythagoras PETRATOS

    2008-01-01

    Real options present advantages over the standard discounting methods. In this paper we analyze them briefly and examine their potential applications on information security. The applications of real options on valuation of information assets, information security investment and capital budgeting provide considerable benefits. Finally portfolios of real options and other financial products can reduce information security risk.

  18. 24 CFR 221.775 - Option period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Option period. 221.775 Section 221.775 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... § 221.775 Option period. The mortgagee may exercise its option to assign within one year following...

  19. Minneapolis district-heating options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  20. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areasconsidered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged...... techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  1. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF IPOEMA BILOBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Tagde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomolecules can be oxidized by free radicals. This oxidative damage has an important etiological role in aging and the development of diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, and other inflammatory disorders. Synthetic antioxidants, like butylated hydroxyanisole, are good free radical scavengers; however, the synthetic antioxidants can be carcinogenic. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in searching for antioxidants of natural origin.   Antioxidants with different chemical properties may recharge each other in an antioxidant network. The total antioxidant content of dietary plants may therefore be a useful tool for testing the 'antioxidant network' hypothesis. Several berries, fruits, nuts, seeds, vegetables, drinks and spices have been found to be high in total antioxidants. Initial studies in animals and humans are supportive as to the beneficial effects of dietary plants rich in total antioxidants. Additionally, antioxidants and other plant compounds may also improve the endogenous antioxidant defense through induction of antioxidant and phase 2 enzymes.1,2 Dietary plants rich in such compounds include broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, kale, cauliflower, carrots, onions, tomatoes, spinach and garlic , antioxidants and other plant compounds may also improve the endogenous antioxidant defense through induction of antioxidant and phase 2 enzymes.

  2. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of d...

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as skeletal therapeutics - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Hamid; Ahsan, Muhammad; Saleem, Zikria; Iqtedar, Mehwish; Islam, Muhammad; Danish, Zeeshan; Khan, Asif Manzoor

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells hold the promise to treat not only several congenital and acquired bone degenerative diseases but also to repair and regenerate morbid bone tissues. Utilizing MSCs, several lines of evidences advocate promising clinical outcomes in skeletal diseases and skeletal tissue repair/regeneration. In this context, both, autologous and allogeneic cell transfer options have been utilized. Studies suggest that MSCs are transplanted either alone by mixing with autogenous plasma/serum or by loading onto repair/induction supportive resorb-able scaffolds. Thus, this review is aimed at highlighting a wide range of pertinent clinical therapeutic options of MSCs in the treatment of skeletal diseases and skeletal tissue regeneration. Additionally, in skeletal disease and regenerative sections, only the early and more recent preclinical evidences are discussed followed by all the pertinent clinical studies. Moreover, germane post transplant therapeutic mechanisms afforded by MSCs have also been conversed. Nonetheless, assertive use of MSCs in the clinic for skeletal disorders and repair is far from a mature therapeutic option, therefore, posed challenges and future directions are also discussed. Importantly, for uniformity at all instances, term MSCs is used throughout the review. PMID:27084089

  4. The sources of natural antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Sikora

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive oxidative processes occuring in human organism lead to formation of oxygen reactive forms, which can damage systemic cells and tissues. It is shown, that body endogenous protective system can be supported in that case by natural antioxidant compounds provided from food. The assessment of food products as the potential sources of antioxidants was performed, taking into consideration the kinds of compounds supplied, and their significance in the diet of different nations.

  5. Antioxidant activity of polyaniline nanofibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Well-confined uniform polyaniline (PANT) nanofibers were synthesized by using photo-assisted chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of different dopant acids, and the radical scavenging ability of the produced PANI nanofibers was determined by the DPPH assay. It was found that the antioxidant activity of PANI nanofibers was higher than conventional PANI,and increased with decreasing of averaged diameter of the nanofibers. The enhanced antioxidant activity was concerned with increased surface area of PANI nanofibers.

  6. Das antioxidative Potential der Haut

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Sora

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants represent an important protective mechanism against the destructive effects of free radicals in the human organism. These can arise due to various internal and external influences, such as UV and infrared radiation, chemical toxicants, infectious diseases or nicotine and alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of individual lifestyle habits, such as diet and stress factors, on the antioxidant status of the skin. Furthermore possible differen...

  7. Pathophysiological mechanisms involved in non-alcoholicsteatohepatitis and novel potential therapeutic targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major healthcare problem and represents the hepatic expression ofthe metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is classified as nonalcoholicfatty liver (NAFL) or simple steatosis, and nonalcoholicsteatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterizedby the presence of steatosis and inflammation withor without fibrosis. The physiopathology of NAFL andNASH and their progression to cirrhosis involve severalparallel and interrelated mechanisms, such as, insulinresistance (IR), lipotoxicity, inflammation, oxidativestress, and recently the gut-liver axis interaction has beendescribed. Incretin-based therapies could play a role inthe treatment of NAFLD. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)is an intestinal mucosa-derived hormone which is secretedinto the bloodstream in response to nutrient ingestion;it favors glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, inhibitionof postprandial glucagon secretion and delayed gastricemptying. It also promotes weight loss and is involvedin lipid metabolism. Once secreted, GLP-1 is quicklydegraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). Therefore,DPP-4 inhibitors are able to extend the activity of GLP-1.Currently, GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors representattractive options for the treatment of NAFLD andNASH. The modulation of lipid and glucose metabolismthrough nuclear receptors, such as the farsenoid Xreceptor, also constitutes an attractive therapeutic target.Obeticholic acid is a potent activator of the farnesoidX nuclear receptor and reduces liver fat content andfibrosis in animal models. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)is a hydrophilic bile acid with immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory,antiapoptotic, antioxidant and antifibroticproperties. UDCA can improve IR and modulatelipid metabolism through its interaction with nuclearreceptors such as, TGR5, farnesoid X receptor-a, orthe small heterodimeric partner. Finally, pharmacologicmodulation of the gut microbiota could have a role in thetherapy of NAFLD and

  8. Treatment options for threatened miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, N S

    2009-12-01

    Threatened miscarriage, as demonstrated by vaginal bleeding with or without abdominal cramps, is a common complication of pregnancy. It occurs in about 20% of recognised pregnancies. Risk of miscarriage is increased in older women and those with a history of miscarriage. Low serum levels of progesterone or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) are a risk factor for miscarriage. Other risk factors include heavy bleeding, early gestational age and an empty gestational sac of >15-17 mm diameter. Clinical history and examination, maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasound findings provide valuable information about the prognosis and are important to establish in order to determine potential treatment options. Although bed rest is the most common choice of treatment, there is little evidence of its value. Other options include luteal support with progesterone, dydrogesterone or hCG. There is some evidence from clinical studies indicating that progesterone or dydrogesterone may reduce the rate of miscarriage, although further data from double-blind, randomised-controlled trials are necessary to confirm efficacy. PMID:19945236

  9. Monte Carlo Simulation of an American Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gikiri Thuo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We implement gradient estimation techniques for sensitivity analysis of option pricing which can be efficiently employed in Monte Carlo simulation. Using these techniques we can simultaneously obtain an estimate of the option value together with the estimates of sensitivities of the option value to various parameters of the model. After deriving the gradient estimates we incorporate them in an iterative stochastic approximation algorithm for pricing an option with early exercise features. We illustrate the procedure using an example of an American call option with a single dividend that is analytically tractable. In particular we incorporate estimates for the gradient with respect to the early exercise threshold level.

  10. Valuing real options: frequently made errors

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyze frequently made errors when valuing real options. The best way of doing it is through examples. We start by analyzing Damodaran's proposal to value the option to expand the business of Home Depot. Some of the errors and problems of this and other approaches are: - Assuming that the option is replicable and using Black and Scholes' formula. - The estimation of the option's volatility is arbitrary and has a decisive effect on the option's value. - As there is no riskles...

  11. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris;

    Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We report on illiquidity premia in the equity options market. An increase in option illiquidity decreases the current option price and implies higher expected option returns. This effect is statistically...... and economically signifi…cant. It is robust across different empirical approaches and when including various control variables. The illiquidity of the underlying stock affects the option return negatively, consistent with a hedging argument: When stock market illiquidity increases, the cost of replicating...

  12. [Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Approach of Pulmonary Aspiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kanji

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary aspiration is one of the serious adverse events in general anesthesia. Aspiration induced lung injury varies according to the nature of the contents of aspirates (acid or small particles in gastrointestinal tract, bile acid), amount of aspirates, and host-defense status. Early inflammatory responses to acid and small particles from gastrointestinal contents are categorized as aspiration pneumonitis causing rapid respiratory deterioration with early restoration of lung injury within a couple of days. Late phase lung injury is usually "aspiration pneumonia" caused by bacteria colonized in the aspirates. Treatment mainstream is to support respiratory function until the lung resolves from injury. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is another promising therapeutic option for cases with severe lung damage to keep the "lung rest" during fulminant lung injury, avoiding further lung damage by injurious ventilation. Empirical administration of antibiotics covering wide spectrum followed by meticulous bacteriological studies to either de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics is crucial. PMID:27004380

  13. Diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in pancreaticobiliarymalignancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and cholangiocarcinoma(CCA) are two malignancies that carry significantmorbidity and mortality. The poor prognoses ofthese cancers are strongly related to lack of effectivescreening modalities as well as few therapeutic options.In this review, we highlight novel biomarkers that havethe potential to be used as diagnostic, prognostic andpredictive markers. The focus of this review is biomarkersthat can be evaluated on endoscopically-obtained biopsiesor brush specimens in the pre-operative setting.We also provide an overview of novel serum basedmarkers in the early diagnosis of both PDAC and CCA. Inpancreatic cancer, the emphasis is placed on prognosticand theranostic markers, whereas in CCA the utilityof molecular markers in diagnosis and prognosis arehighlighted.

  14. [Benign thyroid nodules: diagnostic and therapeutic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Cosimo; Cava, Francesco; Paciaroni, Alessandra; Filetti, Sebastiano

    2008-05-01

    In the last years an increase in thyroid nodules detection has been reported from several epidemiological studies. This trend is largely due to the routine use of diagnostic sonography procedures in clinical practice. Thyroid nodules, both palpable or not palpable, rarely turn out to be malignant. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAc) plays a central role in establishing the nature of the nodule. Excluded the presence of malignant lesions, which are generally treated with surgery, physicians are faced with a variety of therapeutic options, and choosing the optimal approach can be a difficult task. These include a periodic follow-up alone without treatment, the iodine supplementation, the thyroid-hormone suppressive therapy, the radioiodine administration, the percutaneous ethanol injections, and the new technique of laser photocoagulation. In all cases, decisions on the management of benign thyroid nodules should always be based on clinical target and a careful analysis of benefits and risks to the patient. PMID:18581970

  15. Therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discusses all aspects of radionuclide therapy, including basic principles, newly available treatments, regulatory requirements, and future trends. Provides the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Explains the role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in effectively coordinating a diverse multidisciplinary team. Written by leading experts. The recent revolution in molecular biology offers exciting new opportunities for targeted radionuclide therapy. The selective irradiation of tumor cells through molecular biological mechanisms is now permitting the radiopharmaceutical control of tumors that are unresectable and unresponsive to either chemotherapy or conventional radiotherapy. In this up-to-date, comprehensive book, world-renowned experts discuss the basic principles of radionuclide therapy, explore in detail the available treatments, explain the regulatory requirements, and examine likely future developments. The full range of clinical applications is considered, including thyroid cancer, hematological malignancies, brain tumors, liver cancer, bone and joint disease, and neuroendocrine tumors. The combination of theoretical background and practical information will provide the reader with all the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Careful attention is also paid to the important role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in delivering the effective coordination of a diverse multidisciplinary team that is essential to the safe provision of treatment.

  16. Pneumothorax following therapeutic thoracentesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors retrospectively studied 319 patients undergoing therapeutic thoracentesis. Of these, 223 patients had malignant pleural effusions and 96 had nonmalignant and noninfected collections. The effusions ranged from 100 to 4,000 mL in size. All patients presented with pain and/or respiratory compromise prompting the need for drainage. Overall there was a t% (22 of 319) incidence of pneumothorax. In six patients (3%) chest tube placement was necessary. Four of these six patients were successfully managed with 7 - 16-French catheters and a Heimlich valve. Persistent pneumothorax in two cases required placement of large, 28-F chest tubes supplemented with Pleura-vac drainage and hospital admission. There was a subset of nine patients with malignant effusions and lymphangitic spread who developed large but asymptomatic pneumothoraces. All but 5% of these patients required no therapy for pneumothorax. The authors' results suggest that pneumothoraces following therapeutic thoracentesis can be managed within the radiology department. The prevalence, mechanism, and management of pneumothoraces in these patients is discussed

  17. Therapeutic nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Richard P. (ed.) [ENETS Center of Excellence, Bad Berka (Germany). THERANOSTICS Center for Molecular Radiotherapy and Molecular Imaging

    2014-07-01

    Discusses all aspects of radionuclide therapy, including basic principles, newly available treatments, regulatory requirements, and future trends. Provides the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Explains the role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in effectively coordinating a diverse multidisciplinary team. Written by leading experts. The recent revolution in molecular biology offers exciting new opportunities for targeted radionuclide therapy. The selective irradiation of tumor cells through molecular biological mechanisms is now permitting the radiopharmaceutical control of tumors that are unresectable and unresponsive to either chemotherapy or conventional radiotherapy. In this up-to-date, comprehensive book, world-renowned experts discuss the basic principles of radionuclide therapy, explore in detail the available treatments, explain the regulatory requirements, and examine likely future developments. The full range of clinical applications is considered, including thyroid cancer, hematological malignancies, brain tumors, liver cancer, bone and joint disease, and neuroendocrine tumors. The combination of theoretical background and practical information will provide the reader with all the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Careful attention is also paid to the important role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in delivering the effective coordination of a diverse multidisciplinary team that is essential to the safe provision of treatment.

  18. Engineering therapeutic protein disaggregases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, James

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic agents are urgently required to cure several common and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Protein disaggregases that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native structure, function, and localization could mitigate neurodegeneration by simultaneously reversing 1) any toxic gain of function of the misfolded form and 2) any loss of function due to misfolding. Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase and protein disaggregase from yeast, have been engineered to robustly disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with ALS (e.g., TDP-43 and FUS) and PD (e.g., α-synuclein). However, Hsp104 has no metazoan homologue. Metazoa possess protein disaggregase systems distinct from Hsp104, including Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as HtrA1, which might be harnessed to reverse deleterious protein misfolding. Nevertheless, vicissitudes of aging, environment, or genetics conspire to negate these disaggregase systems in neurodegenerative disease. Thus, engineering potentiated human protein disaggregases or isolating small-molecule enhancers of their activity could yield transformative therapeutics for ALS, PD, and AD. PMID:27255695

  19. Mechanisms of Plasma Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, David

    2015-09-01

    In this talk, I address research directed towards biomedical applications of atmospheric pressure plasma such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy. The field has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that plasmas readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. It is postulated that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) can trigger a therapeutic shielding response in tissue in part by creating a time- and space-localized, burst-like form of oxy-nitrosative stress on near-surface exposed cells through the flux of plasma-generated RONS. RONS-exposed surface layers of cells communicate to the deeper levels of tissue via a form of the ``bystander effect,'' similar to responses to other forms of cell stress. In this proposed model of CAP therapeutics, the plasma stimulates a cellular survival mechanism through which aerobic organisms shield themselves from infection and other challenges.

  20. Surfactant metabolism and anti-oxidative capacity in hyperoxic neonatal rat lungs: effects of keratinocyte growth factor on gene expression in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslowski, Roland; Kasper, Michael; Schaal, Katharina; Knels, Lilla; Lange, Marco; Bernhard, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Development of preterm infant lungs is frequently impaired resulting in bronchopulmoary dysplasia (BPD). BPD results from interruption of physiologic anabolic intrauterine conditions, the inflammatory basis and therapeutic consequences of premature delivery, including increased oxygen supply for air breathing. The latter requires surfactant, produced by alveolar type II (AT II) cells to lower surface tension at the pulmonary air:liquid interface. Its main components are specific phosphatidylcholine (PC) species including dipalmitoyl-PC, anionic phospholipids and surfactant proteins. Local antioxidative enzymes are essential to cope with the pro-inflammatory side effects of normal alveolar oxygen pressures. However, respiratory insufficiency frequently requires increased oxygen supply. To cope with the injurious effects of hyperoxia to epithelia, recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rhKGF) was proposed as a surfactant stimulating, non-catabolic and epithelial-protective therapeutic. The aim of the present study was to examine the qualification of rhKGF to improve expression parameters of lung maturity in newborn rats under hyperoxic conditions (85% O(2) for 7 days). In response to rhKGF proliferating cell nuclear antigen mRNA, as a feature of stimulated proliferation, was elevated. Similarly, the expressions of ATP-binding cassette protein A3 gene, a differentiation marker of AT II cells and of peroxiredoxin 6, thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, three genes involved in oxygen radical protection were increased. Furthermore, mRNA levels of acyl-coA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1, catalyzing dipalmitoyl-PC synthesis by acyl remodeling, and adipose triglyceride lipase, considered as responsible for fatty acid supply for surfactant PC synthesis, were elevated. These results, together with a considerable body of other confirmative evidence, suggest that rhKGF should be developed into a therapeutic option to treat preterm infants at risk for

  1. Forecasting with Option-Implied Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Chang, Bo Young

    2013-01-01

    This chapter surveys the methods available for extracting information from option prices that can be used in forecasting. We consider option-implied volatilities, skewness, kurtosis, and densities. More generally, we discuss how any forecasting object that is a twice differentiable function...... of the future realization of the underlying risky asset price can utilize option-implied information in a well-defined manner. Going beyond the univariate option-implied density, we also consider results on option-implied covariance, correlation and beta forecasting, as well as the use of option......-implied information in cross-sectional forecasting of equity returns. We discuss how option-implied information can be adjusted for risk premia to remove biases in forecasting regressions....

  2. A generalization of exotic options pricing formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Exotic options, or "path-dependent" options are options whose payoff depends on the behavior of the price of the underlying between 0 and the maturity, rather than merely on the final price of the underlying, such as compound options, reset options and so on. In this paper, a generalization of the Geske formula for compound call options is obtained in the case of time-dependent volatility and time-dependent interest rate by applying martingale methods and the change of numeraire or the change of probability measure. An analytic formula for the reset call options with predetermined dates is also derived in the case by using the same approach. In contrast to partial differential equation (PDE) approach, our approach is simpler.

  3. Investigation of the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potential of Hypericum mysorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu C. Hariharapura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypericum is a well-known plant genus in herbal medicine. Hypericum mysorense (Family: Hypericaceae, a plant belonging to the same genus, is well known in folklore medicine for its varied therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the different parts of the plant for antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Materials and Methods: The methanol extracts of Hypericum mysorense prepared from various parts of the plant were tested in vitro for their free radical scavenging activity against ABTS• (diammonium salt, DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, NO•, O2•− and •OH radicals, using standard systems of assays. The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the extracts were analyzed. Further, the leaf and flowering top extracts were tested for their in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities on Wistar rats using a carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury model. Results: The leaf and flowering top extract showed potent antioxidant activity and also possessed highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic and flavonoid content present in these extracts showed a good correlation. The leaf and flowering top extracts at 200 mg/kg restored aspartate amino transferase (ASAT, alanine amino transferase (ALAT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin and protein levels significantly in CCl4-intoxicated rats. The tested extracts also showed a significant (p < 0.001 reduction in 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels with an increase in SOD and CAT levels. The histopathology of liver did not show any toxicity after the treatment with the extracts. The active extracts were standardized using two marker compounds, hyperoside and rutin, which were isolated from the plant by HPLC. HPLC studies revealed that the maximum concentration of hyperoside and rutin is present in the flowering top

  4. Integrated Genomic Characterization Reveals Novel, Therapeutically Relevant Drug Targets in FGFR and EGFR Pathways in Sporadic Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Borad, Mitesh J.; Champion, Mia D.; Egan, Jan B.; Liang, Winnie S.; Rafael Fonseca; Bryce, Alan H.; Ann E McCullough; Barrett, Michael T.; Katherine Hunt; Maitray D Patel; Young, Scott W.; Collins, Joseph M.; Silva, Alvin C; Condjella, Rachel M.; Matthew Block

    2014-01-01

    Advanced cholangiocarcinoma continues to harbor a difficult prognosis and therapeutic options have been limited. During the course of a clinical trial of whole genomic sequencing seeking druggable targets, we examined six patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma. Integrated genome-wide and whole transcriptome sequence analyses were performed on tumors from six patients with advanced, sporadic intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (SIC) to identify potential therapeutically actionable events. Among...

  5. Gene therapeutic approaches to inhibit hepatitis B virusreplication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maren Gebbing; Thorsten Bergmann; Eric Schulz; Anja Ehrhardt

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infectionsremain to present a major global health problem. Theinfection can be associated with acute symptomaticor asymptomatic hepatitis which can cause chronicinflammation of the liver and over years this can leadto cirrhosis and the development of hepatocellularcarcinomas. Currently available therapeutics forchronically infected individuals aim at reducing viralreplication and to slow down or stop the progressionof the disease. Therefore, novel treatment options areneeded to efficiently combat and eradicate this disease.Here we provide a state of the art overview of genetherapeutic approaches to inhibit HBV replication. Wediscuss non-viral and viral approaches which wereexplored to deliver therapeutic nucleic acids aiming atreducing HBV replication. Types of delivered therapeuticnucleic acids which were studied since many yearsinclude antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and antisenseRNA, ribozymes and DNAzymes, RNA interference,and external guide sequences. More recently designernucleases gained increased attention and wereexploited to destroy the HBV genome. In addition wemention other strategies to reduce HBV replicationbased on delivery of DNA encoding dominant negativemutants and DNA vaccination. In combination withavailable cell culture and animal models for HBVinfection, in vitro and in vivo studies can be performedto test efficacy of gene therapeutic approaches. Recentprogress but also challenges will be specified andfuture perspectives will be discussed. This is an excitingtime to explore such approaches because recentsuccesses of gene therapeutic strategies in the clinicto treat genetic diseases raise hope to find alternativetreatment options for patients chronically infected withHBV.

  6. Antioxidants and antioxidant activity of several pigmented rice brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laokuldilok, Thunnop; Shoemaker, Charles F; Jongkaewwattana, Sakda; Tulyathan, Vanna

    2011-01-12

    This study investigated the antioxidant content and activity of phenolic acids, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol in pigmented rice (black and red rice) brans. After methanolic extraction, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity were measured. The pigmented rice bran extract had a greater reducing power than a normal rice bran extract from a long grain white rice. All bran extracts were highly effective in inhibiting linoleic acid peroxidation (60-85%). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of antioxidants in rice bran found that γ-oryzanol (39-63%) and phenolic acids (33-43%) were the major antioxidants in all bran samples, and black rice bran also contained anthocyanins 18-26%. HPLC analysis of anthocyanins showed that pigmented bran was rich in cyanidin-3-glucoside (58-95%). Ferulic acid was the dominant phenolic acid in the rice bran samples. Black rice bran contained gallic, hydroxybenzoic, and protocatechuic acids in higher contents than red rice bran and normal rice bran. Furthermore, the addition of 5% black rice bran to wheat flour used for making bread produced a marked increase in the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity compared to a control bread. PMID:21141962

  7. Antioxidant capacity total in non-melanoma skin cancer and its relationship with food consumption of antioxidant nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Betânia e Silva de Almendra; de Castro, Laís Lima; Aguiar, Jordana Rayane Sousa; de Araújo, Camila Guedes Borges; Visacri, Marília Berlofa; Tuan, Bruna Taliani; Pincinato, Eder de Carvalho; Moriel, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common cancer and accounts for more than half of the diagnoses of cancer, and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent cutaneous neoplasm, corresponding to 70-80% of cutaneous tumors. Oxidative stress is an important trigger for skin carcinogenesis. Thus, it is important to evaluate oxidative stress, in order to discern effective therapeutic strategies able to stop it or attenuate it, thereby prevent the installation of non-melanoma skin cancer. Cross-sectional study with controls, involving 84 individuals of both sexes aged between 38-84 years, divided into two groups: control group of healthy people(n = 24) and the case group included individuals who presented non-melanoma skin and they have undergoing surgery (n = 60). The blood samples of the individuals were obtained for evaluation of biomarkers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane, nitrite, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity). The usual dietary intake and nutritional status of the subjects were evaluated. The significance level for this study was 5%. Patients in the case group had higher serum concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress, F2-isoprostane concentrations were significantly higher compared to controls. The results showed high rates of overweight and obesity in the case and control groups. The dietary concentrations of antioxidant minerals zinc, copper and selenium in the case group were significantly lower compared to controls. The correlation between markers of oxidative stress and dietary concentrations of antioxidant nutrients showed the influence of food intake of vitamins A and E in reducing oxidative stress, since these nutrients behave as important antioxidants, acting as sweepers of RL, by removing of the body the negative effects on the redox balance of the skin. We emphasize the importance of adopting healthy eating habits that optimize the consumption of antioxidant nutrients as a strategy to

  8. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ingrid, Keller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of business strategies that build value throughout the supply chain of goods and services and simultaneously contribute to sustainability is one of the most difficult to address in practice. So for the present study we researched the possible strategies, identifying those options to successfully integrate the dimensions of sustainability into organizational development from a systems perspective and its possibilities and limitations. The characteristic activities of the five possible choices - risk management, image building and reputation, productivity and efficiency, innovation and market development - can be implemented in pure form, in combination or sequentially. In this way you can build competitive advantages in the context of sustainability, which allows the company to achieve greater chance of success, not only in the short term but also medium and long term.

  9. Operational options for green ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  10. Are biofuels a feasible option?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldemberg, Jose [Institute of Eletrotechnics and Energy, University of Sao Paulo, Avenue Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 1289, Sao Paulo, 05508-010 (Brazil); Guardabassi, Patricia [Brazilian Reference Centre on Biomass, University of Sao Paulo, Avenue Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 1289, Sao Paulo 05508-010 (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    Recently a number of objections have been raised against the use of ethanol produced from agricultural products such as maize, sugarcane, wheat or sugar beets as a replacement for gasoline, despite some of their advantages such as being cleaner and to some extent renewable. We address these objections in this paper. Topics discussed include the 'corn connection' (which was theorized to be a cause of deforestation in the Amazonia), the rise of food prices due to ethanol production and the real possibilities of ethanol in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It has been shown that such concerns are grossly exaggerated and that ethanol from sugarcane, as produced in Brazil, is the preferred option for the production of fuel not only in terms of cost but also as a favourable energy balance. Finally, the possibility of expanding ethanol production to other sugar-producing countries is also discussed. (author)

  11. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  12. Product through pipelines : transportation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballyntyne, R. [Terasen Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided a brief overview of the corporate structure of Terasen Pipelines along with a map displaying the locations of the pipelines it operates and new directions for growth. It also presented a proposal to deliver petroleum products from Alberta's oilsand fields to markets via the Corridor and Express pipeline systems, and evaluated the issue of transporting petrochemicals via rail transport rather than pipeline. Industry is also examining the option of shipping refined products through a trans mountain system from Alberta to British Columbia and California. A chart highlighting Canadian crude oil production was presented along with an oil sands pipeline capacity chart. It was noted that significant investment in refining capacity is needed and that new pipeline facilities will be required to meet the needs of oil sands developments. tabs., figs.

  13. Operational Options for Green Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Sherbaz; Wenyang Duan

    2012-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors.The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders,responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions,14%-15% of global NOx emissions,and 16% of global SOx emissions.In addition,continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness.The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions.Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness.This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts,principles,and potential of operational options for green ships.The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e.academic qualifications prior to induction,in-service training and motivation were discussed.The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  14. [Therapeutic education didactic techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Maite; Vidal, Mercè; Jansa, Margarida

    2012-10-01

    This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective.

  15. Antiviral Polymer Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford

    2014-01-01

    and the drug which increased the potency of the conjugates significantly. A different approach to drug delivery is that of surface mediated drug delivery. Hydrogels of poly(vinyl alcohol) has shown great promise in this regard. The chemical opportunities of this polymer are explored through the virtues...... of reversible-addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, which not only controls the size of polymer, but also allows the introduction of a terminal amine on the polymer which can be used for further conjugation. This has allowed for not only fluorescent labeling of the polymer, but also protein......The field of drug delivery is in essence an exercise in engineered pharmacokinetics. Methods of doing so have been developed through the introduction of a vehicle carrying the drug, either by encapsulation or covalent attachment. The emergence of polymer therapeutics in anticancer therapy has...

  16. Homocystinuria: Therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Tarun; Sharma, Gurumayum Suraj; Singh, Laishram Rajendrakumar

    2016-07-01

    Homocystinuria is a disorder of sulfur metabolism pathway caused by deficiency of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS). It is characterized by increased accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) in the cells and plasma. Increased homocysteine results in various vascular and neurological complications. Present strategies to lower cellular and plasma homocysteine levels include vitamin B6 intake, dietary methionine restriction, betaine supplementation, folate and vitamin B12 administration. However, these strategies are inefficient for treatment of homocystinuria. In recent years, advances have been made towards developing new strategies to treat homocystinuria. These mainly include functional restoration to mutant CBS, enhanced clearance of Hcy from the body, prevention of N-homocysteinylation-induced toxicity and inhibition of homocysteine-induced oxidative stress. In this review, we have exclusively discussed the recent advances that have been achieved towards the treatment of homocystinuria. The review is an attempt to help clinicians in developing effective therapeutic strategies and designing novel drugs against homocystinuria. PMID:27059523

  17. On being therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greben, S E

    1977-11-01

    Psychotherapy is both an art and a science. The art deserves as careful study as does the science. In this paper the author puts forward the view that the effectiveness of psychotherapy is dependent to a marked degree upon certain innate characteristics of the therapist: these include his character structure, his personal values, and his spontaneous personality style. In order to explore this thesis, the author examines what has been written about some successful and well-known psychotherapists, by their patients, their colleagues, and their friends. He concludes that these therapists strongly evidenced the following characteristics: empathy and concern, caring and protectiveness, warmth, therapeutic forcefulness, expectation of improvement, freedom from despair, reliability, friendliness and respectfulness. It is felt that such factors in the therapist must be taken into account in order to achieve a view of psychotherapy which is not reductionistic. PMID:589551

  18. Disc degeneration: current surgical options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Schizas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain attributed to lumbar disc degeneration poses a serious challenge to physicians. Surgery may be indicated in selected cases following failure of appropriate conservative treatment. For decades, the only surgical option has been spinal fusion, but its results have been inconsistent. Some prospective trials show superiority over usual conservative measures while others fail to demonstrate its advantages. In an effort to improve results of fusion and to decrease the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, total disc replacement techniques have been introduced and studied extensively. Short-term results have shown superiority over some fusion techniques. Mid-term results however tend to show that this approach yields results equivalent to those of spinal fusion. Nucleus replacement has gained some popularity initially, but evidence on its efficacy is scarce. Dynamic stabilisation, a technique involving less rigid implants than in spinal fusion and performed without the need for bone grafting, represents another surgical option. Evidence again is lacking on its superiority over other surgical strategies and conservative measures. Insertion of interspinous devices posteriorly, aiming at redistributing loads and relieving pain, has been used as an adjunct to disc removal surgery for disc herniation. To date however, there is no clear evidence on their efficacy. Minimally invasive intradiscal thermocoagulation techniques have also been tried, but evidence of their effectiveness is questioned. Surgery using novel biological solutions may be the future of discogenic pain treatment. Collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists in this multidisciplinary field will undoubtedly shape the future of treating symptomatic disc degeneration.

  19. Strategic Options Development and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Fran; Eden, Colin

    Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA) enables a group or individual to construct a graphical representation of a problematic situation, and thus explore options and their ramifications with respect to a complex system of goals or objectives. In addition the method aims to help groups arrive at a negotiated agreement about how to act to resolve the situation. It is based upon the use of causal mapping - a formally constructed means-ends network - as representation form. Because the picture has been constructed using the natural language of the problem owners it becomes a model of the situation that is ‘owned' by those who define the problem. The use of formalities for the construction of the model makes it amenable to a range of analyses as well as encouraging reflection and a deeper understanding. These analyses can be used in a ‘rough and ready' manner by visual inspection or through the use of specialist causal mapping software (Decision Explorer). Each of the analyses helps a group or individual discover important features of the problem situation, and these features facilitate agreeing agood solution. The SODA process is aimed at helping a group learn about the situation they face before they reach agreements. Most significantly the exploration through the causal map leads to a higher probability of more creative solutions and promotes solutions that are more likely to be implemented because the problem construction process is wider and more likely to include richer social dimensions about the blockages to action and organizational change. The basic theories that inform SODA derive from cognitive psychology and social negotiation, where the model acts as a continuously changing representation of the problematic situation - changing as the views of a person or group shift through learning and exploration. This chapter, jointly written by two leading practitioner academics and the original developers of SODA, Colin Eden and Fran Ackermann

  20. [Treatment Options for Executive Dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, S V

    2016-09-01

    The concept of executive function is a so-called umbrella concept, so that it includes many different and in some cases mutually contradictory higher-level organizational abilities such as planning, monitoring, inhibition and control of action. Typically, the cause of an executive dysfunction is an underlying lesion in the prefrontal cortex or subcortical regions. Deficits in executive functions appear in the fields of cognition as well as behavior. Diagnosis requires the use of a wide-ranging repertoire of tests and questionnaires making it a time-consuming process. Different therapeutic approaches addressing the diverse symptoms of executive dysfunction, both positive and negative, are available. These include modification and manipulation of the environment and practice of cognitive repetitive procedures. The former are implemented particularly in cases of severely impaired persons. The latter are used in persons in whom cognitive dysfunctions are the dominating symptoms of the disorder.The operational area of therapeutic approaches using paper and pencil as well as computer programs limits them to treatment of cognitive dysfunction. If behavioral disturbances dominate the clinical picture, other procedures should be used.The effectiveness of cognitive therapy of executive dysfunction is well demonstrated according to the criteria of evidence-based medicine (EBM). PMID:27607068

  1. Antioxidant enzymes as potential targets in cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Enzyme antioxidants: the next stage of pharmacological counterwork to the oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vavaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus in antioxidant research is on enzyme derivative investigations. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD is of particular interest, as it demonstrates in vivo the protective action against development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus. The reliable association of coronary artery disease with decreased level of heparin-released EC-SOD was established in clinical research. To create a base for and to develop antioxidant therapy, various SOD isozymes, catalase (CAT, methods of gene therapy, and combined applications of enzymes are used. Covalent bienzyme SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate (CHS, chondroitin sulphate showed high efficacy and safety as the drug candidate. There is an evident trend to use the components of glycocalyx and extracellular matrix for target delivery of medical substances. Development of new enzyme antioxidants for therapeutic application is closely connected with progress in medical biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, and bioeconomy.

  2. Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity in "early potatoes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Lucia; Leone, Antonella; Longo, Cristiano; Lombardi, Domenico Antonio; Raimo, Francesco; Zacheo, Giuseppe

    2008-06-11

    The antioxidant content and the antioxidant capacity of both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant extracts from four "early potato" cultivars, grown in two different locations (Racale and Monteroni), were examined. There was a considerable variation in carotenoid content and weak differences in the ascorbic acid concentration of the examined cultivars of "early potato" and between the harvested locations. An increase in both methanol/water (8:2 v/v) and phosphate buffer soluble (PBS) free phenols (70%) and bound phenols (28%) in the extracts from the cultivars grown at Racale site was found and discussed. Examination of individual phenols revealed that chlorogenic acid and catechin were the major phenols present in potato tuber extracts; a moderate amount of caffeic acid and ferulic acid was also detected. The total equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was higher in the Racale extracts and a highly positive linear relationship ( R (2) = 0.8193) between TEAC values and total phenolic content was observed. The oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) of methanol/water and PBS extracts of peel and whole potatoes against the reactive oxygen species (ROS) peroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radicals was also analyzed. A highly significant linear correlation ( R (2) = 0.9613) between total antioxidant capacity (as a sum of peroxyl radicals + peroxynitrite) and total phenol content of methanol/water extracts was established. Moreover, proliferation of human mammalian cancer (MCF-7) cells was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to potato extracts. These data can be useful for "early potato" tuber characterization and suggest that the "early potato" has a potential as a dietary source of antioxidants.

  3. ANTIOXIDANT POTENCY OF WATER KEFIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Alsayadi M.S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have strong relationship with several diseases. Many fermented foods were reported to be important sources for antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant activity of water kefir never reported in the scientific literature. The objective of this study was to detect and investigate the antioxidant potency of water kefir. Water kefir was prepared by fermentation of sugar solution with kefir grains for 24h. Antioxidant activity of fresh water kefir drink and its extract with (0.125–5 mg/ml was evaluated using 2,2,-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrozyl (DPPH scavenging method, and inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation and the reducing power of water kefir were determined, Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and ascorbic acid were used for comparison. Water kefir demonstrated great ability to DPPH scavenging ranged (9.88-63.17%. And inhibit ascorbate oxidation by (6.08-25.57% increased in consequent with concentration raising. These results prime to conclude that water kefir could be promisor source of natural antioxidants with good potency in health developing.

  4. Current therapeutic concepts in peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Jan; Poloczkova, Hana; Nemec, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a relatively rare disease characterized by systolic heart failure occuring towards the end of pregnancy or during the months following birth. It is most often seen in women of African descent, and its incidence seems to be slightly increasing in recent years. Other etiologies of heart failure should be excluded to determine the diagnosis of PPCM. The clinical picture corresponds to systolic heart failure. The rapid onset of the symptoms in relation to pregnancy is striking. The essential diagnostic procedures such as echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and endomyocardial biopsy may be beneficial in certain situations. The etiology of the disease remains unclear. Speculated causes include myocarditis, autoimmune disorders, cardiotropic virus infection, and abnormal responses to hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy. Particular attention is currently given to the concept of increased oxidative stress inducing production of proapoptotic, angiostatic and proinflammatory mediators. Recovery of left ventricular systolic function occurs in about half of the cases. Mortality has been decreasing in recent years, especially in the United States, but is still between 10-15% in less developed countries where therapeutic possibilities are limited. In addition to standard heart failure therapy, specific treatments (pentoxyfilline, bromocriptine, immunomodulatory therapy) have been tested. Mechanical circulatory support is sometimes needed. Heart transplantation is the therapeutic option for the most severe heart failure and is used in about 10% of the cases. Recurrence in subsequent pregnancy is common and therefore, another pregnancy is not recommended in many cases. PMID:25483952

  5. Chaperones as potential therapeutics for Krabbe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Pannuzzo, Giovanna; Avola, Rosanna; Cardile, Venera

    2016-11-01

    Krabbe's disease (KD) is an autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disorder. It is classified among the lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). It was first described in , but the genetic defect for the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene was not discovered until the beginning of the 1970s, 20 years before the GALC cloning. Recently, in 2011, the crystal structures of the GALC enzyme and the GALC-product complex were obtained. For this, compared with other LSDs, the research on possible therapeutic interventions is much more recent. Thus, it is not surprising that some treatment options are still under preclinical investigation, whereas their relevance for other pathologies of the same group has already been tested in clinical studies. This is specifically the case for pharmacological chaperone therapy (PCT), a promising strategy for selectively correcting defective protein folding and trafficking and for enhancing enzyme activity by small molecules. These compounds bind directly to a partially folded biosynthetic intermediate, stabilize the protein, and allow completion of the folding process to yield a functional protein. Here, we review the chaperones that have demonstrated potential therapeutics during preclinical studies for KD, underscoring the requirement to invigorate research for KD-addressed PCT that will benefit from recent insights into the molecular understanding of GALC structure, drug design, and development in cellular models. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27638605

  6. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  7. Antioxidant activity of X-34 in synaptosomal and neuronal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, Jaroslaw; Sultana, Rukhsana; Klunk, William; Butterfield, D Allan

    2003-10-24

    Inhibiting aggregation and deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) in brain is a therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). A Congo-red-like molecule, X-34, is reported to bind to Abeta deposits. Oxidative stress associated with Abeta is hypothesized to be critical for the neurotoxic properties of this peptide. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that X-34, with its salicylate groups, would act as an antioxidant. When challenged by hydroxyl or peroxyl free radicals or Abeta(1-42), oxidative stress and neurotoxicity occurred in neural systems as assessed by several indices. However, pretreatment of synaptosomes and primary neuronal cell culture with X-34 greatly ameliorated lipid peroxidation induced by these free radicals and Abeta(1-42). Protein oxidation was not prevented by X-34. These results are discussed in terms of potential therapeutic use of X-34 and related compounds in AD.

  8. Evaluation of phenolic content and antioxidant potency in various parts of Cassia auriculata L.: a traditionally valued plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushotham, K N; Annegowda, H V; Sathish, N K; Ramesh, B; Mansor, S M

    2014-01-01

    Presence of polyphenolic content in various part of the plant exhibit wide pharmacological activities including antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the phenolic contents (total phenols, flavonoid and tannins) and antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of flower, leaf, pod, bark and root obtained from Cassia auriculata. Ethanolic extracts of various parts of C. auriculata obtained by sonication extraction techniques are studied for their phenolic contents and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine) radical scavenging assay as well as total antioxidant assays using UV visible spectrophotometer. Among the various parts of the plant studied, bark showed significant content of phenolics, flavonoids and tannins followed by the root, leaf, flower and pod. Even bark extract exhibited highest antioxidant capacity in DPPH assay followed by root, leaf, flower and pod with a value of 766.7, 679.3, 644.9, 572.5 and 474.7 mg vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (mg VCEAC)/sample, respectively. In addition, mg VCEAC values obtained from the total antioxidant assay was in the increasing order of bark > root > leaf > flower > pod. Moreover, a strong correlation was also found between phenolic contents and antioxidant values indicating their influence in the found antioxidant activity, hence the bark extract can be employed as an ideal candidate for herbal based pharmaceutical product. Results of the present study also emphasize variation in the chemical composition as well as biological activity ensuring the importance of proper selection of particular part of the plant to evaluate their therapeutic potency.

  9. Examination of nanoformulated crosslinked polymers complexed with copper/zinc superoxide dismutase as a therapeutic strategy for angiotensin II-mediated hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalia, Krupa

    . While these physiologic data are promising, it was essential to determine the biological distribution of our nanozymes. The experimental data provided herein implicate the proximal tubules in the kidney cortex as a primary target for CuZnSOD nanozyme following IV administration. Collectively, these studies support the further development of PLL50 -PEG CuZnSOD nanozyme as an antioxidant-based therapeutic option for the improved treatment of hypertension. Furthermore, the therapeutic impact of CuZnSOD nanozyme could be investigated in additional pathologies in which there are excessive levels of O2·- present in the kidney.

  10. [Antioxidative properties of vitamin E as a new approach to its applications in therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Maciej; Grzegorczyk, Krzysztof; Chojnacki, Jan; Kedziora, Józef

    2006-05-01

    The article presents current state of knowledge about antioxidative action of vitamin E, enabling significant broadening of its possible application in medicine. Mechanisms are discussed due to which it takes a very important part in protection of an organism against effects of oxidative stress. Followed from here consequences of this vitamin deficiencies were indicated. Detailed review was made of its role in counteracting diseases of the largest social significance: cancer and cardiovascular system diseases. Attention was paid to observed controversies and discrepancies in therapeutic effects. Unfavourable effects that could appear with application of large doses of vitamin E, typical for antioxidative therapy, were characterised. PMID:16875174

  11. Oxidative stress and Parkinson's disease: New hopes in treatment with herbal antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafchi, Amir; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to dopamine deficit in substatia nigra. PD is mainly a sporadic disease with unestablished etiology. However, exposure to environmental toxins, head trauma, inflammation, and free radicals are potential reasons. Recently, the role of oxidative stress in neurological abnormalities, including PD, has been particularly addressed. Antioxidant remedies, particularly herbal antioxidants, have revealed new perspectives of research and therapy as possible preventive and therapeutic approaches for PD. In this paper, we reviewed the recently published papers on the effects of herbal medicines on PD alongside the pathogenesis of PD with regard to oxidative stress. PMID:26561062

  12. Effect of drying method on volatile compounds, phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of guava powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Juliana C; Lago, Mabel G; Castelo-Branco, Vanessa N; Oliveira, Felipe R; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Perrone, Daniel; Monteiro, Mariana

    2016-04-15

    We studied the chemical composition of oven and freeze dried guava powders for future use as antioxidant-rich flavour enhancers. Among thirty-one volatiles in guava powders, terpenes were predominant, even after both drying processes. In contrast, esters and aldehydes, volatiles characteristic of fresh guava fruit, appeared to have been decreased by drying. Insoluble phenolics were predominant and among the sixteen compounds identified, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and naringenin corresponded to 56% of total phenolics. Drying processes decreased total phenolics contents by up to 44%. Oven drying promoted the release of insoluble flavonoids, generating mainly quercetin. Antioxidant capacity also decreased due to both drying processes, but guava powders still presented similar antioxidant capacity in comparison to other tropical fruit powders. Our results suggest that oven drying is a viable option for the production of a functional ingredient that would improve the phenolic content of cereal foods while adding desirable guava flavour. PMID:26617030

  13. Heterogeneous Beliefs, Public Information, and Option Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zhenjiang

    rate in the investors’ certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate. The public infor- mation system facilitates improved dynamic trading opportunities in option markets based on the heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. With an intermediate signal precision and the option...... with intermediate strike price, the highest efficiency of side-betting is achieved, re‡ected by a unique maximum point of the ex ante equilibrium interest rate. The public signal precision affects ex ante equilibrium risk premium only via its relationship with option.......In an incomplete market setting with heterogeneous prior beliefs, I show that public information and strike price of option have substantial infl‡uence on asset pricing in option markets, by investigating an absolute option pricing model with negative exponential utility investors and normally...

  14. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Principal component analysis of equity options on Dow-Jones firms reveals a strong factor structure. The first principal component explains 77% of the variation in the equity volatility level, 77% of the variation in the equity option skew, and 60% of the implied volatility term structure across...... equities. Furthermore, the first principal component has a 92% correlation with S&P500 index option volatility, a 64% correlation with the index option skew, and a 80% correlation with the index option term structure. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure....... The model allows for stochastic volatility in the market return and also in the idiosyncratic part of firm returns. The model predicts that firms with higher betas have higher implied volatilities, and steeper moneyness and term structure slopes. We provide a tractable approach for estimating the model...

  15. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer′s disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues

    OpenAIRE

    Obulesu, M; Dowlathabad Muralidhara Rao

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are i...

  16. Preferences, Levy Jumps and Option Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Chenghu Ma

    2013-01-01

    This paper derives an equilibrium formula for pricing European options and other contingent claims which allows incorporating impacts of several important economic variable on security prices including, among others, representative agent preferences, future volatility and rare jump events. The derived formulae is general and flexible enough to include some important option pricing formulae in the literature, such as Black-Scholes, Naik-Lee, Cox-Ross and Merton option pricing formulae. The exi...

  17. Mental health policy: Options for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Y.G. Pillay

    1993-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the need for mental health professionals to become involved in developing mental health policies in South Africa. In particular, it examines three options that are currently the focus of attention with respect to national health options, i.e. a free market system, a national health service (NHS) and a national health insurance system (NHIS). While the paper does not provide support for any one of these options it does attempt to investigate some of the implications of ea...

  18. Option pricing techniques under stochastic delay models

    OpenAIRE

    McWilliams, Nairn Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Black-Scholes model and corresponding option pricing formula has led to a wide and extensive industry, used by financial institutions and investors to speculate on market trends or to control their level of risk from other investments. From the formation of the Chicago Board Options Exchange in 1973, the nature of options contracts available today has grown dramatically from the single-date contracts considered by Black and Scholes (1973) to a wider and more exotic range of...

  19. Options, Sunspots, and the Creation of Uncertainty.

    OpenAIRE

    David Bowman; Jon Faust

    1997-01-01

    We present a model in which the addition of an option market leads to sunspot equilibria in an economy which has no sunspot equilibrium before the market is introduced. This phenomenon occurs because the payoff of an option contract is contingent upon market prices, and while prices are taken as exogenous by individuals within the economy they are endogenous to the economy as a whole. Our results provide robust counterexamples to the two most prevalent views of options markets in finance. Fol...

  20. Automatic Extraction of JPF Options and Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luks, Wojciech; Tkachuk, Oksana; Buschnell, David

    2011-01-01

    Documenting existing Java PathFinder (JPF) projects or developing new extensions is a challenging task. JPF provides a platform for creating new extensions and relies on key-value properties for their configuration. Keeping track of all possible options and extension mechanisms in JPF can be difficult. This paper presents jpf-autodoc-options, a tool that automatically extracts JPF projects options and other documentation-related information, which can greatly help both JPF users and developers of JPF extensions.