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Sample records for antioxidant rich diets

  1. Vitamin and antioxidant rich diet increases MLH1 promoter DNA methylation in DMT2 subjects

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    Switzeny Olivier J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress may lead to an increased level of unrepaired cellular DNA damage, which is discussed as one risk for tumor initiation. Mismatch repair (MMR enzymes act as proofreading complexes that maintain the genomic integrity and MMR-deficient cells show an increased mutation rate. One important gene in the MMR complex is the MutL homolog 1 (MLH1 gene. Since a diet rich in antioxidants has the potential to counteract harmful effects by reactive oxygen species (ROS, we investigated the impact of an antioxidant, folate, and vitamin rich diet on the epigenetic pattern of MLH1. These effects were analyzed in individuals with non-insulin depended diabetes mellitus type 2 (NIDDM2 and impaired fasting glucose (IFG. Methods In this post-hoc analysis of a randomized trial we analyzed DNA methylation of MLH1, MSH2, and MGMT at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention, consisting of 300 g vegetables and 25 ml plant oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids per day. DNA methylation was quantified using combined bisulfite restriction enzyme analysis (COBRA and pyrosequencing. MLH1 and DNMT1 mRNA expression were investigated by qRT-PCR. DNA damage was assessed by COMET assay. Student’s two-tailed paired t test and one-way ANOVA with Scheffé corrected Post hoc test was used to determine significant methylation and expression differences. Two-tailed Pearson test was used to determine correlations between methylation level, gene expression, and DNA strand break amount. Results The intervention resulted in significantly higher CpG methylation in two particular MLH1 promoter regions and the MGMT promoter. DNA strand breaks and methylation levels correlated significantly. The expression of MLH1, DNMT1, and the promoter methylation of MSH2 remained stable. CpG methylation levels and gene expression did not correlate. Conclusion This vitamin and antioxidant rich diet affected the CpG methylation of MLH1. The higher methylation might be a

  2. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

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    Aguilar, E.C. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jascolka, T.L. [Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, L.G.; Lages, P.C.; Ribeiro, A.C.C.; Vieira, E.L.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peluzio, M.C.G. [Departamento de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Alvarez-Leite, J.I. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-05-11

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr{sup −/−}, C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action.

  3. The Okinawan diet: health implications of a low-calorie, nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich dietary pattern low in glycemic load.

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    Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Todoriki, Hidemi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Residents of Okinawa, the southernmost prefecture of Japan, are known for their long average life expectancy, high numbers of centenarians, and accompanying low risk of age-associated diseases. Much of the longevity advantage in Okinawa is thought to be related to a healthy lifestyle, particularly the traditional diet, which is low in calories yet nutritionally dense, especially with regard to phytonutrients in the form of antioxidants and flavonoids. Research suggests that diets associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases are similar to the traditional Okinawan diet, that is, vegetable and fruit heavy (therefore phytonutrient and antioxidant rich) but reduced in meat, refined grains, saturated fat, sugar, salt, and full-fat dairy products. Many of the characteristics of the diet in Okinawa are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, such as the traditional Mediterranean diet or the modern DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet. Features such as the low levels of saturated fat, high antioxidant intake, and low glycemic load in these diets are likely contributing to a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and other chronic diseases through multiple mechanisms, including reduced oxidative stress. A comparison of the nutrient profiles of the three dietary patterns shows that the traditional Okinawan diet is the lowest in fat intake, particularly in terms of saturated fat, and highest in carbohydrate intake, in keeping with the very high intake of antioxidant-rich yet calorie-poor orange-yellow root vegetables, such as sweet potatoes, and green leafy vegetables. Deeper analyses of the individual components of the Okinawan diet reveal that many of the traditional foods, herbs, or spices consumed on a regular basis could be labeled "functional foods" and, indeed, are currently being explored for their potential health-enhancing properties.

  4. Iridoid extracts from Ajuga iva increase the antioxidant enzyme activities in red blood cells of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.

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    Bouderbala, Sherazede; Prost, Josiane; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie Aleth; Bouchenak, Malika

    2010-05-01

    The lyophilized aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (Ai) is able to reduce oxidative stress, which may prevent lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic rats. Iridoids (I) were isolated from Ai. We hypothesized that the antioxidant defense status in red blood cells (RBC) and tissues in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet and treated with Ai may be correlated to these compounds. Male Wistar rats (n = 32) weighing 120 +/- 5 g were fed a diet containing 1% cholesterol for 15 days. After this phase, hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats were divided into groups, fed the same diet, and received either the same or different doses (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection) of I for 15 days. Compared with the HC group, total cholesterol value was 1.4- and 1.2-fold lower in the I(5)-HC and I(10)-HC groups. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content was 2.3-, 2.9-, and 3-fold lower in the I(5)-HC, I(10)-HC, and I(15)-HC groups compared with the HC group. In RBC, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher in the I(5)-HC, I(10)-HC, and I(15)-HC groups than the HC group. Liver, heart, and muscle glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher in the groups treated with I than the HC group. Muscle glutathione reductase activity was increased 1.4-fold in the I(5)-HC, 1.5-fold in the I(10)-HC, and 1.5-fold in the I(15)-HC group. In HC rats, different doses of I increase the antioxidant enzyme activities in RBC and act differently in tissues. Treatment with I may play an important role in suppressing oxidative stress caused by dietary cholesterol and, thus, may be useful for the prevention and/or early treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Nutritional composition and flavonoid content of edible wild greens and green pies: a potential rich source and antioxidant nutrients in the Mediterranean diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trichopoulou, A.; Vasilopoulou, E.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Chamalides, Ch.; Foufa, E.

    2000-01-01

    The traditional Greek diet is dominated by the high consumption of olive oil, fruit and vegetables. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and may be important mediators of the beneficial effect of this diet. Wild edible greens are frequently consumed throughout Greece. Seven edible

  6. Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders.

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    Hänninen; Kaartinen, K; Rauma, A L; Nenonen, M; Törrönen, R; Häkkinen, A S; Adlercreutz, H; Laakso, J

    2000-11-30

    Plants are rich natural sources of antioxidants in addition to other nutrients. Interventions and cross sectional studies on subjects consuming uncooked vegan diet called living food (LF) have been carried out. We have clarified the efficacy of LF in rheumatoid diseases as an example of a health problem where inflammation is one of the main concerns. LF is an uncooked vegan diet and consists of berries, fruits, vegetables and roots, nuts, germinated seeds and sprouts, i.e. rich sources of carotenoids, vitamins C and E. The subjects eating LF showed highly increased levels of beta and alfa carotenes, lycopen and lutein in their sera. Also the increases of vitamin C and vitamin E (adjusted to cholesterol) were statistically significant. As the berry intake was 3-fold compared to controls the intake of polyphenolic compounds like quercetin, myricetin and kaempherol was much higher than in the omnivorous controls. The LF diet is rich in fibre, substrate of lignan production, and the urinary excretion of polyphenols like enterodiol and enterolactone as well as secoisolaricirecinol were much increased in subjects eating LF. The shift of fibromyalgic subjects to LF resulted in a decrease of their joint stiffness and pain as well as an improvement of their self-experienced health. The rheumatoid arthritis patients eating the LF diet also reported similar positive responses and the objective measures supported this finding. The improvement of rheumatoid arthritis was significantly correlated with the day-to-day fluctuation of subjective symptoms. In conclusion the rheumatoid patients subjectively benefited from the vegan diet rich in antioxidants, lactobacilli and fibre, and this was also seen in objective measures.

  7. Determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) by high-performance liquid chromatography in serum and liver as a biomarker for oxidative stress. Application to a rat model for hypercholesterolemia and evaluation of the effect of diets rich in phenolic antioxidants from fruits.

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    Mateos, Raquel; Lecumberri, Elena; Ramos, Sonia; Goya, Luis; Bravo, Laura

    2005-11-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) as the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivative was applied to biological samples (serum and liver homogenates). Since MDA is considered a presumptive biomarker for lipid peroxidation in live organisms, a model for nutritionally induced oxidative stress (hypercholesterolemic rats) was studied in comparison with normocholesterolemic animals. The effect of diet supplementation with fruits rich in antioxidant polyphenols was assessed. The proposed method showed to be precise and reproducible, as well as sensitive enough to reflect differences in the oxidative status in vivo. A significant decrease of serum and liver MDA concentrations in animals fed diets containing 0.3% of polyphenols from strawberry, cocoa or plum was observed in the normocholesterolemic groups. This reduction was especially noteworthy in the hypercholesterolemic animals, with increased MDA levels indicating enhanced lipid peroxidation in the controls, yet with values parallel to the normocholesterolemic groups in animals fed the polyphenol-rich diets. These results point out the beneficial effects of phenolic antioxidants from fruits in preventing oxidative damage in vivo.

  8. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

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    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and of antioxidative defense: Relationship to intervention with antioxidant-rich foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars Ove; Young, Jette Feveile; Loft, Steffen

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidant actions of single food items or extracts rich in flavonoids (e.g., apple and black currant juice, grape skin extract, tea extract and parsley) were evaluated in short-term human trials [Denmark; date not given]. An overall weak trend toward decreased lipid oxidation with increased...... polyphenol intake was observed. There was an increased oxidative stress response toward plasma proteins from food items rich in polyphenols and vitamin C and a decreased response when fruits and vegetables were omitted using a controlled diet. There also was a similar trend toward increased antioxidant...

  10. Hypolipidimic and antioxidant activities of oleuropein and its hydrolysis derivative-rich extracts from Chemlali olive leaves.

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    Jemai, Hedya; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Fki, Ines; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Sayadi, Sami

    2008-11-25

    Oleuropein-rich extracts from olive leaves and their enzymatic and acid hydrolysates, respectively rich in oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol, were prepared under optimal conditions. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were examined by a series of models in vitro. In this study the lipid-lowering and the antioxidative activities of oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet were tested. Wistar rats fed a standard laboratory diet or cholesterol-rich diets for 16 weeks were used. The serum lipid levels, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, as indicator of lipid peroxidation, and the activities of liver antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were examined. The cholesterol-rich diet induced hyperlipidemia resulting in the elevation of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Administration of polyphenol-rich olive leaf extracts significantly lowered the serum levels of TC, TG and LDL-C and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Furthermore, the content of TBARS in liver, heart, kidneys and aorta decreased significantly after oral administration of polyphenol-rich olive leaf extracts compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. In addition, these extracts increased the serum antioxidant potential and the hepatic CAT and SOD activities. These results suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts might be due to their abilities to lower serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels as well as slowing the lipid peroxidation process and enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity.

  11. Effects of Aerobic Endurance Training and Tea Polyphenols on the Anti-oxidative Capability of the Liver Cells of Fat-rich Diet Rats%有氧运动结合茶多酚对高脂膳食大鼠肝脏抗氧化能力的影响

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    罗艳蕊; 王建设; 李新; 季浏

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察有氧耐力运动及茶多酚补充对高脂膳食大鼠肝脏抗氧化能力的影响。方法:雄性SD大鼠48只,随机分为6组:安静对照组、高脂膳食组、运动对照组、高脂膳食运动组、高脂膳食低茶多酚运动组、高脂膳食高茶多酚运动组。检测大鼠肝脏T-AOC、SOD、CAT、NOS活性及MDA、NO含量。结果:高脂膳食大鼠肝脏SOD、CAT活性及MDA含量显著高于对照组;高脂膳食运动组SOD、CAT活性较高脂膳食组显著上升,MDA含量显著降低;高脂膳食茶多酚运动组SOD活性升高、CAT活性下降,MDA恢复至安静对照组水平。高脂膳食大鼠肝脏TNOS、iNOS活性及NO含量都比安静对照组显著增加;高脂膳食运动组三者较高脂膳食组显著下降。与安静对照组比较,其它5组T-AOC均显著提高,其中茶多酚补充与运动联合作用提高幅度最大。结论:有氧耐力运动可以提高高脂膳食大鼠肝脏抗氧化能力,有氧耐力运动联合茶多酚补充对高脂膳食大鼠肝脏抗氧化能力的提高效果优于单纯的有氧耐力运动。%Objective: To observe the influence of aerobic endurance exercise and tea polyphenols on the liver of fat-rich diet rat's metabolize of reactive oxygen species(ROS) and reactive nitrogen species(RNS).Methods: 48 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: Group A(quietness control group),Group B (fat-rich diet group),Group C(exercise control group),Group D(exercise+fat-rich diet group),Group E(exercise + fat-rich diet + low tea polyphenols group),Group F(exercise + fat-rich diet and high tea polyphenols group).The authors detected the activity of total anti-oxidative capacity(T-AOC),super oxide dimutese(SOD),catalase(CAT),total nitric oxide synthase(TNOS),inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) and the content of malonaldehyde(MDA),nitric oxide(NO) in the rat's liver

  12. Carotenoids as a Source of Antioxidants in the Diet.

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    Xavier, Ana Augusta Odorissi; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids, widely distributed fat-soluble pigments, are responsible for the attractive colorations of several fruits and vegetables commonly present in our daily diet. They are particularly abundant in yellow-orange fruits (carrots, tomatoes, pumpkins, peppers, among others) and, although masked by chlorophylls, in dark green leafy vegetables. Several health benefits have been attributed to carotenoids or to foods rich in these pigments, by means of different mechanisms-of-action, including the role as provitamin A of almost 50 different carotenoids and the antioxidant activity that protects cells and tissues from damage of free radicals and singlet oxygen, providing enhancement of the immune function, protection from sunburn reactions and delaying the onset of certain types of cancer. Common food sources and the efficiency of the absorption of carotenoids, analytical approaches used for measurement of their antioxidant effect and an overview of some epidemiological studies that have been performed to assess the beneficial impact of carotenoids in human health are outlined in this chapter.

  13. Women with endometriosis improved their peripheral antioxidant markers after the application of a high antioxidant diet

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    Casanueva Esther

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress has been identified in the peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood of women with endometriosis. However, there is little information on the antioxidant intake for this group of women. The objectives of this work were 1 to compare the antioxidant intake among women with and without endometriosis and 2 to design and apply a high antioxidant diet to evaluate its capacity to reduce oxidative stress markers and improve antioxidant markers in the peripheral blood of women with endometriosis. Methods Women with (WEN, n = 83 and without endometriosis (WWE, n = 80 were interviewed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire to compare their antioxidant intake (of vitamins and minerals. Then, the WEN participated in the application of a control (n = 35 and high antioxidant diet (n = 37 for four months. The high antioxidant diet (HAD guaranteed the intake of 150% of the suggested daily intake of vitamin A (1050 μg retinol equivalents, 660% of the recommended daily intake (RDI of vitamin C (500 mg and 133% of the RDI of vitamin E (20 mg. Oxidative stress and antioxidant markers (vitamins and antioxidant enzymatic activity were determined in plasma every month. Results Comparison of antioxidant intake between WWE and WEN showed a lower intake of vitamins A, C, E, zinc, and copper by WEN (p Conclusion WEN had a lower intake of antioxidants in comparison to WWE. Peripheral oxidative stress markers diminished, and antioxidant markers were enhanced, in WEN after the application of the HAD.

  14. Nutrition and Healthy Ageing: Calorie Restriction or Polyphenol-Rich “MediterrAsian” Diet?

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    Kathrin Pallauf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays an important role in mammalian health and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Incidence of CVD is low in many parts of Asia (e.g., Japan and the Mediterranean area (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and Turkey. The Asian and the Mediterranean diets are rich in fruit and vegetables, thereby providing high amounts of plant bioactives including polyphenols, glucosinolates, and antioxidant vitamins. Furthermore, oily fish which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids is an important part of the Asian (e.g., Japanese and also of the Mediterranean diets. There are specific plant bioactives which predominantly occur in the Mediterranean (e.g., resveratrol from red wine, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein from olive oil and in the Asian diets (e.g., isoflavones from soybean and epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Interestingly, when compared to calorie restriction which has been repeatedly shown to increase healthspan, these polyphenols activate similar molecular targets such as Sirt1. We suggest that a so-called “MediterrAsian” diet combining sirtuin-activating foods (= sirtfoods of the Asian as well as Mediterranean diet may be a promising dietary strategy in preventing chronic diseases, thereby ensuring health and healthy ageing. Future (human studies are needed which take the concept suggested here of the MediterrAsian diet into account.

  15. Effect of the antioxidants composition in diet on the sensory and physical properties of frozen farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

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    Rodríguez, Alicia; Latorre, Mónica; Gajardo, Mónica; Bunger, Andrea; Munizaga, Alejandro; López, Luis; Aubourg, Santiago P

    2015-04-01

    Great attention has been paid to the antioxidants present in farmed fish feeds, with the replacement of synthetic antioxidants by natural ones being a main objective. In the present study, Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was fed a conventional diet that was enriched with different kinds of antioxidants: synthetic antioxidants (butylated-hydroxy toluene and ethoxyquin; diet I), a tocopherols-rich mixture (diet II) and a tocopherols-rosemary extract mixture (diet III). A comparative study of the sensory and physical changes observed in the corresponding frozen products was undertaken. After 18 months at -18 °C, fish previously fed on diet I showed higher putrid and rancid odours and rancid taste scores, while lower mean typical odour and taste values were attained. Dripping and expressible moisture values obtained for diet II-fish were lower when compared with their counterparts belonging to the diet I; additionally, microstructure analysis revealed that Z-lines integration was better preserved in fish corresponding to diets II and III. Diet II has been recognised as being the most profitable to be employed to maintain the sensory and physical properties of the frozen product when long-term storage is considered. Further research is to be continued to optimise the natural antioxidants profile. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Encapsulation of astaxanthin-rich Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous for antioxidant delivery.

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    Lee, Ji-Soo; Park, Sun-Ah; Chung, Donghwa; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2011-10-01

    Calcium alginate gel (CAG) beads were used to entrap the antioxidant astaxanthin-rich Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (ASX) by ionic gelation. ASX-CAG bead entrapment efficiency and release behavior, as influenced by alginate and CaCl(2) concentration and hardening time, were investigated. The optimized bead preparation conditions that gave rise to an efficient ASX release pattern were 1.5% alginate, 50mM CaCl(2), and a 5min hardening time. The antioxidant activity of non-encapsulated ASX was maintained for 4 days and then sharply decreased, whereas encapsulated ASX was maintained for 6 days. These results revealed that physical entrapment of ASX within CAG beads could be an effective technique for protecting the antioxidant activity of ASX from lipid peroxidation.

  17. Antidiabetic And Antioxidant Effects Of A Multigrain Diet

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    Sanjay S. Karn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a formulated multigrain diet on metabolic alterations in carbohydrate profiles and antioxidant status in diabetic animals Methods: Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate and diabetic status was confirmed by blood glucose levels over a period of two weeks. Diet was formulated using Sorghum vulgare, Avena sativa, Pennisetum typhoideum, Oryza sativa, Eleusine coracana and Zea mays and casein, corn starch and vegetable oil. Carbohydrate (plasma glucose, hepatic glycogen, G-6-Pase and hexokinase, hepatic and renal functions (Total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT and antioxidant profiles (SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx, TAA were determined. Results and Conclusions: The diabetic animals when fed formulated diet, exhibited significant decreases in serum glucose, SGPT, SGOT, urea, creatinine and hepatic G-6-pase levels along with increased serum protein and glycogen content and hepatic hexokinase activity as compared to those of commercial diet fed diabetic animals. Hepatic and renal enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant profiles were also found to be restored to their normal values in those diabetic group of animals fed formulated diet. This study thus indicated that a multigrain formulated diet has a positive effect on diabetic animals with respect to serum glucose levels, hepatic and renal functions and antioxidant activity.

  18. Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil and obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus.

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    Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; García-Ríos, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José

    2011-01-01

    After decades of epidemiological, clinical and experimental research, it has become clear that consumption of Mediterranean dietary patterns rich in olive oil has a profound influence on health outcomes, including obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus. Traditionally, many beneficial properties associated with this oil have been ascribed to its high oleic acid content. Olive oil, however, is a functional food that, besides having high-monounsaturated (MUFA) content, contains other minor components with biological properties. In this line, phenolic compounds have shown antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, prevent lipoperoxidation, induce favorable changes of lipid profile, improve endothelial function, and disclose antithrombotic properties. Research into the pharmacological properties of the minor components of olive oil is very active and could lead to the formulation of functional food and nutraceuticals. Although more data are mandatory the Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil does not contribute to obesity and appears to be a useful tool in the lifestyle management of the MetS. Moreover there is good scientific support for MUFA diets, especially those based on olive oil, as an alternative approach to low-fat diets for the medical nutritional therapy in diabetes. The objective of this review is to present evidence illustrating the relationship between Mediterranean diet, olive oil and metabolic diseases, including obesity, MetS and diabetes mellitus and to discuss potential mechanisms by which this food can help in disease prevention and treatment.

  19. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and close dietetic supervision increase total dietary antioxidant intake and plasma antioxidant capacity in subjects with abdominal obesity.

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    Kolomvotsou, Anastasia I; Rallidis, Loukianos S; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Lekakis, John; Koutelidakis, Antonis; Efstathiou, Stamatis; Nana-Anastasiou, Maria; Zampelas, Antonis

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effect of Mediterranean-type diet and close dietetic supervision on dietary antioxidant intake and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with abdominal obesity. Ninety subjects with abdominal obesity, 46 in intervention group, 44 in control group, participated in a 2-month, randomized, parallel dietary intervention. All participants were counseled on Greek Mediterranean diet. The intervention group was under close dietetic supervision, followed a specific relevant daily and weekly food plan consuming antioxidant-rich foods and food products. Total dietary antioxidant intake was calculated from the volunteers' food diaries, and plasma TAC using plasma ORAC assay and plasma ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, both at baseline and at 2 months. Following the 2-month period, total dietary antioxidant intake was increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P = 0.000). In addition, increased intake of total fat, due to higher consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as increased intakes of dietary fiber, vitamin C and alcohol was also observed in the intervention group compared to the control group (P dietetic supervision, can increase total dietary antioxidant intake and plasma TAC in patients with abdominal obesity.

  20. Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low- or High-Fat Diets on Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows and Offspring.

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    Wang, Y S; Zhou, P; Liu, H; Li, S; Zhao, Y; Deng, K; Cao, D D; Che, L Q; Fang, Z F; Xu, S Y; Lin, Y; Feng, B; Li, J; Wu, D

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low- or high-fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low-fat diet (L), low-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high-fat diet (H) and high-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin-rich diets lowered the within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0-1.5 kg at farrowing (p sow constipation (p Sows fed fat-rich diets gained more BW during gestation (p sows fed low-fat diets. However, it is worth noting that the H diet significantly decreased the serum activities of superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and increased the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in sows and piglets (p sows and piglets. In summary, the fat-rich diets fed to sows during gestation had beneficial effects on reproductive performance, but aggravated the oxidative stress in sow and piglets. Inulin-rich diets fed to sow during gestation had beneficial effects on within-litter uniformity of piglet birthweight and enhanced the antioxidant defence capacity of sows and piglets. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Training and natural immunity: effects of diets rich in fat or carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, B K; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Richter, E A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether a carbohydrate-rich versus fat-rich diet influenced the effect of training on the immune system. Ten untrained young men ingested a carbohydrate-rich diet [65 energy percent (E%) carbohydrate] and ten subjects a fat-rich diet (62E% fat) while...... with interleukin (IL)-2 or interferon (IFN)-alpha, did not change. Furthermore, training did not influence the percentages of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ or CD14+ cells. However, when the two diet groups were compared, it was found that the NK-cell activity had increased in the group on the carbohydrate-rich diet...... influence natural immunity, and suggest that ingestion of a fat-rich diet during training is detrimental to the immune system compared to the effect of a carbohydrate-rich diet....

  2. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hilda Vargas-Robles; Amelia Rios; Monica Arellano-Mendoza; Escalante, Bruno A.; Michael Schnoor

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture c...

  3. A vegetable protein-rich diet for the treatment of liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okita,Misako

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Twelve patients were administered a vegetable protein-rich diet, which was low in methionine and high in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA to aromatic amino acid (AAA molar ratio, and an animal protein-rich diet, high in methionine and low in the BCAA/AAA molar ratio. These diets were administered successively for one week each. Actually ingested amounts of tyrosine and methionine were significantly lower during the feeding of the vegetable protein-rich diet than the animal protein-rich diet. Serum methionine concentrations increased while on the animal protein-rich diet and decreased following the switch to the vegetable protein-rich diet. No other amino acid concentrations were affected. Significant differences were not observed in nitrogen balance or serum protein concentrations.

  4. New natural antioxidants for protecting omega-3 rich products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    to oxidation because of their unsaturated nature. Addition of antioxidants is one method. to prevent lipid oxidation. As synthetic antioxidants may have carcinogenic effects at higher levels, the replacement of synthetic antioxidants with natural antioxidants is now in demand. We have isolated natural...... antioxidants from yoghurt, potato peel, fish protein hydrolysates and seaweed, which were able to protect highly unsaturated fish oil from oxidation. These antioxidant extracts may have potential for commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....

  5. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles.

  6. Rich, Well-Educated Get Bigger Bang for Buck from Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well-Educated Get Bigger Bang for Buck From Mediterranean Diet Researchers suspect food quality may account for ... 2017 TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The Mediterranean diet -- rich in fruits, vegetables, fish, olive oil, ...

  7. NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kobayashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decreased nitric oxide (NO availability due to obesity and endothelial dysfunction might be causally related to the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as insulin resistance, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension. In such situations, instead of impaired NO synthase (NOS-dependent NO generation, the entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway might serve as a backup system for NO generation by transmitting NO activities in the various molecular forms including NO and protein S-nitrosothiols. Recently accumulated evidence has demonstrated that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables rich in nitrate/nitrite is an inexpensive and easily-practicable way to prevent insulin resistance and vascular endothelial dysfunction by increasing the NO availability; a NO-rich diet may also prevent other lifestyle-related diseases, including osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and cancer. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of NO generation through the entero-salivary pathway and discusses its safety and preventive effects on lifestyle-related diseases.

  8. Dietary total antioxidant capacity: a novel indicator of diet quality in healthy young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Puchau, B. (Blanca); M.A. Zulet; Gonzalez-de-Echavarri, A. (Amaia); Hermsdorff, H.H. (H. H.); Martinez, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Overall diet quality measurements have been suggested as a useful tool to assess diet-disease relationships. Oxidative stress has been related to the development of obesity and other chronic diseases. Furthermore, antioxidant intake is being considered as protective against cell oxidative damage and related metabolic complications. Objective: To evaluate potential associations between the dietary total antioxidant capacity of foods (TAC), the energy density of the diet, and ot...

  9. Effects of flavonol-rich diet on select cardiovascular parameters in a Gold Syrian Hamster model

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the effects of a flavonoid-rich diet supplemented with cranberry on blood pressure and cholesterol ester levels in hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters. Animals were fed one of four diets: high fat high cholesterol (HFHC) diet, HFHC with 2% cranberry concentrate powder (HFHC+...

  10. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia Induced by High Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Elancheran, Ramakrishnan; Deori, Meetali; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae) is a plant found available in Northeast (NE) region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF) and seed extract (GS) were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 4.01 μg/ml), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 0.82 μg/ml), NBT (IC50 = 0.07 μg/ml) and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.26 μg/ml). Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%), serum total cholesterol (33%), triglycerides (32%), low-density lipoprotein (38%) and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat. PMID:27642282

  11. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia induced by High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast (NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract (ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF and seed extract (GS were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50=4.01 µg/ml, ABTS•+ (IC50=0.82 µg/ml, NBT (IC50=0.07 µg/ml and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=19.26 µg/ml. Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%, serum total cholesterol (33%, triglycerides (32%, low-density lipoprotein (38% and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

  12. Antioxidant-rich phytochemicals in miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum) and antioxidant activity of its extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liqing; Shen, Yixiao; Zhang, Xiumei; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Xu, Zhimin

    2014-06-15

    Miracle berry is known for its unique characteristic of modifying sour flavours to sweet. Twelve phenolics were identified and quantified in the miracle berry flesh at a level from 0.3 for kaempferol to 17.8 mg/100g FW for epicatechin. Lutein and α-tocopherol were also quantified at a level of 0.4 and 5.8 mg/100g FW, respectively. The TP and TF contents were 1448.3 GA and 9.9 QR mg Equiv/100g FW for the flesh, respectively, compared with 306.7 GA and 3.8 mg QR mg Equiv/100g FW of the seeds. The free radical scavenging and reducing percentage of the flesh extract was 96.3% and 32.5% in DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Additionally, the flesh extract had a high FRAP of 22.9 mmol/100g. It significantly inhibited the oxidation of PUFA in fish oil as well. Thus, miracle berry could also serve as an antioxidant-rich fruit to provide health promoting function.

  13. Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaras, Michael D; Richie, John P; Calcagnotto, Ana; Beelman, Robert B

    2017-10-15

    While mushrooms are the highest dietary source for the unique sulfur-containing antioxidant ergothioneine, little is known regarding levels of the major biological antioxidant glutathione. Thus, our objectives were to determine and compare levels of glutathione, as well as ergothioneine, in different species of mushrooms. Glutathione levels varied >20-fold (0.11-2.41mg/gdw) with some varieties having higher levels than reported for other foods. Ergothioneine levels also varied widely (0.15-7.27mg/gdw) and were highly correlated with those of glutathione (r=0.62, Pglutathione compared to the first flush, possibly as a response to increased oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that certain mushroom species are high in glutathione and ergothioneine and should be considered an excellent dietary source of these important antioxidants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Zemel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week randomized controlled multi-center clinical trial was conducted in 106 overweight and obese adults. Diets were designed to produce a 2,093 kJ/day energy deficit with either low calcium (LC; ~600 mg/day, high calcium (HC; ~1,400 mg/day, or high dairy (HD; three dairy servings, diet totaling ~1,400 mg/day. Ninety-three subjects completed the trial, and 68 met all a priori weekly compliance criteria. Both HC and HD contained comparable levels of calcium, but HC was only ~30% as effective as HD in suppressing 1,25-(OH2D and exerted no significant effects on weight loss or body composition compared to LC. In the group that met compliance criteria, HD resulted in ~two-fold augmentation of fat loss compared to LC and HC (HD: -4.43 ± 0.53 kg; LC: -2.69 ± 0.0.53 kg; HC: -2.23 ± 0.73kg, p < 0.025; assessment of all completers and an intent-to-treat analysis produced similar trends. HD augmentated central (trunk fat loss (HD: -2.38 ± 0.30 kg; HC: -1.42 ± 0.30 kg; LC: -1.36 ± 0.42 kg, p < 0.05 and waist circumference (HD: -7.65 ± 0.75 cm; LC: -4.92 ± 0.74 cm; LC: -4.95 ± 1.05 cm, p < 0.025. Similar effects were noted among all subjects completing the study and in an intent-to-treat analysis. These data indicate that dairy-rich diets augment weight loss by targeting the fat compartment during energy restriction.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of wheat aleurone-rich foods on markers of antioxidant status, inflammation and endothelial function in apparently healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Ruth K; Wallace, Julie M W; Hamill, Lesley L; Keaveney, Edel M; Strain, J J; Parker, Michael J; Welch, Robert W

    2012-11-14

    Observational data show an inverse association between the consumption of whole-grain foods, and inflammation and related diseases. Although the underlying mechanisms are unclear, whole grains, and in particular the aleurone layer, contain a wide range of components with putative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We evaluated the effects of a diet high in wheat aleurone on plasma antioxidants status, markers of inflammation and endothelial function. In this parallel, participant-blinded intervention, seventy-nine healthy, older, overweight participants (45-65 years, BMI>25 kg/m²) incorporated either aleurone-rich cereal products (27 g aleurone/d), or control products balanced for fibre and macronutrients, into their habitual diets for 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and on day 29. Results showed that, compared to control, consumption of aleurone-rich products provided substantial amounts of micronutrients and phytochemicals which may function as antioxidants. Additionally, incorporating these products into a habitual diet resulted in significantly lower plasma concentrations of the inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (P = 0·035), which is an independent risk factor for CVD. However, no changes were observed in other markers of inflammation, antioxidant status or endothelial function. These results provide a possible mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of longer-term whole-grain intake. However, it is unclear whether this effect is owing to a specific component, or a combination of components in wheat aleurone.

  16. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    OpenAIRE

    Dumoulin M; Gaudout D; Lemaire B

    2016-01-01

    Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical stu...

  17. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    OpenAIRE

    Dumoulin M; Gaudout D; Lemaire B

    2016-01-01

    Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical stu...

  18. Catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems of mouse brain are modulated by LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, Laura; Esteban, Gerard; Giralt, Mercedes; Valente, Tony; Bolea, Irene; Solé, Montse; Sun, Ping; Benítez, Susana; Morelló, José Ramón; Reguant, Jordi; Ramírez, Bartolomé; Hidalgo, Juan; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2015-04-01

    The possible modulatory effect of the functional LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, affecting cognition decline during aging has been studied. 129S1/SvlmJ mice were fed for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days with either LMN or control diets. The enzymes involved in catecholaminergic and cholinergic metabolism were determined by both immunohistological and western blot analyses. Noradrenalin, dopamine and other metabolites were quantified by HPLC analysis. Theobromine, present in cocoa, the main LMN diet component, was analysed in parallel using SH-SY5Y and PC12 cell lines. An enhanced modulatory effect on both cholinergic and catecholaminergic transmissions was observed on 20 day fed mice. Similar effect was observed with theobromine, besides its antioxidant capacity inducing SOD-1 and GPx expression. The enhancing effect of the LMN diet and theobromine on the levels of acetylcholine-related enzymes, dopamine and specially noradrenalin confirms the beneficial role of this diet on the "cognitive reserve" and hence a possible reducing effect on cognitive decline underlying aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Fish oil rich diet in comparison to saturated fat rich diet offered protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler Thomas R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objective Systemic chronic inflammation is linked to metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and heart disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a Gram negative microbial product, triggers inflammation through toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4 signaling. It has been reported that dietary fatty acids also modulate inflammation through TLR-4. We investigated whether fish oil (FO rich diet in comparison to saturated fat (SF rich diet would confer protection from pathologies induced by LPS. Methods Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups. One group received FO-diet and other received SF-diet ad libitum for 60 days. Diets were isocaloric containing 45% energy from fat. After 60-days of feeding, blood was collected after overnight fast. Mice were allowed to recover for 4-days, fasted for 5-hours, challenged with 100 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially, and bled after 2-hours. After 7-days of recuperation, mice were challenged with 500 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially and observed for physical health. Results Food intake was similar in FO- and SF-fed mice. FO-fed mice compared to SF-fed mice had significantly less body weight gain (P = 0.005, epididymal fat weight (P = 0.005, fasting blood glucose (70.8 vs 83.3 ng/dL; P Conclusion Overall, FO-diet compared to SF-diet offered protection against deleterious effects of LPS in mice.

  20. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Yoneda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18 were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  1. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-13

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  2. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of a xanthone-rich Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) product in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Miwako; Zhang, Liliang; Ji, Hongping; Kou, Yan; Ou, Boxin

    2009-10-14

    Oxidative damage is involved in many chronic diseases including those cited as the major causes of death in Western societies such as cardiovascular disorders and cancer. Antioxidants may prevent these degenerative processes by various mechanisms including the scavenging of free radicals. Intake of antioxidant supplements is associated with preventing oxidative damages. This study investigated the absorption and antioxidant effects of a xanthone-rich mangosteen liquid in healthy human volunteers after the acute consumption of 59 mL of the supplement. The liquid contained mangosteen, aloe vera, green tea, and multivitamins. Results indicated that alpha-mangostin and vitamins B(2) and B(5) were bioavailable, with observed C(max) at t(max) of around 1 h. The antioxidant capacity measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was increased with a maximum effect of 18% after 2 h, and the increased antioxidant level lasted at least 4 h. Overall, this study demonstrated the bioavailability of antioxidants from a xanthone-rich mangosteen product and its in vivo antioxidant effects.

  3. Effects of Antioxidants Supplemment, Astaxanthin, Vitamin E, C, in Rat Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Vahidinia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of antioxidants supplement and/or restricted diet on the development of obesity induced by feeding a high-fat (HF diet. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software using Colmogroph- Smirnov, One-Way ANOVA, and Two-Way ANOVA. Results: Dietary antioxidants suppressed body weight gain in the HF-diet ad libitum (-9.8%, and in HF restricted diet (-18.14%. Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Conclusion: results of this study suggest that antioxidants supplement might be of value in reducing the likelihood of obesity in rats fed with high-fat diets, especially when accompanying with restricted diets.

  4. [Effects of cholesterol rich diet on blood coagulative and fibrinolytic activities in male rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Quan-jin; Li, Xiao-ying

    2005-05-01

    To explore the effects of cholesterol rich diet on the activities of blood coagulative and fibrinolytic systems in male rabbits. 14 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomized to cholesterol rich diet(CRD) group and common diet (control) group. Rabbits in CRD group were fed with 1% cholesterol embedded diet and those in the control group were fed with common diet. Levels of blood TG, TC, LDL, HDL, Lp(a), apoA1, apoB, FIB, D-dimers and FDP, PT and APTT, activity of ADP, AT-III, PLG and alpha2-PI were tested in all rabbits before given cholesterol rich diet and after 12 weeks' feeding with different kinds of diet. Levels of blood TG, TC, LDL, HDL, Lp(a), apoA1, apoB, FIB, D-dimers in CRD group were all elevated significantly compared with those in the control group and the baseline levels. PT and APTT were shortened, ADP, PLG and alpha2-PI activity were increased in CRD group. Cholesterol rich diet not only is the direct cause of hyperlipidemia but also can increase the coagulative activity and inhibit the fibrinolytic activity and promoting the evolution of arteriosclerosis.

  5. A Novel Wistar Rat Model of Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by Sucrose-Rich Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria Luíza R. P.; Leite, Laura H. R.; Gioda, Carolina R.; Leme, Fabíola O. P.; Couto, Claudia A.; Coimbra, Cândido C.; Leite, Virginia H. R.; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina A.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not fully understood, and experimental models are an alternative to study this issue. We investigated the effects of a simple carbohydrate-rich diet on the development of obesity-related NAFLD and the impact of physical training on the metabolic abnormalities associated with this disorder. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly separated into experimental and control groups, which were fed with sucrose-enriched (18% simple carbohydrates) and standard diet, respectively. At the end of each experimental period (5, 10, 20, and 30 weeks), 6 animals from each group were sacrificed for blood tests and liver histology and immunohistochemistry. From weeks 25 to 30, 6 animals from each group underwent physical training. The experimental group animals developed obesity and NAFLD, characterized histopathologically by steatosis and hepatocellular ballooning, clinically by increased thoracic circumference and body mass index associated with hyperleptinemia, and metabolically by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased levels of very low-density lipoprotein- (VLDL-) cholesterol, depletion of the antioxidants liver enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and increased hepatic levels of malondialdehyde, an oxidative stress marker. Rats that underwent physical training showed increased high-density lipoprotein- (HDL-) cholesterol levels. In conclusion, a sucrose-rich diet induced obesity, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and NAFLD in rats. PMID:26788524

  6. A Novel Wistar Rat Model of Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by Sucrose-Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luíza R. P. Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is not fully understood, and experimental models are an alternative to study this issue. We investigated the effects of a simple carbohydrate-rich diet on the development of obesity-related NAFLD and the impact of physical training on the metabolic abnormalities associated with this disorder. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly separated into experimental and control groups, which were fed with sucrose-enriched (18% simple carbohydrates and standard diet, respectively. At the end of each experimental period (5, 10, 20, and 30 weeks, 6 animals from each group were sacrificed for blood tests and liver histology and immunohistochemistry. From weeks 25 to 30, 6 animals from each group underwent physical training. The experimental group animals developed obesity and NAFLD, characterized histopathologically by steatosis and hepatocellular ballooning, clinically by increased thoracic circumference and body mass index associated with hyperleptinemia, and metabolically by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased levels of very low-density lipoprotein- (VLDL- cholesterol, depletion of the antioxidants liver enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and increased hepatic levels of malondialdehyde, an oxidative stress marker. Rats that underwent physical training showed increased high-density lipoprotein- (HDL- cholesterol levels. In conclusion, a sucrose-rich diet induced obesity, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and NAFLD in rats.

  7. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Marion; Gaudout, David; Lemaire, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women. Methods The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40–70, with facial dull complexion. Subjects were supplemented orally with a daily dosage of 150 mg of an antioxidant-rich formulation containing superoxide dismutase-rich melon concentrate, grape seed extract rich in monomers of flavanols, vitamin C, and zinc for 8 weeks. Each subject served as her own control. The C.L.B.T.™ test has been used to evaluate facial skin coloring (C), luminosity (L), brightness (B), and transparency (T) involved in skin radiance. Facial skin imperfections have been assessed by clinical assessment. Firmness has been evaluated by clinical assessment and cutometer measurement. Finally, an auto-questionnaire has been carried out in order to evaluate the satisfaction of the subjects concerning different parameters involved in skin radiance and the global efficacy of the supplement. Results Skin “red pink” and “olive” colors were significantly improved after supplementation (Pskin imperfections were significantly reduced after the antioxidant-rich formulation intake (global reduction: −18.0%; Pskin. Furthermore, 64.7% reported to look better at the end of the supplementation. Conclusion The oral supplement containing the antioxidant-rich formulation was found to improve skin radiance by reducing skin coloring, increasing face luminosity, reducing imperfections, and improving skin firmness in women with dull complexion. PMID:27799805

  8. Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês P. Corso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging.

  9. Effects of a diet rich in arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates on postprandial metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schioldan, Anne Grethe; Gregersen, Søren; Hald, Stine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Low intake of dietary fibre is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Dyslipidaemia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Knowledge of the impact of dietary fibres on postprandial lipaemia is, however, sparse. This study aimed in subjects with metabolic...... syndrome to assess the impact on postprandial lipaemia and features of the metabolic syndrome of a healthy carbohydrate diet (HCD) rich in cereal fibre, arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared to a refined-carbohydrate western-style diet (WSD). Methods: Nineteen subjects completed the randomised...... lipid content were measured. Results: We found no diet effects on postprandial lipaemia. However, there was a significant diet × statin interaction on total cholesterol (P = 0.02) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.002). HCD decreased total cholesterol (−0.72 mmol/l, 95% CI (−1.29; −0.14) P = 0.03) and LDL...

  10. Vitamin D-rich marine Inuit diet and markers of inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, Louise Holm; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Laurberg, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Inuit diet in Greenland consists mainly of fish and marine mammals, rich in vitamin D. Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory capacity but markers of inflammation have been found to be high in Inuit living on a marine diet. Yet, the effect of vitamin D on inflammation in Inuit remains...... unsettled. This led us to investigate the association between vitamin D and markers of inflammation in a population with a high intake of a marine diet. We studied 535 Inuit and non-Inuit living in West and East Greenland. Information concerning dietary habits was obtained by interview-based FFQ. Blood...... samples were drawn for analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and chitinase-3-like protein 1(YKL-40). Participants were divided into three groups based on degree of intake of the traditional Inuit diet. The diet groups (Inuit diet/mixed diet/imported foods) were...

  11. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  12. Piper species protect cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Akinfiresoye, Luli; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert; Vinson, Joe A

    2012-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies points to the use of antioxidants as an effective measure to reduce the progression of oxidative stress related disorders. The present study evaluate the effect of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) for the protection of cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters were classified into eight groups: a normal control, atherogenic control and six other experimental groups (fed atherogenic diet supplemented with different doses of P. nigrum, P. guineense and P. umbellatum (1 and 0.25 g/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding period the heart, liver and kidney from each group were analyzed for lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. Atherogenic diet induced a significant (PPiper species significantly inhibited the alteration effect of atherogenic diet on the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. The Piper extracts may possess an antioxidant protective role against atherogenic diet induced oxidative stress in cardiac, hepatic and renal tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of three Piper species on atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Vinson, Joe A; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Atherogenic diet is known to induce high plasma lipid concentration, oxidative stress and early atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have potentials to counter the effect of atherogenic diet. The present research aims at evaluating the antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) on atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters divided into 8 groups: normal control, atherosclerotic control and six test groups. The normal animals fed normal rodent chow, the atherosclerotic control animals fed the same rodent chow supplemented with 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (high cholesterol diet). The 6 test groups' animals fed same diet as the atherosclerotic control group but with additional supplementation of 2 graded doses (1 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight, o.p.) of plant extracts for 12 weeks. The atherogenic diet induced a collapse of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense system (significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). Atherogenic diet also induced an increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and accumulation of foam cells in the aorta a hall mark for atherosclerosis. Administration of the Piper species prevented the collapse of the antioxidant system and the increase of plasma parameters maintaining them towards normality. The Piper species also prevented LDL oxidation by increasing the time (lag time) for its oxidation. The results suggest that these Piper species have significant antioxidant and anti-atherogenic effect against atherogenic diet intoxication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Xavier RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6 or fish oil (rich in n-3 in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5 and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results: Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion: Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. Keywords: asthma, nitric oxide, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, cytokines

  15. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumoulin M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40–70, with facial dull complexion. Subjects were supplemented orally with a daily dosage of 150 mg of an antioxidant-rich formulation containing superoxide dismutase-rich melon concentrate, grape seed extract rich in monomers of flavanols, vitamin C, and zinc for 8 weeks. Each subject served as her own control. The C.L.B.T.™ test has been used to evaluate facial skin coloring (C, luminosity (L, brightness (B, and transparency (T involved in skin radiance. Facial skin imperfections have been assessed by clinical assessment. Firmness has been evaluated by clinical assessment and cutometer measurement. Finally, an auto-questionnaire has been carried out in order to evaluate the satisfaction of the subjects concerning different parameters involved in skin radiance and the global efficacy of the supplement.Results: Skin “red pink” and “olive” colors were significantly improved after supplementation (P<0.0001. Luminosity was increased by 25.9% (P<0.0001 whereas brightness and transparency were not affected by the supplementation. Facial skin imperfections were significantly reduced after the antioxidant-rich formulation intake (global reduction: –18.0%; P<0.0001. Indeed, dark circles, redness, and spots significantly diminished after oral treatment. Firmness and elasticity have been shown to be improved. Subjects were globally satisfied by the product (82.4% and have found improvements on their facial skin. Furthermore, 64.7% reported to look

  16. Effect of Antioxidants Supplementation or Restricted Diet on Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

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    A.A. Vahidinia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine the preventive effect of antioxidant supplements and/or restricted diet on the stress oxidative index (8-Iso-PGF2α and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in obese rats induced by a high-fat (HF diet. Material and Methods: In this experimental study forty-eight male Wister rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Their daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. Serum 8-Iso-PGF2α and TAC measured by EIA methods. Results: Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Serum 8-Iso-PGF2α in HF was 1416.2±443.5 and in HF restricted was 1209.4±424.4pg/ml (p>0.05 and equal for other groups. The lowest TAC was seen in HF and highest was in HFS (0.36±0.43 and 3.0±1.13 mM, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusions: These results suggest that antioxidant supplements and caloric restriction may improved TAC and partially suppress stress oxidative index in high fat diet induced obese rats. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(1:48-56

  17. A sucrose-rich diet induces mutations in the rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L.O.; Daneshvar, B.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    conclude that an oxidative mechanism for this effect of sucrose is unlikely. This is the first demonstration of a genotoxic action of increased dietary sucrose in vivo. Both sucrose intake and colon cancer rates are high in the Western world, and our present results call for an examination of a possible......A sucrose-rich diet has repeatedly been observed to have cocarcinogenic actions in the colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate whether sucrose-rich diets might directly increase the genotoxic response in the rat colon or liver, we have...... of a sucrose-rich diet. No significant increase in mutations was observed in the liver. To seek an explanation for this finding, a variety of parameters were examined representing different mechanisms, including increased oxidative stress, changes in oxidative defense, effects on DNA repair, or changes...

  18. The effects of ketogenic diet on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers of Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet through 3 weeks on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers in Taekwondo athletes. The participants selected for this research were 18 high school taekwondo contestants aged 15-18 who had at least 5 yr of career as contestant. The subjects were randomly assigned to the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the Non ketogenic diet (NDK) group. Body composition and oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers (LDH, MDA, ROS, HDL, and SOD) were analysed before and after 3 weeks of ketogenic diet. No significant difference was found between the groups in body composition, ROS and SOD level. The KD group showed an elevated HDL level and NKD group showed an elevated LDH and MDA level after ketogenic diet by 3 weeks. This result suggests that weight loss by 3 weeks of calorie restriction and exercise can cause oxidative stress, and that ketogenic diet can be effective for preventing it. It could also be inferred that ketogenic diet can be effective for increasing blood antioxidative capacity.

  19. Carbohydrate- and protein-rich diets in McArdle disease: Effects on exercise capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Vissing, J.

    2008-01-01

    was identical, and was adjusted to the subject's weight, age and sex. After each diet, exercise tolerance and maximal work capacity were tested on a bicycle ergometer, using a constant workload for 15 minutes followed by an incremental workload to exhaustion. RESULTS: During the constant workload, heart rate...... metabolism during exercise, which questions the effect of protein in McArdle disease. METHODS: In a crossover, open design, we studied 7 patients with McArdle disease, who were randomised to follow either a carbohydrate- or protein-rich diet for three days before testing. Caloric intake on each diet...... capacity and exercise tolerance to submaximal workloads by maintaining a diet high in carbohydrate instead of protein. The carbohydrate diet not only improves tolerance to every-day activities, but will likely also help to prevent exercise-induced episodes of muscle injury in McArdle disease Udgivelsesdato...

  20. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Properties of Anthocyanin Rich Extracts from Blueberry and Blackcurrant Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative potential of anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs obtained from two commercially available juices (blueberry and blackcurrant juices on three tumor cell lines; B16F10 (murine melanoma, A2780 (ovarian cancer and HeLa (cervical cancer. Individual anthocyanin determination, identification and quantification were done using HPLC-MS. Antioxidant activity of the juices was determined through different mechanism methods such as DPPH and ORAC. For biological testing, the juices were purified through C18 cartridges in order to obtain fractions rich in anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins identified were glycosylated cyanidin derivatives. The antiproliferative activity of the fractions was tested using the MTT assay. The antiproliferative potential of ARF was found to be associated with those bioactive molecules, anthocyanins due to their antioxidant potential. The results obtained indicated that both blueberry and blackcurrants are rich sources of antioxidants including anthocyanins and therefore these fruits are highly recommended for daily consumption to prevent numerous degenerative diseases.

  1. Enhanced Bioaccessibility of Crocetin Sugar Esters from Saffron in Infusions Rich in Natural Phenolic Antioxidants

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    Stella A. Ordoudi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to examine whether and to what extent the bioaccessibility of the major saffron apocarotenoids, namely crocetin sugar esters (CRTSEs, is affected by the presence of strong water-soluble antioxidants, ingredients of the herbs found in commercial tea blends with saffron. An in vitro digestion model was applied to infusions from these products to investigate the possible changes. All of the studied infusions were rich in total phenols (9.9–22.5 mg caffeic acid equivalents/100 mg dry infusion and presented strong DPPH radical scavenging activity regardless of the composition of the corresponding herbal blends. RP-HPLC-DAD and LC-MS analysis enabled the grouping of the infusions into hydroxycinnamic acid-rich and in flavan-3-ol-rich ones. CRTSEs in herbal tea infusions were found to be significantly more bioaccessible (66.3%–88.6% than those in the reference saffron infusion (60.9%. The positive role of strong phenolic antioxidants (caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid on the stability of CRTSEs was also evidenced in model binary mixtures. On the contrary, cinnamic acid, exerting no antioxidant activity, did not have such an effect. Our findings suggest that strong radical scavengers may protect the crocetin sugar esters from oxidation during digestion when present in excess.

  2. No effect of 14 day consumption of whole grain diet compared to refined grain diet on antioxidant measures in healthy, young subjects: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavin Joanne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence supports that a diet high in whole grains is associated with lowered risk of chronic diseases included coronary heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer. One potential mechanism for the protective properties of whole grains is their antioxidant content. The aim of this study was to compare differences in antioxidant measures when subjects consumed either refined or whole grain diets. Methods Twenty healthy subjects took part in a randomized, crossover dietary intervention study. Subjects consumed either a refined grain or whole grain diet for 14 days and then the other diet for the next 14 days. Male subjects consumed 8 servings of grains per day and female subjects consumed 6 servings of grains per day. Blood and urine samples were collected at the end of each diet. Antioxidant measures included oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC in blood, and isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in urine. Results The whole grain diet was significantly higher in dietary fiber, vitamin B6, folate, selenium, copper, zinc, iron, magnesium and cystine compared to the refined grain diet. Despite high intakes of whole grains, no significant differences were seen in any of the antioxidant measures between the refined and whole grain diets. Conclusions No differences in antioxidant measures were found when subjects consumed whole grain diets compared to refined grain diets.

  3. Physical Activity and Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity: The ATTICA Study

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    Stavros A. Kavouras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association of physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in total antioxidant capacity (TAC. A random sample of 1514 men and 1528 women was selected from Attica region. Physical activity was assessed with a translated version of the validated “International Physical Activity Questionnaire” (iPAQ, and dietary intake through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the MedDietScore that incorporated the inherent characteristics of this diet. TAC was positively correlated with the degree of physical activity (P<.05. TAC was also positively correlated with MedDietScore (r=0.24, P<.001. Stratified analysis by diet status revealed that the most beneficial results were observed to highly active people as compared to inactive, who also followed the Mediterranean diet (288  ±  70 μmol/L, 230  ±  50 μmol/L, resp., after adjusting for various confounders. Increased physical activity and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with increased total antioxidant capacity.

  4. THE DISORDERS OF THE LIPID METABOLISM IN THE EXPERIMENTAL ESTROGENIC DEFICIENCY AND THE EFFECT OF THE VEGETAL ANTIOXIDANTS DIET

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    Daniela Badoi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In our days we have a great number of cardiovascular diseases with atherosclerotic etiopathogeny. That`s whythere is a important preocupation for identifying the atherogenic risk factors (lipid metabolism disorders. This studyfollows the effects of the ovarian hormones deficit in surgical menopause (experimental ovariectomy. The absence of theendogen estrogens disrupts the lipid metabolism and diminishes the antioxidant capacity. Another goal was to evaluatethe lipid profile improved by taking a flax seed diet rich in phytoestrogens. The experiment will be performed on whiterats, females, of the Wistar race. The supplementary diet with flax seeds will be administered to the ovariectomizedgroups as well as to the control groups. In the case of animals with a hormonal deficit (ovariectomy we found thepresence of dyslipidemia: hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertriglyceridemia. Supplementing the diet with flax seeds ledto the decreasing of the total seric cholesterol (p>0.05 and of the seric triglycerides (p0.05, after supplementing the diet with whole flax seeds, which suggests the protection of theendothelium, with the diminishing of the risk of triggering endothelial dysfunction. These results demonstrate thebeneficial effects of phytoestrogens from flax seed on lipid metabolism in experimental menopause.

  5. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

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    Yu-Xin Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC. Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD. The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC (p < 0.05. Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  6. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rodrigo Barros; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; Mendonça, Bianca Gazolla; Santos, Eliziária Cardoso; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Fietto, Luciano Gomes; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO]) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals' diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins. PMID:27418954

  7. Insects: a protein-rich feed ingredient in pig and poultry diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Bosch, G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of insects as a sustainable protein-rich feed ingredient in
    pig and poultry diets is technically feasible. Insects can turn lowgrade
    biowaste into proteins.
    • The amino acid profile of yellow mealworm, common housefly,
    and black soldier fly is close to the profile of soybean

  8. Effects of grape pomace antioxidant extract on oxidative stress and inflammation in diet induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-11-10

    Norton grape is one of the most important wine grapes in Southern and Midwestern states and generates massive pomace byproducts. The objective of this study is to characterize the antioxidant compounds and activity in Norton grape pomace extract (GPE) and further assess the potential health promoting properties of Norton GPE using an animal disease model. The total phenolic content and anthocyanins in Norton GPE were 475.4 mg of gallic acid equiv/g and 156.9 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equiv/g, respectively. Catechin and epicatechin in GPE were 28.6 and 24.5 mg/g, respectively. Other major antioxidants in GPE included quercetin (1.6 mg/g), trans-resveratrol (60 μg/g), gallic acid (867.2 μg/g), coutaric acid (511.8 μg/g), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (408.3 μg/g), and protocatechuic acid (371.5 μg/g). The antioxidant activity of GPE was evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and was 4133 μmol of Trolox equiv/g. Male diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a normal diet (ND group), a high fat diet (HF group), and the high fat diet supplemented with GPE (HFGPE group). After 12-week treatment, mice in the high fat diet groups gained 29% more weight than the ND group. The GPE supplementation (estimated 250 mg/kg bw/d) lowered plasma C-reactive protein levels by 15.5% in the high fat diet fed mice (P < 0.05), suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect by dietary GPE. However, dietary GPE did not improve oxidative stress in DIO mice as determined by plasma ORAC, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. The results showed that GPE contained significant antioxidants and dietary GPE exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in diet induced obesity.

  9. Effect of saturated fatty acid-rich dietary vegetable oils on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochikuzhyil Benson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the effect of saturated fatty acid (SFA-rich dietary vegetable oils on the lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p. in neonatal rats. Twenty-eight-day-old normal (N and diabetic (D male Wistar rats were fed for 45 days with a fat-enriched special diet (10% prepared with coconut oil (CO - lauric acid-rich SFA, palm oil (PO - palmitic acid-rich SFA and groundnut oil (GNO - control (N and D. Lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and oral glucose tolerance tests were monitored. Results : D rats fed with CO (D + CO exhibited a significant decrease in the total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Besides, they also showed a trend toward improving antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance as compared to the D + GNO group, whereas D + PO treatment aggravated the dyslipidemic condition while causing a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase levels when compared to N rats fed with GNO (N + GNO. D + PO treatment also impaired the glucose tolerance when compared to N + GNO and D + GNO. Conclusion : The type of FA in the dietary oil determines its deleterious or beneficial effects. Lauric acid present in CO may protect against diabetes-induced dyslipidemia.

  10. A diet rich in cocoa attenuates N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2009-10-01

    The effects of cocoa feeding against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-induced liver injury were studied in rats. Animals were divided into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 were fed with standard and cocoa-diet, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 were injected with DEN at 2 and 4 weeks, and fed with standard and cocoa-diet, respectively. Group 5 was treated with DEN, received the standard diet for 4 weeks and then it was replaced by the cocoa-diet. DEN-induced hepatic damage caused a significant increase in damage markers, as well as a decrease in the hepatic glutathione, diminished levels of p-ERK and enhanced protein carbonyl content, caspase-3 activity and values of p-AKT and p-JNK. The cocoa-rich diet prevented the reduction of hepatic glutathione concentration and catalase and GPx activities in DEN-injected rats, as well as diminished protein carbonyl content, caspase-3 activity, p-AKT and p-JNK levels, and increased GST activity. However, cocoa administration did not abrogate the DEN-induced body weight loss and the increased levels of hepatic-specific enzymes and LDH. These results suggested that cocoa-rich diet attenuates the DEN-induced liver injury.

  11. Diets rich in n-6 PUFA induce intestinal microbial dysbiosis in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanjoy; Molcan, Erin; DeCoffe, Daniella; Dai, Chaunbin; Gibson, Deanna L

    2013-08-28

    Controversies have emerged regarding the beneficial v. detrimental effects of dietary n-6 PUFA. The alteration of the intestinal microbiota, a phenomenon termed dysbiosis, occurs during several chronic inflammatory diseases, but has not been well studied in an aged population. With present ‘Western’ diets predominantly composed of n-6 PUFA, we hypothesised that PUFA-rich diets cause intestinal dysbiosis in an aged population. C57BL/6 mice (aged 2 years) were fed a high-fat (40% energy), isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diet composed of rapeseed oil, maize oil or maize oil supplemented with fish oil. We examined ileal microbiota using fluorescence in situ hybridisation and stained tissues by immunofluorescence for the presence of immune cells and oxidative stress. We observed that feeding high-fat diets rich in n-6 PUFA promoted bacterial overgrowth but depleted microbes from the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla. This corresponded with increased body mass and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils. Fish oil supplementation (rich in long-chain n-3 PUFA like DHA and EPA) restored the microbiota and inflammatory cell infiltration and promoted regulatory T-cell recruitment. However, fish oil supplementation was associated with increased oxidative stress, evident by the increased presence of 4-hydroxynonenal, a product of lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that an n-6 PUFA-rich diet can cause dysbiosis and intestinal inflammation in aged mice. However, while fish oil supplementation on an n-6 PUFA diet reverses dysbiosis, the combination of n-6 and n-3 PUFA, like DHA/EPA, leads to increased oxidative stress, which could exacerbate gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly.

  12. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen Takano 1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Chern Foo

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract from C. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities of C. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  13. Cocoa-rich diet attenuates beta cell mass loss and function in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats by preventing oxidative stress and beta cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Millán, Elisa; Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Ramos, Sonia; Escrivá, Fernando; Alvarez, Carmen; Goya, Luis; Martín, María Angeles

    2015-04-01

    We have recently shown that cocoa flavanols may have anti-diabetic potential by promoting survival and function of pancreatic beta-cells in vitro. In this work, we investigated if a cocoa-rich diet is able to preserve beta-cell mass and function in an animal model of type 2 diabetes and the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that cocoa feeding during the prediabetic state attenuates hyperglycaemia, reduces insulin resistant, and increases beta cell mass and function in obese Zucker diabetic rats. At the molecular level, cocoa-rich diet prevented beta-cell apoptosis by increasing the levels of Bcl-xL and decreasing Bax levels and caspase-3 activity. Cocoa diet enhanced the activity of endogenous antioxidant defenses, mainly glutathione peroxidase, preventing thus oxidative injury induced by the pre-diabetic condition and leading to apoptosis prevention. These findings provide the first in vivo evidence that a cocoa-rich diet may delay the loss of functional beta-cell mass and delay the progression of diabetes by preventing oxidative stress and beta-cell apoptosis.

  14. Prolonged adaptation to fat-rich diet and training; effects on body fat stores and insulin resistance in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance.......To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance....

  15. Effect of a water-rich diet on adrenal zona glomerulosa in Gerbillus tarabuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Leila; Lebaili, Nemcha

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the aldosterone level and to study the gerbil adrenal zona glomerulosa morphology in the presence of an important water diet content during seven days. Thirty adult gerbils, Gerbilus tarabuli, were randomly assigned to two watering regimes, with fifteen gerbils per group. The first group was the control and the second group was exposed to a water-rich diet during seven days. Thin sections of the adrenal glands were observed in photonic and electron microscopy. Their blood was sampled and analyzed for aldosterone, electrolyte concentrations and hematocrit. Urine was collected after 24hours. A water-rich diet decreased the body weight but increased the hematocrit, total protein, aldosterone concentration and urine volume. In electronic microscopy, the adrenal zona glomerulosa cells present a decrease in lipid compartment and Golgi apparatus zone development. The blood electrolyte concentrations were not changed significantly. These findings indicate that the water-rich diet exerts a potent stimulatory effect on aldosterone secretion by the gerbil adrenal zona glomerulosa through plasma volume perturbation. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Homocysteine Lowering by Folate-Rich Diet or Pharmacological Supplementations in Subjects with Moderate Hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To compare the efficacy of a diet rich in natural folate and of two different folic acid supplementation protocols in subjects with “moderate” hyperhomocysteinemia, also taking into account C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene. Subjects/Methods: We performed a 13 week open, randomized, double blind clinical trial on 149 free living persons with mild hyperhomocyteinemia, with daily 200 μg from a natural folate-rich diet, 200 μg [6S]5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, 200 μg folic acid or placebo. Participants were stratified according to their MTHFR genotype. Results: Homocysteine (Hcy levels were reduced after folate enriched diet, 5-MTHF or folic acid supplementation respectively by 20.1% (p < 0.002, 19.4% (p < 0.001 and 21.9% (p < 0.001, as compared to baseline levels and significantly as compared to placebo (p < 0.001, p < 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively for enriched diet, 5-MTHF and folic acid. After this enriched diet and the folic acid supplementation, Hcy in both genotype groups decreased approximately to the same level, with higher percentage decreases observed for the TT group because of their higher pre-treatment value. Similar results were not seen by genotype for 5-MTHF. A significant increase in RBC folate concentration was observed after folic acid and natural folate-rich food supplementations, as compared to placebo. Conclusions: Supplementation with natural folate-rich foods, folic acid and 5-MTHF reached a similar reduction in Hcy concentrations.

  17. Homocysteine Lowering by Folate-Rich Diet or Pharmacological Supplementations in Subjects with Moderate Hyperhomocysteinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, Bruno; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Persichilli, Silvia; Pounis, George; Ruggeri, Stefania; Minucci, Angelo; Carnovale, Emilia; Andria, Generoso; Ricci, Roberta; Scala, Iris; Genovese, Orazio; Turrini, Aida; Mistura, Lorenza; Giardina, Bruno; Iacoviello, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of a diet rich in natural folate and of two different folic acid supplementation protocols in subjects with “moderate” hyperhomocysteinemia, also taking into account C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Subjects/Methods: We performed a 13 week open, randomized, double blind clinical trial on 149 free living persons with mild hyperhomocyteinemia, with daily 200 μg from a natural folate-rich diet, 200 μg [6S]5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), 200 μg folic acid or placebo. Participants were stratified according to their MTHFR genotype. Results: Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were reduced after folate enriched diet, 5-MTHF or folic acid supplementation respectively by 20.1% (p < 0.002), 19.4% (p < 0.001) and 21.9% (p < 0.001), as compared to baseline levels and significantly as compared to placebo (p < 0.001, p < 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively for enriched diet, 5-MTHF and folic acid). After this enriched diet and the folic acid supplementation, Hcy in both genotype groups decreased approximately to the same level, with higher percentage decreases observed for the TT group because of their higher pre-treatment value. Similar results were not seen by genotype for 5-MTHF. A significant increase in RBC folate concentration was observed after folic acid and natural folate-rich food supplementations, as compared to placebo. Conclusions: Supplementation with natural folate-rich foods, folic acid and 5-MTHF reached a similar reduction in Hcy concentrations. PMID:23698160

  18. Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Szlufcik, Karolina; Nielens, Henri; Pelgrim, Koen; Deldicque, Louise; Hesselink, Matthijs; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Hespel, Peter

    2010-11-01

    A fat-rich energy-dense diet is an important cause of insulin resistance. Stimulation of fat turnover in muscle cells during dietary fat challenge may contribute to maintenance of insulin sensitivity. Exercise in the fasted state markedly stimulates energy provision via fat oxidation. Therefore, we investigated whether exercise training in the fasted state is more potent than exercise in the fed state to rescue whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during a period of hyper-caloric fat-rich diet. Healthy male volunteers (18-25 y) received a hyper-caloric (∼+30% kcal day(-1)) fat-rich (50% of kcal) diet for 6 weeks. Some of the subjects performed endurance exercise training (4 days per week) in the fasted state (F; n = 10), whilst the others ingested carbohydrates before and during the training sessions (CHO; n = 10). The control group did not train (CON; n = 7). Body weight increased in CON (+3.0 ± 0.8 kg) and CHO (+1.4 ± 0.4 kg) (P glucose tolerance and the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (P training in F elevated AMP-activated protein kinase α phosphorylation (+25%) as well as up-regulated fatty acid translocase/CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 mRNA levels compared with CON (∼+30%). High-fat diet increased intramyocellular lipid but not diacylglycerol and ceramide contents, either in the absence or presence of training. This study for the first time shows that fasted training is more potent than fed training to facilitate adaptations in muscle and to improve whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during hyper-caloric fat-rich diet.

  19. Lipoprotein profiles and serum peroxide levels of aged women consuming palmolein or oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, C; Ródenas, S; Merinero, M C; Rodríguez-Gil, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the hypercholesterolemic effects of a dietary exchange between 16:0 and 18:1 while 18:2 was at relatively lower level (approximately 4%) in aged women with initially high total serum cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values and with high intakes of dietary cholesterol. Subjects were assigned to two consecutive 28 d periods. In the first period all subjects followed an oleic acid-rich diet in the form of oleic acid-rich sunflower oil. This was followed by a second period rich in palmitic acid in the form of palmolein. Nutrient intakes, serum lipids, lipoproteins, antioxidant vitamins, peroxides and LDL-peroxides were measured at two dietary periods. Instituto de Nutrición y Bromatología (CSIC), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I (Nutrición) and Sección Departamental de Quimica Analítica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. The palmolein period led to an increase in TC (P or = 6.21 mmol/L or with TC 6.21 mmol/L than in women with TC < 6.21 mmol/L, but palmolein decreased serum and LDL-peroxide in hypercholesterolemics more than in the normocholesterolemics, resulting in serum and LDL-peroxide levels which theoretically are more adequate. Though palmolein increased LDL-C concentrations, it better protected LDL particles, mainly in women with high TC, against peroxidation than did oleic acid-rich sunflower oil.

  20. Preventing diet induced disease: bioavailable nutrient-rich, low-energy-dense diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Anthony A

    2009-01-01

    What the World needs is an integrated and sustainable food policy that makes the best and most appropriate use of the technologies at our disposal to promote health and help prevent disease. Diet induced diseases account for the largest burden of chronic illnesses and health problems Worldwide. Historically a lack of knowledge about human nutritional requirements (including for the brain) helped promote diet induced disease. The scientific knowledge currently exists to help prevent many of the current deficiencies and imbalances in human diet. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and mental ill health starts, crucially, with maternal nutrition before the inception of pregnancy and continues throughout life of the new born and includes consuming more DHA and EPA omega-3 fats (and their cofactors) and other bioavailable brain nutrients and less high-energy-dense (>2 kcal g(-1)) foods (e.g. land-based cereal, chocolate, alcohol and refined sugar, fat and oil), so tissues synthesize less inflammatory mediators and to lower transient short-lived meal-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, proliferation and impaired nitric oxide (e.g. approximately 0.35-3.5 g DHA/ EPA day(-1) dependant on energy intake and noting the importance of cofactors). Micro- and nanotechnologies are already engineering nano foods for human (and livestock) consumption that may eventually (without excessive consumption) prevent the current diet induced disease epidemic, especially in future generations, by preventing the causal mechanisms of disease. Greater knowledge about the causal mechanisms of disease awaits to be discovered, which could further enhance the human desire to increase longevity in optimum health (creating more problems and challenges for society).

  1. Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes status of rats fed on n-3 PUFA rich Garden cress (Lepidium Sativum L) seed oil and its blended oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesha, Shankar Shetty; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2015-04-01

    Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L) seed oil (GCO) is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 33.6 %) and the oil has a fairly balanced SFA, MUFA and PUFA ratio. In this study we have investigated the effect of GCO and its blends with n-6 PUFA rich edible vegetable oils sunflower oil (SFO), rice bran oil (RBO) and sesame oil (SESO) on antioxidant status of oils and antioxidative enzymes in Wistar rats. Physical blending of GCO with n-6 PUFA rich vegetable oils (SFO, RBO and SESO) increased content of natural antioxidants such as tocopherols, oryzanol and lignans, decreased the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and improved the radical scavenging activity of blended oils. Dietary feeding of GCO and its blended oils for 60 days, increased the tocopherols levels (12.2-21.6 %) and activity of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), but did not affect the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in liver compared to native oil fed rats. Thus, blending of GCO with other vegetable oil decreased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (>2.0) and dietary feeding of GCO blended oils increased the antioxidant status and activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and GPx) in experimental rats.

  2. Effects of sugar rich diet on brain serotonin, hyperphagia and anxiety in animal model of both genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Ikram, Huma; Shireen, Erum; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2016-05-01

    Lower levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) in the brain elicit sugar craving, while ingestion of sugar rich diet improves mood and alleviates anxiety. Gender differences occur not only in brain serotonin metabolism but also in a serotonin mediated functional responses. The present study was therefore designed to investigate gender related differences on the effects of long term consumption of sugar rich diet on the metabolism of serotonin in the hypothalamus and whole brain which may be relevant with the hyperphagic and anxiety reducing effects of sugar rich diet. Male and female rats were fed freely on a sugar rich diet for five weeks. Hyperphagic effects were monitored by measuring total food intake and body weights changes during the intervention. Anxiolytic effects of sugar rich diet was monitored in light-dark transition test. The results show that ingestion of sugar rich diet decreased serotonin metabolism more in female than male rats. Anxiolytic effects were elicited only in male rats. Hyperphagia was comparable in both male and female rats. Finings would help in understanding the role of sugar rich diet-induced greater decreases of serotonin in sweet craving in women during stress.

  3. Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet

    OpenAIRE

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Szlufcik, Karolina; Nielens, Henri; Pelgrim, Koen; Deldicque, Louise; Hesselink, Matthijs,; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Hespel, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A fat-rich energy-dense diet is an important cause of insulin resistance. Stimulation of fat turnover in muscle cells during dietary fat challenge may contribute to maintenance of insulin sensitivity. Exercise in the fasted state markedly stimulates energy provision via fat oxidation. Therefore, we investigated whether exercise training in the fasted state is more potent than exercise in the fed state to rescue whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during a period of hyper-calo...

  4. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P vitamin E supplementation increased ( P 0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  5. A sucrose-rich diet induces mutations in the rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars O.; Daneshvar, Bahram; Vogel, Ulla

    2002-01-01

    added sucrose to the diet of Big Blue rats, a strain of Fischer rats carrying 40 copies of the lambda-phage on chromosome 4. Dietary sucrose was provided to the rats for 3 weeks at four dose levels including the background level in the purified diet [3.4% (control), 6.9%, 13.8%, or 34.5%] without...... or in blood plasma. We conclude that a sucrose-rich diet directly or indirectly increases the mutation frequency in rat colon in a dose-dependent manner and concomitantly decreases the level of background DNA adducts, without a direct effect on the expression of major DNA repair enzyme systems. We also...

  6. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  7. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Musundire

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS and coupled gas chromatography (GC-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1 at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  8. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-09-01

    Environmental and lifestyle factors are known to play an important role during gestation, determining newborns' health status and influencing their risk of being subject to certain noncommunicable diseases later in life. In particular, maternal nutritional patterns characterized by a low intake of plant-derived foods could increase the risk of gestation-related issues, such as preeclampsia and pregravid obesity, increase genotoxicant susceptibility, and contribute to the onset of pediatric diseases. In particular, the risk of pediatric wheeze, diabetes, neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and some pediatric tumors seems to be reduced by maternal intake of adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, and selected antioxidants. Nevertheless, plant-based diets, like any other diet, if improperly balanced, could be deficient in some specific nutrients that are particularly relevant during gestation, such as n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, vitamin B-12, iron, zinc, and iodine, possibly affecting the offspring's health state. Here we review the scientific literature in this field, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, and highlight protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible issues related to maternal plant-based diets. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Polyphenol-rich foods in the Mediterranean diet are associated with better cognitive function in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Medina-Remón, Alexander; Quintana, Melibea; Corella, Dolores; Pintó, Xavier; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Brain oxidative processes play a major role in age-related cognitive decline, thus consumption of antioxidant-rich foods might help preserve cognition. Our aim was to assess whether consumption of antioxidant-rich foods in the Mediterranean diet relates to cognitive function in the elderly. In asymptomatic subjects at high cardiovascular risk (n = 447; 52% women; age 55-80 y) enrolled in the PREDIMED study, a primary prevention dietary-intervention trial, we assessed food intake and cardiovascular risk profile, determined apolipoprotein E genotype, and used neuropsychological tests to evaluate cognitive function. We also measured urinary polyphenols as an objective biomarker of intake. Associations between energy-adjusted food consumption, urinary polyphenols, and cognitive scores were assessed by multiple linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Consumption of some foods was independently related to better cognitive function. The specific associations [regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals)] were: total olive oil with immediate verbal memory [0.755 (0.151-1.358)]; virgin olive oil and coffee with delayed verbal memory [0.163 (0.010-0.316) and 0.294 (0.055-0.534), respectively]; walnuts with working memory [1.191 (0.061-2.322)]; and wine with Mini-Mental State Examination scores [0.252 (0.006-0.496)]. Urinary polyphenols were associated with better scores in immediate verbal memory [1.208 (0.236-2.180)]. Increased consumption of antioxidant-rich foods in general and of polyphenols in particular is associated with better cognitive performance in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk. The results reinforce the notion that Mediterranean diet components might counteract age-related cognitive decline.

  10. Investigation of the antioxidant activity of chitooligosaccharides on mice with high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daofeng Qu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the antioxidant activities of chitooligosaccharides (COS both in vitro and in high-fat diet (HFD-mouse model. In antioxidant assays in HFD-mouse model, mice were administered with normal diet, HFD, or HFD with 0.5% COS for six weeks. The administration of HFD with 0.5% COS resulted in significant increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in stomach, liver, and serum of mice as compared with the HFD-fed group, which means that COS may have certain antioxidant activity and can restore the activity of the enzymes affected by the HFD. Through morphological measurements of the small intestinal mucosa, mice fed HFD showed decreased villus height compared with other groups. On the other hand, HFD with 0.5% COS group showed similar ratio of villus height to depth compared with control mice, indicating that intestinal integrity was improved when COS was added. Chitooligosaccharides have potent antioxidant activity that can protect mice from oxidative stress.

  11. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of 7-Hydroxy-calamenene-Rich Essential Oils from Croton cajucara Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celuta S. Alviano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton cajucara is a shrub native to the Amazon region locally known as “sacaca”. Two morphotypes are known: white and red “sacaca”. The essential oils (EO obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%–37.5%. The effectiveness of these EO regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. Among the microorganisms tested, the essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the oils were determined using the broth dilution assay. It was possible to observe that 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich oils presented high antimicrobial activity, with MIC of 4.76 × 10−3 μg/mL for MRSA, 4.88 μg/mL for M. tuberculosis, 39.06 μg/mL for M. smegmatis, and 0.152 μg/mL for R. oryzae and 3.63 × 10−8 μg/mL for M. circinelloides. The antioxidant activity of this EO suggests that 7-hydroxycalamenene provides more antioxidant activity according with EC50 less than 63.59 μg/mL. Considering the bioactive potential of EOs and 7-hydroxycalamenene could be of great interest for development of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in humans and/or veterinary practice.

  12. Diet Rich in Saturated Fat Decreases the Ratio of Thromboxane/prostacyclin in Healthy Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUO LI; RAYMUNDO HABITO; GEORGE ANGELOS; ANDREW J. SINCLAIR; MADELEINE J. BALL

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of dietary saturated fat (SFA) from animal sources on the urine excretion 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto prostaglandin F 1α (PGF 1α) in 27 healthy free-living male subjects aged 30 to 55 years. Methods It was a randomized crossover design. Each volunteer was randomly assigned to one of the two diets (high fat and low fat) for a period of 4 weeks, after which each subject resumed his usual diet for 2 weeks as a ‘wash-out period',before being assigned to the other diet for an additional 4 weeks. Results Serum proportion of 20:4n-6 was 5% lower in the high fat (6.2% of total fatty acid) than in the low fat diet (6.5% of total fatty acid), which was associated with a significantly decreased ratio of the urinary excretion 11-dehydro TXB2 to 6-keto PGF 1α (P<0.05). However, there was no significant fall in the absolute urinary excretion of 11-dehydro TXB2. Conclusions Diet rich in SFA from animal sources may influence TXA2 formation via effect on tissue proportion of 20:4n-6.

  13. Could a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids impair the cardiovascular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medei, Emiliano; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Pereira-Junior, Pedro Paulo; Leopoldo, André Soares; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Raimundo, Juliana Montani; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Cordellini, Sandra; Nascimento, José Hamilton Matheus; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Dyslipidemia results from consumption of a diet rich in saturated fatty acids and is usually associated with cardiovascular disease. A diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids is usually associated with improved cardiovascular condition. To investigate whether a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids (U-HFD) - in which fatty acid represents approximately 45% of the total calories - impairs the cardiovascular system. Male, 30-day-old Wistar rats were fed a standard (control) diet or a U-HFD containing 83% unsaturated fatty acid for 19 weeks. The in vivo electrocardiogram, the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, and the vascular reactivity responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline and prazosin in aortic ring preparations were analyzed to assess the cardiovascular parameters. After 19 weeks, the U-HFD rats had increased total body fat, baseline glucose levels and feed efficiency compared with control rats. However, the final body weight, systolic blood pressure, area under the curve for glucose, calorie intake and heart weight⁄final body weight ratio were similar between the groups. In addition, both groups demonstrated no alteration in the electrocardiogram or cardiac sympathetic parameters. There was no difference in the responses to acetylcholine or the maximal contractile response of the thoracic aorta to phenylephrine between groups, but the concentration necessary to produce 50% of maximal response showed a decrease in the sensitivity to phenylephrine in U-HFD rats. The cumulative concentration- effect curve for noradrenaline in the presence of prazosin was shifted similarly in both groups. The present work shows that U-HFD did not impair the cardiovascular parameters analyzed.

  14. Could a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids impair the cardiovascular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medei, Emiliano; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Pereira-Junior, Pedro Paulo; Leopoldo, André Soares; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Raimundo, Juliana Montani; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Cordellini, Sandra; Nascimento, José Hamilton Matheus; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia results from consumption of a diet rich in saturated fatty acids and is usually associated with cardiovascular disease. A diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids is usually associated with improved cardiovascular condition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids (U-HFD) – in which fatty acid represents approximately 45% of the total calories – impairs the cardiovascular system. METHODS: Male, 30-day-old Wistar rats were fed a standard (control) diet or a U-HFD containing 83% unsaturated fatty acid for 19 weeks. The in vivo electrocardiogram, the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, and the vascular reactivity responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline and prazosin in aortic ring preparations were analyzed to assess the cardiovascular parameters. RESULTS: After 19 weeks, the U-HFD rats had increased total body fat, baseline glucose levels and feed efficiency compared with control rats. However, the final body weight, systolic blood pressure, area under the curve for glucose, calorie intake and heart weight/final body weight ratio were similar between the groups. In addition, both groups demonstrated no alteration in the electrocardiogram or cardiac sympathetic parameters. There was no difference in the responses to acetylcholine or the maximal contractile response of the thoracic aorta to phenylephrine between groups, but the concentration necessary to produce 50% of maximal response showed a decrease in the sensitivity to phenylephrine in U-HFD rats. The cumulative concentration-effect curve for noradrenaline in the presence of prazosin was shifted similarly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The present work shows that U-HFD did not impair the cardiovascular parameters analyzed. PMID:21165364

  15. The antioxidant response of the liver of male Swiss mice raised on a AIN 93 or commercial diet

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    Caetano Aline C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS are formed under natural physiological conditions and are thought to play an important role in many human diseases. A wide range of antioxidants are involved in cellular defense mechanisms against ROS, which can be generated in excess during stressful conditions, these include enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant responses of mice to two diets control, commercial and the purified AIN 93 diet, commonly used in experiments with rodents. Results Malondialdehyde (MDA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GR activities determined in the liver were lower in the group of mice fed with the AIN 93 diet, while catalase (CAT activity was higher in the same group, when compared to the group fed on the commercial diet. Liver glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity was similar in the groups fed on either AIN 93 or the commercial diets. Two SOD isoforms, Mn-SODII and a Cu/Zn-SODV, were specifically reduced in the liver of the AIN 93 diet fed animals. Conclusions The clear differences in antioxidant responses observed in the livers of mice fed on the two diets suggest that the macro- and micro-nutrient components with antioxidant properties, including vitamin E, can promote changes in the activity of enzymes involved in the removal of the ROS generated by cell metabolism.

  16. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-04

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (-1.39% change; 95% CI = -2.56 to -0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (-2.03% change; 95% CI = -3.45 to -0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (-1.37% change; 95% CI = -2.64 to -0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-1.57% change; 95% CI = -3.02 to -0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (-0.83% change; 95% CI = -1.29 to -0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk.

  17. Understanding the Impact of Omega-3 Rich Diet on the Gut Microbiota

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    Blanca S. Noriega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, the importance of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of several disorders has gained clinical interests. Among exogenous factors affecting gut microbiome, diet appears to have the largest effect. Fatty acids, especially omega-3 polyunsaturated, ameliorate a range of several diseases, including cardiometabolic and inflammatory and cancer. Fatty acids associated beneficial effects may be mediated, to an important extent, through changes in gut microbiota composition. We sought to understand the changes of the gut microbiota in response to an omega-3 rich diet. Case Presentation. This case study investigated changes of gut microbiota with an omega-3 rich diet. Fecal samples were collected from a 45-year-old male who consumed 600 mg of omega-3 daily for 14 days. After the intervention, species diversity was decreased, but several butyrate-producing bacteria increased. There was an important decrease in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia spp. Gut microbiota changes were reverted after the 14-day washout. Conclusion. Some of the health-related benefits of omega-3 may be due, in part, to increases in butyrate-producing bacteria. These findings may shed light on the mechanisms explaining the effects of omega-3 in several chronic diseases and may also serve as an existing foundation for tailoring personalized medical treatments.

  18. The expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rats exposed to high-fructose diet in the period from weaning to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glban, Alhadi M; Vasiljević, Ana; Veličković, Nataša; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra; Blagojević, Duško; Matić, Gordana; Nestorov, Jelena

    2015-08-30

    Increased fructose consumption correlates with rising prevalence of various metabolic disorders, some of which were linked to oxidative stress. The relationship between fructose consumption and oxidative stress is complex and effects of a fructose-rich diet on the young population have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-fructose diet applied in the period from weaning to adulthood induces oxidative stress in the liver, thus contributing to induction or aggravation of metabolic disturbances in later adulthood. To that end we examined the effects of high-fructose diet on expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage in the liver as the main fructose metabolizing tissue. High-fructose diet increased only SOD2 (mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase) activity, with no effect on other antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation or accumulation of damaged proteins in the liver. The results show that fructose-induced metabolic disturbances could not be attributed to oxidative stress, at least not at young age. The absence of oxidative stress in the liver observed herein implies that young organisms are capable of maintaining redox homeostasis when challenged by fructose-derived energy overload. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potential of Phenol-Rich Fraction of Juniperus communis Linn. Leaves

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    Ved, Akash; Gupta, Amresh; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Juniperus communis Linn. is an important plant in India traditional system of medicine which is widely used by different tribes in many countries. Objective: In the present study, the antioxidant, cytotoxic and hepatoprotective activities of Juniperus communis leaves were investigated against various models. Materials and Methods: ethanolic extract (70% v/v) of J. communis leaves was successively extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate to prepare various fractions. Total phenol content was resolute by the Folin-Ciocalteau's process. The antioxidant properties of the different fractions/extract of leaves of J. communis were examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating ability. Cytotoxic activity was examined by cell viability assay on HepG2 cells. Hepatoprotective activity of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) evaluated against PCM-Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats. Results: Total phenol content was found maximum 315.33 mg/GAE/g in EAF. Significant scavenging activity were found for EAF (IC50 = 177 μg/ml) as compared to standard BHT (IC50 = 138 μg/ml), while EAF showed good Fe2+ chelating ability having an IC50 value of 261 mg/ML compared to standard ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (7.7 mg/mL). It was found that EAF treated group shows remarkable decrease in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, serum Alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase level in treatment group as compared to the hepatotoxic group. Conclusion: EAF of J. communis leaves is found to be potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective without any cytotoxicity and it can also be included in nutraceuticals with notable benefits for mankind or animal health. SUMMARY Phenol-rich fraction (PRF) and other fractions/extract of Juniperus communis leaves were screened for antioxidant, cytotoxic, and hepatoprotective activity.Significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity without any

  20. Short-term blueberry-enriched antioxidant diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective Previously, four months of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aged rats. Experiment 1 determined whether one and two-month BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the d...

  1. Effect of diets supplemented with Ethiopian pepper [Xylopia aethiopica (Dun.) A. Rich (Annonaceae)] and Ashanti pepper [Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn (Piperaceae)] on some biochemical parameters in normal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adefegha SA; Oboh G

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and compare the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity of Ethiopian pepper [Xylopia aethiopica (Dun.) A. Rich (Annonaceae)] and seeds of Ashanti pepper [Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn (Piperaceae)]. Methods: Both spices were each extracted with methanol and 1M HCl (1:1, w/v) mixture to give the phenolic-rich extracts, which were used for the in vitro analyses [total phenol, total flavonoid and antioxidant properties (reducing properties, 1,1 diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS*) radical scavenging abilities]. Thereafter, thirty male albino rats were divided into five groups of six. Group I represented control group; Group II & III were fed diet containing 2%Ethiopian pepper & 4% XA while Group IV & V ate diet supplemented with 2% and 4% Ashanti pepper. Results: The results suggest that diet supplemented with 2% and 4% Ethiopian pepper and Ashanti pepper could enhance some in vivo antioxidant status, maintain membrane integrity and protect the liver against oxidative stress. Conclusions: This could be attributed to the phenolic contents and the in vitro antioxidant properties of the Ethiopian pepper and Ashanti pepper. However, dietary supplementation with 4% Ethiopian pepper showed the most promising protective potentials.

  2. Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-Ageing Biomarkers after Diet Micronutrient Supplementation

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    Aneta Balcerczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies confirm an important effect of diet, lifestyle and physical activity on health status, the ageing process and many metabolic disorders. This study focuses on the influence of a diet supplement, NucleVital®Q10 Complex, on parameters related to redox homeostasis and ageing. An experimental group of 66 healthy volunteer women aged 35–55 supplemented their diet for 12 weeks with the complex, which contained omega-3 acids (1350 mg/day, ubiquinone (300 mg/day, astaxanthin (15 mg/day, lycopene (45 mg/day, lutein palmitate (30 mg/day, zeaxanthine palmitate (6 mg/day, L-selenomethionine (330 mg/day, cholecalciferol (30 µg/day and α-tocopherol (45 mg/day. We found that NucleVital®Q10 Complex supplementation significantly increased total antioxidant capacity of plasma and activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, with slight effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in erythrocytes; MDA and 4-hydroxyalkene levels. Apart from the observed antioxidative effects, the tested supplement also showed anti-ageing activity. Analysis of expression of SIRT1 and 2 in PBMCs showed significant changes for both genes on a mRNA level. The level of telomerase was also increased by more than 25%, although the length of lymphocyte telomeres, determined by RT-PCR, remained unchanged. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects concerning the antioxidant potential of plasma as well as biomarkers related to ageing even after short term supplementation of diet with NucleVital®Q10 Complex.

  3. Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Ecklonia cava Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

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    Eun-Young Park

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue. We investigated the effect of the polyphenol-rich fraction of E. cava produced from Gijang (G-CA on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice. C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD for six weeks and then the HFD group was administered 300 mg/kg of G-CA extracts by oral intubation for 10 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, and serum biochemical parameters were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. MRI/MRS analysis showed that liver fat and liver volume in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice. The mRNA expression levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1, the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, were dramatically increased by G-CA treatment in HFD mice. We suggest that G-CA treatment ameliorated hepatic steatosis by inhibiting inflammation and improving lipid metabolism.

  4. Edible Flowers: A Rich Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Properties.

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    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Tenuta, Maria Concetta; Menichini, Francesco; Xiao, Jianbo; Tundis, Rosa

    2016-03-30

    Edible flowers are receiving renewed interest as rich sources of bioactive compounds. Ethanol extracts of eight edible flowers were phytochemically characterized and investigated for their bioactivity. Rutin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and myricetin were selected as standards and quantified by HPLC. The fatty acid profile was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using different in vitro tests. The hypoglycemic effects were investigated via the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Sambucus nigra exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity (IC50 of 1.4 μg/mL), followed by Hedysarum coronarium (IC50 of 1.6 μg/mL). Both species contained high quercetin and rutin contents. S. nigra extract exerted the highest activity in preventing lipid oxidation. Malva sylvestris extract inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 7.8 and 11.3 μg/mL, respectively. These findings support the consumption of edible flowers as functional foods and their use as sources of natural antioxidants by the food industry.

  5. Effect of water cooking on antioxidant capacity of carotenoid-rich vegetables in Taiwan

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    Fuh-Juin Kao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid-rich green leafy vegetables including cilantro, Thai basil leaves, sweet potato leaves, and choy sum were selected to evaluate the effects of water cooking or boiling on their total carotenoid content (TCC, total phenolic content (TPC, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. The percentage inhibition of peroxidation (%IP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and metal-chelating effect were used to evaluate TAC. The results indicated that TCC reached the maximum after boiling cilantro, Thai basil leaves, and sweet potato leaves for 10 minutes, 5 minutes, and 5 minutes, respectively, and choy sum remained almost unchanged after 30 minutes of boiling. Boiling cilantro and choy sum had a negative effect on their TPC, whereas there was a significant increase in TPC of Thai basil leaf and sweet potato leaf at 1 minute and 5 minutes of boiling, respectively. During water cooking, TAC of the vegetables did not demonstrate a consistent trend. However, TCC was a vital contributor to %IP, whereas TPC showed a strong association with TEAC. Our findings suggest that a boiling time of ≤5 minutes would be better for preserving or enhancing TCC and TPC as well as revealing a higher %IP, TEAC, or metal-chelating effect for the four vegetables investigated in this study.

  6. Green tea extract only affects markers of oxidative status postprandially: lasting antioxidant effect of flavonoid-free diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J.F.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Haraldsdottir, J.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) used as a food antioxidant on markers of oxidative status after dietary depletion...... in flavonoids. GTE intervention increased plasma antioxidant capacity from 1.35 to 1.56 (P...

  7. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics

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    Mvitu M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Moise Mvitu,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Dieudonné Tulomba,3 Augustin Nge31Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa; 3Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications. In this study, we assessed the frequency and contributing factors of intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants, and we determined their impact on the prevention of diabetes-related cataract extraction.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, run in Congo among 244 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An intake of ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants/day, intake of red beans, consumption of fruit, and cataract extraction were considered as dependent variables.Results: No patient reported a fruit intake. Intake of red beans was reported by 64 patients (26.2%, while 77 patients (31.6% reported ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. High socioeconomic status (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–12.5; P = 0.030 and moderate alcohol intake (OR = 4; 95% CI: 1.1–17.4; P = 0.049 were the independent determinants of eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. Red beans intake (OR = 0.282; 95% CI: 0.115–0.687; P > 0.01 and eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants (OR = 0.256; 95% CI: 0.097–0.671; P = 0.006 were identified as independent and protective factors against the presence of cataracts (9.8% n = 24, whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus duration ≥3 years was the independent risk factor for cataract extraction (OR = 6.3; 95% CI: 2.1–19.2; P > 0.001 in the model with red beans intake and OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 2.3–22.2; P > 0.001 in the model with ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants

  8. Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet

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    Voltarelli Fabrício A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the effects of exercise at the aerobic/anaerobic transition on the markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, insulin sensitivity and the blood chemistry of rats kept on a fructose-rich diet. Methods We separated 48 Wistar rats into two groups according to diet: a control group (balanced diet AIN-93 G and a fructose-rich diet group (60% fructose. The animals were tested for maximal lactate-steady state (MLSS in order to identify the aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition during swimming exercises at 28 and 90 days of age. One third of the animals of each group were submitted to swimming training at an intensity equivalent to the individual MLSS for 1 hours/day, 5 days/week from 28 to 120 days (early protocol. Another third were submitted to the training from 90 to 120 days (late protocol, and the others remained sedentary. The main assays performed included an insulin tolerance test (ITT and tests of serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST] activities, serum triglyceride concentrations [TG] and liver total lipid concentrations. Results The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group. Conclusions The late-training protocol was effective in restoring insulin sensitivity to acceptable standards. Considering the markers here evaluated, both training protocols were successful in preventing the emergence of non-alcoholic fatty liver status disease.

  9. [Influence of vegetarian diet on serum values of homocysteine and total antioxidant status in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-09-01

    The vegetarian diet may play a preventive role in the development of chronic diseases such as coronary heart and cardiovascular disease. However increase of homocysteine (Hcy) concentration in peoples avoiding animal products may contribute to an increased atherosclerotic risk in these subjects. Recent evidence has suggested that role of hyperhomocysteinemia in atherogenesis is associated with process of autooxidation, which can promote the production of hydroxyl radicals, resulting in oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein and endothelium injury. The oxidant-antioxidant imbalance depends not only on the amount of enhanced free oxygen species but also insufficiency of antioxidant defence system. Total antioxidant status (TAS) expresses capacity for scavenging of free radicals minimizes oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to asses concentrations of homocysteine and total antioxidant status in serum of children on vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We also studied levels of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) particular components of TAS. The study included 35 children, aged 5-16 who had been referred to Institute of Mother and Child for dietary consultation. From those, 17 were lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 18 omnivores. Dietary constituents were analyzed using the nutritional programme Dietetyk2 and completed with supplementation data. Concentration of homocysteine was estimated in serum with fluorescence polarization immunoassay and TAS by colorimetric method. Levels of vitamin A and E were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean concentration of homocysteine was similar in both studied groups (vegetarians: 6.13 +/- 1.01 micromol/l vs. omnivores: 5.45 +/- 0.98 micromol/l). In vegetarian children serum level of TAS was significantly lower (1.21 +/- 0.06 mmol/I) as compared to those in non-vegetarian ones (1.30 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, p vegetarians were lower than observed in omnivores group, but only in case of

  10. A sucrose-rich diet induces mutations in the rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars O.; Daneshvar, Bahram; Vogel, Ulla

    2002-01-01

    affecting the overall energy and carbohydrate intake. We observed a dose-dependent increase in the mutation frequency at the cII site in the colonic mucosa with increased sucrose levels, reaching a 129% increase at the highest dose level. This would indicate a direct or indirect genotoxic effect...... of a sucrose-rich diet. No significant increase in mutations was observed in the liver. To seek an explanation for this finding, a variety of parameters were examined representing different mechanisms, including increased oxidative stress, changes in oxidative defense, effects on DNA repair, or changes...

  11. Effect of the antioxidant profile in the diet of farmed coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch on the nutritional value retention during frozen storage

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    Ortiz, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A commercial diet enriched with synthetic antioxidants (butylated-hydroxytoluene and ethoxyquin (diet I was fed to coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch and its effects were compared to two diets enriched with natural antioxidants, tocopherol-rich mixture (diet II, tocopherol-rosemary extract mixture (diet III. Once sacrificed, individual fishes were kept frozen at –18 °C for up to 18 months and then analyses were carried out on the frozen salmon muscle. The feeding of diet II led to frozen samples showing higher contents of sarcoplasmic proteins and γ- and δ-tocopherols when compared to their counterparts previously fed with diet I. No effect of dietary antioxidant profile could be detected on proximate composition, α-tocopherol and astaxanthin contents or color (L*, a*, b* parameters. Concerning the fatty acid composition, the fish samples corresponding to diet II showed higher C22:6ω3 and monounsaturated contents, but lower C20:5ω3 and saturated contents when compared to their counterparts from diet I.Salmones coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch fueron alimentados con una dieta enriquecida en antioxidantes sintéticos (butil-hidroxi-tolueno y etoxiquina, dieta I y su efecto comparado con dos dietas enriquecidas en antioxidantes naturales (una mezcla rica en isómeros de tocoferol, dieta II; una mezcla de isómeros de tocoferol y extracto de romero, dieta III. Una vez sacrificado, el pescado fue conservado a –18 °C durante 18 meses. El empleo de la dieta II llevó a muestras congeladas con contenido superior en proteínas sarcoplásmicas y en γ- y δ-tocoferol al ser comparados con pescado previamente alimentado con la dieta I. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias a nivel de composición proximal, contenido en α-tocoferol y astaxantina y parámetros de color (L*, a*, b*. A nivel de composición en ácidos grasos, los individuos correspondientes a la dieta II reflejaron mayores contenidos en C22:6ω3 y monoinsaturados, pero menores en C20

  12. Weight loss enhances hepatic antioxidant status in a NAFLD model induced by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Iara Karise Santos; Matsuura, Cristiane; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Martins, Marcela Anjos; Mury, Wanda Vianna; Brunini, Tatiana Marlowe Cunha

    2017-08-23

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a benign condition that can progress to more severe liver damage in a process mediated, in part, by disturbances in redox balance. Additionally, some argue that it is set to become the main cause of end-stage liver disease in the near future. Here, we investigated whether a diet-induced weight loss is able to reverse hepatic lipid accumulation and to reduce oxidative stress in liver from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow, 10% energy from fat, 16 wk); HF (high fat diet, 50% energy from fat, 16 wk); SC-HF (SC 8 wk followed by HF 8 wk); and HF-SC (HF 8 wk followed by SC 8 wk). The HF diet during 8 (SC-HF) and 16 weeks (HF) downregulated mRNA levels and protein expression of Nrf2 and endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in the liver, caused liver steatosis, affected liver function markers, increased intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and induced glucose intolerance and hypercholesterolemia compared to controls (SC). Diet-induced weight loss significantly reduced the intrahepatic lipid accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and restored both gene and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes. Our findings suggest that a dietary intervention aimed to induce weight loss may exert protective effects in NAFLD as it can reduce hepatic oxidative stress and intrahepatic lipid accumulation, which can hinder the progression of this condition to more severe states.

  13. Antioxidant status of Penaeus monodon fed with Dunaliella salina supplemented diet and resistance against WSSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MADHUMATHI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the protection of shrimp Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV using Dunaliella salina algal cells which contains an antioxidant betacarotene for the shrimp nonspecific immunity. To determine the antioxidant activity, the shrimp were treated in vivo (orally with feed methods at the concentration of 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2 % D. salina incorporated with pellet feed, respectively. In the present study, anti-WSSV activity of D. salina incorporated diet by in vivo methods showed strongantioxidant activity and the immunological parameters such as proPO, SOD,catalase were higher in the WSSVinfected shrimp treated with D. salina incorporated diet when compared to control groups. These results strongly indicate that in vivo of D. salina incorporated diet enhances immunity of the shrimp. Based on the present data and the advantages of harvesting D. salina at low price, we believe that oral administration of D. salina live cells along with the pellet feed is a potential prophylactic agent against WSSV infection of shrimp tosome extent.

  14. Comparison of lymphocyte DNA damage levels and total antioxidant capacity in Korean and American diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Hyun A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE This study aims to measure the in vitro antioxidant capacity of Korean diet (KD) with American diet (AD) as a control group and to examine the ex vivo DNA damage reduction effect on human lymphocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The KD applied in this study is the standard one-week meals for Koreans (2,000 kcal/day) suggested by 2010 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. The AD, which is the control group, is a one-week menu (2,000 kcal/day) that consists of foods that Americans would commonly take in according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The antioxidant capacity of each menu was measured by means of the total phenolic assay and 3 in vitro antioxidant activity assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACROO·)), while the extent of ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage was measured by means of the comet assay. RESULTS When measured by means of TEAC assay, the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the KD of the day was higher than that of the AD (P < 0.05) while there was no significant difference in total phenolic contents and DPPH and ORAC assays. The ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage protective effect of the KD was significantly higher than that of the AD (P < 0.01). As for the one-week menu combining the menus for 7 days, the total phenolic assay (P < 0.05) and in vitro antioxidant capacity (P < 0.001, DPPH; P < 0.01, TEAC) of the KD menu were significantly higher than those of the AD menu. Likewise, the ex vivo DNA damage reduction rate of the Korean seven-day menu was significantly higher than that of the American menu (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that the high antioxidant capacity and DNA damage protective effect of KD, which consists generally of various plant foods, are higher than those of typical AD.

  15. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was designed to examine the cardiovascular effects of ozone and the efficacy of FO and OO-rich diets in attenuating these effects of ozone exposure in rats. Methods: Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet (ND), or a diet enriched with 6% FO or OO starting at 4 weeks of age. Eight weeks following the start of the diet, animals were exposed to filtered air (FA) or 0.8 ppm ozone, 4 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. Immediately after exposure, cardiac responses were assessed ex vivo using a Langendorff heart preparation with a protocol consisting of 20 min of global ischemia followed by 2 hr reperfusion. Cardiac function was measured as the index of left-ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and contractility (dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin) before ischemia. Upon reperfusion after ischemia, the recovery of post-ischemic LVDP and infarct size were examined. Results: The pre-ischemic LVDP, dP/dtmax, and dP/dtmin were lower after ozone exposure when compared to the FA control in the rats fed ND but not FO and OO. OO diet shortened the time to ischemic contracture of the hearts after FA exposure compared to ND. Ozone exposure increased pre-ischemic heart rate and the time to ischemic contractur

  16. Photosynthetic and antioxidant responses of Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric-rich and nitric-rich simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-03-01

    To study whether differential responses occur in photosynthesis and antioxidant system for seedlings of Liquidambar formosana, an acid rain (AR)-sensitive tree species and Schima superba, an AR-tolerant tree species treated with three types of pH 3.0 simulated AR (SiAR) including sulfuric-rich (S-SiAR), nitric-rich (N-SiAR), sulfate and nitrate mixed (SN-SiAR), we investigated the changes of leaf necrosis, chlorophyll content, soluble protein and proline content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, reactive oxygen species production, membrane lipid peroxidation, small molecular antioxidant content, antioxidant enzyme activities and related protein expressions. Our results showed that SiAR significantly caused leaf necrosis, inhibited photosynthesis, induced superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation, aggravated membrane lipid peroxidation, changed antioxidant enzyme activities, modified related protein expressions such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), l-ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1. 11. 1. 11), glutathione S transferase (GST, EC 2. 5. 1. 18) and Rubisco large subunit (RuBISCO LSU), altered non-protein thiols (NPT) and glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of L. formosana and S. superba. Taken together, we concluded that the damages caused by SiAR in L. formosana were more severe and suffered from more negative impacts than in S. superba. S-SiAR induced more serious damages for the plants than did SN-SiAR and N-SiAR.

  17. Impact of boiling on phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of green vegetables consumed in the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinha, Ana F; Alves, Rita C; Barreira, Sérgio V P; Costa, Anabela S G; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-04-01

    The effect of boiling (10 minutes) on eleven green vegetables frequently consumed in the Mediterranean diet was evaluated. For that, some physicochemical parameters and the contents of vitamin C, phenolics and carotenoids, as well as the antioxidant activity, were determined in raw and boiled samples. The raw vegetables analysed in this study were good sources of vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, with contents ranging from 10.6 to 255.1 mg/100 g, 0.03 to 3.29 mg/100 g and 202.9 to 1010.7 mg/100 g, respectively. Boiling promoted losses in different extensions considering both the different bioactive compounds and the distinct vegetables analysed. Contrary to phenolics (more resistant), vitamin C was the most affected compound. Boiling also originated significant losses in the antioxidant activity of the vegetables. Considering all the parameters analysed, the vegetables most affected by boiling were broccoli and lettuce. The least affected ones were collard and tronchuda cabbage.

  18. Can consumption of antioxidant rich mushrooms extend longevity?: antioxidant activity of Pleurotus spp. and its effects on Mexican fruit flies' (Anastrepha ludens) longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José E; Jiménez-Pérez, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    The variability of antioxidant capacity of 14 strains of the edible oyster mushroom Pleurotus spp. was determined, and the effect of selected mushroom supplements on the longevity of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of the fruiting bodies was determined by three different methods, measuring the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts, the OH radical scavenging capacity, and the total phenol content. The inhibition percentage of the DPPH radical varied between 32.6 and 85.7% and total phenols varied between 30.6 and 143.3 mg/g. The strains with the highest (Pleurotus djamor ECS-0142) and lowest (Pleurotus ostreatus ECS-1123) antioxidant capacity were selected to study their effect on the survival, life expectancy, and mortality of the Mexican fruit fly A. ludens. The results demonstrated differing responses between male and female flies. High concentrations of mushrooms (5 and 20%) in the diet resulted in a decrease in life expectancy. However, flies on the diet with 1% P. djamor ECS-0142 showed slightly but significantly greater survival than those on the control diet. The possible adverse effect of protein content in mushroom extracts is discussed.

  19. Effects of Diets Rich in Flavonoids on the Quality of Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Cruz Carrillo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk is one of the main foods for mammals and, specifically, for humans; therefore, its quality should be optimal and should comply with all safety and nutritional aspects. The objective of this review was to collect updated scientific information on the importance of the presence of flavonoids in bovine milk, regarding their nutritional value and the benefits of these metabolites for the milk and its consumers. Milk decomposition is due to the effect of light, temperature and time on the fat and protein present in it, as well as to lactic fermentation by bacteria. Thus, the control of these three factors or one of them contributes to extend the useful life of milk and other dairy products. Thus, by seeking to delay the rancidification of milk and its by-products, it has been proposed that forage containing antioxidants such as flavonoids should be included in the diet of female cattle, as these, being bioavailable in cattle, also actively appear in the milk in concentrations equivalent to plasma. Additionally, the presence of flavonoids in bovine milk can provide a source of natural antioxidants for the consumer, which is beneficial for the prevention of some pathological processes mediated by free radicals.

  20. Effects of lycopene supplementation in both maternal and offspring diets on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B; Chen, C; Wang, W; Ma, J; Xie, Q; Gao, Y; Chen, F; Zhang, X; Bi, Y

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of different supplementation ways of lycopene during pre-hatch (from the diet of hens) and post-hatch (from the diet of progeny) on production performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks. In total, 360 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group) or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. From 28 to 34 days after the start of supplementation (30 weeks old), 650 qualified eggs were collected to artificial incubation. In this trial, 2 × 2 factorial designs were used. Male chicks hatched from hens fed with 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. The results showed that, relative to control, in ovo-deposited lycopene significantly increased chick birth body weight, improved liver total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH: GSSG), and significantly declined liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased liver lycopene content during 0-14 days after hatching. On days 14 after hatching, dietary lycopene in diet began to take over gradually. Both supplementation ways of lycopene increased immune organ index, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, villus length and villus/crypt in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Data in this study suggested lycopene supplementation could improve antioxidant capacity and immune function, and regulate lipid metabolism in chicks.

  1. Characterization of lipids and antioxidant capacity of novel nutraceutical egg products developed with omega-3-rich oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Nissan M; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Beamer, Sarah K; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-01-15

    Cardiovascular disease has had an unquestioned status of the number one cause of death in the US since 1921. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have cardio-protective benefits. However, egg is typically a poor source of ω-3 PUFAs and, in general, the American diet is low in these cardio-protective fatty acids. Novel, nutritionally enhanced egg products were developed by substituting yolk with ω-3 PUFA-rich flaxseed, menhaden, algae, or krill oil. Experimental egg products matched composition of hen egg (whole egg). The experimental egg products, mixed whole egg, and a liquid egg product (Egg Beaters) were microwave-cooked and compared. Although fat, protein, and moisture contents of experimental egg products matched (P > 0.05) mixed whole egg, experimental egg products had more (P oil added, a higher (P experimental egg products except those developed with krill oil, which had even more phospholipids than mixed whole egg. Analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances showed that lipid oxidation of experimental egg products was lower (P 0.05) to mixed whole egg, except for experimental egg products with krill oil. However, peroxide value showed that all egg samples had minimal oxidation. Experimental egg products developed with menhaden or flaxseed oil had the highest (P experimental egg products with krill oil likely contained a natural antioxidant, astaxanthin. This study demonstrated an alternative approach to developing novel, nutraceutical egg products. Instead of dietary modification of chicken feed, yolk substitution with ω-3 PUFAs oils resulted in enhancement of ω-3 PUFAs beyond levels possible to achieve by modifying chicken feed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A sucrose-rich diet induces mutations in the rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L.O.; Daneshvar, B.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    in the background levels of DNA adducts. Sucrose did not increase the number of DNA strand breaks or oxidized bases assessed as endonuclease III-sensitive sites or 8-oxodeoxyguanosine in colon or liver. DNA repair capacity as determined by expression of the rERCC1 or rOGG1 genes was not increased in colon or liver...... added sucrose to the diet of Big Blue rats, a strain of Fischer rats carrying 40 copies of the lambda-phage on chromosome 4. Dietary sucrose was provided to the rats for 3 weeks at four dose levels including the background level in the purified diet [3.4% (control), 6.9%, 13.8%, or 34.5%] without...... of a sucrose-rich diet. No significant increase in mutations was observed in the liver. To seek an explanation for this finding, a variety of parameters were examined representing different mechanisms, including increased oxidative stress, changes in oxidative defense, effects on DNA repair, or changes...

  3. Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Del Rio, Daniele; Teissèdre, Pierre-Louis; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase (SOD-MC) were investigated in vitro. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The ability of the extract to scavenge three specific reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical anion (O(2)(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))) was also investigated in order to better evaluate its antioxidant properties. Even if the measures of TAC were relatively low, results clearly established an antioxidant potential of SOD-MC that exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity towards O(2)(-), with a IC(50) 12-fold lower than that of H(2)O(2) or HO(). This lets hypothesis that the antioxidant potential of SOD-MC could be mainly due to its high level of SOD. Moreover, for the first time, an ACE inhibitory activity of SOD-MC (IC(50)=2.4±0.1mg/mL) was demonstrated, showing that its use as a functional food ingredient with potential preventive benefits in the context of hypertension may have important public health implications and should be carefully considered.

  4. Estradiol enhances effects of fructose rich diet on cardiac fatty acid transporter CD36 and triglycerides accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korićanac, Goran; Tepavčević, Snežana; Romić, Snježana; Živković, Maja; Stojiljković, Mojca; Milosavljević, Tijana; Stanković, Aleksandra; Petković, Marijana; Kamčeva, Tina; Žakula, Zorica

    2012-11-05

    Fructose rich diet increases hepatic triglycerides production and has deleterious cardiac effects. Estrogens are involved in regulation of lipid metabolism as well, but their effects are cardio beneficial. In order to study effects of fructose rich diet on the main heart fatty acid transporter CD36 and the role of estrogens, we subjected ovariectomized female rats to the standard diet or fructose rich diet, with or without estradiol (E2) replacement. The following parameters were analyzed: feeding behavior, visceral adipose tissue mass, plasma lipids, cardiac CD36 expression, localization and insulin regulation, as well as the profile of cardiac lipids. Results show that fructose rich diet significantly increased plasma triglycerides and decreased plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration, while E2 additionally emphasized FFA decrease. The fructose diet increased cardiac plasma membrane content of CD36 in the basal and insulin-stimulated states, and decreased its low density microsomes content. The E2 in fructose-fed rats raised the total cardiac protein content of CD36, its presence in plasma membranes and low density microsomes, and cardiac deposition of triglycerides, as well. Although E2 counteracts fructose in some aspects of lipid metabolism, and separately they have opposite cardiac effects, in combination with fructose rich diet, E2 additionally enhances CD36 presence in plasma membranes of cardiac cells and triglycerides accumulation, which paradoxically might promote deleterious effects of fructose diet on cardiac lipid metabolism. Taken together, the results presented in this work are of high importance for clinical administration of estrogens in females with a history of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Fattening performance, metabolic indicators, and muscle composition of bulls fed fiber-rich versus starch-plus-lipid-rich concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, M M; Renand, G; Ortigues-Marty, I; Bauchart, D; Hocquette, J F; Mounier, L; Noël, T; Micol, D; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the responses in fattening performance and meat composition for high-concentrate diets rich in either starch and lipids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) or fibrous by-products. A total of 140 Charolais bulls (initially 319 ± 27 kg BW) were allocated to 3 high-concentrate diets and were fattened for up to 18 mo. The diet treatments included concentrate mixtures rich in either fiber (FR; n = 56) or starch plus linseed (diets SL and SLR; n = 56 and n = 28, respectively) and barley straw. The concentrate mix was offered ad libitum in SL and FR diets but was kept isoenergetic to the FR diet in the SLR diet. Bulls were weighed every 15 d. Feed intake was measured daily. Carcass composition was assessed for all animals slaughtered at 699 ± 65 kg BW. Meat nutritional quality traits (e.g., fat content and fatty acid composition focusing on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) were measured on the longissimus thoracis, rectus abdominis, and semitendinosus muscles. Metabolic enzyme activity (phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome-c oxidase) was measured on these muscles and on liver. The SL diet bulls had greater fattening performance, BW gain (P = 0.006), and efficiency for growth (P = 0.025) at an energy intake similar to that of FR diet bulls. They also had heavier carcasses with a greater proportion of fat. However, liver samples showed no difference in specific metabolic activity. Compared to bulls fed the SL diet, bulls fed SLR consumed 15% less energy and had lower BW gain (P < 0.001) but were slightly more efficient for growth (P = 0.010). They had lower carcass weight but a greater muscle-to-fat ratio. Compared to bulls fed the FR diet, SLR bulls had lower than planned NEg intake and lower BW gain but did not have differences in body composition. Compared to the FR diet, the SL diet led to a greater omega-3 fatty acid content because of a greater supply of dietary linoleic acid, especially in lean muscle.

  6. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA.

  7. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der Jiun Ooi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  8. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-06-17

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  9. Chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction of apple skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Mendoza-Wilson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The apple is a food rich in diverse classes of polyphenols (PP, among which the proanthocyanidins (PCs, which are primarily concentrated in the skin, are one of the most abundant. These compounds are of considerable interest for their possible positive health effects because of their antioxidant properties. However, depending on the classes of PP present (chemical composition and their relative concentrations in the apple skin, their antioxidant effects vary and some of their components can even generate prooxidant effects. This work determined the chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract (PPE and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF of apple skin, along with the contribution of their most abundant individual compounds, based on their copper chelating ability, ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals and TEAC (Trolox-Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity assay. For this purpose, chromatographic and colorimetric methods were used. The majority compounds identified in PPE were flavan-3-ols (44.58%, flavonols (42.89% and dihydrochalcones (11.60%. In PRF, we detected monomers and oligomers from dimers to heptamers, which were composed of 97% (−-epicatechin and 3% (+-catechin. The antioxidant potential was notably higher in PRF than in PPE. The (−-epicatechin monomer and the procyanidin B2 dimer showed more ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals compared to other compounds of the apple skin, whereas phloridzin dihydrochalcone produced prooxidant effects.

  10. Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective: To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks.Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (∼2 g/kg body weight (n = 12 or artificial sweeteners (n = 11 as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (∼80 weight% and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits. The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0 and after the intervention (week 10 fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch.After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10, postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet.A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects.

  11. Antioxidant, Antiproliferative, and Antiangiogenesis Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Seaweed (Sargassum muticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Namvar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated the effect of brown seaweeds Sargassum muticum methanolic extract (SMME, against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines proliferation. This algae extract was also evaluated for reducing activity and total polyphenol content. The MTT assay results indicated that the extracts were cytotoxic against breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 of 22 μg/ml for MCF-7 and 55 μg/ml for MDA-MB-231 cell lines. The percentages of apoptotic MCF-7-treated cells increased from 13% to 67% by increasing the concentration of the SMME. The antiproliferative efficacy of this algal extract was positively correlated with the total polyphenol contents, suggesting a causal link related to extract content of phenolic acids. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of SMME-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by SMME. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Hoechst 33342 and AO/PI staining. Also SMME implanted in vivo into fertilized chicken eggs induced dose-related antiangiogenic activity in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM. Our results imply a new insight on the novel function of Sargassum muticum polyphenol-rich seaweed in cancer research by induction of apoptosis, antioxidant, and antiangiogenesis effects.

  12. Antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antiangiogenesis effects of polyphenol-rich seaweed (Sargassum muticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvar, Farideh; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Baharara, Javad; Zafar-Balanejad, Saeedeh; Fargahi, Fahimeh; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of brown seaweeds Sargassum muticum methanolic extract (SMME), against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines proliferation. This algae extract was also evaluated for reducing activity and total polyphenol content. The MTT assay results indicated that the extracts were cytotoxic against breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 of 22 μg/ml for MCF-7 and 55 μg/ml for MDA-MB-231 cell lines. The percentages of apoptotic MCF-7-treated cells increased from 13% to 67% by increasing the concentration of the SMME. The antiproliferative efficacy of this algal extract was positively correlated with the total polyphenol contents, suggesting a causal link related to extract content of phenolic acids. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of SMME-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by SMME. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Hoechst 33342 and AO/PI staining. Also SMME implanted in vivo into fertilized chicken eggs induced dose-related antiangiogenic activity in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Our results imply a new insight on the novel function of Sargassum muticum polyphenol-rich seaweed in cancer research by induction of apoptosis, antioxidant, and antiangiogenesis effects.

  13. Effect of Shilajit enriched diet on immunity, antioxidants, and disease resistance in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Mohamed Saiyad; Jawahar Ali, Abdul Rahman; Hyder Ali, Abdul Rahuman; Mohamed, Mohamed Jamal; War, Mehrajuddin; Naveed, Mohamed Saquib; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Rani, Kuppusamy Umaa; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2016-10-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with Shilajit, a multi-component natural mineral substance on the antioxidant activity, immune response, and disease resistance in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila is reported. The total hemocyte count (THC) and phagocytic activity significantly increased with 2 g kg(-1) supplemented diet on first week and with other enriched diets on weeks 2 and 4. The respiratory burst (RB) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were significantly increased with 2 g kg(-1) supplemented diet on weeks 1 and 2 whereas 2 and 4 g kg(-1) diets on week 4. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity increased significantly with 2 g kg(-1) diet only on second week and with other enriched diets only on fourth week. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly with any enriched diet during the experimental period except with 6 g kg(-1) diets on first week. However, the glutathione reductase (GR) activity was enhanced significantly only with 2 g kg(-1) enriched diets on weeks 2 and 4. The cumulative mortality of the prawn fed with 2 and 4 g kg(-1) enriched diets was 10% and 15% whereas with 6 g kg(-1) diet the mortality was 20%. The results suggest that diet enriched with Shilajit at 2 g kg(-1) or 4 g kg(-1) positively enhances the antioxidant activity, immunity, and disease resistance in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila.

  14. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Potential of the Phytonutrient-Rich Decoction of Cichorium spinosum and C. intybus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieudes, Vincent; Angelis, Apostolis; Vougogiannopoulou, Konstantina; Pratsinis, Harris; Kletsas, Dimitris; Mitakou, Sofia; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Leandros A

    2016-07-01

    The Cretan diet, as the basis of the Mediterranean diet, has provided traditional remedies for the general well being of people through the long-established consumption of cooked wild greens and vegetables. The intake of the water decoctions of Cichorium spinosum and Cichorium intybus in the context of the daily dietary regime in Greece has been long associated with "liver detoxifying" properties. In the current study, we performed an in-depth investigation of the water decoctions traditionally prepared from C. spinosum and C. intybus through qualitative UHPLC-HRMS profiling and direct quantification of cichoric and caftaric acid as major antioxidant components of the decoction. In addition, we developed a one-step countercurrent chromatography method for the isolation of the two phenolic acids, along with a sulfoconjugate sesquiterpene lactone present only in the Cretan C. spinosum. All water decoctions were found not to be cytotoxic in human fibroblasts, whereas they all significantly reduced the intracellular reactive oxygen species, which is consistent with the major presence of strong antioxidant compounds such as cichoric acid. This work demonstrates that the intake of these decoctions in doses suggested by Greek traditional use is comparable to the ingestion of a phytomedical preparation of antioxidants. These results contribute to our current knowledge on the beneficial health effect of the Cretan diet.

  15. Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits and Vegetables Common in the Croatian Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Dragović-uzelac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the polyphenol content (total phenols, flavonoids, nonflavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in selected fruits (apple, ‘Idared’; apricot, ‘Madjarska najbolja’; blueberry, ‘Bluecrop’; mandarin, ‘Kuno’; orange, unknown; sour cherry, ‘Marasca’; strawberry, ‘Maya’ and peach, ‘Redhaven’ and vegetables (broccoli, ‘Belstar’ -flower and steam; cauliflower, ‘Favola’; kale, ‘Melissa’ and leek-leaf and root -unknown commonly consumed in the Croatian diet. Total phenols, flavonoids and nonflavonoids were measured calorimetrically by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with gallic acid as the standard; anthocyanins were determined using bisulphite bleaching method using cyanidin-3-diglucoside as standard, whereas antioxidant capacity was measured using DPPH method. The highest total polyphenols were observed in sour cherry as 2560 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW, followed by blueberry, orange, mandarin, strawberry, apple, apricot, and peach. Among vegetables the highest concentration of total polyphenols was determined in kale (1039 mg GAE/kg FW followed by broccoli flower, broccoli steam, leek leaf, leek root and cauliflower. In all investigated fruits, as well as vegetables, total flavonoids were predominant polyphenols. Total nonflavonoids were present in low concentration especially in leek leaf, broccoli flower and leek root. The highest antioxidant capacity in fruit and vegetables was determined in samples with higher concentration of flavonoids. In selected fruits, there was a distinct correlation between total phenols or flavonoids and antioxidant capacity, while in vegetable the correlation was not observed.

  16. The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Erik; Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Arendt, Maja-Louise; Maqbool, Khurram; Webster, Matthew T; Perloski, Michele; Liberg, Olof; Arnemo, Jon M; Hedhammar, Ake; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2013-03-21

    The domestication of dogs was an important episode in the development of human civilization. The precise timing and location of this event is debated and little is known about the genetic changes that accompanied the transformation of ancient wolves into domestic dogs. Here we conduct whole-genome resequencing of dogs and wolves to identify 3.8 million genetic variants used to identify 36 genomic regions that probably represent targets for selection during dog domestication. Nineteen of these regions contain genes important in brain function, eight of which belong to nervous system development pathways and potentially underlie behavioural changes central to dog domestication. Ten genes with key roles in starch digestion and fat metabolism also show signals of selection. We identify candidate mutations in key genes and provide functional support for an increased starch digestion in dogs relative to wolves. Our results indicate that novel adaptations allowing the early ancestors of modern dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, relative to the carnivorous diet of wolves, constituted a crucial step in the early domestication of dogs.

  17. An extra-virgin olive oil rich in polyphenolic compounds has antioxidant effects in meat-type broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito; Casalino, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in the liver of broiler chickens not subjected to any form of insult. A total of 120 male broiler chickens (Hubbard strain) were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with three isoenergetic diets from hatching until slaughter age (49 days) on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2.5% added oil or fat from three sources as follows: diet containing sunflower oil (SFO); diet containing lard (LRD), and diet containing extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The activity of the main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GS-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content, was measured in the liver of chickens. The susceptibility to undergo lipid peroxidation was assessed by exposing liver homogenate to 30 °C or to an ascorbate/iron mixture as pro-oxidant system. Dietary oil or fat type improved significantly (P olive oil on liver of other experimental model other than rats and humans, could be significant for animal welfare, with consequent benefits for both producers and consumers.

  18. Anti-aggregation action of ultraviolet irradiation on platelet-rich plasma in the presence of antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshchupkin, D.I.; Anosov, A.K.; Potapenko, A.Ya. (2nd Moscow Medical Institute, Moscow (USSR). Dept. of Biophysics)

    1983-05-01

    UV irradiation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) results in the inhibition of ADP-induced platelets aggregation. This is accounted for by the long-living photoproducts formed in plasma. Platelets destruct these photoproducts in the dark after irradiation. Lipid antioxidants ..cap alpha..-tocopherol and BHT administered in PRP before irradiation reduce the anti-aggregation effect of UV light. Lipid photo-peroxidation is supposed to be responsible for the anti-aggregation effect of UV irradiation on platelet-rich plasma.

  19. Anti-aggregation action of ultraviolet irradiation on platelet-rich plasma in the presence of antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshchupkin, D.I.; Anosov, A.K.; Potapenko, A.Ya. (2nd Moscow Medical Institute, Moscow (USSR). Dept. of Biophysics)

    1983-05-01

    UV irradiation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) results in the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This is accounted for by the long-living photoproducts formed in plasma. Platelets destroy these photoproducts in the dark after irradiation. Lipid antioxidants ..cap alpha..-tocopherol and BHT administered in PRP before irradiation reduce the anti-aggregation effect of UV light. Lipid photo-peroxidation is supposed to be responsible for the anti-aggregation effect of UV irradiation on platelet-rich plasma.

  20. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.

  1. Developmental programming of aortic and renal structure in offspring of rats fed fat-rich diets in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, James A.; Lakasing, Lorin; Taylor, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    programmes the development of increased blood pressure, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, obesity and mesenteric artery endothelial dysfunction in adult offspring. To further characterize the mechanism of hypertension in this model we have examined vascular and renal structure in adult offspring of Sprague......-Dawley rats fed a control diet (OC) or lard-rich diet (OHF) during pregnancy and suckling followed by a control diet post-weaning. To gain further insight, we assessed aortic reactivity and elasticity in an organ bath preparation and renal renin and Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Plasma aldosterone concentration...

  2. Study on antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of polyphenol-rich extracts from Thymus vulgaris and Lavendula multifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ramchoun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the polyphenol-rich extracts of two medicinal plants widely used in Errachidia country (south east of Morocco (Thymus vulgaris and Lavendula muttifida were assessed for their antioxidant, hypocholesterolaemic and hypotriglyceridaemic activities.The antioxidant activity of polyphenol-rich extracts was assessed by using the FRAP assay (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, the RSA method (Radical Scavenging Activity and the inhibition of the AAPH (2, 2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane hydrochloride-induced oxidative erythrocyte hemolysis. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR-1339 at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. The animals were divided into normolipidemic control group (NCG, hyperlipidaemic control group (HCG and hyperlipidaemic plus herb extracts (0.2 g/100 g body weight. However, 24 h after treatment by polyphenol-rich extract of Thymus vulgaris and lavendula multifida we not detect any significant effect on both plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides profiles. Our results indicate that, the aqueous extract from lavandula muttifida and Thymus vulgaris, present a higher antioxydant activities. Indeed, Lavandula muttifida presents an anti-hemolysis activity equivalent to that exhibited by Thymus vulgaris. The addition of AAPH decrease the half time of hemolysis by 45%. The polyphenol- rich extracts from thymus vulgaris and lavendula muttifida varieties increase the half time hemolysis by 533% and 479%, respectively. Although, these two varieties of thyme and lavender did cause any hypolipidemic activity. The results found are encouraging for further assessment to elucidate the mechanism of action and to identify the bioactive compounds implicated in the antioxidant effect and the membrane stability.

  3. The potential of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), an Israeli native, as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaknin, Yiftach; Hadas, Rivka; Schafferman, Dan; Murkhovsky, Leonid; Bashan, Neta

    2008-06-01

    The potential of wild plants in Israel as sources of edible sprouts has not been investigated until now. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world; its young fleshy stems are traditionally eaten by the local Arab sector in Israel, and its sprouts are rich in antioxidants and have been used as a traditional medicine for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The active extract of milk thistle, silymarin, is a mixture of flavonolignans and is a strong antioxidant that has been proved to promote liver cell regeneration, to reduce blood cholesterol and to help prevent cancer. The present objective was to investigate the potential of milk thistle as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants. We found that seed germination within 3-4 days was high (96%, except for striated seeds). Exposure to light significantly reduced sprout growth and significantly increased the polyphenol content and antioxidative capacity. The polyphenol content was 30% higher in seeds originating from purple inflorescences than in those from white ones. We thus found milk thistle to be a good candidate source of healthy edible sprouts.

  4. Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction regulates the expression of antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes in stressed rat's liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamat Wan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gamma-oryzanol (OR, a phytosteryl ferulate mixture extracted from rice bran oil, has a wide spectrum of biological activities in particular, it has antioxidant properties. Methods The regulatory effect of gamma-oryzanol rich fraction (ORF extracted and fractionated from rice bran using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE in comparison with commercially available OR on 14 antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes was determined in rat liver. Rats were subjected to a swimming exercise program for 10 weeks to induce stress and were further treated with either ORF at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg or OR at 100 mg/kg in emulsion forms for the last 5 weeks of the swimming program being carried out. The GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System (GeXPS was used to study the multiplex gene expression of the selected genes. Results Upon comparison of RNA expression levels between the stressed and untreated group (PC and the unstressed and untreated group (NC, seven genes were found to be down-regulated, while seven genes were up-regulated in PC group compared to NC group. Further treatment of stressed rats with ORF at different doses and OR resulted in up-regulation of 10 genes and down regulation of four genes compared to the PC group. Conclusions Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction showed potential antioxidant activity greater than OR in the regulation of antioxidants and oxidative stress gene markers.

  5. Leucine-rich diet alters the eukaryotic translation initiation factors expression in skeletal muscle of tumour-bearing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Maria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-cachexia induces a variety of metabolic disorders on protein turnorver, decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation. Controversly, insulin, other hormones, and branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, stimulate protein synthesis and modulate the activity of translation initiation factors involved in protein synthesis. Since the tumour effects are more pronounced when associated with pregnancy, ehancing muscle-wasting proteolysis, in this study, the influence of a leucine-rich diet on the protein synthesis caused by cancer were investigated. Methods Pregnant rats with or without Walker 256 tumour were distributed into six groups. During 20 days of experiment, three groups were fed with a control diet: C – pregnant control, W – tumour-bearing, and P – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the W group; three other groups of pregnant rats were fed a leucine-rich diet: L – pregnant leucine, WL – tumour-bearing, and PL – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the WL group. Results The gastrocnemius muscle of WL rats showed increased incorporation of leucine in protein compared to W rats; the leucine-rich diet also prevented the decrease in plasma insulin normally seen in W. The expression of translation initiation factors increased when tumour-bearing rats fed leucine-rich diet, with increase of ~35% for eIF2α and eIF5, ~17% for eIF4E and 20% for eIF4G; the expression of protein kinase S6K1 and protein kinase C was also highly enhanced. Conclusion The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet increased the protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in tumour-bearing rats possibly through the activation of eIF factors and/or the S6kinase pathway.

  6. Antioxidant efficacy of curcuminoids from turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) powder in broiler chickens fed diets containing aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Nisarani K S; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, Goerge E; Bermudez, Alex J; Chen, Yin C

    2009-12-01

    A 3-week-feeding study (1-21 d post-hatch) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of total curcuminoids (TCMN), as an antioxidant, to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) that contained 2.55 % TCMN was used as a source of TCMN. Six cage replicates of five chicks each were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, which included: basal diet; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 74 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 222 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1. The addition of 74 and 222 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved weight gain and feed efficiency. Increase (P < 0.05) in relative liver weight in birds fed AFB1 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the addition of 74, 222 and 444 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet. The inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on serum chemistry in terms of total protein, albumin and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. The decreased antioxidant functions due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN. It is concluded that the addition of 222 mg/kg TCMN to the 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 diet demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against AFB1.

  7. Hazelnut Oil Administration Reduces Aortic Cholesterol Accumulation and Lipid Peroxides in the Plasma, Liver, and Aorta of Rabbits Fed a High-cholesterol Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HATIPOGLU, Aydan; KANBAGLI, Öznur; BALKAN, Jale; KÜÇÜK, Mutlu; ÇEVIKBAS, Ugur; AYKAÇ-TOKER, Gülçin; BERKKAN, Hakan; UYSAL, Müjdat

    2004-01-01

    Hazelnut oil (HO) is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. We wanted to investigate the effect of HO on lipid levels and prooxidant-antioxidant status in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol (HC) diet...

  8. Anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities of two types of honey by change in bees, diet in comparison with other honey productis in Abestan region of Khorramabad province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Honey is a natural product of plant secretions collected by bees then after some changes are saved in hive. Honey is rich in enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants such as Catalase, ascorbic acid, flavonoids and alkaloids. The important feature of honey is also antimicrobial activity. Also entering some ingredients into bees, diet can increase of effectiveness the nutritional value of honey So the anti-oxidant and anti-microbialactivities of two types of honey by change in bees,diet incomparison with the other honey of the region were studied. Materials and Methods: Three different types of diet given to bees including apple juice, flowers and root extract of Licorice and region flowers so that three types of honey were produced. The honey affected on standard bacteria and Candida albicans with several antibiotics to evaluate of antimicrobial activity according to agar well diffusion assay. The amount of antioxidant compounds, measured according total phenol test. For measurement of antioxidant effects of honey, three tests of FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABT (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid were used. Results: In this experiment, Licorice honey had highest antimicrobial activity especially against pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested honey had a significant difference in total amount of phenol. In all three methods (FRAP, DPPH and ABT, apple honey had the highest antioxidant activity. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, entering some effective and natural materials into bees’ diet can cause a revolution in the honey product industry, as a drug, and health of society.

  9. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ... and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with that of healthy controls ... Conclusion: Early management through an antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle ...

  10. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Ameliorates Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and Improves Replicative Senescence-Associated Oxidative Stress in Human Myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shy Cian Khor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During aging, oxidative stress affects the normal function of satellite cells, with consequent regeneration defects that lead to sarcopenia. This study aimed to evaluate tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF modulation in reestablishing the oxidative status of myoblasts during replicative senescence and to compare the effects of TRF with other antioxidants (α-tocopherol (ATF and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC. Primary human myoblasts were cultured to young, presenescent, and senescent phases. The cells were treated with antioxidants for 24 h, followed by the assessment of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Our data showed that replicative senescence increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in myoblasts. Treatment with TRF significantly diminished ROS production and decreased lipid peroxidation in senescent myoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD2, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1 was modulated by TRF treatment, with increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione peroxidase in senescent myoblasts. In comparison to ATF and NAC, TRF was more efficient in heightening the antioxidant capacity and reducing free radical insults. These results suggested that TRF is able to ameliorate antioxidant defense mechanisms and improves replicative senescence-associated oxidative stress in myoblasts.

  11. Branched-chain amino acid-rich diet improves skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Koichi; Kubo, Kaoru; Hino, Kazuo; Kondoh, Yasunori; Nishii, Yasue; Koyama, Noriko; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette smoke induces skeletal muscle wasting by a mechanism not yet fully elucidated. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in the skeletal muscles are useful energy sources during exercise or systemic stresses. We investigated the relationship between skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke and changes in BCAA levels in the plasma and skeletal muscles of rats. Furthermore, the effects of BCAA-rich diet on muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke were also investigated. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats that were fed with a control or a BCAA-rich diet were exposed to cigarette smoke for four weeks. After the exposure, the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in plasma and the skeletal muscles were measured. Cigarette smoke significantly decreased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet increased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles that had decreased by cigarette smoke exposure. In conclusion, skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke was related to the decrease of BCAA levels in the skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet may improve cases of cigarette smoke-induced skeletal muscle wasting.

  12. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijoon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG (−1.39% change; 95% CI = −2.56 to −0.21, TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio (−2.03% change; 95% CI = −3.45 to −0.60, HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23, insulin (−1.37% change; 95% CI = −2.64 to −0.09, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (−1.57% change; 95% CI = −3.02 to −0.09 and C-reactive protein (CRP (−0.83% change; 95% CI = −1.29 to −0.38 after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk.

  13. Effects of high fat-, cholesterol-enriched diet on the antioxidant defence mechanisms in the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, D; Del Boccio, G; Porreca, E; Pennelli, A; Mezzetti, A; De Gioia, S; Marzio, L; Di Ilio, C; Cuccurullo, F

    1992-01-01

    In 7 rabbits fed on hyperlipidic diet (0.5% cholesterol, 5% peanut oil and 5% lard) for 4 weeks, the ventricular myocardium was tested for antioxidant defences and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Seven age-matched rabbits served as controls. The hearts were previously subjected to 45 min Langendorff perfusion to study coronary flow, developed tension and resting tension; coronary effluent values of CPK activity, pH and UV absorbance at 250 nm (i.e., low molecular weight ATP catabolites) were also investigated. After 4 weeks of diet, a significant rise of plasma cholesterol (P effluent of hyperlipidemic rabbits. In conclusion, high fat-, cholesterol-enriched diet induces an imbalance in the rabbit heart antioxidant defences, some of which are increased, whereas others are depressed, eventually resulting in enhanced myocardial lipid peroxidation. These biochemical changes are associated with higher perfusate values of UV absorbance at 250 nm, but not with significant CPK leakage or myocardial hemodynamics derangement.

  14. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  15. Vitamin D-rich marine Inuit diet and markers of inflammation - a population-based survey in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schæbel, L K; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E C; Laurberg, P; Vestergaard, H; Andersen, S

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Inuit diet in Greenland consists mainly of fish and marine mammals, rich in vitamin D. Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory capacity but markers of inflammation have been found to be high in Inuit living on a marine diet. Yet, the effect of vitamin D on inflammation in Inuit remains unsettled. This led us to investigate the association between vitamin D and markers of inflammation in a population with a high intake of a marine diet. We studied 535 Inuit and non-Inuit living in West and East Greenland. Information concerning dietary habits was obtained by interview-based FFQ. Blood samples were drawn for analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and chitinase-3-like protein 1(YKL-40). Participants were divided into three groups based on degree of intake of the traditional Inuit diet. The diet groups (Inuit diet/mixed diet/imported foods) were associated with vitamin D levels in serum (74·2, 69·8 and 52·9 nm; P level decreased with rising vitamin D level in Inuit (Inuit diet P = 0·002; mixed diet P = 0·011). YKL-40 was lower in groups with higher vitamin D levels after adjusting for other factors known to influence inflammation (P diet. Vitamin D levels were inversely associated with YKL-40 levels, but no association with hsCRP was found. The hypothesised anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D was not supported. Other factors in the marine diet may be speculated to influence inflammation.

  16. Effect of high fat diet enriched with unsaturated and diet rich in saturated fatty acids on sphingolipid metabolism in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Baranowski, Marcin; Zabielski, Piotr; Gorski, Jan

    2010-11-01

    Consumption of high fat diet leads to muscle lipid accumulation which is an important factor involved in induction of insulin resistance. Ceramide is likely to partially inhibit insulin signaling cascade. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different high fat diets on ceramide metabolism in rat skeletal muscles. The experiments were carried out on rats fed for 5 weeks: (1) a standard chow and (2) high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (3) diet enriched with saturated fatty acids (SAT). Assays were performed on three types of muscles: slow-twitch oxidative (soleus), fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic, and fast-twitch glycolytic (red and white section of the gastrocnemius, respectively). The activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), neutral and acid sphingomyelinase (n- and aSMase), and neutral and alkaline ceramidase (n- and alCDase) was examined. The content of ceramide, sphinganine, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate was also measured. The ceramide content did not change in any muscle from PUFA diet group but increased in the SAT diet group by 46% and 52% in the soleus and red section of the gastrocnemius, respectively. Elevated ceramide content in the SAT diet group could be a result of increased SPT activity and simultaneously decreased activity of nCDase. Unchanged ceramide content in the PUFA diet group might be a result of increased activity of SPT and alCDase and simultaneously decreased activity of SMases. We conclude that regulation of muscle ceramide level depends on the diet and type of skeletal muscle. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Fagopyrum tataricum (Buckwheat Improved High-Glucose-Induced Insulin Resistance in Mouse Hepatocytes and Diabetes in Fructose-Rich Diet-Induced Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60% induction. The active compounds of EEB (100 μg/mL; 50 mg/kg bw, quercetin (6 μg/mL; 3 mg/kg bw, and rutin (23 μg/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPARγ degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48 h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD.

  18. Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) improved high-glucose-induced insulin resistance in mouse hepatocytes and diabetes in fructose-rich diet-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Shen, Siou-Ru; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, She-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB) in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM) induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60%) induction. The active compounds of EEB (100 μg/mL; 50 mg/kg bw), quercetin (6 μg/mL; 3 mg/kg bw), and rutin (23 μg/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw) were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPARγ degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48 h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD.

  19. Effects of concord grape juice on appetite, diet, body weight, lipid profile, and antioxidant status of adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concord grape juice (CGJ) is a rich source of phenolic antioxidants with a range of putative health benefits. However, high beverage energy and fructose intake may lead to weight gain and insulin resistance, respectively. This study assessed the effects of CGJ consumption for 12-wk on appetite, di...

  20. Effects of a flavonol-rich diet on select cardiovascular parameters in a Golden Syrian hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalgaonkar, Swati; Gross, Heidrun B; Yokoyama, Wallace; Keen, Carl L

    2010-02-01

    The concept that the consumption of a diet rich in flavonoids can be associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease is becoming increasingly accepted. In the present study we investigated the effects of the following four diets on blood pressure and cholesterol ester levels in hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters: a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFHC); a HFHC with 2% cranberry concentrate powder (HFHC+CE); a HFHC with 0.1% rutin (HFHC+Rutin); and a HFHC with 30 mg/kg vitamin E (HFHC+Vit.E). Diets were fed for either 12 or 20 weeks. Over the experimental period, heart rate and blood pressure measurements increased in the animals fed HFHC and HFHC+Vit.E; in contrast, these measurements were not increased in the animals fed HFHC+CE and HFHC+Rutin. Mesenteric and total abdominal fat were significantly lower in the animals fed HFHC+Rutin than in animals fed the other three diets. Ratios of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and of plasma HDL-C to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in animals consuming HFHC+Vit.E than in animals fed the other three diets. Aortic cholesteryl ester levels were significantly lower in animals fed HFHC+CE, HFHC+Rutin, and HFHC+Vit.E at 20 weeks than in the animals fed HFHC. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were significantly lower in animals fed HFHC+Rutin and HFHC+Vit.E, and glucose clearance rates improved in animals fed HFHC+Rutin compared to animals fed the other three diets. Results obtained from this study support the concept that the chronic consumption of a flavonoid-rich diet can be beneficial with respect to cardiovascular health.

  1. Mediterranean diet and age-related cognitive decline: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Valls Pedret, Cinta; Sala Vila, Aleix; Serra Mir, Mercè; Corella, Dolores; Torre Fornell, Rafael de la; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Martínez Lapiscina, Elena H.; Fitó Colomer, Montserrat; Pérez Heras, Ana; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Oxidative stress and vascular impairment are believed to partly mediate age-related cognitive decline, a strong risk factor for development of dementia. Epidemiologic studies suggest that a Mediterranean diet, an antioxidant-rich cardioprotective dietary pattern, delays cognitive decline, but clinical trial evidence is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a Mediterranean diet supplemented with antioxidant-rich foods influences cognitive function compared with a control diet....

  2. Carnosic acid-rich rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaf extract limits weight gain and improves cholesterol levels and glycaemia in mice on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Alvin; Cases, Julien; Roller, Marc; Chiralt-Boix, Amparo; Coussaert, Aurélie; Ripoll, Christophe

    2011-10-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (RE) are natural antioxidants that are used in food, food supplements and cosmetic applications; exert anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycaemic effects; and promote weight loss, which can be exploited to develop new preventive strategies against metabolic disorders. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of rosemary leaf extract that was standardised to 20 % carnosic acid (RE) on weight gain, glucose levels and lipid homeostasis in mice that had begun a high-fat diet (HFD) as juveniles. The animals were given a low-fat diet, a HFD or a HFD that was supplemented with 500 mg RE/kg body weight per d (mpk). Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored for 16 weeks. Body and epididymal fat weight in animals on the HFD that was supplemented with RE increased 69 and 79 % less than those in the HFD group. Treatment with RE was associated with increased faecal fat excretion but not with decreased food intake. The extract also reduced fasting glycaemia and plasma cholesterol levels. In addition, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of RE in vitro on pancreatic lipase and PPAR-γ agonist activity; the in vitro findings correlated with our observations in the animal experiments. Thus, the present results suggest that RE that is rich in carnosic acid can be used as a preventive treatment against metabolic disorders, which merits further examination at physiological doses in randomised controlled trials.

  3. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano 1968

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Chern Foo; Fatimah Md Yusoff; Maznah Ismail; Mahiran Basri; Nicholas Mun Hoe Khong; Kim Wei Chan; Sook Kun Yau

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare thein vitro antioxidant capacity of a diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (C. calcitrans) extracted using six types of solvents. Methods:Each extract was evaluated in terms of extraction yield, total carotenoid, fucoxanthin content, total phenolic and antioxidant capacities (DPPH• andABTS•+ scavenging activity and iron chelating activity). Results: The methanol extract exhibited the highest yield [(22.71 ± 0.96) g/100 g dry weight (DW)], total carotenoid [(4.46 ± 0.36) mg/g DW], total phenolic [(2.49 ± 0.08) mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW] and second highest fucoxanthin content [(2.08 ± 0.03) mg fucoxanthin/g DW] as compared to other solvent extracts. Methanolic extract also exhibited significantly higher (P Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract fromC. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities ofC. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  4. Antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging effect of polyphenol rich Mallotus philippenensis fruit extract on human erythrocytes: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Mayank; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Yamini B; Goel, R K; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Mallotus philippinensis is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used medicinal plant. Previous studies have highlighted their anticestodal, antibacterial, wound healing activities, and so forth. So, present investigation was designed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of 50% ethanol fruit glandular hair extract (MPE) and its role on Human Erythrocytes. MPE was tested for phytochemical test followed by its HPLC analysis. Standard antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide radical, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation assay were determined along with total phenolic and flavonoids content. Results showed that MPE contains the presence of various phytochemicals, with high total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound in a very rich quantity. MPE exhibits significant strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS assay. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration absorption compared to standard, Quercetin. Superoxide, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide assay showed a comparable scavenging activity compared to its standard. Our finding further provides evidence that Mallotus fruit extract is a potential natural source of antioxidants which have a protective role on human Erythrocytes exhibiting minimum hemolytic activity and this justified its uses in folklore medicines.

  5. Antioxidant Capacity and Radical Scavenging Effect of Polyphenol Rich Mallotus philippenensis Fruit Extract on Human Erythrocytes: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Gangwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mallotus philippinensis is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used medicinal plant. Previous studies have highlighted their anticestodal, antibacterial, wound healing activities, and so forth. So, present investigation was designed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of 50% ethanol fruit glandular hair extract (MPE and its role on Human Erythrocytes. MPE was tested for phytochemical test followed by its HPLC analysis. Standard antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide radical, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation assay were determined along with total phenolic and flavonoids content. Results showed that MPE contains the presence of various phytochemicals, with high total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound in a very rich quantity. MPE exhibits significant strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS assay. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration absorption compared to standard, Quercetin. Superoxide, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide assay showed a comparable scavenging activity compared to its standard. Our finding further provides evidence that Mallotus fruit extract is a potential natural source of antioxidants which have a protective role on human Erythrocytes exhibiting minimum hemolytic activity and this justified its uses in folklore medicines.

  6. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano 1968简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Chern; Foo; Fatimah; Md.Yusoff; Maznah; Ismail; Mahiran; Basri; Nicholas; Mun; Hoe; Khong; Kim; Wei; Chan; Sook; Kun; Yau

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the in vitro antioxidant capacity of a diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans(C. calcitrans) extracted using six types of solvents.Methods: Each extract was evaluated in terms of extraction yield, total carotenoid,fucoxanthin content, total phenolic and antioxidant capacities(DPPH and ABTS +scavenging activity and iron chelating activity).Results: The methanol extract exhibited the highest yield [(22.71 ± 0.96) g/100 g dry weight(DW)], total carotenoid [(4.46 ± 0.36) mg/g DW], total phenolic [(2.49 ± 0.08) mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW] and second highest fucoxanthin content [(2.08 ± 0.03) mg fucoxanthin/g DW] as compared to other solvent extracts. Methanolic extract also exhibited significantly higher(P < 0.05) scavenging(DPPH, ABTS +) and iron chelating activities.Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract from C. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities of C. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  7. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Bunschoten, Annelies; Dartel, van Dorien A.M.; Norren, van Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if

  8. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Bunschoten, Annelies; Dartel, van Dorien A.M.; Norren, van Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutri

  9. Supplementing oregano essential oil to boar diet with strengthened fish oil: Effects on semen antioxidant status and semen quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Duan, R J; Zhou, Y F; Wei, H K; Peng, J; Li, J L

    2017-02-22

    Previous research has shown benefits of dietary fish oil supplementation on semen quality of boars. However, little is known about how antioxidant protects lipid peroxidation on spermatozoa from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) addition. This study evaluated the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) supplementation on semen antioxidant status and semen quality in boars fed a diet enriched with fish oil. Thirty-four mature boars of proven fertility, received daily 2.5 kg basal diet top-dressed with 45 g soybean oil and 15 g fish oil to meet the n-3 PUFA requirement of spermatozoa, randomly allocated to one of four groups supplemented with 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) (control), or 250 or 500 or 750 mg OEO kg(-1) for 16 weeks. Semen was collected at weeks 0, 8, 12 and 16 for measurements of sperm production, motion characteristics, sperm α-tocopherol content, antioxidant enzyme activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG), lipoperoxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and seminal total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Sperm production and motion characteristics were similar (p > .05) among groups throughout the experimental week 16, but increased (p oil has a positive effect on antioxidant capacity in boar when used fish oil.

  10. Antioxidant capacity and chemical composition in seeds rich in omega-3: chia, flax, and perilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of five seeds, chia, golden flax, brown flax, white perilla, and brown perilla, were determined. The chemical properties analyzed included moisture, ash, crude protein, carbohydrates, total lipids, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS•+, DPPH•, and FRAP. The results showed the highest amounts of protein and total lipids in brown and white perilla. Perilla and chia showed higher amounts of alpha-linolenic fatty acid than those of flaxseed varieties, ranging between 531.44 mg g-1 of lipids in brown perilla, 539.07 mg g-1 of lipids in white perilla, and 544.85 mg g-1 of lipis in chia seed. The antioxidant capacity of the seeds, evaluated with ABTS•+, DPPH• , and FRAP methods, showed that brown perilla had greater antioxidant capacity when compared with white perilla, flax, and chia seeds.

  11. Antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using terpenes rich extract of Lantana camara L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Shriniwas P.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Several attempts have been made for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using different plant extracts. Present study revealed that, antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic AgNPs were synthesized using terpenes-rich extract (TRE of environmentally notorious Lantana camara L. leaves. AgNPs were characterized by advanced techniques like UV–Visible and Infra red spectroscopy; XRD, SEM techniques as terpenes coated sphere shaped NPs with average diameter 425 nm. Further, on evaluation, AgNPs were found to exhibit dose – dependent antioxidant potential, good to moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and toxicity on Brine shrimp (A. salinanauplii with LD50 value 514.50 µg/ml.

  12. Antioxidant capacity and chemical composition in seeds rich in omega-3: chia, flax, and perilla

    OpenAIRE

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi; Beatriz Costa Silva; Hevelyse Munise Celestino Santos; Paula Fernandes Montanher; Joana Schuelter Boeing; Oscar Oliveira Santos Júnior; Nilson Evelázio de Souza; Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of five seeds, chia, golden flax, brown flax, white perilla, and brown perilla, were determined. The chemical properties analyzed included moisture, ash, crude protein, carbohydrates, total lipids, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS•+, DPPH•, and FRAP). The results showed the highest amounts of protein and total lipids in brown and white perilla. Perilla and chia showed higher amounts of alpha-linolenic fatty acid than those of flaxse...

  13. Developmental programming of aortic and renal structure in offspring of rats fed fat-rich diets in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, James A.; Lakasing, Lorin; Taylor, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from human and animal studies suggests that maternal nutrition can induce developmental programming of adult hypertension in offspring. We have previously described a model of maternal dietary imbalance in Sprague-Dawley rats whereby administration of a maternal diet rich in animal lard...... weight, glomerular number or volume in OHF compared with OC, but renin and Na+,K+-ATPase activity were significantly reduced in OHF compared with controls. Programmed alterations to aortic structure and function are consistent with previous observations that exposure to maternal high fat diets produces...

  14. Neurochemical differences in learning and memory paradigms among rats supplemented with anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets and exposed to acute doses of 56Fe particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Bielinski, Donna F.; Kelly, Megan E.; Miller, Marshall G.; Thanthaeng, Nopporn; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to ;accelerated aging.; One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge particles (HZE), which are known to cause cognitive dysfunction and deleterious neurochemical alterations. We recently tested the behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute exposure to HZE particles such as 56Fe, within 24-48 h after exposure, and found that radiation primarily affects memory and not learning. Importantly, we observed that specific brain regions failed to upregulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in response to this insult. To further examine these endogenous response mechanisms, we have supplemented young rats with diets rich in BB, which are known to contain high amounts of antioxidant-phytochemicals, prior to irradiation. Exposure to 56Fe caused significant neurochemical changes in hippocampus and frontal cortex, the two critical regions of the brain involved in cognitive function. BB supplementation significantly attenuated protein carbonylation, which was significantly increased by exposure to 56Fe in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Moreover, BB supplementation significantly reduced radiation-induced elevations in NADPH-oxidoreductase-2 (NOX2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall results indicate that 56Fe particles may induce their toxic effects on hippocampus and frontal cortex by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overload, which can cause alterations in the neuronal environment, eventually leading to hippocampal neuronal death and subsequent impairment of cognitive function. Blueberry supplementation provides an effective preventative measure to reduce the ROS load on the CNS in an event of acute HZE exposure.

  15. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  16. Antioxidant catalase rescues against high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent regulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Shou, Xi-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Kang; Ren, Gu-Qun; Wang, Jian-Bang; Wang, Xi-Hui; Ai, Wen-Ting; Maris, Jackie R; Hueckstaedt, Lindsay K; Ma, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2015-02-01

    Autophagy, a conservative degradation process for long-lived and damaged proteins, participates in a variety of biological processes including obesity. However, the precise mechanism of action behind obesity-induced changes in autophagy still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the role of the antioxidant catalase in high fat diet-induced changes in cardiac geometry and function as well as the underlying mechanism of action involved with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of catalase were fed low or high fat diet for 20 weeks prior to assessment of myocardial geometry and function. High fat diet intake triggered obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, the effects of which were unaffected by catalase transgene. Myocardial geometry and function were compromised with fat diet intake as manifested by cardiac hypertrophy, enlarged left ventricular end systolic and diastolic diameters, fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte contractile capacity and intracellular Ca²⁺ mishandling, the effects of which were ameliorated by catalase. High fat diet intake promoted reactive oxygen species production and suppressed autophagy in the heart, the effects of which were attenuated by catalase. High fat diet intake dampened phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B kinase β(IKKβ), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) while promoting phosphorylation of mTOR, the effects of which were ablated by catalase. In vitro study revealed that palmitic acid compromised cardiomyocyte autophagy and contractile function in a manner reminiscent of fat diet intake, the effect of which was significantly alleviated by inhibition of IKKβ, activation of AMPK and induction of autophagy. Taken together, our data revealed that the antioxidant catalase counteracts against high fat diet-induced cardiac geometric and functional anomalies possibly via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent restoration of myocardial

  17. Oxidative stress, circulating antioxidants, and dietary preferences in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Rebecca R; McWilliams, Scott R

    2013-03-01

    Oxidative stress is an unavoidable consequence of metabolism and increases during intensive exercise. This is especially problematic for migratory birds that metabolize fat to fuel long-distance flight. Birds can mitigate damage by increasing endogenous antioxidants (e.g. uric acid) or by consuming dietary antioxidants (e.g. tocopherol). During flight, birds may increase protein catabolism of lean tissue which may increase circulating uric acid and many birds also consume an antioxidant-rich frugivorous diet during autumn migration. We evaluated three related hypotheses in a migratory passerine: (1) protein consumption is positively related to circulating antioxidants, (2) a dietary oxidative stressor [i.e. polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)] influences antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage, and (3) oxidative stress influences dietary antioxidant preferences. White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) consuming a high protein diet increased circulating uric acid; however, uric acid, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress did not differ between birds consuming a high PUFA versus a low PUFA diet, despite increased oxidative damage in high PUFA birds. Birds did not prefer antioxidant-rich diets even when fed high PUFA, low protein. We conclude that White-throated Sparrows successfully mitigated oxidative damage associated with a high PUFA diet and mounted an endogenous antioxidant response independent of uric acid, other circulating antioxidants, and dietary antioxidants.

  18. Fat utilization during exercise: adaptation to a fat-rich diet increases utilization of plasma fatty acids and very low density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Boolsen, Merete Watt; Richter, E A

    2001-01-01

    % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected...... the fat-rich diet. Whole-body plasma FA oxidation (determined by comparison of (13)CO(2) production and blood palmitate labelling) was 55-65 % of total lipid oxidation, and was higher after the fat-rich diet than after the carbohydrate-rich diet (13.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 8.9 +/- 1.1 micromol min(-1) kg(-1); P

  19. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Sahana, Chinthapatla; Zehra, Amtul; Madhusudana, Kuncha; Kumar, Domati Anand; Agawane, Sachin Bharat

    2013-10-01

    Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD), a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek) raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb)-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs) were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2'- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs) and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, nitro blue tetrazolium

  20. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD, a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. Objectives: The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Results: Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2′- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1

  1. Effect of methoxychlor on the antioxidant system in mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchoumycandane, C; Mathur, P P

    2002-07-01

    Methoxychlor, an environmental contaminant, which is widely used as a pesticide in many countries, has been shown to induce reproductive abnormalities in male rats. The precise nature and mechanism of action of methoxychlor on the male reproductive system is not clear. In the present study, we have sought to investigate the induction of oxidative stress in the testis of rat after exposure to methoxychlor. Methoxychlor (1, 10, and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight per day) was administered orally to the rats for 45 days. After 24 h of the last treatment the animals were killed using anesthetic ether. The body weight of the animals administered with methoxychlor did not show any significant change. The weights of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate decreased significantly in 100 mg dose but remained unchanged in 1 and 10 mg doses. Mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of the testis were obtained by the method of differential centrifugation. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase decreased significantly in the animals treated with methoxychlor in a dose-dependent manner in the mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of rat testis. The levels of hydrogen peroxide generation (H(2)O(2)) and lipid peroxidation increased in mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of the testis of the rats treated with methoxychlor. The results suggested that the low to medium doses of methoxychlor elicit depletion of antioxidant enzymes and concomitant increase in the levels of H(2)O(2) and lipid peroxidation differentially in mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of rat testis. In conclusion, the adverse effect of methoxychlor on male reproduction could be due to the induction of oxidative stress in testis.

  2. Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R S; Surya, D; Nalini, N

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation, enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in rats fed a high-fat diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (95-115 g) were divided into 5 groups. They were fed standard pellet diet, high-fat diet (20% coconut oil, 2% cholesterol and 0.125% bile salts), high-fat diet plus black pepper (0.25 g or 0.5 g/kg body weight), high-fat diet plus piperine (0.02 g/kg body weight) for a period of 10 weeks. Significantly elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly lowered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver, heart, kidney, intestine and aorta were observed in rats fed the high fat diet as compared to the control rats. Simultaneous supplementation with black pepper or piperine lowered TBARS and CD levels and maintained SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH levels to near those of control rats. The data indicate that supplementation with black pepper or the active principle of black pepper, piperine, can reduce high-fat diet induced oxidative stress to the cells.

  3. Effects of xanthohumol-rich extract from the hop on fatty acid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Kazuki; Kiyofuji, Ayane; Osada, Kyoichi

    2014-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the major prenylated flavonoid of female inflorescences of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) and is a hydrophobic flavonoid. We examined the effects of dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract in obese rats that was induced by feeding a high-fat diet. Dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract significantly lowered the body weight gain of these rats compared to rats fed a high-fat diet without the extract. The increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol levels in the plasma and liver of the rats fed a high-fat diet was ameliorated by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract tended to reduce hepatic fatty acid synthesis through the reduction of hepatic SREBP1c mRNA expression in the rats fed a high-fat diet. The excreted of triacylglycerol into feces also was promoted by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Plasma adiponectin levels in the rats fed a high-fat diet also tended to be elevated by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Thus, xanthohumol-rich hop extract may inhibit the increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol in the plasma and liver induced by feeding high-fat diet through the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism and inhibition of intestinal fat absorption. Therefore, xanthohumol-rich hop extract may exert preventive function on the increase of body weight and tissue triacylglycerol levels by overnutrition.

  4. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Castellano

    Full Text Available Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL or a deficient methionine supply (MD during 10 days (n=6 per group. At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently

  5. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  6. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of Hydroxyethyl Methylcellulose (HEMC) and Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC) in mice fed with a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Su Jeong; Rico, Catherine W; Um, In Chul; Kang, Mi Young

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary feeding of hydroxyethyl methylcellulose (HEMC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative status in mice under high fat diet conditions was investigated. The mice were randomly divided and given experimental diets for six weeks: normal control (NC group), high fat (HF group), and high fat supplemented with either HEMC (HF+HEMC group) or HPMC (HF+HPMC group). At the end of the experimental period, the HF group exhibited markedly higher blood glucose and insulin levels as well as a higher erythrocyte lipid peroxidation rate relative to the control group. However, diet supplementation of HEMC and HPMC was found to counteract the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of antioxidant and hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities. These findings illustrate that HEMC and HPMC were similarly effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense system in high fat-fed mice and they may be beneficial as functional biomaterials in the development of therapeutic agents against high fat dietinduced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.

  7. Effects of diets based on foods from conventional versus organic production on intake and excretion of flavonoids and markers of antioxidative defense in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinder-Pedersen, Lisbeth; Rasmussen, Salka E.; Bügel, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    Different food production methods may result in differences in the content of secondary metabolites such as polyphenolic compounds. The present study compared conventionally (CPD) and organically produced (OPD) diets in a human crossover intervention study (n = 16) with respect to the intake...... both interventions. Most markers of antioxidative defense did not differ between the diets, but intake of OPD resulted in an increased protein oxidation and a decreased total plasma antioxidant capacity compared to baseline (P

  8. Evolution of dietary antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzie, Iris F F

    2003-09-01

    Oxygen is vital for most organisms but, paradoxically, damages key biological sites. Oxygenic threat is met by antioxidants that evolved in parallel with our oxygenic atmosphere. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidants) produced during photosynthesis. The human body is exposed to these same oxidants, and we have also evolved an effective antioxidant system. However, this is not infallible. ROS breach defences, oxidative damage ensues, accumulates with age, and causes a variety of pathological changes. Plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods traditionally formed the major part of the human diet, and plant-based dietary antioxidants are hypothesized to have an important role in maintaining human health. This hypothesis is logical in evolutionary terms, especially when we consider the relatively hypoxic environment in which humans may have evolved. In this paper, the human diet is discussed briefly in terms of its evolutionary development, different strategies of antioxidant defence are outlined, and evolution of dietary antioxidants is discussed from the perspectives of plant need and our current dietary requirements. Finally, possibilities in regard to dietary antioxidants, evolution, and human health are presented, and an evolutionary cost-benefit analysis is presented in relation to why we lost the ability to make ascorbic acid (vitamin C) although we retained an absolute requirement for it.

  9. Safety Evaluation, in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity of the Flavonoid-Rich Extract from Maydis stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Zheng Peng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity and safety of flavonoid-rich extract from Maydis stigma (FMS in mice. The in vitro antioxidant activity of FMS was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS scavenging assays. Furthermore, the in vivo antioxidant of FMS against ethanol-induced oxidative damage in mice was determined by analysis of the serum total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA content, liver tissue glutathione (GSH content, and protein carbonyl (PC content in liver tissue. The oral administration of FMS at doses of 30 g/kg did not cause death in mice, and there were no significant biologically adverse effects in mice. These results indicated that the median lethal dose (LD50 is higher than this dose. The IC50 values of FMS for the DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity were 50.73 and 0.23 mg/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, FMS could significantly enhance T-SOD activity, reduce MDA content in the serum, increase GSH content, and decrease PC content in the liver tissue at the tested doses (25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg·day. These results indicate that FMS can be generally regarded as safe and used potentially as a bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  10. Tryptophan rich diet as a new approach to study the serotoninergic enteropancreatic axis.

    OpenAIRE

    Goke, B.; Richter, G; Keim, V; Arnold, R

    1987-01-01

    The influence of a tryptophan enriched diet (L-tryptophan added as 1% of total diet), fed over 10 days, on the rat duodenum and pancreas was studied by immunohistology, measurements of serotonin and tryptophan tissue concentrations by HPLC, and incubations of pancreatic lobules. Ingestion of a tryptophan enriched diet resulted in increased contents of tryptophan and serotonin in the duodenum that was not accompanied by a significant change of the serotonin cell density. Neither basal nor CCK-...

  11. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenotypes, antioxidant responses, and gene expression changes accompanying a sugar-only diet in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Er-Hu; Hou, Qiu-Li; Wei, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-08-17

    Diet composition (yeast:carbohydrate ratio) is an important determinant of growth, development, and reproduction. Recent studies have shown that decreased yeast intake elicits numerous transcriptomic changes and enhances somatic maintenance and lifespan, which in turn reduces reproduction in various insects. However, our understanding of the responses leading to a decrease in yeast ratio to 0% is limited. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a sugar-only diet (SD) on the gene expression patterns of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most economically important pests in the family Tephritidae. RNA sequencing analyses showed that flies reared on an SD induced significant changes in the expression levels of genes associated with specific metabolic as well as cell growth and death pathways. Moreover, the observed upregulated genes in energy production and downregulated genes associated with reproduction suggested that SD affects somatic maintenance and reproduction in B. dorsalis. As expected, we observed that SD altered B. dorsalis phenotypes by significantly increasing stress (starvation and desiccation) resistance, decreasing reproduction, but did not extend lifespan compared to those that received a normal diet (ND) regime. In addition, administration of an SD resulted in a reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities and an increase in MDA concentrations, thereby suggesting that antioxidants cannot keep up with the increase in oxidative damage induced by SD regime. The application of an SD diet induces changes in phenotypes, antioxidant responses, and gene expressions in B. dorsalis. Previous studies have associated extended lifespan with reduced fecundity. The current study did not observe a prolongation of lifespan in B. dorsalis, which instead incurred oxidative damage. The findings of the present study improve our understanding of the molecular, biochemical, and phenotypic response of B. dorsalis to an SD diet.

  13. Supplementation of the diet of dairy cows with trehalose results in milk with low lipid peroxide and high antioxidant content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, N; Furukawa, S; Sato, K; Kurokawa, Y; Kanda, S; Takahashi, Y; Mitsuzumi, H; Itabashi, H

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with the disaccharides trehalose and cellobiose on antioxidant activity in rumen fluid, blood, and milk of dairy cows. Nine Holstein dairy cows housed in a free-stall barn were divided into 3 groups, with each group receiving a different dietary treatment (a control diet, a 1% trehalose-supplemented diet, or a 1% cellobiose-supplemented diet) following a 3x3 Latin square design. Feed intake and milk production increased in cows receiving the trehalose-supplemented diet compared with those receiving the control and cellobiose-supplemented diets. The total protozoa numbers in the rumen fluid of cows fed trehalose- or cellobiose-supplemented diets were greater than those of the control group. The C18:0 and C18:1 fatty acid content was increased in the milk of cows fed the trehalose-supplemented diet compared with that of the control group, and the C18:3n-3 fatty acid content in the milk of cows fed the cellobiose-supplemented diet was less than that of the control group. Plasma biochemical parameters were unchanged among the different treatments. In rumen fluid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase activity were increased 2h after feeding in cows receiving the cellobiose-supplemented diet compared with the control group, and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the rumen fluid of cows fed the cellobiose-supplemented diet was decreased. In contrast, the values of these parameters measured in the milk of cows fed the cellobiose-supplemented diet were no different from those of control cows. Dietary supplementation with trehalose did, however, bring about an improvement of the oxidative status of milk and blood in these animals compared with controls. These results provide the first evidence supporting the use of dietary disaccharides to decrease lipid peroxide levels and increase the antioxidant content of dairy

  14. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Gori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cistus incanus (Cistaceae is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction, AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions, were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2. These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations.

  15. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Antonella; Ferrini, Francesco; Marzano, Maria Cristina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Centritto, Mauro; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Brunetti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Cistus incanus (Cistaceae) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus) is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE) of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction), AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions), were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2). These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:27548139

  16. Beta-Glucan-Rich Extract from Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Singer Prevents Obesity and Oxidative Stress in C57BL/6J Mice Fed on a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kanagasabapathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been used in folk medicine for thousands of years. In this study, the effect of β-glucan-rich extract of P. sajor-caju (GE on lipid lowering and antioxidant potential was assessed in C57BL/6J mice fed on a high-fat diet. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J mice by feeding a high-fat diet. The control groups in this study were ND (for normal diet and HFD (for high-fat diet. The treated groups were ND240 (for normal diet (240 mg/kg b.w and HFD60, HFD120, and HFD240 (for high-fat diet, where the mice were administrated with three dosages of GE (60, 120, and 240 mg GE/kg b.w. Metformin (2 mg/kg b.w served as positive control. GE-treated groups showed significantly reduced body weight, serum lipid, and liver enzymes levels. GE also attenuated protein carbonyl and lipid hydroperoxide levels by increasing the enzymic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, and GPx activities in the mice. GE-treated groups induced the expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL while downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ, sterol regulatory binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c, and lipoprotein lipase (LPL. Hence, GE prevented weight gain in the mice by inducing lipolysis and may be valuable in the formulation of adjuvant therapy for obesity.

  17. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Environmental and lifestyle factors are known to play an important role during gestation, determining newborns’ health status and influencing their risk of being subject to certain noncommunicable diseases later in life. In particular, maternal nutritional patterns characterized by a low intake of plant-derived foods could increase the risk of gestation-related issues, such as preeclampsia and pregravid obesity, increase genotoxicant susceptibility, and contribute to the onset of pediatric diseases. In particular, the risk of pediatric wheeze, diabetes, neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and some pediatric tumors seems to be reduced by maternal intake of adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, and selected antioxidants. Nevertheless, plant-based diets, like any other diet, if improperly balanced, could be deficient in some specific nutrients that are particularly relevant during gestation, such as n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids, vitamin B-12, iron, zinc, and iodine, possibly affecting the offspring’s health state. Here we review the scientific literature in this field, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, and highlight protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible issues related to maternal plant-based diets. PMID:26374180

  18. A mineral and antioxidant-rich extract from the red marine Algae Alsidium corallinum exhibits cytoprotective effects against potassium bromate-induced erythrocyte oxidative damages in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Hajer; Nasri, Imen; Elwej, Awatef; Krayem, Najeh; Jarraya, Raoudha; Kallel, Choumous; Zeghal, Najiba; Amara, Ibtissem Ben

    2014-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate potassium bromate toxicity in mice and the corrective effects of marine algae Alsidium corallinum. The red algae demonstrated its rich composition in phenols, triterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, tropolones, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc. To confirm its antioxidant potential, an in vivo study was performed on adult mice. The animals were divided into four groups: group I were used as controls, group II received potassium bromate (0.5 g/L) via drinking water, group III received potassium bromate (0.5 g/L) by the same route as group II and 7% of A. corallinum ethanolic extract via their diet, and group IV received only 7% of algae. The potassium bromate-treated group showed a significant decrease in erythrocyte, platelet, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values and a significant increase in total white blood cells, compared to those of controls. While, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and vitamin C values were decreased by potassium bromate treatment, lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte osmotic fragility values were increased. Interestingly, potassium bromate treatment showed significant genotoxic effects, as demonstrated by DNA degradation. These changes were confirmed by blood smears histopathological observations which were marked by a necrosis and a decrease of erythrocytes number. A. corallinum extract appeared to be effective against hematotoxic and genotoxic changes induced by potassium bromate, as evidenced by the improvement of the parameters cited above.

  19. Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Tomczak, Anna; Erler, Joachim; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the anti-platelet action of extracts from three different plants: bark of Yucca schidigera, seeds of grape and berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry). Anti-platelet action of tested extracts was compared with action of well characterized antioxidative and anti-platelet commercial monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol. The effects of extracts on platelet adhesion to collagen, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and on the production of O2-* in resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong platelet agonist-thrombin were studied. The in vitro experiments have shown that all three tested extracts (5-50 microg/ml) rich in polyphenols reduce platelet adhesion, aggregation and generation of O2-* in blood platelets. Comparative studies indicate that all three plant extracts were found to be more reactive in reduction of platelet processes than the solution of pure resveratrol. The tested extracts due to their anti-platelet effects may play an important role as components of human diet in prevention of cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases, where blood platelets are involved.

  20. A lard-rich high-fat diet increases hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in endotoxemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Motoki; Miyoshi, Makoto; Fujiwara, Mayu; Nishiyama, Yuya; Inoue, Taketo; Maeshige, Noriaki; Hamada, Yasuhiro; Usami, Makoto

    2017-05-15

    Diets high in saturated fatty acids activate chronic inflammation. We previously reported that, in even acute inflammation caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), liver injury was exacerbated in rats fed a lard-rich diet. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are related to inflammation and are also key regulators of lipid metabolism. In this study, we examined effects of high-fat diet on liver injury and hepatic lipid metabolism during endotoxemia, measuring hepatic PPARs and other markers. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 60 kcal% fat) or control diet (CD, 10 kcal% fat) for 4 or 12 wk, injected with LPS and sacrificed at 0, 1.5, or 6 h. Analyses included plasma aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of hepatic PPARα and PPARγ, and mRNA levels of enzymes related to fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. Endotoxemic rats on HFD for 12 wk, but not 4 wk, had higher mRNA and protein levels for hepatic PPARs, than did those on CD (P PPARα and PPARγ expression in endotoxemic rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cocoa-rich diet ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance by modulating insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Martín, María Ángeles; Escrivá, Fernando; Álvarez, Carmen; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    Insulin resistance is the primary characteristic of type 2 diabetes and results from insulin signaling defects. Cocoa has been shown to exert anti-diabetic effects by lowering glucose levels. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this preventive activity and whether cocoa exerts potential beneficial effects on the insulin signaling pathway in the liver remain largely unknown. Thus, in this study, the potential anti-diabetic properties of cocoa on glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling were evaluated in type 2 diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Male ZDF rats were fed a control or cocoa-rich diet (10%), and Zucker lean animals received the control diet. ZDF rats supplemented with cocoa (ZDF-Co) showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, glucose and insulin levels, as well as an improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Cocoa-rich diet further ameliorated the hepatic insulin resistance by abolishing the increased serine-phosphorylated levels of the insulin receptor substrate 1 and preventing the inactivation of the glycogen synthase kinase 3/glycogen synthase pathway in the liver of cocoa-fed ZDF rats. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of cocoa appeared to be at least mediated through the decreased levels of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and increased values of glucokinase and glucose transporter 2 in the liver of ZDF-Co rats. Moreover, cocoa-rich diet suppressed c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 activation caused by insulin resistance. These findings suggest that cocoa has the potential to alleviate both hyperglycemia and hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic ZDF rats.

  2. Antioxidant effect of Triticum aestivium (wheat grass) in high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, J; Yadav, M; Dahiya, K; Sood, S; Singh, V; Bhattacharya, S B

    2010-05-01

    Wheat grass is used as a general health tonic and is reported to be effective against several medical disorders, although detailed literature is not available. Besides drug therapy, a number of medicinal plants are effective in treating hyperlipidemia. This study examined the effects of wheat grass on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits. Thirty rabbits were divided into 3 groups of 10 rabbits each, group I receiving a control diet, group II a high-fat diet and group III a high-fat diet together with wheat grass over a period of 10 weeks. Fasting serum samples from the animals were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C, and the results were compared. The high-fat diet resulted in hyperlipidemia and an increase in oxidative stress, indicated by a significant rise in MDA levels, whereas antioxidant levels of GSH and vitamin C were significantly reduced. Wheat grass supplementation with a high-fat diet resulted in improved lipid levels (decreased total cholesterol and increased HDL-C) together with significantly reduced MDA levels and increased GSH and vitamin C levels. These results indicate the beneficial role of wheat grass in ameliorating hyperlipidemia and the associated oxidative stress. Copyright 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids Isolated From the Fruits of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich. Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AT Tchinda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the antioxidant activity of the different flavonoids of the fruits of Xylopia parviflora used in Cameroon as spice in common traditional dishes. The fruits were successively extracted with hexane and methanol. The isolation of flavonoids was guided by the DPPH-TLC technique. The methanol crude extract and isolated compounds were screened for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities using DPPH radical-scavenging, β-carotene/linoleic acid and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The total phenolic content of the methanol crude extract was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method. The DPPH-TLC technique led to the isolation of (+-catechin (1, kaempferol 3-O-arabinofuranoside (2 and quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside (3 identified by NMR and mass spectra analysis. In the colorimetric DPPH test, compound 1 had the same activity (EC50 8.1µg/ml as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT used as standard while compound 3 and the methanol crude extract were less active (EC50 17.2µg/ml. Compound 2 was completely inactive. The total phenolic content of the fruit extracts was 113.03 mg gallic acid equivalents per g of extract. In the carotene bleaching test at the highest concentration of 100µg/mL, the order of inhibition of β-carotene discoloration was BHT > crude extract > quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside (3 > catechin (1 > kaempferol 3-O- arabinofuranoside (2. In the reducing power assay, compound 3 was more active at concentrations 40-100µg/mL. The HPLC analysis of the methanol crude extract revealed the presence of compounds 1-3 and unidentified phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract is probably due to the presence of compounds 1 and 3.

  4. Plasma Alkylresorcinols Reflect Gluten Intake and Distinguish between Gluten-Rich and Gluten-Poor Diets in a Population at Risk of Metabolic Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vendelbo Lind, Mads; Madsen, M. L; Rumessen, J. J; Vestergaard, H; Gabel, R. J; Hansen, T; Lauritzen, L; Pedersen, O. B; Kristensen, M; Ross, Alastair

    2016-01-01

    .... Methods: In this randomized, controlled, crossover intervention study in 52 Danish adults with features of the metabolic syndrome, we compared 8 wk of a gluten-rich and gluten-poor diet separated by a washout period of wk...

  5. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices.

  6. Gender-dimorphic regulation of antioxidant proteins in response to high-fat diet and sex steroid hormones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, H N; Kim, S W; Yun, J W

    2014-05-01

    Despite the fact that gender dimorphism in diet-induced oxidative stress is associated with steroid sex hormones, there are some contradictory results concerning roles of steroid hormones in gender dimorphism. To evaluate the role of gender dimorphism as well as the effects of sex steroid hormones in response to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced oxidative stress, we measured cellular levels of major antioxidant proteins in the liver, abdominal white adipose tissue, and skeletal muscles of Sprague-Dawley rats following HFD or sex hormone treatment using Western blot analysis. Animal experiments revealed that 17β-estradiol, (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) negatively and positively affected body weight gain, respectively. Interestingly, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in both E2- and DHT-treated rats. We also observed that cellular levels of classical antioxidant proteins, including catalase, glutathion peroxidase, peroxiredoxin, superoxide dismutase, and thioredoxin, were differentially regulated hormone- and gender-dependent manner in various metabolic tissues. In addition, tissue-specific expression of DJ-1 protein with respect to HFD-induced oxidative stress in association with sex steroid hormone treatment was observed for the first time. Taken together, our data show that females were more capable at overcoming oxidative stress than males through feasible expression of antioxidant proteins in metabolic tissues. Although the exact regulatory mechanism of sex hormones in diet-induced oxidative stress could not be fully elucidated, the current data will provide clues regarding the tissue-specific roles of antioxidant proteins during HFD-induced oxidative stress in association with sex steroid hormones.

  7. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar

    2008-01-01

    fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...

  8. Impact of olive oil-rich diet on serum omentin and adiponectin levels: a randomized cross-over clinical trial among overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Akram; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of olive oil-rich diet on omentin and adiponectin concentrations. This cross-over randomized trial included 17 overweight women. Participants were assigned to consume either a usual (16% saturated fatty acids [SFA] and 8% monounsaturated fatty acid [MUFA]) or an olive oil-rich diet (16% MUFA and 8% SFA) for 6 weeks crossing over after a 2-week washout period. There was no significant difference in the changes of omentin between two dietary interventions. However, in the adjusted model for polyunsaturated fatty acids and fat mass, usual diet tended to decrease omentin levels whilst olive oil-rich diet tended to increase (-56.1 ± 32.0 versus 40.6 ± 32.0 ng/mL; p = .056). Adiponectin levels increased during two periods, but changes were greater during olive oil-rich diet with a trend toward significance (4.8 ± 3.0 versus 13.4 ± 3.0 μg/mL; p = .06). Consumption of olive oil-rich diet tended to increase omentin and adiponectin in comparison with the usual diet.

  9. Honey bee diet in intensive farmland habitats reveals an unexpectedly high flower richness and a major role of weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requier, Fabrice; Odoux, Jean-François; Tamic, Thierry; Moreau, Nathalie; Henry, Mickaël; Decourtye, Axel; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    In intensive farmland habitats, pollination of wild flowers and crops may be threatened by the widespread decline of pollinators. The honey bee decline, in particular, appears to result from the combination of multiple stresses, including diseases, pathogens, and pesticides. The reduction of semi-natural habitats is also suspected to entail floral resource scarcity for bees. Yet, the seasonal dynamics and composition of the honey bee diet remains poorly documented to date. In this study, we studied the seasonal contribution of mass-flowering crops (rapeseed and sunflower) vs. other floral resources, as well as the influence of nutritional quality and landscape composition on pollen diet composition over five consecutive years. From April to October, the mass of pollen and nectar collected by honey bees followed a bimodal seasonal trend, marked by a two-month period of low food supply between the two oilseed crop mass-flowerings (ending in May for rapeseed and July for sunflower). Bees collected nectar mainly from crops while pollen came from a wide diversity of herbaceous and woody plant species in semi-natural habitats or from weeds in crops. Weed species constituted the bulk of the honey bee diet between the mass flowering crop periods (up to 40%) and are therefore suspected to play a critical role at this time period. The pollen diet composition was related to the nutritional value of the collected pollen and by the local landscape composition. Our study highlights (1) a food supply depletion period of both pollen and nectar resources during late spring, contemporaneously with the demographic peak of honey bee populations, (2) a high botanical richness of pollen diet, mostly proceeding from trees and weeds, and (3) a pollen diet composition influenced by the local landscape composition. Our results therefore support the Agri-Environmental Schemes intended to promote honey bees and beekeeping sustainability through the enhancement of flower availability in

  10. Influence of fructose and fatty-rich diet combined with vanadium on bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krośniak, Mirosław; Papież, Monika A; Kaczmarczyk, Joanna; Francik, Renata; Panza, Maria G; Covelli, Vincenzo; Gryboś, Ryszrad

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of diet treatment on bone marrow cells. Normal male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 6 per group): control with normal diet (C), increased fructose (31 % w/w in fodder) (Fr) and high fatty (30 % w/w of animal fat in fodder) diet (Fa), and the same diets with vanadium complex ([VO(4,4' Me2-2,2' Bpy)2]SO4) · H2O (CV, FrV and FaV). During 5 weeks, the animals had unlimited access to food and water. Immediately after anaesthetizing and sacrificing the animals, bone marrow smears were prepared from the femurs. Different types of cell lines in the animal smears were examined under the microscope: erythroid line, myeloid line, monocytic line, megakariocytic line and lymphoid line. Addition of fructose or animal fat had evident influence on the proportional composition of the bone marrow cells. In erythroid precursors, addition of both investigated products resulted in a statistically significant increase of percentage of this type of cells. A reverse effect was observed for the lymphoid cell line where addition of both tested diets decreased quantity of these cells in comparison to the control diet. In the same lines, addition of vanadium intensified the observed changes. In the case of other types of cell lines, statistically significant changes were not observed.

  11. Moringa oleifera-rich diet and T-cell calcium signaling in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attakpa, E S; Chabi, N W; Bertin, G A; Ategbo, J-M; Seri, B; Khan, N A

    2017-04-12

    Moringa oleifera is a plant whose fruits, roots and leaves have been advocated for traditional medicinal uses. The physico-chemical analysis shows that, Moringa contains more dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than saturated fatty acids (SFA). The consumption of an experimental diet enriched with Moringa oleifera extracts lowered blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats as compared to rats fed an unsupplemented control diet. Anti-CD3-stimulated T-cell proliferation was diminished in both strains of rats fed the Moringa oleifera. The experimental diet lowered secretion of interleukin-2 in SHR, but not in WKY rats compared with rats fed the control diet. Studies of platelets from patients with primary hypertension and from SHR support the notion that the concentration of intracellular free calcium [Ca(2+)]i is modified in both clinical and experimental hypertension. We observed that the basal, [Ca(2+)]i was lower in T cells of SHR than in those of WKY rats fed the control diet. Feeding the diet with Moringa oleifera extracts to WKY rats did not alter basal [Ca(2+)]i in T cells but increased basal [Ca(2+)]i in SHR. Our study clearly demonstrated that Moringa oleifera exerts antihypertensive effects by inhibiting the secretion of IL-2 and modulates T-cell calcium signaling in hypertensive rats.

  12. Monascin improves diabetes and dyslipidemia by regulating PPARγ and inhibiting lipogenesis in fructose-rich diet-induced C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Huang, Tao; Chang, Yu-Yin; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Monascin (MS) is a yellow compound isolated from Monascus-fermented products that has pancreatic protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and hypolipidemic activity. We recently found that MS also acts as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist, thereby promoting insulin sensitivity in C2C12 cells. However, the attenuation of hyperglycemia by MS treatment in vivo remains uncertain. In the present study, both MS and pioglitazone significantly down-regulated blood glucose and hyperinsulinemia in fructose-rich diet (FRD)-induced C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks). In addition, inhibitions of inflammatory factor production, serum dyslipidemia, and hepatic fatty acid accumulation by MS and pioglitazone were attenuated by GW9662 (PPARγ antagonist). These results were mediated by MS-suppressing FRD-elevated lipogenic transcription factors, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and PPARγ coactivator-1β (PGC-1β). Taken together, de novo lipogenesis results in hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia by fructose induction thereby leading to diabetes development; we found that MS may inhibit lipogenesis in FRD-induced mice. These findings suggest that MS acts as an antidiabetic agent and thus may have therapeutic potential for prevention of diabetes.

  13. Iridoid enriched fraction from Ajuga iva reduce cholesterolemia, triacylglycerolemia and increase the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet

    OpenAIRE

    Marie A. Lacaille-Dubois; Josiane Prost; Sherazede Bouderbala; Malika Bouchenak

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the effect of iridoid (I) derived from lyophilized aqueous extract of Ajuga iva on serum HDL2 and HDL3 compositions and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, enzyme responsible for reverse cholesterol transport. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n=24) weighing 120±5 g were fed a diet containing 1% cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. After this phase, the hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats were divided into groups fed the same diet and received or...

  14. Clinical evaluation of an antiinflammatory and antioxidant diet effect in 30 dogs affected by chronic otitis externa: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Centenaro, Sara; Beribè, Francesca; Laus, Fulvio; Cerquetella, Matteo; Spaterna, Andrea; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Canello, Sergio; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this evaluation study was to assess the possible role of a specific nutraceutical diet in relieving main clinical symptoms of chronic bilateral otitis externa (occlusion of ear canal, erythema, discharge quantity, and odor) in 30 adult dogs. Thirty dogs of different breeds (mean age ± SEM; 6.03 ± 0.15 years and mean weight ± SEM; 32.01 ± 1.17 Kg; 53.3% males, 46.6% females) with evident chronic clinical otitis symptoms were equally divided and randomly assigned to receive either the nutraceutical diet (ND group) or a standard diet (SD group) over a period of 90 days. In all cases a topical pharmacological treatment was given. The nutraceutical diet, also endowed with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, significantly decreased the mean score intensity of all symptoms after 90 days of intervention (P otitis externa-related symptoms. This study opens new insights into otitis externa clinical management providing evidence of efficacy of a combined therapy with drugs and a specific nutraceutical diet.

  15. Consumption of a Diet Rich in Cottonseed Oil (CSO Lowers Total and LDL Cholesterol in Normo-Cholesterolemic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E. Davis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal data indicates that dietary cottonseed oil (CSO may lower cholesterol; however, the effects of a CSO-rich diet have not been evaluated in humans. Thirty-eight healthy adults (aged 18–40; 12 males, 26 females consumed a CSO rich diet (95 g CSO daily for one week. Anthropometric measurements were obtained, and blood was drawn pre- and post-intervention. Serum lipids (total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG, and free fatty acids (FFA were assayed. There was no change in weight or waist circumference among participants. There was no change in HDL (Pre: 1.27 ± 0.4 mmol/L; Post: 1.21 ± 0.3 mmol/L or TG (Pre: 0.91 ± 0.6 mmol/L; Post: 1.06 ± 1.0 mmol/L. Total cholesterol and LDL were reduced (TC Pre: 4.39 ± 0.9 mmol/L; Post: 4.16 ± 0.8 mmol/L; LDL Pre: 2.70 ± 0.8 mmol/L; Post: 2.47 ± 0.6 mmol/L. When data were grouped by sex, total cholesterol was reduced in female participants (Pre: 4.34 ± 0.9 mmol/L; Post: 4.09 ± 0.8 mmol/L. Consumption of a high fat, CSO-rich diet for one week reduced total cholesterol in female participants without reducing HDL.

  16. Effects of Resistant Starch and Arabinoxylan on Parameters Related to Large Intestinal and Metabolic Health in Pigs Fed Fat-Rich Diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Theil, Peter Kappel; Purup, Stig;

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of a resistant starch (RS)-rich, arabinoxylan (AX)-rich, or low-DF Western-style control diet (all high-fat) on large intestinal gene expression, adiposity, and glycemic response parameters in pigs. Animals were slaughtered after 3 weeks of treatment. Plasma butyra...

  17. Modulatory role of chelating agents in diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Mahmoud

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pretreatment of hypercholesterolemic rats with simvastatin, CaNa2EDTA or DMSA attenuated most of the changes induced by feeding rats with cholesterol-rich diet owing to their observed anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties.

  18. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Tamaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  19. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Orihuela-Campos, Rita Cristina; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-O

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  20. Nutritional Programming of Lifespan by FOXO Inhibition on Sugar-Rich Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Dobson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of unhealthy diets is exacerbating the burden of age-related ill health in aging populations. Such diets can program mammalian physiology to cause long-term, detrimental effects. Here, we show that, in Drosophila melanogaster, an unhealthy, high-sugar diet in early adulthood programs lifespan to curtail later-life survival despite subsequent dietary improvement. Excess dietary sugar promotes insulin-like signaling, inhibits dFOXO—the Drosophila homolog of forkhead box O (FOXO transcription factors—and represses expression of dFOXO target genes encoding epigenetic regulators. Crucially, dfoxo is required both for transcriptional changes that mark the fly’s dietary history and for nutritional programming of lifespan by excess dietary sugar, and this mechanism is conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our study implicates FOXO factors, the evolutionarily conserved determinants of animal longevity, in the mechanisms of nutritional programming of animal lifespan.

  1. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes Leaves in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Liu, Haifeng; Meng, Ning; Li, Bin; Wang, Jule

    2017-03-01

    Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes (MT) leaves are traditionally used as a medicine for treating or preventing cardiovascular disease in Tibet. In addition to the effect of this medicinal plant on thrombosis, we tested its effect on dyslipidemia in a hypolipidemic rat model. A total of 60 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups, as follows: normal control, model control, simvastatin groups, and MT low-, medium-, and high-dose groups. The normal controls were fed with a normal diet, whereas all other groups were fed with a high-fat diet. After 6 weeks, the high-fat diet had induced hyperlipidemia in the rats, which were then orally administered with different doses of MT leaf extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) for an additional 6 weeks. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and HDL-c, respectively), as well as the antioxidant capacity of glutathione peroxidase (GSHP-x), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured at the end of the study. MT significantly reduced serum TC, TG, and LDL-c and increased the HDL-c content in MT-treated rats compared with the model group. These changes were dose dependent. MT treatment also significantly elevated the activity of SOD and GSHP-x, and decreased the serum levels of MDA compared with untreated hyperlipidemic rats, thereby increasing serum antioxidant capacity. In addition, MT reduced liver steatosis in hyperlipidemic rats. Overall, MT exerts considerable hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties.

  2. Acute and perinatal programming effects of a fat-rich diet on rat muscle mitochondrial function and hepatic lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Lars I; Jensen, Runa I; Waterstradt, Michelle S G; Quistorff, Bjørn; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2014-11-01

    Maternal high-fat intake during pregnancy may have long-term consequences in the offspring. Since this might relate to the capacity of mitochondrial metabolic adaptation and hepatic lipid metabolism, we investigated how maternal high-fat intake affected mitochondrial function and hepatic steatosis in the offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (20% w/w) or a control diet (chow, C) from 10 days before pregnancy and throughout lactation. At weaning the litters were split into two groups; one was continued on the maternal diet and the other was fed low-fat chow. Skeletal muscle mitochondria and liver lipids. Mitochondrial respiration and hepatic lipid content were determined during and after weaning, on days 20 and 70 postpartum. Mitochondrial function and hepatic lipids. At 20 days, maternal high-fat diet caused increased Vo2max with pyruvate as substrate (p=0.047), at 70 days, pups born by C-dams, but not those born by high-fat-dams, showed increased oxidation of palmitoylcarnitine in the absence of ADP (p=0.018). Rates of ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption, maximal respiratory capacity and mitochondrial respiratory control ratio with pyruvate, increased post weaning (pdecreased (p=0.013). The increase in respiratory control ratio was most pronounced in pups from C-dams (p=0.05). The high-fat-diet caused pronounced hepatic steatosis in pups at weaning (pfat-feeding after weaning induced triacylglycerol and ceramide accumulation (pfat-rich diet during pregnancy and lactation reduced the age-induced increases in un-coupled fat oxidation. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Antioxidant Diet Help to Improve Endothelial Dysfunction in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Scaramuzza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After evaluating the prevalence of early endothelial dysfunction, as measured by means of reactive hyperemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, we started a 6-month, double-blind, randomized trial to test the efficacy of an antioxidant diet (± alpha-lipoic acid supplementation to improve endothelial dysfunction. Seventy-one children and adolescents, ages 17 ± 3.9 yrs, with type 1 diabetes since 9.5 ± 5.3 yrs, using intensified insulin therapy, were randomized into 3 arms: (a antioxidant diet 10.000 ORAC + alpha-lipoic acid; (b antioxidant diet 10.000 ORAC + placebo; (c controls. BMI, blood pressure, fasting lipid profile, HbA1c, insulin requirement, dietary habits, and body composition were determined in each patient. An antioxidant diet significantly improved endothelial dysfunction when supplemented with alpha-lipoic acid, unlike diet with placebo or controls. A significant reduction in bolus insulin was also observed. We speculate that alpha-lipoic acid might have an antioxidant effect in pediatric diabetes patients by reducing insulin.

  4. Diets Rich in Vegetables and Physical Activity Are Associated With A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... With A Decreased Risk of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension among Rural Women from ... pregnancy-induced hypertension onset among rural women from ... basis of demographic, diet, physical activity, anthropometry, and blood pressure till ... The onset of Pre Eclampsia was higher within vendors and inactive women as ...

  5. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; Vilaseca, M Antonia; Balcells, Susana; Artuch, Rafael; Corbella, Emili; Meco, José F; Vila, Ramon; Pujol, Ramon; Grinberg, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims: At least 500 mug of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 mug of folate or with one 500 mug capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (pfoods decreased tHcy by 8.6% (95% CI: -15.9 to -1.2) and synthetic folic acid capsules by 8% (95% CI: -13.3 to -2.7). Conclusions: This study shows, for the first time in the literature, that a folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid capsules in decreasing plasma tHcy concentrations and adds further support to the recommendation of those diets to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  6. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhanani Razali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p < 0.05 in cells treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. The expression of KNG1, SERPINC1, SERPIND1, SERPINE1, FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, “Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease” was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P < 2.80 × 10−6 followed by the superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (P < 2.17 × 10−4, intrinsic prothrombin pathway (P < 2.92 × 10−4, Immune Protection/Antimicrobial Response (P < 2.28 × 10−3 and xenobiotic metabolism signaling (P < 2.41 × 10−3. The antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica also altered the expression of proteins that are involved in the Coagulation System and the Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway (KNG1, SERPINE1, FGG, Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK, Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1 and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6. In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid

  7. [Effects of rutin on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in liver of rats fed diets with different level of fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, I V; Trusov, N V; Avren'eva, L I; Guseva, G V; Lashneva, N V; Kravchenko, L V; Tutel'ian, V A

    2014-01-01

    The study has been carried out on 6 groups of male Wistar rats, which received semi-synthetic diets within 28 days. Rats of 1st and 4th group received fat-free diet, 2nid.and 5th - diet containing standard amount of fat (10% by weight, 26% by caloric content; lard/sunflower oil - 1/1); 3rd and 6th group - a high-fat diet (30% by weight, 56% by caloric content). During the last 14 days of the experiment rats received rutin in the dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. AOA, MDA level and the activity of paraoxonase I have been evaluated in blood serum. In rat liver along with the parameters of the antioxidant status (MDA level, activity of paraoxonase 1, quinone reductase, heme oxygenase-1) the activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A1, CYP2B1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and glutathione transferase) and the activity of lysosomal enzymes (arylsulfatase A and B, β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase) have been investigated. Elevation of the activity of antioxidant enzymes and XME in liver with the increase of diet fat content has been-noted. Rutin admihistration had no effect onparamete6rs of antioxidant status and decreased unsedimentable activity of lysosomal enzymes that did not depend on fat content in the diet. Rutin receiving increased the activity of all studied XME in rats fed standard diet, but practically did not effect on their activity in rats fed by fat-free and high-fat diets. Thus, rutin in pharmacological dose has no effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes that doesn't depend on the level of fat in the diet, while the decrease or increase of diet fat content modulates (weakens) the influence of rutin on the XME activity.

  8. In Vivo Effects of Free Form Astaxanthin Powder on Anti-Oxidation and Lipid Metabolism with High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chi; Wu, Yi-Long; Liu, Li-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin extracted from Pomacea canaliculata eggs was made into free-form astaxanthin powder (FFAP) and its effects on lipid metabolism, liver function, antioxidants activities and astaxanthin absorption rate were investigated. 45 hamsters were split into 5 groups and fed with normal diet, high-cholesterol control (0.2% cholesterol), 1.6FFAP (control+1.6% FFAP), 3.2FFAP (control+3.2% FFAP) and 8.0FFAP (control+8.0% FFAP), respectively, for 6 weeks. FFAP diets significantly decreased the liver total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and increased liver fatty acids (C20:5n3; C22:6n3) compositions. It decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In terms of anti-oxidative activities, we found 8.0 FFAP diet significantly decreased plasma and liver malonaldehyde (4.96±1.96 μg TEP eq./mL and 1.56±0.38 μg TEP eq./g liver) and liver 8-isoprostane levels (41.48±13.69 μg 8-ISOP/g liver). On the other hand, it significantly increased liver catalase activity (149.10±10.76 μmol/min/g liver), Vitamin C (2082.97±142.23 μg/g liver), Vitamin E (411.32±81.67 μg/g liver) contents, and glutathione levels (2.13±0.42 mg GSH eq./g liver). Furthermore, 80% of astaxanthin absorption rates in all FFAP diet groups suggest FFAP is an effective form in astaxanthin absorption. Finally, astaxanthin was found to re-distribute to the liver and eyes in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggested that the appropriate addition of FFAP into high cholesterol diets increases liver anti-oxidative activity and reduces the concentration of lipid peroxidase and therefore, it may be beneficial as a material in developing healthy food.

  9. In Vivo Effects of Free Form Astaxanthin Powder on Anti-Oxidation and Lipid Metabolism with High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yi Chen

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin extracted from Pomacea canaliculata eggs was made into free-form astaxanthin powder (FFAP and its effects on lipid metabolism, liver function, antioxidants activities and astaxanthin absorption rate were investigated. 45 hamsters were split into 5 groups and fed with normal diet, high-cholesterol control (0.2% cholesterol, 1.6FFAP (control+1.6% FFAP, 3.2FFAP (control+3.2% FFAP and 8.0FFAP (control+8.0% FFAP, respectively, for 6 weeks. FFAP diets significantly decreased the liver total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and increased liver fatty acids (C20:5n3; C22:6n3 compositions. It decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In terms of anti-oxidative activities, we found 8.0 FFAP diet significantly decreased plasma and liver malonaldehyde (4.96±1.96 μg TEP eq./mL and 1.56±0.38 μg TEP eq./g liver and liver 8-isoprostane levels (41.48±13.69 μg 8-ISOP/g liver. On the other hand, it significantly increased liver catalase activity (149.10±10.76 μmol/min/g liver, Vitamin C (2082.97±142.23 μg/g liver, Vitamin E (411.32±81.67 μg/g liver contents, and glutathione levels (2.13±0.42 mg GSH eq./g liver. Furthermore, 80% of astaxanthin absorption rates in all FFAP diet groups suggest FFAP is an effective form in astaxanthin absorption. Finally, astaxanthin was found to re-distribute to the liver and eyes in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggested that the appropriate addition of FFAP into high cholesterol diets increases liver anti-oxidative activity and reduces the concentration of lipid peroxidase and therefore, it may be beneficial as a material in developing healthy food.

  10. Metabolism, health and fillet nutritional quality in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets containing n-3-rich microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulaki, Katerina; Østbye, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter; Krasnov, Aleksei; Torgersen, Jacob Seilø; Mørkøre, Turid; Sweetman, John

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae, as primary producers of EPA and DHA, are among the most prominent alternative sources to fish oil for n-3 long-chain PUFA in animal and human nutrition. The present study aimed to assess technical, nutritional and fish health aspects of producing n-3-rich Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fish fillets by dietary supplementation of increasing levels of a DHA-producing Schizochytrium sp. and reduced or without use of supplemental fish oil. Atlantic salmon smolt were fed diets with graded levels of microalgae for 12 weeks, during which all fish showed high feed intake rates with postprandial plasma leptin levels inversely correlating with final mean fish body weights. Fish performance was optimal in all experimental treatments (thermal growth coefficient about 4·0 and feed conversion ratio 0·8-0·9), protein digestibility was equal in all diets, whereas dietary lipid digestibility inversely correlated with the dietary levels of the SFA 16 : 0. Fillet quality was good and similar to the control in all treatments in terms of n-3 long-chain PUFA content, gaping, texture and liquid losses during thawing. Histological fluorescence staining and immunofluorescence analysis of salmon intestines (midgut: base of intestine and villi) revealed significant effects on slime, goblet cell production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity with increasing levels of dietary Schizochytrium sp. supplementation. Microarray analysis did not reveal any signs of toxicity, stress, inflammation or any other negative effects from Schizochytrium sp. supplementation in diets for Atlantic salmon.

  11. Cereal bars enriched with antioxidant substances and rich in fiber, prepared with flours of acerola residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Tamara Rezende; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; de Carvalho Alves, Ana Paula; Simão, Anderson Assaid; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; de Oliveira Ramos, Vinicius

    2015-08-01

    In the processing for obtaining acerola juice, a large amount of residues, which is usually discharged, is generated (seeds and bagasse). Adding value to these by-products is of great interest, since their use can enrich human food as a good source of nutrients and dietary fiber. In this study, acerola seed flours (ASF) and acerola bagasse flours (ABF) were used to develop cereal bars (CB) in different combinations with brown oats: CB 1: control - with the addition of 25% brown oats, CB 2: with the addition of 12.5% ASF and 12.5% ABF, CB 3: with the addition of 6.25% ASF and 18.75% ABF, CB 4: with the addition of 12.5% ASF and 12.5% brown oats and CB 5: with the addition of 12.5% ABF and 12.5% brown oats. These bars were sensorially evaluated and CB 1, CB 4 and CB 5 received the highest scores. We conclude that CB 4 and CB 5 can be considered as products with enhanced nutritional value, containing iron with a low energetic value and high levels of dietary fibre, besides being enriched with antioxidants.

  12. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nurhanani; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni

    2015-01-01

    The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, "Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease" was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P FGG), Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK), Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1) and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6). In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid peroxidation and ROS production, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and significantly regulated the expression of genes and proteins involved with consequential impact on the coagulation system, cholesterol biosynthesis, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and antimicrobial response.

  13. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliahmat, Nor Syahida; Noor, Mohd Razman Mohd; Yusof, Wan Junizam Wan; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (18 months old). Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil) and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight), tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg), and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg). The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes activity during aging.

  14. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Syahida Aliahmat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. METHOD: One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old, middle-aged (12 months old, and old (18 months old. Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight, tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg, and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg. The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. RESULTS: Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. CONCLUSION: We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes

  15. A whole-grain-rich diet reduces urinary excretion of markers of protein catabolism and gut microbiota metabolism in healthy men after one week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Pere-Trépat, Emma; Montoliu, Ivan; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Collino, Sebastiano; Moco, Sofia; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Cléroux, Marilyn; Guy, Philippe A; Breton, Isabelle; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Thorimbert, Anita; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Tornier, Lionel; Bebuis, Aude; Bruce, Stephen J; Beaumont, Maurice; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently find that diets rich in whole-grain (WG) cereals lead to decreased risk of disease compared with refined grain (RG)-based diets. Aside from a greater amount of fiber and micronutrients, possible mechanisms for why WGs may be beneficial for health remain speculative. In an exploratory, randomized, researcher-blinded, crossover trial, we measured metabolic profile differences between healthy participants eating a diet based on WGs compared with a diet based on RGs. Seventeen healthy adult participants (11 female, 6 male) consumed a controlled diet based on either WG-rich or RG-rich foods for 2 wk, followed by the other diet after a 5-wk washout period. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. The metabolic profiles of plasma, urine, and fecal water were measured using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (plasma only). After 1 wk of intervention, the WG diet led to decreases in urinary excretion of metabolites related to protein catabolism (urea, methylguanadine), lipid (carnitine and acylcarnitines) and gut microbial (4-hydroxyphenylacetate, trimethylacetate, dimethylacetate) metabolism in men compared with the same time point during the RG intervention. There were no differences between the interventions after 2 wk. Urinary urea, carnitine, and acylcarnitine were lower at wk 1 of the WG intervention relative to the RG intervention in all participants. Fecal water short-chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate were relatively greater after the WG diet compared to the RG diet. Although based on a small population and for a short time period, these observations suggest that a WG diet may affect protein metabolism.

  16. Decaffeinated green tea extract rich in epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves insulin resistance and metabolic profiles in normolipidic diet--but not high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Aline; Santamarina, Aline; Souza, Gabriel; Mennitti, Laís; Okuda, Marcos; Venancio, Daniel; Seelaender, Marilia; do Nascimento, Claudia Oller; Ribeiro, Eliane; Lira, Fabio; Oyama, Lila

    2015-09-01

    Supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which restores metabolic profiles, has been proposed as an option for preventing and treating obesity. We investigated whether decaffeinated green tea extract rich in EGCG, attenuates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic alterations in Swiss mice. The mice were maintained on either a control diet (CD) or HFD for 8 weeks and supplemented with either a placebo or EGCG (50mg/kg/day). Body weight, serum lipid profiles, cytokine protein expression, and content in epididymal (EPI) and retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissues, and adipocyte area were measured. The body weights of HFD + placebo-fed mice were increased compared with those of HFD + EGCG-fed mice (28 and 21%, respectively), whereas the body weights of CD + EGCG-fed mice were decreased 16% compared with those of the CD + placebo group. Serum triglyceride levels were decreased 32% in the CD + EGCG group compared with the CD + placebo group. Compared with the CD + placebo group, increased phosphorylation of AMPK and hormone-sensitive lipase in EPI and RET, respectively, was found in the CD + EGCG group. Increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation was observed in both adipose tissues. In addition, TNF-α and IL-10 levels in EPI and adiponectin levels were higher in the CD + EGCG group than in the CD + placebo group. TNF-α levels were lower in the HFD + EGCG group than in the HFD + placebo group. Furthermore, the CD + EGCG group exhibited a lower adipocyte area than the CD + placebo group. These indicate that the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract on body mass may be related to the crosstalk between lipolytic and inflammatory pathways in normolipidic diet-fed mice but not in HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A high-fat diet rich in corn oil reduces spontaneous locomotor activity and induces insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi Kin; Botta, Amy; Pither, Jason; Dai, Chuanbin; Gibson, William T; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2015-04-01

    Over the last few decades, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially n-6 PUFA, and monounsaturated fatty acid content in 'Western diets' has increased manyfold. Such a dietary shift also parallels rising sedentary behavior and diabetes in the Western world. We queried if a shift in dietary fats could be linked to physical inactivity and insulin insensitivity in mice. Eight-week old female C57/Bl6 mice were fed either high-fat (HF) diets [40% energy corn oil (CO) or isocaloric olive oil (OO) diets] or chow (n=10/group) for 6 weeks, followed by estimation of spontaneous locomotor activity, body composition and in vivo metabolic outcomes. Although lean mass and resting energy expenditure stayed similar in both OO- and CO-fed mice, only CO-fed mice demonstrated reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. Such depressed activity in CO-fed mice was accompanied by a lower respiratory ratio, hyperinsulinemia and impaired glucose disposal following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests compared to OO-fed mice. Unlike the liver, where both HF diets increased expression of fat oxidation genes like PPARs, the skeletal muscle of CO-fed mice failed to up-regulate such genes, thereby supporting the metabolic insufficiencies observed in these mice. In summary, this study demonstrates a specific contribution of n-6 PUFA-rich oils like CO to the loss of spontaneous physical activity and insulin sensitivity in mice. If these data hold true for humans, this study could provide a novel link between recent increases in dietary n-6 PUFA to sedentary behavior and the development of insulin resistance in the Western world.

  18. The Fat-1 Transgene in Mice Increases Antioxidant Potential, Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Levels, and Enhances PPARγ and SIRT-1 Expression on a Calorie Restricted Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mizanur Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both n-3 fatty acids (FA and calorie-restriction (CR are known to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in animals and humans. In this study, we investigated the synergistic anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative capacity of n-3 FA and CR using Fat-1 transgenic mice (Fat-1 that are capable of converting n-6 FA to n-3 FA endogenously. Wild type (WT and Fat-1 mice were maintained on ad libitum (AL or CR (40% less than AL AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10% corn oil (rich in n-6 FA for 5 months. Significantly lower levels of n-6/n-3 FA ratio were observed in serum, muscle and liver of Fat-1 mice fed AL or CR as compared to that of WT mice fed AL or CR. Muscle catalase (CAT, super oxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, and liver CAT and SOD activities were found higher in Fat-1 mice as compared to that of WT mice. These activities were more pronounced in Fat-1/CR group as compared to other groups. Serum pro-inflammatory markers, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNFα, interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 were found lower in Fat-1 mice, as compared to that of WT mice. This anti-inflammatory effect was also more pronounced in Fat-1/CR group as compared to that of other groups. Furthermore, significantly higher levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPA Rgamma and life prolonging gene, sirtuin (SIRT-1 expression were found in liver of Fat-1/CR mice, as compared to that of WT/CR mice. These data suggest that n-3 FA along with moderate CR may prolong lifespan by attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress.

  19. Antioxidant properties of tea blunt ROS-dependent lipogenesis: beneficial effect on hepatic steatosis in a high fat-high sucrose diet NAFLD obese rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, Laura; Battault, Sylvain; Meyer, Grégory; Nascimento, Alessandro; Gaillard, Sandrine; de Sousa, Georges; Rahmani, Roger; Riva, Catherine; Armand, Martine; Maixent, Jean-Michel; Reboul, Cyril

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress could trigger lipid accumulation in liver and thus hepatic steatosis. Tea is able to prevent liver disorders, but a direct link between antioxidant capacities and prevention of steatosis has not been reported yet. We aimed to investigate such relationship in a rat model of high fat-high sucrose diet (HFS)-induced obesity and to explore more deeply the mechanisms in isolated hepatocytes. Wistar rats were divided into a control group (standard diet), an HFS group (high fat-sucrose diet) and an HFS+tea group (HFS diet with ad-libitum access to tea drink). Body weight, fat mass, glycemic parameters in blood, lipid and oxidative stress parameters in blood and liver were measured in each group after 14 weeks. Isolated hepatocytes were treated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer t-BHP in the presence or not of antioxidants (tempol or tea), and superoxide anion production and lipid accumulation were measured using specific fluorescent probes. We reported that the HFS diet highly increased hepatic lipids content, while tea consumption attenuated steatosis and improved the oxidative status (decrease in hepatic oxidative stress, increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity). The role of antioxidant properties of tea in such phenomenon was confirmed in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Indeed, the increase of mitochondrial ROS production with t-BHP resulted in lipid accumulation in hepatocytes (positive linear regression), and antioxidants (tempol or tea) normalized both. We reported that the antioxidant properties of tea protect rats from an obesogenic HFS diet-induced hepatic steatosis by counteracting the ROS-dependent lipogenesis.

  20. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Shelly

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. Methods The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. Results The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Tocotrienol Rich Fraction Prevents Fenitrothion-induced Renal Damage in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budin, Siti Balkis; Han, Kim Jit; Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Taib, Izatus Shima; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2013-01-01

    Fenitrothion (FNT) is an organophosphate compound widely used as pesticide in Malaysia. The present study aims to investigate effects of palm oil tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on the renal damage of FNT-treated rats. A total of 40 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups randomly, the control, TRF, FNT and FNT+TRF groups. FNT (20 mg/kg b.w.) and TRF (200 mg/kg b.w.) were given orally for 28 days continuously. Rats from the FNT+TRF group were supplemented with TRF 30 minutes prior to administration of FNT. Rats were sacrificed after 28 days, and the kidneys were removed for determination of oxidative stress and histological analysis. Plasma was collected for determination of blood creatinine and urea level. Statistical analysis showed that palm oil TRF has a protective effect against renal oxidative damage induced by FNT. In the FNT+TRF group, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels were significantly lower, while the glutathione level as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly higher compared with the FNT-treated group (p0.05). Histological evaluation also revealed that the FNT+TRF group had less glomerulus and renal tubule damage than the FNT-treated group. In conclusion, palm oil TRF was able to reduce oxidative stress and renal damage in FNT-treated rats. PMID:23914053

  2. Effects of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of multiple sclerosis long-term care residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Mauriz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS treatment options are primarily limited to immunomodulatory therapies in MS non-progressive forms. Nutrition intervention studies suggest that diet may be considered as a complementary treatment to control disease progression. Therefore, dietary intervention may help to improve wellness and ameliorate symptoms of MS patients. Objectives: To assess the effect of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of institutionalized patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Methods: A randomized prospective placebo-controlled study involving 9 participants, 5 of them assigned to the intervention group (low-fat diet and antioxidant supplementation and the other 4 to the placebo group (low-fat diet. The effect of the dietary intervention, involving diet modification and antioxidant supplementation, was examined for 42 days by measuring anthropometric, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers in blood at baseline (day 0, intermediate (day 15 and end (day 42 stages of the treatment. Results: The intervention group obtained C reactive protein levels significantly lower than those observed in the corresponding placebo group at the end of the study. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α and interleukine IL-6 values also diminished after dietary intervention in the intervention group. Catalase activity increased significantly in the intervention group prior antioxidant supplementation. No significant differences were observed in other oxida-tive stress markers. Conclusions: The results suggest that diet and dietary supplements are involved in cell metabolism modulation and MS-related inflammatory processes. Consequently, low fat diets and antioxidant supplements may be used as complementary therapies for treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  3. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  4. The Expression of Estrogen Receptor is Dependent on the Estrogen Level and Associated with Cholesterol-Rich Diet in Female Rat's Heart and Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴赛珠; 刘建国; 周可祥; 刘长青; 马瑞; 孙飞; 隗和明

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of estrogen level and cholesterol - rich diet on the ex-pression of estrogen receptor (ER) in cardiovasculartissues including vascular endothelial cells (VEC) offemale rats. Methods The receptor binding assay(RBA) was adopted to measure the estrogen receptorlevel in aortic wall, heart and vascular endothelialcells of female rats on a cholesterol- rich diet. A ra-dioimmunoassay was employed to measure the level ofserum estradiol. Results The number of ER signif-icantly decreased in hearts, aorta and vascular en-dothelial cells in the ovariectomized rats and the ratson a cholesterol- rich diet. In contrast, the adminis-tration of estrogen somewhat restored the expression ofER. Conclusions For female rats, the level of es-trogen affects the expression of ER in cardiovascularsystem. The number of ER decreases along with thedecrease in the level of estrogen. A cholesterol -richdiet also can decrease the expression of ER in cardio-vascular system of female rats.

  5. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  6. Fructose rich diet differently affects angiotensin II receptors content in the nucleus and a plasma membrane fraction of visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundalo, Maja; Djordjevic, Ana; Bursac, Biljana; Zivkovic, Maja; Koricanac, Goran; Stankovic, Aleksandra

    2017-08-03

    The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is proposed to be a pathophysiological link between adipose tissue dysregulation and metabolic disorders induced by fructose rich diet (FRD). RAS can act intracellularly. We hypothesized that adipocytes nuclear membranes possess angiotensin receptors type 1 and type 2 (AT1R and AT2R) that couple to nuclear signaling pathways and regulate oxidative gene expression under the FRD. We analyzed the effect of nine-week consumption of 10% fructose solution on biochemical parameters, adipocyte morphology and expression of AT1R, AT2R, AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), NOX4, MMP-9, and MnSOD in adipose tissue of Wistar rats. We detected AT1R and AT2R in nuclear fraction. FRD decreased protein level of nuclear angiotensin receptors, while increased AT1R and decreased AT2R levels were observed at plasma membrane. FRD increased mRNA level of ATRAP, while MnSOD mRNA and protein levels were decreased. No significant differences were observed for MMP9 and NOX4 mRNA levels. These findings coincide with hyperleptinemia, elevated blood pressure and triglyceride level, as well as with unchanged visceral adipose tissue mass and morphology upon FRD. Besides providing evidence for nuclear localization of angiotensin receptors in visceral adipose tissue, this study also points to the different effect of FRD on AT1R expression in different cellular compartments. Elevated blood pressure and decreased antioxidative capacity in visceral fat of fructose fed rats were accompanied by an increased AT1R level in plasma membrane while upregulation of ATRAP and decrease of nuclear membrane AT1R suggest an increase in capacity for attenuation of excessive AT1R signaling and visceral adiposity.

  7. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of fasting and non-fasting triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TRL) as well as oxidative changes of lipoproteins may increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease. To compare the effects of different diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids on the concentrations and in vitro...... oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  8. Quality and lipid composition of spermatozoa in rabbits fed DHA and vitamin E rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliozzi, T M; Zaniboni, L; Maldjian, A; Luzi, F; Maertens, L; Cerolini, S

    2009-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) and vitamin E (vE) dietary supplementation on semen quality, sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation, tocopherols content and fatty acid profiles were studied in rabbits. Fifty-two rabbit bucks randomly divided in four groups received a control diet and enriched diets containing either FO (1.5%, w/w), vE (200mg/kg) or both. Semen volume, concentration, motility and viability were analysed at various time-points and the lipid composition was assessed on sperm cells. The phospholipid fatty acid profile was determined: n-6 PUFA were the major fatty acids found, with a proportion of 42%, whereas the n-3 PUFA accounted for nearly 1%, mainly represented by C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). FO supplementation produced a seven-fold increase in the content of DHA in sperm phospholipids and a comprehensive rearrangement of the phospholipid fatty acid composition, while an unexpected negative effect of feeding high level of vE on the proportion of total PUFA was found. Despite the remarkable changes observed in sperm lipid composition, semen quality parameters were not affected by the dietary treatments and the interaction between the two dietary supplements had a significant effect only on sperm concentration. An increase in semen production by ageing and a concomitant rise in sperm susceptibility to in vitro peroxidation was found. alpha- and delta-tocopherol, present in rabbit sperm in similar amount, were not affected by dietary treatment. delta-tocopherol content had a significant linear negative regression with age and showed a significant negative correlation with the susceptibility to peroxidation values.

  9. Performance, carcass and meat quality of pigs fed diets with antioxidants and ractopamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Abrami Monteiro Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was evaluated the effects of the use of additives antioxidants associated or not with ractopamine in feed for finishing pigs. Were used 51 crossbred pigs, 27 barrows and 24 females with initial weight of 83.38 kg. Three experimental treatments were established based on the inclusion of two complexes to feed: complex 1 (4g de vitamin E + 1g de vitamin C/kg of product and complex 2 (0.2g de ractopamine + 4g de vitamin E + 2g de vitamin C/kg of product, defining the ration control (free of complexes, ration control + complex 1 (0.1% and ration control + complex 2 (0.05%. The experimental design was blocked randomically, presenting a factorial model 3x2 (3 treatments and 2 sexes. Were observed difference (P<0.05 for daily feed intake, feed, hot and cold carcass weight to the treatment with ractopamine. The values of vitamin E in meat were higher (P <0.05 in muscle of animals in groups receiving the vitamin. There was a difference (P <0.05 in the values of oxidation and marbling in the treatments with antioxidant. The inclusion of ractopamine, with the antioxidants, resulted in improvement in performance and carcass characteristics, and supplementation with the antioxidant, alone, showed improvement in parameters related to meat quality

  10. A diet low in animal fat and rich in N-hexacosanol and fisetin is effective in reducing symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoudet, Virginia V; Costa-Mallen, Paola; Hopkins, Elwood

    2012-08-01

    This study describes how foods rich in fisetin and hexacosanol added to a strict diet reversed most symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) in one patient. This is a case report involving outpatient care. The subject was a dietitian diagnosed with idiopathic PD in 2000 at the age of 53 years old, with a history of exposure to neurotoxins and no family history of PD. A basic diet started in 2000 consisted of predominantly fruits, vegetables, 100% whole grains, extra virgin olive oil, nuts, seeds, nonfat milk products, tea, coffee, spices, small amounts of dark chocolate, and less than 25 g of animal fat daily. The basic diet alone failed to prevent decline due to PD. In 2009, the basic diet was enhanced with a good dietary source of both fisetin and hexacosanol. Six months after the patient started the enhanced diet rich in fisetin and hexacosanol, a clinically significant improvement in symptoms was noted; the patient's attending neurologist reported that the clinical presentation of cogwheel rigidity, micrographia, bradykinesia, dystonia, constricted arm swing with gait, hypomimia, and retropulsion appeared to be resolved. The only worsening of symptoms occurred when the diet was not followed precisely. Little improvement in tremor or seborrhea was observed. The clinical improvement has persisted to date. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case where adjunctive diet therapy resulted in a significant reduction of symptoms of PD without changing the type or increasing the amount of medications.

  11. Expression and sub-cellular localization of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains are related to antioxidant enzymes in human ependymoma and oligodendroglioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yi; Lin Liu; Okechi Humphrey; Qianxue Chen; Shulan Huang

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated correlations between the expression of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domain 1 (LRIG1) and antioxidant enzymes and related proteins, including manganese superoxide dismutase, glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic or regulatory subunit, thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, in both human ependymoma and oligodendroglioma. Results revealed that the cytoplasmic expression of LRIG1 was associated with expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit in the human ependymoma, while the nuclear expression of LRIG1 was associated with expression of thioredoxin reductase. In human oligodendroglioma, the cytoplasmic expression of LRIG1 was associated with expression of the glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. Both the nuclear and perinuclear expressions of LRIG1 were associated with expression of glutamate cysteine ligase regulatory subunit. These results indicated that several antioxidant enzymes and related proteins contributed to LRIG1 expression, and that these may participate in the antioxidation of the cells.

  12. A leucine-rich diet and exercise affect the biomechanical characteristics of the digital flexor tendon in rats after nutritional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alexandre Wesley Carvalho; Benevides, Gustavo Pereira; Alferes, Leda Maria Totti; Salomão, Emilianne Miguel; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Gomes, Laurecir

    2012-01-01

    An increase in the capacity of athletic performance depends on adequate nutrition, which ensures optimal function of the musculoskeletal system, including tendon stability. However, little is known about the status of tendons and extracellular matrix modifications during malnutrition and nutritional recovery when leucine is used in response to exercise conditioning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the collagen content and biomechanical aspects of the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) in malnourished rats submitted to nutritional recovery (control diet or leucine-rich diet) and aerobic physical activity. After 60 days of undernourishment (6% protein diet), the malnourished rats were subsequently nutritionally recovered with a control diet or leucine-rich diet and trained or not (swimming, without overload) for 5 weeks. The biomechanical analysis and quantification of hydroxyproline were assessed in the DDFT in all experimental groups. The leucine-rich diet increased hydroxyproline content in the tension region, independently of the training. In the compression region, hydroxyproline content was higher in the malnourished and leucine-trained groups. Biomechanical analysis showed a lower load in the malnourished and all-trained groups. The lowest stress was observed with control-trained animals. The nutritional-recovered groups showed higher strain values corresponding to control group, while the lowest values were observed in malnourished and trained groups. The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet stimulates collagen synthesis of the DDFT, especially when in combination with physical exercise, and seems to determine the increase of resistance and the biomechanical characteristics of tendons.

  13. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Potential of Organic and Conventional Grape Juices in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselde Buchner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the chronic use of conventional (CGJ or organic (OGJ grape juice from the Bordeaux variety grape on oxidative stress and cytoarchitecture in the liver of rats supplemented with a high-fat diet (HFD for three months. The results demonstrated that HFD induced an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, catalase (CAT activity and 2′,7′-dihydrodichlorofluorescein (DCFH oxidation and a decrease in sulfhydryl content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. HFD also induced hepatocellular degeneration and steatosis. These alterations were prevented by CGJ and OGJ, where OGJ was more effective. Therefore, it was concluded that HFD induced oxidative stress and liver damage and that the chronic use of grape juice was able to prevent these alterations.

  14. Protective effects of a wheat germ rich diet against the toxic influence of profenofos on rat tissue lipids and oxidative pentose phosphate shunt enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Rahim, G. A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of technical and formulated forms of profenofos on the metabolic lipid fractions of the liver, brain and kidneys as well as the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD, which consider lipid related enzymes, were studied. The two forms of profenofos were given separately either orally or by dermal at doses of 1/20 LD50 for 3 months (one dose every 48 h. Total lipids and lipid fractions (cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipid contents decreased in the three studied organ tissues either in technical or formulated profenofos-induced rats compared with normal control animals. The highest effect was observed in the case of orally formulated profenofo induction, and the lowest was detected for the dermal technical one. The same trend was found in the activities of G6PD and 6PGD associated with lipid metabolism in the liver, brain and kidney tissues under the same conditions. On other hand, the treatment of profenofos-induced animals by feeding a wheat germ rich diet (as antioxidant agent produced significant improvements in both lipid fraction content and enzyme activity. In addition, the effects of the wheat germ rich diet (α-tocopherol rich source readjusted and improved the disturbed metabolic fractions of the lipid profiles in the profenofos-induced rats as well as their related enzyme activities (G6PD and 6PGD: oxidative pentose phosphate shunt.

    El efecto de formas técnicas o formuladas de profenofós en la fracción lipídica metabólica de hígado, cerebro y riñones así como la actividad de la glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa (G6PD y 6-fosfogluconato deshidrogenasa (6PGD, que son consideradas enzimas relacionadas con los lípidos, fueron estudiadas. Ambas formas de profenofós fueron suministradas separadamente tanto por vía oral como cutánea a una dosis de 1/20 LD50 durante 3 meses (una dosis cada 48 horas. Los lípidos totales y

  15. [Effect of a hypocaloric diet in the oxidative stress in obese subjects without prescription of exercise and antioxidants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Liliana; García, José R; Rincón, María de Jesús; Ceballos, Guillermo M; Olivares, Ivonne M

    2015-07-06

    Obesity is characterized by a generalized increase of adipose tissue, high production of adipocytokines and presence of oxidative systemic stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes generated in the oxidative stress and anthropometric parameters in obese subjects by the prescription of a hypocaloric diet in combination with moderate aerobic exercise and supplementation with antioxidants. Oxidative damage was determined in the plasma from 30 normal weight and 30 obese subjects. Three groups of treatment were established: Hypocaloric diet (HD), HD plus moderate aerobic exercise (HDE) and HDE plus antioxidants (DHEA). Biomarkers of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], carbonyl groups, dityrosine) and anthropometric parameters were determined. Higher values of biomarkers of oxidative damage were observed in obese (TBARS 13.74 ± 1.2 μM; carbonyl groups 0.89 ± 0.04 nmol of osazone/mg of protein; dityrosine 478.9 ± 27.4 RFU/mg of protein) in comparison to normal weight subjects (TBARS 7.08 ± 0.8 μM; carbonyl groups 0.65 ± 0.04 nmol of osazone/mg of protein; dityrosine 126.3 ± 12.6 RFU/mg of protein), thus showing the presence of an oxidative damage. The prescription of HD decreased the oxidative damage and anthropometric parameters in the obese subjects. We did not observe additional benefit effects on these determinations with HDE or HDEA treatments. We demonstrated that an HD decreases the oxidative damage in obese subjects. Oxidative stress is an important factor in the development of comorbidity in obesity. Therefore, the prescription of a HD could be a key issue in the treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Dose-dependent response of nitrogen stable isotope ratio to proportion of legumes in diet to authenticate lamb meat produced from legume-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devincenzi, T; Delfosse, O; Andueza, D; Nabinger, C; Prache, S

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the dose-dependent response in lamb meat of stable nitrogen isotope ratio to the dietary proportion of legumes, and the ability of the nitrogen isotope signature of the meat to authenticate meat produced from legume-rich diets. Four groups of nine male Romane lambs grazing a cocksfoot pasture were supplemented with different levels of fresh alfalfa forage to obtain four dietary proportions of alfalfa (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) for 98 days on average before slaughter (groups L0, L25, L50 and L75). We measured the stable nitrogen isotope ratio in the forages and in the longissimus thoracis muscle. The δ(15)N value of the meat decreased linearly with the dietary proportion of alfalfa. The distribution of the δ(15)N values of the meat discriminated all the L0 lambs from the L75 lambs, and gave a correct classification score of 85.3% comparing lambs that ate alfalfa with those that did not.

  17. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (Pdiet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected.

  18. Effect of supplementation of cows diet with linseed and fish oil and different variants of β-lactoglobulin on fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppel, Kamila; Kuczyńska, Beata; Nałęcz-Tarwacka, Teresa; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Sakowski, Tomasz; Kapusta, Aleksandra; Budziński, Arkadiusz; Balcerak, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of polymorphic variants of β-lactoglobulin in cows supplemented with linseed and fish oil on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk. From the herd of 320 Polish Holstein Friesian cows three groups of cows were selected according to the variants of β-LG (β-LGAA, β-LGBB, β-LGAB). During the first 7 days (the initial period) all the cows were fed the same total mixed ration (TMR) diet. From day 8 to 28,150 g fish oil and 250 g linseed (FOL) was added to the TMR diet of each cow. The results showed that the diet supplemented with FOL was effective in reducing atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Introducing supplementation improved the antioxidant capacity: higher concentration of C18:2cis-9 trans-11, C20:5 n-3, C22:6 n-3, bioactive whey proteins and vitamin soluble in fat has been recorded. The results showed that β-LGAA was associated with lower levels of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices and higher concentration of C22:5 n-6, phospholipids and β-carotene. β-LGBB favours a higher content of C18:1trans-11, C18:2cis-9 trans-11 and lactoferrin. β-LGAB was associated with higher concentrations of C20:5 n-3, Lysozyme, α-retinol, α-tocopherol and total antioxidant status. Modification of the diet of cows with fish oil and linseed significantly influenced fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of milk. The effect of β-LG phenotype on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk is variable, which could partly be the result of a β-LG phenotype × diet interaction. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of a flavonoid-rich concentrate recovered from Opuntia ficus-indica juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, A; Nunes, S L; Poejo, J; Mecha, E; Serra, A T; Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Bronze, M R; Duarte, C M M

    2014-12-01

    In this work, Opuntia ficus indica juice was explored as a potential source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ingredients towards intestinal inflammation. An adsorption separation process was used to produce a natural flavonoid-rich concentrate (FRC) from Opuntia ficus-indica juice. The FRC effect (co- or pre-incubation) on induced-oxidative stress and induced-inflammation was evaluated in human Caco-2 cells. The main constituents identified and present in the extract are flavonoids (namely isorhamnetins and their derivatives such as isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnose-rutinoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside) and phenolic acids (such as ferulic, piscidic and eucomic acids). Our results showed that co-incubation of FRC with the stress-inducer attenuates radicals production in a much more significant manner than pre-incubation. These results suggest that FRC compounds which cannot pass the cell membrane freely (isorhamnetin derivatives) have an ability to inhibit the formation of H2O2-induced radicals in the surrounding environment of intestinal epithelial cells. The capacity of FRC (co-incubation) for suppressing (at the extracellular level) free radicals chain initiation or propagation reaction was probably related with a more pronounced reduction in protein oxidation. A similar response was observed in the inflammatory state, where a marked decrease in IL-8 secretion and blocked degradation of IκBα was achieved for FRC co-incubation. Simultaneously, treatment with FRC significantly reduces NO and TNF-α expression and modulates apparent permeability in Caco-2 cells. In these cases, no significant differences were found between pre- and co-incubation treatments suggesting that bioavailable phenolics, such as ferulic, eucomic and piscidic acids and isorhamnetin, act at the intracellular environment.

  20. High-fat diets rich in medium- versus long-chain fatty acids induce distinct patterns of tissue specific insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel-van den Bosch, J. de; Berg, S.A.A. van den; Bijland, S.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, H.A.; Hoeks, J.; Beurden, D. van; Hesselink, M.K.C.; Schrauwen, P.; Dijk, K.W. van

    2011-01-01

    Excess dietary long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake results in ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. Since medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are preferentially oxidized over LCFA, we hypothesized that diets rich in MCFA result in a lower ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance co

  1. The effect of a diet with fructan-rich chicory roots on intestinal helminths and microbiota with special focus on Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter in piglets around weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Mejer, Helene; Mølbak, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The restrictions on the use of antibiotic and anthelmintic treatments in organic pig farming necessitate alternative non-medical control strategies. Therefore, the antibiotic and parasite-reducing effect of a fructan-rich (prebiotic) diet of dried chicory was investigated in free-ranging piglets...

  2. High-fat diets rich in medium- versus long-chain fatty acids induce distinct patterns of tissue specific insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel-van den Bosch, J. de; Berg, S.A.A. van den; Bijland, S.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, H.A.; Hoeks, J.; Beurden, D. van; Hesselink, M.K.C.; Schrauwen, P.; Dijk, K.W. van

    2011-01-01

    Excess dietary long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake results in ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. Since medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are preferentially oxidized over LCFA, we hypothesized that diets rich in MCFA result in a lower ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance

  3. Satiating properties of diets rich in dietary fibre fed to sows asevaluated by physico-chemical properties, gastric emptying rate and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    time was measured using 13C-acetate as marker for the liquid phase and 13C-octanoic acid as marker for the solid phase. The sows were placed inside a respiration chamber and 13C-carbondioxide was measured in the expired air. Feeding diets rich in soluble DF reduce the physical activity of sows...

  4. The effects of the aqueous extract and residue of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Ying, Le; Hong, Gaojie; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-01-01

    Matcha is a kind of powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill. In the present study, the preventive effects of the aqueous extract (water-soluble) and residue (water-insoluble) of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Mice were fed seven different experimental diets for 4 weeks: a normal diet control (NC), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.025% Matcha (MLD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha (MMD), a high-fat diet with 0.075% Matcha (MHD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha aqueous extracts (ME), and a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha residues (MR). It was found that serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels of the MHD group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. Furthermore, in the MHD group, the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was elevated, on the contrary the level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was suppressed. Moreover, Matcha could significantly lower the blood glucose levels, and improve the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MAD) contents both in serum and liver; besides, the serum GSH-Px activity indicated that the oxidative stress caused by HF could be reversed by administration of Matcha. These findings suggest that Matcha has beneficial effects through the suppression of the blood glucose (BG) accumulation and promotion of the lipid metabolism and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the water-insoluble part of Matcha is suggested to play an important role in the suppression of diet-induced high levels of lipid and glucose.

  5. Effects of a metabolic syndrome induced by a fructose-rich diet on bone metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Juan Ignacio; Gangoiti, María Virginia; Molinuevo, María Silvina; McCarthy, Antonio Desmond; Cortizo, Ana María

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were: first, to evaluate the possible effects of a fructose rich diet (FRD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS) on different aspects of long bone histomorphometry in young male rats; second, to investigate the effects of this diet on bone tissue regeneration; and third, to correlate these morphometric alterations with changes in the osteogenic/adipogenic potential and expression of specific transcription factors, of marrow stromal cells (MSC) isolated from rats with fructose-induced MS. MS was induced in rats by treatment with a FRD for 28 days. Halfway through treatment, a parietal wound was made and bone healing was evaluated 14 days later. After treatments, histomorphometric analysis was performed in dissected femoral and parietal bones. MSC were isolated from the femora of control or fructose-treated rats and differentiated either to osteoblasts (evaluated by type 1 collagen, Alkaline phosphatase and extracellular nodule mineralization) or to adipocytes (evaluated by intracellular triglyceride accumulation). Expression of Runx2 and PPARγ was assessed by Western blot. Fructose-induced MS induced deleterious effects on femoral metaphysis microarchitecture and impaired bone regeneration. Fructose treatment decreased the osteogenic potential of MSC and Runx2 expression. In addition, it increased the adipogenic commitment of MSC and PPARγ expression. Fructose-induced MS is associated with deleterious effects on bone microarchitecture and with a decrease in bone repair. These alterations could be due to a deviation in the adipogenic/osteogenic commitment of MSC, probably by modulation of the Runx2/PPARγ ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.; Westbroek, I.; Keizer, H.; Gambelli, L.; Hontecillas, R.; Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Zondag, G.C.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. DESIGN: High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed oi

  7. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.; Westbroek, I.; Keizer, H.; Gambelli, L.; Hontecillas, R.; Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Zondag, G.C.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. DESIGN: High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed oi

  8. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.; Westbroek, I.; Keizer, H.; Gambelli, L.; Hontecillas, R.; Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Zondag, G.C.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. DESIGN: High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed

  9. Vitamin D-rich marine Inuit diet and markers of inflammation - a population-based survey in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, Louise Kærholm; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    samples were drawn for analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and chitinase-3-like protein 1(YKL-40). Participants were divided into three groups based on degree of intake of the traditional Inuit diet. The diet groups (Inuit diet/mixed diet/imported foods) were...

  10. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  11. Nutritional and in vitro antioxidant properties of edible wild greens in Iberian Peninsula traditional diet

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Dafne; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Wild greens are nutritionally well-balanced vegetables. Herein, nutritional and in vitro antioxidant properties of the sprouts of three commonly used species were determined. Wild asparagus revealed the highest levels of moisture (84.6 g/100 g fw), ash (12.3 g/100 g dw), proteins (22.4 g/100 g dw), total sugars (9.24 g/100 g dw), including sucrose (4.27 g/100 g dw) and of the essential n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (44.5 %); white bryony gave the highest contents of reducing sugars...

  12. A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Bruce, Stephen J; Blondel-Lubrano, Anny; Oguey-Araymon, Sylviane; Beaumont, Maurice; Bourgeois, Alexandre; Nielsen-Moennoz, Corine; Vigo, Mario; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Pittet, Anne-Cécile; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Grathwohl, Dominik; Rezzi, Serge

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have repeatedly found that whole-grain (WG) cereal foods reduce the risk of several lifestyle-related diseases, though consistent clinical outcomes and mechanisms are elusive. To compare the effects of a WG-rich diet with a matched refined-grain (RG) diet on plasma biomarkers and bowel health parameters, seventeen healthy subjects (eleven females and six males) completed an exploratory cross-over study with a 2-week intervention diet based on either WG- or RG-based foods, separated by a washout of at least 5 weeks. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. Subjects undertook a 4 h postprandial challenge on day 8 of each intervention diet. After 2 weeks, the WG diet tended to decrease plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (both P = 0·09), but did not change plasma HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein or homocysteine compared with the RG diet. Plasma betaine and alkylresorcinol concentrations were elevated after 1 week of the WG diet (P = 0·01 and P < 0·0001, respectively). Clostridium leptum populations in faeces were increased after the WG diet, along with a trend for decreased faecal water pH (P = 0·096) and increased stool frequency (P < 0·0001) compared with the RG diet. A short controlled intervention trial with a variety of commercially available WG-based products tended to improve biomarkers of CVD compared with a RG diet. Changes in faecal microbiota related to increased fibre fermentation and increased plasma betaine concentrations point to both fibre and phytochemical components of WG being important in mediating any potential health effects.

  13. Gum Arabic supplementation improved antioxidant status and alters expression of oxidative stress gene in ovary of mice fed high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkareem A. Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health concern associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic strategies include surgery and synthetic drugs, and may cause high costs and serious complications. Gum Arabic (GA, Acacia senegal considered as a dietary fiber that reduces body fat deposition. Yet, the effect of the GA on reproductive functions in high fat diet remains unclear. In this study, we fed mice either a normal diet (control, low fat diet (low, high fat diet (high or a high fat diet supplemented with 10% w/w GA (high + gum for 12 weeks. Body weight, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, plasma lipid profile and blood glucose were determined. Ovarian antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the measurement of antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA and antioxidant enzymes activity. Moreover, ovarian histopathological changes and oxidative stress related genes mRNA were measured. GA treatment significantly (P < 0.05 increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx compared to low, HFD and control groups. The treatment of GA significantly (P < 0.05 decreased ovary MDA, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c and triglyceride concentrations whereas, increased HDL-c concentrations compared to low, HFD and control groups. SOD and GPx mRNA expression were significantly increased in GA group compared to low, HFD and control groups. Ovaries of all HFD mice showed marked degeneration whereas, slight degeneration was observed in GA treated mice compared to low, HFD and control groups. Our findings suggest that GA may protect ovaries by improvement of antioxidant capacity; thus, it may be useful to ameliorate the fertility complications in obese patient.

  14. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S J; Golian, A; Yaghobfar, A

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the

  15. Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Girija, Seetharaman; Soumya, Rema Sreenivasan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that apple peel has a wide range of polyphenols having antioxidant activity and its consumption has been linked with improved health benefits. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a very effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but it leads to cardiotoxicity mediated through alterations in various cardiac ion channels and by increasing the intracellular calcium level and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of methanolic extract of apple peel (APME) and aqueous extract of apple peel (APAE) on ATO (5 μM) induced toxicity in the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line. We estimated the cellular status of innate antioxidant enzymes, level of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, glutathione and intracellular calcium with ATO and apple peel extracts. Prior to the cell line based study, we had evaluated the antioxidant potential of apple peel extract by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total reducing power (TRP), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, in addition to quantifying total phenolic and flavonoid content. Both the extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity in cell-free chemical assays. In addition, both APME and APAE prevented the alteration in antioxidant status induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Significant differential alterations had been observed in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, xanthine oxidase, calcium overload and caspase 3 activity with ATO. The overall result revealed the protective property of polyphenol-rich apple peel extract against ATO induced cardiac toxicity via its antioxidant activity.

  16. Protective effect of antioxidant rich aqueous curry leaf (Murraya koenigii extract against gastro-toxic effects of piroxicam in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Benazir Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam (chemically 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID is orally administered to arthritic patients. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 synthesis and subsequent free hydroxyl radical generation in vivo exert gastro-toxic side effects on piroxicam treatment. Leaves of curry plant are rich in antioxidants with prolific free radical scavenging activities. This led us to investigate the efficiency of the use of curry leaves in ameliorating piroxicam induced gastric damage. Piroxicam was orally (30 mg per kg body weight administered in male albino Wistar rats to generate gastric ulcers. These rats were orally fed with graded doses of aqueous extract of curry or Murraya koenigii leaves (Cu LE prior to piroxicam administration. Oxidative stress biomarkers, activities of antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes, mucin content and nature, PGE2 level, activities of mitochondrial enzymes and histomorphology of gastric tissues were studied. Piroxicam treatment altered all the above mentioned parameters whereas, curry leaf extract pre-treated animals were protected against piroxicam induced alterations. Hence, the protective action of the antioxidant rich Cu LE was investigated to propose a new combination therapy or dietary management to arthritic patients using piroxicam.

  17. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo; Hajfathalian, Mona; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-08-03

    Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography (GC) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that common carp roe oil contained high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered into food systems by roe oil-in-water emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates from the defatted roe. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Cocoa-rich diet prevents azoxymethane-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in rats by restraining oxidative stress and cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Ramos, Sonia; López-Oliva, Elvira; Agis-Torres, Angel; Gómez-Juaristi, Miren; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Martín, María Ángeles

    2011-12-01

    Cocoa is a rich source of bioactive compounds with potential chemopreventive ability but up to date its effectiveness in animal models of colon carcinogenesis has not been addressed. Herein, we investigated the in vivo effect of a cocoa-rich diet in the prevention of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer and the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that cocoa feeding significantly reduced AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci formation and crypt multiplicity. Oxidative imbalance in colon tissues seems to be prevented by cocoa as indicated by reduced oxidation markers levels and increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic endogenous defences. Cocoa-rich diet also exhibited antiproliferative effects by decreasing the levels of extracellular regulated kinases, protein kinase B and cyclin D1 together with pro-apoptotic effects evidenced by reduced Bcl-x(L) levels and increased Bax levels and caspase-3 activity. Our findings provide the first in vivo evidence that a cocoa-rich diet may inhibit the early stage of colon carcinogenesis probably by preventing oxidative stress and cell proliferation and by inducing apoptosis.

  19. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makpol, Suzana; Yeoh, Thong Wei; Ruslam, Farah Adilah Che; Arifin, Khaizurin Tajul; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2013-08-16

    Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs.

  20. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  1. Rich diversity and potency of skin antioxidant peptides revealed a novel molecular basis for high-altitude adaptation of amphibians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Xinwang; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    .... wuchuanensis to elevated UV radiation was investigated. Compared with O. wuchuanensis, O. andersonii exhibited greater diversity and free radical scavenging potentiality of skin antioxidant peptides to cope with UV radiation...

  2. Effect of tea polyphenols on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z H; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Wang, J P

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic-antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets. A total of 300 Lohman laying hens (67 wk old) were used in a 1 plus 3 × 3 experiment design in which hens were given either a diet without vanadium and TP supplementation (control) or diets supplemented with 5, 10, or 15 mg V/kg and TP (0, 600, 1,000 mg/kg) diets for 8 wk, which included 2 phases: a 5-wk accumulation phase and a 3-wk depletion phase. During the accumulation phase, dietary vanadium addition decreased (linear, P hens fed 15 mg/kg vanadium and 600 mg/kg TP showed no difference from the control diet only after 1 wk withdrawal. In the liver, the activity of glutathione S-transferases and glutathione peroxidase was increased (linear, P hens from the adverse effect of vanadium on egg quality, liver antioxidant stress and shorten the recovery time.

  3. Inhibitory activity on type 2 diabetes and hypertension key-enzymes, and antioxidant capacity of Veronica persica phenolic-rich extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Tayeboon, G S; Sharifi-Rad, J; Iriti, M; Varoni, E M; Razazi, S

    2016-05-30

    Veronica genus (Plantaginaceae) is broadly distributed in different habitats. In this study, the inhibitory activity of free soluble and conjugated phenolic extracts of Veronica persica on key enzymes associated to type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) and hypertension (angiotensin I converting enzyme, ACE) was assessed, as well as their antioxidant power. Our results showed that both the extracts inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and ACE in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, free phenolic extract significantly (Penzyme inhibitory activities of the extracts were not associated with their phenolic content. Anyway, the inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and ACE, along with the antioxidant capacity of the phenolic-rich extracts, could represent a putative mechanism through which V. persica exerts its antidiabetes and antihypertension effects.

  4. Vegetarian diets and public health: biomarker and redox connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzie, Iris F F; Wachtel-Galor, Sissi

    2010-11-15

    Vegetarian diets are rich in antioxidant phytochemicals. However, they may not act as antioxidants in vivo, and yet still have important signaling and regulatory functions. Some may act as pro-oxidants, modulating cellular redox tone and oxidizing redox sensitive sites. In this review, evidence for health benefits of vegetarian diets is presented from different perspectives: epidemiological, biomarker, evolutionary, and public health, as well as antioxidant. From the perspective of molecular connections between diet and health, evidence of a role for plasma ascorbic acid as a biomarker for future disease risk is presented. Basic concepts of redox-based cell signaling are presented, and effects of antioxidant phytochemicals on signaling, especially via redox tone, sulfur switches and the Antioxidant Response Element (ARE), are explored. Sufficient scientific evidence exists for public health policy to promote a plant-rich diet for health promotion. This does not need to wait for science to provide all the answers as to why and how. However, action and interplay of dietary antioxidants in the nonequilibrium systems that control redox balance, cell signaling, and cell function provide rich ground for research to advance understanding of orthomolecular nutrition and provide science-based evidence to advance public health in our aging population.

  5. Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2013-09-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) extracted by wet processing is popular among the scientific field and society nowadays. The present study was carried out to examine the comparative effect of VCO with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO) and sunflower oil (SFO) on endogenous antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with the synthetic diet. Results revealed that dietary VCO improved the antioxidant status compared to other three oil fed groups (P oil fed groups (P oil fed rats (P oil) and tocopherols (33.12 μg per 100 g oil) etc. compared to other oils (P < 0.05). From these observations, it is concluded that VCO has a beneficial role in improving antioxidant status and hence preventing lipid and protein oxidation.

  6. The impact of a diet with fructan-rich chicory roots on Oesophagostomum dentatum worm population dynamics and host immune responses in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig Millan; Mejer, Helena; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    : Seventy-two pigs were allocated to four groups in a 2-factorial design. Group O was fed regular feed and trickle inoculated with 15 O. dentatum L3/kg/day 0-12 weeks post-infection (pi.) start. Group OC was also trickle inoculated but switched to a chicory-rich diet (12% inulin in DM) weeks 3-12 pi. Group...

  7. Knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant women regarding anemia, iron rich diet and iron supplements and its impact on their hemoglobin levels

    OpenAIRE

    Nivedita K.; Fatima Shanthini N

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia in pregnancy has detrimental effects on maternal and child health and prevalence of anemia during pregnancy is alarmingly high, inspite of the implementation of the national nutritional anemia prophylaxis programme which provides iron and folic acid which are the essential nutrients lacking in their diet. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant women regarding anemia, Iron rich food and iron supplements and also to assess ...

  8. Effect of aqueous extract of Ajuga iva supplementation on plasma lipid profile and tissue antioxidant status in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenni, A; Yahia, D Ait; Boukortt, F O; Prost, J; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2007-01-19

    The present study was designed to explore the possible antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (0.5% in the diet) in rats fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet (HCD). The results indicated that the HCD-Ai versus HCD treatment led to many changes in biochemical parameters. They showed a decrease of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and VLDL-cholesterol but an increase of HDL(2)-cholesterol. The triacylglycerol contents were reduced in plasma and in VLDL. The lipid peroxidation determined by TBARS was decreased by 75% in plasma. TBARS in liver, heart and kidneys were highly reduced excepted in the adipose tissue. Ajuga iva treatment enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in liver and kidney. Glutathione reductase activity was lowered in adipose tissue but increased in liver and in kidney. A significant increase was noted in glutathione peroxidase activity in liver, heart and kidney but a low value in adipose tissue was observed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that in addition to its potent TG and TC-lowering effects, Ajuga iva is effective in improving the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation in plasma and tissues and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes in rats fed high-cholesterol diet. Furthermore, Ajuga iva may reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption.

  9. Plasma alkylresorcinols reflect gluten intake and distinguish between gluten-rich and gluten-poor diets in a population at risk of metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Madsen, Mia Linda; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with celiac disease experience difficulties in adherence to a gluten-free diet. Methods for testing compliance to a gluten-free diet are costly and cumbersome. Thus, a simple biomarker of gluten intake is needed in a clinical setting and will be useful for epidemiologic...... studies investigating wider effects of gluten intake. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations as a measure of gluten intake. METHODS: In this randomized, controlled, crossover intervention study in 52 Danish adults with features of the metabolic syndrome, we compared...... 8 wk of a gluten-rich and gluten-poor diet separated by a washout period of ≥6 wk. We measured fasting plasma concentrations of alkylresorcinols to determine if they reflected differences in gluten intake as a secondary outcome of the original study. In addition, we investigated in 118 Danish adults...

  10. The saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract reduces cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rama Manohar I; Latha, Pushpa B; Vijaya, Tartte; Rao, Dattatreya S

    2012-01-01

    We examined the antiobesity effect of a saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract (SGE) using cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obese rats for a period of eight weeks. SGE was orally administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight once a day to the treatment group. It significantly decreased the body weight, food consumption, visceral organs weight, and the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, very low-density lipoproteins, atherogenic index, glucose, and increased the levels of high-density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference with respect to all parameters of the study in case of normal (N) diet and N diet + SGE rats. In vitro, SGE inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity. The present study gave clear evidence that the SGE has a significant antiobese action, supporting its use in traditional medicine, and can be used as a substitute for synthetic drugs.

  11. Urinary metabolomic profiling to identify biomarkers of a flavonoid-rich and flavonoid-poor fruits and vegetables diet in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulaszewska, Maria M.; Trost, Kajetan; Stanstrup, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the dose dependent effects of consuming diets enriched in flavonoid-rich and flavonoid-poor fruits and vegetables on the urine metabolome of adults who had a ≥1.5 fold increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. A single-blind, dose-dependent, parallel...... an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Putative biomarkers which characterize diets with high and low flavonoid content were selected by state-of-the-art data analysis strategies and identified by HR-MS and HR-MS/MS assays. Discrimination between diets was observed by application of two linear mixed models: one....... For the first time abscisic acid glucuronide was reported as a biomarker after a dietary intake, however its origins have to be examined by future hypothesis driven experiments using a more targeted approach. This metabolomic analysis has identified a number of dose dependent urinary biomarkers (i.e. proline...

  12. Effects of diets with whole plant-origin proteins added with different ratios of taurine:methionine on the growth, macrophage activity and antioxidant capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ezequiel Aguillón Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 70-days feeding trial was performed to determine the effect of diets with whole plant-origin proteins added with different ratios of taurine:methionine on the growth, macrophage burst activity and antioxidant capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings. Triplicated groups of 70 fingerlings of an initial weight of 0.54±0.1 g (mean±±SD were fed diets with soy protein isolate and Spirulina powder as protein sources (46% crude protein and added (10 g/kg diet with different taurine and methionine ratios: 0.0 and 10.0 (diet T0/M100, 2.5 and 7.5 (diet T25/M75, 5.0 and 5.0 (diet T50/M50, 7.5 and 2.5 (diet T75/M25 and 10.0 and 0.0 (diet T100/M0, respectively. At the end of the trial, growth performance, lipid and protein contents in liver and muscle, macrophage burst activity and liver antioxidant activity, were determined. The growth performance, macrophage burst activity and antioxidant activity were improved as the taurine increased in the diets. The ratio of 7.5 and 2.5 g/kg of taurine:methionine in diets with SPI and Spirulina powder as protein sources (diet T75/M25, seems to be the best inclusion for rainbow trout fingerlings.

  13. Study on the Efficiency of Grape Seed Meals Used as Antioxidants in Layer Diets Enriched with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Compared with Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Olteanu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The 4-week study was conducted with 180 Lohmann Brown layers (52 weeks of age. The layers were assigned to three groups (C, E1 and E2. The basal diet (group C consisted mainly of corn, soybean meal and corn gluten, and contained 19% crude protein and 11.58 MJ/kg metabolizable energy. The diets for groups E1 and E2 differed from group C by the inclusion of 5% flax meal and of dietary antioxidants. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in the fat of E1 and E2 diets was almost 10 times higher than in group C. E1 diet was supplemented with vitamin E (100 mg/kg feed, DM, while E2 diet was supplemented with 2% grape seed meal (polyphenols: 630.890 µg gallic acid equivalents/g sample; flavonoids: 5.065 µg rutin equivalents/g sample; antioxidant capacity: 28.468 mM trolox equivalents/g sample. The antioxidant capacity of E2 was higher than in C, but lower than in E1. Haugh units of the eggs (18 eggs/group harvested during the last experimental week were not significantly different among groups. The ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs ratio in the fat from the eggs was 4.46 ± 0.11 (E1 and 4.52 ± 0.21 (E2, three times lower (p<0.05 than the control group (14.70 ± 0.43. In group E1 in particular, but also in group E2, the concentration of total polyphenols in the egg yolk was higher (p<0.05 than in group C.

  14. Diets rich in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid have no effect on blood pressure and isobaric arterial elasticity in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Sejrsen, K.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP) and isobaric arterial elasticity (AE), as a measure of arterial health, of a commercial mixture of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and of milk fat produced through livestock feeding to have a high content of vaccenic acid...... of the test diets did not differ on any outcome variable: e.g., systolic- and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), pulse pressure (PP), isobaric arterial compliance (AC), distensibility (AD), or volume (AV). In conclusion, diets rich in milk fat and either CLA or VA have no effect on BP or AE indices...... (VA). Healthy young men (n = 60) with a BMI of 22.5 +/- 2 kg/m(2) (mean +/- SD) participated in this double-blind, randomized, 5-wk, parallel intervention study. The participants substituted 115 g of their daily fat intake with fat from 1 of 3 test diets: 1) CLA-diet rich in CLA (4.7 g/d of c9, t11...

  15. Kupffer cells ameliorate hepatic insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids: the evidence for the involvement of alternatively activated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papackova Zuzana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resident macrophages (Kupffer cells, KCs in the liver can undergo both pro- or anti-inflammatory activation pathway and exert either beneficiary or detrimental effects on liver metabolism. Until now, their role in the metabolically dysfunctional state of steatosis remains enigmatic. Aim of our study was to characterize the role of KCs in relation to the onset of hepatic insulin resistance induced by a high-fat (HF diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed either standard (SD or high-fat (HF diet for 4 weeks. Half of the animals were subjected to the acute GdCl3 treatment 24 and 72 hrs prior to the end of the experiment in order to induce the reduction of KCs population. We determined the effect of HF diet on activation status of liver macrophages and on the changes in hepatic insulin sensitivity and triacylglycerol metabolism imposed by acute KCs depletion by GdCl3. Results We found that a HF diet rich in MUFA itself triggers an alternative but not the classical activation program in KCs. In a steatotic, but not in normal liver, a reduction of the KCs population was associated with a decrease of alternative activation and with a shift towards the expression of pro-inflammatory activation markers, with the increased autophagy, elevated lysosomal lipolysis, increased formation of DAG, PKCε activation and marked exacerbation of HF diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Conclusions We propose that in the presence of a high MUFA content the population of alternatively activated resident liver macrophages may mediate beneficial effects on liver insulin sensitivity and alleviate the metabolic disturbances imposed by HF diet feeding and steatosis. Our data indicate that macrophage polarization towards an alternative state might be a useful strategy for treating type 2 diabetes.

  16. Mitochondrial antioxidative capacity regulates muscle glucose uptake in the conscious mouse: effect of exercise and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li; Lustig, Mary E; Bonner, Jeffrey S; Lee-Young, Robert S; Mayes, Wesley H; James, Freyja D; Lin, Chien-Te; Perry, Christopher G R; Anderson, Ethan J; Neufer, P Darrell; Wasserman, David H

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise-stimulated muscle glucose uptake (MGU) is augmented by increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) scavenging capacity. This hypothesis was tested in genetically altered mice fed chow or a high-fat (HF) diet that accelerates mtROS formation. Mice overexpressing SOD2 (sod2(Tg)), mitochondria-targeted catalase (mcat(Tg)), and combined SOD2 and mCAT (mtAO) were used to increase mtROS scavenging. mtROS was assessed by the H(2)O(2) emitting potential (JH(2)O(2)) in muscle fibers. sod2(Tg) did not decrease JH(2)O(2) in chow-fed mice, but decreased JH(2)O(2) in HF-fed mice. mcat(Tg) and mtAO decreased JH(2)O(2) in both chow- and HF-fed mice. In parallel, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) was unaltered in sod2(Tg) in chow-fed mice, but was increased in HF-fed sod2(Tg) and both chow- and HF-fed mcat(Tg) and mtAO. Nitrotyrosine, a marker of NO-dependent, reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-induced nitrative stress, was decreased in both chow- and HF-fed sod2(Tg), mcat(Tg), and mtAO mice. This effect was not changed with exercise. Kg, an index of MGU was assessed using 2-[(14)C]-deoxyglucose during exercise. In chow-fed mice, sod2(Tg), mcat(Tg), and mtAO increased exercise Kg compared with wild types. Exercise Kg was also augmented in HF-fed sod2(Tg) and mcat(Tg) mice but unchanged in HF-fed mtAO mice. In conclusion, mtROS scavenging is a key regulator of exercise-mediated MGU and this regulation depends on nutritional state.

  17. Red wine intake but not other alcoholic beverages increases total antioxidant capacity and improves pro-inflammatory profile after an oral fat diet in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Cachofeiro, V; Millán, J; Lahera, V; Nieto, M L; Martín, R; Bello, E; Alvarez-Sala, L A

    2015-12-01

    Different alcoholic beverages exert different effects on inflammation and oxidative stress but these results are controversial and scanty in some aspects. We analyze the effect of different alcoholic beverages after a fat-enriched diet on lipid profile, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in healthy people in a controlled environment. We have performed a cross-over design in five different weeks. Sixteen healthy volunteers have received the same oral fat-enriched diet (1486kcal/m(2)) and a daily total amount of 16g/m(2) of alcohol, of different beverages (red wine, vodka, brandy or rum) and equivalent caloric intakes as sugar with water in the control group. We have measured the levels of serum lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Red wine intake was associated with decreased of mean concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα and IL-6 induced by fat-enriched diet (palcoholic beverages, decreased pro-inflammatory factors and increased total antioxidant capacity despite a fat-enriched diet intake in healthy young volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  18. High concentration of vitamin E supplementation in sow diet during the last week of gestation and lactation affects the immunological variables and antioxidative parameters in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Xu, Xiaodong; Su, Ge; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a high concentration of vitamin E supplementation in sow diet during the last week of gestation and lactation on the performance, milk composition, and vital immunological variables and antioxidative parameters in sows and piglets. The experiment started on day 107 of gestation and lasted until the piglets were weaned on day 21 of lactation. 48 sows were divided into two groups and fed either a basal diet with 44 IU/kg of vitamin E or a basal diet supplemented with additional vitamin E, total content of 250 IU/kg. Sow milk and blood samples were obtained on day 0 (farrowing) and on day 21 of lactation. One 21-day-old piglet per litter was selected to collect plasma. Results showed that supplementation of the maternal diet with 250 IU/kg vitamin E improved the average daily gain (ADG) and weaning weight of piglets (P E (P E than in those from the control group. The high concentration of vitamin E supplementation to the sows enhanced the concentrations of α-tocopherol in the sow milk and plasma as well as piglet plasma (P E at high concentration improved the weight of piglets at weaning, and enhanced humoral immune function and antioxidant activity in sows and piglets.

  19. An olive oil-rich diet results in higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol and a higher number of LDL subfraction particles than rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, A; Baumstark, M W; Marckmann, P; Gylling, H; Sandström, B

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the effect of olive oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil on blood lipids and lipoproteins including number and lipid composition of lipoprotein subclasses. Eighteen young, healthy men participated in a double-blinded randomized cross-over study (3-week intervention period) with 50 g of oil per 10 MJ incorporated into a constant diet. Plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were 10;-20% higher after consumption of the olive oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets [analysis of variance (ANOVA), P sunflower oil diets (ANOVA, P sunflower oil (ANOVA, P sunflower oil had more favorable effects on blood lipids and plasma apolipoproteins as well as on the number and lipid content of LDL subfractions compared with olive oil. Some of the differences may be attributed to differences in the squalene and phytosterol contents of the oils.

  20. Antioxidants and vision health: facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Ashok K; Samson, Sue E

    2014-03-01

    A number of nutritional supplements containing antioxidants are advertised for better vision health. Do they benefit the average consumer? The literature was examined for the effectiveness of antioxidants for human eye health, and for the intricacies in collection of such evidence. The following diseases were considered: cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, eye infections, and uveitis. The literature indicates that antioxidant supplements plus lutein have a reasonable probability of retarding AMD. For glaucoma, such supplements were ineffectual in some studies but useful in others. In some studies, antioxidant rich fruits and vegetables were also useful for protection against glaucoma. For diabetic retinopathy, antioxidant supplements may have a small benefit, if any, but only as an adjunct to glycemic control. In very high-risk premature retinopathy and retinitis pigmentosa, antioxidant supplements may be beneficial but those with excess Vitamin E should be avoided. For cataract, there is no evidence for an advantage of such nutritional supplements. However, lubricant drops containing N-acetylcarnosine may be helpful in initial stages of the disease. For eye infections and other causes of uveitis, antioxidants have not been found useful. We recommend that a diet high in antioxidant rich foods should be developed as a habit from an early age. However, when initial signs of vision health deterioration are observed, the appropriate nutritional supplement products may be recommended but only to augment the primary medical treatments.

  1. Effects of human diets of two different Japanese populations on cancer incidence in rat hepatic drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzyme systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanke, Y; Iitoi, Y; Iwasaki, M; Iwase, Y; Iwama, M; Kimira, M; Takahashi, T; Tsugane, S; Watanabe, S; Akabane, M

    1996-01-01

    Hepatic enzyme systems of drug metabolism and antioxidation were investigated in rats fed the complete human diets consumed in the two Japanese prefectures, Akita and Okinawa, where the incidence of cancers was quite different: Okinawa had the lowest and Akita the highest age-adjusted mortality rate. In rats fed the human diet consumed in Okinawa, hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity was higher and lipid peroxide content was lower than in rats fed the diet consumed in Akita. These data might indicate that the number and/or quantity of the dietary components attributed to the detoxification of carcinogens and the scavenging reactive carcinogen species was much higher in the foods consumed in the population having lower cancer mortality rate.

  2. Instant coffee as a source of antioxidant-rich and sugar-free coloured compounds for use in bakery: Application in biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Cláudia P; Kukurová, Kristína; Basil, Eva; Fernandes, Pedro A R; Neto, Andreia; Nunes, Fernando M; Murkovic, Michael; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2017-09-15

    Ammonia caramels are the most common antioxidant colour agent used in bakery formulations, although their high sugars content. An alternative could be coffee melanoidins, which are brown coloured compounds with antioxidant properties, readily available from instant coffee. However, high caffeine content is limiting its direct application. To evaluate the possibility of obtaining coloured melanoidin-rich, sugars- and caffeine-poor fractions from instant coffee, in this work, simple procedures based on their ethanol insolubility (fraction EtPp) or retention by ultrafiltration (fraction HWSn) were exploited. Melanoidins incorporation into biscuits formulation (amounts of 1, 5 and 10% w/w related to flour content) resulted in acceptable coloured products with higher antioxidant activity. The biscuits supplemented with 1% EtPp or HWSn had a low caffeine content. The caffeine of one espresso coffee was equivalent to 130 biscuits containing EtPp and 31 biscuits containing HWSn. Besides, both fractions did not promote extra formation of acrylamide or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural during baking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anthocyanin-rich extracts from blackberry, wild blueberry, strawberry, and chokeberry: antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Dan; Huo, Yazhen; Ji, Baoping

    2016-05-01

    Limited information is available regarding the relationship between the chemical structures and inhibitory effects of anthocyanin (ACN) on triglyceride (TG) overaccumulation. Thus this study investigated the antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of blackberry, wild blueberry, strawberry, and chokeberry ACN-rich extracts, with different structural characteristics, on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro. Four major ACNs from these berries, with different aglycones, namely cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu), delphinidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3-glucoside, were also investigated. Blackberry ACN-rich extract exhibited the most significant inhibitory effect on TG clearance (30.5% ± 3.4%) and reactive oxygen species generation. TG clearance was significantly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.991, P < 0.05) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity value (r = 0.961, P < 0.05). Furthermore, Cy-3-glu showed the highest inhibitory effect on intracellular TG overaccumulation, with a maximum TG clearance of 61.3% at 40 µg mL(-1) . Our findings suggest that the inhibitory effects of different ACNs on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis significantly vary. Cy-3-glu, which contains the ortho hydroxyl group in its B ring, possibly confers the protective effects of antioxidants and inhibits TG accumulation in HepG2 cells. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The effect of the combination of acids and tannin in diet on the performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krsnik Mladen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The abolition of in-feed antibiotics or chemotherapeutics as growth promoters have stimulated the swine industry to look for alternatives such as organic acids, botanicals, probiotics and tannin. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of a combination of acids and tannin with diet with organic acids and diet without growth promoters on the growth performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs. Tannin is more natural and cheaper but possibly with the same effectiveness as organic acids with regard to growth performance. Methods Thirty-six 7 week old grower pigs, divided into three equal groups, were used in a three week feeding trial. Group I was fed basal diet, group II basal diet with added organic acids and group III basal diet with added organic and inorganic acids and tannin. Pigs were weighed before and after feeding and observed daily. Blood was collected before and after the feeding trial for the determination of selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters. One-way ANOVA was used to assess any diet related changes of all the parameters. Paired t-test was used to evaluate changes of blood parameters individually in each group of growers before and after feeding. Results No clinical health problems related to diet were noted during the three week feeding trial. The average daily gain (ADG and selected blood parameters were not affected by the addition to basal diet of either acids and tannin or of organic acids alone. Selected blood parameters remained within the reference range before and after the feeding trial, with the exception of total serum proteins that were below the lower value of reference range at both times. The significant changes (paired t-test observed in individual groups before and after the feeding trial are related to the growth of pigs. Conclusion Diet with acids and tannin did not improve the

  5. Comparative Analysis of Four Facial Foundation Lotions with Reference to Its Antioxidant Richness and Bio-Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Singh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The market these days is a hub of a variety of commercially available cosmetic products, and foundation makeup to be precise, containing various types of important bioactive compounds both from natural and synthetic sources. The current study explores the usage of foundation lotions among undergraduate female students of an engineering college in West Bengal, India, and its antioxidant potential such as free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and reducing power. Red Blood Corpuscles hemolysis assay was also tested for evaluating it safety measures. Results confirmed the presence of antioxidant-related bioactive components and hence the antioxidant property in each brand tested, albeit in varying degrees. Free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and reducing power were also exhibited by all samples tested. Hemolytic activity was not significantly noted among the foundations, though each exhibited different results. Lotion with the least bioactive components exhibited high hemolytic activity. The findings of this study reveal the secret behind the usefulness of foundation lotions on the basis of antioxidant contents and free radical scavenging activity. The results of this study confirmed that it is very unlikely that all the essential qualities of a good cosmetic product will be present all at once.

  6. Employing photoacoustic spectroscopy in the evaluation of the skin permeation profile of emulsion containing antioxidant phenolic-rich extract of Melochia arenosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunin, Luana Magri; Borghi, Fernanda Belincanta; Nogueira, Ana Claudia; Higachi, Luciana; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Diniz, Andréa; Truiti, Maria da Conceição Torrado

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important factor modulating skin alterations. Melochia arenosa Benth. (Malvaceae) is a Brazilian plant with antimicrobial activity and antioxidant potential. The objective of this study is to develop a topical formulation containing antioxidant phenolic-rich extract of M. arenosa and to evaluate its skin permeation profile. Response surface methodology was used to maximize the total phenolic (TP) content of the extract and its antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and respiratory burst methods. An emulsion containing 1% optimized extract (OE) was developed and employed photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for the determination of its skin permeation profile. The morphology of the skin was studied in histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The optimum conditions predicted for the major extractive efficiency of the phenolics with 100% ethanol led extraction time 101 h and plant:solvent proportion 1:13.5 (w/v). OE presented TP = 724.6 ± 8.2 mg GAE/g extract and scavenging capacity of DPPH (IC50 value = 11.43 ± 0.14 µg/mL) and ABTS radicals (IC50 value = 35.42 ± 0.48 µg/mL). The production of ROS by neutrophils after stimulation with phorbol miristate acetate was lower when the OE was present in the reaction medium, endorsing its high antioxidant capacity. The data obtained by PAS indicated that the OE present in the emulsion has permeated and was distributed in the whole skin. No histopathological alterations were observed in the histological analysis. The formulation developed is a promising tool for skin care and could prevent the damage caused by oxidative stress.

  7. Plasma Alkylresorcinols Reflect Gluten Intake and Distinguish between Gluten-Rich and Gluten-Poor Diets in a Population at Risk of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Mads V; Madsen, Mia L; Rumessen, Jüri J; Vestergaard, Henrik; Gøbel, Rikke J; Hansen, Torben; Lauritzen, Lotte; Pedersen, Oluf B; Kristensen, Mette; Ross, Alastair B

    2016-10-01

    Many patients with celiac disease experience difficulties in adherence to a gluten-free diet. Methods for testing compliance to a gluten-free diet are costly and cumbersome. Thus, a simple biomarker of gluten intake is needed in a clinical setting and will be useful for epidemiologic studies investigating wider effects of gluten intake. The aim was to evaluate plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations as a measure of gluten intake. In this randomized, controlled, crossover intervention study in 52 Danish adults with features of the metabolic syndrome, we compared 8 wk of a gluten-rich and gluten-poor diet separated by a washout period of ≥6 wk. We measured fasting plasma concentrations of alkylresorcinols to determine if they reflected differences in gluten intake as a secondary outcome of the original study. In addition, we investigated in 118 Danish adults the cross-sectional association between self-reported gluten intake and plasma alkylresorcinols in the same and a similar study at baseline. We used mixed-model ANCOVA for examining treatment effects, a classification tree to determine compliance to the gluten-poor diet, and linear regression models for examining baseline correlation between plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations and gluten intake. Plasma total alkylresorcinols decreased more during the gluten-poor period (geometric mean: -124.8 nmol/L; 95% CI: -156.5, -93.0 nmol/L) than in the gluten-rich period (geometric mean: -31.8 nmol/L; 95% CI: -63.1, -0.4 nmol/L) (P gluten intake (P gluten-free diet as well as to help investigations into the possible effects of gluten in the wider population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT017119913 and NCT01731366. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Effct of Apple Vinegar on Spermatogenesis and Serum Total Antioxidant Status in Rats Under High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Rudkhaneei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and high fat diet (HFD has side effcts on male fertility. Th aim of this study was to evaluate the effct of apple vinegar on spermatogenesis and serum total antioxidant status (TAS in rats under HFD. Methods: Twenty-four Wistar male rats were divided to three groups, including (n = 8: control, HFD, HFD + apple vinegar. Th control group received 16.6 kcal/day and the other two groups received HFD containing 51.6 kcal/day. Aftr 16 weeks, group 3 received %5 apple vinegar in drinking water orally for six weeks. At the end of the experiment, epididymis sperm parameters including: count, morphology and motility, were measured. Serum level of TAS, testosterone and estradiol was assayed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Testicular apoptosis was assayed with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL and spermatogenesis was studied with quantitative histologic method. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Apple vinegar increased count and forward motility of sperms, when compared with HFD (P < 0.05. However, it was not effctive on morphology. Numbers of apoptotic cells reduced in the vinegar-treated group (P < 0.001. Vinegar increased serum levels of testosterone and TAS compared with HFD (P < 0.05. However, estradiol level was not changed. Vinegar reduced the lee index, when compared with HFD (P < 0.001. Th numbers of spermatogonia, primary pachytene and leptotene spermatocyte, and round spermatids were not changed. However, the numbers of elongated spermatids were increased compared with HFD (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Ths study indicated that daily use of apple vinegar in rats under HFD for six weeks improved spermatogenesis through reduction of testis apoptosis, increasing serum TAS and testosterone.

  9. Feeding motivation and plasma metabolites in pregnant sows fed diets rich in dietary fiber either once or twice daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M B; Pedersen, L J; Theil, P K; Yde, C C; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of source and level of dietary fiber (DF) and feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on feeding motivation and plasma metabolites at 4 different time points post feeding. Sixty pregnant sows (Sus scrofa, 4 blocks of 15 sows) were allocated to 1 of 5 diets within blocks. Four diets were restricted (approximately 35 MJ ME/d): a barley and wheat control diet (171 g DF/kg DM; 12 g DF/MJ ME), and 3 fiber diets formulated to contain 35% DF by including pectin residue (323 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME), potato pulp (404 g DF/kg DM; 29 g DF/MJ ME), or sugar beet pulp (367 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The fifth diet was a mixture including an equal amount of the 3 fiber diets offered semi ad libitum (ad libitum access to feed during 6 periods of 1 h starting at 0300, 0600, 1100, 1500, 1800, and 2300; 354 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The experimental period included 2 periods of 4 wk each. Restricted-fed sows were fed once daily (0800 h) during the first period and twice daily (0800 and 1500 h) during the second period, or vice versa. Semi ad libitum fed sows had access to feed 6 times a day in both periods. In each period, the feeding motivation was assessed in an operant conditioning test, and samples of peripheral blood were taken in a balanced design, at 0900, 1200, 1900, and 0700 h, corresponding to 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after feeding for restricted sows fed once daily. No differences in the feeding motivation were found between the 4 restricted diets at any of the time points post feeding, but semi ad libitum fed sows had a decreased feeding motivation (P fiber diets compared with the control (P = 0.02). Nonesterified fatty acid was least in sows on the control diet and greatest in sows on the potato diet, whereas sows on the pectin and sugar beet diets were intermediate (P fiber diets. In spite of the found effects on plasma metabolites, the applied level of fiber in the diet of restrictedly fed sows did not reduce their feeding

  10. Rich diversity and potency of skin antioxidant peptides revealed a novel molecular basis for high-altitude adaptation of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinwang; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-27

    Elucidating the mechanisms of high-altitude adaptation is an important research area in modern biology. To date, however, knowledge has been limited to the genetic mechanisms of adaptation to the lower oxygen and temperature levels prevalent at high altitudes, with adaptation to UV radiation largely neglected. Furthermore, few proteomic or peptidomic analyses of these factors have been performed. In this study, the molecular adaptation of high-altitude Odorrana andersonii and cavernicolous O. wuchuanensis to elevated UV radiation was investigated. Compared with O. wuchuanensis, O. andersonii exhibited greater diversity and free radical scavenging potentiality of skin antioxidant peptides to cope with UV radiation. This implied that O. andersonii evolved a much more complicated and powerful skin antioxidant peptide system to survive high-altitude UV levels. Our results provided valuable peptidomic clues for understanding the novel molecular basis for adaptation to high elevation habitats.

  11. Antioxidant-rich date palm fruit extract inhibits oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity induced by dimethoate in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saafi-Ben Salah, Emna Behija; El Arem, Amira; Louedi, Mouna; Saoudi, Mongi; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Hammami, Mohamed; Achour, Lotfi

    2012-03-01

    Recent investigations have proved the crucial role of nutritional antioxidants to prevent the damage caused by toxic compounds. In this study, the antioxidant effect of date palm fruit extract on dimethoate-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity in rat is investigated and compared with the effect of the well-known antioxidant vitamin C. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of ten each: a control group (C), a group that received dimethoate (20 mg/kg body weight) (D), a group given Deglet Nour extract (DNE), a group treated with DNE 30 min before the administration of dimethoate (DNE + D), a group which received VitC (100 mg/kg body weight) plus dimethoate (Vit C + D), and a group given dimethoate for the first month and DNE 30 min after administration of dimethoate, during the second month (D + DNE). These components were daily administered by gavage for 2 months. After completing the treatment period, blood samples from rats were collected under inhaled diethyl ether anesthesia for serum urea, uric acid, and creatinine levels, while the rat kidneys were obtained for enzyme assays and histology. Oral administration of dimethoate in rats induced a marked renal failure characterized by a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea levels (p < 0.01) in addition to a significant decrease in serum uric acid (p < 0.05). Interestingly, these drastic modifications were accompanied by a marked enhancement of lipid peroxidation in kidney, indicating a significant induction of oxidative damage (p < 0.01) and dysfunctions of enzymatic antioxidant defenses. These biochemical alterations were also accompanied by histological changes in kidney revealed by a narrowed Bowman's space, tubular degeneration, tubular cell desquamation, and tubular dilatation of proximal tubules. Treatment with date palm fruit extract (Deglet Nour) and also with vitamin C significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the serum renal markers to their near-normal levels

  12. Aleatory clinical study comparing otilonium bromide with a fiber-rich diet in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrasa, M; Boix, J; Humbert, P; Quer, J C

    1991-11-01

    We studied 114 patients affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (group A = 53 patients, group B = 61). Group A received diet with high content of roughage (20 g of fibers) and 10 g of bran, group B received otilonium bromide (OB) 40mg tid and normal diet (10-15 g of fibers). Abdominal pain, abdominal distension, bowel movements were evaluated before treatment (T0) at the end (T24) and after 12 months (T12). In group B otilonium bromide induced a significant improvement (p less than 0.01) of abdominal pain and distension when comparing T0 with T24. In group A diet produced an improvement, albeit not significant, of the aforementioned parameters at T24. On the basis of our data OB seems to be more effective than a high-fiber diet in the treatment of IBS.

  13. Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and anti-atherosclerogenic effects of aqueous extract ofZanthoxylum heitziistem bark in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fidele Ntchapda; Kakesse Maguirgue; Hamadjida Adjia; Paul Faustin Seke Etet; Thophile Dimo

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate anti-dyslipidemic, antioxidant and anti-atherosclerogenic properties of this extract in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat, a model of metabolic syndrome-induced atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases.Methods: Normocholesterolemic (NC) male rats were divided into six groups (n=10) and fed a high-cholesterol (HC) diet for 30 days (5 groups), or normal rat chow (normal control group). Rats given a HC diet also received distilled water (disease control), the potent hypocholesterolemic agent with anti-atherosclerotic activity atorvastatin (2 mg/kg, positive control), or one of the three doses of Zanthoxylum heitzii stem bark aqueous extract tested (225, 300 and 375 mg/kg) concomitantly for four months. Signs of general toxicity, body temperature and weight, and water and food intake were monitored in live animals. After sacrifice, lipid profiles and oxidative stress markers were assessed in the blood and liver, aorta, and feces, and histopathological analysis of aorta was performed.Results:Plant extract prevented the elevation of aortic total cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) was decreased and aortic atherosclerotic plaque formation prevented.Conclusions:These observations strongly suggest that stem bark aqueous extract ofZanthoxylum heitzii has anti-atherosclerogenic properties, at least partly mediated by antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects.

  14. Supplementation of a western diet with golden kiwifruits (Actinidia chinensis var.'Hort 16A': effects on biomarkers of oxidation damage and antioxidant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomhoff Rune

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health positive effects of diets high in fruits and vegetables are generally not replicated in supplementation trials with isolated antioxidants and vitamins, and as a consequence the emphasis of chronic disease prevention has shifted to whole foods and whole food products. Methods We carried out a human intervention trial with the golden kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis, measuring markers of antioxidant status, DNA stability, plasma lipids, and platelet aggregation. Our hypothesis was that supplementation of a normal diet with kiwifruits would have an effect on biomarkers of oxidative status. Healthy volunteers supplemented a normal diet with either one or two golden kiwifruits per day in a cross-over study lasting 2 × 4 weeks. Plasma levels of vitamin C, and carotenoids, and the ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP were measured. Malondialdehyde was assessed as a biomarker of lipid oxidation. Effects on DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes were estimated using the comet assay with enzyme modification to measure specific lesions; another modification allowed estimation of DNA repair. Results Plasma vitamin C increased after supplementation as did resistance towards H2O2-induced DNA damage. Purine oxidation in lymphocyte DNA decreased significantly after one kiwifruit per day, pyrimidine oxidation decreased after two fruits per day. Neither DNA base excision nor nucleotide excision repair was influenced by kiwifruit consumption. Malondialdehyde was not affected, but plasma triglycerides decreased. Whole blood platelet aggregation was decreased by kiwifruit supplementation. Conclusion Golden kiwifruit consumption strengthens resistance towards endogenous oxidative damage.

  15. Do teas rich in antioxidants reduce the physicochemical and peroxidative risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in humans? Pilot studies with Rooibos herbal tea and Japanese green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A; Mokoena, M; Durbach, I; Lazarus, J; de Jager, S; Ackermann, H; Breytenbach, I; Okada, A; Usami, M; Hirose, Y; Ando, R; Yasui, T; Kohri, K

    2016-08-01

    Several experimental and animal studies have demonstrated that substances rich in antioxidants can reduce the physicochemical and peroxidative risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stone formation in urine and blood. However, there are very few such investigations in humans. In the present pilot study, two varieties of tea, a green one from Japan (JGT) and a herbal one from South Africa (Rooibos) (RT), both rich in antioxidants, were administered to a group of CaOx stone formers (SF) (n = 8) for 30 days. Both teas were analysed for polyphenols by high-performance liquid chromatography and for minerals by plasma atomic and optical emission spectroscopy. 24 h urines (baseline and day 30) were analysed for lithogenic factors. CaOx metastable limits and crystal nucleation and growth kinetics were also determined in each urine sample. Deposited crystals were inspected by scanning electron microscopy. Blood samples were collected (baseline and day 30). Biomarkers of oxidative stress including plasma and urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) were also determined. Urinary physicochemical risk factors were also investigated after ingestion of RT for 30 days in two control groups (CG1 and CG2), the latter one of which consisted of habitual JGT drinkers. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and Mann-Whitney tests for paired and independent measurements, respectively. Several flavonoids and catechins were quantified in RT and JGT, respectively, confirming that both teas are rich sources of antioxidants. Mineral content was found to be far below dietary reference intakes. There were no significant changes in any of the urinary physicochemical or peroxidative risk factors in the control groups or in SF, except for the supersaturation (SS) of brushite (Bru) which decreased in the latter group after ingestion of JGT. Crystal morphology showed a tendency to change from

  16. Feeding motivation and plasma metabolites in pregnant sows fed diets rich in dietary fiber either once or twice daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of source and level of dietary fiber (DF) and feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on feeding motivation and plasma metabolites at 4 different time points post feeding. Sixty pregnant sows (Sus scrofa, 4 blocks of 15 sows) were allocated to 1 of 5...... diets within blocks. Four diets were restricted (approximately 35 MJ ME/d): a barley and wheat control diet (171 g DF/kg DM; 12 g DF/MJ ME), and 3 fiber diets formulated to contain 35% DF by including pectin residue (323 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME), potato pulp (404 g DF/kg DM; 29 g DF/MJ ME), or sugar...... beet pulp (367 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The fifth diet was a mixture including an equal amount of the 3 fiber diets offered semi ad libitum (ad libitum access to feed during 6 periods of 1 h starting at 0300, 0600, 1100, 1500, 1800, and 2300; 354 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The experimental period...

  17. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on blood lipids and adiposity of rats fed diets rich in saturated versus unsaturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Rebecca; Linscheid, Janna; Johnson, Amy; Lawson, Brian; Edwards, Kylie; Linder, Travis; Stocker, Kelly; Petitte, Jeremy; Kern, Mark

    2005-06-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may decrease adiposity and improve blood lipid profiles under some conditions. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of CLA supplementation on blood lipid profiles and adiposity of rats fed a diet containing a primarily saturated fat versus a diet containing a primarily unsaturated fat. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing coconut oil, coconut oil with CLA, corn oil or corn oil with CLA. After 28 days, blood was collected and serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TG) were assessed. Food intake, body weights, and epididymal fat pads were measured. No significant differences (p>0.05) were noted among groups for amount of food consumed, weight gained, food efficiency ratio or serum TG concentrations. TC concentrations were lower (pHDL-C was lower (p0.05) for CLA supplemented groups. Epididymal fat pads weighed significantly more (p0.05) between the corn oil and coconut oil + CLA group. Overall, this study suggests that CLA is more beneficial for control of blood lipids and adiposity when supplemented to a diet rich in saturated versus unsaturated fat.

  18. Rumen fermentation and nitrogen balance of lambs fed diets containing plant extracts rich in tannins and saponins, and associated emissions of nitrogen and methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwiński, B J; Kreuzer, M; Wettstein, H R; Machmüller, Andrea

    2002-12-01

    Tannins were added to experimental diets at levels of 1 and 2 g/kg DM (hydrolysable tannins; Castanea sativa wood extract) and saponins at 2 and 30 mg/kg DM (sarsaponin; Yucca schidigera extract). These levels were far below thresholds expected to be adverse in ruminants. Effects were measured in lambs by comparison with unsupplemented control diets calculated to be either deficient (10%) or adequate in protein. The diets consisted of hay, concentrate (1:1) and extra wheat starch with increasing body weight. Ruminal pH, VFA concentration, protozoa count and apparent digestibilities of organic matter and fibre did not differ among treatments. The low tannin dose significantly decreased bacteria count compared to the high saponin dose. Saponin supplementation and the high tannin dose showed some potential to reduce ruminal ammonia concentration. This was associated with weak trends towards lower urine N excretion (only tannins) and ammonia emission from manure. Methane release was increased by the low tannin dose compared to the unsupplemented control. Diet effects on heat production were not systematic. In conclusion, the extracts rich in tannins or saponins gave only slight indications for either increased body nitrogen retention or reduced nitrogen emission. However, effects might have been larger with more pronounced dietary protein deficit.

  19. Effects of a diet rich in sesame ( Sesamum indicum) pericarp on the expression of oestrogen receptor alpha and oestrogen receptor beta in rat prostate and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostis, Aristotelis; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I

    2009-09-01

    The expression of oestrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) in the prostate and uterus tissues of Wistar rats supplied for 8 weeks with a diet rich in sesame (Sesamum indicum) pericarp (30 %) was monitored. Eight male rats, aged 6 weeks, were divided into a control group fed on a normal diet, and an experimental one, provided with the normal diet enriched with 30 % sesame pericarp. A similar experiment was performed with female rats. At the end of the experiment, the prostate and uterus tissues were surgically removed and kept at - 80 degrees C for up to 2 months. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) methods were used in order to investigate the levels of receptor proteins and mRNA. Significant increase in the expression of ERbeta in prostate and uterus was evident in both methods, while the magnitude of the observed alteration depended on the applied method. No statistically significant change was observed in the expression of ERalpha in uterus. In prostate, although the increase was more evident when investigated by means of qRT-PCR, the difference in expression of ERalpha was not statistically significant. In both tissues, a shift of the ratio of ERalpha:ERbeta in favour of ERbeta was evident, indicating, according to existing literature, a beneficial effect of the diet provided upon the health status of the organisms. It is suggested that this effect is attributed to the lignans present in the pericarp which exert phyto-oestrogenic activity.

  20. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract in a high-fat diet STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Sekar, Ashwini; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2012-03-01

    Semecarpus anacardium commonly known as marking nut has been used in the Siddha system of medicine against various ailments. The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of the drug was evaluated in Type 2 diabetic rats induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 35 mg/kg body weight. Three days after STZ induction, the hyperglycemic rats were treated with Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract (SA) orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days. Metformin (500 mg/kg body weight, orally) was used as a reference drug. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, Hb, HbA1c levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA-β were measured, and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were observed. SA significantly (p < .05) reduced and normalized blood glucose levels and also decreased the levels of HbA1c as compared with that of HFD STZ control group. SA treatment also significantly (p < .05) increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes while decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation. The potential antihyperglycemic action and antioxidant role might be due to the presence of flavonoids in the drug.

  1. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the increase of the carotenoid antioxidant concentration in human skin after a 1-week diet with ecological eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Karoline; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa; Sterry, Wolfram; Darvin, Maxim E.

    2009-03-01

    Skin aging is mainly caused by the destructive action of free radicals, produced by the UV light of the sun. The human skin has developed a protection system against these highly reactive molecules in the form of the antioxidative potential. Carotenoids are one of the main components of the antioxidants of the human skin. From former studies, it is known that skin aging is reduced in individuals with high levels of carotenoids. Because most of the antioxidants cannot be produced by the human organism, they must be up taken by nutrition. Using noninvasive Raman spectroscopic measurements it is demonstrated that not only fruits and vegetables but also eggs contain high concentrations of antioxidants including carotenoids, which are even doubled in the case of ecological eggs. After a 1-week diet with ecological eggs performed by six volunteers, it is found that the concentration of the carotenoids in the skin of the volunteers increased by approx. 20%. Our study does not intend to recommend exorbitant egg consumption, as eggs also contain harmful cholesterol. But in the case of egg consumption, ecological eggs from hens kept on pasture should be preferred to also receive a benefit for the skin.

  2. Antioxidant properties of small proline-rich proteins : from epidermal cornification to global ROS detoxification and wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Wilbert Peter

    2011-01-01

    The small proline-rich (SPRR) proteins are generally known for their involvement in the formation and adaptation of the skin’s barrier. During the cornification process, they are cross-linked within the cornified cell envelope (CE) and as such they are responsible for the physical and permeability

  3. Antioxidant properties of small proline-rich proteins : from epidermal cornification to global ROS detoxification and wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Wilbert Peter

    2011-01-01

    The small proline-rich (SPRR) proteins are generally known for their involvement in the formation and adaptation of the skin’s barrier. During the cornification process, they are cross-linked within the cornified cell envelope (CE) and as such they are responsible for the physical and permeability b

  4. Potato wound-healing tissues: A rich source of natural antioxidant molecules with potential for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wang, Isabel; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    The need for safe, effective preservatives is a prominent issue in the food and drug industries, reflecting demand for natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals viewed as harmful to consumers and the environment. Thus, this study determined the identities and scavenging capacities of antioxidant metabolites produced as a response to potato tuber wounding, using activity-guided fractionation of polar extracts from a Yukon Gold cultivar that had previously exhibited exceptionally high radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation using the ABTS(+) radical scavenging assay and LC-MS with TOF-MS for compositional analysis of the most potent antioxidant fractions yielded identification of nine constituents: coumaroylputrescine; feruloylquinic acid; isoferuloylputrescine; ferulic acid; 22,25-dimethoxy-3-[[2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-6-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β)-lanost-9(11)-en-24-one; 4-(2Z)-2-decen-1-yl-5-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)decyl]-1,2-benzenediol; 8-[(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl]-5-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-6-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-2H-1-benzopyran-4,7(3H,8H)-dione; 3-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-20-[(6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-dammar-24-en-19-al; (3β)-28-oxo-28-(phenylmethoxy)oleanan-3-yl 2-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-3-O-(phenylmethyl)-, butyl ester β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid. A positive correlation was observed between the scavenging activities and the polarities of the active fractions. The antioxidant capacities of the fractions were also characterised by monitoring the activity throughout a 45-minute assay period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Combining an antioxidant-fortified diet with behavioral enrichment leads to cognitive improvement and reduced brain pathology in aging canines: strategies for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    The number of elderly individuals in our population is rapidly rising and age-associated neurodegenerative disease is becoming more prevalent. Thus, identifying ways by which we can promote healthy aging are becoming more critical. Lifestyle factors, such as engaging in physical, intellectual, and social activities, are protective against dementia in aged individuals. Similarly, there is some evidence to suggest that antioxidants are beneficial. Observational studies in humans have been confirmed and extended in rodent model systems. We present additional evidence that, in a canine model of aging, combining an antioxidant-enriched diet and behavioral enrichment (including social, physical, and cognitive components) can lead to substantial improvements in cognition and reduced brain pathology. These results suggest that modifying lifestyle factors can have a beneficial impact on the aging process, even in aged individuals with existing cognitive decline and brain pathology.

  6. Metabolic response of soy pinitol on lipid-lowering, antioxidant and hepatoprotective action in hamsters fed-high fat and high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Do, Geoyng-Min; Park, Yong Bok; Jeon, Seon-Min

    2009-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the lipid-lowering, antioxidant, and hepato-protective effects of pinitol in dose-dependent manners in hamsters fed-high fat and high cholesterol (HFHC) diet. Pinitol supplementation (0.05%, P-I and 0.1% pinitol, P-II) with an HFHC diet (10% coconut oil plus 0.2% cholesterol) for 10 wks significantly lowered the white adipose tissue weights, hepatic lipid droplets, plasma glucose, total-cholesterol, nonHDL-cholesterol, total-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio, and hepatic lipid levels. Whereas it significantly increased the brown adipose tissue weight, plasma HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) concentrations, paraoxonase (PON) activity, and/or mRNA expression, compared to the HFHC control group. Plasma insulin and adiponectin levels were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in both P-I and P-II groups than the HFHC control group. Dietary pinitol significantly inhibited hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), and cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) activities without altering their mRNA expressions compared to the control group. Pinitol significantly elevated the hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, whereas it also significantly reduced the hepatic lipid peroxide and H2O2 production. Accordingly, these results indicate that both 0.05 and 0.1% pinitol supplementation may improve the lipid and antioxidant metabolism in HFHC diet-fed hamsters. In particular, pinitol supplementation was very effective on the elevation of antiatherogenic factors, including plasma HDL-cholesterol, apo A-I, adiponectin, and PON.

  7. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo

    2017-01-01

    content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited......Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees...... of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography (GC) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that common carp roe oil contained high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher...

  8. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  9. Effects of supplemented diacylglycerol rich in docosahexaenoic acid on serum triacylglycerol in a diet-induced hyperlipidemic model of rats are essentially equivalent to those of triacylglycerol rich in docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Tadakazu; Murota, Itsuki; Maruyama, Kazuaki; Baba, Takashi; Toyama, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Nami; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2007-12-01

    Effects of supplemented docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), given as diacylglycerol (DG) rich in DHA (DHA-DG), triacylglycerol (TG) rich in DHA (DHA-TG) or fish oil concentrate (DHA-70), on the serum concentration of TG and its bioavailability in the rats with diet-induced hyperlipidemia were studied. Hypertriglyceridemia was induced by feeding male Wistar rats a semi-purified diet that contained 5% corn oil and 50% sucrose by weight. In addition to the feeding of dietary corn oil, the rats received DHA intragastrically at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight once a day for 28 d and the control rats were given olive oil. The serum concentration of TG in the rats that received DHA-DG was significantly lower than in the control rats. However, there were no significant differences in diet intake, energy intake, body weight gain, visceral fat mass or fecal excretion of total fatty acids among the four groups. The amounts of DHA excreted into the feces of the three groups of rats that received DHA were approximately 0.4% of the DHA administered. The extent of the decreases induced by DHA-DG in the serum level of TG was almost the same as those induced by DHA-TG and DHA-70. The administration of DHA, regardless of the differences in molecular structure, did not affect the hepatic contents of TG or phospholipid. The administration of DHA-DG considerably increased the proportions of DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) while decreasing the proportion of arachidonic acid in hepatic lipids, and as a result in the lipids in serum and erythrocytes, to the same extents as did DHA-TG and DHA-70. These results suggest that the hypotriglyceridemic effects and bioavailability of DHA when supplemented in the form of DG are essentially equivalent to those of DHA-TG and DHA-70.

  10. Effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on milk fatty acid composition in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Bichi, E; Frutos, P

    2013-01-01

    Despite controversy surrounding the ability of tannins to modulate the fatty acid (FA) profile of ruminant-derived products, reports on this issue are still very limited for dairy sheep. This study was conducted to examine the effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on ewe performance and milk FA composition. Thirty-six lactating ewes were distributed into 6 lots and allocated to 2 treatments (3 lots/treatment): control or quebracho. All sheep received a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (forage:concentrate ratio of 40:60) supplemented with 20 g of sunflower oil/kg of dry matter plus 0 (control diet) or 20 g of an extract of quebracho tannins/kg of dry matter (QUE diet). Milk production and composition were analyzed on d 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 on treatments, and milk FA profile on d 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 27. On d 27, samples of rumen fluid were collected for pH, and lactate, ammonia, and volatile FA concentration analysis. Feeding the QUE diet had no apparent effect on animal performance and hardly modified ruminal fermentation characteristics, except for a reduction in the molar proportions of minor volatile FA. Dietary tannins increased the milk concentration of several 18:1 and 18:2 isomers and decreased that of branched-chain FA. Some of these changes were relatively constant throughout the experiment (e.g., cis-12 18:1 and trans-9,cis-12 18:2), whereas others varied over time (e.g., trans-10 18:1, which increased gradually with the QUE diet). Significant differences between treatments in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid were only observed on d 3. Overall, addition of quebracho tannins to a diet rich in linoleic acid did not prove useful to beneficially modify milk FA composition, especially over the long term.

  11. Diets supplemented with seaweed affect metabolic rate, innate immune, and antioxidant responses, but not individual growth rate in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Maria J.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Malte, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of seaweed dietary supplementation on measures of fish performance including aerobic metabolism, digestive enzymes activity, innate immune status, oxidative damage, and growth rate using European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were fed for 49 days...... elevated routine metabolic rate (190.7 mg O2 kg−1 h−1). Fish fed with the GR7.5 and Mix diets had lower alternative complement pathway (ACH50) (62.5 and 63 units mL−1 respectively) than CTRL (84 units mL−1) GR7.5 increased lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase levels, as well as glutathione s......-transferase activity. Mix diet increased glutathione reductase activity when compared to CTRL. Collectively, our findings suggest that dietary seaweed supplementation may alter seabass metabolic rate, innate immune, and antioxidant responses without compromising growth parameters...

  12. Effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate v. high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on antioxidant status, endothelial markers and plasma indices of the cardiometabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Horgan, Graham W; Bremner, David M; Fyfe, Claire L; Morrice, Philip C; Duthie, Garry G

    2011-07-01

    There are concerns that weight-loss (WL) diets based on very low carbohydrate (LC) intake have a negative impact on antioxidant status and biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Obese men (n 16) participated in a randomised, cross-over design diet trial, with food provided daily, at approximately 8.3 MJ/d (approximately 70 % of energy maintenance requirements). They were provided with two high-protein diets (30 % of energy), each for a 4-week period, involving a LC (4 % carbohydrate) and a moderate carbohydrate (MC, 35 % carbohydrate) content. Body weight was measured daily, and weekly blood samples were collected. On average, subjects lost 6.75 and 4.32 kg of weight on the LC and MC diets, respectively (P diets were associated with a small reduction in plasma concentrations of retinol, vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and β-cryptoxanthin (P diet (P diets. There was no change in other cardiovascular markers with WL. The present data suggest that a LC WL diet does not impair plasma indices of cardiometabolic health, at least within 4 weeks, in otherwise healthy obese subjects. In general, improvements in metabolic health associated with WL were similar between the LC and MC diets. Antioxidant supplements may be warranted if LC WL diets are consumed for a prolonged period.

  13. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyuan; Ma, Qiugang; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Jianyun; Jia, Ru; Ji, Cheng; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-12-22

    Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize), M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize), M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060). The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB₁ (M0) exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB₁ and AFM₁ compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks (p > 0.05), significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  14. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize, M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize, M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060. The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB1 (M0 exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB1 and AFM1 compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks (p > 0.05, significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  15. Tocotrienol rich tocomin attenuates oxidative stress and improves endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortae from rats fed a high-fat western diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher F Ali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that tocomin, a mixture high in tocotrienol content and also containing tocopherol, acutely preserves endothelial function in the presence of oxidative stress. In this study we investigated whether tocomin treatment would preserve endothelial function in aortae isolated from rats fed a high fat diet known to cause oxidative stress. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21% fat or control rat chow (SD, 6% fat for 12 weeks. Tocomin (40 mg/kg/day sc or its vehicle (peanut oil was administered for the last 4 weeks of the feeding regime. Aortae from WD rats showed an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation that was associated with an increased expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox2 subunit and an increase in the vascular generation of superoxide measured using L-012 chemiluminescence. The increase in vascular oxidative stress was accompanied by a decrease in basal NO release and impairment of the contribution of NO to ACh-induced relaxation. The impaired relaxation is likely contributed to by a decreased expression of eNOS, calmodulin and phosphorylated Akt and an increase in caveolin-Tocotrienol rich tocomin, which prevented the diet-induced changes in vascular function, reduced vascular superoxide production and abolished the diet-induced changes in eNOS and other protein expression. Using selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC and calcium activated potassium (KCa channels we demonstrated that tocomin increased NO mediated relaxation, without affecting the contribution of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization type relaxation to the endothelium-dependent relaxation. The beneficial actions of tocomin in this diet-induced model of obesity suggests that it may have potential to be used as a therapeutic agent to prevent vascular disease in obesity.

  16. Fatty acid patterns of dog erythrocyte membranes after feeding of a fish-oil based DHA-rich supplement with a base diet low in n-3 fatty acids versus a diet containing added n-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhrmann Herbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In dogs, increasing the tissue n-3 fatty acid (FA content is associated with potential benefit in some medical conditions, e.g. atopic dermatitis, cancer or heart disease. Therefore effectively and conveniently increasing tissue n-3 FA levels in dogs is of interest. Incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into cell membranes may be studied by FA analysis of erythrocyte membranes (EM, because of the correlation of its FA composition with the FA composition of other cells. Aim of the study was to determine whether an n-3 FA additive added to a control diet is as effective in increasing EM n-3 FA content as feeding an n-3 FA enriched diet. Furthermore the time course of the incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into canine EM was investigated. Methods Thirty dogs were randomly divided into three dietary groups with ten dogs per group. CONT got a dry dog food diet which did not contain EPA or DHA. FO got a dry dog food diet with a high EPA and DHA content. ADD got the CONT diet combined with an n-3 FA additive rich in DHA and EPA. After a feeding period of 12 weeks the additive was discontinued in ADD and these dogs were fed CONT diet for another four weeks to observe washout effects. Erythrocyte lipids were extracted from venous blood samples and their FA composition was determined by gas chromatography. The Mann-Whitney-U-test was used to detect significant differences between the different groups and time points. Results After one week the proportions of n-3 FA, DHA and EPA were already significantly increased in ADD and FO, apparently reaching a plateau within eight weeks. In our study DHA and not EPA was preferably incorporated into the EM. After discontinuing the administration of the additive in ADD, the n-3 FA values declined slowly without reaching baseline levels within four weeks. Conclusions In dogs, an increase of dietary n-3 FA content leads to a rapid inclusion of n-3 FA into EM, regardless of whether the n-3 FA are offered as

  17. Productive performance, egg quality, blood constituents, immune functions, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens fed diets with different levels of Yucca schidigera extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; El-Kholy, Mohamed S

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera extract on productive performance, egg quality, blood metabolites, immune function, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens. A total of 96 36-week-old hens were allocated into four groups, the control diet or the diet supplemented with 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg of yucca extract, from 36 to 52 weeks of age. Hens were divided into four equal groups replicated six times with four hens per replicate. As a result of this study, there were no linearly or quadratically differences in body weight change (BWC), feed consumption (FC), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and egg weight (EW) due to yucca treatments at different ages, except FCR and EW that were improved with yucca supplementation during 36-40 weeks of age. Supplemental dietary yucca up to 100 mg/kg diet led to significant improvement in egg number (EN) and egg mass (EM). Egg qualities were not linearly or quadratically affected by yucca treatments except shell thickness was quadratically (P hen diets resulted in a significant linear (P hens.

  18. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effect of sterol rich methanol extract of stem of Musa sapientum (banana) in cholesterol fed wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Tyagi, Mool Kumar; Shukla, Kirtikar; Gambhir, Jasvindar K; Shukla, Rimi

    2016-03-01

    Musa sapientum Linn. (English 'Banana' family Musaceae), is a plant with nutritive, as well as medicinal value. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of stem of this plant was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Rats were made hypercholesterolemic by feeding cholesterol (100 mg/kg/day) suspended in soya oil. Treatment groups received extract at a dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day in addition to cholesterol orally once daily. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after 6 weeks treatment. Animals were sacrificed and liver stored at -80 °C. Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol were estimated in blood. Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in blood and liver. Total lipids, HMG CoA redutase and lipoprotein lipase were investigated in liver. Most effective dose was found to be 20 mg/kg/day. Rise in total cholesterol, LDL + VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol in animals receiving only cholesterol was 179 %, 417 % and 74 % respectively, while in animals receiving 20 mg/kg dose rise in these parameters was restricted to 40 %, 106 % and 24 %. HDL-cholesterol decreased by 12 % in extract treated group, while it decreased to 36 % in untreated hypercholesterolemic rats. Malonaldialdehyde, marker of lipid peroxidation decreased while reduced glutathione and enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly in blood and liver (p HMG CoA redutase and lipoprotein lipase were restored to near normal. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy indicated high content of sterols in extract. Study demonstrated that methanol extract of stem of Musa sapientum has significant antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effects.

  19. Effect of Soya based Protein Rich Diet on Glycaemic Parameters and Thyroid Function Tests in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Vijaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Medical nutrition therapy plays a major role in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. However, control of postprandial blood glucose values is often a challenge in Asian Indian GDM women due to high carbohydrate content in Indian diet.

  20. Evaluation of an integrated biorefinery based on fractionation of spent sulphite liquor for the production of an antioxidant-rich extract, lignosulphonates and succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandri, Maria; Papapostolou, Harris; Komaitis, Michael; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Danezis, Georgios P; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2016-08-01

    Spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been used for the production of lignosulphonates (LS), antioxidants and bio-based succinic acid. Solvent extraction of SSL with isopropanol led to the separation of approximately 80% of the total LS content, whereas the fermentations carried out using the pretreated SSL with isopropanol led to the production of around 19g/L of succinic acid by both Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Fractionation of SSL via nanofiltration to separate the LS and solvent extraction using ethyl acetate to separate the phenolic compounds produced a detoxified sugar-rich stream that led to the production of 39g/L of succinic acid by B. succiniciproducens. This fractionation scheme resulted also in the production of 32.4g LS and 1.15g phenolic-rich extract per 100g of SSL. Both pretreatment schemes removed significant quantities of metals and heavy metals. This novel biorefinery concept could be integrated in acidic sulphite pulping mills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Capacidade aeróbia de ratos alimentados com dieta rica em frutose Aerobic capacity of rats fed with fructose rich diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira de Moura

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Evidências apontam que a ingestão exacerbada de frutose pode desencadear distúrbios característicos da síndrome metabólica. OBJETIVOS: Analisar os efeitos da ingestão de dieta rica em frutose sobre aspectos metabólicos de ratos da linhagem Wistar. Adicionalmente, verificar a capacidade aeróbia através da identificação da máxima fase estável de lactato (MFEL. MÉTODOS: Dezesseis ratos foram separados em dois grupos de oito animais: a controle, alimentados com dieta balanceada, e b frutose, alimentados com dieta rica em frutose. Foram analisadas a tolerância à glicose (área sob a curva de glicose durante teste de tolerância à glicose, sensibilidade à insulina (taxa de remoção da glicose sérica após sobrecarga exógena de insulina, perfil lipídico sérico e concentração de lactato sanguíneo [lac]s durante exercício na intensidade da MFEL. RESULTADOS: Teste t não pareado (p INTRODUCTION: Evidence points that exacerbated ingestion of fructose may trigger disturbs characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of a fructose rich diet on metabolic aspects of Wistar lineage rats. Additionally, to verify the aerobic capacity, through the identification of the maximal lactate steady state (MSSL. PROCEDURES: Sixteen rats were separated in two groups of eight animals: a Control, fed a balanced diet, and b fructose, fed a fructose-rich diet. The glucose tolerance, (area under serum glucose during a glucose tolerance test, insulin sensibility (glucose disappearance rate after exogenous insulin administration, serum lipid profile and blood lactate concentration [lac]b during exercise at MSSL intensity, have been analyzed. RESULTS: Non-paired t test (p<0.05 revealed difference between groups in the area under the curve of glucose and serum triglycerides, no difference in insulin sensibility or in [lac]b was detected, though. One-way ANOVA with Newman Keuls post hoc revealed difference in

  2. Cocoa antioxidants and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Carl L; Holt, Roberta R; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, César G; Schmitz, Harold H

    2005-01-01

    An increasing body of epidemiologic evidence supports the concept that diets rich in fruits and vegetables can promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases. Epidemiologic data support the idea that these health benefits are causally linked to the consumption of certain flavonoids present in fruit and vegetables. In the context of cardiovascular health, a particular group of flavonoids, namely, the flavan-3-ols (flavanols), has received attention. Flavanol-rich, plant-derived foods and beverages include wine, tea, and various fruits and berries, as well as cocoa and cocoa products. Numerous dietary intervention studies in humans and animals indicate that flavanol-rich foods and beverages might exert cardioprotective effects with respect to vascular function and platelet reactivity. This review discusses the bioactivity of flavanols in the context of cardiovascular health, with respect to their bioavailability, their antioxidant properties, and their vascular effects.

  3. High Risk of Metabolic and Adipose Tissue Dysfunctions in Adult Male Progeny, Due to Prenatal and Adulthood Malnutrition Induced by Fructose Rich Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamendi, Ana; Zubiría, Guillermina; Moreno, Griselda; Portales, Andrea; Spinedi, Eduardo; Giovambattista, Andrés

    2016-03-22

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of a fructose rich diet (FRD) consumed by the pregnant mother on the endocrine-metabolic and in vivo and in vitro adipose tissue (AT) functions of the male offspring in adulthood. At 60 days of age, rats born to FRD-fed mothers (F) showed impaired glucose tolerance after glucose overload and high circulating levels of leptin (LEP). Despite the diminished mass of retroperitoneal AT, this tissue was characterized by enhanced LEP gene expression, and hypertrophic adipocytes secreting in vitro larger amounts of LEP. Analyses of stromal vascular fraction composition by flow cytometry revealed a reduced number of adipocyte precursor cells. Additionally, 60 day-old control (C) and F male rats were subjected to control diet (CC and FC animals) or FRD (CF and FF rats) for three weeks. FF animals were heavier and consumed more calories. Their metabolic-endocrine parameters were aggravated; they developed severe hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperleptinemia and augmented AT mass with hypertrophic adipocytes. Our study highlights that manipulation of maternal diet induced an offspring phenotype mainly imprinted with a severely unhealthy adipogenic process with undesirable endocrine-metabolic consequences, putting them at high risk for developing a diabetic state.

  4. Effect of the Capsicoside G-rich Fraction from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Seeds on High-fat Diet-induced Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jeehye; Jeong, Heon Sang; Lee, Junsoo

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is one of the most common metabolic syndromes and is a major threat to human health worldwide. Given the size of this problem, there is growing interest in natural agents that may decrease obesity. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of a capsicoside G-rich fraction (CRF; 13.35% capsicoside G) isolated from pepper seeds in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD), with or without CRF (HFD + CRF; 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight). The body weight and food efficiency ratio of mice fed HFD + CRF were lower in comparison to that of mice fed only an HFD. Epididymal adipose tissue weight and adipocyte hypertrophy were significantly lower in HFD + CRF mice than in HFD mice. The fat deposition in the liver of mice fed HFD + CRF was lower compared to that of mice fed only an HFD. CRF significantly reversed the HFD-induced elevation of the expression of key adipocyte differentiation regulators, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, and their target genes. These results suggest that CRF could be used as dietary therapy for the prevention of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  6. Supplementing with vitamin C the diet of honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica) parasitized with Varroa destructor: effects on antioxidative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjan, Marek; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2014-05-01

    We studied a total of eight developmental stages of capped brood and newly emerged workers of Apis mellifera carnica colonies naturally parasitized with Varroa destructor. During winter and early spring four colonies were fed syrup containing 1.8 mg vitamin C kg(-1) (ascorbic acid group; group AA) while four colonies were fed syrup without the vitamin C (control group C). Selected elements of the antioxidative system were analysed including total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione content and antioxidative enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase). Body weight, protein content and indices of infestation were also determined. The prevalence (8.11%) and intensity (1·15 parasite per bee) of the infestation were lower in group AA compared with group C (11.3% and 1.21, respectively). Changes in the indicators of antioxidative stress were evidence for the strengthening of the antioxidative system in the brood by administration of vitamin C. In freshly emerged worker bees of group AA, despite the infestation, protein content, TAS, and the activity of all antioxidative enzymes had significantly higher values in relation to group C.

  7. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  8. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat-Based Cookies Designed for a Raw Food Vegan Diet as Affected by Moderate Drying Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brožková, Iveta; Dvořáková, Veronika; Michálková, Kateřina; Červenka, Libor; Velichová, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Buckwheat cookies with various ingredients for raw food vegan diet are usually prepared by soaking them in water at ambient temperature followed by drying at moderate temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the temperature effect on the microbiological quality, antioxidant properties and oxidative stability of lipids of final dried samples. The mixture of ingredients was soaked for 20 h in distilled water, and then cookies were formed and dried in air-forced oven at constant temperature in the range from 40 to 60 °C. Total viable counts, fungi, yeasts, coliform and aerobic spore-forming bacteria counts were evaluated in dried samples and were found to decrease during drying at 50 and 60 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, and the former showed the highest value at 40 °C. Superoxide dismutase activity was also higher at 40 °C in comparison with that at 60 °C. The percentage of lipid peroxidation inhibition increased with the increase in drying temperature until 4th day of incubation. While peroxide value was significantly higher in samples dried at 40 °C, TBARS values did not show significant changes during the drying process. The results of this study suggest that drying buckwheat-based cookies at 40 °C retained their good antioxidant properties but represent a potentially serious microbial hazard.

  9. HRMS Profile of a Hazelnut Skin Proanthocyanidin-rich Fraction with Antioxidant and Anti-Candida albicans Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Pagano, Imma; Esposito, Tiziana; Mencherini, Teresa; Porta, Amalia; Petrone, Anna Maria; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Picerno, Patrizia; Sansone, Francesca; Rastrelli, Luca; Aquino, Rita Patrizia

    2016-01-27

    Roasted hazelnut skins (RHS) represent a byproduct of kernel industrial processing. In this research, a RHS extract (RHS-M) and its fraction RHS-M-F3 enriched in proanthocyanidins (PAs), with antioxidant activity, were characterized in terms of total phenolic compound and PA contents. RHS-M and RHS-M-F3 showed antifungal properties against Candida albicans SC5314 (MIC2 = 3.00 and 0.10 μg/mL and MIC0 = 5.00 and 0.50 μg/mL, respectively), determined by the microbroth dilution method and Candida albicans morphological analysis. No cytotoxic effect on HEKa and HDFa cell lines was exhibited by RHS-M and RHS-M-F3. The metabolite profiling of RHS-M and RHS-M-F3 was performed by thiolysis followed by HPLC-UV-HRMS analysis and a combination of HRMS-FIA and HPLC-HRMS(n). Extract and fraction contain oligomeric PAs (mDP of 7.3 and 6.0, respectively, and DP up to 10) mainly constituted by B-type oligomers of (epi)-catechin. Also, (epi)-gallocatechin and gallate derivatives were identified as monomer units, and A-type PAs were detected as minor compounds.

  10. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of an Extract Rich in Polysaccharides of the Mushroom Polyporus dermoporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Maria P. Guerra Dore

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyporus dermoporus mushroom, native to Brazil, is produced under natural conditions in the unexplored reserve of Mata da Estrela-Rio Grande do Norte-RN. These mushrooms were delipidated with chloroform:methanol (2:1 v/v, extracted with water at 100 °C, and fractionated with ethanol (one and three volumes and then centrifuged. The ethanol precipitation showed a high total sugar level of 64.8% and 1% of protein. This precipitate contained a high glucan level, characterized by chemical methods and by NMR of 13C and 1H and spectroscopy. The 13C NMR spectrum of these mushroom extracts showed the presence of β-glucose by a signal at 103.25 ppm. Studies with these glucans were made to elucidate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This extract of glucans inhibited the lipid peroxidation (42.9% and superoxide radicals (83.3% at 67 μg/mL. However, the inhibition of hydroxyl radical by the extract of this mushroom was 96% at 267 μg/mL. The action of this extract on induced pleurisy showed a 92.5% and 68.7% reduction in polymorphonuclears cells and nitric oxide, respectively, at 30 mg/kg. The glucans reduced the croton oil-induced ear edema by 65.6% at 30 mg/kg.

  11. Grain-rich diets altered the colonic fermentation and mucosa-associated bacterial communities and induced mucosal injuries in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Feng, Panfei; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2016-02-04

    Remarkably little information is available about the impact of high-grain (HG) feeding on colonic mucosa-associated bacteria and mucosal morphology. In the present study, 12 male goats were randomly assigned to either a hay diet (n = 6) or an HG diet (65% grain; n = 6) to characterise the changes in the composition of the bacterial community in colonic mucosa and the mucosal morphology of the colon. The results showed that HG feeding decreased the colonic pH and increased the concentrations of total short chain fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides in colonic digesta. The principal coordinate analysis results showed that the HG diet altered the colonic mucosal bacterial communities, with an increase in the abundance of genus Blautia and a decrease in the abundance of genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus. The HG-fed goats showed sloughing of the surface layer epithelium, intercellular tight junction erosion, cell mitochondrial damage, and upregulation of the relative mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in colonic mucosa. Collectively, our data indicate that HG feeding induced changes in colonic mucosal morphology and cytokines expression that might be caused by excessive fermentation and dramatic shifts in the bacterial populations in the colon.

  12. Alleviating the environmental heat burden on laying hens by feeding on diets enriched with certain antioxidants (vitamin E and selenium) individually or combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; Mahrose, Khalid; Arif, Muhammad; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum; Saadeldin, Islam M; Saeed, Muhammad; Soomro, Rab Nawaz; Abbasi, Imtiaz Hussain Raja; Rehman, Zaib Ur

    2017-04-01

    The present study was designed to alleviate the negative biohazards of high ambient temperature on the productive performance and physiological status of laying hens. A total of 135 Bovans laying hens were distributed into nine groups in a 3 × 3 factorial design experiment. Basal diet was supplemented with vitamin E at levels of 0, 250, and 500 mg /kg diet. Within each dietary vitamin E level, each diet was supplemented with sodium selenite as a source of selenium (Se) to supply 0, 0.25, and 0.50 mg Se/kg diet. Results showed that supplementing layer's diet with 500 mg vitamin E/kg was accompanied with the lowest feed consumption (FC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The interaction among vitamin E and Se levels exerted significant effects only on FC and FCR. Insignificant differences were observed in egg quality criteria due to the treatments studied. Increasing vitamin E level was associated with a gradual decrease in basophil count and an increase in monocytes. A gradual decrease in the count of each of heterophils, monocytes, and eosinophils was observed with the elevation in the dietary Se level. The combination among vitamin E and Se levels produced a significant effect on all hematological parameters studied. As vitamin E increased, a marked decrease in serum AST and a gradual increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, and calcium were observed. As the level of dietary Se increased, serum total protein, albumin, T4, total cholesterol, and total lipids increased. No significant impacts were detected for the interaction among vitamin E and Se levels on any of blood constituents determined except serum globulin, ALT, and calcium. In conclusion, the combination between vitamin E and Se showed a good ability to alleviate the harmful impacts of heat stress and produced the highest productive performance when compared with the other groups, which exhibit the synergistic effect between the two antioxidants.

  13. Effects of Labisia pumila var alata extracts on the lipid profile, serum antioxidant status and abdominal aorta of high-cholesterol diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianita, Roza; Jantan, Ibrahim; Jalil, Juriyati; Amran, Athirah Zawani

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies on Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) have showed that it could inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and provide protection on myocardial infarction in rats. We hypothesized that LPva extracts can modulate the lipid profiles and serum antioxidant status of hypercholesterolemic rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of LPva on atherogenic and serum antioxidant parameters as well as changes in abdominal aorta of high-cholesterol diet rats. The major components of the extracts, gallic acid, flavonoids and alkyl resorcinols were analyzed by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The rats were induced to hypercholesterolemic status with daily intake of 2% cholesterol for a duration of 8 weeks. Three different doses (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) of the extracts were administered daily on the 4th week onwards. The rats were then sacrificed and the blood was collected via abdominal aorta and serum was separated by centrifugation for biochemical analysis. Part of the aorta tissues were excised immediately for histopathological examination. The serum of LPva treated rats showed significant reduction in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and the abdominal aorta showed a significant decrease of atheroma lesions in treated rats. Serum lipid profiles of treated rats showed a decrease in total cholesterol, total triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels as compared to control group. The atherogenic indices in treated rats were significantly improved along with an increasing level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The extracts also exhibited significant increase of antioxidant enzymes and decrease of MDA as a product of lipid peroxidation. LPva extracts can reduce the risk of dyslipidemia by improving the serum lipid profiles and modulating serum antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  14. Impact of date palm fruits extracts and probiotic enriched diet on antioxidant status, innate immune response and immune-related gene expression of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, F A; Porcino, C; Cerezuela, R; Cuesta, A; Faggio, C; Esteban, M A

    2016-05-01

    The application of additives in the diet as plants or extracts of plants as natural and innocuous compounds has potential in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and immunoprophylactics. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential effects of dietary supplementation of date palm fruit extracts alone or in combination with Pdp11 probiotic on serum antioxidant status, on the humoral and cellular innate immune status, as well as, on the expression levels of some immune-related genes in head-kidney and gut of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) after 2 and 4 weeks of administration. This study showed for the first time in European sea bass an immunostimulation in several of the parameters evaluated in fish fed with date palm fruits extracts enriched diet or fed with this substance in combination with Pdp 11 probiotic, mainly after 4 weeks of treatment. In the same way, dietary supplementation of mixture diet has positive effects on the expression levels of immune-related genes, chiefly in head-kidney of Dicentrarchus labrax. Therefore, the combination of both could be considered of great interest as potential additives for farmed fish.

  15. Effects of α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation in preslaughter diet on antioxidant enzyme activities and fillet quality of commercial-size Sparus macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities and fillet quality in commercial-size Sparus macrocephalus. Three hundred fish [main initial weight (350±12) g] were divided into three groups (E250, E500 and E1000) and reared in 9 cages. The fish were fed for 8 weeks with three diets containing different levels of dietary α-tocopheryl acetate (289, 553, 1069 mg/kg). Over the experimental period, fish were fed to satiation and reached a final mean weight of (465±28) g without significant body weight difference and proximate composition difference. Fillet α-tocopherol was significantly (P<0.05) different between groups, reaching levels of 14.2, 22.1, 30.9 μg/mg fillet for groups E250,E500 and E1000, respectively. Total serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly (P<0.05) in fish fed the diets high in α-tocopheryl acetate, but serum glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was unaffected. In storage on ice, fillets offish fed the diets high in α-tocopheryl acetate exhibited significantly lower (P<0.05) levels of oxidation. These results suggested that increased dietary α-tocopheryl acetate could increase its flesh deposition, increase the activity of SOD and prevent lipid peroxidation of Sparus macrocephalus fillets in retail storage on ice.

  16. Differential modulation of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene transplacental carcinogenesis: Maternal diets rich in indole-3-carbinol versus sulforaphane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorey, Lyndsey E.; Madeen, Erin P. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Atwell, Lauren L.; Ho, Emily [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Pereira, Clifford B. [Department of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Dashwood, Roderick H. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Cruciferous vegetable components have been documented to exhibit anticancer properties. Targets of action span multiple mechanisms deregulated during cancer progression, ranging from altered carcinogen metabolism to the restoration of epigenetic machinery. Furthermore, the developing fetus is highly susceptible to changes in nutritional status and to environmental toxicants. Thus, we have exploited a mouse model of transplacental carcinogenesis to assess the impact of maternal dietary supplementation on cancer risk in offspring. In this study, transplacental and lactational exposure to a maternal dose of 15 mg/Kg B.W. of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) resulted in significant morbidity of offspring due to an aggressive T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. As in previous studies, indole-3-carbinol (I3C, feed to the dam at 100, 500 or 1000 ppm), derived from cruciferous vegetables, dose-dependently reduced lung tumor multiplicity and also increased offspring survival. Brussels sprout and broccoli sprout powders, selected for their relative abundance of I3C and the bioactive component sulforaphane (SFN), respectively, surprisingly enhanced DBC-induced morbidity and tumorigenesis when incorporated into the maternal diet at 10% wt/wt. Purified SFN, incorporated in the maternal diet at 400 ppm, also decreased the latency of DBC-dependent morbidity. Interestingly, I3C abrogated the effect of SFN when the two purified compounds were administered in equimolar combination (500 ppm I3C and 600 ppm SFN). SFN metabolites measured in the plasma of neonates positively correlated with exposure levels via the maternal diet but not with offspring mortality. These findings provide justification for further study of the safety and bioactivity of cruciferous vegetable phytochemicals at supplemental concentrations during the perinatal period. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation may modulate cancer risk in a mouse model of lymphoma. • Cruciferous vegetables may not contain sufficient I3C

  17. The relative impact of a vegetable-rich diet on key markers of health in a cohort of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ross; Bilgin, Ayse; Zeuschner, Carol; Guy, Trish; Pearce, Robyn; Hokin, Bevan; Ashton, John

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a widespread health problem in Australia. Overweight in childhood can lead to adult overweight and the development of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Effective strategies for reducing childhood obesity are urgently required. A vegetarian diet has been shown to be an effective prophylactic to many lifestyle diseases in the adult population and may therefore be beneficial in children. However the metabolic demands of adolescents are different to adults and the impact of a vegetarian diet on CVD markers in this demographic is not certain. We compared key physiological and biochemical markers of health against responses to a modified, Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS) using one-way and two-way Analysis of Variance. 215 adolescents (14-15 yrs) from 5 Adventist secondary schools in the Sydney and Hunter regions of New South Wales, Australia, participated in this study. Adolescents consuming predominantly vegetarian foods showed significantly better scores on markers of cardiovascular health, including, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, Cholesterol/High density lipoprotein ratio and low density lipoprotein. Adolescents consuming nuts more than once per week, also showed lower scores for BMI and serum glucose irrespective of their vegetarian status. Markers of general health including haemoglobin and average height were not different between groups; however a lower serum level of vitamin B12 was apparent in the vegetarian cohort. Surprisingly, exercise on its own was not statistically associated with any of the risk factors tested suggesting that diet may be the most significant factor in promoting health in this age group.

  18. Impact of the consumption of a rich diet in butter and it replacement for a rich diet in extra virgin olive oil on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Vasquez, Hazel Ester; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ortega Fernández, Pablo; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2015-06-01

    Objetivo: analizar el impacto de la sustitución de una dieta rica en grasas saturadas por una dieta rica en grasas monoinsaturadas sobre el perfil antropométrico, metabólico y lipídico en mujeres postmenopáusicas. Material y método: estudio prospectivo, longitudinal y comparativo en el que 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas participaron en dos períodos de intervención dietética de 28 días cada uno: 1) (dieta SAT) consumieron mantequilla. Fórmula calórica (FC) = 15% de proteínas, 38% grasas. [20% grasas saturadas (AGS), 12% grasas monoinsaturadas (AGM) y 47% carbohidratos y 6% poliinsaturadas (AGPI)]. 2) Periodo MONO: con aceite de oliva virgen extra (AOVE). Fórmula calórica = 15% de proteínas, 38% grasas (.

  19. Very low density lipoprotein triglyceride transport in type IV hyperlipoproteinemia and the effects of carbohydrate-rich diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarfordt, Steven H.; Frank, Arthur; Shames, David M.; Berman, Mones; Steinberg, Daniel

    1970-01-01

    Transport of plasma-free fatty acids (FFA) and of fatty acids in triglycerides of plasma very low density lipoproteins (VLDL-TGFA) was studied in two normal subjects, five patients with type IV hyperlipoproteinemia, and two patients with type I hyperlipoproteinemia. After intravenous pulse-labeling with albumin-bound 1-palmitate-14C, specific radioactivity of plasma FFA and VLDL-TGFA were determined at intervals up to 24 hr. The results were analyzed using several different multicompartmental models each compatible with the experimental data. Fractional transport of VLDL-TGFA was distinctly lower (no overlap) in the type IV patients than in the control subjects, both on a usual balanced diet (40% of calories from carbohydrate) and on a high-carbohydrate diet (80% of calories). However, net or total transport of VLDL-TGFA in the type IV patients was not clearly distinguishable from that in the control subjects, there being considerable overlap on either diet. The results suggest that in this group of type IV patients the underlying defect leading to the increased pool size of VLDL-TGFA is not overproduction but a relative defect in mechanisms for removal of VLDL-TGFA. Since some of these type IV patients had only a moderate degree of hypertriglyceridemia at the time they were studied, and since it is not established that patients with the type IV phenotype constitute a biochemically homogeneous population, the present results should not be generalized. Four studies were done (in two control subjects and two type IV patients) in which the kinetic parameters in the same individual were determined on the balanced diet and on the high-carbohydrate diet. All subjects showed an increase in VLDL-TGFA pool size. Using two of the models for analysis, all showed an increase in net transport of VLDL-TGFA; using the third model, three of the four studies showed an increase in VLDL-TGFA transport. The results are compatible with the interpretation that the carbohydrate

  20. Antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress in a randomized, controlled, parallel, Mediterranean dietary intervention study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Jan

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we have reported that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA obtained a significant reduction in disease activity by adopting a Mediterranean-type diet. The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant intake, the plasma levels of antioxidants and a marker of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde during the study presented earlier. Methods RA patients randomized to either a Mediterranean type diet (MD group; n = 26 or a control diet (CD group; n = 25 were compared during a three month dietary intervention study. Their antioxidant intake was assessed by means of diet history interviews and their intake of antioxidant-rich foods by a self-administered questionnaire. The plasma levels of retinol, antioxidants (α- and γ-tocopherol, β-carotene, lycopene, vitamin C and uric acid and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker for oxidative stress, were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The Student's t-test for independent samples and paired samples were used to test differences between and within groups. For variables with skewed distributions Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test were performed. To evaluate associations between dietary intake of antioxidants, as well as between disease activity, MDA and antioxidants we used Pearson's product moment correlation or Spearman's rank correlation. Results The MD group had significantly higher intake frequencies of antioxidant-rich foods, and also higher intakes of vitamin C (p = 0.014, vitamin E (p = 0.007 and selenium (p = 0.004, and a lower intake of retinol (p = 0.049, compared to the CD group. However, the difference between the groups regarding vitamin C intake was not significant when under- and over-repoters were excluded (p = 0.066. There were no changes in urine MDA or in the plasma levels of antioxidants (after p-lipid adjustments of the tocopherol results, from baseline to the end of the study. The levels of retinol

  1. Antioxidant Effect of trans-Resveratrol, Pterostilbene, Quercetin and Their Combinations in Human Erythrocytes In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer and other degenerative diseases. Most natural chemopreventive agents display antioxidant activity. However, the potential health impact of the bioactive phytochemicals is limited by their low amount and relative...

  2. Evaluation of α-tocopherol acetate, peel and extract pomogrante antioxidative potential in diet contained fish oil on meat quality boiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Salehi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poultry meat enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (PUFA Lc n-3 can make a nutritionally meaningful contribution to Western diets in which consumption of PUFA Lc n-3 is low. Enrichment of poultry meat with this fatty acid is usually achieved by inclusion of fish oil in broiler diet (23, 24. However, meat enriched in this way is susceptible to quality deterioration by lipid oxidation during storage or cooking, leading to reduction in nutritive value and accumulation of lipid oxidation products (10. Oxidation is a very general process affecting lipids, pigments, proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and vitamins (11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary α-tocopherol (α-Toc, pomegranate peel extract (PPE and pomegranate peel (PP on fatty acid profile, aoxidation and phenolic compounds in raw thigh and breast meat during refrigeration. Materials and methods Peels of pomegranate were harvested in October 2011 from pomegranate trees (Ardestani, variety in Khorasan Razavi province (East, Iran. Dried powders of peels (2.5 g were extracted with 40 mL of methanol solvent at room temperature for 6 hours. Three hundred and eighty four 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allotted to 8 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds. Eight dietary treatments including control diet without feed additives, control diet mixed with 200 mg/kg α-Toc, control diet mixed with PPE (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, and control diet mixed with PP (1, 2 and 3 g/kg. In all diets 2% fish oil were added to enhance the enrichment of unsaturated n-3 fatty acid in birds. One broiler chick was randomly selected from each pen of 42 d of age. The antioxidative potential and various meat quality characteristics were determined on 0, 7, and 11 days of refrigerated storage. Total phenols content in the aqueous supernatant was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (33. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging

  3. Diet supplementation with a specific melon concentrate improves oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, J; Barbé, F; Barial, S; Saby, M; Sacy, A; Rouanet, J-M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of a specific melon concentrate on oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics of laying hens.Lohmann Brown hens were assigned to 2 treatment groups (n = 16 in each). One group was supplemented with the melon concentrate (26 mg/kg of feed) during 6 wk. The other group was composed of untreated hens, which served as control. Eggs were collected, weighed (yolk, albumen, shell), and analyzed (Haugh unit and albumen pH relevant for egg freshness) at the end of the supplementation period. Antioxidant status was evaluated in the oviduct measuring antioxidant enzymes by western blotting.This study demonstrated that the melon concentrate could ameliorate egg weight, and particularly yolk contribution to egg weight and egg shell weight. An increase in endogenous antioxidant defenses in the oviduct after this melon concentrate supplementation could explain the better egg characteristics. The improvement of egg quality, due to melon concentrate, may have important economic implications for future breeding programs, particularly if these effects generalize from hens to other poultry species, or even other livestock animal species.

  4. In silico PASS analysis and determination of antimycobacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant efficacies of maslinic acid in an extract rich in pentacyclic triterpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G Jamkhande

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This work provides scientific evidence of the antioxidant, antifungal, and antimycobacterial activities of MA, showing its potential application in the development of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agents for the agro-food and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of flavonoid-rich fraction of bergamot juice (BJe in a mouse model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Impellizzeri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid-rich fraction of bergamot juice (BJe has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of work was to test the beneficial effects of BJe on the modulation of the ileum inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury in mice. To understand the cellular mechanisms by which BJe may decrease the development of intestinal I/R injury, we have evaluated the activation of signaling transduction pathways that can be induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk were occluded for 30 min and reperfused for 1 h. The animals were sacrificed after 1 h of reperfusion, for both histological and molecular examinations of the ileum tissue. The experimental results demonstrated that BJe was able to reduce histological damage, cytokines production, adhesion molecules expression, neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress by a mechanism involved both NF-κB and MAP kinases pathways. This study indicates that BJe could represent a new treatment against inflammatory events of intestinal I/R injury.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Fraction of Bergamot Juice (BJe) in a Mouse Model of Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Daniela; Cordaro, Marika; Campolo, Michela; Gugliandolo, Enrico; Esposito, Emanuela; Benedetto, Filippo; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Navarra, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The flavonoid-rich fraction of bergamot juice (BJe) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of work was to test the beneficial effects of BJe on the modulation of the ileum inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. To understand the cellular mechanisms by which BJe may decrease the development of intestinal I/R injury, we have evaluated the activation of signaling transduction pathways that can be induced by reactive oxygen species production. Superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk were occluded for 30 min and reperfused for 1 h. The animals were sacrificed after 1 h of reperfusion, for both histological and molecular examinations of the ileum tissue. The experimental results demonstrated that BJe was able to reduce histological damage, cytokines production, adhesion molecules expression, neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress by a mechanism involved both NF-κB and MAP kinases pathways. This study indicates that BJe could represent a new treatment against inflammatory events of intestinal I/R injury.

  7. Rumen fermentation and microbial population in lactating dairy cows receiving diets containing oilseeds rich in C-18 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, M; Petit, H V; Chiquette, J; Wright, A-D G

    2013-04-14

    Sixteen Holstein rumen-cannulated primiparous milking dairy cows were fed a control diet (CN) based on maize silage and soyabean meal during a 4-week period before the start of a 21-d experiment with oilseeds containing high concentration of linoleic acid (Linola™) or linolenic acid (NuLin™). Thereafter, four cows received ad libitum one of each of four dietary treatments comprising of CN, Linola (LN), NuLin (NL) and LN/NL (50/50 % combination). Each LN, NL and LN/NL treatment contained 6 % oil of DM. Rumen digesta samples were collected on days 6, 11, 16 and 21 and milk samples on days 13, 15 and 17. There were no effects (P>0.05) of the oilseeds on pH and concentrations of NH3-N and total volatile fatty acids, while the acetate:propionate ratio was decreased (Pdigestion of dietary fibre and increased quality of milk.

  8. A dietary resveratrol-rich grape extract prevents the developing of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of pigs fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorín-Ortuño, María; Yañéz-Gascón, María Josefa; Pallarés, Francisco J; Rivera, José; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Larrosa, Mar; Vallejo, Fernando; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2012-06-06

    The presence of grape and wine polyphenol resveratrol (RES) in the diet is negligible. Therefore, the cardiovascular benefits of this molecule, in a dietary context, remain to be established. We aimed to investigate, through dietary intervention, the effects of a resveratrol-rich grape extract (GE-RES) on the prevention of early aortic lesions in pigs fed an atherogenic diet (AD). These effects were compared with those produced by a grape extract lacking RES (GE) or RES alone. Pigs fed the AD for 4 months showed early atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta: degeneration and fragmentation of elastic fibers, increase of intima thickness, subendothelial fibrosis, and accumulation of fatty cells and anion superoxide radicals. GE-RES was the most effective treatment and prevented the disruption of aortic elastic fibers, decreased their alteration (57%), and reduced the intima thickness (33%) and the accumulation of fatty cells (42%) and O(2)(•-) (38%) in aortic tissue. In addition, GE-RES moderately downregulated the expression of the suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and 3 (SOCS3), key regulators of vascular cell responses, in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. Our results suggest that the consumption of this GE-RES nutraceutical, in a dietary prevention context, could prevent early atherosclerotic events. The presence of RES in the grape extract strengthened these effects.

  9. Iridoid enriched fraction from Ajuga iva reduce cholesterolemia, triacylglycerolemia and increase the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie A. Lacaille-Dubois

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we examined the effect of iridoid (I derived from lyophilized aqueous extract of Ajuga iva on serum HDL2 and HDL3 compositions and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activity, enzyme responsible for reverse cholesterol transport. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n=24 weighing 120±5 g were fed a diet containing 1% cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. After this phase, the hypercholesterolemic (HC rats were divided into groups fed the same diet and received or not doses (5, 10 or 15 mg/kg b.w by intraperitoneal injection of iridoid for 15 days. Results: Compared to HC group, serum total cholesterol value was 1.4- and 1.2-fold lower in the I5-HC and I10-HC groups. C-HDL2 and C-HDL3 values were increased in the I5-HC, I10-HC and I15-HC groups (3.2- and 4-, 2.2- and 4.2-, and 3.2- and 8.7-fold, respectively. HDL2 amounts were 4-, 4- and 2.5-fold higher in the I5-HC, I10-HC and I15-HC groups. In HDL3, phospholipids contents were similar, whereas, unesterified cholesterol values were 3.3-, 2.8- and 3-fold higher in the I5-HC, I10-HC and I15-HC groups. In HDL2, cholesteryl esters contents were significantly higher in the groups treated with iridoid (p<0.05. LCAT activity was increased in the I5-HC and I10-HC groups. Conclusion: Treatment with iridoid at doses 5 or 10mg/kg b.w reduce cholesterolemia. These molecules act efficiently on the efflux of cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver by increasing LCAT activity. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 55-60

  10. Fructose rich diet-induced high plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production in the adult female rat: protective effect of progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Alzamendi, Ana; Ongaro, Luisina; Giovambattista, Andrés; Gaillard, Rolf C; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-08-01

    The effect of progesterone (P4) on fructose rich diet (FRD) intake-induced metabolic, endocrine and parametrial adipose tissue (PMAT) dysfunctions was studied in the adult female rat. Sixty day-old rats were i.m. treated with oil alone (control, CT) or containing P4 (12 mg/kg). Rats ate Purina chow-diet ad libitum throughout the entire experiment and, between 100 and 120 days of age drank ad libitum tap water alone (normal diet; CT-ND and P4-ND) or containing fructose (10% w/v; CT-FRD and P4-FRD). At age 120 days, animals were subjected to a glucose tolerance test or decapitated. Plasma concentrations of various biomarkers and PMAT gene abundance were monitored. P4-ND (vs. CT-ND) rats showed elevated circulating levels of lipids. CT-FRD rats displayed high (vs. CT-ND) plasma concentrations of lipids, leptin, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Lipidemia and adiponectinemia were high (vs. P4-ND) in P4-FRD rats. Although P4 failed to prevent FRD-induced hyperleptinemia, it was fully protective on FRD-enhanced plasma PAI-1 levels. PMAT leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were high in CT-FRD and P4-FRD rats. While FRD enhanced PMAT PAI-1 mRNA abundance in CT rats, this effect was absent in P4 rats. Our study supports that a preceding P4-enriched milieu prevented the enhanced prothrombotic risk induced by FRD-elicited high PAI-1 production.

  11. Diverse captive non-human primates with phytanic acid-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial phytanic acid levels in their red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Ann B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humans and rodents with impaired phytanic acid (PA metabolism can accumulate toxic stores of PA that have deleterious effects on multiple organ systems. Ruminants and certain fish obtain PA from the microbial degradation of dietary chlorophyll and/or through chlorophyll-derived precursors. In contrast, humans cannot derive PA from chlorophyll and instead normally obtain it only from meat, dairy, and fish products. Results Captive apes and Old world monkeys had significantly higher red blood cell (RBC PA levels relative to humans when all subjects were fed PA-deficient diets. Given the adverse health effects resulting from PA over accumulation, we investigated the molecular evolution of thirteen PA metabolism genes in apes, Old world monkeys, and New world monkeys. All non-human primate (NHP orthologs are predicted to encode full-length proteins with the marmoset Phyh gene containing a rare, but functional, GA splice donor dinucleotide. Acox2, Scp2, and Pecr sequences had amino acid positions with accelerated substitution rates while Amacr had significant variation in evolutionary rates in apes relative to other primates. Conclusions Unlike humans, diverse captive NHPs with PA-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial RBC PA levels. The favored hypothesis is that NHPs can derive significant amounts of PA from the degradation of ingested chlorophyll through gut fermentation. If correct, this raises the possibility that RBC PA levels could serve as a biomarker for evaluating the digestive health of captive NHPs. Furthermore, the evolutionary rates of the several genes relevant to PA metabolism provide candidate genetic adaptations to NHP diets.

  12. Decaffeinated green tea extract rich in epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents fatty liver disease by increased activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in diet-induced obesity mice.

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    Santamarina, Aline B; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Okuda, Marcos H; Santana, Aline A; Streck, Emilio L; Seelaender, Marilia; do Nascimento, Claudia M Oller; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Lira, Fábio S; Oyama, Lila Missae

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been considered the hepatic manifestation of obesity. It is unclear whether supplementation with green tea extract rich in epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) influences the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and insulin resistance in the liver. EGCG regulated hepatic mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and was capable of improving lipid metabolism, attenuating insulin resistance in obese mice. Mice were divided into four groups: control diet+water (CW) or EGCG (CE) and hyperlipidic diet+water (HFW) or EGCG (HFE). All animals received water and diets ad libitum for 16 weeks. Placebo groups received water (0.1 ml/day) and EGCG groups (0.1 ml EGCG and 50 mg/kg/day) by gavage. Cytokines concentrations were obtained by ELISA, protein expression through Western blotting and mitochondrial complex enzymatic activity by colorimetric assay of substrate degradation. HFW increased body weight gain, adiposity index, retroperitoneal and mesenteric adipose tissue relative weight, serum glucose, insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Basal Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR); glucose intolerance was observed in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as well as ectopic fat liver deposition. HFE group decreased body weight gain, retroperitoneal and mesenteric adipose tissue relative weight, HOMA-IR, insulin levels and liver fat accumulation; increased complexes II-III and IV and malate dehydrogenase activities and improvement in glucose uptake in OGTT and insulin sensitivity by increased protein expression of total AKT, IRα and IRS1. We did not find alterations in inflammatory parameters analyzed. EGCG was able to prevent obesity stimulating the mitochondrial complex chain, increasing energy expenditure, particularly from the oxidation of lipid substrates, thereby contributing to the prevention of hepatic steatosis and improved insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Selenium-Enriched Probiotics on Lipid Metabolism, Antioxidative Status, Histopathological Lesions, and Related Gene Expression in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

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    Nido, Sonia Agostinho; Shituleni, Shituleni Andreas; Mengistu, Berhe Mekonnen; Liu, Yunhuan; Khan, Alam Zeb; Gan, Fang; Kumbhar, Shahnawaz; Huang, Kehe

    2016-06-01

    A total of 80 female albino mice were randomly allotted into five groups (n = 16) as follows: (A) normal control, (B) high-fat diet (HFD),; (C) HFD + probiotics (P), (D) HFD + sodium selenite (SS), and (E) HFD + selenium-enriched probiotics (SP). The selenium content of diets in groups A, B, C, D, and E was 0.05, 0.05, 0.05, 0.3, and 0.3 μg/g, respectively. The amount of probiotics contained in groups C and E was similar (Lactobacillus acidophilus 0.25 × 10(11)/mL and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0.25 × 10(9)/mL colony-forming units (CFU)). The high-fat diet was composed of 15 % lard, 1 % cholesterol, 0.3 % cholic acid, and 83.7 % basal diet. At the end of the 4-week experiment, blood and liver samples were collected for the measurements of lipid metabolism, antioxidative status, histopathological lesions, and related gene expressions. The result shows that HFD significantly increased the body weights and liver damages compared to control, while P, SS, or SP supplementation attenuated the body weights and liver damages in mice. P, SS, or SP supplementation also significantly reversed the changes of alanine aminotransferase (AST), aspartate aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein (TP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalasa (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels induced by HFD. Generally, adding P, SS, or SP up-regulated mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2), acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase II (ACAT2), acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACOX2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and down-regulated mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) involved in lipid metabolism. Among the group

  14. In Vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants...

  15. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: At least 500 μg of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 μg of folate or with one 500 μg capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (p

  16. Diet, physical activity, and adiposity in children in poor and rich neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional comparison

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    Dehghan Mahshid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity in Canadian children increased three-fold in twenty years. Children living in low-income neighborhoods exercise less and are more overweight than those living in more affluent neighborhoods after accounting for family socio-economic status. Strategies to prevent obesity in children have focused on personal habits, ignoring neighborhood characteristics. It is essential to evaluate diet and physical activity patterns in relation to socio-economic conditions to understand the determinants of obesity. The objective of this pilot study was to compare diet, physical activity, and the built environment in two Hamilton area elementary schools serving socio-economically different communities. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study (November 2005-March 2006 in two public elementary schools in Hamilton, Ontario, School A and School B, located in low and high socioeconomic areas respectively. We assessed dietary intake, physical activity, dietary restraint, and anthropometric measures in consenting children in grades 1 and higher. From their parents we assessed family characteristics and walkability of the built environment. Results 160 children (n = 48, School A and n = 112, School B, and 156 parents (n = 43, School A and n = 113, School B participated in this study. The parents with children at School A were less educated and had lower incomes than those at School B. The School A neighborhood was perceived to be less walkable than the School B neighborhood. Children at School A consumed more baked foods, chips, sodas, gelatin desserts, and candies and less low fat dairy, and dark bread than those at School B. Children at School A watched more television and spent more time in front of the computer than children studying at School B, but reported spending less time sitting on weekdays and weekends. Children at both schools were overweight but there was no difference in their mean BMI z-scores (School A = 0.65 versus School

  17. Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract prevents early liver injury and restores antioxidant status in mice fed with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nilanjan; Sikder, Kunal; Ghosh, Santinath; Fromenty, Bernard; Dey, Sanjit

    2012-06-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may lead to multiple complications affecting human health. In the present study, effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) in alleviating HFD induced liver injury in mice has been reported. Liver histology and serum activity of hepatic marker enzymes i.e. aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been studied. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated using liver homogenate. Results of the study suggested that MoLE treatment protected HFD-induced liver damage as indicated by histopathology and liver enzyme activity compared to only-HFD fed group (P < 0.05). Interestingly, early signs of HFD-induced fatty liver were also alleviated by MoLE. Moreover, significant increase in endogenous antioxidant parameters and lower lipid peroxidation were found in liver of all MoLE treated groups. Results of the study indicated that MoLE has both preventive as also curative hepatoprotective activity.

  18. Effects of realistic doses of atrazine, metolachlor, and glyphosate on lipid peroxidation and diet-derived antioxidants in caged honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Stephanie Hedrei; Kerbaol, Anahi; Aras, Philippe; Jumarie, Catherine; Boily, Monique

    2015-06-01

    The decline in the population of pollinators is a worrying phenomenon worldwide. In North America, the extensive use of herbicides in maize and soya crops may affect the health of nontarget organisms like the honey bee. In this study, caged honey bees were exposed to realistic doses of atrazine, metolachlor, and glyphosate for 10 days via contaminated syrup. Peroxidation of lipids was evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) test, and diet-derived antioxidants-carotenoids, all-trans-retinol (at-ROH) and α-tocopherol-were detected and quantified using reversed-phase HPLC techniques. Significant increases in syrup consumption were observed in honey bees exposed to metolachlor, and a lower TBARS value was recorded for the highest dose. No relationship was observed between the peroxidation of lipids and the levels of antioxidants. However, β-carotene, which was found to be the most abundant carotenoid, and at-ROH (derived from β-carotene) both decreased with increasing doses of atrazine and glyphosate. In contrast, metolachlor increased levels of at-ROH without any effects on β-carotene. These results show that the honey bee carotenoid-retinoid system may be altered by sublethal field-realistic doses of herbicides.

  19. Protective Effect of Tulbaghia violacea Harv. on Aortic Pathology, Tissue Antioxidant Enzymes and Liver Damage in Diet-Induced Atherosclerotic Rats

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    Anthony J. Afolayan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect Tulbaghia violacea rhizomes (TVR against derangements in serum lipid profile, tissue antioxidant enzyme depletion, endothelium dysfunction and histopathological changes in the aorta and liver of rats fed with an atherosclerogenic (Ath diet (4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid and 0.5% thiouracil was investigated in this study. Co-treatment with the TVR extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for two weeks significantly (p < 0.05 protected against elevated serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and decreased HDL-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the atherogenic control. The extracts also reduced (p < 0.05 elevated thiobabutric reacting substance (TBARS and reversed endothelial dysfunction parameters (fibrinogen and total NO levels and tissue antioxidant enzyme activities to near normal. The protective ability of the extract was confirmed by the significant (p < 0.05 reduction in the activities of serum markers of liver (LDH, AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin and kidney damage (creatinine and bilirubin in extract-treated groups compared with the atherogenic control group. Also, histopathology evaluations of aorta sections revealed that the extracts protected against the development of fatty streak plaques (aorta and fatty changes in hepatocytes. The observed activities of the extracts compared favorably with standard drug atorvastatin. Our study thus showed that the methanolic extract of TVR could protect against the early onset of atherosclerosis.

  20. A High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet Induces Antioxidant Imbalance and Increases the Risk and Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

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    Kanokwan Jarukamjorn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat liver is an important manifestation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. In the present study, the effects of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD on mRNA levels and activities of the antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, were determined in mouse livers and brains. The histomorphology of the livers was examined and the state of nonenzymatic reducing system was evaluated by measuring the glutathione system and the lipid peroxidation. Histopathology of the liver showed that fat accumulation and inflammation depended on the period of the HFFD-consumption. The levels of mRNA and enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx were raised, followed by the increases in malondialdehyde levels in livers and brains of the HFFD mice. The oxidized GSSG content was increased while the total GSH and the reduced GSH were decreased, resulting in the increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio in both livers and brains of the HFFD mice. These observations suggested that liver damage and oxidative stress in the significant organs were generated by continuous HFFD-consumption. Imbalance of antioxidant condition induced by long-term HFFD-consumption might increase the risk and progression of NAFLD.

  1. A biodiverse rich environment does not contribute to a better diet: a case study from DR Congo.

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    Céline Termote

    Full Text Available The potential of biodiversity to increase and sustain nutrition security is increasingly recognized by the international research community. To date however, dietary assessment studies that have assessed how biodiversity actually contributes to human diets are virtually absent. This study measured the contribution of wild edible plants (WEP to the dietary quality in the high biodiverse context of DR Congo. The habitual dietary intake was estimated from 2 multiple-pass 24 h dietary recalls for 363 urban and 129 rural women. All WEP were collected during previous ethnobotanical investigations and identified and deposited in the National Botanical Garden of Belgium (BR. Results showed that in a high biodiverse region with precarious food security, WEP are insufficiently consumed to increase nutrition security or dietary adequacy. The highest contribution came from Dacryodes edulis in the village sample contributing 4.8% of total energy intake. Considering the nutrient composition of the many WEP available in the region and known by the indigenous populations, the potential to increase nutrition security is vast. Additional research regarding the dietary contribution of agricultural biodiversity and the nutrient composition of WEP would allow to integrate them into appropriate dietary guidelines for the region and pave the way to domesticate the most interesting WEP.

  2. A biodiverse rich environment does not contribute to a better diet: a case study from DR Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termote, Céline; Bwama Meyi, Marcel; Dhed'a Djailo, Benoît; Huybregts, Lieven; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Damme, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The potential of biodiversity to increase and sustain nutrition security is increasingly recognized by the international research community. To date however, dietary assessment studies that have assessed how biodiversity actually contributes to human diets are virtually absent. This study measured the contribution of wild edible plants (WEP) to the dietary quality in the high biodiverse context of DR Congo. The habitual dietary intake was estimated from 2 multiple-pass 24 h dietary recalls for 363 urban and 129 rural women. All WEP were collected during previous ethnobotanical investigations and identified and deposited in the National Botanical Garden of Belgium (BR). Results showed that in a high biodiverse region with precarious food security, WEP are insufficiently consumed to increase nutrition security or dietary adequacy. The highest contribution came from Dacryodes edulis in the village sample contributing 4.8% of total energy intake. Considering the nutrient composition of the many WEP available in the region and known by the indigenous populations, the potential to increase nutrition security is vast. Additional research regarding the dietary contribution of agricultural biodiversity and the nutrient composition of WEP would allow to integrate them into appropriate dietary guidelines for the region and pave the way to domesticate the most interesting WEP.

  3. Polyphenol-Rich Diets Exacerbate AMPK-Mediated Autophagy, Decreasing Proliferation of Mosquito Midgut Microbiota, and Extending Vector Lifespan.

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    Rodrigo Dutra Nunes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes feed on plant-derived fluids such as nectar and sap and are exposed to bioactive molecules found in this dietary source. However, the role of such molecules on mosquito vectorial capacity is unknown. Weather has been recognized as a major determinant of the spread of dengue, and plants under abiotic stress increase their production of polyphenols.Here, we show that including polyphenols in mosquito meals promoted the activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK. AMPK positively regulated midgut autophagy leading to a decrease in bacterial proliferation and an increase in vector lifespan. Suppression of AMPK activity resulted in a 6-fold increase in midgut microbiota. Similarly, inhibition of polyphenol-induced autophagy induced an 8-fold increase in bacterial proliferation. Mosquitoes maintained on the polyphenol diet were readily infected by dengue virus.The present findings uncover a new direct route by which exacerbation of autophagy through activation of the AMPK pathway leads to a more efficient control of mosquito midgut microbiota and increases the average mosquito lifespan. Our results suggest for the first time that the polyphenol content and availability of the surrounding vegetation may increase the population of mosquitoes prone to infection with arboviruses.

  4. Polyphenol-Rich Diets Exacerbate AMPK-Mediated Autophagy, Decreasing Proliferation of Mosquito Midgut Microbiota, and Extending Vector Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Rodrigo Dutra; Ventura-Martins, Guilherme; Moretti, Débora Monteiro; Medeiros-Castro, Priscilla; Rocha-Santos, Carlucio; Daumas-Filho, Carlos Renato de Oliveira; Bittencourt-Cunha, Paula Rego Barros; Martins-Cardoso, Karina; Cudischevitch, Cecília Oliveira; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok; Oliveira, José Henrique Maia; Gusmão, Desiely Silva; Alves Lemos, Francisco José; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Oliveira, Pedro Lagerblad; Lowenberger, Carl; Majerowicz, David; Oliveira, Ricardo Melo; Mesquita, Rafael Dias; Atella, Georgia Correa

    2016-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes feed on plant-derived fluids such as nectar and sap and are exposed to bioactive molecules found in this dietary source. However, the role of such molecules on mosquito vectorial capacity is unknown. Weather has been recognized as a major determinant of the spread of dengue, and plants under abiotic stress increase their production of polyphenols. Results Here, we show that including polyphenols in mosquito meals promoted the activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK positively regulated midgut autophagy leading to a decrease in bacterial proliferation and an increase in vector lifespan. Suppression of AMPK activity resulted in a 6-fold increase in midgut microbiota. Similarly, inhibition of polyphenol-induced autophagy induced an 8-fold increase in bacterial proliferation. Mosquitoes maintained on the polyphenol diet were readily infected by dengue virus. Conclusion The present findings uncover a new direct route by which exacerbation of autophagy through activation of the AMPK pathway leads to a more efficient control of mosquito midgut microbiota and increases the average mosquito lifespan. Our results suggest for the first time that the polyphenol content and availability of the surrounding vegetation may increase the population of mosquitoes prone to infection with arboviruses. PMID:27732590

  5. Evaluation of quality of kefir from milk obtained from goats supplemented with a diet rich in bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cais-Sokolińska, Dorota; Pikul, Jan; Wójtowski, Jacek; Danków, Romualda; Teichert, Joanna; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-04-01

    The composition of bioactive components in dairy products depends on their content in raw milk and the processing conditions. The experimental material consisted of the milk of dairy goats supplemented with 120 g d(-1) per head of false flax cake. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of kefir produced from goat's milk with a higher content of bioactive components resulting from supplementation of the goats' diet with false flax cake. The administration of false flax cake to goats had a positive effect on the fatty acid profile of the raw milk, causing an increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 fatty acids. Their increased percentage was detected in the kefir after production as well as after storage. The processing value of the harvested milk did not differ from the qualitative characteristics of milk from goats of the control group. Increasing the proportion of bioactive components in goat's milk did not result in changes in the acidity, texture, colour, flavour, aroma or consistency of the kefir obtained. Milk and kefir obtained after the administration of false flax cake to goats contain bioactive components (PUFA including CLA, n-3 and monoenic trans fatty acids) in significant amounts. Kefir from experimental goat's milk did not differ in quality from kefir made from the milk of the control group. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. The effect of lithium administration in a diet on the chosen parameters of the antioxidant barrier in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Pasternak, Kazimierz; Musik, Irena; Wrońiska, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in metabolic processes can cause severe lesions. The organisms' defense constitutes the antioxidant barrier. Antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) belong to its main constituents. Lithium is widely used in medicine but its administration can cause negative side-effects. Therefore, we investigated Li oral intoxication influence on SOD and GPx activity in serum and tissues of rats in the dependence on time (three-weeks and six-weeks). In serum SOD activity vs. control increased after three weeks and decreased after six, GPx activity vs. control was changed in reverse way--diminished after three weeks and enhanced after six. In tissues the changes were diverse. The most interesting results are: the decrease of both enzymes in the spleen, no changes of SOD in the brain, the enhanced GPx and diminished SOD in the kidney, the increased SOD in the liver vs. control during the whole experiment. In serum, femoral muscle and kidney during all the exposure the increment of one of enzymes was accompanied with the depletion of the other. The obtained outcomes allow to suggest that the lithium exposure resulted in antioxidant barrier disturbances in rats.

  7. The in vivo antioxidant action and the reduction of oxidative stress by boysenberry extract is dependent on base diet constituents in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnett, L.E.; Broomfield, A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Hunt, M.B.; McGhie, T.K.

    2007-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants are often defined by in vitro measures of antioxidant activity. Such measures are valid indicators of the antioxidant potential, but provide little evidence of activity as a dietary antioxidant. This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo antioxidant efficacy of a berry frui

  8. Formate Excretion in Urine of Rats Fed Dimethylaminoazobenzene-rich Diets: The Possibility of Formate Formation from D-Lactate

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    Ohmori,Shinji

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of degradation of d-lactate into formate and acetaldehyde. In order to induce hyperproduction of d-lactate in rats. Donryu male albino rats were fed diets containing 0.064% 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'-MDAB, 4'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (4'-MDAB or 2-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (2-MDAB for 10 weeks. During the experiment, body mass, food and water intake and volume of urine were documented. Methylglyoxal, d-lactate and formate in the urine samples were determined. On the first day of the eleventh week, methylglyoxal, d-lactate, glutathione and enzymatic activities of demethylation and glyoxalase I and II in liver were measured. Methylglyoxal, d-lactate and clinical chemistry parameters of blood plasma were also measured. The levels of methylglyoxal and d-lactate in livers of rats fed 3'-MDAB were very high, while those of 2-MDAB fed-rats and the control group were the same. The fact that glyoxalase I activity and the level of glutathione, a cofactor of glyoxalase I, were high in the livers of the 3'-MDAB-fed rats can explain the elevated levels of methylglyoxal and d-lactate in the liver. The most striking results were the elevated formate levels in the urine of rats fed 3'- and 4'-MDAB in a precancerous state. The degradation of d-lactate, an end product of the methylglyoxal bypass, into acetaldehyde and formate was suggested as a possible way to explain the results.

  9. Effects of diet containing monosodium glutamate on organ weights, acute blood steroidal sex hor mone levels, lipid profile and er ythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities of rats

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    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of diet containing monosodium glutamate on visceral organ weights, acute blood steroidal sex hormone levels, serum lipid profile (SLP and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities of Wistar rats. Methods: The Wistar rats were grouped into two groups of six rats each. The ones in Group 1 (control group were placed on water and pelletized standard guinea feed ad libitum, whereas Group 2 was regarded as test group [Wistar rats (WR-monosodium glutamate (MSG group] and the Wistar rats received water, compounded diet of MSG and pelletized standard guinea feed ad libitum. After 33 days of feeding study, rat body weight was obtained. Rats were sacrificed and the incisions were made into the thoracic cavity and blood samples were drawn by cardiac puncture as a terminal event. Plasma was assayed for estradiol and testosterone concentrations, SLP and erythrocyte peroxidase and catalase activities. Visceral organ weights were also measured. Results: WR-MSG exhibited marginal alterations in blood estradiol and testosterone concentrations. Elevation of serum triacylglycerol concentration in WR-MSG was corresponded to 77.7%. Increases in serum concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in WR-MSG were corresponded to 70.6% and 41.0% respectively. Erythrocyte peroxidase and catalase activities showed marginal alterations. Alterations in visceral organs-to-body weights ratios were not profound. Conclusions: Blood testosterone and estradiol concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05 altered, which may not be connected with the low dose of MSG in the diet. Marginal alterations of SLP did not indicate atherogenicity in WR-MSG. The visceral organs were not atrophic or hypertrophic because of the comparatively low dose of MSG consumed by WR-MSG and the duration of the feeding experiment.

  10. Relationship between dietary antioxidant index (DAI) and antioxidants level in plasma of Kraków inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Zając, Joanna; Morawiecka-Baranek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Some literature data indicate that antioxidant-rich food may significantly increase antioxidants in serum and decrease the oxidative stress but results are ambiguous. The aim of this study was to estimate the total antioxidant capacity of food intake among the inhabitants of Kraków, Poland on the basis of dietary antioxidant index (DAI) and evaluation the relation between DAI and the level of antioxidants in plasma. Examination included 70 (37 women and 33 men) non-smoking inhabitants of Krakow aged 46.4 ± 13.7 years. DAI was investigated on the basis of Food Frequency Questionnaire including 145 food items. DAI was measured using the method by Benzi and expressed as FRAP (mMol/L). In plasma samples total antioxidant status (TAS) expressed as FRAP and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as a marker of lipids peroxidation were measured. The mean value of DAI of all examined persons was 46.74 ± 25.5 mMol/L (in female group: 54.13 ± 27.7 mMol/L; in male group: 37.83 ± 19.5 mMol/L; p antioxidants in daily diet (measured as DAI) might increase antioxidants defense (measured by TAC as FRAP) and decrease oxidative stress (measured by MDA concentration in plasma). The dietary modification towards higher consumption of antioxidants (especially in men) should be highlighted in prevention of diseases in which oxidative stress play considerable role.

  11. Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet

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    Soo Im Chung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities.

  12. [The inhibitory effects of antioxidant vitamins on serum oxLDL and experimental atherosclerosis of rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Yang, T; Song, F; Ruan, G; Liu, S

    1997-12-01

    In order to study the inhibitory effects of antioxidant vitamins on serum (low oxidative density lipoproteins, oxLDL) and experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits, 20 rabbits were fed on cholesterol rich diet and antioxidant vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin C and beta carotene) for 12 weeks. oxLDL were tested by ELISA at the beginning of experiment and after 4 weeks 8 weeks. The results showed that supplement of antioxidant vitamins can decrease the oxLDL level significantly and inhibited development of atherosclerosis lesion around aorta in rabbits.

  13. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

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    Barikmo Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential

  14. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Monica H; Halvorsen, Bente L; Holte, Kari; Bøhn, Siv K; Dragland, Steinar; Sampson, Laura; Willey, Carol; Senoo, Haruki; Umezono, Yuko; Sanada, Chiho; Barikmo, Ingrid; Berhe, Nega; Willett, Walter C; Phillips, Katherine M; Jacobs, David R; Blomhoff, Rune

    2010-01-22

    A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of phytochemical antioxidants in diet.

  15. Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Paulownia fortunei Flowers Attenuates Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance in Obesity Mice by AMPK Pathway.

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    Liu, Chanmin; Ma, Jieqiong; Sun, Jianmei; Cheng, Chao; Feng, Zhaojun; Jiang, Hong; Yang, Wei

    2017-08-30

    The flavonoid-rich extract from Paulownia fortunei flowers (EPF) has been reported to prevent obesity and other lipid metabolism disease. However, the mechanism of its protective effects is not yet clear. The objective of this study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of EPF in obese mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male h ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing the EPF (50 or 100 mg/kg) for eight weeks. EPF reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in livers and levels of lipid, glucose and insulin in plasma as well as reduced insulin resistance as compared with the HFD group. EPF significantly decreased serum aminotransferase activity of the HFD group. We observed that EPF administration significantly increased the level of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and prevented fat deposits in livers and HepG2 cells, but these effects were blocked by compound C (an AMPK inhibitor). The protective effects of EPF were probably associated with the decrease in HMGCR, SREBP-1c and FAS expressions and the increase in CPT1 and phosphor-IRS-1 expressions. Our results suggest that EPF might be a potential natural candidate for the treatment and/or prevention of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations induced by HFD.

  16. Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Paulownia fortunei Flowers Attenuates Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance in Obesity Mice by AMPK Pathway

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    Chanmin Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid-rich extract from Paulownia fortunei flowers (EPF has been reported to prevent obesity and other lipid metabolism disease. However, the mechanism of its protective effects is not yet clear. The objective of this study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of EPF in obese mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Male h ICR (Institute of Cancer Research mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing the EPF (50 or 100 mg/kg for eight weeks. EPF reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in livers and levels of lipid, glucose and insulin in plasma as well as reduced insulin resistance as compared with the HFD group. EPF significantly decreased serum aminotransferase activity of the HFD group. We observed that EPF administration significantly increased the level of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK phosphorylation and prevented fat deposits in livers and HepG2 cells, but these effects were blocked by compound C (an AMPK inhibitor. The protective effects of EPF were probably associated with the decrease in HMGCR, SREBP-1c and FAS expressions and the increase in CPT1 and phosphor-IRS-1 expressions. Our results suggest that EPF might be a potential natural candidate for the treatment and/or prevention of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations induced by HFD.

  17. Fisetin-Rich Extracts of Rhus verniciflua Stokes Improve Blood Flow Rates in Mice Fed Both Normal and High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Won Kyun; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kwang Soo; Lee, Jung Hoon; Kim, Young Dong; Kim, Kyeong-Hee; Park, Sang-Jae; Hong, Seokmann; Jeon, Sung Ho

    2016-02-01

    Although it has been previously reported that Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) possesses in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, the precise in vivo mechanisms of RVS extracts and a main active component called fisetin have not been well elucidated. In this study, using newly developed protocols, we prepared urushiol-free but fisetin-enriched RVS extracts and investigated their effects on the vascular immune system. We found that the water-soluble fractions of detoxified RVS with the flavonoid fisetin can inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Furthermore, RVS can reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase and COX2 gene expression levels, which are responsible for NO and PGE2 production, respectively, in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Because inflammation is linked to the activation of the coagulation system, we hypothesized that RVS and its active component fisetin possess anticoagulatory activities. As expected, we found that both RVS and fisetin could inhibit the coagulation of human peripheral blood cells. Moreover, in vivo RVS treatment could return the retarded blood flow elicited by a high-fat diet (HFD) back to the normal level in mice. In addition, RVS treatment has significantly reduced body weight gained by HFD in mice. Taken together, the fisetin-rich RVS extracts have potential antiplatelet and antiobesity activities and could be used as a functional food ingredient to improve blood circulation.

  18. Anti-hyperlipidemic effects and potential mechanisms of action of the caffeoylquinic acid-rich Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in hamsters fed a high fat-diet.

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    Xiaopo Zhang

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is considered to be one of the greatest risk factors contributing to the prevalence and severity of cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect and potential mechanism of action of the Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in hamsters fed a high fat-diet (HFD. The n-butanol fraction of the P. tectorius fruit ethanol extract (PTF-b was rich in caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs. Administration of PTF-b for 4 weeks effectively decreased retroperitoneal fat and the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c and hepatic TC and TG. The lipid signals (fatty acids, and cholesterol in the liver as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were correspondingly reduced. Realtime quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of PPARα and PPARα-regulated genes such as ACO, CPT1, LPL and HSL were largely enhanced by PTF-b. The transcription of LDLR, CYP7A1, and PPARγ was also upregulated. Treatment with PTF-b significantly stimulated the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK as well as the activity of serum and hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL. Together, these results suggest that administration of the PTF-b enriched in CQAs moderates hyperlipidemia and improves the liver lipid profile. These effects may be caused, at least in part, by increasing the expression of PPARα and its downstream genes and by upregulation of LPL and AMPK activities.

  19. The use of tropical protein-rich leaves as supplements to Thai swamp buffalo receiving a basal diet of rice straw and treated leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetana, T; Vongpipatana, C; Usawang, S; Thongruay, S

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) the effects of protein-rich trees (PRTs) and (ii) the effects of leucaena treated with NaOH solution and leucaena plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, urinary purine derivatives excretion and blood metabolites in Thai swamp buffaloes. In Experiment 1, animals were fed with rice straw as a basal diet and one of the four PRT supplements: (i) oven-dried rain tree pods (RTPP, control); (ii) sun-dried leucaena leaves; (iii) sun-dried cassia leaves and (iv) sun-dried mulberry leaves. Fibre digestibility and N balance were lower (P leucaena were treated in one of three ways: (i) untreated (control), (ii) leucaena treated with NaOH solution and (iii) leucaena + PEG. Fibre digestibility and N balance in the rumen improved (P leucaena + PEG, but microbial N was not increased. The study demonstrated a way of using local PRTs for a suitable and worthwhile method to improve the quality of buffalo feeding systems in the tropics.

  20. Unexpected long-term protection of adult offspring born to high-fat fed dams against obesity induced by a sucrose-rich diet.

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    Odile Couvreur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet, rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in

  1. Ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes and anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-03-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) root, a well-known medicinal plant in Asia, is reported to have various therapeutic benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidaemia. We hypothesized that the ethanol extract of lotus root (ELR) would exhibit an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes as well as anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with ELR in human pre-adipocytes resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte marker genes, such as glucose transporter 4 and leptin. Administration of ELR resulted in a significant decrease in relative weights of adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet. Consumption of a high-fat diet resulted in an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels; however, administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the levels of TC and TG. Administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the level of serum leptin and insulin. Administration of ELR in rats fed a high-fat diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content, elevated by a high-fat diet and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic glutathione content. These results suggest that lotus root exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combatting obesity-related diseases.

  2. CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (the CORDIOPREV study): Rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics: A clinical trial comparing the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil versus a low-fat diet on cardiovascular disease in coronary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1,002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009-2012) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social, and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high body mass index (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity) and with a median of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long-term follow-up study.

  3. Antioxidant activity of wine assessed by different in vitro methods

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    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that a diet rich in antioxidant compounds could help in counteracting the effects of reactive oxygen species, reducing the risk factors for chronic diseases. The moderate consumption of wine, especially red wine, has been associated with the reduction in mortalities from cardiovascular diseases. One of the possible reasons for the protective effect of wine can be identified in the high content of polyphenols (mainly flavonoids, which have significant antioxidant activity. Even though several in vitro tests have been developed for the measure of the antioxidant property, no method has showed a satisfactory correlation with the in vivo situation. On these bases, the aim of this study was the application and comparison of different in vitro methods to assess the antioxidant activity of red, rosé and white wines. The methods were: 1 Folin-Cocalteau's assay for the quantification of total polyphenol content; 2 the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl spectrophotometric assay and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC spectrophotometric assay for measuring the antioxidant activity of samples; 3 High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography for separation of phenolic substances and assessment of the associated antioxidant activity; 4 electrochemical detection by using a biosensor. Although all the approaches show some limitations, this battery of tests offers a more reliable body of data on the antioxidant activity of vine derivatives.

  4. Do diet, folic acid, and vitamins matter? What did we learn from the Women's Health Initiative, the Women's Health Study, the Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study, and other clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Nanette K

    2007-01-01

    Data from recent randomized clinical trials have contributed substantially to our understanding of appropriate interventions for coronary heart disease in women. Addressed in this monograph are issues of diet, folic acid, and antioxidant vitamins. Importantly, these randomized clinical trials have helped to clarify conflicting information from observational data, and to aid clinicians and their women patients in making appropriate choices of coronary and cardiovascular preventive therapy.

  5. Influence of a diet rich in resistant starch on the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides in the large intestine of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonathan, M.C.; Haenen, D.; Souza Da Silva, C.; Bosch, G.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of resistant starch to the degradation of other non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in the large intestine of pigs, two groups of pigs were fed either a diet containing digestible starch (DS) or a diet containing resistant starch (RS). Both diets contained NSPs from wheat and

  6. Influence of a diet rich in resistant starch on the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides in the large intestine of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonathan, M.C.; Haenen, D.; Souza Da Silva, C.; Bosch, G.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of resistant starch to the degradation of other non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in the large intestine of pigs, two groups of pigs were fed either a diet containing digestible starch (DS) or a diet containing resistant starch (RS). Both diets contained NSPs from wheat and

  7. Aging Increases Susceptibility to High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in C57BL/6 Mice: Improvement in Glycemic and Lipid Profile after Antioxidant Therapy

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    Valéria Nunes-Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been considered a novel component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, with the oxidative stress participating in its progression. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic profile in young and old mice with MetS, and the effects of apocynin and tempol on glycemic and lipid parameters. Young and old C57BL/6 mice with high fat diet- (HFD- induced MetS received apocynin and tempol 50 mg·kg−1/day in their drinking water for 10 weeks. After HFD, the young group showed elevated fasting glucose, worsened lipid profile in plasma, steatosis, and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, the old group presented significant increase in fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance, plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation, and pronounced steatosis. The hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ between the groups. Tempol and apocynin seemed to prevent hepatic lipid deposition in both groups. Furthermore, apocynin improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in old mice. In summary, old mice are more susceptible to HFD-induced metabolic changes than their young counterparts. Also, the antioxidant therapy improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and in addition, apocynin seemed to prevent the HFD-induced hepatic fat deposition, suggesting an important role of oxidative stress in the induction of NAFLD.

  8. Antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties of water and n-butanol soluble extracts from Saharian Anvillea radiata in high-fat-diet fed mice.

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    Kandouli, Chouaib; Cassien, Mathieu; Mercier, Anne; Delehedde, Caroline; Ricquebourg, Emilie; Stocker, Pierre; Mekaouche, Mourad; Leulmi, Zineb; Mechakra, Aicha; Thétiot-Laurent, Sophie; Culcasi, Marcel; Pietri, Sylvia

    2017-07-31

    According to Saharian traditional medicine, Anvillea radiata Coss. & Dur. (Asteraceae) has been valued for treating a variety of ailments such as gastro-intestinal, liver and pulmonary diseases, and has gained awareness for its beneficial effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. However, to best of our knowledge, no detailed study of the antidiabetic curative effects of this plant has been conducted yet. To determine the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of dietary supplementation with Anvillea radiata extracts on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice in relation with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pancreatic beta-cells and skeletal muscle protection, and digestive enzyme inhibiting properties. Six extracts (water soluble and organic) from aerial parts of the plant were analyzed phytochemically (total phenolic and flavonoid content) and screened for in vitro superoxide (by chemiluminescence) and hydroxyl radical (by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping) scavenging, antioxidant (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC assays), xanthine oxidase, metal chelating, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory property, and protective effects on copper-induced lipoprotein oxidation. Then selected hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts were assessed for toxicity in normal human lung fibroblasts and A549 cancer cells using FMCA and MTT assays. Two water-soluble extracts having the best overall properties were assessed for their (i) protective effect at 1-15µg/mL on metabolic activity of rat insulinoma-derived INS-1 cells exposed to hyperglycemic medium, and (ii) acute hypoglycemic effect on 16-weeks HFD-induced diabetic mice. Then diabetic mice were administered HFD supplemented by extracts (up to 150mg/kg/day) for 12 additional weeks using standard diet as control and the antidiabetic drug, metformin (150mg/kg), as positive control. Then the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of extracts were determined. Of the highly efficient

  9. Biotechnological richness of the northeastern semi-arid region: antioxidant activity of casein hydrolysates from Moxotó goat milk (Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 obtained by papain action

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    Vilma Sobral Bezerra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify antioxidant peptides from caprine casein hydrolysates by papain application using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, and a 2² full factorial design, with 4 axial points, in order to evaluate kinetic parameters (time and pH effects on the degree of hydrolysis as well as the antioxidant activity of Moxotó goat milk casein peptides. Degree of hydrolysis was determined by total and soluble protein ratio in casein. Antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS method with 2, 2-cation-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid. TROLOX was used as standard. Peptide pattern and sequence of antioxidant amino acids were obtained using MALDI-TOF/MS. The highest degree of hydrolysis (28.5% and antioxidant activity (2329.6 mmol.L TROLOX. mg- 1 peptide were observed in the permeate. NENLL, NPWDQVK and LLYQEPVLGPV peptides, detected in the permeate, were pointed as the responsible for antioxidant activity, suggesting their potential application as food supplement and pharmaceutical products.

  10. Supplementation of Rosemary extract in the diet of Nero Siciliano pigs: evaluation of the antioxidant properties on meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, L; Chiofalo, V; D'Alessandro, E; Lo Presti, V; Chiofalo, B

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. dietary supplementation on meat quality and oxidative stability of Nero Siciliano pigs was examined. During the growing-fattening period, 32 Nero Siciliano pigs were allotted into two treatment groups consisting of 8 replicates with 2 pigs per pen. For 90 days, the animals received a basal diet: one group (CTR) was not dietary supplemented, whereas the other group received (1 g/kg) rosemary extract (ROX). Supplementation with rosemary extract significantly improved the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the meat, which showed higher values in the meat of the ROX group compared with the CTR group (P0.05). Color measurement performed in the present study on meat samples from the two dietary treatments showed that redness decreased (P=0.046) and hue values increased (P=0.036), indicating that a deterioration of the initial color occurred and that the rosemary extract was ineffective in preventing color deterioration. Nevertheless, the lightness, yellowness and chroma color descriptors showed similar values in relation to dietary treatment (P>0.05). Considering the nutritional value of meat as an important contributor to the overall quality, the results obtained in this study support the possibility of the dietary supplementation with R. officinalis L. extract in pigs as a functional additive in livestock feeding.

  11. Behaviour and hormonal status in healthy rats on a diet rich in Maillard reaction products with or without solvent extractable aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebeková, Katarína; Klenovics, Kristína Simon; Boor, Peter; Celec, Peter; Behuliak, Michal; Schieberle, Peter; Heidland, August; Palkovits, Miklós; Somoza, Veronika

    2012-02-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are generated upon thermal processing of foods, modifying their colour and flavour. We asked whether aroma compounds generated via Maillard-type reactions modulate the in vivo effects of MRP-rich diets (MRPD). Male Wistar rats were fed for 3weeks either with a standard rat chow, an aroma compounds containing MRPD comprising 25% bread crust, or an aroma-extracted MRPD. In contrast to standard rat chow, consumption of MRPDs affected glucose control, induced hyper-leptinemia and hyper-adiponectinemia. Plasma adipokines were significantly higher in rats on aroma containing MRPD in comparison with those consuming aroma-extracted MRPD. Consumption of both MRPDs significantly increased the expression of the insulin receptor in the olfactory bulb, and mildly in the hypothalamus. Administration of the aroma containing MRPD significantly increased the leptin receptor expression in the olfactory bulb, and in the hypothalamus. Under both MRPDs, strong expression of c-fos indicated an increased neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb. Neuronal activity in brain areas involved in the central regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis was more pronounced in rats fed by the aroma containing MRPD. In conclusion, short-term consumption of a MRPD fortified with bread crust, particularly if containing solvent extractable volatile aroma compounds, affected the leptin-induced central signalling of anorexigenic/orexigenic hormones, and the neuronal activity in the central nervous system. Behavioural changes and altered glucose control were more evident in rats on the aroma containing MRPD. Our data suggest that volatile aroma compounds in foods might affect endocrine signalling and neuronal regulation of metabolism.

  12. Effects of tomato- and soy-rich diets on the IGF-I hormonal network: a crossover study of postmenopausal women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, John M; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Vitolins, Mara Z; Bittoni, Marisa; Reeves, Katherine W; Degraffinreid, Cecilia R; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-05-01

    To determine whether dietary modifications with tomato products and/or a soy supplement affected circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and other markers of cell signaling in postmenopausal women at risk for developing breast cancer. Eligible and consented postmenopausal women at high risk for developing breast cancer were enrolled in a 26-week, two-arm (tomato and soy, 10 weeks each) longitudinal dietary intervention study in which each woman served as her own control. Changes in biochemical endpoints including IGF-I, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), C-peptide, and insulin were measured for each intervention arm. Carotenoid and isoflavone levels were measured to assess adherence. Significant increases in carotenoid and isoflavone levels during the tomato and soy study arms, respectively, suggested that women were adherent to both arms of the intervention. The tomato-rich diet had little effect on cell-signaling biomarkers previously associated with breast cancer risk. However, results of the soy intervention showed that concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 increased by 21.6 and 154.7 μmol/L, respectively (P = 0.001 for both) and SHBG decreased by 5.4 μmol/L (P protein intake may lead to small, but significant, increases in IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Soy consumption also led to a significant decrease in SHBG, which has been hypothesized to promote, rather than prevent, cancer growth. Previous epidemiologic studies, however, have confirmed protective effect of soy on breast cancer. Additional investigation about the effect of soy on breast cancer risk and its mechanism of action is warranted.

  13. Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Donald Craig; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional diet in Okinawa is anchored by root vegetables (principally sweet potatoes), green and yellow vegetables, soybean-based foods, and medicinal plants. Marine foods, lean meats, fruit, medicinal garnishes and spices, tea, alcohol are also moderately consumed. Many characteristics of the traditional Okinawan diet are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, including the traditional Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, and Portfolio diet. All these dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, among other age-associated diseases. Overall, the important shared features of these healthy dietary patterns include: high intake of unrefined carbohydrates, moderate protein intake with emphasis on vegetables/legumes, fish, and lean meats as sources, and a healthy fat profile (higher in mono/polyunsaturated fats, lower in saturated fat; rich in omega-3). The healthy fat intake is likely one mechanism for reducing inflammation, optimizing cholesterol, and other risk factors. Additionally, the lower caloric density of plant-rich diets results in lower caloric intake with concomitant high intake of phytonutrients and antioxidants. Other shared features include low glycemic load, less inflammation and oxidative stress, and potential modulation of aging-related biological pathways. This may reduce risk for chronic age-associated diseases and promote healthy aging and longevity.

  14. In-vitro antioxidant study of certain common fruits – Gooseberry, Guava, and Tamarind

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    Anu S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most medicinal plants are used as antioxidants in traditional medicine, and their claim for therapeutic properties because of its capacity to scavenge oxygen free radical. As they have low levels of antioxidants or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes, cause oxidative stress, and may damage or kill cells. In the present work I demonstrated the antioxidant activity of some common fruits such as Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Guava (Psidium guavajava Linn and Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.The fruits extracts were applied at three different concentrations in the FeCL2-AA induced rat liver homogenate in vitro. Each of the aqueous fruit extracts at different concentration shows different antioxidant property. Gooseberry fruit extract at 100µg/ml concentration shows the highest antioxidant property by showing the significant MDA inhibition percentage as 70.86**. Guava fruit extract at 100µg/ml concentration shows the lowest antioxidant property by showing the non significant MDA inhibition percentage as 54.52. The antioxidant property not only depends on the fruit extracts but also depend on the concentration of its application. In some case application of high concentration is significant, but in other case high concentration is not much significant than the application of lower concentration. Some antioxidants shows significant antioxidant property at a particular concentration, in this increase or decrease in concentration of application shows insignificant antioxidant property. Antioxidant vitamins and other antioxidant compounds are rich in fruits when compared to that of processed foods with that antioxidants are essential for the good health. The present study indicates that the fruits with potent antioxidant effects are to be compulsorily included in the daily diet of adults and children have to enable them to lead a healthy and energetic life.

  15. Antioxidants in food: content, measurement, significance, action, cautions, caveats, and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzie, Iris F F; Choi, Siu-Wai

    2014-01-01

    There are a multitude of antioxidants in foods, especially in foods of plant origin. Higher intake of antioxidant-rich foods is clearly associated with better health and functional longevity. The specific agents and mechanisms responsible are not yet clear, but there is convincing evidence that including more plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods, herbs, and beverages in the diet is effective in promoting health and lowering risk of various age-related diseases. The content of some individual antioxidants, such as vitamin C, in food can be measured, but it is not feasible to attempt to measure each antioxidant separately, and methods have been developed to assess the "total antioxidant content" of foods. One of the most widely used methods is the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, which is relatively simple, quick, sensitive, and inexpensive to perform. There are many published studies that have used the FRAP assay, and these have generated a very large database of total antioxidant content of foods that can help guide food choices for increased antioxidant intake. The FRAP assay has also been used to assess the bioavailability of antioxidants in foods and to investigate the effects of growing conditions, storage, processing, and cooking method on the total antioxidant content of food. The test can be employed as a quality control check device, and to detect adulteration of food. Furthermore, in a modified form (FRASC), the assay can measure ascorbic acid content almost simultaneously with the total antioxidant content of the sample. In this chapter, basic concepts of oxidation and the role of antioxidants, as well as the types and action of different antioxidants in foods will be reviewed briefly, and the underpinning concepts and evidence for health benefits of increased intake of dietary antioxidants will be discussed, with some focus on vitamin C, and also in the context of our evolutionary development. The basic concepts and limitations of measuring

  16. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

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    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  17. Acute reduction of serum 8-iso-PGF2-alpha and advanced oxidation protein products in vivo by a polyphenol-rich beverage; a pilot clinical study with phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant characterization

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    DiSilvestro Robert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring the effects of the acute intake of natural products on human biomarker concentrations, such as those related to oxidation and inflammation, can be an advantageous strategy for early clinical research on an ingredient or product. Methods 31 total healthy subjects were randomized in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, acute pilot study with post-hoc subgroup analysis on 20 of the subjects. The study examined the effects of a single dose of a polyphenol-rich beverage (PRB, commercially marketed as "SoZo®", on serum anti-inflammatory and antioxidant markers. In addition, phytochemical analyses of PRB, and in vitro antioxidant capacity were also performed. Results At 1 hour post-intake, serum values for 8-iso-PGF2-alpha and advanced oxidation protein products decreased significantly by 40% and 39%, respectively. Additionally, there was a trend toward decreased C-reactive protein, and increased nitric oxide levels. Both placebo and PRB treatment resulted in statistically significant increases in hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity (HORAC compared to baseline; PRB showed a higher percent change (55-75% versus 23-74% in placebo group, but the two groups did not differ significantly from each other. Conclusions PRB produced statistically significant changes in several blood biomarkers related to antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects. Future studies are justified to verify results and test for cumulative effects of repeated intakes of PRB. The study demonstrates the potential utility of acute biomarker measurements for evaluating antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects of natural products.

  18. Association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes in British adults: results from the national diet and nutrition survey rolling programme years 1-4.

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    McGeoghegan, L; Muirhead, C R; Almoosawi, S

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes in the national diet and nutrition survey (NDNS) rolling programme years 1-4. A total of 1531 survey members provided dietary data. Reduced Rank Regression (RRR) was used to derive an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma carotenoids were selected as response variables and markers of inflammation and antioxidant status, respectively. Overall, 52 survey members had diabetes. The derived anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern was inversely related to CRP and positively to carotenoids. It was associated with lower odds of diabetes (multivariate adjusted OR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 0.17; 95%CI: 0.04-0.73; p for linear trend = 0.013). In conclusion, an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern is inversely related to diabetes. Further research is required to understand the overall framework within which foods and nutrients interact to affect metabolic pathways related to diabetes risk.

  19. Grape antioxidant dietary fiber stimulates Lactobacillus growth in rat cecum.

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    Pozuelo, María José; Agis-Torres, Angel; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Elvira López-Oliva, María; Muñoz-Martínez, Emilia; Rotger, Rafael; Goñi, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The digesta is a highly active biological system where epithelial cells, microbiota, nondigestible dietary components, and a large number of metabolic products interact. The gut microbiota can be modulated by both endogenous and exogenous substrates. Undigested dietary residues are substrates for colonic microbiota and may influence gut microbial ecology. The objective of this work was to study the capacity of grape antioxidant dietary fiber (GADF), which is rich in polyphenols, to modify the bacterial profile in the cecum of rats. Male adult Wistar rats were fed for 4 wk with diets containing either cellulose or GADF as dietary fiber. The effect of GADF on bacterial growth was evaluated in vitro and on the cecal microbiota of rats using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that GADF intake stimulates proliferation of Lactobacillus and slightly affects the composition of Bifidobacterium species. GADF was also found to have a stimulative effect on Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus acidophilus in vitro. These findings suggest that the consumption of a diet rich in plant foods with high dietary fiber and polyphenol content may enhance the gastrointestinal health of the host through microbiota modulation. Grape antioxidant fiber combines nutritional and physiological properties of dietary fiber and natural antioxidants from grapes. Grape antioxidant fiber could be used as an ingredient for functional foods and as a dietary supplement to increase the intake of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Time course of adipose tissue dysfunction associated with antioxidant defense, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in dyslipemic insulin resistant rats.

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    D'Alessandro, María Eugenia; Selenscig, Dante; Illesca, Paola; Chicco, Adriana; Lombardo, Yolanda B

    2015-04-01

    The dysfunctional adipose tissue of rats fed a sucrose-rich diet was investigated following the time course of the development of oxidative stress, changes in proinflammatory cytokines and adiponectin levels, and their relationship with insulin resistance. We analyzed the morphometric characteristics of epididymal adipocytes, de novo lipogenesis enzyme activities and cellular antioxidant defense, inflammatory mediators, adiponectin levels and insulin resistance in rats fed a sucrose-rich diet for 3, 15 or 30 weeks and compared to those fed a control diet. The results showed a depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities in the fat pads of rats fed a sucrose-rich diet, with an increase in xanthine oxidase activity and lipid peroxidation after 3, 15 and 30 weeks on the diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and the redox state of glutathione showed a significant decrease at weeks 15 and 30. This was accompanied by visceral adiposity and enhanced lipogenic enzyme activities. An increase in the plasma levels of proinflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6) was recorded only after 30 weeks on the diet. A reduction in plasma adiponectin levels accompanied the time course of deterioration of whole-body insulin sensitivity. The results suggest that lipid peroxidation, depletion of antioxidant defenses and changes in inflammatory cytokines induced by a sucrose-rich diet contribute to the dysregulation of adipose tissue and insulin resistance. Finally, these results show that the progressive deterioration of adipose tissue function, which begins in the absence of both visceral adiposity and overweight, is highly dependent on the length of time on the diet.

  1. Hypolipidemic effect in cholesterol-fed rats of a soluble fiber-rich product obtained from cocoa husks.

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    Ramos, Sonia; Moulay, Leila; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Vilanova, Olga; Muguerza, Begoña; Goya, Luis; Bravo, Laura

    2008-08-27

    A new soluble cocoa fiber product (SCFP), obtained after enzymatic treatment of cocoa husks, was characterized and its potential health effects studied in an animal model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. The SCFP was rich in soluble dietary fiber (DF) and antioxidant polyphenols. Consumption of a cholesterol-rich diet containing the SCFP as a source of DF resulted in lower food intake and body weight gain in comparison with control groups consuming cholesterol-free or cholesterol-rich diets with cellulose as DF. The cholesterol-rich diet caused remarkable hypercholesterolemia. However, the SCFP diminished the negative impact of the cholesterol-rich diet, buffering the decrease of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and the increase of total and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) induced by the fatty diet. The SCFP also decreased triglyceride levels to values lower than those in the group fed the cholesterol-free diet. These results put forward the potential application of the SCFP as a dietary supplement or functional food ingredient.

  2. Imbalance between pro and anti-oxidant mechanisms in perivascular adipose tissue aggravates long-term high-fat diet-derived endothelial dysfunction.

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    Marta Gil-Ortega

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hypothesis of this study is that long-term high-fat diets (HFD induce perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT dysfunction characterized by a redox imbalance, which might contribute to aggravate endothelial dysfunction in obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were fed either control or HFD (45% kcal from fat for 32 weeks. Body weight, lumbar and mesenteric adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in HFD animals compared to controls. The anticontractile effect of PVAT in mesenteric arteries (MA was lost after 32 week HFD and mesenteric endothelial-dependent relaxation was significantly impaired in presence of PVAT in HFD mice (Emax = 71.0±5.1 vs Emax = 58.5±4.2, p<0.001. The inhibitory effect of L-NAME on Ach-induced relaxation was less intense in the HFD group compared with controls suggesting a reduction of endothelial NO availability. Expression of eNOS and NO bioavailability were reduced in MA and almost undetectable in mesenteric PVAT of the HFD group. Superoxide levels and NOX activity were higher in PVAT of HFD mice. Apocynin only reduced contractile responses to NA in HFD animals. Expression of ec-SOD and total SOD activity were significantly reduced in PVAT of HFD mice. No changes were observed in Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD or catalase. The ratio [GSSG]/([GSH]+[GSSG] was 2-fold higher in the mesenteric PVAT from HFD animals compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the imbalance between pro-oxidant (NOX, superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and anti-oxidant (eNOS, NO, ecSOD, GSSG mechanisms in PVAT after long-term HFD might contribute to the aggravation of endothelial dysfunction.

  3. Effects of palmitate-rich diet on atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice%高棕榈酸饮食对 ApoE 基因敲除小鼠动脉粥样硬化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳飞鹏; 蒋四华; 马双陶; 杨大春; 杨永健

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察高棕榈酸饮食对载脂蛋白 E(ApoE)基因敲除小鼠的血脂、血浆游离脂肪酸水平、动脉粥样硬化斑块面积、斑块中胶原含量和基质金属蛋白酶2表达的影响。方法:将20只6~8周龄雄性 ApoE 基因敲除小鼠随机分为对照组和高棕榈酸饮食组,每组10只。分别给予普通小鼠饲料和含5%棕榈酸的饮食,连续喂养12周。用比色法检测血脂和血浆游离脂肪酸水平;主动脉根部连续石蜡切片,Masson 染色检测斑块内胶原含量,免疫组化法检测主动脉基质金属蛋白酶2的表达。结果:两组血脂水平无明显差异。与对照组相比,高棕榈酸饮食组血浆游离脂肪酸水平显著升高,主动脉斑块内胶原含量显著降低,主动脉基质金属蛋白酶2表达明显增加(P 均<0.05)。结论:高棕榈酸饮食能够升高血浆游离脂肪酸水平,降低斑块内胶原含量,从而降低动脉粥样硬化斑块稳定性,其机制可能与其上调基质金属蛋白酶2的表达有关。%Objective:To investigate the effects of palmitate-rich diet on plasma lipids,free fatty acids,atherosclerotic plaque area,plaque collagen content and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 ) expression in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)knockout mice. Methods:Male ApoE knockout mice,6 ~8 weeks old,were randomly divided into control group and palmitate-rich diet group (n = 10 in each group).Mice in control group were given a normal chow diet,and mice in palmitate-rich diet group were given a diet containing 5% palmitic acid.Plasma lipid profiles were measured by colorimetric assays using a commercially available kit.Atherosclerotic lesions were examined in cross-sections of aortic roots.Collagen contents in atherosclerotic lesions were detected with Masson’s Trichrome staining.The expression of MMP-2 was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results:Plasma lipid profiles were not affected by the palmitate-rich diet.Palmitate-rich

  4. Influências de dietas ricas em ácidos graxos saturados e insaturados sobre o miocárdio de ratos Influences of rich in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids diets in rat myocardium

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    Matheus Fécchio Pinotti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O estudo avaliou a influência de dietas ricas em ácidos graxos saturados (AGS e ácidos graxos insaturados (AGI sobre a função mecânica, a morfologia e o estresse oxidativo do miocárdio de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar com 60 dias de idade foram alimentados com dieta padrão (n = 8 ou dietas ricas em AGS (n = 8 ou AGI (n = 8 durante 60 dias. A função mecânica foi avaliada em músculo papilar isolado do ventrículo esquerdo (VE por meio de contrações isométrica e isotônica, em condição basal (1,25 mM de cálcio, após elevação da concentração extracelular de cálcio para 5,2 mM e estimulação beta-adrenérgica com isoproterenol 1,0 µM. Fragmentos do VE foram usados para estudo de estresse oxidativo e microscopias óptica e eletrônica. RESULTADOS: As dietas suplementadas com AGS e AGI não alteraram a função mecânica do músculo cardíaco. Entretanto, ambas provocaram estresse oxidativo, com aumento do hidroperóxido de lipídio e redução da concentração de superóxido dismutase. A dieta AGI diminuiu a expressão da catalase e a AGS reduziu a quantidade de glutationa peroxidase miocárdica. Ambas as dietas promoveram discretas alterações morfológicas visualizadas ultra-estruturalmente, como depósitos lipídicos e lesões das membranas celulares. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que dietas enriquecidas com AGS e AGI não acarretam alteração da função mecânica do músculo cardíaco isolado, mas causam discretas lesões estruturais e estresse oxidativo no miocárdio.OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of saturated (SFA and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA rich diets on mechanical function, morphology and oxidative stress in rat myocardium. METHODS: Male, 60-day-old Wistar rats were fed a control (n=8, a SFA (n=8, or a UFA-rich diet (n=8 for sixty days. Mechanical function was studied in isolated left ventricle papillary muscle under isometric and isotonic contractions, in basal conditions (1.25mM calcium

  5. Effects of an energy-restricted diet rich in plant-derived α-linolenic acid on systemic inflammation and endothelial function in overweight-to-obese patients with metabolic syndrome traits.

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    Egert, Sarah; Baxheinrich, Andrea; Lee-Barkey, Young Hee; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Wahrburg, Ursel; Stratmann, Bernd

    2014-10-28

    Plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA) may reduce the risk of CVD, possibly by decreasing systemic inflammation and improving endothelial function. In the present study, the effects of a hypoenergetic diet rich in ALA (3·4 g/d) on the biomarkers of systemic inflammation and vascular function were investigated in eighty-one overweight-to-obese patients with metabolic syndrome traits in comparison with a hypoenergetic diet low in ALA (0·9 g/d, control). After a 6-month dietary intervention, there were significant decreases in the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α, IL-6, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble endothelial selectin (sE-selectin) and asymmetric dimethylarginine in both dietary groups. However, no inter-group differences were observed for all these changes. The serum concentration of YKL-40 (human cartilage glycoprotein 39 or chitinase-3-like protein 1) decreased after the ALA diet when compared with the control diet (Pmetabolic syndrome traits, both vascular function and inflammation are improved during body-weight loss. The high ALA intake led to a more pronounced reduction in the serum concentration of YKL-40 compared with the intake of the low-ALA control diet, indicating the existence of independent favourable physiological effects of ALA during weight loss.

  6. Antioxidative, anti-inflammatory potentials and phytochemical profile of Commiphora africana(A. Rich.) Engl.(Burseraceae) and Loeseneriella africana(Willd.)(Celastraceae) stem leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Compaoré; Roland Ng-Tiéro Meda; Sahabi Bakasso; Laurian Vlase; Martin Kiendrebeogo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as to determine the flavonoids and phenolic acids content of active fractions.Methods: Two medicinal plant samples were extracted successively in Soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, methanol and n-butanol. Five methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was done through the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase enzymes(COX-1 and COX-2).Polyphenolic compounds were analyzed by using a spectrophotometrical and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS) methods.Results: The data showed that the stem leaves extracts of Commiphora africana and Loeseneriella africana possessed significant in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Polar extracts had radical scavenging effects and they reduced iron(III). The prostaglandin production was significantly stopped by acetonitrile and methanol extracts.These biological activities were supported by some bioactive compounds quantified by using the HPLC-MS. p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin,rutin, kaempferol and apigenin were the most metabolites quantified.Conclusions: The present study may explain the effectiveness of plants in traditional medicine of Burkina Faso, singularly Commiphora africana and Loeseneriella africana.The next investigation was to sub-fractionate the methanol fraction in order to isolate new antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory compounds.

  7. Antioxidative, anti-inflammatory potentials and phytochemical profile of Commiphora africana (A. Rich. Engl. (Burseraceae and Loeseneriella africana (Willd. (Celastraceae stem leaves extracts

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    Moussa Compaoré

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study may explain the effectiveness of plants in traditional medicine of Burkina Faso, singularly Commiphora africana and Loeseneriella africana. The next investigation was to sub-fractionate the methanol fraction in order to isolate new antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory compounds.

  8. Changes of platelet antioxidative enzymes during oxidative stress: the protective effect of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa and grape seeds.

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    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław; Erler, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa fruits (Rosaceae) and grape seeds (seeds of Vitis vinifera, Vitaceae) are two of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, and they have been shown to have various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the action of phenolic extracts (at concentrations 5-100 µg/mL) of two different plants, berries of A. melanocarpa (chokebbery) and grape seeds, on the activities of various antioxidative enzymes, the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status) in control the platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2) (the strong physiological oxidant) in vitro. The properties of these two tested extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative and antiplatelet commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol. The extract from berries of A. melanocarpa, like the extract from grape seeds, reduced the changes in activities of different antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) in platelets treated with H(2)O(2). The action of the two tested plant extracts and H(2)O(2) evoked a significant increase of reduced glutathione in platelets compared with platelets treated with H(2)O(2) only. Comparative studies indicate that the two tested plant extracts had similar antioxidative properties, and were found to be more reactive in blood platelets than the solution of resveratrol.

  9. Individualized Exercise Training at Maximal Fat Oxidation Combined with Fruit and Vegetable-Rich Diet in Overweight or Obese Women: The LIPOXmax-Reunion Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Florent Besnier

    Full Text Available Lifestyle combined interventions are a key strategy for preventing type-2 diabetes (T2DM in overweight or obese subjects. In this framework, LIPOXmax individualized training, based on maximal fat oxidation [MFO], may be a promising intervention to promote fat mass (FM reduction and prevent T2DM. Our primary objective was to compare three training programs of physical activity combined with a fruit- and vegetable-rich diet in reducing FM in overweight or obese women.A five months non-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT with three parallel groups in La Réunion Island, a region where metabolic diseases are highly prevalent.One hundred and thirty-six non-diabetic obese (body mass index [BMI]: 27-40 kg/m2 young women (aged 20-40 were randomized (G1: MFO intensity; G2: 60% of VO2-peak intensity; G3: free moderate-intensity at-home exercise following good physical practices.Anthropometry (BMI, bodyweight, FM, fat-free mass, glucose (fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides profiles, and MFO values were measured at month-0, month-3 and month-5.At month-5, among 109 women assessed on body composition, the three groups exhibited a significant FM reduction over time (G1: -4.1±0.54 kg; G2: -4.7±0.53 kg; G3: -3.5±0.78 kg, p<0.001, respectively without inter-group differences (p = 0.135. All groups exhibited significant reductions in insulin levels or HOMA-IR index, and higher MFO values over time (p<0.001, respectively but glucose control improvement was higher in G1 than in G3 while MFO values were higher in G1 than in G2 and G3. Changes in other outcome measures and inter-group differences were not significant.In our RCT the LIPOXmax intervention did not show a superiority in reducing FM in overweight or obese women but is associated with higher MFO and better glucose control improvements. Other studies are required before proposing LIPOXmax training for the prevention of T2DM in overweight or obese women

  10. Mitigation of starch and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats by antioxidant-rich green-leafy vegetables′ juice

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    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Consumption of green-leafy vegetables is being advocated beneficial for type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals possibly because they are cost effective source of potent biological antioxidants. This research analyzed various phytochemicals, free radicals scavenging antioxidant potentials and starch digesting enzymes inhibitory activities in fresh juice of nine green-leafy vegetables. Furthermore, this study also investigated influence of these vegetables juice on starch and glucose induced postprandial glycemic load. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical constituents, in vitro free radicals scavenging antioxidant and enzymes inhibitory activities were evaluated applying various reported methods. Post-prandial glycemic excursion was induced in rats pretreated with vegetables juice by oral administration of starch and glucose. Results: All the leafy vegetables juice displayed potent free radicals scavenging activities. Juice of amaranthus, rumex, palak and raphanus displayed potential anti-oxidative property by reducing H 2 O 2 induced hemolysis in rats red blood cells RBCs. Ajwain and rumex juice showed pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity. Alternanthera, ajwain, methi, amaranthus and sowa leaves juice displayed intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Juice of raphanus, ajwain and sowa significantly mitigated starch-induced postprandial glycemic load. Amaranthus leaves juice potently mitigated glucose-induced postprandial glycemic load and also reduced hemoglobin glycation induced by glucose in vitro. Conclusions: This investigation finds that juice of leafy vegetables is potent source of biological antioxidants. In addition, juice of raphanus, ajwain and sowa leaves possess capacity to mitigate starch induced postprandial glycemic burden and amaranthus leaves′ juice can reduce glucose induced postprandial glycemic excursion.

  11. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food plant extracts: geographical differences.

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    Schaffer, S; Schmitt-Schillig, S; Müller, W E; Eckert, G P

    2005-03-01

    Locally grown, wild food plants seasonally contribute a considerable portion of the daily diet in certain Mediterranean areas and it has been suggested that the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health partly originate from the antioxidant effect of flavonoid-rich food plants. The nutrient content of most wild plants is higher than that of cultivated ones and may vary depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Accordingly, three local Mediterranean plant foods (i.e. Cichorium intybus, Sonchus oleraceus, Papaver rhoeas) were collected in Greece (Crete), southern Italy, and southern Spain in order to assess possible differences in their in vitro antioxidant potential. The biological assays revealed diverse intra-plant specific antioxidant effects for the tested extracts ranging from no activity to almost complete protection. Furthermore, substantial differences in the polyphenol content were found for the nutritionally used part of the same plant originating from different locations. However, no clear correlations between the polyphenol content and the extracts' antioxidant activities were found. Taken together, the data suggest that certain local Mediterranean plant foods possess promising antioxidant activity and that the observed biological effects are possibly influenced by the geographically-dependent environmental conditions prevailing during plant growth.

  12. Effect of curcumin on LDL oxidation in vitro, and lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in cholesterol fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Mohamedain M; Zhou, Qi; Kummerow, Fred A

    2011-11-01

    In this study we examined the antioxidant effect of curcumin on lipid oxidation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, curcumin at 5 microgM concentration completely prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by CuS0(4), indicating that curcumin is an effective antioxidant in vitro. In vivo, feeding a pure cholesterol (PC)-rich diet to rabbits significantly increased the plasma and liver lipids as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. Addition of curcumin to the PC diet did not show any effect on either plasma lipid and TBARS or liver lipids. Liver TBARS tended to decrease but that decrease was not significant. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was significantly decreased while catalase activity was significantly increased in rabbits fed a PC diet. The addition of curcumin to a PC diet did not show any significant effect on erythrocyte enzyme activities compared to the rabbits fed a PC diet. The liver GSH-Px and catalase activities were significantly decreased in rabbits fed a PC diet, but the addition of curcumin to the PC diet enhanced the liver GSH-Px activity, which became nonsignificantly different from the control group. These results were discussed considering that curcumin may not be well absorbed and it did not reach a level high enough in vivo to overcome the severe hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress produced by the PC-rich diet.

  13. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in selected Piper species.

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    Karthikeyan, J; Rani, P

    2003-02-01

    Piper species, commonly used in diet and traditional medicine were assessed for their antioxidant potential. Catalase activity was predominated in Piper longum, followed by Piper cubeba, green pepper, Piper brachystachyum and Piper nigrum. P. nigrum was richest in glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, green pepper was richest in peroxidase and vitamin C while vitamin E was more in P. longum and P. nigrum. P. brachystachyum and P. longum were rich sources of vitamin A. All the Piper species had GSH content of around 1 to 2 nM/g tissue. The antioxidant components of Piper species constitute a very efficient system in scavenging a wide variety of reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant potential of Piper species was further confirmed by their ability to curtail in vitro lipid peroxidation by around 30-50% with concomitant increase in GSH content.

  14. Effect of fruit and vegetable antioxidants on total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma.

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    Harasym, Joanna; Oledzki, Remigiusz

    2014-05-01

    For a long time, the increased consumption of fruits and vegetables was considered critical in protecting humans against a number of diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and heart and brain vascular diseases. Presently, it is thought that the protective properties of these foods result from the presence of low-molecular antioxidants that protect the cells and their structures against oxidative damage. The alleged effect of reducing the risk for many diseases is not only due to the effect of individual antioxidants, such as α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, or β-carotene, but also may be the result of antioxidant compounds not yet known or synergy of several different antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables. Studies on macromolecules (DNA, nucleotides, proteins) free-radical-related damage showed that diets enriched with extra servings of fruits and vegetables rich in β-carotene, tocopherols, and ascorbic acid had only limited effect on the inhibition of oxidation processes. A number of studies have shown, however, that consuming less common fruits and vegetables contribute much more to the reduction of free-radical processes, most likely because they contain a large amount of non-vitamin antioxidants, such as polyphenols and anthocyanins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Western diet and Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrino, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Alzheimer Disease, characterised by a global impairment of cognitive functions, is more and more common in Western societies, both because of longer life expectancy and, probably, because of increasing incidence. Several hints suggest that this degenerative disease is linked to western diet, characterised by excessive dietary intake of sugar, refined carbohydrates (with high glycaemic index), and animal product (with high content of saturated fats), and decreased intake of unrefined seeds--cereals, legumes, and oleaginous seeds--and other vegetables (with high content of fibres, vitamins, polyphenols and other antioxidant substances, phytoestrogens) and, in several populations, of sea food (rich in n-3 fatty acids). It has been hypothesised, in fact, that AD, may be promoted by insulin resistance, decreased endothelial production of nitric oxide, free radical excess, inflammatory metabolites, homocysteine, and oestrogen deficiency. AD, therefore, could theoretically be prevented (or delayed) by relatively simple dietary measures aimed at increasing insulin sensitivity (trough reduction of refined sugars and saturated fats from meat and dairy products), the ratio between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (e.g. from fish and respectively seed oils), antioxidant vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B6, phytoestrogens (vegetables, whole cereals, and legumes, including soy products), vitamin B12 (bivalve molluscs, liver), and Cr, K, Mg, and Si salts. This comprehensive improvement of diet would fit with all the mechanistic hypotheses cited above. Several studies, on the contrary, are presently exploring monofactorial preventive strategies with specific vitamin supplementation or hormonal drugs, without, however, appreciable results.

  16. Comparative effects of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acid-rich diet consumption on lupus nephritis, autoantibody production and CD4+ T cell-related gene responses in the autoimmune NZBWF1 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, James J; Vines, Laura L; Bates, Melissa A; He, Kaiyu; Langohr, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypical autoimmune disease, correlates with the onset and severity of kidney glomerulonephritis. There are both preclinical and clinical evidence that SLE patients may benefit from consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in fish oil, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we employed the NZBWF1 SLE mouse model to compare the effects of dietary lipids on the onset and severity of autoimmune glomerulonephritis after consuming: 1) n-3 PUFA-rich diet containing docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil (DFO), 2) n-6 PUFA-rich Western-type diet containing corn oil (CRN) or 3) n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich Mediterranean-type diet containing high oleic safflower oil (HOS). Elevated plasma autoantibodies, proteinuria and glomerulonephritis were evident in mice fed either the n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets, however, all three endpoints were markedly attenuated in mice that consumed the n-3 PUFA diet until 34 wk of age. A focused PCR array was used to relate these findings to the expression of 84 genes associated with CD4+ T cell function in the spleen and kidney both prior to and after the onset of the autoimmune nephritis. n-3 PUFA suppression of autoimmunity in NZBWF1 mice was found to co-occur with a generalized downregulation of CD4+ T cell-related genes in kidney and/or spleen at wk 34. These genes were associated with the inflammatory response, antigen presentation, T cell activation, B cell activation/differentiation and leukocyte recruitment. Quantitative RT-PCR of representative affected genes confirmed that n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with reduced expression of CD80, CTLA-4, IL-10, IL-18, CCL-5, CXCR3, IL-6, TNF-α and osteopontin mRNAs in kidney and/or spleens as compared to mice fed n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets. Remarkably, many of the genes identified in this study are currently under consideration as biomarkers and/or biotherapeutic targets for SLE and other autoimmune

  17. Antioxidant Activities of Various Extracts from Artemisisa selengensis Turcz (LuHao

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    Yan Chen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of the various extracts and fractions from the herbs of Artemisia selegensis Turcz (AST were investigated by in vitro and in vivo assays. FRAP, DPPH and ABTS assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions in vitro. The effect of water extract (WE in reducing oxidative stress in male mice was evaluated. Phenolic acid compounds contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity. From the results of three in vitro antioxidant assays, WE was found to have the highest antioxidant activity, and among the WE subfractions, the water soluble fraction has a significant antioxidant activity. The in vivo antioxidant assay results showed that high doses of WE significantly decrease the MDA level compared to normal diet and D-(+ galactose group (p < 0.05, and the SOD activity of mice given a high dose of WE was the highest. These in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the extracts, especially the WE from AST, have significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. In summary, we propose that AST could be potentially used as a rich source of natural antioxidants.

  18. Medicinal plants with antioxidant properties from Banat region (Romania: a rich pool for the discovery of multi-target phytochemicals active in free-radical related disorders

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    Diana Simona ANTAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds from plants and other life forms (bacteria, fungi, marine organisms represent a major source of molecules with medicinal properties. Among them, antioxidant substances are of particular interest. The understanding of the central role that oxidative stress holds in the progression of disorders as varied as: cardiovascular diseases, degenerative conditions, rheumatic disorders, metabolic syndrome, and in aging, makes antioxidant capacity to a key-feature of modern, multipotent remedies. Rational screenings of the Plant Kingdom for the discovery of new medications are based on: a the inventory of available species, b knowledge accumulated from traditional phytotherapy, c already available results of recent investigations on bioactivity, d chemotaxonomic considerations, and e toxicologic facts. The objective of the present work is to set the starting point for a database of plants with antioxidant properties. It is projected to serve as a basic step for further investigations aimed at discovering biomolecules with multiple effects in free-radical mediated diseases and in gerontology. The research focuses on vascular plants with a history of utilization in phytotherapy, and growing wild in the Western part of Romania (Banat region. Based on the above inclusion criteria a – e, it was possible to point out over 140 plant species for which antioxidant activities were documented by different research groups. This impressive body of evidence provides valuable preliminary data for subsequent, more detailed research on the pharmacology, phytochemistry and clinical application of plants growing in Romania. The systematization of data performed in the present work is intended to help discover new, more efficient means to maintain and promote human health.

  19. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium L. from West and South-West of Romania

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    Sofia Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Currently, most research is focused on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetable. Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. contain a significant amount of polyphenols and several antioxidants that possess many biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. In present study were investigated the quantification of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in fruits of a number of selected sweet cherry genotypes. Although sweet cherry fruits are a significant source of different phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of sweet cherries is not related only with the total phenolic content.  

  20. Interactive effects of early and later nutritional conditions on the adult antioxidant defence system in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, José C; Monaghan, Pat; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-07-01

    In vertebrates, antioxidant defences comprise a mixture of endogenously produced components and exogenously obtained antioxidants that are derived mostly from the diet. It has been suggested that early-life micronutritional conditions might influence the way in which the antioxidant defence system operates, which could enable individuals to adjust the activity of the endogenous and exogenous components in line with their expected intake of dietary antioxidants if the future environment resembles the past. We investigated this possibility by experimentally manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet during different periods of postnatal development in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Birds that had a low micronutrient diet during the growth phase initially had a lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC) than those reared under a high micronutrient diet, but then showed a compensatory response, so that by the end of the growth phase, the TAC of the two groups was the same. Interestingly, we found an interactive effect of micronutrient intake early and late in development: only those birds that continued with the same dietary treatment (low or high) throughout development showed a significant increase in their TAC during the period of sexual maturation. A similar effect was also found in the level of enzymatic antioxidant defences (glutathione peroxidase; GPx). No significant effects were found in the level of oxidative damage in lipids [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. These findings demonstrate the importance of early and late developmental conditions in shaping multiple aspects of the antioxidant system. Furthermore, they suggest that young birds may adjust their antioxidant defences to enable them to 'thrive' on diets rich or poor in micronutrients later in life.

  1. The isoflavone-rich fraction of the crude extract of the Puerariae flower increases oxygen consumption and BAT UCP1 expression in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya

    2012-08-12

    Puerariae flower extract (PFE) is a crude extract of the Kudzu flower. Previous studies have shown that PFE supplementation exerts anti-obesity and anti-fatty liver effects in high-fat diet-fed mice. In this study, we aimed to identify the PFE components responsible for these effects and to determine their influence on energy expenditure and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Experiments were conducted on C57BL/6J male mice classified into 3 groups: (1) high-fat diet-fed (HFD), (2) high-fat diet-fed given PFE (HFD + PFE), and (3) high-fat diet-fed given the PFE isoflavone-rich fraction (HFD + ISOF). All groups were fed for 42 days. The HFD + PFE and HFD + ISOF groups showed significant resistance to increases in body weight, hepatic triglyceride level, and visceral fat compared to the HFD group. These groups also exhibited significant increases in oxygen consumption and UCP1-positive brown adipose tissue (BAT) area. Our results demonstrate that the active ingredients in PFE are present in the ISOF and that these compounds may increase energy expenditure by upregulation of BAT UCP1 expression. These findings provide valuable information regarding the anti-obesity effects of isoflavones.

  2. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation.

  3. Evaluating the influence of National Research Council levels of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc using organic (Bioplex) minerals on resulting tissue mineral concentrations, metallothionein, and liver antioxidant enzymes in grower-finisher swine diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowanlock, D W; Mahan, D C; Jolliff, J S; Hill, G M

    2015-03-01

    Graded levels of a trace mineral premix containing an organic (Bioplex) source of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn was evaluated with additional treatments containing organic Zn or Fe. Grower-finisher pigs were fed from 25 to 115 kg BW. The number of pigs in the experiment, the breeding/genetics of the pigs, the management, and the average age of the pigs were previously reported. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design in 7 replicates. Treatments were 1) basal diet without supplemental Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn; 2) basal diet + 2.5 mg/kg Cu, 50 mg/kg Fe, 1.5 mg/kg Mn, and 40 mg/kg Zn (50% NRC); 3) basal diet + 5 mg/kg Cu, 100 mg/kg Fe, 3 mg/kg Mn, and 80 mg/kg Zn (100% NRC); 4) basal diet + 25 mg Zn/kg; 5) basal diet + 50 mg Zn/kg; and 6) basal diet + 50 mg Fe/kg. Selenium and I were added to all diets at 0.3 and 0.14 mg/kg, respectively. Diets were composed of corn-soybean meal, dicalcium phosphate, and limestone with phytase added to enhance mineral availability. Three pigs per pen were bled at 55, 80, and 115 kg BW and plasma was analyzed for microminerals. When the average replicate BW was 115 kg, 3 pigs per pen of an equal gender ratio were killed. The liver, kidney, and heart were removed and analyzed for microminerals. Liver, duodenum, and jejunal metallothionein and the antioxidant enzymes in the liver containing these microminerals were determined. The results demonstrated that plasma minerals were unaffected at the 3 BW intervals. Liver and duodenum metallothionein protein were greater ( dietary micromineral levels increased but jejunum metallothionein did not change as microminerals increased. The activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) was not affected as the levels of the micromineral increased, whereas the activity of Mn SOD increased slightly ( dietary micromineral levels increased and also when Zn was added singly to the diet. Liver, kidney, and heart Cu and Mn concentrations were similar at the various micromineral levels. The

  4. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Faghih, Shiva; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether increasing dairy intake without energy restriction would lead to weight loss. We aimed to compare the potential weight-reducing effects of kefir drink (a probiotic dairy product) and milk in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. One hundred and forty-four subjects were assessed for eligibility in this single-center, multi-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-five eligible women aged 25-45 years were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as control, milk, and kefir, to receive an outpatient dietary regimen for 8 weeks. Subjects in the control group received a diet providing a maintenance level of energy intake, containing 2 servings/day of low-fat dairy products, while those in the milk and kefir groups received a weight maintenance diet, containing 2 additional servings/day (a total of 4 servings/day) of dairy products from low-fat milk or commercial kefir drink, respectively. Anthropometric outcomes including weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 2 weeks. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Using analysis of covariance models in the intention-to-treat population (n = 75), we found that at 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir and milk groups had significantly greater reductions in weight, BMI, and WC compared to those in the control group (all p kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, further studies are warranted.

  5. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Ghodrati, Naeimeh; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad-Javad; Faghih, Shiva

    Controversy exists as to whether the lipid-lowering properties of kefir drink (a fermented probiotic dairy product) in animal models could be replicated in humans. To assess and compare the potential lipid-lowering effects of kefir drink with low-fat milk in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. In this 8-week, single-center, multiarm, parallel-group, outpatient, randomized controlled trial, 75 eligible Iranian women aged 25 to 45 years were randomly allocated to kefir, milk, or control groups. Women in the control group received a weight-maintenance diet containing 2 servings/d of low-fat dairy products, whereas subjects in the milk and kefir groups received a similar diet containing 2 additional servings/d (a total of 4 servings/d) of dairy products from low-fat milk or kefir drink, respectively. At baseline and study end point, serum levels/ratios of total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and HDLC), triglyceride, Non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, LDLC/HDLC, and triglyceride/LDLC were measured as outcome measures. After 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir group had significantly lower serum levels/ratios of lipoproteins than those in the control group (mean between-group differences were -10.4 mg/dL, -9.7 mg/dL, -11.5 mg/dL, -0.4, and -0.3 for TC, LDLC, non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, and LDLC/HDLC, respectively; all P kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Milk fatty acid composition, rumen microbial population, and animal performances in response to diets rich in linoleic acid supplemented with chestnut or quebracho tannins in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccioni, A; Pauselli, M; Viti, C; Minieri, S; Pallara, G; Roscini, V; Rapaccini, S; Marinucci, M Trabalza; Lupi, P; Conte, G; Mele, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate milk fatty acid (FA) profile, animal performance, and rumen microbial population in response to diets containing soybean oil supplemented or not with chestnut and quebracho tannins in dairy ewes. Eighteen Comisana ewes at 122±6 d in milking were allotted into 3 experimental groups. Diets were characterized by chopped grass hay administered ad libitum and by 800 g/head and day of 3 experimental concentrates containing 84.5 g of soybean oil/kg of dry matter (DM) and 52.8 g/kg of DM of bentonite (control diet), chestnut tannin extract (CHT diet), or quebracho tannin extract (QUE diet). The trial lasted 4 wk. Milk yield was recorded daily, and milk composition and blood parameters were analyzed weekly. At the end of the experiment, samples of rumen fluid were collected to analyze pH, volatile fatty acid profile, and the relative proportions of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in the rumen microbial population. Hepatic functionality, milk yield, and gross composition were not affected by tannin extracts, whereas milk FA composition was characterized by significant changes in the concentration of linoleic acid (CHT +2.77% and QUE +9.23%), vaccenic acid (CHT +7.07% and QUE +13.88%), rumenic acid (CHT -1.88% and QUE +24.24%), stearic acid (CHT + 8.71% and QUE -11.45%), and saturated fatty acids (CHT -0.47% and QUE -3.38%). These differences were probably due to the ability of condensed versus hydrolyzable tannins to interfere with rumen microbial metabolism, as indirectly confirmed by changes in the relative proportions of B. fibrisolvens and B. proteoclasticus populations and by changes in the molar proportions of volatile fatty acids. The effect of the CHT diet on the milk FA profile and microbial species considered in this trial was intermediate between that of QUE and the control diet, suggesting a differential effect of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on rumen microbes. Compared with control animals

  7. Combination of nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy as a novel therapeutic application to manage the pain and treat many clinical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Salaheldin; Dickinson, Eva

    2014-02-01

    From hypertension to diabetes, cancer to HIV, stroke to memory loss and learning disorders to septic shock, male impotence to tuberculosis, there is probably no pathological condition where nitric oxide does not play an important role. Nitric oxide is an analgesic, immune-modulator, vasodilator, anti-apoptotic, growth modulator, angiogenetic, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and neuro-modulator. Because of the above actions of nitric oxide, many clinical conditions associated with abnormal Nitric oxide (NO) production and bioavailability. Our novel therapeutic approach is to restore the homeostasis of nitric oxide and replace the lost cells by combining nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy.

  8. Antioxidant and Proapoptotic Activities of Sclerocarya birrea [(A. Rich. Hochst.] Methanolic Root Extract on the Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line HepG2

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    Maria Francesca Armentano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to characterize the in vitro antioxidant activity and the apoptotic potential of S. birrea methanolic root extract (MRE. Among four tested extracts, obtained with different solvents, MRE showed the highest content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins together with antioxidant activities tested with superoxide, nitric oxide, ABTS, and beta-carotene bleaching assays. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of MRE was evaluated on the hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. In these cells, MRE treatment induced apoptosis and generated reactive oxygen species (ROS in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect promoted by MRE was prevented by pretreatment of HepG2 cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, suggesting that oxidative stress was pivotal in MRE-mediated cell death. Moreover, we showed that the MRE treatment induced the mitochondrial membrane depolarization and the cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytosol. It suggests that the apoptosis occurred in a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Interestingly, MRE showed a sensibly lower cytotoxicity, associated with a low increase of ROS, in normal human dermal fibroblasts compared t