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Sample records for antioxidant enzymes mitochondrial

  1. The profound effects of microcystin on cardiac antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial function and cardiac toxicity in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Tong; Xie Ping; Liu Ying; Li Guangyu; Xiong Qian; Hao Le; Li Huiying

    2009-01-01

    Deaths from microcystin toxication have widely been attributed to hypovolemic shock due to hepatic interstitial hemorrhage, while some recent studies suggest that cardiogenic complication is also involved. So far, information on cardiotoxic effects of MC has been rare and the underlying mechanism is still puzzling. The present study examined toxic effects of microcystins on heart muscle of rats intravenously injected with extracted MC at two doses, 0.16LD 50 (14 μg MC-LReq kg -1 body weight) and 1LD 50 (87 μg MC-LReq kg -1 body weight). In the dead rats, both TTC staining and maximum elevations of troponin I levels confirmed myocardial infarction after MC exposure, besides a serious interstitial hemorrhage in liver. In the 1LD 50 dose group, the coincident falls in heart rate and blood pressure were related to mitochondria dysfunction in heart, while increases in creatine kinase and troponin I levels indicated cardiac cell injury. The corresponding pathological alterations were mainly characterized as loss of adherence between cardiac myocytes and swollen or ruptured mitochondria at the ultrastructural level. MC administration at a dose of 1LD 50 not only enhanced activities and up-regulated mRNA transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes, but also increased GSH content. At both doses, level of lipid peroxides increased obviously, suggesting serious oxidative stress in mitochondria. Simultaneously, complex I and III were significantly inhibited, indicating blocks in electron flow along the mitochondrial respiratory chain in heart. In conclusion, the findings of this study implicate a role for MC-induced cardiotoxicity as a potential factor that should be considered when evaluating the mechanisms of death associated with microcystin intoxication in Brazil

  2. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups and serum levels of anti-oxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis

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    Fernandez-Moreno Mercedes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress play a main role in the initiation and progression of the OA disease and leads to the degeneration of mitochondria. To prevent this, the chondrocytes possess a well-coordinated enzymatic antioxidant system. Besides, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups are associated with the OA disease. Thus, the main goal of this work is to assess the incidence of the mtDNA haplogroups on serum levels of two of the main antioxidant enzymes, Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (Mn-SOD or SOD2 and catalase, and to test the suitability of these two proteins for potential OA-related biomarkers. Methods We analyzed the serum levels of SOD2 and catalase in 73 OA patients and 77 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups J, U and H, by ELISA assay. Knee and hip radiographs were classified according to Kellgren and Lawrence (K/L scoring from Grade 0 to Grade IV. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed to test the effects of clinical variables, including gender, body mass index (BMI, age, smoking status, diagnosis, haplogroups and radiologic K/L grade on serum levels of these enzymes. Results Serum levels of SOD2 appeared statistically increased in OA patients when compared with healthy controls (p Conclusions The increased levels of SOD2 in OA patients indicate an increased oxidative stress OA-related, therefore this antioxidant enzyme could be a suitable candidate biomarker for diagnosis of OA. Mitochondrial haplogroups significantly correlates with serum levels of catalase

  3. Acute Exercise Induced Mitochondrial H2O2 Production in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Association with p66Shc and FOXO3a Signaling and Antioxidant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induced skeletal muscle phenotype change involves a complex interplay between signaling pathways and downstream regulators. This study aims to investigate the effect of acute exercise on mitochondrial H2O2 production and its association with p66Shc, FOXO3a, and antioxidant enzymes. Male ICR/CD-1 mice were subjected to an acute exercise. Muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris were taken after exercise to measure mitochondrial H2O2 content, expression of p66Shc and FOXO3a, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that acute exercise significantly increased mitochondrial H2O2 content and expressions of p66Shc and FOXO3a in a time-dependent manner, with a linear correlation between the increase in H2O2 content and p66Shc or FOXO3a expression. The activity of mitochondrial catalase was slightly reduced in the 90 min exercise group, but it was significantly higher in groups with 120 and 150 min exercise compared to that of 90 min exercise group. The activity of SOD was not significantly affected. The results indicate that acute exercise increases mitochondrial H2O2 production in the skeletal muscle, which is associated with the upregulation of p66Shc and FOXO3a. The association of p66Shc and FOXO3a signaling with exercise induced H2O2 generation may play a role in regulating cellular oxidative stress during acute exercise.

  4. Dicranostiga leptopodu (Maxim.) Fedde extracts attenuated CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Deping; Wang, Fang; Tang, Jinzhou; Mao, Aihong; Liao, Shiqi; Wang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Dicranostiga Leptodu (Maxim.) fedde (DLF), a poppy plant, has been reported have many benefits and medicinal properties, including free radicals scavenging and detoxifying. However, the protective effect of DLF extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced damage in mice liver has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function. In this study, the mice liver damage evoked by CCl 4 was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in lipid peroxidation, as well as alterations of mitochondrial respiratory function. Interestingly, pretreatment with DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced morphological damage and increasing of lipid peroxidation in mice liver. Additionally, DLF extracts improved mitochondrial function by preventing the disruption of respiratory chain and suppression of mitochondrial Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity. Furthermore, administration with DLF extracts elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels and maintained the balance of redox status. This results showed that toxic protection effect of DLF extracts on mice liver is mediated by improving mitochondrial respiratory function and keeping the balance of redox status, which suggesting that DLF extracts could be used as potential toxic protection agent for the liver against hepatotoxic agent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes and extracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ChithrashreeGS

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... peroxidase are two important antioxidant scavenging enzymes involved in ... Catalase was assayed using the method of Beers and Sizer. (1951) with .... yeast dextrose calcium carbonate agar (YDC) medium. Catalase and ...

  6. Relationships among alcoholic liver disease, antioxidants, and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-01-07

    Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is a serious cause of liver disease worldwide. The metabolism of ethanol generates reactive oxygen species, which play a significant role in the deterioration of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Antioxidant phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, regulate the expression of ALD-associated proteins and peptides, namely, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. These plant antioxidants have electrophilic activity and may induce antioxidant enzymes via the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway and antioxidant responsive elements. Furthermore, these antioxidants are reported to alleviate cell injury caused by oxidants or inflammatory cytokines. These phenomena are likely induced via the regulation of mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by plant antioxidants, similar to preconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion models. Although the relationship between plant antioxidants and ALD has not been adequately investigated, plant antioxidants may be preventive for ALD because of their electrophilic and regulatory activities in the MAPK pathway.

  7. Role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes and extracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we studied the role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes of plant pathogenic bacteria: catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and a virulence factor; extracelluar polysaccharide production in determining the virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) isolates and its differential reaction to rice cultivars.

  8. Mitochondrial targeting of bilirubin regulatory enzymes: An adaptive response to oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhsain, Siti Nur Fadzilah, E-mail: sitinurfadzilah077@ppinang.uitm.edu.my [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), 4072 Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Faculty of Pharmacy, University Teknologi Mara (Malaysia); Lang, Matti A., E-mail: m.lang@uq.edu.au [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), 4072 Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Abu-Bakar, A' edah, E-mail: a.abubakar@uq.edu.au [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), 4072 Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular level of bilirubin (BR), an endogenous antioxidant that is cytotoxic at high concentrations, is tightly controlled within the optimal therapeutic range. We have recently described a concerted intracellular BR regulation by two microsomal enzymes: heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), essential for BR production and cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5), a BR oxidase. Herein, we describe targeting of these enzymes to hepatic mitochondria during oxidative stress. The kinetics of microsomal and mitochondrial BR oxidation were compared. Treatment of DBA/2J mice with 200 mg pyrazole/kg/day for 3 days increased hepatic intracellular protein carbonyl content and induced nucleo-translocation of Nrf2. HMOX1 and CYP2A5 proteins and activities were elevated in microsomes and mitoplasts but not the UGT1A1, a catalyst of BR glucuronidation. A CYP2A5 antibody inhibited 75% of microsomal BR oxidation. The inhibition was absent in control mitoplasts but elevated to 50% after treatment. An adrenodoxin reductase antibody did not inhibit microsomal BR oxidation but inhibited 50% of mitochondrial BR oxidation. Ascorbic acid inhibited 5% and 22% of the reaction in control and treated microsomes, respectively. In control mitoplasts the inhibition was 100%, which was reduced to 50% after treatment. Bilirubin affinity to mitochondrial and microsomal CYP2A5 enzyme is equally high. Lastly, the treatment neither released cytochrome c into cytoplasm nor dissipated membrane potential, indicating the absence of mitochondrial membrane damage. Collectively, the observations suggest that BR regulatory enzymes are recruited to mitochondria during oxidative stress and BR oxidation by mitochondrial CYP2A5 is supported by mitochondrial mono-oxygenase system. The induced recruitment potentially confers membrane protection. - Highlights: • Pyrazole induces oxidative stress in the mouse liver. • Pyrazole-induced oxidative stress induces mitochondrial targeting of key bilirubin regulatory enzymes, HMOX1

  9. Mitochondrial targeting of bilirubin regulatory enzymes: An adaptive response to oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhsain, Siti Nur Fadzilah; Lang, Matti A.; Abu-Bakar, A'edah

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular level of bilirubin (BR), an endogenous antioxidant that is cytotoxic at high concentrations, is tightly controlled within the optimal therapeutic range. We have recently described a concerted intracellular BR regulation by two microsomal enzymes: heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), essential for BR production and cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5), a BR oxidase. Herein, we describe targeting of these enzymes to hepatic mitochondria during oxidative stress. The kinetics of microsomal and mitochondrial BR oxidation were compared. Treatment of DBA/2J mice with 200 mg pyrazole/kg/day for 3 days increased hepatic intracellular protein carbonyl content and induced nucleo-translocation of Nrf2. HMOX1 and CYP2A5 proteins and activities were elevated in microsomes and mitoplasts but not the UGT1A1, a catalyst of BR glucuronidation. A CYP2A5 antibody inhibited 75% of microsomal BR oxidation. The inhibition was absent in control mitoplasts but elevated to 50% after treatment. An adrenodoxin reductase antibody did not inhibit microsomal BR oxidation but inhibited 50% of mitochondrial BR oxidation. Ascorbic acid inhibited 5% and 22% of the reaction in control and treated microsomes, respectively. In control mitoplasts the inhibition was 100%, which was reduced to 50% after treatment. Bilirubin affinity to mitochondrial and microsomal CYP2A5 enzyme is equally high. Lastly, the treatment neither released cytochrome c into cytoplasm nor dissipated membrane potential, indicating the absence of mitochondrial membrane damage. Collectively, the observations suggest that BR regulatory enzymes are recruited to mitochondria during oxidative stress and BR oxidation by mitochondrial CYP2A5 is supported by mitochondrial mono-oxygenase system. The induced recruitment potentially confers membrane protection. - Highlights: • Pyrazole induces oxidative stress in the mouse liver. • Pyrazole-induced oxidative stress induces mitochondrial targeting of key bilirubin regulatory enzymes, HMOX1

  10. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S.; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-bjergaard, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial...... amongst UCP3-55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P 

  11. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S.; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial...... amongst UCP3-55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P 

  12. Antioxidant enzymes, presbycusis, and ethnic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bared, Anthony; Ouyang, Xiaomei; Angeli, Simon; Du, Li Lin; Hoang, Kimberly; Yan, Denise; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2010-08-01

    A proposed mechanism for presbycusis is a significant increase in oxidative stress in the cochlea. The enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST) and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) are two classes of antioxidant enzymes active in the cochlea. In this work, we sought to investigate the association of different polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and NAT2 and presbycusis and analyze whether ethnicity has an effect in the genotype-phenotype associations. Case-control study of 134 DNA samples. University-based tertiary care center. Clinical, audiometric, and DNA testing of 55 adults with presbycusis and 79 control patients with normal hearing. The GSTM1 null genotype was present in 77 percent of white Hispanics and 51 percent of white non-Hispanics (Fisher's exact test, 2-tail, P = 0.0262). The GSTT1 null genotype was present in 34 percent of control patients and in 60 percent of white presbycusis subjects (P = 0.0067, odds ratio [OR] = 2.843, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.379-5.860). The GSTM1 null genotype was more frequent in presbycusis subjects, i.e., 48 percent of control patients and 69 percent of white subjects carried this deletion (P = 0.0198, OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.163-5.067). The NAT2*6A mutant genotype was more frequent among subjects with presbycusis (60%) than in control patients (34%; P = 0.0086, OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.355-6.141). We showed an increased risk of presbycusis among white subjects carrying the GSTM1 and the GSTT1 null genotype and the NAT*6A mutant allele. Subjects with the GSTT1 null genotypes are almost three times more likely to develop presbycusis than those with the wild type. The GSTM1 null genotype was more prevalent in white Hispanics than in white non-Hispanics, but the GSTT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms were equally represented in the two groups. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Audioprofiles and antioxidant enzyme genotypes in presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Simon I; Bared, Anthony; Ouyang, Xiaomei; Du, Li Lin; Yan, Denise; Zhong Liu, Xue

    2012-11-01

    Audiometric patterns have been shown to indirectly provide information regarding the pathophysiology of presbycusis and be useful in the phenotyping of hereditary deafness. Hospital-based cohort study of adults with presbycusis, comparing the association of audiometric patterns and polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes that have been linked to presbycusis: GSTT1, GSTM1 and NAT2. All subjects underwent a clinical evaluation and completed questionnaires regarding ototoxicity and noise exposure. Pure-tone threshold audiometry was obtained and subjects' audiograms were classified into specific patterns. DNA was extracted from blood and the polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1, and the NAT2 variants (NAT2* 5A; NAT2* 6A,B) were analyzed by PCR. The audiometric patterns that were more prevalent in our cohort were "High-Frequency Steeply Sloping" or HFSS (33%), "High-Frequency Gently Sloping" or HFGS (31%), and "Flat" (27%), with other patterns being rare. We did not find a statistical significant effect of gender, age, hearing level, and ear side on the audiometric pattern. Subjects with mutant alleles for GSTT1 were more likely to have a HFSS audiogram than subjects with the wild type genotype. In this cohort, there was a similar prevalence for the three audiometric configurations HFSS, HFGS, and Flat, with other configurations being rare. Subjects with mutant alleles for GSTT1 were more likely to have a HFSS audiogram than subjects with the wild type genotype, suggesting that the basal turn of the cochlea is susceptible to GSTT1 regulated oxidative stress. However, further studies of audioprofiles with larger sample sizes may be needed to establish phenotype-genotype correlations in presbycusis. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Effects of copper stress on antioxidative enzymes, chlorophyll and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of copper stress on antioxidative enzymes, chlorophyll and protein content in Atriplex ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 50 (2011) > ... The aim of this work was to investigate some enzymatic systems response of this plant to copper stress.

  15. Proteomic Profiling of Mitochondrial Enzymes during Skeletal Muscle Aging

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    Lisa Staunton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are of central importance for energy generation in skeletal muscles. Expression changes or functional alterations in mitochondrial enzymes play a key role during myogenesis, fibre maturation, and various neuromuscular pathologies, as well as natural fibre aging. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics suggests itself as a convenient large-scale and high-throughput approach to catalogue the mitochondrial protein complement and determine global changes during health and disease. This paper gives a brief overview of the relatively new field of mitochondrial proteomics and discusses the findings from recent proteomic surveys of mitochondrial elements in aged skeletal muscles. Changes in the abundance, biochemical activity, subcellular localization, and/or posttranslational modifications in key mitochondrial enzymes might be useful as novel biomarkers of aging. In the long term, this may advance diagnostic procedures, improve the monitoring of disease progression, help in the testing of side effects due to new drug regimes, and enhance our molecular understanding of age-related muscle degeneration.

  16. Antioxidant enzymes activities in obese Tunisian children

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    Sfar Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oxidant stress, expected to increase in obese adults, has an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. It results when free radical formation is greatly increased or protective antioxidant mechanisms are compromised. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant response to obesity-related stress in healthy children. Methods A hundred and six healthy children (54 obese and 52 controls, aged 6–12 years old, participated in this study. The collected data included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase: SOD, Catalase: CAT and Glutathione peroxidase: GPx. Results The first step antioxidant response, estimated by the SOD activity, was significantly higher in obese children compared with normal-weight controls (p  Conclusions The obesity-related increase of the oxidant stress can be observed even in the childhood period. In addition to the complications of an increased BMI, obesity itself can be considered as an independent risk factor of free radical production resulting in an increased antioxidant response.

  17. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in male infertility.

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    Dandekar S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mammalian spermatozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and are very susceptible to attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS and membrane lipid peroxide ion. Normally a balance is maintained between the amount of ROS produced and that scavenged. Cellular damage arises when this equilibrium is disturbed. A shift in the levels of ROS towards pro-oxidants in semen and vaginal secretions can induce an oxidative stress on spermatozoa. The aim was to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD and to correlate the same, with the ′water test′, in male infertility. SETTINGS: Experimental study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ejaculates from a total of 83 infertile and fertile healthy individuals were obtained. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels were studied and correlated with water test. RESULTS: The results indicate that (i the antioxidant enzyme catalase showed no significant changes in the various pathological samples, (ii antioxidant enzymes SOD and glutathione peroxidase correlate positively with asthenozoospermic samples and (iii the degree of lipid peroxidation also correlates positively with the poorly swollen sperm tails. The increase in SOD and glutathione peroxidase values, in the pathological cases represents an attempt made to overcome the reactive oxygen species. CONCLUSION: Water test could be used as a preliminary marker test for sperm tail damage by reactive oxygen species, since it correlates very well with lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes.

  18. Correlation between enzymes inhibitory effects and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and phytochemical content of fractions was investigated. The n-butanol fraction showed significant α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects (IC50 values 15.1 and 39.42 μg/ml, respectively) along with the remarkable antioxidant activity when compared to the other fractions. High performance liquid chromatography ...

  19. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of some Brassica Species

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    Rodica SOARE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper set out to comparatively study five species: white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata alba Alef., red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra Alef., Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. Acephala, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. cymosa in order to identify those with high enzymatic and antioxidant activities. The enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and soluble peroxidase (POX as well as the antioxidant activity against 2.2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation were determined. Total superoxide dismutase activity was measured spectrophotometrically based on inhibition in the photochemical reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Total soluble peroxidase was assayed by measuring the increase in A436 due to the guaiacol oxidation and the catalase activity was assayed through the colorimetric method. The capacity of extracts to scavenge the ABTS radical cation was assessed colorimetric using Trolox as a standard. The obtained results show that studied enzymatic activities and the antioxidant activity against ABTS vary depending on the analyzed species. So, among the studied Brassicaceae species, it emphasize red cabbage with the highest enzymatic activity (CAT 22.54 mM H2O2/min/g and POX 187.2 mM ΔA/1min/1g f.w. and kale with highest antioxidant activity, of 767 μmol TE/100g f.w. The results of this study recommendintroducing the studied varieties in diet due to the rich antioxidant properties.

  20. Relationship between Estradiol and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity of Ischemic Stroke

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    Nasrin Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some evidence suggests the neuroprotection of estrogen provided by the antioxidant activity of this compound. The main objective of this study was to determine the level of estradiol and its correlation with the activity of antioxidant enzymes, total antioxidant status and ferritin from ischemic stroke subjects. The study population consisted of 30 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 30 controls. There was no significant difference between estradiol in stroke and control group. The activity of superoxide dismutase and level of ferritin was higher in stroke compared with control group (<.05, <.001, resp.. There was no significant correlation between estradiol and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, total antioxidant status, and ferritin in stroke and control groups. We observed inverse correlation between estradiol with superoxide dismutase in males of stroke patients (=−0.54, =.029. Our results supported that endogenous estradiol of elderly men and women of stroke or control group has no antioxidant activity.

  1. Zinc oxide nanoparticles mediated cytotoxicity, mitochondrial membrane potential and level of antioxidants in presence of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sruthi, S; Millot, N; Mohanan, P V

    2017-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used in a variety of products and are currently being investigated for biomedical applications. However, they have the potential to interact with macromolecules like proteins, lipids and DNA within the cells which makes the safe biomedical application difficult. The toxicity of the ZnO NP is mainly attributed reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Different strategies like iron doping, polymer coating and external supply of antioxidants have been evaluated to minimize the toxic potential of ZnO NPs. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland with great antioxidant properties. The melatonin is known to protect cells from ROS inducing external agents like lipopolysaccharides. In the present study, the protective effect of melatonin on ZnO NPs mediated toxicity was evaluated using C6 glial cells. The Cytotoxicity, mitochondrial membrane potential and free radical formation were measured to study the effect of melatonin. Antioxidant assays were done on mice brain slices, incubated with melatonin and ZnO NPs. The results of the study reveal that, instead of imparting a protective effect, the melatonin pre-treatment enhanced the toxicity of ZnO NPs. Melatonin increased antioxidant enzymes in brain slices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Water stress induced changes in antioxidant enzymes, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water stress induced changes in antioxidant enzymes membrane stablity index and seed protein profiling of four different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions (011251, 011417, 011320 and 011393) were determined in a pot study under natural condition during the wheat-growing season 2005 and 2006. Sampling was ...

  3. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

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    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  4. Mitochondria: Targeting mitochondrial reactive oxygen species with mitochondriotropic polyphenolic-based antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, José; Deus, Cláudia M; Borges, Fernanda; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2018-04-01

    Mitochondrial function and regulation of redox balance is fundamental in controlling cellular life and death pathways. Antioxidants have been used to counteract disruption of redox networks, normally associated with progressive loss of cell homeostasis and disease pathophysiology, although therapeutic success is limited mainly due to pharmacokinetic drawbacks. Attempts to improve mitochondrial function in a range of diseases spurred active drug discovery efforts. Currently, the most effective strategy to deliver drugs to mitochondria is the covalent link of lipophilic cations to the bioactive compound. Although targeting mitochondrial oxidative stress with antioxidants has been demonstrated, clinical use has been hampered by several challenges, with no FDA-approved drug so far. Development of new mitochondriotropic antioxidant agents based on dietary polyphenols has recently gained momentum. Due to their nature, mitochondria-targeted multi-functional antioxidants can trigger stress responses and contribute to tissue protection through hormesis mechanisms, inhibiting excessive mitochondrial ROS production and associated diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitochondrial enzymes and endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores as targets of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gary E; Huang, Hsueh-Meei

    2004-08-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that oxidative stress accompanies age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Specific mechanisms by which oxidative stress leads to neurodegeneration are unknown. Two targets of oxidative stress that are known to change in neurodegenerative diseases are the mitochondrial enzyme alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) and endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores. KGDHC activities are diminished in all common neurodegenerative diseases and the changes are particularly well documented in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A second change that occurs in cells from AD patients is an exaggerated endoplasmic reticulum calcium store [i.e., bombesin-releasable calcium stores (BRCS)]. H(2)O(2), a general oxidant, changes both variables in the same direction as occurs in disease. Other oxidants selectively alter these variables. Various antioxidants were used to help define the critical oxidant species that modifies these responses. All of the antioxidants diminish the oxidant-induced carboxy-dichlorofluorescein (cDCF) detectable reactive oxygen species (ROS), but have diverse actions on these cellular processes. For example, alpha-keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid (KMV) diminishes the H(2)O(2) effects on BRCS, while trolox and DMSO exaggerate the response. Acute trolox treatment does not alter H(2)O(2)-induced changes in KGDHC, whereas chronic treatment with trolox increases KGDHC almost threefold. The results suggest that KGDHC and BRCS provide targets by which oxidative stress may induce neurodegeneration and a useful tool for selecting antioxidants for reversing age-related neurodegeneration.

  6. Deoxynucleoside salvage enzymes and tissue specific mitochondrial DNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L

    2010-06-01

    Adequate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copies are required for normal mitochondria function and reductions in mtDNA copy number due to genetic alterations cause tissue-specific mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). There are eight nuclear genes, directly or indirectly involved in mtDNA replication and mtDNA precursor synthesis, which have been identified as the cause of MDS. However, the tissue specific pathology of these nuclear gene mutations is not well understood. Here, mtDNA synthesis, mtDNA copy number control, and mtDNA turnover, as well as the synthesis of mtDNA precursors in relation to the levels of salvage enzymes are discussed. The question why MDS caused by TK2 and p53R2 mutations are predominantly muscle specific while dGK deficiency affected mainly liver will be addressed.

  7. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial abnormalities and antioxidant defense in Ataxia-telangiectasia, Bloom syndrome and Nijmegen breakage syndrome

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    Mateusz Maciejczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rare pleiotropic genetic disorders, Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T, Bloom syndrome (BS and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS are characterised by immunodeficiency, extreme radiosensitivity, higher cancer susceptibility, premature aging, neurodegeneration and insulin resistance. Some of these functional abnormalities can be explained by aberrant DNA damage response and chromosomal instability. It has been suggested that one possible common denominator of these conditions could be chronic oxidative stress caused by endogenous ROS overproduction and impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis. Recent studies indicate new, alternative sources of oxidative stress in A-T, BS and NBS cells, including NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4, oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL or Poly (ADP-ribose polymerases (PARP. Mitochondrial abnormalities such as changes in the ultrastructure and function of mitochondria, excess mROS production as well as mitochondrial damage have also been reported in A-T, BS and NBS cells. A-T, BS and NBS cells are inextricably linked to high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and thereby, chronic oxidative stress may be a major phenotypic hallmark in these diseases. Due to the presence of mitochondrial disturbances, A-T, BS and NBS may be considered mitochondrial diseases. Excess activity of antioxidant enzymes and an insufficient amount of low molecular weight antioxidants indicate new pharmacological strategies for patients suffering from the aforementioned diseases. However, at the current stage of research we are unable to ascertain if antioxidants and free radical scavengers can improve the condition or prolong the survival time of A-T, BS and NBS patients. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct experimental studies in a human model.

  8. Catalase, a remarkable enzyme: targeting the oldest antioxidant enzyme to find a new cancer treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Christophe; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2017-09-26

    This review is centered on the antioxidant enzyme catalase and will present different aspects of this particular protein. Among them: historical discovery, biological functions, types of catalases and recent data with regard to molecular mechanisms regulating its expression. The main goal is to understand the biological consequences of chronic exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide leading to cellular adaptation. Such issues are of the utmost importance with potential therapeutic extrapolation for various pathologies. Catalase is a key enzyme in the metabolism of H2O2 and reactive nitrogen species, and its expression and localization is markedly altered in tumors. The molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of catalase, the oldest known and first discovered antioxidant enzyme, are not completely elucidated. As cancer cells are characterized by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a rather altered expression of antioxidant enzymes, these characteristics represent an advantage in terms of cell proliferation. Meanwhile, they render cancer cells particularly sensitive to an oxidant insult. In this context, targeting the redox status of cancer cells by modulating catalase expression is emerging as a novel approach to potentiate chemotherapy.

  9. Impact of Antioxidants on Cardiolipin Oxidation in Liposomes: Why Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Serves as an Apoptotic Signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhmatikov, Alexey V.; Voskoboynikova, Natalia; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Skulachev, Maxim V.; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Skulachev, Vladimir P.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Molecules of mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) get selectively oxidized upon oxidative stress, which triggers the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a chemical model most closely resembling the mitochondrial membrane—liposomes of pure bovine heart CL—we compared ubiquinol-10, ubiquinol-6, and alpha-tocopherol, the most widespread naturally occurring antioxidants, with man-made, quinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of an azo initiator in the absence and presence of diverse antioxidants, respectively. The kinetics of CL oxidation was monitored via formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm. We found that natural ubiquinols and ubiquinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants were equally efficient in protecting CL liposomes from peroxidation; the chromanol-based antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol, were 2-3 times less efficient. Amphiphilic antioxidants, but not natural ubiquinols and alpha-tocopherol, were able, additionally, to protect the CL bilayer from oxidation by acting from the water phase. We suggest that the previously reported therapeutic efficiency of mitochondrially targeted amphiphilic antioxidants is owing to their ability to protect those CL molecules that are inaccessible to natural hydrophobic antioxidants, being trapped within respiratory supercomplexes. The high susceptibility of such occluded CL molecules to oxidation may have prompted their recruitment as apoptotic signaling molecules by nature. PMID:27313834

  10. Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Yamamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amla is one of the most important plants in Indian traditional medicine and has been shown to improve various age-related disorders while decreasing oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a proposed cause of aging through elevated oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of Amla on mitochondrial function in C2C12 myotubes, a murine skeletal muscle cell model with abundant mitochondria. Based on cell flux analysis, treatment with an extract of Amla fruit enhanced mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, which enables cells to overcome various stresses. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these effects on mitochondrial function, we analyzed mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant systems, both proposed regulators of mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We found that Amla treatment stimulated both systems accompanied by AMPK and Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, we found that Amla treatment exhibited cytoprotective effects and lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in cells subjected to t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These effects were accompanied by increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that Amla protected cells against oxidative stress by using enhanced spare respiratory capacity to produce more energy. Thus we identified protective effects of Amla, involving activation of mitochondrial function, which potentially explain its various effects on age-related disorders.

  11. Effects of alginate on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinghua; Geng, Guoxia; Li, Qingwang; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cao, Hualin; Liu, Yawei

    2014-06-30

    Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (Pboar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (Pextenders with the presence of alginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (Pboar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of free radical scavenging enzymes affects mitochondrial membrane permeability transition during growth and aging of yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryabina, Yulia; Isakova, Elena; Sekova, Varvara; Antipov, Alexey; Saris, Nils-Erik L

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the change in the antioxidant enzymes activity, cell respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and impairment of membrane mitochondria permeability in the Endomyces magnusii yeasts during culture growth and aging. We showed that the transition into stationary phase is the key tool to understanding interaction of these processes. This growth stage is distinguished by two-fold increase in ROS production and respiration rate as compared to those in the logarithmic phase. It results in induction of alternative oxidase (AO) in the stationary phase, decline of the main antioxidant enzymes activities, ROS-production, and mitochondria membrane permeability. Significant increase in the share of mitochondrial isoform of superoxide dismutase (SOD2) occurred in the stationary phase from 51.8% (24 h of cultivation) to 68.6% (48 h of cultivation). Upon blocking the essential ROS-scavenging enzymes, SODs and catalases (CATs) some heterogeneity of cell population was observed: 80-90% of cells displayed evident signs of early apoptosis (such as disorientation of mitochondria cristae, mitochondrial fragmentation and deformation of nuclear chromatine). However, 10-20% of the population were definitely healthy. It allowed to draw the conclusion that a complete system of cell antioxidant protection underlies normal mitochondria functioning while the E. magnusii yeasts grow and age. Moreover, this system provides unimpaired cell physiology under oxidative stress during culture aging in the stationary phase. Failures in mitochondria functions due to inhibition of ROS-scavenging enzymes of CATs and SODs could lead to damage of the cells and some signs of early apoptosis.

  13. Selective inhibition of endogenous antioxidants with Auranofin causes mitochondrial oxidative stress which can be countered by selenium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenkovic, Filip; Holland, Olivia; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V

    2017-12-15

    Auranofin is a thiol-reactive gold (I)-containing compound with potential asa chemotherapeutic. Auranofin has the capacity to selectively inhibit endogenous antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), resulting in oxidative stress and the initiation of a pro-apoptotic cascade. The effect of Auranofin exposure on TrxR and GPx, and the potential for cellular protection through selenium supplementation was examined in the non-cancerous human cell line Swan-71. Auranofin exposure resulted in a concentration dependent differential inhibition of selenoprotein antioxidants. Significant inhibition of TrxR was observed at 20nM Auranofin with inhibition of GPx from 10µM. Significant increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) were associated with antioxidant inhibition at Auranofin concentrations of 100nM (TrxR inhibition) and 10µM (TrxR and GPx inhibition), respectively. Evaluation of mitochondrial respiration demonstrated significant reductions in routine and maximal respiration at both 100nM and 10μM Auranofin. Auranofin treatment at concentrations of 10μM and higher concentrations resulted in a ∼68% decrease in cellular viability and was associated with elevations in pro-apoptotic markers cytochrome c flux control factor (FCFc) at concentration of 100nM and mitochondrial Bax at 10μM. The supplementation of selenium (100nM) prior to treatment had a generalized protective affect through the restoration of antioxidant activity with a significant increase in TrxR and GPx activity, a significant reduction in ROS and associated improvement in mitochondrial respiration and cellular viability (10µM ∼48% increase). Selenium supplementation reduced the FCFc at low doses of Auranofin (selenium exposure. Therefore, Auranofin dose and the selenium status of patients are important considerations in the therapeutic use of Auranofin as an agent of chemosensitization. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Carvedilol-mediated antioxidant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiac mitochondrial toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Paulo J.; Bjork, James A.; Santos, Maria S.; Leino, Richard L.; Froberg, M. Kent; Moreno, Antonio J.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2004-01-01

    The cardiotoxicity associated with doxorubicin (DOX) therapy limits the total cumulative dose and therapeutic success of active anticancer chemotherapy. Cardiac mitochondria are implicated as primary targets for DOX toxicity, which is believed to be mediated by the generation of highly reactive free radical species of oxygen from complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The objective of this study was to determine if the protection demonstrated by carvedilol (CV), a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist with strong antioxidant properties, against DOX-induced mitochondrial-mediated cardiomyopathy [Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185 (2002) 218] is attributable to its antioxidant properties or its β-adrenergic receptor antagonism. Our results confirm that DOX induces oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and histopathological lesions in the cardiac tissue, all of which are inhibited by carvedilol. In contrast, atenolol (AT), a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist lacking antioxidant properties, preserved phosphate energy charge but failed to protect against any of the indexes of DOX-induced oxidative mitochondrial toxicity. We therefore conclude that the cardioprotective effects of carvedilol against DOX-induced mitochondrial cardiotoxicity are due to its inherent antioxidant activity and not to its β-adrenergic receptor antagonism

  15. Reactive oxygen species mediates homocysteine-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in human endothelial cells: Modulation by antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-de-Arce, Karen; Foncea, Rocio; Leighton, Federico

    2005-01-01

    It has been proposed that homocysteine (Hcy)-induces endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A previous report has shown that Hcy promotes mitochondrial damage. Considering that oxidative stress can affect mitochondrial biogenesis, we hypothesized that Hcy-induced ROS in endothelial cells may lead to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. We found that Hcy-induced ROS (1.85-fold), leading to a NF-κB activation and increase the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine. Furthermore, expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis factors, nuclear respiratory factor-1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, was significantly elevated in Hcy-treated cells. These changes were accompanied by increase in mitochondrial mass and higher mRNA and protein expression of the subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase. These effects were significantly prevented by pretreatment with the antioxidants, catechin and trolox. Taken together, our results suggest that ROS is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis induced by Hcy, and that modulation of oxidative stress by antioxidants may protect against the adverse vascular effects of Hcy

  16. Effect of fluorozis on the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdogan, M.; YiImaz, D.; Yontem, M.; Kalei, S.; Kilic, I.

    2011-01-01

    While the flourine level of (drinking) water was higher than normal ranges in the center of Isparta region before 1995 year, this problematic situation is solved in later years. (However) the individuals who are staying in Yenice district are still expose to high levels of fluorine because of the usage of Andik spring water (3.8 mg/L flour level) as drinking water. In this study we aimed to investigate the harmful effect of floride on human erythrocytes via antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we studied the activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Catalase (CAT), and the level of erythrocyte Glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and the level of urine floride in high floride exposed people (children, adult and elderly). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT and the level of GSH, TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed children (Group II) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control children (Group I) (p 0.05). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT were lower and the levels of TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed elderly people (Group VI) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control elderly people (Group V) (p 0.05). As a result we thought that increased SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities in floride exposed children and adult people, decreased activities of these enzymes in floride exposed elderly people, and increased TBARS in all groups may indicate floride caused oxidative damage in erythrocytes. (author)

  17. Alterations in antioxidant system, mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy in preeclamptic myometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina A. Vishnyakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication which causes significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although intensive research has been performed in the last 40 years, the pathology of preeclampsia is still poorly understood. The present work is a comparative study of the myometrium of women with normal pregnancy, and those with late- and early-onset preeclampsia (n = 10 for each group. We observed significant changes in the levels of antioxidant enzymes, markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy proteins in preeclamptic myometrium. Levels of superoxide dismutase 1 and catalase were lower in both preeclamptic groups than the control group. In late-onset preeclampsia, expression levels of essential mitochondria-related proteins VDAC1, TFAM, hexokinase 1, PGC-1α and PGC-1β, and autophagy marker LC3A, were significantly elevated. In the myometrium of the early-onset preeclampsia group OPA1 and Bcl-2 were up-regulated compared to those of the control (p < 0.05. These findings suggest that crucial molecular changes in the maternal myometrium occur with the development of preeclampsia.

  18. Antioxidant enzyme expression and reactive oxygen species damage in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, D G; Alexander, E E; Singh, R; Shan, A; Qian, J; Santella, R M; Oberley, L W; Yan, T; Zhong, W; Jiang, X; Oberley, T D

    2000-07-01

    Oxidative stress results in damage to cellular structures and has been linked to many diseases, including cancer. The authors sought to determine whether the expression of three major antioxidant enzymes, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), and catalase, was altered in human prostate carcinoma and its likely precursor, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). The level of reactive oxygen species damage was evaluated by measuring the expression of the DNA adduct 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. The authors evaluated the tissue expression of the antioxidant enzymes in prostate carcinoma by immunohistochemistry, immunogold electron microscopy, and enzymatic assay. The polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify and screen tissue specimens for the genes of SOD1, SOD2, and extracellular SOD (SOD3). Matched paraffin embedded tissue sections were evaluated by RNA in situ hybridization for expression of SOD1 and immunohistochemically for the DNA adduct 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. All prostatic tissues, including cancer, displayed immunoreactivity for the three antioxidant enzymes in epithelial cells, with no staining of the stroma, inflammatory cells, or endothelial cells. The number of immunoreactive cells was greater in benign epithelium than in PIN and cancer for each enzyme. The mean percentage and intensity of immunoreactive cells was greatest for SOD2, intermediate for SOD1, and lower for catalase. Staining in cancer was heterogeneous. Immunogold ultrasound studies revealed strong mitochondrial labeling for SOD2, which was greater in benign epithelium than in cancer; SOD1 labeling was invariably weaker, with nuclear labeling in benign epithelium and cytoplasmic labeling in cancer cells. There was no difference in enzyme activity for the three antioxidant enzymes between benign epithelium and cancer. No mutations were found in the 5 exons of SOD1, 5 exons of SOD2, and 3 exons of SOD3, except for 3 of 20 cases with

  19. Against Drought Stress Effect of Antioxidant Enzymes of Boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Doğan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soybean seeds (Glycine max. L., cv., “A3935 were grown under controlled conditions (25±2 C composed of different boron compounds. In the experiment, 5 groups were determined respectively as potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate (1 mg/1, ammonium tetraborate tetrahydrate (1 mg/1, sodium boron hydride (1 mg/1, lithium tetraborate tetrahydrate (100 mg/1, and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (100 mg/1. The doses used in this study were determined according to the results of a preliminary study. Soybean seeds were exposed to different amounts of drought stress based on time (control, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 days. Activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1, glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2, ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11 and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6 measured. According to the results stress+potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate environment has increased the amount of CAT, decreased the amount GR, APX and SOD. Potassium tetraborate 0.1 mg / l dose administration is the most appropriate critical value, and the most important indicator of drought CAT enzyme found to give the best results.

  20. Contemplation of wheat genotypes for enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, S.; Shabbir, G.; Ilyas, M.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is leading cereal crop in Pakistan but its yield is highly affected due to various abiotic factors especially drought stress, which affects the metabolism of plants. The present study was conducted at Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, using thirty three genotypes during 2011 to investigate the response of anti oxidative enzymes. Seedlings were subjected to stress condition with 30 % PEG 6000 solution along with control (irrigated with water) under in vitro conditions. The experiment was conducted in pots following Complete Randomized Design in Laboratory. Results revealed that under control conditions the maximum values for Guaiacol peroxidase were found in Punjab-96 and Auqab-2000 (2.523), for superoxide in C-273 (0.294), for ascorbate peroxide in PAK-81 (2.523) and for catalase in Kohsar-95 (0.487). Under moisture stress condition the maximum value for Guaiacol peroxidase were recorded for Kohsar-95 (2.699), for superoxide in Kohsar-95 (1.259), for ascorbate peroxide in Pak-81, SA-75, Mexipak-65 and PARI-73 (3.000) and for catalase in Mexipak-65 (0.640). The genotypes which showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity under drought stress have the ability to perform better under adverse soil moisture condition. Such potential genotypes can be utilized in the future breeding programs and also in improving the wheat varieties against drought stress. (author)

  1. Investigation of Baseline Antioxidant Enzyme Expression in Pocillopora damicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Richmond, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems in the world. Vital for maintaining ecological balance in coastal tropical environments, they also stand as the foundation for enormous cultural and economic resources. However, the continued degradation of coral reefs around the world, particularly within NOAA's Hawaii Marine Sanctuary, is an alarming call for action towards the identification of stressors and subsequent rehabilitation of these national treasures. Aligned with the goals of NOAA's National Marine Sanctuary to protect areas of the marine environment that are of special national significance to cultural, scientific, educational, and ecological values, this research targets addressing and standardizing antioxidant enzyme stress levels in Hawaiian coral over reproductive cycles in order to increase management aptitude and efficiency. By developing a greater understanding for biochemical biomarkers of stress in corals, specifically through the study of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity and expression, my research will aid in the adaptation and further development of biochemical tests to understand baseline thresholds of stress on coral reefs within Sanctuary waters. Slight, but significant variations in enzyme expression over reproductive time points alert us to modifications that must be made to consider fluctuating levels of coral susceptibility when sampling corals under stress. These findings will be applied to diagnostic tests describing the effect of different chemical pollutants on coral health in order to identify ecological issues and expand the knowledge of local communities and NOAA, so that steps can be taken to mitigate human Sanctuary impacts.

  2. Thymidine kinase 2 enzyme kinetics elucidate the mechanism of thymidine-induced mitochondrial DNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ren; Wang, Liya

    2014-10-07

    Mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a nuclear gene-encoded protein, synthesized in the cytosol and subsequently translocated into the mitochondrial matrix, where it catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine (dT) and deoxycytidine (dC). The kinetics of dT phosphorylation exhibits negative cooperativity, but dC phosphorylation follows hyperbolic Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The two substrates compete with each other in that dT is a competitive inhibitor of dC phosphorylation, while dC acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor of dT phosphorylation. In addition, TK2 is feedback inhibited by dTTP and dCTP. TK2 also phosphorylates a number of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues used in antiviral and anticancer therapy and thus plays an important role in mitochondrial toxicities caused by nucleoside analogues. Deficiency in TK2 activity due to genetic alterations causes devastating mitochondrial diseases, which are characterized by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion or multiple deletions in the affected tissues. Severe TK2 deficiency is associated with early-onset fatal mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, while less severe deficiencies result in late-onset phenotypes. In this review, studies of the enzyme kinetic behavior of TK2 enzyme variants are used to explain the mechanism of mtDNA depletion caused by TK2 mutations, thymidine overload due to thymidine phosphorylase deficiency, and mitochondrial toxicity caused by antiviral thymidine analogues.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in antioxidative enzymes are associated to FEV(1) in smokers independently of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, T H; Sigsgaard, Torben; Andersen, Charlotte Brasch

    2012-01-01

    ), GSTT1 (gene copy number), and GSTM1 (gene copy number). We found no associations between these genotypes and the asthma phenotypes. For the 201 subjects identified as current smokers and recruited via random sampling, an association was seen between increasing number of genotypes coding for high...... of genotypes coding for low antioxidative enzyme activity. The present study does not support the hypothesis that asthma is associated with genotypes of these major antioxidative enzymes. However, we speculate that since we see an impact of these genotypes on lung function in young adult smokers, polymorphisms...... in antioxidative enzymes may contribute to the range of susceptibility of smokers have to COPD....

  4. Rapid upregulation of heart antioxidant enzymes during arousal from estivation in the Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Kurtis D; Tattersall, Glenn J; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2010-11-01

    Estivation is an adaptive response to environments characterized by elevated temperatures and desiccative stress, as may occur during summer dry seasons. Similar to diapause and hibernation, it is characterized by low levels of activity, a drastically suppressed metabolic rate and enhanced stress resistance. We tested the hypothesis that Achatina fulica, a pulmonate land snail, enhances stress resistance during estivation and/or arousal by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defenses in the heart, kidney, hepatopancreas and foot tissues. No statistically significant changes in mitochondrial or cytosolic superoxide dismutase levels or activities, or glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase or catalase activities were associated with estivation in any tissue, however. In contrast, during arousal from estivation, activities of several antioxidant enzymes increased in heart, hepatopancreas and foot. In heart, a rapid increase in MnSOD protein levels was observed that peaked at 2h post arousal, but no such change was observed in CuZnSOD protein levels. Glutathione peroxidase activity was upregulated at 1h post arousal and remained elevated until 8h post arousal in heart tissue. Glutathione peroxidase was also upregulated at 24h post arousal in foot tissue. Glutathione reductase activity was upregulated at 4h post arousal in heart and foot tissues whereas catalase activity showed no changes. Markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage revealed no significant increases during estivation or arousal. Therefore, antioxidant enzymes may play a role in oxidative stress defense specifically during arousal from estivation in A. fulica. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant enzymes as potential targets in cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Enzyme antioxidants: the next stage of pharmacological counterwork to the oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vavaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus in antioxidant research is on enzyme derivative investigations. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD is of particular interest, as it demonstrates in vivo the protective action against development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus. The reliable association of coronary artery disease with decreased level of heparin-released EC-SOD was established in clinical research. To create a base for and to develop antioxidant therapy, various SOD isozymes, catalase (CAT, methods of gene therapy, and combined applications of enzymes are used. Covalent bienzyme SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate (CHS, chondroitin sulphate showed high efficacy and safety as the drug candidate. There is an evident trend to use the components of glycocalyx and extracellular matrix for target delivery of medical substances. Development of new enzyme antioxidants for therapeutic application is closely connected with progress in medical biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, and bioeconomy.

  6. Antioxidant effect of exercise: Exploring the role of the mitochondrial complex I superassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Huertas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial respiratory complexes become assembled into supercomplexes (SC under physiological conditions. One of the functional roles of these entities is the limitation of reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by complex I (CI of the respiratory chain. We sought to determine whether the systemic antioxidant effect of exercise is mediated by the assembly of mitochondrial CIs into SCs in rats. Male Wistar rats were exercise trained or remained sedentary for ten weeks; then, blood samples were collected, and the gastrocnemius muscle was isolated. The assembly of mitochondrial SCs and the lipid peroxidation of the mitochondrial and plasmatic fractions were assessed. Our results demonstrate that exercise induced the assembly of CI into SCs in the gastrocnemius and induced a systemic decrease in lipid peroxidation. We also found an inverse association between the superassembly of CIs and mitochondrial lipid peroxidation (p < 0.01 and protein carbonyls (p < 0.05. We conclude that exercise induces the chronic assembly of CIs into SCs, which provide mitochondrial protection against oxidative damage, at least in the studied muscle. Given the relevant role that mitochondria play in health and disease, these findings should help to elucidate the role of exercise as a therapeutic approach for metabolic diseases.

  7. Effect of dietary resveratrol supplementation on meat quality, muscle antioxidative capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Xiaohui; Chen, Xingyong; Wang, Li; Geng, Zhaoyu

    2018-02-01

    The naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol has been acknowledged with many beneficial biological effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary resveratrol supplementation on meat quality, muscle antioxidative capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis of broilers. One hundred and eighty 21-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to two groups and fed on a 0 mg kg -1 or 400 mg kg -1 resveratrol-supplemented diet for 21 days. Then, chickens were slaughtered and pectoralis major muscle (PM) samples were collected for analysis. The results showed that resveratrol not only tended to increase (P resveratrol, while malondialdehyde content was decreased (P resveratrol significantly increased (P Resveratrol can be used as a feed additive to improve meat quality of broilers, which may be associated with improved muscle antioxidative status and mitochondrial biogenesis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Role of antioxidant enzymes and small molecular weight antioxidants in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Paulina; Kaarniranta, Kai; Blasiak, Janusz

    2013-10-01

    Cells in aerobic condition are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may induce damage to biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. In normal circumstances, the amount of ROS is counterbalanced by cellular antioxidant defence, with its main components-antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair and small molecular weight antioxidants. An imbalance between the production and neutralization of ROS by antioxidant defence is associated with oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many age-related and degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), affecting the macula-the central part of the retina. The retina is especially prone to oxidative stress due to high oxygen pressure and exposure to UV and blue light promoting ROS generation. Because oxidative stress has an established role in AMD pathogenesis, proper functioning of antioxidant defence may be crucial for the occurrence and progression of this disease. Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in ROS scavenging and changes of their expression or/and activity are reported to be associated with AMD. Therefore, the enzymes in the retina along with their genes may constitute a perspective target in AMD prevention and therapy.

  9. L-malate enhances the gene expression of carried proteins and antioxidant enzymes in liver of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Wu, Q; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory reported L-malate as a free radical scavenger in aged rats. To investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L-malate in the mitochondria, we analyzed the change in gene expression of two malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS)-related carried proteins (AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier and OMC, oxoglutarate/malate carrier) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and three antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px) in the mitochondria. The changes in gene expression of these proteins and enzymes were examined by real-time RT-PCR in the heart and liver of aged rats treated with L-malate. L-malate was orally administered in rats continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. We found that the gene expression of OMC and GSH-Px mRNA in the liver increased by 39 % and 38 %, respectively, in the 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment group than that in the control group. The expression levels of SOD mRNA in the liver increased by 39 %, 56 %, and 78 % in the 0.105, 0.210, and 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment groups, respectively. No difference were observed in the expression levels of AGC, OMC, CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px mRNAs in the heart of rats between the L-malate treatment and control groups. These results predicted that L-malate may increase the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria by enhancing the expression of mRNAs involved in the MAS and the antioxidant enzymes.

  10. Effects of low dose radiation on antioxidant enzymes after radiotherapy of tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin; Gao Gang; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Liu Xiaoqiu; Wang Zhiquan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To search for effects of low dose radiation on the activities of antioxidant enzymes after radiotherapy of tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) were all determined by chemical colorimetry. Results: Low dose radiation increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) in serum of tumor-bearing mice more markedly than those in the unirradiated controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GST, CAT in serum of tumor-bearing mice (d 5 , d 3 ) irradiated with 5cGy 6h before 2.0 Gy radiation are obviously higher than those of the group (c 3 , c 5 ) given with radiotherapy only. Conclusion: The increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum of tumor-bearing mice triggered by low dose radiation could partly contribute to the protective mechanism. (authors)

  11. Differential effects of dietary flavonoids on drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in female rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S.T.; Dragsted, L.O.

    1999-01-01

    1. Gavage administration of the natural flavonoids tangeretin, chrysin, apigenin, naringenin, genistein and quercetin for 2 consecutive weeks to the female rat resulted in differential effects on selected phase 1 and 2 enzymes in liver, colon and heart as well as antioxidant enzymes in red brood......) significantly protected against, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced oxidative stress. Hepatic PhIP-DNA adduct formation was not affected by any of the administered flavonoids, whereas PhIP-DNA adduct formation in colon was slightly, but significantly, inhibited by quercetin......, genistein, tangeretin and BNF. 5. The observed effects of chrysin, quercetin and genistein on antioxidant enzymes, concurrently with a protection against oxidative stress, suggest a feedback mechanism on the antioxidant enzymes triggered by the flavonoid antioxidants. 6. Despite the use of high flavonoid...

  12. Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total proteins in Wistar rats. Christian E Odo, Okwesili FC Nwodo, Parker E Joshua, Chibuike S Ubani, Okon E Etim, Okechukwu PC Ugwu ...

  13. Definition of regional dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes means of the dispersive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly T. Bykov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In article application of the dispersive analysis for an estimation of dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes from region of constant residing, age, sex and the disease diagnosis is considered.

  14. Lactate dehydrogenase is not a mitochondrial enzyme in human and mouse vastus lateralis muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hans N; van Hall, Gerrit; Rasmussen, Ulla F

    2002-01-01

    The presence of lactate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle mitochondria was investigated to clarify whether lactate is a possible substrate for mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria were prepared from 100 mg samples of human and mouse vastus lateralis muscle. All fractions from the preparation...... procedure were assayed for marker enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The mitochondrial fraction contained no LDH activity (detection limit approximately 0.05 % of the tissue activity) and the distribution of LDH activity among the fractions paralleled that of pyruvate kinase, i.e. LDH was fractionated...... as a cytoplasmic enzyme. Respiratory experiments with the mitochondrial fraction also indicated the absence of LDH. Lactate did not cause respiration, nor did it affect the respiration of pyruvate + malate. The major part of the native cytochrome c was retained in the isolated mitochondria, which, furthermore...

  15. Limited diagnostic value of enzyme analysis in patients with mitochondrial tRNA mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibrand, Flemming; Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Frederiksen, Anja L

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic value of respiratory chain (RC) enzyme analysis of muscle in adult patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM). RC enzyme activity was measured in muscle biopsies from 39 patients who carry either the 3243A>G mutation, other tRNA point mutations, or single, large......, respectively, in these three groups. The results indicate that RC enzyme analysis in muscle is not a sensitive test for MM in adults. In these patients, abnormal muscle histochemistry appears to be a better predictor ofMM....

  16. Mitochondrial Targeted Endonuclease III DNA Repair Enzyme Protects against Ventilator Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Hashizume

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial targeted DNA repair enzyme, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, was previously reported to protect against mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA damage and ventilator induced lung injury (VILI. In the present study we determined whether mitochondrial targeted endonuclease III (EndoIII which cleaves oxidized pyrimidines rather than purines from damaged DNA would also protect the lung. Minimal injury from 1 h ventilation at 40 cmH2O peak inflation pressure (PIP was reversed by EndoIII pretreatment. Moderate lung injury due to ventilation for 2 h at 40 cmH2O PIP produced a 25-fold increase in total extravascular albumin space, a 60% increase in W/D weight ratio, and marked increases in MIP-2 and IL-6. Oxidative mtDNA damage and decreases in the total tissue glutathione (GSH and the GSH/GSSH ratio also occurred. All of these indices of injury were attenuated by mitochondrial targeted EndoIII. Massive lung injury caused by 2 h ventilation at 50 cmH2O PIP was not attenuated by EndoIII pretreatment, but all untreated mice died prior to completing the two hour ventilation protocol, whereas all EndoIII-treated mice lived for the duration of ventilation. Thus, mitochondrial targeted DNA repair enzymes were protective against mild and moderate lung damage and they enhanced survival in the most severely injured group.

  17. Multigene families encode the major enzymes of antioxidant metabolism in Eucalyptus grandis L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Karam Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant metabolism protects cells from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS. In plants, several enzymes act jointly to maintain redox homeostasis. Moreover, isoform diversity contributes to the fine tuning necessary for plant responses to both exogenous and endogenous signals influencing antioxidant metabolism. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive view of the major classes of antioxidant enzymes in the woody species Eucalyptus grandis. A careful survey of the FORESTs data bank revealed 36 clusters as encoding antioxidant enzymes: six clusters encoding ascorbate peroxidase (APx isozymes, three catalase (CAT proteins, three dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, two glutathione reductase (GR isozymes, four monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, six phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases (PhGPx, and 12 encoding superoxide dismutases (SOD isozymes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all clusters (identified herein grouped with previously characterized antioxidant enzymes, corroborating the analysis performed. With respect to enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, both cytosolic and chloroplastic isoforms were putatively identified. These sequences were widely distributed among the different ESTs libraries indicating a broad gene expression pattern. Overall, the data indicate the importance of antioxidant metabolism in eucalyptus.

  18. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  19. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Asthma: Implications for Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hemachandra Reddy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a complex, inflammatory disorder characterized by airflow obstruction of variable degrees, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and airway inflammation. Asthma is caused by environmental factors and a combination of genetic and environmental stimuli. Genetic studies have revealed that multiple loci are involved in the etiology of asthma. Recent cellular, molecular, and animal-model studies have revealed several cellular events that are involved in the progression of asthma, including: increased Th2 cytokines leading to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the airway, and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction in the activated inflammatory cells, leading to tissue injury in the bronchial epithelium. Further, aging and animal model studies have revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved and play a large role in asthma. Recent studies using experimental allergic asthmatic mouse models and peripheral cells and tissues from asthmatic humans have revealed antioxidants as promising treatments for people with asthma. This article summarizes the latest research findings on the involvement of inflammatory changes, and mitochondrial dysfunction/oxidative stress in the development and progression of asthma. This article also addresses the relationship between aging and age-related immunity in triggering asthma, the antioxidant therapeutic strategies in treating people with asthma.

  20. Nuclear Localization of Mitochondrial TCA Cycle Enzymes as a Critical Step in Mammalian Zygotic Genome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Raghavendra; Sharpley, Mark S; Chi, Fangtao; Braas, Daniel; Zhou, Yonggang; Kim, Rachel; Clark, Amander T; Banerjee, Utpal

    2017-01-12

    Transcriptional control requires epigenetic changes directed by mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites. In the mouse embryo, global epigenetic changes occur during zygotic genome activation (ZGA) at the 2-cell stage. Pyruvate is essential for development beyond this stage, which is at odds with the low activity of mitochondria in this period. We now show that a number of enzymatically active mitochondrial enzymes associated with the TCA cycle are essential for epigenetic remodeling and are transiently and partially localized to the nucleus. Pyruvate is essential for this nuclear localization, and a failure of TCA cycle enzymes to enter the nucleus correlates with loss of specific histone modifications and a block in ZGA. At later stages, however, these enzymes are exclusively mitochondrial. In humans, the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase is transiently nuclear at the 4/8-cell stage coincident with timing of human embryonic genome activation, suggesting a conserved metabolic control mechanism underlying early pre-implantation development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of pectolytic enzyme treatment and microfiltration on antioxidant components of elderberry juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furulyás D.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pectolytic enzymes (Pectinex BE XXL, Trenolin Rot, and Fructozym P were investigated for their influence on phenolic, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activities of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. pulps during juice processing. Prior to pressing the berries, three different enzymes were added to pulps in order to evaluate the effect of different pectolytic enzyme treatments on the valuable components of elderberry juice. Control sample was prepared without enzyme. After treatment, squeezing, and clarification steps, microfiltration was carried out with ceramic membrane. The effect of this technology on the antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol content, and total anthocyanin content of the clarified elderberry juices has been evaluated in permeate and retentate samples, and membrane retention was calculated. Significantly lower antioxidant capacity was detected in the case of control sample than that obtained using enzyme-treated juices. Retention of antioxidant content on the microfiltration membrane was greatly reduced by using the enzymes. Higher valuable component yield was obtained using Fructozym P enzyme compared with Pectinex BE XXL used in industry.

  2. Thioredoxin 1 in Prostate Tissue Is Associated with Gleason Score, Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Dietary Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence M. Vance

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the US. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in prostate cancer. Methods. In this study, thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1, an enzyme and subcellular indicator of redox status, was measured in prostate biopsy tissue from 55 men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. A pathologist blindly scored levels of Trx 1. The association between Trx 1 and the Gleason score, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, and dietary antioxidant intake was determined using Fisher’s exact test. Results. Trx 1 levels in benign prostate tissue in men with incident prostate cancer were positively associated with the Gleason score (P=0.01 and inversely associated with dietary antioxidant intake (P=0.03. In prostate cancer tissue, Trx 1 levels were associated with erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (P=0.01. No association was found for other erythrocyte enzymes. Greater Gleason score of malignant tissue corresponds to a greater difference in Trx 1 levels between malignant and benign tissue (P=0.04. Conclusion. These results suggest that the redox status of prostate tissue is associated with prostate cancer grade and both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants.

  3. Oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in the developing brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Yeon Shim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants are vulnerable to the oxidative stress due to the production of large amounts of free radicals, antioxidant system insufficiency, and immature oligodendroglial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a pivotal role in the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The three most common ROS are superoxide (O2&#8226;-, hydroxyl radical (OH&#8226;, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Under normal physiological conditions, a balance is maintained between the production of ROS and the capacity of the antioxidant enzyme system. However, if this balance breaks down, ROS can exert toxic effects. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are considered the classical antioxidant enzymes. A recently discovered antioxidant enzyme family, peroxiredoxin (Prdx, is also an important scavenger of free radicals. Prdx1 expression is induced at birth, whereas Prdx2 is constitutively expressed, and Prdx6 expression is consistent with the classical antioxidant enzymes. Several antioxidant substances have been studied as potential therapeutic agents; however, further preclinical and clinical studies are required before allowing clinical application.

  4. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semsang, Nuananong, E-mail: nsemsang@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, LiangDeng [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  5. Antioxidant properties, selected enzyme inhibition capacities, and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP, H2O2 scavenging assay, ABTS), antityrosinase, anti 5-lipoxygenase, antihyaluronidase and anti α-glucosidase were determined. Cosmetic creams containing 0, 1, 2 and 3 % of MSKE were prepared and evaluated for physical stability. The most stable formulation was subjected to the ...

  6. Superoxide activates mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 from the matrix side. Studies using targeted antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtay, Karim S; Murphy, Michael P; Smith, Robin A J; Talbot, Darren A; Brand, Martin D

    2002-12-06

    Superoxide activates nucleotide-sensitive mitochondrial proton transport through the uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2, and UCP3 (Echtay, K. S., et al. (2002) Nature 415, 1482-1486). Two possible mechanisms were proposed: direct activation of the UCP proton transport mechanism by superoxide or its products and a cycle of hydroperoxyl radical entry coupled to UCP-catalyzed superoxide anion export. Here we provide evidence for the first mechanism and show that superoxide activates UCP2 in rat kidney mitochondria from the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane: (i) Exogenous superoxide inhibited matrix aconitase, showing that external superoxide entered the matrix. (ii) Superoxide-induced uncoupling was abolished by low concentrations of the mitochondrially targeted antioxidants 10-(6'-ubiquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium (mitoQ) or 2-[2-(triphenylphosphonio)ethyl]-3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol bromide (mitoVit E), which are ubiquinone (Q) or tocopherol derivatives targeted to the matrix by covalent attachment to triphenylphosphonium cation. However, superoxide-induced uncoupling was not affected by similar concentrations of the nontargeted antioxidants Q(o), Q(1), decylubiquinone, vitamin E, or 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman 2-carboxylic acid (TROLOX) or of the mitochondrially targeted but redox-inactive analogs decyltriphenylphosphonium or 4-chlorobutyltriphenylphosphonium. Thus matrix superoxide appears to be necessary for activation of UCP2 by exogenous superoxide. (iii) When the reduced to oxidized ratio of mitoQ accumulated by mitochondria was increased by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase, it induced nucleotide-sensitive uncoupling that was not inhibited by external superoxide dismutase. Under these conditions quinols are known to produce superoxide, and because mitoQ is localized within the mitochondrial matrix this suggests that production of superoxide in the matrix was sufficient to activate UCP2. Furthermore, the superoxide

  7. Skeletal Muscle Fibre-Specific Knockout of p53 Does Not Reduce Mitochondrial Content or Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Stocks

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumour protein 53 (p53 has been implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, with whole-body p53 knockout mice displaying impairments in basal mitochondrial content, respiratory capacity, and enzyme activity. This study aimed to determine the effect of skeletal muscle-specific loss of p53 on mitochondrial content and enzyme activity. Mitochondrial protein content, enzyme activity and mRNA profiles were assessed in skeletal muscle of 8-week-old male muscle fibre-specific p53 knockout mice (p53 mKO and floxed littermate controls (WT under basal conditions. p53 mKO and WT mice displayed similar content of electron transport chain proteins I-V and citrate synthase enzyme activity in skeletal muscle. In addition, the content of proteins regulating mitochondrial morphology (MFN2, mitofillin, OPA1, DRP1, FIS1, fatty acid metabolism (β-HAD, ACADM, ACADL, ACADVL, carbohydrate metabolism (HKII, PDH, energy sensing (AMPKα2, AMPKβ2, and gene transcription (NRF1, PGC-1α, and TFAM were comparable in p53 mKO and WT mice (p > 0.05. Furthermore, p53 mKO mice exhibited normal mRNA profiles of targeted mitochondrial, metabolic and transcriptional proteins (p > 0.05. Thus, it appears that p53 expression in skeletal muscle fibres is not required to develop or maintain mitochondrial protein content or enzyme function in skeletal muscle under basal conditions.

  8. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Changes in water availability are responsible for a variety of biochemical stress responses in plant organisms. Stress induced by this factor may be associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations, which cause oxidative damage. In the present study we investigated the activities...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....... of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...

  9. Lifestyle predictors of oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity in healthy women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Amjad A; Zhang, Yali; Zhao, Hua; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify demographic and modifiable lifestyle factors that may be related to endogenous oxidant and antioxidant activity measured in blood specimens from putatively healthy women recruited at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY, USA). Total glutathione (TGSH), catalase (CAT), CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in 124 healthy women, and associations with epidemiological factors were tested using general linear models. There were significant differences in oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities according to lifestyle factors, after adjusting for duration of blood storage and season of blood draw. Compared to women who consumed ≤2.8 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, those consuming >5.3 servings had on average 31 % lower MPO activity (p-trend = 0.02), as a marker of oxidative stress, 16 % higher antioxidant GPx activity (p-trend = 0.08), and 9 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.05). Obese women (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30) in contrast showed 17 % lower antioxidant GPx activity, 44 % higher MPO activity (p-trend = 0.03), and 10 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.03) compared to women with normal BMI lifestyle factors and, therefore, may be potentially modifiable, with implications for risk reduction of chronic conditions related to oxidative stress.

  10. Protective activities of Vaccinium antioxidants with potential relevance to mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu; Vieira, Amandio

    2007-01-01

    Both the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and a neurotoxic metabolite, 6-hydroxy DA, can be oxidized to generate hydrogen peroxide and other reactive species (ROS). ROS promote oxidative stress and have been implicated in dopaminergic neurodegeneration, e.g., Parkinson's disease (PD). There is also evidence for a relation between catecholamine-mediated oxidative damage in dopaminergic neurons and the effects of these neurotransmitters on the redox state of cytochrome c (Cytc). In neurons and other cells, oxidative stress may be enhanced by abnormal release of Cytc and other mitochondrial proteins into the cytoplasm. Cytc release can result in apoptosis; but sub-apoptogenic-threshold release can also occur, and may be highly damaging in the presence of DA metabolites. Loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity, a pathological situation of relevance to several aging-related neurodegenerative disorders including PD, contributes to release of Cytc; and the level of such release is known to be indicative of the extent of mitochondrial dysfunction. In this context, we have used a Cytc-enhanced 6-hydroxy DA oxidation reaction to gauge dietary antioxidant activities. Anthocyanin-rich preparations of Vaccinium species (Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium corymbosum, and Vaccinium oxycoccus) as well as a purified glycosylated anthocyanidin were compared. The most potent inhibition of oxidation was observed with V. myrtillus preparation: 50% inhibition with 7 microM of total anthocyanins. This activity was 1.5-4 times higher than that for the other preparations or for the purified anthocyanin. Ascorbate (Vitamin C), at up to 4-fold higher concentrations, did not result in significant inhibition in this assay. Antioxidant activity in the assay correlated strongly (r2>0.91, PVaccinium content of anthocyanins and total cyanidins, but not quercetin or myricetin. The results provide evidence for the high potency of anthocyanins towards a potentially neurotoxic reaction, and provide a basis

  11. Diurnal gradual heat stress affects antioxidant enzymes, proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... to non-toxic levels by catabolizing it to water and oxygen. (Mittler ... within hours, unlike drought and salinity stresses. Therefore ... mechanism of response of cotton to elevated ..... Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts; polyphenol- .... transcription factor-dependent expression and activity of ascorbate.

  12. Study of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in tobacco chewers and smokers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundru Venkata Naga Sirisha

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. The altered antioxidant enzyme levels observed in this study will act as a predictor for pre potentially malignant lesions. Therefore an early intervention of tobacco habit and its related oxidative stress would prevent the development of tobacco induced lesions.

  13. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  14. Cytokinin-induced activity of antioxidant enzymes in transgenic Pssu-ipt tobacco during plant ontogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synková, Helena; Semorádová, Šárka; Schnablová, Renáta; Witters, E.; Hušák, M.; Valcke, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2006), s. 31-41 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1061; GA ČR GA206/03/0310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokinins * antioxidant enzymes * ontogenesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2006

  15. Protein Hydrolysis from Catfish Prepared by Papain Enzyme and Antioxidant Activity of Hydrolyzate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ace Baehaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to make a protein hydrolysates from catfish (Pangasius pangasius enzymatically using papain enzyme and analyzed the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates produced. The research used the method completely randomized design with two replications the treatment were the difference concentration of the papain enzyme (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6%. The parameters of research were antioxidative activity using DPPH (2,2-difenil-1–pikrilhidrazil, protein content, and molecular weight using SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The results showed that catfish protein hydrolysates prepared by papain enzyme has antioxidative activity. The highest degree of hydrolysis was 71.98% at enzyme concentration of 6%. Based on the DPPH scavenging method catfish protein hydrolysates has the antioxidative activity with the value 37.85-67.62%. The protein content of catfish protein hydrolysates were 20.86-54.47 mg/ml. The molecular weight of catfish protein hydrolyzates were 11.90-65.20 kDa.

  16. Effects of smokeless dipping tobacco (Naswar) consumption on antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in its users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Faiza; Bano, Samina

    2015-09-01

    Dipping tobacco, traditionally referred to as moist snuff, is a type of finely ground, moistened smokeless tobacco product. Naswar is stuffed in the floor of the mouth under the lower lip, or inside the cheek, for extended periods of time. Tobacco use causes dyslipidemia and also induces oxidative stress, leading to alteration in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in turn play a vital role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies conducted on smokeless tobacco products reveal contradictory findings regarding its effects on lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. As use of Naswar is quite common in Pakistan, the current study aimed to evaluate levels of the antioxidant enzymes viz glutathione per oxidase (GPx) and super oxide dismutase (SOD), alongside lipid profile parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in Naswar users.90 Healthy males aged 16-43 years, who consumed Naswar daily, were selected for the study, alongside 68 age-matched non-tobacco users as controls. Both GPx and SOD levels as well as serum HDL-C were significantly reduced (Pprofile and antioxidant enzymes thereby placing its consumers at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Effect of pre-cooling and heat treatment on antioxidant enzymes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of pre-cooling and heat treatment on antioxidant enzymes profile of mango and banana. ... In banana, pre-cooling treatment (8 ºC) and heat treatment followed by cooling reduced CAT activity in peel and pulp, whereas POX activity increased. Pre-cooling and heat treatments altered normal homeostasis of these fruits, ...

  18. Antioxidant enzymes in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval): Are they enhanced to protect gut tissues during oxidative stress?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2006), s. 11-20 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/05/0151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : antioxidant enzyme * oxidative stress * allelochemicals Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.019, year: 2006

  19. Different responses of tobacco antioxidant enzymes to light and chilling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, T; Willekens, H; Van Montagu, M; Inze, D; Van Camp, W; Toneva, [No Value; Minkov, [No Value

    The effect of elevated light treatment (25 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m(-2) sec(-1)) or chilling temperatures combined with elevated light (5 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m-2 sec-1) on the activity of six antioxidant enzymes, guaiacol peroxidases, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC 1.11.1.9) protein

  20. Effect of “Tai Chi” exercise on antioxidant enzymes activities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... exercise that increases physical strength and relax the mind. Materials and Methods: The study investigates effect of “tai chi” exercise on antioxidant enzymes activities and immunity function in participants. These participants were randomly divided into two groups: “tai chi” exercise group (n=25) and control group (n=25).

  1. Lack of mitochondrial thioredoxin o1 is compensated by antioxidant components under salinity in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Aingeru; Sánchez-Guerrero, Antonio; Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Martínez-Alcalá, Isabel; Camejo, Daymi; Jiménez, Ana; Sevilla, Francisca

    2018-02-15

    In a changing environment, plants are able to acclimate to the new conditions by regulating their metabolism through the antioxidant and redox systems involved in the stress response. Here we studied a mitochondrial thioredoxin in wild type (WT) Arabidopis thaliana and two Attrxo1 mutant lines grown in the absence or presence of 100 mM NaCl. Compared to WT plants, no evident phenotype was observed in the mutant plants in control condition, although they had higher number of stomata, loss of water, nitric oxide and carbonyl protein contents as well as higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enzymes than WT plants. Under salinity, the mutants presented lower water loss and higher stomatal closure, H 2 O 2 and lipid peroxidation levels accompanied by higher enzymatic activity of catalase and the different SOD isoenzymes compared to WT plants. These inductions may collaborate in the maintenance of plant integrity and growth observed under saline conditions, possibly as a way to compensate the lack of TRXo1. We discuss the potential of TRXo1 to influence the development of the whole plant under saline conditions, which have great value for the agronomy of plants growing under unfavourable environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of bleaching on mercury release from amalgam fillings and antioxidant enzyme activities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Filiz Yalcin; Ergin, Esra; Gurgan, Sevil; Sabuncuoglu, Suna; Arpa, Cigdem Sahin; Tokgoz, İlknur; Ozgunes, Hilal; Kiremitci, Arlin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot clinical study was to determine the mercury release from amalgam fillings and antioxidant enzyme activities (Superoxide Dismutase [SOD] and Catalase[CAT] ) in body fluids after exposure to two different vital tooth bleaching systems. Twenty eight subjects with an average age of 25.6 years (18-41) having at least two but not more than four Class II amalgam fillings on each quadrant arch in the mouth participated in the study. Baseline concentrations of mercury levels in whole blood, urine, and saliva were measured by a Vapor Generation Accessory connected to an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Erythrocyte enzymes, SOD, and CAT activities in blood were determined kinetically. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of 14 volunteers. Group 1 was treated with an at-home bleaching system (Opalescence PF 35% Carbamide Peroxide, Ultradent), and Group 2 was treated with a chemically activated office bleaching system (Opalescence Xtra Boost 38% Hydrogen Peroxide, Ultradent) according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Twenty-four hours after bleaching treatments, concentrations of mercury and enzymes were remeasured. There were no significant differences on mercury levels in blood, urine, and saliva before and after bleaching treatments (p > 0.05). No differences were also found in the level of antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD and CAT) before and after treatments (p > 0.05). Mercury release did not affect the enzyme activities (p > 0.05). Bleaching treatments either office or home did not affect the amount of mercury released from amalgam fillings in blood, urine, and saliva and the antioxidant-enzyme activities in blood. Bleaching treatments with the systems tested in this pilot study have no deleterious effect on the mercury release from amalgam fillings and antioxidant enzymes in body fluids. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Glutathione Precursor on Antioxidant Enzyme and Cell Survival in Yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Roh, Changhyun; Ryu, Taeho; Park, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Michael A. [Oxiage Cosmeceutical Research Institute, Virginia (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Cells react to such an induced oxidative stress through scavenging the generated reactive oxygen species to reduce oxidative damage. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase are immediately triggered for reactive oxygen species. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, is one of the antioxidants. The effect of NAC as an antioxidant and/or a cell rescue agent was investigated in the present study. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular thiol, which involves in antioxidant defense via direct interaction with ROS or via activities of detoxication enzymes like glutathione peroxidases (GPx). NAC flowed in the cell is converted to cysteine by deacetylation, that is supplied to the depleted GSH by oxidative stress. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity such as GPx and alkaline phosphatase. Cell growth and survivorship and transcriptional level of glutathione gene are analyzed in two yeast strains exposed to combined treatment of NAC with gamma-rays. The effect of NAC on cell growth was measured during 72 hours. The cell growth was hampered by higher concentrations of NAC at stationary phase. NAC, however, didn't affect the cell division at the exponential phase. The survival of the cells decreased with radiation dose. The cell viability of the strain W303-1A was reduced significantly at the low dose (10 and 30 Gy). By comparison, the strain W303-1A was more sensitive to radiation with having a half lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of about 20 Gy. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional expression of antioxidant enzyme gene GPX1 increased after irradiation while the expression of the gene decreased by the combined treatment of NAC with 100 Gy radiation. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge ROS against oxidative stress in vivo. In conclusion, NAC can prevent radiation-induced oxidative

  4. Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Glutathione Precursor on Antioxidant Enzyme and Cell Survival in Yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Roh, Changhyun; Ryu, Taeho; Park, Jiyoung; Nili, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Cells react to such an induced oxidative stress through scavenging the generated reactive oxygen species to reduce oxidative damage. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase are immediately triggered for reactive oxygen species. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, is one of the antioxidants. The effect of NAC as an antioxidant and/or a cell rescue agent was investigated in the present study. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular thiol, which involves in antioxidant defense via direct interaction with ROS or via activities of detoxication enzymes like glutathione peroxidases (GPx). NAC flowed in the cell is converted to cysteine by deacetylation, that is supplied to the depleted GSH by oxidative stress. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity such as GPx and alkaline phosphatase. Cell growth and survivorship and transcriptional level of glutathione gene are analyzed in two yeast strains exposed to combined treatment of NAC with gamma-rays. The effect of NAC on cell growth was measured during 72 hours. The cell growth was hampered by higher concentrations of NAC at stationary phase. NAC, however, didn't affect the cell division at the exponential phase. The survival of the cells decreased with radiation dose. The cell viability of the strain W303-1A was reduced significantly at the low dose (10 and 30 Gy). By comparison, the strain W303-1A was more sensitive to radiation with having a half lethal dose (LD 50 ) of about 20 Gy. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional expression of antioxidant enzyme gene GPX1 increased after irradiation while the expression of the gene decreased by the combined treatment of NAC with 100 Gy radiation. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge ROS against oxidative stress in vivo. In conclusion, NAC can prevent radiation-induced oxidative stress by

  5. Mitomycin C induced alterations in antioxidant enzyme levels in a model insect species, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcabe, J P; MacGill, R S; Zaman, K; Ahmad, S; Pardini, R S

    1994-05-01

    1. An insect species, the southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania, was used as an in vivo model to examine mitomycin C's (MMC) pro-oxidant effect reflected in alterations of antioxidant enzymes. 2. Following a 2-day exposure to 0.01 and 0.05% w/w dietary concentrations, MMC only induced superoxide dismutase activity. All other enzyme activities were not affected, indicating oxidative stress was mild. 3. Following a 5-day exposure to 0.05% w/w dietary MMC, the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and its peroxidase activity and DT-diaphorase were induced. GR activity was not altered. The high constitutive catalase activity was also not affected. These responses of S. eridania's antioxidant enzymes are analogous to those of mammalian systems in alleviating MMC-induced oxidative stress. 4. S. eridania emerges as an appropriate non-mammalian model for initial and cost-effective screening of drug-induced oxidative stress.

  6. Effect of sprint cycle training on activities of antioxidant enzymes in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Apple, F. S.; Sjödin, B.

    1996-01-01

    (P anaerobic capacity in the trained muscle. The present study demonstrates that intermittent sprint cycle training that induces an enhanced capacity for anaerobic energy generation also improves......The effect of intermittent sprint cycle training on the level of muscle antioxidant enzyme protection was investigated. Resting muscle biopsies, obtained before and after 6 wk of training and 3, 24, and 72 h after the final session of an additional 1 wk of more frequent training, were analyzed...... for activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Activities of several muscle metabolic enzymes were determined to assess the effectiveness of the training. After the first 6-wk training period, no change in GPX, GR, or SOD...

  7. Serum Antioxidative Enzymes Levels and Oxidative Stress Products in Age-Related Cataract Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the products of oxidative stress in patients with age-related cataracts and compare the findings with those in healthy control subjects. Method. Sixty patients with age-related cataract and sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in this study. Serum samples were obtained to detect the antioxidative enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and oxidation degradation products of malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, conjugated diene (CD, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyl (PC, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Results. Serum SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in cataract group were significantly decreased as compared to the control subjects (P<0.05. The levels of MDA, 4-HNE, and CD in cataract patients were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (P<0.05, P<0.01. Cataract patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG, AOPP, and PC with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P<0.01. And there was no statistical significance in concentration of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products in patients with different subtype cataract. Conclusions. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of age-related cataract, and augmentation of the antioxidant defence systems may be of benefit to prevent or delay cataractogenesis.

  8. Characterization of antioxidant enzymes and peroxisomes of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; del Río, Luis A

    2014-10-15

    The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. The knowledge of the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activity in individual fibre types in hypo- and hyperthyroid rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M A; Turnbull, D M

    1984-04-01

    Quantitative cytochemical and biochemical techniques have been used in combination to study the response of mitochondrial oxidative enzymes in individual muscle fibre types to hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism resulted in decreased activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), L-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (L-GPDH), and D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (D-HBDH) in all fibre types of both slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (e.d.l.) muscles. In hyperthyroidism, only L-GPDH activity increased in e.d.l. but more marked increases were seen in soleus muscles, which also showed increased SDH activity. In addition to these alterations in the enzyme activity in individual fibre types the metabolic profile of the muscle is further modified by the hormone-induced interconversion of slow- to fast-twitch fibres and vice versa.

  10. Ultraviolet Radiation: Cellular Antioxidant Response and the Role of Ocular Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitti, Satori A.; Chen, Ying; Thompson, David C.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposes the human eye to near constant oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that UVR is the most important environmental insult leading to the development of a variety of ophthalmoheliosis disorders. UVR-induced reactive oxygen species are highly reactive with DNA, proteins and cellular membranes, resulting in cellular and tissue damage. Antioxidant defense systems present in ocular tissues function to combat reactive oxygen species and protect the eye from oxidative damage. Important enzymatic antioxidants are the superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase and members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily. Glutathione, ascorbic and uric acids, α-tocopherol, NADPH and ferritin serve as small molecule, nonenzymatic antioxidants. Ocular tissues have high levels of these antioxidants which are essential for the maintenance of redox homeostasis in the eye and protection against oxidative damage. ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1, present abundantly in the cornea and lens, have been shown to have unique roles in the defense against UVR and the downstream effects of oxidative stress. This review presents the properties and functions of ocular antioxidants that play critical roles in the cellular response to UVR exposure, including a focused discussion of the unique roles that the ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 enzymes have as multi-functional ocular antioxidants. PMID:21670692

  11. The Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Remodeling Enzyme Lysocardiolipin Acyltransferase Is a Novel Target in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long Shuang; Mathew, Biji; Zhao, Yutong; Noth, Imre; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Harijith, Anantha; Usatyuk, Peter V.; Berdyshev, Evgeny V.; Kaminski, Naftali; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yanmin; Rehman, Jalees; Kotha, Sainath R.; Gurney, Travis O.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.; Lussier, Yves A.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Lysocardiolipin acyltransferase (LYCAT), a cardiolipin-remodeling enzyme regulating the 18:2 linoleic acid pattern of mammalian mitochondrial cardiolipin, is necessary for maintaining normal mitochondrial function and vascular development. We hypothesized that modulation of LYCAT expression in lung epithelium regulates development of pulmonary fibrosis. Objectives: To define a role for LYCAT in human and murine models of pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: We analyzed the correlation of LYCAT expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the outcomes of pulmonary functions and overall survival, and used the murine models to establish the role of LYCAT in fibrogenesis. We studied the LYCAT action on cardiolipin remodeling, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells under bleomycin challenge. Measurements and Main Results: LYCAT expression was significantly altered in PBMCs and lung tissues from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which was confirmed in two preclinical murine models of IPF, bleomycin- and radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. LYCAT mRNA expression in PBMCs directly and significantly correlated with carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, pulmonary function outcomes, and overall survival. In both bleomycin- and radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis murine models, hLYCAT overexpression reduced several indices of lung fibrosis, whereas down-regulation of native LYCAT expression by siRNA accentuated fibrogenesis. In vitro studies demonstrated that LYCAT modulated bleomycin-induced cardiolipin remodeling, mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species generation, and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells, potential mechanisms of LYCAT-mediated lung protection. Conclusions: This study is the first to identify modulation of LYCAT expression in fibrotic lungs and offers a novel therapeutic approach for ameliorating lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. PMID

  12. Inhibition of the mitochondrial enzyme ABAD restores the amyloid-β-mediated deregulation of estradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-An Lim

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a conformational disease that is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ deposition in the brain. Aβ exerts its toxicity in part by receptor-mediated interactions that cause down-stream protein misfolding and aggregation, as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent reports indicate that Aβ may also interact directly with intracellular proteins such as the mitochondrial enzyme ABAD (Aβ binding alcohol dehydrogenase in executing its toxic effects. Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs early in AD, and Aβ's toxicity is in part mediated by inhibition of ABAD as shown previously with an ABAD decoy peptide. Here, we employed AG18051, a novel small ABAD-specific compound inhibitor, to investigate the role of ABAD in Aβ toxicity. Using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, we found that AG18051 partially blocked the Aβ-ABAD interaction in a pull-down assay while it also prevented the Aβ42-induced down-regulation of ABAD activity, as measured by levels of estradiol, a known hormone and product of ABAD activity. Furthermore, AG18051 is protective against Aβ42 toxicity, as measured by LDH release and MTT absorbance. Specifically, AG18051 reduced Aβ42-induced impairment of mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress as shown by reduced ROS (reactive oxygen species levels. Guided by our previous finding of shared aspects of the toxicity of Aβ and human amylin (HA, with the latter forming aggregates in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM pancreas, we determined whether AG18051 would also confer protection from HA toxicity. We found that the inhibitor conferred only partial protection from HA toxicity indicating distinct pathomechanisms of the two amyloidogenic agents. Taken together, our results present the inhibition of ABAD by compounds such as AG18051 as a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of AD, and suggest levels of estradiol as a suitable read-out.

  13. Training Enhances Immune Cells Mitochondrial Biosynthesis, Fission, Fusion, and Their Antioxidant Capabilities Synergistically with Dietary Docosahexaenoic Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Busquets-Cortés

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training induces adaptations in mitochondrial metabolism, dynamics, and oxidative protection. Omega-3 fatty acids change membrane lipid composition and modulate mitochondrial function. The aim was to investigate the effect of 8-week training and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation (1.14 g/day on the mitochondria dynamics and antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from sportsmen. Subjects were assigned to an intervention (N=9 or placebo groups (N=7 in a randomized double-blind trial. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocyte membranes from the experimental group. No significant differences were reported in terms of circulating PBMCs, Mn-superoxide dismutase protein levels, and their capability to produce reactive oxygen species. The proteins related to mitochondrial dynamics were, in general, increased after an 8-week training and this increase was enhanced by DHA supplementation. The content in mitofusins Mtf-1 and Mtf-2, optic atrophy protein-1 (Opa-1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam were significantly higher in the DHA-supplemented group after intervention. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX-IV activity and uncoupling proteins UCP-2 and UCP-3 protein levels were increased after training, with higher UCP-3 levels in the supplemented group. In conclusion, training induced mitochondrial adaptations which may contribute to improved mitochondrial function. This mitochondrial response was modulated by DHA supplementation.

  14. Abiotic stress and antioxidant enzymes expression in sunflower leaf discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannarelli, G.G.; Azpilicueta, C.E.; Gallego, S.M.; Benavides, M.P.; Tomaro, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occur in plants under abiotic stress conditions. Although ROS act as mediators of oxidative damage, a signalling role for O 2 - and H 2 O 2 has been proposed. In the present work, the effect of cadmium (300 and 500 μM CdCl 2 ) or UVB radiation (30 KJ/m 2 ) on expression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (sod3) and catalase (cat1 and cat3) was evaluated in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf discs. Samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 h of Cd treatments or white light recuperation after UVB treatment. RNA extractions and semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis were performed. Treatment of 300 μM Cd induced 6.4, 2.9 and 6 fold the expression of sod3, cat1 and cat3 over the controls, respectively, after 8 h of treatment, but 500 μM Cd showed lesser induction levels. Immediately after UVB irradiation, the mRNA of the three enzymes decreased. After 8 h of white light recovery, cat1 and cat3 were induced (1.9 and 3.5 fold, respectively) and the maximum sod3 expression was observed at 12 h (7 fold), respect to control. In conclusion, the balance between superoxide dismutase and peroxidases activities in cells is crucial for determining the steady-state level of O 2 - and H 2 O 2 . In our assay conditions, sod3, cat1 and cat3 were induced in response to abiotic stress at a late phase (8-12 h). The main induction of cat3 suggests that core-catalases of peroxisomes might play a key regulatory role in controlling H 2 O 2 level. (author)

  15. Effects of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuifeng; Wang Bingliang; Guan Xueyu; Zhang Yan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed was studied. The results showed that the germination potentiality and germination rate of hot pepper seed after boarding return satellite were increased by 3.5% and 5.3%, respectively. During seed germination, soluble protein and MDA contents decreased, however, the SOD activities increased. SOD activity of treated seeds was higher than that of the control especially during the initial period of germination, while the content of soluble and MDA contents were much lower than those of control. The activities of SOD, G-POD, APX and CAT in 13d seedlings of treated seeds were increased by 14.29%, 25.23%, 1.84% and 21.52%, respectively. It was concluded that space flight enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities of seeds and seedlings, which were very important to prevent membrane lipid superoxide. (authors)

  16. Oxidative stress increases internal calcium stores and reduces a key mitochondrial enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gary E; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Hui; Park, Larry C H; Jeitner, Thomas M

    2002-03-16

    Fibroblasts from patients with genetic and non-genetic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) show many abnormalities including increased bombesin-releasable calcium stores (BRCS), diminished activities of the mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), and an altered ability to handle oxidative stress. The link between genetic mutations (and the unknown primary event in non-genetic forms) and these other cellular abnormalities is unknown. To determine whether oxidative stress could be a convergence point that produces the other AD-related changes, these experiments tested in fibroblasts the effects of H(2)O(2), in the presence or absence of select antioxidants, on BRCS and KGDHC. H(2)O(2) concentrations that elevated carboxy-dichlorofluorescein (c-H(2)DCF)-detectable ROS increased BRCS and decreased KGDHC activity. These changes are in the same direction as those in fibroblasts from AD patients. Acute treatments with the antioxidants Trolox, or DMSO decreased c-H(2)DCF-detectable ROS by about 90%, but exaggerated the H(2)O(2)-induced increases in BRCS by about 4-fold and did not alter the reduction in KGDHC. Chronic pretreatments with Trolox more than doubled the BRCS, tripled KGDHC activities, and reduced the effects of H(2)O(2). Pretreatment with DMSO or N-acetyl cysteine diminished the BRCS and either had no effect, or exaggerated the H(2)O(2)-induced changes in these variables. The results demonstrate that BRCS and KGDHC are more sensitive to H(2)O(2) derived species than c-H(2)DCF, and that oxidized derivatives of the antioxidants exaggerate the actions of H(2)O(2). The findings support the hypothesis that select abnormalities in oxidative processes are a critical part of a cascade that leads to the cellular abnormalities in cells from AD patients.

  17. Effect of cadmium and zinc on antioxidant enzyme activity in the gastropod, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Rashmi; Sivakumar, A A; Mohandass, S; Aruchami, M

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal stress results in the production of O(2)(.-), H(2)O(2) and (.)OH, which affect various cellular processes, mostly the functioning of membrane systems. Cells are normally protected against free oxyradicals by the operation of intricate antioxidant systems. The aim of the present work is to examine the effect of CdCl(2) and ZnSO(4) on antioxidative enzyme activity in the gastropod, Achatina fulica. The concentrations of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)--and nonenzymatic antioxidants--glutathione and vitamin-C--were found to be decreased in both digestive gland and kidney of the gastropod, Achatina fulica treated with individual concentrations of 0.5 ppm and 1ppm of CdCl(2) and ZnSO(4), compared to that of control animals. Based on the above study, it is evident that Achatina fulica can be used as a bioindicator to monitor the environmental heavy metal pollution.

  18. Effect of enzyme/substrate ratio on the antioxidant properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant properties of African yam bean hydrolysates (AYH) produced at different enzyme to substrate (E/S) ratios of 1: 100 and 3: 100 (W/V) using pepsin (pH 2.0, 37°C) were studied. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates was significantly influenced by the E\\S ratio as ...

  19. Transcriptional analysis of disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) antioxidant enzymes against marine bacteria and virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2011-07-01

    Diverse antioxidant enzymes are essential for marine organisms to overcome oxidative stress as well as for the fine-tuning of immune reactions through activating different signal transduction pathways. This study describes the transcriptional analysis of antioxidant enzymes of disk abalone by challenging with bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Upon bacteria and VHSV challenge, Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Copper, Zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx), and thioredoxin-2 (TRx-2) expression levels were altered in gills, and hemocytes at different magnitudes. In gills, only MnSOD, catalase, and SeGPx genes were completely upregulated by post-challenge of bacterial and VHSV. Among them, SeGPx demonstrated strong upregulation by 16-fold (bacteria) and 2-fold (VHSV) in gills, and 5-fold (bacteria) and 3.0-fold (VHSV) in hemocytes. None of the genes examined were downregulated (in gills and hemocytes) by bacteria challenge even though CuZnSOD and TPx showed downregulation (completely) in hemocytes by VHSV. In general, abalone hemocytes had lower potential to induce antioxidant enzyme transcripts upon bacteria and VHSV challenge than gills. Based upon these results, we suggest that abalones induce oxidative stress in tissues during the bacteria and VHSV challenge, and the identified response of antioxidant enzymes could be supported for maintaining a low-level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may serve as a signal for activating immune reactions against pathogenic conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Response of antioxidant enzymes in Nicotiana tabacum clones during phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubenova, Lyudmila; Nehnevajova, Erika; Herzig, Rolf; Schröder, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, is a widely used model plant for growth on heavy-metal-contaminated sites. Its high biomass and deep rooting system make it interesting for phytoextraction. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidative activities and glutathione-dependent enzymes of different tobacco clones optimized for better Cd and Zn accumulation in order to characterize their performance in the field. The improved heavy metal resistance also makes the investigated tobacco clones interesting for understanding the plant defense enzyme system in general. Freshly harvested plant material (N. tabacum leaves) was used to investigate the antioxidative cascade in plants grown on heavy metal contaminated sites with and without amendments of different ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate fertilizers. Plants were grown on heavily polluted soils in north-east Switzerland. Leaves were harvested at the field site and directly deep frozen in liquid N(2). Studies were concentrated on the antioxidative enzymes of the Halliwell-Asada cycle, and spectrophotometric measurements of catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.9), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2), glutathione S-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) were performed. We tried to explain the relationship between fertilizer amendments and the activity of the enzymatic defense systems. When tobacco (N. tabacum) plants originating from different mutants were grown under field conditions with varying fertilizer application, the uptake of cadmium and zinc from soil increased with increasing biomass. Depending on Cd and Zn uptake, several antioxidant enzymes showed significantly different activities. Whereas SOD and CAT were usually elevated, several other enzymes, and isoforms of GST were strongly inhibited. Heavy metal uptake represents severe stress to plants, and specific antioxidative enzymes are induced at the

  1. Cadmium phytotoxicity: Quantitative sensitivity relationships between classical endpoints and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa Correa, Albertina Xavier da [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Roerig, Leonardo Rubi [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Verdinelli, Miguel A. [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Cotelle, Sylvie [Centre des Sciences de l' Environnement, Universite de Metz, 57000 Metz (France); Ferard, Jean-Francois [Centre des Sciences de l' Environnement, Universite de Metz, 57000 Metz (France); Radetski, Claudemir Marcos [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: radetski@univali.br

    2006-03-15

    In this work, cadmium phytotoxicity and quantitative sensitivity relationships between different hierarchical endpoints in plants cultivated in a contaminated soil were studied. Thus, germination rate, biomass growth and antioxidative enzyme activity (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in three terrestrial plants (Avena sativa L., Brassica campestris L. cv. Chinensis, Lactuca sativa L. cv. hanson) were analyzed. Plant growth tests were carried out according to an International Standard Organization method and the results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Williams' test. The concentration of Cd{sup 2+} that had the smallest observed significant negative effect (LOEC) on plant biomass was 6.25, 12.5 and 50 mg Cd/kg dry soil for lettuce, oat and Chinese cabbage, respectively. Activity of all enzymes studied increased significantly compared to enzyme activity in plant controls. For lettuce, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) for enzymic activity ranged from 0.05 (glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (catalase). For oat, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (for superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (for catalase and peroxidase). For Chinese cabbage, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (superoxide dismutase). Classical (i.e. germination and biomass) and biochemical (i.e. enzyme activity) endpoints were compared to establish a sensitivity ranking, which was: enzyme activity > biomass > germination rate. For cadmium-soil contamination, the determination of quantitative sensitivity relationships (QSR) between classical and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers showed that the most sensitive plant species have, generally, the lowest QSR values.

  2. Cadmium phytotoxicity: Quantitative sensitivity relationships between classical endpoints and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa Correa, Albertina Xavier da; Roerig, Leonardo Rubi; Verdinelli, Miguel A.; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-Francois; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos

    2006-01-01

    In this work, cadmium phytotoxicity and quantitative sensitivity relationships between different hierarchical endpoints in plants cultivated in a contaminated soil were studied. Thus, germination rate, biomass growth and antioxidative enzyme activity (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in three terrestrial plants (Avena sativa L., Brassica campestris L. cv. Chinensis, Lactuca sativa L. cv. hanson) were analyzed. Plant growth tests were carried out according to an International Standard Organization method and the results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Williams' test. The concentration of Cd 2+ that had the smallest observed significant negative effect (LOEC) on plant biomass was 6.25, 12.5 and 50 mg Cd/kg dry soil for lettuce, oat and Chinese cabbage, respectively. Activity of all enzymes studied increased significantly compared to enzyme activity in plant controls. For lettuce, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) for enzymic activity ranged from 0.05 (glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (catalase). For oat, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (for superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (for catalase and peroxidase). For Chinese cabbage, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (superoxide dismutase). Classical (i.e. germination and biomass) and biochemical (i.e. enzyme activity) endpoints were compared to establish a sensitivity ranking, which was: enzyme activity > biomass > germination rate. For cadmium-soil contamination, the determination of quantitative sensitivity relationships (QSR) between classical and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers showed that the most sensitive plant species have, generally, the lowest QSR values

  3. Up-regulation of mitochondrial antioxidation signals in ovarian cancer cells with aggressive biologic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Dong, Li; Cui, Heng; Shen, Dan-hua; Wang, Ying; Chang, Xiao-hong; Fu, Tian-yun; Ye, Xue; Yao, Yuan-yang

    2011-05-01

    Recently, a high frequency of mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been detected in ovarian cancer. To explore the alterations of proteins in mitochondria in ovarian cancer, a pair of human ovarian carcinoma cell lines (SKOV3/SKOV3.ip1) with different metastatic potentials was examined. Cancer cells SKOV3.ip1 were derived from the ascitic tumor cells of nude mice bearing a tumor of ovarian cancer cells SKOV3. SKOV3.ip1 exhibited a higher degree of migration potential than its paired cell line SKOV3. The proteins in the mitochondria of these two cells were isolated and separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The differently expressed proteins were extracted and identified using matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation/time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF), and finally a selected protein candidate was further investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) method in nude mice bearing tumor tissues of these two cells. A total of 35 spots with different expressions were identified between the two cells using 2D-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) approach. Among them, 17 spots were detected only in either SKOV3 or SKOV3.ip1 cells. Eighteen spots expressed different levels, with as much as a three-fold difference between the two cells. Twenty spots were analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF, and 11 of them were identified successfully; four were known to be located in mitochondria, including superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), fumarate hydratase (FH), mitochondrial ribosomal protein L38 (MRPL38), and mRNA turnover 4 homolog (MRTO4). An increased staining of SOD2 was observed in SKOV3.ip1 over that of SKOV3 in IHC analysis. Our results indicate that the enhanced antioxidation and metabolic potentials of ovarian cancer cells might contribute to their aggressive and metastatic behaviors. The underlying mechanism warrants further study.

  4. Threonine modulates immune response, antioxidant status and gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte-Tsion, Habte-Michael; Ren, Mingchun; Liu, Bo; Ge, Xianping; Xie, Jun; Chen, Ruli

    2016-04-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of graded dietary threonine (Thr) levels (0.58-2.58%) on the hematological parameters, immune response, antioxidant status and hepatopancreatic gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream. For this purpose, 3 tanks were randomly arranged and assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were fed with their respective diet to apparent satiation 4 times daily. The results indicated that white blood cell, red blood cell and haemoglobin significantly responded to graded dietary Thr levels, while hematocrit didn't. Complement components (C3 and C4), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), immunoglobulin M (IgM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) increased with increasing dietary Thr levels up to 1.58-2.08% and thereafter tended to decrease. Dietary Thr regulated the gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CAT, GPx1, glutathione S-transferase mu (GST), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B (ALDOB); while the gene expression of peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) was not significantly modified by graded Thr levels. These genes are involved in different functions including antioxidant, immune, and defense responses, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Therefore, this study could provide a new molecular tool for studies in fish immunonutrition and shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that dietary Thr improved the antioxidant and immune capacities of fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alteration of Fatty-Acid-Metabolizing Enzymes Affects Mitochondrial Form and Function in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A.M.; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S.; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Durand, Christelle M.; Oteyza, Andrés Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H.; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A.; Kabiraj, Mohammad M.; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z.; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

  6. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  7. Tissue specific distribution of pyrimidine deoxynucleoside salvage enzymes shed light on the mechanism of mitochondrial DNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Eriksson, S

    2010-06-01

    Deficiency in thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) activity due to genetic alterations caused tissue specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome with symptoms resembling these of AIDS patients treated with nucleoside analogues. Mechanisms behind this mitochondrial effects is still not well understood. With rat as a model we isolated mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions from major organs and studied enzymes involved in thymidine (dT) and deoxycytidine (dC) phosphorylation by using ionic exchange column chromatography. A cytosolic form of TK2 was identified in all tested tissues in addition to mitochondrial TK2. TK1 was detected in liver and spleen cytosolic extracts while dCK was found in liver, spleen and lung cytosolic extracts. Thus, the nature of dT and dC salvage enzymes in each tissue type was determined. In most tissues TK2 is the only salvage enzyme present except liver and spleen. These results may help to explain the mechanisms of mitochondrial toxicity of antiviral nucleoside analogues and mtDNA depletion caused by TK2 deficiency.

  8. The Kunitz-protease inhibitor domain in amyloid precursor protein reduces cellular mitochondrial enzymes expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Li-Min; Lim, Mei-Li; Wong, Boon-Seng

    2013-08-09

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and this can be contributed by aberrant metabolic enzyme function. But, the mechanism causing this enzymatic impairment is unclear. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is known to be alternatively spliced to produce three major isoforms in the brain (APP695, APP751, APP770). Both APP770 and APP751 contain the Kunitz Protease Inhibitory (KPI) domain, but the former also contain an extra OX-2 domain. APP695 on the other hand, lacks both domains. In AD, up-regulation of the KPI-containing APP isoforms has been reported. But the functional contribution of this elevation is unclear. In the present study, we have expressed and compared the effect of the non-KPI containing APP695 and the KPI-containing APP751 on mitochondrial function. We found that the KPI-containing APP751 significantly decreased the expression of three major mitochondrial metabolic enzymes; citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase (COX IV). This reduction lowers the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, COX IV activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. Overall, this study demonstrated that up-regulation of the KPI-containing APP isoforms is likely to contribute to the impairment of metabolic enzymes and mitochondrial function in AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Peroxiredoxin II is an antioxidant enzyme that negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Yong; Wang, Su Bin; Min, Ji Hyun; Chae, Yun Hee; Baek, Jin Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-05-01

    Collagen-induced platelet signaling is mediated by binding to the primary receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Reactive oxygen species produced in response to collagen have been found to be responsible for the propagation of GPVI signaling pathways in platelets. Therefore, it has been suggested that antioxidant enzymes could down-regulate GPVI-stimulated platelet activation. Although the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) has emerged as having a role in negatively regulating signaling through various receptors by eliminating H2O2 generated upon receptor stimulation, the function of PrxII in collagen-stimulated platelets is not known. We tested the hypothesis that PrxII negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet activation. We analyzed PrxII-deficient murine platelets. PrxII deficiency enhanced GPVI-mediated platelet activation through the defective elimination of H2O2 and the impaired protection of SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) against oxidative inactivation, which resulted in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of key components for the GPVI signaling cascade, including Syk, Btk, and phospholipase Cγ2. Interestingly, PrxII-mediated antioxidative protection of SHP-2 appeared to occur in the lipid rafts. PrxII-deficient platelets exhibited increased adhesion and aggregation upon collagen stimulation. Furthermore, in vivo experiments demonstrated that PrxII deficiency facilitated platelet-dependent thrombus formation in injured carotid arteries. This study reveals that PrxII functions as a protective antioxidant enzyme against collagen-stimulated platelet activation and platelet-dependent thrombosis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. plants. SNAP (50 μM was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salt stress negatively affected growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosynthesis of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

  11. Effects of dietary coenzyme Q10 supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and the activities of respiratory chain-related enzymes in ascitic broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, A L; Guo, Y M

    2005-10-01

    1. One hundred and sixty 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were fed with maize-soybean based diets for 6 weeks in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. The factors were CoQ10 supplementation (0 or 40 mg/kg) and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (LPS or saline). 2. CoQ10 was supplemented from d 1. From d 18, the chickens received three weekly i.p. injections of LPS (1.0 mg/kg BW) or an equivalent amount of sterile saline as control. From d 10 on, all chickens were exposed to low ambient temperature (12 to 15 degrees C) to induce ascites. 3. The blood packed cell volume and ascites heart index of broiler chickens were reduced by dietary CoQ10 supplementation. Mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration, respiratory control ratio and phosphate oxygen ratio were not changed, but H+/site stoichiometry of complex II + III was elevated by dietary CoQ10 supplementation. 4. Cytochrome c oxidase and H+-ATPase activity were increased by CoQ10 supplementation, whereas NADH cytochrome c reductase and succinate cytochrome c reductase were not influenced. Mitochondrial anti-ROS capability was increased and malondialdehyde content was decreased by CoQ10 supplementation. 5. The work suggested that dietary CoQ10 supplementation could reduce broiler chickens' susceptibility to ascites, which might be the result of improving hepatic mitochondrial function, some respiratory chain-related enzymes activities and mitochondrial antioxidative capability.

  12. Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidant Maintains Blood Flow, Mitochondrial Function, and Redox Balance in Old Mice Following Prolonged Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Miura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a major factor in the decline of limb blood flow with ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS with regard to limb perfusion recovery in aging during ischemia. We performed femoral artery ligation in young and old mice with or without treatment with a scavenger of mitochondrial superoxide, MitoTEMPO (180 μg/kg/day, from pre-operative day 7 to post-operative day (POD 21 infusion using an implanted mini-pump. The recoveries of cutaneous blood flow in the ischemic hind limb were lower in old mice than in young mice but were improved in MitoTEMPO-treated old mice. Mitochondrial DNA damage appeared in ischemic aged muscles but was eliminated by MitoTEMPO treatment. For POD 2, MitoTEMPO treatment suppressed the expression of p53 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 and upregulated the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in ischemic aged skeletal muscles. For POD 21, MitoTEMPO treatment preserved the expression of PGC-1α in ischemic aged skeletal muscle. The ischemic soleus of old mice showed a lower mitochondrial respiratory control ratio in POD 21 compared to young mice, which was recovered in MitoTEMPO-treated old mice. Scavenging of mitochondrial superoxide attenuated mitochondrial DNA damage and preserved the mitochondrial respiration, in addition to suppression of the expression of p53 and preservation of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α in ischemic skeletal muscles with aging. Resolution of excessive mitochondrial superoxide could be an effective therapy to recover blood flow of skeletal muscle during ischemia in senescence.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial DNA depletion diseases caused by deficiencies in enzymes in purine and pyrimidine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Staffan; Wang, Liya

    2008-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS), a reduction of mitochondrial DNA copy number, often affects muscle or liver. Mutations in enzymes of deoxyribonucleotide metabolism give MDS, for example, the mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) genes. Sixteen TK2 and 22 dGK alterations are known. Their characteristics and symptoms are described. Levels of five key deoxynucleotide metabolizing enzymes in mouse tissues were measured. TK2 and dGK levels in muscles were 5- to 10-fold lower than other nonproliferating tissues and 100-fold lower compared to spleen. Each type of tissue apparently relies on de novo and salvage synthesis of DNA precursors to varying degrees.

  14. Association between Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Enterovirus-Infected Type 1 Diabetic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; El-Senousy, Waled M; Abdel-Latif, Mahmoud; Khalil, Rehab G

    2018-01-01

    To examine the effect of infection with Enterovirus (EV) in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) on the activities of serum antioxidant enzymes in diabetic and nondiabetic controls. Three hundred and eighty-two diabetic and 100 nondiabetic children were tested for EV RNA using reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. The activities of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were also estimated in diabetic patients infected with EV (T1D-EV+), those not infected with EV (T1D-EV-), and in nondiabetic controls. The frequency of EV was higher in diabetic children (100/382; 26.2%) than in healthy controls (0/100). Levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly higher but C-peptide was significantly lower in diabetic children than in controls. CRP levels were higher in the T1D-EV+ group than in the T1D-EV- group, and higher in all diabetic children than in nondiabetic controls. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes GPx, SOD, and CAT decreased significantly in diabetic children compared to in controls. Moreover, the activities of the enzymes tested were significantly reduced in the T1D-EV+ group compared to in the T1D-EV- group. Our data indicate that EV infection correlated with a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the T1D-EV+ group compared to in the T1D-EV- group; this may contribute to β cell damage and increased inflammation. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Analysis of metallotionein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in Meretrix meretrix larvae under sublethal cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qing [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Xiaomei [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Xiaoyu [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Engineering Research Center of Seawater Utilization Technology, Ministry of Education, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Yang Hongsheng, E-mail: hshyang@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Liu Baozhong, E-mail: bzliu@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the possible role of metallothioneins (MTs) and antioxidant enzymes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in Meretrix meretrix larvae, a new MT (designated MmMT) gene was identified and cloned from M. meretrix. The full-length cDNA of MmMT consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 231 bp encoding a protein of 76 amino acids, with 21 cysteine residues and a conserved structural pattern Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-Tyr-Gly-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-Lys at the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of MmMT showed about 57-84% identity with previously published MT sequences of mussels and oysters. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression level of MmMT mRNA at different M. meretrix larval stages under Cd exposure (25 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Results showed that Cd could induce the expression of MmMT mRNA in the larvae, and the expression level increased 5.04-fold and 3.99-fold in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers, respectively. Immunolocalization of MmMT in the stressed larvae revealed that MmMT was synthesized in almost all of the soft parts at the trochophore and postlarva stages, whereas it was only synthesized in the velum and epidermis at the D-shaped larva and pediveliger stages. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), also were measured in larvae at different developmental stages. Increased enzymatic activities were detected mainly in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers under Cd stress, suggesting that these enzymes respond synchronously with MT. Our results indicate that MmMT and antioxidant enzymes played important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. meretrix larvae.

  16. Analysis of metallotionein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in Meretrix meretrix larvae under sublethal cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qing; Wang Xiaomei; Wang Xiaoyu; Yang Hongsheng; Liu Baozhong

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of metallothioneins (MTs) and antioxidant enzymes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in Meretrix meretrix larvae, a new MT (designated MmMT) gene was identified and cloned from M. meretrix. The full-length cDNA of MmMT consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 231 bp encoding a protein of 76 amino acids, with 21 cysteine residues and a conserved structural pattern Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-Tyr-Gly-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-Lys at the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of MmMT showed about 57-84% identity with previously published MT sequences of mussels and oysters. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression level of MmMT mRNA at different M. meretrix larval stages under Cd exposure (25 μg L -1 ). Results showed that Cd could induce the expression of MmMT mRNA in the larvae, and the expression level increased 5.04-fold and 3.99-fold in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers, respectively. Immunolocalization of MmMT in the stressed larvae revealed that MmMT was synthesized in almost all of the soft parts at the trochophore and postlarva stages, whereas it was only synthesized in the velum and epidermis at the D-shaped larva and pediveliger stages. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), also were measured in larvae at different developmental stages. Increased enzymatic activities were detected mainly in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers under Cd stress, suggesting that these enzymes respond synchronously with MT. Our results indicate that MmMT and antioxidant enzymes played important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. meretrix larvae.

  17. Effect of Alpinia zerumbet components on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chompoo Jamnian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin is chronically exposed to endogenous and environmental pro-oxidant agents, leading to the harmful generation of reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant is vital substances which possess the ability to protect the body from damage cause by free radicals induce oxidative stress. Alpinia zerumbet, a traditionally important economic plant in Okinawa, contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this regard, we carried out to test the inhibitory effect of crude extracts and isolated compounds from A. zerumbet on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Methods The antioxidant activities were examined by DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH radical scavenging. Collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase were designed for enzymatic activities to investigate the inhibitory properties of test samples using a continuous spectrophotometric assay. The inhibitory capacity of test samples was presented at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. Results The results showed that aqueous extract of the rhizome was found to have greater inhibitory effects than the others on both of antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Furthermore, 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK, dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK and 8(17,12-labdadiene-15,16-dial (labdadiene, isolated from rhizome, were tested for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitions. We found that DK showed higher inhibitory activities on DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH scavenging (IC50 = 122.14 ± 1.40, 110.08 ± 3.34 and 127.78 ± 4.75 μg/ml, respectively. It also had stronger inhibitory activities against collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase (IC50 = 24.93 ± 0.97, 19.41 ± 0.61, 19.48 ± 0.24 and 76.67 ± 0.50 μg/ml, respectively than DDK and labdadiene. Conclusion Our results indicate that the rhizome aqueous extract proved to be the source of bioactive compounds against enzymes responsible for

  18. Role of nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in the pathogenesis of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayendrakumar B; Shah, Franky D; Shukla, Shilin N; Shah, Pankaj M; Patel, Prabhudas S

    2009-01-01

    Oral cancer is the leading malignancy in India. Nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes play an important role in etiology of oral cancer. Therefore, the present study evaluates nitric oxide and antioxidant enzyme levels in healthy individual without tobacco habits (NHT, N=30) and healthy individuals with tobacco habits (WHT, n=90), patients with oral precancers (OPC, n=15) and oral cancer patients (n=126). Blood samples were collected from the subjects. NO2 + NO3 (nitrite+nitrate), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were estimated using highly specific spectrophotometeric methods. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS statistical software version 10. Mean plasma NO2 + NO3 levels were elevated in patients with OPC and oral cancer patients as compared to the controls. Mean activities of erythrocyte SOD and catalase were higher in WHT than NHT. Erythrocyte SOD and catalase levels were higher in WHT and patients with OPC as compared to NHT. The erythrocyte SOD and catalase activities were lower in oral cancer patients than patients with OPC. The erythrocyte SOD activity was higher in advanced oral cancer than the early disease. Erythrocyte catalase activity was lower in poorly differentiated tumors than well and moderately differentiated tumors. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that alterations in plasma NO2 + NO3 levels were negatively associated with changes in erythrocyte SOD activities. The data revealed that the alterations in antioxidant activities were associated with production of nitric oxide in oral cancer, which may have significant role in oral carcinogenesis.

  19. Assessment of the effect of silicon on antioxidant enzymes in cotton plants by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Moldes, Carlos; Fontão de Lima Filho, Oscar; Manuel Camiña, José; Gabriela Kiriachek, Soraya; Lia Molas, María; Mui Tsai, Siu

    2013-11-27

    Silicon has been extensively researched in relation to the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress, as an element triggering defense mechanisms which activate the antioxidant system. Furthermore, in some species, adding silicon to unstressed plants modifies the activity of certain antioxidant enzymes participating in detoxifying processes. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of unstressed cotton plants fertilized with silicon (Si). Cotton plants were grown in hydroponic culture and added with increasing doses of potassium silicate; then, the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Using multivariate analysis, we found that silicon altered the activity of GPOX, APX, and CAT in roots and leaves of unstressed cotton plants, whereas lipid peroxidation was not affected. The analysis of these four variables in concert showed a clear differentiation among Si treatments. We observed that enzymatic activities in leaves and roots changed as silicon concentration increased, to stabilize at 100 and 200 mg Si L(-1) treatments in leaves and roots, respectively. Those alterations would allow a new biochemical status that could be partially responsible for the beneficial effects of silicon. This study might contribute to adjust the silicon application doses for optimal fertilization, preventing potential toxic effects and unnecessary cost.

  20. Effect of norfloxacin and moxifloxacin on melanin synthesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beberok, Artur; Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Miliński, Maciej; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics provide broad-spectrum coverage for a number of infectious diseases, including respiratory as well as urinary tract infections. One of the important adverse effects of these drugs is phototoxicity which introduces a serious limitation to their use. To gain insight the molecular mechanisms underlying the fluoroquinolones-induced phototoxic side effects, the impact of two fluoroquinolone derivatives with different phototoxic potential, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin, on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes HEMa-LP was determined. Both drugs induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 for these drugs was found to be 0.5 mM. Norfloxacin and moxifloxacin suppressed melanin biosynthesis; antibiotics were shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in melanocytes. When comparing the both analyzed fluoroquinolones, it was observed that norfloxacin possesses greater inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity in melanocytes than moxifloxacin. The extent of oxidative stress in cells was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx. It was observed that norfloxacin caused higher depletion of antioxidant status in melanocytes when compared with moxifloxacin. The obtained results give a new insight into the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones toxicity directed to pigmented tissues. Moreover, the presented differences in modulation of biochemical processes in melanocytes may be an explanation for various phototoxic activities of the analyzed fluoroquinolone derivatives in vivo.

  1. A mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant improves myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity during prolonged low frequency force depression at low PO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, Paulo G; Shiah, Amy A; Nogueira, Leonardo; Hogan, Michael C

    2018-03-15

    Skeletal muscle contractile activity is associated with an enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. At very low PO2, ROS generation by mitochondria can be elevated in intact cells. An elevated intracellular oxidant activity may affect muscle force development and recovery from fatigue. We treated intact single muscle fibres with a mitochondrial antioxidant and stimulated the fibres to contract at a low extracellular PO2 that is similar to the intracellular PO2 that is observed during moderate to intense exercise in vivo. The mitochondrial antioxidant prevented a sustained decrease in the myofibrillar Ca 2+ sensitivity and improved muscle submaximal force development after fatigue at low extracellular PO2. Skeletal muscle can develop a prolonged low frequency-stimulation force depression (PLFFD) following fatigue-inducing contractions. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of PLFFD. During exercise the skeletal muscle intracellular PO2 decreases to relatively low levels, and can be further decreased when there is an impairment in O 2 diffusion or availability, such as in certain chronic diseases and during exercise at high altitude. Since ROS generation by mitochondria is elevated at very low PO2 in cells, we tested the hypothesis that treatment of muscle fibres with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant at a very low, near hypoxic, PO2 can attenuate PLFFD. We treated intact single fibres from mice with the mitochondrial-specific antioxidant SS31, and measured force development and intracellular [Ca 2+ ] 30 min after fatigue at an extracellular PO2 of ∼5 Torr. After 30 min following the end of the fatiguing contractions, fibres treated with SS31 showed significantly less impairment in force development compared to untreated fibres at submaximal frequencies of stimulation. The cytosolic peak [Ca 2+ ] transients (peak [Ca 2+ ] c ) were equally decreased in both groups compared to pre-fatigue values. The

  2. Acrolein inhibits NADH-linked mitochondrial enzyme activity: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocernich, Chava B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2003-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain increased lipid peroxidation and decreased energy utilization are found. Mitochondria membranes contain a significant amount of arachidonic and linoleic acids, precursors of lipid peroxidation products, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 2-propen-1-al (acrolein), that are extremely reactive. Both alkenals are increased in AD brain. In this study, we examined the effects of nanomolar levels of acrolein on the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH), both reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-linked mitochondrial enzymes. Acrolein decreased PDH and KGDH activities significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), acrolein was found to bind lipoic acid, a component in both the PDH and KGDH complexes, most likely explaining the loss of enzyme activity. Acrolein also interacted with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) in such a way as to decrease the production of NADH. Acrolein, which is increased in AD brain, may be partially responsible for the dysfunction of mitochondria and loss of energy found in AD brain by inhibition of PDH and KGDH activities, potentially contributing to the neurodegeneration in this disorder.

  3. Effect of irradiation on membrane-bound rabit liver mitochondrial enzymes in embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirakhmedov, A.K.; Muradillaev, A.; Khan, M.Z.; Khamidov, D. Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of irradiation on protein content of inner mitochondrial membrane and on activity of certain enzymes of respiratory chain of hepatic mitochondria has been studied. Within 24 and 48 hr after total irradiation (200 R) of pregnant rabbits, the protein content of the inner membranes of 25-30 day-old embryos and the mothers was broken with the increase in the thickness and densitometric height of the protein spots. Changes were seen in NADH-oxidase, succinate oxidase and in cytochrome-c-oxidase activities of mitochondria of 20 day-old embryos within 4 hr after irradiation and within 1 hr after irradiation in adult rabbits. The NADH-oxidase and the succinate oxidase activities of 30 day-old embryos were insensitive to the effect of irradiation. The cytochrome-c-oxidase activity increased in mitochondria of 25-30 day-old embryos upon 24 hr of irradiation. Substantial depression of the thermostability of the NADH-oxidase system was seen within 24 hr after irradiation while cytochrome-c-oxidase did not change its thermostability. The unequal disturbances of the emzyme activity and thermostability upon the total irradiation are connected with the different state of mitochondria and with the specificity of enzymes of the respiratory chain. (author)

  4. Oxidative stress in cancer and fibrosis: Opportunity for therapeutic intervention with antioxidant compounds, enzymes, and nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingga Morry

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, mainly contributed by reactive oxygen species (ROS, has been implicated in pathogenesis of several diseases. We review two primary examples; fibrosis and cancer. In fibrosis, ROS promote activation and proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, activating TGF-β pathway in an autocrine manner. In cancer, ROS account for its genomic instability, resistance to apoptosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Importantly, ROS trigger cancer cell invasion through invadopodia formation as well as extravasation into a distant metastasis site. Use of antioxidant supplements, enzymes, and inhibitors for ROS-generating NADPH oxidases (NOX is a logical therapeutic intervention for fibrosis and cancer. We review such attempts, progress, and challenges. Lastly, we review how nanoparticles with inherent antioxidant activity can also be a promising therapeutic option, considering their additional feature as a delivery platform for drugs, genes, and imaging agents.

  5. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  6. In vivo examination of the effects of hydroxycinnamic acid on xenobiotic metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semiz Asli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA have gained increasing attention from researchers due to their antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to examine in detail the impact of dietary HCA on particular types of P450 and also selected phase II and antioxidant enzymes in Wistar rat. HCA (10 mM/kg/day, i.p. was administered for ten continuous days. Examination of the activities and mRNA and protein levels revealed that CYP2B, 2C6 and 3A enzyme activities were not altered significantly, with Western blot and qRT-PCR results corroborating this result. While treatment with HCA led to a significant reduction in CYP1A1/CYP1A2-associated enzyme activities, CYP1A1 protein, and mRNA levels were found to be unchanged. Aromatase (CYP19 activity, as well as protein and mRNA levels, were significantly reduced with HCA treatment. On the other hand, the NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs activities were increased significantly. Also, HCA treatment significantly increased the GST-mu and GST-theta mRNA levels. These observations may be of importance given the potential use of HCA as a chemopreventive and as an anticancer agent.

  7. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SS31 Prevents Amyloid Beta-Induced Mitochondrial Abnormalities and Synaptic Degeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J. Calkins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In neuronal systems, the health and activity of mitochondria and synapses are tightly coupled. For this reason, it has been postulated that mitochondrial abnormalities may, at least in part, drive neurodegeneration in conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Mounting evidence from multiple Alzheimer’s disease cell and mouse models and postmortem brains suggest that loss of mitochondrial integrity may be a key factor that mediates synaptic loss. Therefore, the prevention or rescue of mitochondrial dysfunction may help delay or altogether prevent AD-associated neurodegeneration. Since mitochondrial health is heavily dependent on antioxidant defenses, researchers have begun to explore the use of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants as therapeutic tools to prevent neurodegenerative diseases. This review will highlight advances made using a model mitochondria-targeted antioxidant peptide, SS31, as a potential treatment for AD.

  8. Overexpression of antioxidant enzymes in diaphragm muscle does not alter contraction-induced fatigue or recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Joseph M.; DeRuisseau, Keith C.; Whidden, Melissa A.; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan; Song, Wook; Vrabas, Ioannis S.; Powers, Scott K.

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are necessary to optimize muscle force production in unfatigued muscle. In contrast, sustained high levels of ROS production have been linked to impaired muscle force production and contraction-induced skeletal muscle fatigue. Using genetically engineered mice, we tested the hypothesis that the independent transgenic overexpression of catalase (CAT), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD; SOD1) or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD; SOD2) antioxidant enzymes would negatively affect force production in unfatigued diaphragm muscle but would delay the development of muscle fatigue and enhance force recovery after fatiguing contractions. Diaphragm muscle from wild-type littermates (WT) and from CAT, SOD1 and SOD2 overexpressing mice were subjected to an in vitro contractile protocol to investigate the force–frequency characteristics, the fatigue properties and the time course of recovery from fatigue. The CAT, SOD1 and SOD2 overexpressors produced less specific force (in N cm−2) at stimulation frequencies of 20–300 Hz and produced lower maximal tetanic force than WT littermates. The relative development of muscle fatigue and recovery from fatigue were not influenced by transgenic overexpression of any antioxidant enzyme. Morphologically, the mean cross-sectional area (in μm2) of diaphragm myofibres expressing myosin heavy chain type IIA was decreased in both CAT and SOD2 transgenic animals, and the percentage of non-contractile tissue increased in diaphragms from all transgenic mice. In conclusion, our results do not support the hypothesis that overexpression of independent antioxidant enzymes protects diaphragm muscle from contraction-induced fatigue or improves recovery from fatigue. Moreover, our data are consistent with the concept that a basal level of ROS is important to optimize muscle force production, since transgenic overexpression of major cellular antioxidants is associated with

  9. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients evolving with cholestatic jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax infection has been considered a benign and self-limiting disease, however, recent studies highlight the association between vivax malaria and life-threatening manifestations. Increase in reactive oxygen species has already been described in vivax malaria, as a result of the increased metabolic rate triggered by the multiplying parasite, and large quantities of toxic redox-active byproducts generated. The present study aimed to study the oxidative stress responses in patients infected with P. vivax, who developed jaundice (hyperbilirubinaemia) in the course of the disease, a common clinical complication related to this species. Methods An evaluation of the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes profile was performed in 28 healthy individuals and compared with P. vivax infected patients with jaundice, i.e., bilirubin jaundice (34 patients), on day 1 (D1) and day 14 (D14) after anti-malarial therapy. Results Hyperbilirubinaemia was more frequent among women and patients experiencing their first malarial infection, and lower haemoglobin and higher lactate dehydrogenase levels were observed in this group. Malondialdehyde levels and activity of celuroplasmin and glutathione reductase were increased in the plasma from patients with P. vivax with jaundice compared to the control group on D1. However, the activity of thioredoxin reductase was decreased. The enzymes glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, thiols and malondialdehyde also differed between jaundiced versus non-jaundiced patients. On D14 jaundice and parasitaemia had resolved and oxidative stress biomarkers were very similar to the control group. Conclusion Cholestatic hyperbilirubinaemia in vivax malaria cannot be totally disassociated from malaria-related haemolysis. However, significant increase of lipid peroxidation markers and changes in antioxidant enzymes in patients with P. vivax-related jaundice was observed. These results suggest oxidative processes contributing

  10. The expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rats exposed to high-fructose diet in the period from weaning to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glban, Alhadi M; Vasiljević, Ana; Veličković, Nataša; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra; Blagojević, Duško; Matić, Gordana; Nestorov, Jelena

    2015-08-30

    Increased fructose consumption correlates with rising prevalence of various metabolic disorders, some of which were linked to oxidative stress. The relationship between fructose consumption and oxidative stress is complex and effects of a fructose-rich diet on the young population have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-fructose diet applied in the period from weaning to adulthood induces oxidative stress in the liver, thus contributing to induction or aggravation of metabolic disturbances in later adulthood. To that end we examined the effects of high-fructose diet on expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage in the liver as the main fructose metabolizing tissue. High-fructose diet increased only SOD2 (mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase) activity, with no effect on other antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation or accumulation of damaged proteins in the liver. The results show that fructose-induced metabolic disturbances could not be attributed to oxidative stress, at least not at young age. The absence of oxidative stress in the liver observed herein implies that young organisms are capable of maintaining redox homeostasis when challenged by fructose-derived energy overload. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. A mitochondrial cytochrome b mutation causing severe respiratory chain enzyme deficiency in humans and yeast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakely, E.L.; Mitchell, A.L.; Fisher, N.; Meunier, B.; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Schaefer, A.M.; Jackson, M.J.; Turnbull, D.M.; Taylor, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Whereas the majority of disease-related mitochondrial DNA mutations exhibit significant biochemical and clinical heterogeneity, mutations within the mitochondrially encoded human cytochrome b gene (MTCYB) are almost exclusively associated with isolated complex III deficiency in muscle and a clinical

  12. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89 pro...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....... protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...

  13. Castasterone confers copper stress tolerance by regulating antioxidant enzyme responses, antioxidants, and amino acid balance in B. juncea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Poonam; Kaur, Ravdeep; Kanwar, Mukesh Kumar; Sharma, Anket; Verma, Vinod; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of exogenous application of castasterone (CS) on physiologic and biochemical responses in Brassica juncea seedlings under copper (Cu) stress. Seeds were pre-soaked in different concentrations of CS and grown for 7 days under various levels of Cu. The exposure of B. juncea to higher levels of Cu led to decrease of morphologic parameters, with partial recovery of length and fresh weight in the CS pre-treated seedlings. Metal content was high in both roots and shoots under Cu exposure while the CS pre-treatment reduced the metal uptake. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide anion radical (O 2 - ) were chosen as stress biomarker and higher levels of H 2 O 2 (88.89%) and O 2 - (62.11%) showed the oxidative stress in metal treated B. juncea seedlings, however, CS pre-treatment reduced ROS accumulation in Cu-exposed seedlings. The Cu exposures lead to enhance the plant's enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system. It was observed that enzymatic activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione perxoidase (GPOX) and gultrathione-s-transferase increased while activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) decreased under Cu stress. The pre-treatment with CS positively affected the activities of enzymes. RT-PCR analysis showed that mRNA transcript levels were correlated with total enzymatic activity of DHAR, GR, GST and GSH. Increase in the gene expression of DHAR (1.85 folds), GR (3.24 folds), GST-1 (2.00 folds) and GSH-S (3.18 folds) was noticed with CS pre-treatment. Overall, the present study shows that Cu exposure induced severe oxidative stress in B. juncea plants and exogenous application of CS improved antioxidative defense system by modulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and amino acid metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in rice plants, cv. BRS AG, under saline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossatto, Tatiana; do Amaral, Marcelo Nogueira; Benitez, Letícia Carvalho; Vighi, Isabel Lopes; Braga, Eugenia Jacira Bolacel; de Magalhães Júnior, Ariano Martins; Maia, Mara Andrade Colares; da Silva Pinto, Luciano

    2017-10-01

    The rice cultivar ( Oryza sativa L.) BRS AG, developed by Embrapa Clima Temperado, is the first cultivar designed for purposes other than human consumption. It may be used in ethanol production and animal feed. Different abiotic stresses negatively affect plant growth. Soil salinity is responsible for a serious reduction in productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the gene expression and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR) and identify their functions in controlling ROS levels in rice plants, cultivar BRS AG, after a saline stress period. The plants were grown in vitro with two NaCl concentrations (0 and 136 mM), collected at 10, 15 and 20 days of cultivation. The results indicated that the activity of the enzymes evaluated promotes protection against oxidative stress. Although, there was an increase of reactive oxygen species, there was no increase in MDA levels. Regarding genes encoding isoforms of antioxidant enzymes, it was observed that OsSOD3 - CU/Zn , OsSOD2 - Cu/Zn , OsSOD - Cu/Zn , OsSOD4 - Cu/Zn , OsSODCc1 - Cu/Zn , OsSOD - Fe , OsAPX1 , OsCATB and OsGR2 were the most responsive. The increase in the transcription of all genes among evaluated isoforms, except for OsAPX6 , which remained stable, contributed to the increase or the maintenance of enzyme activity. Thus, it is possible to infer that the cv. BRS AG has defense mechanisms against salt stress.

  15. Chemical Composition and Enzymes Inhibitory, Brine Shrimp Larvae Toxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Caloplaca biatorina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Valadbeigi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background This study evaluated the brine shrimp larvae toxicity and enzymes inhibitory especially anti-diabetic potential of Caloplaca biatorina via in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase using the methanol extracts. Also aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase enzymes inhibitory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities of the species were determined. Methods In this experimental study, different concentrations of the extracts (0.2, 5.0, 1 and 1.5 mg/mL were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the percentage of enzyme inhibitory activity and IC50 was calculated. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography and Thin-layer chromatography analysis were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS V.21 software. Results Parietin, Emodin, 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl-6- methoxy-9.10-anthracenedione and Rhein were identified. The extract showed strong α-glucosidase, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 17.12, 40.09 and 11.02 µg/mL respectively. Also methanol extract displayed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging and brine shrimp toxicity (IC50 = 91.11 properties. Conclusions The result obtained suggests that the C. biatorina extract can be classified as non-toxic. Also, it revealed the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the lichen.

  16. Polyphenols of Salix aegyptiaca modulate the activities of drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, and level of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Mohd; Kale, R K; Singh, Rana P

    2018-03-07

    Salix aegyptiaca is known for its medicinal properties mainly due to the presence of salicylate compounds. However, it also contains other beneficial phytochemicals such as gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin. The aim of the study was to examine the redox potential, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of these phytochemicals along with acetylsalicylic acid. The redox potential and antioxidant activity of gallic acid, quercetin, rutin, vanillin and acetylsalicylic acid were determined by oxidation-reduction potential electrode method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. In ex vivo studies, antioxidant activity of these phytochemicals was determined by lipid peroxidation and carbonyl content assay in the liver of mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by protein denaturation method. Six-week old C57BL/6 mice treated with gallic acid (100 mg/kg body weight) and acetylsalicylic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) to investigate their in vivo modulatory effects on the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and level of lipid peroxidation in liver. The order of ability to donate electron and antioxidant activity was found to be: gallic acid > quercetin > rutin > vanillin > acetylsalicylic acid. In ex vivo studies, the similar pattern and magnitude of inhibitory effects of these phytochemicals against peroxidative damage in microsomes and protein carbonyl in cytosolic fraction were observed. In in vivo studies, gallic acid and acetylsalicylic acid alone or in combination, enhanced the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes as well as antioxidant enzymes and also inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver. These findings show a close link between the electron donation and antioxidation potential of these phytochemicals, and in turn their biological activity. Gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin were found to be better electron donors and

  17. Metabolic enzyme expression highlights a key role for MTHFD2 and the mitochondrial folate pathway in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Roland; Jain, Mohit; Madhusudhan, Nikhil; Sheppard, Nina Gustafsson; Strittmatter, Laura; Kampf, Caroline; Huang, Jenny; Asplund, Anna; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic remodeling is now widely regarded as a hallmark of cancer, but it is not clear whether individual metabolic strategies are frequently exploited by many tumours. Here we compare messenger RNA profiles of 1,454 metabolic enzymes across 1,981 tumours spanning 19 cancer types to identify enzymes that are consistently differentially expressed. Our meta-analysis recovers established targets of some of the most widely used chemotherapeutics, including dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase and ribonucleotide reductase, while also spotlighting new enzymes, such as the mitochondrial proline biosynthetic enzyme PYCR1. The highest scoring pathway is mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and is centred on MTHFD2. MTHFD2 RNA and protein are markedly elevated in many cancers and correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. MTHFD2 is expressed in the developing embryo, but is absent in most healthy adult tissues, even those that are proliferating. Our study highlights the importance of mitochondrial compartmentalization of one-carbon metabolism in cancer and raises important therapeutic hypotheses.

  18. Zinc affects differently growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin synthase expression of four marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20 μM) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  19. Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Le Nhung Nguyen-Deroche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc-supplementation (20 μM effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa. Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  20. Induction of salt tolerance in Azolla microphylla Kaulf through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Gerard; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2010-09-01

    Azolla microphylla plants exposed directly to NaCl (13 dsm(-1)) did not survive the salinity treatment beyond a period of one day, whereas plants exposed directly to 4 and 9 dsm(-1) NaCl were able to grow and produce biomass. However, plants pre-exposed to NaCl (2 dsm(-1)) for 7 days on subsequent exposure to 13 dsm(-1) NaCl were able to grow and produce biomass although at a slow rate and are hereinafter designated as pre-exposed plants. The pre-exposed and directly exposed plants distinctly differed in their response to salt in terms of lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation, activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, APX, and CAT, and Na(+)/K(+) ratio. Efficient modulation of antioxidant enzymes coupled with regulation of ion transport play an important role in the induction of salt tolerance. Results show that it is possible to induce salt adaptation in A. microphylla by pre-exposing them to low concentrations of NaCl.

  1. Keratocyte apoptosis and corneal antioxidant enzyme activities after refractive corneal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Bilgihan, A; Adiguzel, U; Sezer, C; Yis, O; Akyol, G; Hasanreisoglu, B

    2002-01-01

    Refractive corneal surgery induces keratocyte apoptosis and generates reactive oxygen radicals (ROS) in the cornea. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the correlation between keratocyte apoptosis and corneal antioxidant enzyme activities after different refractive surgical procedures in rabbits. Rabbits were divided into six groups. All groups were compared with the control group (Group 1), after epithelial scraping (Group 2), epithelial scrape and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) (traditional PRK: Group 3), transepithelial PRK (Group 4), creation of a corneal flap with microkeratome (Group 5) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK, Group 6). Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labelling assay (to detect DNA fragmentation in situ) and light microscopy were used to detect apoptosis in rabbit eyes. Glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the corneal tissues were measured with spectrophotometric methods. Corneal Gpx and SOD activities decreased significantly in all groups when compared with the control group (P<0.05) and groups 2, 3 and 6 showed a significantly higher amount of keratocyte apoptosis (P<0.05). Not only a negative correlation was observed between corneal SOD activity and keratocyte apoptosis (cc: -0.3648) but Gpx activity also showed negative correlation with keratocyte apoptosis (cc: -0.3587). The present study illustrates the negative correlation between keratocyte apoptosis and corneal antioxidant enzyme activities. This finding suggests that ROS may be partly responsible for keratocyte apoptosis after refractive surgery.

  2. Antioxidant enzymes activity in embryogenic and non-embryogenic tissues in Sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marina Medeiros de Araujo Silva; Ulisses, Claudia; Lacerda E Medeiros, Maria Jaislanny; Cavalcante Granja, Manuela Maria; Willadino, Lilia; Camara, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to induce direct somatic embryogenesis from segments of immature leaves of the RB872552 variety of sugarcane and to correlate this morphogenic event with oxidative stress. Two previously described protocols were utilized for the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane with different supplementations of the culture medium and different incubation conditions. For the conversion of embryos into plants was used ms medium without phytoregulators. Histological analyses and activity of antioxidant enzymes were also conducted for the embryogenic and non-embryogenic tissues. The formation of somatic embryos was obtained in 81 % of the explants with the combination of regulators 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)and BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) when incubated under 16 h photoperiod. With regards to the antioxidant enzymes, there was increased activity of peroxidase and an increase in the soluble protein content in embryogenic tissues, whereas lower activities of polyphenol oxidase and catalase appeared in these tissues compared to nonembryogenic tissues. It could be inferred that oxidative stress plays an important role in the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane.

  3. Effect of space flight on physiological indexes and antioxidant enzymes of Acer mono

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunfei; Yang Fan; Ren Yunhui

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of space flight on physiological indexes and antioxidant enzymes of Acer mono, seeds were divided into two groups, one was treated by carrying on Shijian No.8 breeding satellite for 15 d, and the other was kept on the ground as controls. 5 years old seedlings that derived from the seeds of space flight and the seeds of ground control were chosen as materials, then the growth characteristics, photosynthetic characteristics, soluble protein content and antioxidant enzymes activities were analyzed. The results showed that the plant growth, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and soluble protein content of seedlings after space flight were much higher than those of ground control. However, the changes of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peroxidase (POD), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci) and stomatal conductance (Gs) were not significantly changed. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), as well as the plant growth of seedlings after space flight were higher than those of the control. The improved ability of photosynthesis may be one of the reasons that seedlings from seeds of space flight have higher speed of growth. (authors)

  4. Antioxidant enzymes expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to UV-C radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Kloula Ben Ghorbal; Lobna, Maalej; Sana, Khefacha; Kalthoum, Chourabi; Imene, Ouzari; Abdelwaheb, Chatti

    2016-07-01

    It was well known that, UV-C irradiation increase considerably the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. In the enzymatic ROS-scavenging pathways, superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POX) were developed to deal with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of UV-C radiations on antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidases) expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidases activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Isozymes of superoxide dismutase were revealed by native gel activity staining method. Lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring malondialdehyde formation. Our results showed that superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities exhibited a gradual increase during the exposure time (30 min). However, the superoxide dismutase activity was maximized at 15 min. Native gel activity staining assays showed the presence of three superoxide dismutase isozymes. The iron-cofactored isoform activity was altered after exposure to UV-C stress. These finding suggest that catalase and peroxidase enzymes have the same importance toward UV-C rays at shorter and longer exposure times and this may confer additional protection to superoxide dismutase from damage caused by lipid peroxidation. Moreover, our data demonstrate the significant role of the antioxidant system in the resistance of this important human pathogen. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Elevation of antioxidant enzymes in the clinical effects of radon and thermal therapy for bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Hosaki, Yasuhiro; Ashida, Kozo; Tanizaki, Yoshiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Sugita, Katsuhiro; Kojima, Shuji

    2003-01-01

    An increased systemic production of oxygen-free radicals by activated inflammatory cells is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of asthma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effects of radon and thermal therapy on asthma in relation to antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide. Radon and thermal therapy were performed once a week. All subjects went to a hot bathroom with a high concentration of radon, and nasal inhalation of vapor from a hot spring was performed for 40 min once a day under conditions of high humidity. The room temperature was 48 deg C; the room radon concentration was 2,080 Bq/m 3 . Blood samples were collected at 2 h, 14, and 28 days after the first therapy. A blood sample also was collected before the first therapy (at body temperature and background radon level) to be used as the control. The forced expiratory volume in one second (%FEV 1 ) was significantly increased 28 days after the first therapy. On day 28, the catalase (CAT) activity was significantly increased in comparison with the control. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly increased compared to the control after first inhalation. On days 14 and 28, the lipid peroxide level was significantly decreased in comparison with the control. In conclusion, the present pilot study has shown that radon and thermal therapy improved the pulmonary function of asthmatics by increasing the reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes. (author)

  6. Study of some antioxidant enzymes and selenium levels in children with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a complex of clinical, chemical and metabolic disturbances that resulted from chronic reduction in renal function. Despite of many investigations on the pathogenesis of CRF, much remains unexplained. Studies of disorders of oxidative metabolism have indicated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the development of symptoms and complications of this disease. Therefore, selenium (Se) concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in 25 children (15 males and 10 females) with advanced CRF. They were diagnosed in the Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Children Hospital, Ain Shams University, Egypt. Their ages ranged from 6-17 years with mean of 11.4 ± 3.54 years. Fifteen healthy control subjects (8 males and 7 females) matched in age were served as controls. This study revealed a very high significant decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The level of plasma Se concentration in patients was very highly significantly decreased as compared to the control group. Also, there were significant positive correlations between Se and total protein and albumin. Furthermore, there were negative correlations between Se, SOD, GSH-Px and both of blood urea and serum creatinine among uremic children. It could be concluded that plasma Se concentration and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GSH-Px and SOD) in uremic children could be helpful in identifying the progress of kidney impairment and the response of the treatment

  7. Widening and Elaboration of Consecutive Research into Therapeutic Antioxidant Enzyme Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Maksimenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Undiminishing actuality of enzyme modification for therapeutic purposes has been confirmed by application of modified enzymes in clinical practice and numerous research data on them. Intravenous injection of the superoxide dismutase-chondroitin sulfate-catalase (SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate in preventive and medicative regimes in rats with endotoxin shock induced with a lipopolysaccharide bolus has demonstrated that antioxidant agents not only effectively prevent damage caused by oxidative stress (as believed previously but also can be used for antioxidative stress therapy. The results obtained emphasize the importance of investigation into the pathogenesis of vascular damage and the role of oxidative stress in it. The effects of intravenous medicative injection of SOD-CHS-CAT in a rat model of endotoxin shock have demonstrated a variety in the activity of this conjugate in addition to prevention of NO conversion in peroxynitrite upon interaction with O2∙- superoxide radical. Together with the literature data, these findings offer a prospect for the study of NO-independent therapeutic effects of SOD-CHS-CAT, implying the importance of a better insight into the mechanisms of the conjugate activity in modeled cardiovascular damage involving vasoactive agents other than NO.

  8. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the upregulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-Isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited five-fold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both mRNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by AhR and Nrf2 proteins were upregulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126 which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

  9. Responses of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins in drosophila to treatment with a pesticide mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doganlar Oguzhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a mixture of seven pesticides were examined on the expression of antioxidant enzymes, Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione synthetase (GS, and heat shock proteins (HSP 26, 60, 70 and 83 in adult fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster Oregon R. The flies were reared under controlled conditions on artificial diets and treated with a mixture of seven pesticides (molinate, thiobencarb, linuron, phorate, primiphos-methyl, fenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin commonly found in water, at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 parts per billion (ppb for 1 and 5 days. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of Mn-SOD, CAT and GS expression revealed that the analyzed markers responded significantly to pesticide-induced oxidative stress, in particular on the 5th day of treatment. On the 1st day of treatment, the relative expression of HSP26 and HSP60 genes increased only after exposure to the highest concentrations of pesticides, whereas HSP70 and HSP83 expression increased after exposure to 0.5 and 1 ppb. After five days of treatment, the expression of all HSP genes was increased after exposure to all pesticide concentrations. A positive correlation was determined between the relative expression levels of some HSPs (except HSP60, and antioxidant genes. The observed changes in antioxidant enzyme and HSP mRNA levels in D. melanogaster suggest that the permissible limits of pesticide concentrations for clean drinking water outlined in the regulations of several countries are potentially cytotoxic. The presented findings lend support for reevaluation of these limits.

  10. Cardiac and renal antioxidant enzymes and effects of tempol in hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez Gómez, Isabel; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Osuna, Antonio; Bueno, Pablo; Vargas, Félix

    2005-11-01

    This study evaluated the activity of cardiac and renal antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and whether chronic treatment with tempol, a cell membrane-permeable SOD mimetic, ameliorates the hypertension of hyperthyroidism. Two experiments were performed. In experiment I, the following four groups of male Wistar rats were used: control group and three groups that received thyroxine (T4) at 10, 50, or 75 microg x rat(-1) x day(-1). In experiment II, tempol was orally administered (18 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) to control and T4-treated (75 microg x rat(-1) x day(-1)) rats. All treatments were maintained for 6 wk. Body weight, tail systolic blood pressure (BP), and heart rate were measured one time a week, and direct BP and morphological, metabolic, plasma, and renal variables were measured at the end of the experiment. Enzymatic activities were measured in renal cortex and medulla and right and left ventricles. In renal cortex, SOD activity was decreased in the T4-75 group, and there was a dose-related increase in CAT activity and decrease in GPX and GR activities in T4-treated groups. Activity of all antioxidant enzymes was reduced in left ventricle in T4-50 and T4-75 groups and in right ventricle in the T4-75 group. Tempol reduced BP, plasma malondialdehyde, and total urinary excretion of F2 isoprostanes in hypertensive hyperthyroid rats but not in controls. Tempol did not improve cardiac hypertrophy, proteinuria, or creatinine clearance in hyperthyroid rats. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that the activity of SOD, GPX, and GR in renal and cardiac tissues is decreased in hyperthyroidism and that antioxidant treatment with tempol ameliorates T4-induced hypertension.

  11. Antioxidant enzymes response induced by static magnetic field in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chater, S.; Abdelmelek, H.; Garrel, C.; Favier, A.; Sakly, M.; Rhouma, K.B.

    2005-01-01

    Some recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that static magnetic fields (MF) affect human health and, in particular, that the incidence of certain types of cancer, depression, and miscarriage might increase among individuals living or working in environments exposed to such fields. However, despite numerous studies concerning MF, the mechanism of its adverse effect still remains unknown. So, our work hypothesis was that abortion effects induced by MF exposure could be due to an over production of reactive oxygen species produced by pregnant rats. The aim of our study was to examine if MF was able to induce an oxidative stress in pregnant-rats. Pregnant female Wistar rats were exposed to MF (128 mT/1h/day) on day 6 to 19 of gestation. Animals were sacrificed three days after delivery and plasma was collected to determine malondialdehyde (MDA), an indirect oxidative stress marker, glutathion peroxidase activity (GPX), an antioxydant enzyme, and the total antioxidant status (TAS). MF exposure had no effects on MDA level (2.97 ± 0.50 μmol/l vs 2.62 ±0.19 μmol/l, p>0.05) and plasma GPX activity (6936.00 ±109.59 U/l vs 6258.00 ±111.12 U/l, p>0.05). Interestingly, MF exposure induced elevation in the total antioxidant status values (0.716 ±0.018 mmol/l vs 0.646 ±0.023 mmol/l, p<0.05). The results indicated that sub-acute exposures to magnetic field during rat pregnancy have no effects on lipid peroxidation, probably related to the protection role of antioxidant enzymes

  12. Partial Support Ventilation and Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidants Protect against Ventilator-Induced Decreases in Diaphragm Muscle Protein Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Hudson

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life-saving intervention in patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragm atrophy and weakness. MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness is significant because inspiratory muscle dysfunction is a risk factor for problematic weaning from MV. Therefore, developing a clinical intervention to prevent MV-induced diaphragm atrophy is important. In this regard, MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy occurs due to both increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis. While efforts to impede MV-induced increased proteolysis in the diaphragm are well-documented, only one study has investigated methods of preserving diaphragmatic protein synthesis during prolonged MV. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of two therapeutic interventions that, conceptually, have the potential to sustain protein synthesis in the rat diaphragm during prolonged MV. Specifically, these experiments were designed to: 1 determine if partial-support MV will protect against the decrease in diaphragmatic protein synthesis that occurs during prolonged full-support MV; and 2 establish if treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant will maintain diaphragm protein synthesis during full-support MV. Compared to spontaneously breathing animals, full support MV resulted in a significant decline in diaphragmatic protein synthesis during 12 hours of MV. In contrast, diaphragm protein synthesis rates were maintained during partial support MV at levels comparable to spontaneous breathing animals. Further, treatment of animals with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant prevented oxidative stress during full support MV and maintained diaphragm protein synthesis at the level of spontaneous breathing animals. We conclude that treatment with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants or the use of partial-support MV are potential strategies to preserve diaphragm protein synthesis during prolonged MV.

  13. Partial Support Ventilation and Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidants Protect against Ventilator-Induced Decreases in Diaphragm Muscle Protein Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Matthew B; Smuder, Ashley J; Nelson, W Bradley; Wiggs, Michael P; Shimkus, Kevin L; Fluckey, James D; Szeto, Hazel H; Powers, Scott K

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention in patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragm atrophy and weakness. MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness is significant because inspiratory muscle dysfunction is a risk factor for problematic weaning from MV. Therefore, developing a clinical intervention to prevent MV-induced diaphragm atrophy is important. In this regard, MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy occurs due to both increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis. While efforts to impede MV-induced increased proteolysis in the diaphragm are well-documented, only one study has investigated methods of preserving diaphragmatic protein synthesis during prolonged MV. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of two therapeutic interventions that, conceptually, have the potential to sustain protein synthesis in the rat diaphragm during prolonged MV. Specifically, these experiments were designed to: 1) determine if partial-support MV will protect against the decrease in diaphragmatic protein synthesis that occurs during prolonged full-support MV; and 2) establish if treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant will maintain diaphragm protein synthesis during full-support MV. Compared to spontaneously breathing animals, full support MV resulted in a significant decline in diaphragmatic protein synthesis during 12 hours of MV. In contrast, diaphragm protein synthesis rates were maintained during partial support MV at levels comparable to spontaneous breathing animals. Further, treatment of animals with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant prevented oxidative stress during full support MV and maintained diaphragm protein synthesis at the level of spontaneous breathing animals. We conclude that treatment with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants or the use of partial-support MV are potential strategies to preserve diaphragm protein synthesis during prolonged MV.

  14. Antioxidant Enzymes and Certain Trace Elements Values in Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kady, M.M.; Al-Maghraby, D.F.; Mohammed, S.K.; Anees, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and accumulation of oxygen free radicals is a pathophysiological process leading to disadvantageous outcomes in diabetic pregnancies. Diabetes in pregnancy increases perinatal morbidity and mortality of both mother and her newborn. This study aimed to gain a view of antioxidant defense in the blood of infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) and to clarify the relation among serum copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se) and antioxidant enzymes in these infants. For this reason, 25 infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) were investigated. Twenty five newborns of healthy mothers served as a control group. Anthropometric and clinical evaluations were assessed in both groups. Laboratory investigations were performed including complete blood picture, direct and total bilirubin, serum Cu, Zn and Se. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD)and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (E-GSHPx) were assisted. This study displayed highly significant reduction in levels of E-SOD and E-GSHPx in IDMs and in the mean serum levels of Cu, Zn and Se as compared to controls. There was a negative significant correlation between serum Zinc and blood glucose, there was a positive correlation between serum copper concentration and both gestational age and length. It also showed a significant positive correlation between GSHPx and both gestational age and Apgar 1, and a significant positive correlation between E-SOD, Apgar 1 and Apgar 5. These results proved that there is a state of oxidative stress in IDMs, therefore, their oxidant and antioxidant status should be carefully considered and appropriate management should be organized during the pregnancy and in the early postnatal period, including antioxidant and micro nutrients supplementation

  15. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats. PMID:16425366

  16. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano ( L. Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  17. Naked mole-rats maintain healthy skeletal muscle and Complex IV mitochondrial enzyme function into old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Karapavlovic, Nevena; Rosa, Hannah; Woodmass, Michael; Rygiel, Karolina; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M; Faulkes, Chris G

    2016-12-19

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is an exceptionally long-lived rodent, living up to 32 years in captivity. This extended lifespan is accompanied by a phenotype of negligible senescence, a phenomenon of very slow changes in the expected physiological characteristics with age. One of the many consequences of normal aging in mammals is the devastating and progressive loss of skeletal muscle, termed sarcopenia, caused in part by respiratory enzyme dysfunction within the mitochondria of skeletal muscle fibers. Here we report that NMRs avoid sarcopenia for decades. Muscle fiber integrity and mitochondrial ultrastructure are largely maintained in aged animals. While mitochondrial Complex IV expression and activity remains stable, Complex I expression is significantly decreased. We show that aged naked mole-rat skeletal muscle tissue contains some mitochondrial DNA rearrangements, although the common mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with aging in human and other rodent skeletal muscles are not present. Interestingly, NMR skeletal muscle fibers demonstrate a significant increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number. These results have intriguing implications for the role of mitochondria in aging, suggesting Complex IV, but not Complex I, function is maintained in the long-lived naked mole rat, where sarcopenia is avoided and healthy muscle function is maintained for decades.

  18. The purification and steady-state kinetic behaviour of rabbit heart mitochondrial NAD(P)+ malic enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Davisson, V J; Schulz, A R

    1985-01-01

    The mitochondrial NAD(P)+ malic enzyme [EC 1.1.1.39, L-malate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)] was purified from rabbit heart to a specific activity of 7 units (mumol/min)/mg at 23 degrees C. A study of the reductive carboxylation reaction indicates that this enzymic reaction is reversible. The rate of the reductive carboxylation reaction appears to be completely inhibited at an NADH concentration of 0.92 mM. A substrate saturation curve of this reaction with NADH as the varied substrat...

  19. Cocoa-enriched diet enhances antioxidant enzyme activity and modulates lymphocyte composition in thymus from young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Castell, Margarida

    2007-08-08

    Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and procyanidins. This article reports the effect of continuous cocoa intake on antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues, including lymphoid organs and liver, from young rats. Weaned Wistar rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake) for three weeks, corresponding to their infancy. Flavonoid absorption was confirmed through the quantification of epicatechin metabolites in urine. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were examined. Cocoa intake enhanced TAC in all tissues especially in thymus. Moreover, thymus SOD and catalase activities were also dose-dependently increased by cocoa. It was also analyzed whether the enhanced antioxidant system in thymus could influence its cellular composition. An increase in the percentage of thymocytes in advanced development stage was found. In summary, cocoa diet enhances thymus antioxidant defenses and influences thymocyte differentiation.

  20. Human Mitochondrial HMG-CoA Synthase Deficiency: Role of Enzyme Dimerization Surface and Characterization of Three New Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Puisac

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase deficiency (mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase deficiency or mHS deficiency, OMIM #605911 is an inborn error of metabolism that affects ketone body synthesis. Acute episodes include vomiting, lethargy, hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia and dicarboxylic aciduria. The diagnosis is difficult due to the relatively unspecific clinical and biochemical presentation, and fewer than 30 patients have been described. This work describes three new patients with mHS deficiency and two missense mutations c.334C>T (p.R112W and c.430G>T (p.V144L previously not reported. We developed a new method to express and measure the activity of the enzyme and in this work the study is extended to ten new missense variants including those of our patients. Enzymatic assays showed that three of the mutant proteins retained some but seven completely lacked activity. The identification of a patient homozygous for a mutation that retains 70% of enzyme activity opens the door to a new interpretation of the disease by demonstrating that a modest impairment of enzyme function can actually produce symptoms. This is also the first study employing molecular dynamics modelling of the enzyme mutations. We show that the correct maintenance of the dimerization surface is crucial for retaining the structure of the active center and therefore the activity of the enzyme.

  1. Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, M.V.; Paliyath, G.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies with Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) and ozone (O 3 ) have indicated the differential responses of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. In this study, we have investigated whether A. thaliana genotype Landsberg erecta and its flavonoid-deficient mutant transparent testa (tt5) is capable of metabolizing UV-B- and O 3 -induced activated oxygen species by invoking similar antioxidant enzymes. UV-B exposure preferentially enhanced guaiacol-peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidases specific to coniferyl alcohol and modified the substrate affinity of ascorbate peroxidase. O 3 exposure enhanced superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase to a similar degree and modified the substrate affinity of both glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase. Both UV-B and O 3 exposure enhanced similar Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoforms. New isoforms of peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidase were synthesized in tt5 plants irradiated with UV-B. UV-B radiation, in contrast to O 3 , enhanced the activation oxygen species by increasing membrane-localized NADPH-oxidase activity and decreasing catalase activities. These results collectively suggest that (a) UV-B exposure preferentially induces peroxidase-related enzymes, whereas O 3 exposure invokes the enzymes of superoxide dismutase/ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and (b) in contrast to O 3 , UV-B exposure generated activated oxygen species by increasing NADPH-oxidase activity. 10 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Releases Antioxidative Phenolic Compositions from Guava Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wu, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-09-30

    Phenolics in food and fruit tree leaves exist in free, soluble-conjugate, and insoluble-bound forms. In this study, in order to enhance the bioavailability of insoluble-bound phenolics from guava leaves (GL), the ability of enzyme-assisted extraction in improving the release of insoluble-bound phenolics was investigated. Compared to untreated GL, single xylanase-assisted extraction did not change the composition and yield of soluble phenolics, whereas single cellulase or β -glucosidase-assisted extraction significantly enhanced the soluble phenolics content of PGL. However, complex enzyme-assisted extraction (CEAE) greatly improved the soluble phenolics content, flavonoids content, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP by 103.2%, 81.6%, 104.4%, 126.5%, and 90.3%, respectively. Interestingly, after CEAE, a major proportion of phenolics existed in the soluble form, and rarely in the insoluble-bound form. Especially, the contents of quercetin and kaempferol with higher bio-activity were enhanced by 3.5- and 2.2-fold, respectively. More importantly, total soluble phenolics extracts of GL following CEAE exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and protective effect against supercoiled DNA damage. This enzyme-assisted extraction technology can be useful for extracting biochemical components from plant matrix, and has good potential for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  3. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Releases Antioxidative Phenolic Compositions from Guava Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics in food and fruit tree leaves exist in free, soluble-conjugate, and insoluble-bound forms. In this study, in order to enhance the bioavailability of insoluble-bound phenolics from guava leaves (GL, the ability of enzyme-assisted extraction in improving the release of insoluble-bound phenolics was investigated. Compared to untreated GL, single xylanase-assisted extraction did not change the composition and yield of soluble phenolics, whereas single cellulase or β-glucosidase-assisted extraction significantly enhanced the soluble phenolics content of PGL. However, complex enzyme-assisted extraction (CEAE greatly improved the soluble phenolics content, flavonoids content, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP by 103.2%, 81.6%, 104.4%, 126.5%, and 90.3%, respectively. Interestingly, after CEAE, a major proportion of phenolics existed in the soluble form, and rarely in the insoluble-bound form. Especially, the contents of quercetin and kaempferol with higher bio-activity were enhanced by 3.5- and 2.2-fold, respectively. More importantly, total soluble phenolics extracts of GL following CEAE exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and protective effect against supercoiled DNA damage. This enzyme-assisted extraction technology can be useful for extracting biochemical components from plant matrix, and has good potential for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  4. Gelam Honey Protects against Gamma-Irradiation Damage to Antioxidant Enzymes in Human Diploid Fibroblasts

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    Suzana Makpol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the radioprotective effects of Malaysian Gelam honey on gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs subjected to gamma-irradiation. Six groups of HDFs were studied: untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/mL of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy of gamma rays at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Gamma-irradiation was shown to down-regulate SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPx1 gene expressions (p < 0.05. Conversely, HDFs treated with Gelam honey alone showed up-regulation of all genes studied. Similarly, SOD, CAT and GPx enzyme activities in HDFs decreased with gamma-irradiation and increased when cells were treated with Gelam honey (p < 0.05. Furthermore, of the three different stages of study treatment, pre-treatment with Gelam honey caused up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT genes expression and increased the activity of SOD and CAT. As a conclusion, Gelam honey modulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes at gene and protein levels in irradiated HDFs indicating its potential as a radioprotectant agent.

  5. The Effects of Ibogaine on Uterine Smooth Muscle Contractions: Relation to the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes

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    Zorana Oreščanin-Dušić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid originally extracted from the root bark of the African rainforest shrub Tabernanthe iboga. It has been explored as a treatment for substance abuse because it interrupts drug addiction and relieves withdrawal symptoms. However, it has been shown that ibogaine treatment leads to a sharp and transient fall in cellular ATP level followed by an increase of cellular respiration and ROS production. Since contractile tissues are sensitive to changes in the levels of ATP and ROS, here we investigated an ibogaine-mediated link between altered redox homeostasis and uterine contractile activity. We found that low concentrations of ibogaine stimulated contractile activity in spontaneously active uteri, but incremental increase of doses inhibited it. Inhibitory concentrations of ibogaine led to decreased SOD1 and elevated GSH-Px activity, but doses that completely inhibited contractions increased CAT activity. Western blot analyses showed that changes in enzyme activities were not due to elevated enzyme protein concentrations but posttranslational modifications. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities point to a vast concentration-dependent increase in H2O2 level. Knowing that extracellular ATP stimulates isolated uterus contractility, while H2O2 has an inhibitory effect, this concentration-dependent stimulation/inhibition could be linked to ibogaine-related alterations in ATP level and redox homeostasis.

  6. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S. T.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    to be affected by prior. lycopene exposure. The level of PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver or colon was likewise not affected by lycopene at any dose. Overall, the present study provides evidence that lycopene administered in the diet of young female rats exerts minor modifying effects toward antioxidant and drug......-metabolizing enzymes involved in the protection against oxidative stress and cancer. The fact that these enzymatic activities are induced at all of these very low plasma levels, could be taken to suggest that modulation of antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes map indeed be relevant to humans, which in general...

  7. EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON RAT (Rattus norvegicus ERYTHROCYTES ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN VITRO

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    Jasna Friščić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the last century, maximum in herbicide production was achieved. Growing use of herbicides initiated the need for continuous evaluation of damaging effects of herbicides on human health and environment. Paraquat is the trade name for N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride and one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Although mechanism of paraquat toxicity remains undefined, a great portion of toxicity is attributed to the process of redox cycling. In this research, rat erythrocytes were exposed to various paraquat concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.25 mM. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activity, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined, and also the activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. Obtained results show damaging effects of paraquat on erythrocytes due to oxidative stress.

  8. Understanding salt tolerance mechanisms in wheat genotypes by exploring antioxidant enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amjad, M.; Akhtar, J.; Haq, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The activities of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed in six wheat genotypes under different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100 and 200 mM). Plants were harvested after either 15 or 30 days of salt stress. The most salt tolerant genotype (SARC-1) maintained lower Na+ and higher relative growth rate (RGR......), shoot fresh weight (SFW), shoot-root ratio, and K+:Na+ ratio, compared to the most salt sensitive genotypes (S-9189 and S-9476). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased significantly in SARC-1 and SARC-2 with increasing salt stress, while there was no difference in S-9189 and S- 9476....... Additionally, glutathione reductase (GR) activity was decreased in salt sensitive (S-9189 and S-9476) than salt tolerant (SARC-1) genotypes. Under salt stress conditions a negative relationship between SOD and leaf Na+, and a positive between SOD and shoot fresh weight (SFW), were observed. The higher...

  9. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia

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    Gulati Vandana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and (ii ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43 μg/ml and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively, and 5.16 μg/ml and 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50 = 1.01 μg/ml, Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39 μg/ml, Mucuna pruriens (0.8 μg/ml and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72 μg/ml exhibited considerable activity against α-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27 μg/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94 μg/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts

  10. Antioxidant enzyme gene delivery to protect from HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, L; Louboutin, J-P; Reyes, B A S; Van Bockstaele, E J; Strayer, D S

    2006-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to neuronal loss and progressively deteriorating CNS function: HIV-1 gene products, especially gp120, induce free radical-mediated apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), are among the potential mediators of these effects. Neurons readily form ROS after gp120 exposure, and so might be protected from ROS-mediated injury by antioxidant enzymes such as Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and/or glutathione peroxidase (GPx1). Both enzymes detoxify oxygen free radicals. As they are highly efficient gene delivery vehicles for neurons, recombinant SV40-derived vectors were used for these studies. Cultured mature neurons derived from NT2 cells and primary fetal neurons were transduced with rSV40 vectors carrying human SOD1 and/or GPx1 cDNAs, then exposed to gp120. Apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Transduction efficiency of both neuron populations was >95%, as assayed by immunostaining. Transgene expression was also ascertained by Western blotting and direct assays of enzyme activity. Gp120 induced apoptosis in a high percentage of unprotected NT2-N. Transduction with SV(SOD1) and SV(GPx1) before gp120 challenge reduced neuronal apoptosis by >90%. Even greater protection was seen in cells treated with both vectors in sequence. Given singly or in combination, they protect neuronal cells from HIV-1-gp120 induced apoptosis. We tested whether rSV40 s can deliver antioxidant enzymes to the CNS in vivo: intracerebral injection of SV(SOD1) or SV(GPx1) into the caudate putamen of rat brain yielded excellent transgene expression in neurons. In vivo transduction using SV(SOD1) also protected neurons from subsequent gp120-induced apoptosis after injection of both into the caudate putamen of rat brain. Thus, SOD1 and GPx1 can be delivered by SV40 vectors in vitro or in vivo. This approach may merit consideration for

  11. Protective potential of antioxidant enzymes as vaccines for schistosomiasis in a non-human primate model

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    Claudia eCarvalho-Queiroz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major cause of morbidity in the world. The challenge today is not so much in the clinical management of individual patients, but rather in population-based control of transmission in endemic areas. Recent large-scale efforts aimed at limiting schistosomiasis have produced limited success. There is an urgent need for complementary approaches, such as vaccines. We demonstrated previously that anti-oxidant enzymes such as Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione S peroxidase (GPX, when administered as DNA-based vaccines induced significant levels of protection in inbred mice, greater than the target 40% reduction in worm burden compared to controls set as a minimum by the WHO. These results led us to investigate if immunization of non-human primates with antioxidants would stimulate an immune response that could confer protection, as a prelude for human trials. Issues of vaccine toxicity and safety that were difficult to address in mice were also investigated. All baboons in the study were examined clinically throughout the study and no adverse reactions occurred to the immunization. When our outbred baboons were vaccinated with two different formulations of SOD (SmCT-SOD and SmEC-SOD or one of GPX (SmGPX, they showed a reduction in worm number to varying degrees, when compared with the control group. More pronounced, vaccinated animals showed decreased bloody diarrhea, days of diarrhea and egg excretion (transmission, as well as reduction of eggs in the liver tissue and in the large intestine (pathology compared to controls. Specific IgG antibodies were present in sera after immunizations and 10 weeks after challenge infection compared to controls. PBMC, mesenteric and inguinal node cells from vaccinated animals proliferated and produced high levels of cytokines and chemokines in response to crude and recombinant antigens compared with controls. These data demonstrate the potential of antioxidants as vaccine

  12. The use of antioxidant enzymes in freshwater biofilms: temporal variability vs. toxicological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnineau, Chloé; Tlili, Ahmed; Faggiano, Leslie; Montuelle, Bernard; Guasch, Helena

    2013-07-15

    This study aims to investigate the potential of antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA) as biomarkers of oxidative stress in freshwater biofilms. Therefore, biofilms were grown in channels for 38 days and then exposed to different concentrations (0-150 μg L(-1)) of the herbicide oxyfluorfen for 5 more weeks. Under control conditions, the AEA of biofilms were found to change throughout time with a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity during the exponential growth and a more important role of catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities during the slow growth phase. Chronic exposure to oxyfluorfen led to slight variations in AEA, however, the ranges of variability of AEA in controls and exposed communities were similar, highlighting the difficulty of a direct interpretation of AEA values. After 5 weeks of exposure to oxyfluorfen, no clear effects were observed on chl-a concentration or on the composition of other pigments suggesting that algal group composition was not affected. Eukaryotic communities were structured clearly by toxicant concentration and both eukaryotic and bacterial richness were reduced in communities exposed to the highest concentration. In addition, during acute exposure tests performed at the end of the chronic exposure, biofilms chronically exposed to 75 and 150 μg L(-1) oxyfluorfen showed a higher CAT activity than controls. Chronic exposure to oxyfluorfen provoked then structural changes but also functional changes in the capacity of biofilm CAT activity to respond to a sudden increase in concentration, suggesting a selection of species with higher antioxidant capacity. This study highlighted the difficulty of interpretation of AEA values due to their temporal variation and to the absence of absolute threshold value indicative of oxidative stress induced by contaminants. Nevertheless, the determination of AEA pattern throughout acute exposure test is of high interest to compare oxidative stress levels

  13. Geraniol Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability and Its Multiple Effects on the Liver Antioxidant and Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes

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    Barbara Pavan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Geraniol is a natural monoterpene showing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer effects. No pharmacokinetic and bioavailability data on geraniol are currently available. We therefore performed a systematic study to identify the permeation properties of geraniol across intestinal cells, and its pharmacokinetics and bioavailability after intravenous and oral administration to rats. In addition, we systematically investigated the potential hepatotoxic effects of high doses of geraniol on hepatic phase I, phase II and antioxidant enzymatic activities and undertook a hematochemical analysis on mice. Permeation studies performed via HPLC evidenced geraniol permeability coefficients across an in vitro model of the human intestinal wall for apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical transport of 13.10 ± 2.3 × 10-3 and 2.1 ± 0.1⋅× 10-3 cm/min, respectively. After intravenous administration of geraniol to rats (50 mg/kg, its concentration in whole blood (detected via HPLC decreased following an apparent pseudo-first order kinetics with a half-life of 12.5 ± 1.5 min. The absolute bioavailability values of oral formulations (50 mg/kg of emulsified geraniol or fiber-adsorbed geraniol were 92 and 16%, respectively. Following emulsified oral administration, geraniol amounts in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats ranged between 0.72 ± 0.08 μg/mL and 2.6 ± 0.2 μg/mL within 60 min. Mice treated with 120 mg/kg of geraniol for 4 weeks showed increased anti-oxidative defenses with no signs of liver toxicity. CYP450 enzyme activities appeared only slightly affected by the high dosage of geraniol.

  14. The Protective Roles of the Antioxidant Enzymes Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in the Green Photosynthetic Bacterium Chloroflexus Aurantiacus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Robert E.; Rothschild, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the biochemical response of the green thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus to oxidative stress. Lab experiments focused primarily on characterizing the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and the response of this organism to oxidative stress. Experiments in the field at the hotsprings in Yellowstone National Park focused on the changes in the level of these enzymes during the day in response to oxidants and to the different types of ultraviolet radiation.

  15. Estrogen-related receptor α is essential for the expression of antioxidant protection genes and mitochondrial function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangwala, Shamina M.; Li, Xiaoyan; Lindsley, Loren; Wang, Xiaomei; Shaughnessy, Stacey; Daniels, Thomas G.; Szustakowski, Joseph; Nirmala, N.R.; Wu, Zhidan; Stevenson, Susan C.

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. To investigate the transcriptional network controlling these phenomena, we investigated mitochondrial gene expression in embryonic fibroblasts isolated from ERRα null mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) stimulated mitochondrial gene expression program in control cells, but not in the ERRα null cells. Interestingly, the induction of levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress protection genes in response to increased PGC-1α levels was dependent on ERRα. Furthermore, we found that the PGC-1α-mediated induction of estrogen-related receptor γ and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), was dependent on the presence of ERRα. Basal levels of NRF-2 were decreased in the absence of ERRα. The absence of ERRα resulted in a decrease in citrate synthase enzyme activity in response to PGC-1α overexpression. Our results indicate an essential role for ERRα as a key regulator of oxidative metabolism

  16. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  17. Differential antioxidative enzyme responses of Jatropha curcas L. to chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Dhote, Monika; Kumar, Phani; Sharma, Jitendra; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2010-08-15

    Chromium (Cr) tolerant and accumulation capability of Jatropha curcas L. was tested in Cr spiked soil amended with biosludge and biofertilizer. Plants were cultivated in soils containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 250 mg kg(-1) of Cr for one year with and without amendment. Plant tissue analysis showed that combined application of biosludge and biofertilizer could significantly reduce Cr uptake and boost the plant biomass, whereas biofertilizer alone did not affect the uptake and plant growth. Antioxidative responses of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased with increasing Cr concentration in plant. Hyperactivity of the CAT and GST indicated that antioxidant enzymes played an important role in protecting the plant from Cr toxicity. However, APX took a little part in detoxification of H(2)O(2) due to its sensitivity to Cr. Therefore, reduced APX activity was recorded. Reduced glutathione (GSH) activity was recorded in plant grown on/above 100 mg kg(-1) of Cr in soil. The study concludes that J. curcas could grow under chromium stress. Furthermore, the results encouraged that J. curcas is a suitable candidate for the restoration of Cr contaminated soils with the concomitant application of biosludge and biofertilizer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasma ‎concentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  19. Influence and interaction of iron and cadmium on photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes in two rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Houjun; Zhang, Chengxin; Wang, Junmei; Zhou, Chongjun; Feng, Huan; Mahajan, Manoj D; Han, Xiaori

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a soil pot experiment was conducted to investigate the changes in photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes in two rice varieties (Shendao 6 and Shennong 265) supplied with iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), and Fe and Cd together. The concentrations of Fe and Cd in the soil were 0, 1.0 g Fe·kg -1 and 0, 2.0 mg Cd·kg -1 , respectively. Photosynthetic indices and antioxidative enzyme activities were recorded at different rice growth stages. At the early stage, Cd showed a transient stimulatory effect on the photosynthetic rate of Shennong 265. For Shendao 6, however, Cd showed a transient stimulatory effect on photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO 2 concentration, stomatal conductance and transpiration efficiency. In addition, the results show that Cd can also enhance the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, but reduce the malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble protein contents in the two rice cultivars. Subsequently, Cd starts to inhibit photosynthesis and SOD activity until the ripening stage, causing the lowest photosynthetic rate and SOD activity at this stage. In contrast, Fe alleviates the Cd-induced changes at earlier or later growth stage. Notably at the later growth stage, the results show that the interaction between Fe and Cd increases the SOD and catalase (CAT) activities, while decreasing the lipid peroxidation and promoting photosynthesis. As a result, it ultimately increases the biomass. The results from this study suggest that Fe (as Fe fertilizer) is a promising alternative for agricultural use to enhance the plant development and, simultaneously, to reduce Cd toxicity in extensively polluted soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Daconate Herbicide Toxicity on Lipid Peroxidation And Antioxidant Enzymes in Blood of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of daconate herbicide on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme systems was investigated in rats after one and two weeks post-treatment. Animals were treated daily with an oral dose of 18 mg/kg body weight or 90 mg/kg body weight daconate for one and two consecutive weeks. Lipid peroxide content, as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), was determined in blood of rats as indication for cytotoxicity. Blood glutathion (GSH), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ GT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated as indication of antioxidant status. Also, daconate effect on peroxidase action of catalase in rats was studied using 14 C -formate. The results revealed significant elevation in TBARS level and γ GT activity accompanied by reduced level of GSH content and SOD activity after treatment of rats with a daily oral dose of 90 mg/kg for one and two weeks and also in rats treated with 18 mg/kg daconate for two weeks. Rats treated with daconate at the dose level of 18 mg/kg for one week revealed non-appreciable changes in the tested parameters of blood as compared to the control ones. Radioactivities eliminated in both the expired air and in urine were reduced at the dose level of 90 mg/kg after one and two weeks, while it were reduced only after two weeks at the dose level of 18 mg/kg daconate. The data revealed that daconate had a marked effect on the activities of catalase enzyme in blood and liver of treated rats

  1. Cigarette smoke–induced induction of antioxidant enzyme activities in airway leukocytes is absent in active smokers with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Rosamund E.; Leong-Smith, Pheneatia; Roos-Engstrand, Ester; Pourazar, Jamshid; Shah, Mittal; Behndig, Annelie F.; Mudway, Ian S.; Blomberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative injury to the airway has been proposed as an important underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As the extent of oxidant-mediated damage is dependent on the endogenous antioxidant defences within the airways, we examined whether COPD was associated with deficiencies in the antioxidant network within the respiratory tract lining fluids (RTLFs) and resident airway leukocytes. We hypothesised that COPD would be associated with both basal depression of antioxidant defences and impaired adaptive antioxidant responses to cigarette smoke. Methods Low molecular weight and enzymatic antioxidants together with metal-handling proteins were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and airway leukocytes, derived from current (n=9) and ex-smoking COPD patients (n=15), as well as from smokers with normal lung function (n=16) and healthy never smokers (n=13). Results Current cigarette smoking was associated with an increase in ascorbate and glutathione within peripheral RTLFs in both smokers with normal lung function compared with healthy never smokers and in COPD smokers compared with COPD ex-smokers. In contrast, intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase) were only up-regulated in smokers with normal lung function compared with healthy never smokers and not in actively smoking COPD patients relative to COPD ex-smokers. Conclusions We found no evidence of impaired basal antioxidant defences, within either the RTLFs or airway leukocytes in stable ex-smoking COPD patients compared with healthy never smoking controls. Current cigarette smoking induced an up-regulation of low molecular weight antioxidants in the RTLFs of both control subjects with normal lung function and patients with COPD. Importantly, the present data demonstrated a cigarette smoke–induced increase in intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme activities only within the smokers with

  2. Antioxidant activity by a synergy of redox-sensitive mitochondrial phospholipase A2 and uncoupling protein-2 in lung and spleen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Jan; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Ježek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2013), s. 816-825 ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0346; GA ČR(CZ) GPP303/11/P320; GA MŠk(CZ) ME09018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2 * mitochondrial phospholipase A(2) isoform gamma * mitochondrial oxidative stress attenuation * fatty acid * antioxidant mechanism Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.240, year: 2013

  3. AM Fungi Influences the Photosynthetic Activity, Growth and Antioxidant Enzymes in Allium sativum L. under Salinity Condition

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    Mahesh BORDE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Potential of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in alleviating adverse salt effects on growth was tested in garlic (Allium sativum L.. Towards this objective we analyzed the AM root colonization and the activities of various antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM salinity levels. The activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied were found to be increased in AM garlic plants. Antioxidant activity was maximum in 100 and 200 mM NaCl (sodium chloride in AM and non-AM plants. Proline accumulation was induced by salt levels and it was more in leaves as well as roots of AM plants as compared to non-AM plants, this indicating that mycorrhiza reduced salt injury. Growth parameters of garlic plants like leaf area, plant fresh and dry weight and antioxidant enzyme activities were higher at moderate salinity level. This work suggests that the mycorrhiza helps garlic plants to perform better under moderate salinity level by enhancing the antioxidant activity and proline content as compared to non-AM plants.

  4. Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Synaptic Degeneration as Early Events in Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications to Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. Hemachandra; Tripathy, Raghav; Troung, Quang; Thirumala, Karuna; Reddy, Tejaswini P.; Anekonda, Vishwanath; Shirendeb, Ulziibat P.; Calkins, Marcus J.; Reddy, Arubala P.; Mao, Peizhong; Manczak, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic pathology and mitochondrial oxidative damage are early events in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression. Loss of synapses and synaptic damage are the best correlate of cognitive deficits found in AD patients. Recent research on amyloid bet (Aβ) and mitochondria in AD revealed that Aβ accumulates in synapses and synaptic mitochondria, leading to abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in AD neurons. Further, recent studies using live-cell imaging and primary neurons from amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mice revealed that reduced mitochondrial mass, defective axonal transport of mitochondria and synaptic degeneration, indicating that Aβ is responsible for mitochondrial and synaptic deficiencies. Tremendous progress has been made in studying antioxidant approaches in mouse models of AD and clinical trials of AD patients. This article highlights the recent developments made in Aβ-induced abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, defective mitochondrial biogenesis, impaired axonal transport and synaptic deficiencies in AD. This article also focuses on mitochondrial approaches in treating AD, and also discusses latest research on mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in AD. PMID:22037588

  5. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates

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    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8% after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH (56.00% and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC (59.00% methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions.

  6. Evaluation Of Antioxidant Enzymes, Copper, Zinc And Selenium In Preterm And Full Term Neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, A.T.; Mohamed, A.A.; EL Shafie, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Although oxidative stress-related disease like bronchopulmonary dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome and retinopathy mostly affect neonates with extremely low birth weight, healthy preterm might also be at risk of oxidative damages. Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) are essential trace elements for metabolism, growth, neurological and immunological function. Trace elements are considered the essential components or cofactors in the antioxidant system especially glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. The current study was conducted on 60 neonates divided into two groups; the first group consisted of 30 healthy preterm neonates (14 males and 16 females) with mean gestational age of 34.5±0.3 weeks and mean birth weight of 1742.25 ± 130.11. The second group consisted of 30 full term neonates with mean gestational age of 39.1±0.81 weeks and mean birth weight of 3210±150.25 g. All the neonates were breast fed without any other supplementation to avoid any change in trace elements concentrations. Furthermore, all neonates were subjected to full history thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigation including determinations of plasma levels of Zn, Cu and Se using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The erythrocyte levels of GSHPx and SOD enzymes were measured. The data revealed that plasma levels of Cu and Zn were significantly decreased in premature neonates than full term subjects but plasma level of Se showed non-significant difference between the premature and full term infants. The erythrocyte levels of GSHPx and SOD were significantly decreased in preterm than full term infants. There were no correlations between erythrocytes levels of GSHPx and the serum levels of Zn, Cu and Se in both preterm or term subjects, while SOD was significantly correlated with plasma levels of Cu and Zn, and no correlation with plasma level of Se was observed. According to the obtained results, it could be concluded that the

  7. Health attributes of ethnic vegetables consumed in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey: Antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitory properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Dalar

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Among the investigated ethnic vegetables, P. lanceolata and C. intybus represent a valuable source of antioxidant phytochemicals of phenolic nature that modulated in vitro the activities of digestive enzymes. These ethnic food sources diversify diet and enhance health attributes of foods.

  8. Interplay Between Oncoproteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in Esophageal Carcinoma Treated Without and With Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Tranum; Gupta, Rajesh; Vaiphei, Kim; Kapoor, Rakesh; Gupta, N.M.; Khanduja, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze p53, bcl-2, c-myc, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression changes and examine their relationship with various antioxidant enzymes in esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods and Materials: Patients in Group 1 underwent transhiatal esophagectomy and those in Group 2 were administered chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery after 4 weeks of neoadjuvant therapy. Results: The relationship analysis among the various protein markers and antioxidant enzymes showed an inverse correlation between bcl-2 and superoxide dismutase/catalase in tumor tissues, irrespective of the treatment arm followed. An important positive association was observed between bcl-2 and reduced glutathione levels in the tumor tissue of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Another apoptosis-modulating marker, c-myc, in the tumor tissue of Group 2 patients showed similar pattern levels (high and low) as that of superoxide dismutase/catalase. The association of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 with various antioxidant enzymes showed a significant positive correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and catalase activity and an inverse trend between p53 expression and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the tumor tissue of patients given neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, patients with overexpressed p53 protein levels had lower glutathione peroxidase enzyme levels and vice versa in the tumor tissue of patients who had undergone surgery as their main mode of treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study broaden the insight into the relationships shared among oncoproteins and the antioxidant defense system, and this could be helpful in the clinical management of esophageal carcinoma

  9. Responses of the antioxidative and biotransformation enzymes in the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis exposed to cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsano, Evelyn; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Hoque, Enamul; Lima, Stephan Pflugmacher

    2017-08-01

    To investigate antioxidative and biotransformation enzyme responses in Mucor hiemalis towards cyanotoxins considering its use in mycoremediation applications. Catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in M. hiemalis maintained their activities at all tested microcystin-LR (MC-LR) exposure concentrations. Cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity decreased with exposure to 100 µg MC-LR l -1 while microsomal GST remained constant. Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) at 100 µg l -1 led to an increase in CAT activity and inhibition of GR, as well as to a concentration-dependent GPx inhibition. Microsomal GST was inhibited at all concentrations tested. β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) inhibited GR activity in a concentration-dependent manner, however, CAT, GPx, and GST remained unaffected. M. hiemalis showed enhanced oxidative stress tolerance and intact biotransformation enzyme activity towards MC-LR and BMAA in comparison to CYN, confirming its applicability in bioreactor technology in terms of viability and survival in their presence.

  10. Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Placenta Protect Placenta and Fetus in Inherited Thrombophilia from Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Bogdanovic Pristov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the activities of antioxidative defense enzymes in the placenta, fetal blood and amnion fluid in inherited thrombophilia. Thrombophilia was associated with nearly threefold increase of activity (p < 0.001 of the placental catalase (81.1 ± 20.6 U/mg of proteins in controls and 270.0 ± 69.9 U/mg in thrombophilic subjects, glutathione (GSH peroxidase (C: 20.2 ± 10.1 U/mg; T: 60.0 ± 15.5 U/mg, and GSH reductase (C: 28.9 ± 5.6 U/mg; T: 72.7 ± 23.0 U/mg. The placental activities of superoxide dismutating enzymes—MnSOD and CuZnSOD, did not differ in controls and thrombophilia. Likewise, the activities of catalase and SOD in the fetal blood, and the level of ascorbyl radical which represents a marker of oxidative status of amniotic fluid, were similar in controls and thrombophilic subjects. From this we concluded that in thrombophilia, placental tissue is exposed to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress, which could be initiated by pro-thrombic conditions in maternal blood. Increased activity of placental H2O2-removing enzymes protects fetus and mother during pregnancy, but may increase the risk of postpartum thrombosis.

  11. The hormetic effect of cadmium on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yan; Shen Guoqing; Yu Yueshu; Zhu Hongling

    2009-01-01

    The hormetic dose-response relationships induced by environmental toxic agents are often characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Confirmation of the general phenomenon of hormesis may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment, although the mechanisms that underlie hormesis remain an enigma. In this study, a model-based approach for describing a dose-response relationship incorporating the hormetic effect was applied to the detection and estimation of the hormetic effect of cadmium (Cd) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced an increase in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but high concentrations inhibited the enzymes, and this was reflected in an inverted U-shaped curve. The maximum hormetic magnitude of SOD activity was higher than that of catalase. The presence of hormesis induced by cadmium in the earthworm may be related to activation of adaptive pathways. - A model-based approach and careful preliminary experiments are needed for detecting and estimating the hormetic effect.

  12. Decontamination of Fumonisin B1 in maize grain by Pleurotus eryngii and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam HAIDUKOWSKI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1 (FB1 is among the most common mycotoxins found in maize kernels and maize products worldwide. The microbiological process of detoxification and transformation of toxic organic pollutants is a promising method for foodstuffs decontamination. Some basidiomycetes, such as the Pleurotus eryngii species complex, include several important commercial edible varieties that can detoxify polycyclic organic compounds and a range of wastes and pollutants. We investigated the potential role of P. eryngii, one of the most consumed mushrooms, in the decontamination of FB1 in maize. In addition, selected antioxidant enzymes, (soluble peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase, primarily involved in control of cell hydrogen peroxide levels, and lignin degradation, were analyzed, to evaluate their contributions to the molecular mechanisms of FB1 by P. eryngii. FB1 decontamination by P. eryngii and involvement of CAT and POD enzymes in the control of toxic decontamination levels of H2O2 were demonstrated. A consistent reduction of FB1 was observed at different incubation times. The average decrease levels of FB1, with respect to the control cultures, ranged from 45 to 61% (RSD < 15%. This study is a possible eco-friendly approach to reducing this mycotoxin in the feed supply chains.

  13. The hormetic effect of cadmium on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yan [Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shen Guoqing, E-mail: gqsh@sjtu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu Yueshu; Zhu Hongling [Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The hormetic dose-response relationships induced by environmental toxic agents are often characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Confirmation of the general phenomenon of hormesis may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment, although the mechanisms that underlie hormesis remain an enigma. In this study, a model-based approach for describing a dose-response relationship incorporating the hormetic effect was applied to the detection and estimation of the hormetic effect of cadmium (Cd) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced an increase in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but high concentrations inhibited the enzymes, and this was reflected in an inverted U-shaped curve. The maximum hormetic magnitude of SOD activity was higher than that of catalase. The presence of hormesis induced by cadmium in the earthworm may be related to activation of adaptive pathways. - A model-based approach and careful preliminary experiments are needed for detecting and estimating the hormetic effect.

  14. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: dynamics of the main antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase and catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreva, Mariya N; Penev, Atanas P; Georgiev, Svetoslav Zh; Aleksandrova, Albena A

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have a particularly strong interest in the mechanisms implicated in the clinical manifestation of atrial fibrillation. To examine dynamically the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (duration enzyme activity was determined by a spectrophotometric method. The average duration of atrial fibrillation episodes until the time of hospitalization was 8.14 hours (from 2 to 24 hours). During patient hospitalization the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase was considerably higher compared to that of the controls (8.46 +/- 0.26 vs 5.81 +/- 0.14 U/mg Hb; 7.36 +/- 0.25 vs 4.76 +/- 0.12 E240/min/mg Hb; P catalase remained increased (5.11 +/- 0.08 vs 4.76 +/- 0.12 E240/min/mg Hb, p catalase even in the early hours of clinical manifestation of the disorder, which then slowly decreased with the restoration of sinus rhythm. Therefore, we can conclude that changes in oxidative status are closely related to the disease and are probably a part of the intimate mechanisms related to its initiation and clinical course.

  15. Bioactive properties of commercialised pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice: antioxidant, antiproliferative and enzyme inhibiting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M; Arbonés-Mainar, Jose Miguel; Valero, Marta Sofía; López, Víctor

    2015-06-01

    Pomegranate juice and related products have long been used either in traditional medicine or as nutritional supplements claiming beneficial effects. Although there are several studies on this food plant, only a few studies have been performed with pomegranate juice or marketed products. The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant effects of pomegranate juice on cellular models using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent or DPPH and superoxide radicals in cell free systems. The antiproliferative effects of the juice were measured on HeLa and PC-3 cells by the MTT assay and pharmacologically relevant enzymes (cyclooxygenases, xanthine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase A) were selected for enzymatic inhibition assays. Pomegranate juice showed significant protective effects against hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in the Artemia salina and HepG2 models; these effects may be attributed to radical scavenging properties of pomegranate as the juice was able to reduce DPPH and superoxide radicals. Moderate antiproliferative activities in HeLa and PC-3 cancer cells were observed. However, pomegranate juice was also able to inhibit COX-2 and MAO-A enzymes. This study reveals some mechanisms by which pomegranate juice may have interesting and beneficial effects in human health.

  16. Strawberry polyphenols attenuate ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by activation of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of MDA increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Alvarez-Suarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. CONCLUSIONS: Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in

  17. Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristić, Slavica; Radonjić, Nevena V.; Petronijević, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a

  18. Sodium nitroprusside may modulate Escherichia coli antioxidant enzyme expression by interacting with the ferric uptake regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, R; Danielson, D; Gong, V; Olynik, B; Eze, M O

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to explore possible relationships between nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidant enzymes in an Escherichia coli model have uncovered a possible interaction between sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a potent, NO-donating drug, and the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron(II)--dependent regulator of antioxidant and iron acquisition proteins present in Gram-negative bacteria. The enzymatic profiles of superoxide dismutase and hydroperoxidase during logarithmic phase of growth were studied via non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and activity staining specific to each enzyme. Though NO is known to induce transcription of the manganese-bearing isozyme of SOD (MnSOD), treatment with SNP paradoxically suppressed MnSOD expression and greatly enhanced the activity of the iron-containing equivalent (FeSOD). Fur, one of six global regulators of MnSOD transcription, is uniquely capable of suppressing MnSOD while enhancing FeSOD expression through distinct mechanisms. We thus hypothesize that Fur is complacent in causing this behaviour and that the iron(II) component of SNP is activating Fur. E. coli was also treated with the SNP structural analogues, potassium ferricyanide (PFi) and potassium ferrocyanide (PFo). Remarkably, the ferrous PFo was capable of mimicking the SNP-related pattern, whereas the ferric PFi was not. As Fur depends upon ferrous iron for activation, we submit this observation of redox-specificity as preliminary supporting evidence for the hypothesized Fur-SNP interaction. Iron is an essential metal that the human innate immune system sequesters to prevent its use by invading pathogens. As NO is known to inhibit iron-bound Fur, and as activated Fur regulates iron uptake through feedback inhibition, we speculate that the administration of this drug may disrupt this strategic management of iron in favour of residing Gram-negative species by providing a source of iron in an otherwise iron-scarce environment capable of encouraging its own uptake

  19. Comparison of the effects of three different Baccaurea angulata whole fruit juice doses on plasma, aorta and liver MDA levels, antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Hazali, Norazlanshah; Abdul Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Abdul Ghani, Radiah; Hashim, Ridzwan; Arief, Solachuddin Jahuari; Md Isa, Muhammad Lokman; Draman, Samsul

    2017-05-17

    Baccaurea angulata (common names: belimbing dayak or belimbing hutan) is a Malaysian underutilized fruit. The preliminary work on B. angulata fruit juice showed that it possesses antioxidant properties. Therefore, further work is needed to confirm the efficacy and proper dosage of B. angulata as a potential natural antioxidant. The present study was thus carried out to compare the effects of three different B. angulata whole fruit (WF) juice doses administered at nutritional doses of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 ml/kg/day on plasma, aorta and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) as well as total antioxidant capacity in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet. Thirty-five male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to seven groups. For 12 weeks, group CH was fed 1% cholesterol diet only; group C1 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C2 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C3 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group N was fed standard pellet only; group N1 was fed standard pellet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; and group N2 was fed standard pellet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice. The three doses reduced the formation of MDA and enhanced the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The highest dose used (1.50 ml/kg/day) was, however, seen as the most potent. Higher doses of B. angulata juice exerted better antioxidant activity.

  20. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals (LCs are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx, and glutathione-Stransferase (GST were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish.

  1. Evaluation of the Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme and Lysosomal Enzymes of the Longissimus dorsi Muscle from Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) in Various Freezing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Kim, Donghun; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and lysosomal enzymes (alpha-glucopyranosidase (AGP) and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (BNAG)) of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from Hanwoo (Korean cattle) in three freezing conditions. Following freezing at -20, -60, and -196? (liquid nitrogen), LD samples (48 h post-slaughter) were treated as follows: 1) freezing for 14 d, 2) 1 to 4 freeze-thaw cycles (2 d of freezing in each cycl...

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Unwinding Enzyme Required for Liver Regeneration | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The liver has an exceptional capacity to proliferate. This ability allows the liver to regenerate its mass after partial surgical removal or injury and is the key to successful partial liver transplants. Liver cells, called hepatocytes, are packed with mitochondria, and regulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is crucial to mitochondrial function, including energy production, during proliferation. Yves Pommier, M.D., Ph.D., of CCR’s Developmental Therapeutics Branch, and his colleagues recently showed that the vertebrate mitochondrial topoisomerase, Top1mt, was critical in maintaining mitochondrial function in the heart after doxorubicin-induced damage. The group wondered whether Top1mt might play a similar role in liver regeneration.

  3. Mitochondrial thiol modification by a targeted electrophile inhibits metabolism in breast adenocarcinoma cells by inhibiting enzyme activity and protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ryan Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many cancer cells follow an aberrant metabolic program to maintain energy for rapid cell proliferation. Metabolic reprogramming often involves the upregulation of glutaminolysis to generate reducing equivalents for the electron transport chain and amino acids for protein synthesis. Critical enzymes involved in metabolism possess a reactive thiolate group, which can be modified by certain oxidants. In the current study, we show that modification of mitochondrial protein thiols by a model compound, iodobutyl triphenylphosphonium (IBTP, decreased mitochondrial metabolism and ATP in MDA-MB 231 (MB231 breast adenocarcinoma cells up to 6 days after an initial 24 h treatment. Mitochondrial thiol modification also depressed oxygen consumption rates (OCR in a dose-dependent manner to a greater extent than a non-thiol modifying analog, suggesting that thiol reactivity is an important factor in the inhibition of cancer cell metabolism. In non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells, IBTP also decreased OCR; however the extracellular acidification rate was significantly increased at all but the highest concentration (10 µM of IBTP indicating that thiol modification can have significantly different effects on bioenergetics in tumorigenic versus non-tumorigenic cells. ATP and other adenonucleotide levels were also decreased by thiol modification up to 6 days post-treatment, indicating a decreased overall energetic state in MB231 cells. Cellular proliferation of MB231 cells was also inhibited up to 6 days post-treatment with little change to cell viability. Targeted metabolomic analyses revealed that thiol modification caused depletion of both Krebs cycle and glutaminolysis intermediates. Further experiments revealed that the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, aconitase, was attenuated in response to thiol modification. Additionally, the inhibition of glutaminolysis corresponded to decreased glutaminase C (GAC protein levels, although other protein levels were

  4. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Malondialdehyde Concentration and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Erythrocytes

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    José A. Morales-González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress.

  5. An Analysis of Enzyme Kinetics Data for Mitochondrial DNA Strand Termination by Nucleoside Reverse Transcription Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelsdorf, Katherine V.; Song, Zhuo; Cao, Yang; Samuels, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs used in antiretroviral treatment have been associated with mitochondrial toxicity. The polymerase-γ hypothesis states that this toxicity stems from the analogs' inhibition of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase (polymerase-γ) leading to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. We have constructed a computational model of the interaction of polymerase-γ with activated nucleoside and nucleotide analog drugs, based on experimentally measured reaction rates and base excision rates, together with the mtDNA genome size, the human mtDNA sequence, and mitochondrial dNTP concentrations. The model predicts an approximately 1000-fold difference in the activated drug concentration required for a 50% probability of mtDNA strand termination between the activated di-deoxy analogs d4T, ddC, and ddI (activated to ddA) and the activated forms of the analogs 3TC, TDF, AZT, FTC, and ABC. These predictions are supported by experimental and clinical data showing significantly greater mtDNA depletion in cell culture and patient samples caused by the di-deoxy analog drugs. For zidovudine (AZT) we calculated a very low mtDNA replication termination probability, in contrast to its reported mitochondrial toxicity in vitro and clinically. Therefore AZT mitochondrial toxicity is likely due to a mechanism that does not involve strand termination of mtDNA replication. PMID:19132079

  6. Antioxidant and oxidative stress parameters in brain of Heteropneustes fossilis under air exposure condition; role of mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan

    2013-09-01

    Many fishes are exposed to air in their natural habitat or during their commercial handling. In natural habitat or during commercial handling, the cat fish Heteropneustes fossilis is exposed to air for >24h. Data on its oxidative metabolism in the above condition are not available. Oxidative stress (OS) indices (lipid and protein oxidation), toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS: H2O2) generation, antioxidative status (levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, ascorbic acid and non-protein sulfhydryl) and activities of electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes (complex I-IV) were investigated in brain tissue of H. fossilis under air exposure condition (0, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h at 25°C). Decreased activities of antioxidant (except catalase) and ETC enzymes (except complex II) with increased H2O2 and OS levels were observed in the tissue under water deprivation condition. Positive correlation was observed for complex II activity and non-protein thiol groups with time period of air exposure. The critical time period to induce OS and to reduce most of the studied antioxidant level in brain was found to be 3-6h air exposure. The data can be useful to minimize the stress generated during commercial handling of the live fishes those exposed to air in general and H. fossilis in particular. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on detoxification and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of marine microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Miao, Jingjing; Li, Yun; Pan, Luqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the detoxification and antioxidant systems of two microalgae, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas subcordiformis. In our study, these two algae were exposed to BaP for 4 days at three different concentrations including 0.5 μg L-1 (low), 3 μg L-1 (mid) and 18 μg L-1 (high). The activity of detoxification enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in P. subcordiformis in all BaP-treated groups. In I. zhanjiangensis, the activity of these two enzymes increased at the beginning of exposure, and then decreased in the groups treated with mid- and high BaP. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in I. zhanjiangensis in all BaP-treated groups, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no significant change was observed in P. subcordiformis. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) increased in I. zhanjiangensis and P. subcordiformis in all BaPtreated groups. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Isochrysis zhanjiangensis increased first, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no change occurred in P. subcordiformis. These results demonstrated that BaP significantly influenced the activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in microalgae. The metabolic related enzymes (EROD, GST and CAT) may serve as sensitive biomarkers of measuring the contamination level of BaP in marine water.

  8. Antioxidative sulphated polygalactans from marine macroalgae as angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Fasina; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2017-08-17

    Antioxidant and antihypertensive potential of the sulphated polygalactans isolated from the marine macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria opuntia were assessed by utilising different in vitro systems. The galactans isolated from K. alvarezii possessed significantly greater antioxidative properties as determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH IC 90 0.97 mg/mL) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS .+ IC 90 0.72 mg/mL) scavenging activities than those isolated from G. opuntia (DPPH IC 90 1.2 mg/mL and ABTS 0.86 mg/mL). The sulphated polygalactan →4)-4-O-sulphonato-(2-O-methyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-methyl)-α-D-galactopyranan from K. alvarezii showed greater angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (IC 50 0.02 μg/mL) than →3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-xylosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranan motif extracted from G. opuntia (IC 50 0.70 μg/mL). Structure activity correlation studies displayed that the ACE inhibitory properties of titled polygalactans were directly proportional to their electronic properties and inversely with the steric and hydrophobic characteristics. Putative ACE inhibitory mechanism of action of sulphated galactans from marine macroalgae corroborated the structure bioactivity correlation analysis.

  9. Alleviating exercise-induced muscular stress using neat and processed bee pollen: oxidative markers, mitochondrial enzymes, and myostatin expression in rats

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    Sameer Ketkar

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The study establishes the antioxidant, mitochondrial upregulatory, and myostatin inhibitory effects of both MIMBP and PMIMBP in exercise-induced oxidative stress conditions, suggesting their usefulness in effective management of exercise-induced muscular stress. Further, processing of MIMBP with an edible lipid-surfactant mixture was found to improve the therapeutic efficiency of pollen.

  10. Effect of calcium and salicylic acid on quality retention in relation to antioxidative enzymes in radish stored under refrigerated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Jomika; Bhatia, Surekha; Alam, M S; Dhillon, Tarsem Singh

    2018-03-01

    Effect of post harvest treatments with calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) and salicylic acid (SA) on physiological and biochemical parameters in relation to activities of antioxidative enzymes were investigated in radish. Radish of variety Punjab Safed Mooli 2 was harvested, washed and treated with CaCl 2 (1, 1.5 and 2%) or SA (1, 1.5 and 2 mM). Treated as well as untreated radish were placed in open trays and stored under refrigerated (5 ± 1 °C, 90% RH) conditions for 42 days. Treatment of radish with CaCl 2 and SA slowed down changes in physiological weight, colour, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, titrable acidity, total phenolics and antioxidant activity. Treated samples exhibited higher enhancement in activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydro-ascorbate reductase (MDHAR) than untreated samples. However SA was found to be more effective in slowing down the metabolic activities of radish as compared to CaCl 2 treatment. Among all the treatments, 1.5 mM SA maintained the quality parameters to greater extent probably by reducing the oxidative stress to larger extent due to highest activities of antioxidative enzymes and can be used to enhance the shelf life of radish during refrigerated storage.

  11. Effect of turmeric and curcumin on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, Palla; Satyanarayana, Alleboena; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Kumar, Putcha Uday; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2007-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that complications related to diabetes are associated with increased oxidative stress. Curcumin, an active principle of turmeric, has several biological properties, including antioxidant activity. The protective effect of curcumin and turmeric on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced oxidative stress in various tissues of rats was studied. Three-month-old Wistar-NIN rats were made diabetic by injecting STZ (35 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally and fed either only the AIN-93 diet or the AIN-93 diet containing 0.002% or 0.01% curcumin or 0.5% turmeric for a period of eight weeks. After eight weeks the levels of oxidative stress parameters and activity of antioxidant enzymes were determined in various tissues. STZ-induced hyperglycemia resulted in increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in red blood cells and other tissues and altered antioxidant enzyme activities. Interestingly, feeding curcumin and turmeric to the diabetic rats controlled oxidative stress by inhibiting the increase in TBARS and protein carbonyls and reversing altered antioxidant enzyme activities without altering the hyperglycemic state in most of the tissues. Turmeric and curcumin appear to be beneficial in preventing diabetes-induced oxidative stress in rats despite unaltered hyperglycemic status.

  12. Phenolic profiling and therapeutic potential of local flora of Azad Kashmir; In vitro enzyme inhibition and antioxidant

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    Raza Muhammad Asam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study supports the phytochemical screening, evaluation of antioxidant and enzyme inhibition potential and correlations between antioxidant activities and phenolics of Rumex dentatus (Family: Polygonaceae, Mentha spicata (Family: Lamiaceae, Withania somnifera (Family: Solanaceae, Nerium indicum (Family: Apocynaceae and Artemisia scoparia (Family: Asteraceae. The herbal materials were extracted in ethanol (90% and partitioned between several solvents based on polarities. Total phenols were determined with FC method and ranged 21.33 ± 1.53 - 355.67 ± 6.03 mg GAE/ mg of the extract. Antioxidant activities (DPPH, total iron reducing capacity, phosphomolybdate assay & FRAP and enzyme inhibition potential (Protease, AChE & BChE were performed by the standard protocols. The results showed that all extracts exhibited significant DPPH activity ranging from 12.67 ± 2.08 - 92.67 ± 1.53%. The extracts that were active in DPPH activity also potrayed marvelous FRAP, total iron reducing and phosphomolybdate values. Correlation studies of antioxidant activities and the content of phenolic compounds in plant materials exhibited positive correlation between them. The outcome of enzyme inhibition activity exhibited that about 80% of the fractions under surveillance plants intimated more than 50% inhibition. Isolation of bioactive compounds from these plants is in progress.

  13. Mitochondrial Stress Signaling Promotes Cellular Adaptations

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    Jayne Alexandra Barbour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the aetiology of many complex diseases, as well as the ageing process. Much of the research on mitochondrial dysfunction has focused on how mitochondrial damage may potentiate pathological phenotypes. The purpose of this review is to draw attention to the less well-studied mechanisms by which the cell adapts to mitochondrial perturbations. This involves communication of stress to the cell and successful induction of quality control responses, which include mitophagy, unfolded protein response, upregulation of antioxidant and DNA repair enzymes, morphological changes, and if all else fails apoptosis. The mitochondrion is an inherently stressful environment and we speculate that dysregulation of stress signaling or an inability to switch on these adaptations during times of mitochondrial stress may underpin mitochondrial dysfunction and hence amount to pathological states over time.

  14. Ageing of enteric neurons: oxidative stress, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes

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    Korsak Kris

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction, which can have a major impact on quality of life of the elderly. A number of changes in the innervation of the gut during ageing have been reported, including neuronal loss and degenerative changes. Evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS are elevated in ageing enteric neurons, but that neurotrophic factors may reduce generation of neuronal ROS. Two such factors, glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 have also been found to protect enteric neurons against oxidative stress induced cell death of enteric ganglion cells in vitro. We have investigated the possible roles of neurotrophic factors further, by examining their expression in the gut during ageing, and by analysing their effects on antioxidant enzyme production in cultures of enteric ganglion cells. Results Analysis of the expression of GDNF and its receptors c-Ret and GFR α − 1 in rat gut by RT-PCR showed that expression continues throughout life and into ageing, in both ad libitum(AL and calorically-restricted (CR animals. Levels of expression of GDNF and GFR α − 1 were elevated in 24 month AL animals compared to 24 month CR animals, and to 24 CR and 6 month control animals respectively. The related factor Neurturin and its receptor GFR α − 2 were also expressed throughout life, the levels of the GFR – α-2(b isoform were reduced in 24 m AL animals. Immunolabelling showed that c-Ret and GFR α − 1 proteins were expressed by myenteric neurons in ageing animals. GDNF, but not NT-3, was found to increase expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase by cultured enteric ganglion cells. Conclusions The neurotrophic factors GDNF and neurturin and their receptors continue to be expressed in the ageing gut. Changes in the levels of expression of GDNF , GFR α-1 and GFR α-2(b isoform occurred in 24 m AL animals. GDNF, but not

  15. Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC essential oil: chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbah, Habib; Chahdoura, Hassiba; Kammoun, Jannet; Hlila, Malek Besbes; Louati, Hanen; Hammami, Saoussen; Flamini, Guido; Achour, Lotfi; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2018-03-05

    α-glucosidase is a therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus (DM) and α-glucosidase inhibitors play a vital role in the treatments for the disease. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) is a key enzyme that catalyzes hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid which at high levels can lead to hyperuricemia which is an important cause of gout. Pancreatic lipase (PL) secreted into the duodenum plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of fats. For its importance in lipid digestion, PL represents an attractive target for obesity prevention. The flowers essential oil of Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC (R. acaule) was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activities of R. acaule essential oil (RaEO) were also determined using 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), reducing power, phosphomolybdenum, and DNA nicking assays. The inhibitory power of RaEO against α-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase and pancreatic lipase was evaluated. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and the derived Lineweaver-Burk (LB) plots were performed to understand the possible mechanism of inhibition exercised by the components of this essential oil. The result revealed the presence of 26 compounds (97.4%). The main constituents include germacrene D (49.2%), methyl eugenol (8.3%), (E)-β-ionone (6.2%), β-caryophyllene (5.7%), (E,E)-α-farnesene (4.2%), bicyclogermacrene (4.1%) and (Z)-α-bisabolene (3.7%). The kinetic inhibition study showed that the essential oil demonstrated a strong α-glucosidase inhibiton and it was a mixed inhibitor. On the other hand, our results evidenced that this oil exhibited important xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect, behaving as a non-competitive inhibitor. The essential oil inhibited the turkey pancreatic lipase, with maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 2 mg/mL. Furthermore, the inhibition of turkey pancreatic lipase by RaEO was an irreversible one. The results revealed that the RaEO is a new

  16. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  17. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antioxidant enzyme system in human population exposed to radiation from mobile towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Sachin; Yadav, Anita; Kumar, Neeraj; Priya, Kanu; Aggarwal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Ranjan

    2018-03-01

    In the present era, cellular phones have changed the life style of human beings completely and have become an essential part of their lives. The number of cell phones and cell towers are increasing in spite of their disadvantages. These cell towers transmit radiation continuously without any interruption, so people living within 100s of meters from the tower receive 10,000 to 10,000,000 times stronger signal than required for mobile communication. In the present study, we have examined superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation assay, and effect of functional polymorphism of SOD and CAT antioxidant genes against mobile tower-induced oxidative stress in human population. From our results, we have found a significantly lower mean value of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, and a high value of lipid peroxidation assay in exposed as compared to control subjects. Polymorphisms in antioxidant MnSOD and CAT genes significantly contributed to its phenotype. In the current study, a significant association of genetic polymorphism of antioxidant genes with genetic damage has been observed in human population exposed to radiations emitted from mobile towers.

  19. Efficacy of lycopene on modulation of renal antioxidant enzymes, ACE and ACE gene expression in hyperlipidaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazish Iqbal; Noori, Shafaq; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of lycopene on renal tissue antioxidant enzymes and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression and serum activity in diet-induced hyperlipidaemia. Thirty-two female Wistar albino rats (200-250 g weight), 5-6 months of age, were randomly selected and divided into four groups. Group I received normal diet; group II received 24 g high fat diet/100 g of daily diet; group III received 24 g high fat diet/100 g daily diet and 200 ml of lycopene extract (twice a week) for 8 weeks; and group IV received 200 ml oral lycopene extract twice a week for 8 weeks. A marked increase was observed in plasma urea and creatinine levels, serum C-reactive protein, kidney weight, tissue renal malonyldialdehyde level, ACE gene expression and serum level, while a decrease catalase level among hyperlipidaemic rats was observed. Histologically, interstitial inflammation and proliferation was seen. Lycopene supplementation significantly decreased plasma urea and creatinine, serum ACE, renal tissue malonyldialdehyde level and C-reactive protein level, while it increased tissue antioxidant enzymes level and total protein. Tissue inflammation and proliferation was improved. This finding suggests that supplementation of lycopene is effective for renal antioxidant enzymes, ACE gene expression and ACE serum level in hyperlipidaemic rats. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. The potential medicinal value of plants from Asteraceae family with antioxidant defense enzymes as biological targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Suheda; Isgor, Belgin S; Isgor, Yasemin G; Shomali Moghaddam, Naznoosh; Yildirim, Ozlem

    2015-05-01

    Plants and most of the plant-derived compounds have long been known for their potential pharmaceutical effects. They are well known to play an important role in the treatment of several diseases from diabetes to various types of cancers. Today most of the clinically effective pharmaceuticals are developed from plant-derived ancestors in the history of medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol, ethanol, and acetone extracts from flowers and leaves of Onopordum acanthium L., Carduus acanthoides L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., and Centaurea solstitialis L., all from the Asteraceae family, for investigating their potential medicinal values of biological targets that are participating in the antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In this study, free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the plant samples were assayed by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu, and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods. Also, the effects of extracts on CAT, GST, and GPx enzyme activities were investigated. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in the acetone extract of C. acanthoides flowers, with 90.305 mg GAE/L and 185.43 mg Q/L values, respectively. The highest DPPH radical scavenging was observed with the methanol leaf extracts of C. arvense with an IC50 value of 366 ng/mL. The maximum GPx and GST enzyme inhibition activities were observed with acetone extracts from the flower of C. solstitialis with IC50 values of 79 and 232 ng/mL, respectively.

  1. Changes in element accumulation, phenolic metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities in the red-skin roots of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Yang, Zhenming; Gao, Lingling; Liu, Wen; Liu, Rongkun; Zhao, Junting; You, Jiangfeng

    2017-07-01

    Red-skin root disease has seriously decreased the quality and production of Panax ginseng (ginseng). To explore the disease's origin, comparative analysis was performed in different parts of the plant, particularly the epidermis, cortex, and/or fibrous roots of 5-yr-old healthy and diseased red-skin ginseng. The inorganic element composition, phenolic compound concentration, reactive oxidation system, antioxidant concentrations such as ascorbate and glutathione, activities of enzymes related to phenolic metabolism and oxidation, and antioxidative system particularly the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were examined using conventional methods. Aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), magnesium, and phosphorus were increased, whereas manganese was unchanged and calcium was decreased in the epidermis and fibrous root of red-skin ginseng, which also contained higher levels of phenolic compounds, higher activities of the phenolic compound-synthesizing enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the phenolic compound oxidation-related enzymes guaiacol peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase. As the substrate of guaiacol peroxidase, higher levels of H 2 O 2 and correspondingly higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were found in red-skin ginseng. Increased levels of ascorbate and glutathione; increased activities of l-galactose 1-dehydrogenase, ascorbate peroxidase, ascorbic acid oxidase, and glutathione reductase; and lower activities of dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione peroxidase were found in red-skin ginseng. Glutathione- S -transferase activity remained constant. Hence, higher element accumulation, particularly Al and Fe, activated multiple enzymes related to accumulation of phenolic compounds and their oxidation. This might contribute to red-skin symptoms in ginseng. It is proposed that antioxidant and antioxidative enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate-glutathione cycles, are activated to protect against phenolic compound

  2. Changes of antioxidative enzymes in Impatiens walleriana L. shoots in response to genetic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens walleriana L. shoots were inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4M70GUS and the effects of genetic transformation on the catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POX activities in wounded region of stems and unwounded leaves were evaluated 10, 24, 240 and 720 hours after inoculation. Following Agrobacterum infection activities of plant antioxidative enzymes changed in a time-dependent manner indicating that dynamic processes occurred during plant-Agrobacterium interaction, plant cell transformation and formation of hairy roots. Appearance of hairy roots on wound sites of shoots was observed ten days after inoculation with A. rhizogenes and the root induction frequency was 100%. Among selected hairy root lines significant differences in growth rate and biomass production were observed and an average 3-fold increase in biomass production was observed for the best growing hairy root line compared with the untransformed roots. PCR analysis showed presence of uidA, rolB, rolC and rolD genes in all analyzed I. walleriana L. hairy root lines, while amplification fragment of rolA gene was detected in 83.3% transformed lines. Efficient transformation protocol for I. walleriana L described in this work offer possibilities to generate hairy root cultures for in vitro propagation of plant viruses. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31019

  3. Radioprotective effects of ginsan through the stimulation hematopoiesis and antioxidant enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie Young; Son, Soo Jung; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Yun, Yeon Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    An immunomodulator ginsan which was isolated from Panax ginseng showed the mitogenic activity, generation of LAK cells, and secretion of several cytokines. In the extended effort to search other immunostimulatory effects, we evaluated protective effects of in vivo injected Ginsan against irradiation, by measuring the recovery of CFU-S, and the functioning of bone marrow (BM) and spleen cells. Ginsan was found to significantly increase the number of BM cells, spleen cells, granulocytes macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFC), and the number of circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets in irradiated mice. In addition, it induced endogenous production of cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IFN-g and IL-12, which are required for hematopoietic recovery, and was able to enhance Th1 function while interfering with the Th2 response in irradiated mice. We demonstrated that the pretreatment with Ginsan protected mice from lethal effects of ionizing radiation more effectively than given immediately or after the irradiation. A significant increase of the survival of Ginsan-treated group (100mg/kg) from LD50/30 7.54 Gy of PBS-injection to 10.93 Gy was observed. Moreover, the levels of the antioxidant enzymes such as SODs, catalase and gluthathion peroxidase were increased 1.5-2 fold in ginsan treated mice compared to the irradiated mice. These findings indicate that ginsan may be a promising agent to be used in reducing the time needed for reconstituting of hematopoietic cells after irradiation treatment.

  4. Antioxidant enzyme level response to prooxidant allelochemicals in larvae of the southern armyworm moth, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, C A; Ahmad, S; Elliott, A J; Pardini, R S

    1990-01-01

    Larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, are highly polyphagous feeders which frequently encounter and feed upon plants containing high levels of prooxidant allelochemicals. While ingestion of moderate quantities of prooxidants can be tolerated by these larvae, ingestion of larger quantities can result in toxicity. Studies were conducted to assess the role of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the protection of S. eridania against redox active prooxidant plant allelochemicals. Dietary exposure of mid-fifth-instar larvae to either quercetin (a flavonoid) or xanthotoxin (a photoactive furanocoumarin), which generate superoxide radical, and singlet oxygen, respectively, resulted in an increase in SOD levels. CAT levels increased in all groups of S. eridania including control insects. This may have been due to the sudden exposure to food following an extended fast of 18 h (to insure that larvae would not reject the diet because of the prooxidants' bitter taste) with an eventual lowering of CAT values with time. GR activities did not significantly change except for a slight inhibition at the highest prooxidant concentrations used at 12-h post-ingestion. The data from these studies suggest that SOD responds to prooxidant challenges in these insects and together with CAT and GR contributes to the insect's defense against potentially toxic prooxidant compounds.

  5. Tributyltin toxicity in abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) assessed by antioxidant enzyme activity, metabolic response, and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Zhu, Xiao-shan; Cai, Zhong-hua

    2010-11-15

    A toxicity test was performed to investigate the possible harmful effects of tributyltin (TBT) on abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta). Animals were exposed to TBT in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations (2, 10 and 50 ng/L) for 30 days under laboratory conditions. TBT-free conditions were used as control treatments. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), along with levels of haemolymph metabolites, and hepatopancreas histopathology were analyzed. The results showed that TBT decreased SOD activity, and increased POD level and MDA production in a dose-dependent way, indicating that oxidative injury was induced by TBT. Haemolymph metabolite measurements showed that TBT increased alanine and glutamate levels, and decreased glucose content, which suggested perturbation of energy metabolism. Elevated levels of acetate and pyruvate in the haemolymph indicated partial alteration of lipid metabolism. A decrease in lactate and an increase in succinate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, indicated disturbance of amino acid metabolism. Hepatopancreas tissues also exhibited inflammatory responses characterized by histopathological changes such as cell swelling, granular degeneration, and inflammation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TBT was a potential toxin with a variety of deleterious effects on abalone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Black tea (camellia sinensis ) role in modulating antioxidant enzymes and biochemical changes in γ -irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, N.N.; Hussien, E.M.; Farag, M.F.S.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the efficacy of camellia sinensis beverage in reducing gamma-irradiation - induced oxidative damage to the liver, lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats. Animals were received the black tea beverage (BTB) as a sole source of potable liquid for seven consecutive days before exposing them to single dose of 6 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation . The irradiated rats continued to receive BTB for 21 days before sacrifice. The effect of BTB was assessed by monitoring the plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), acid phosphatase (AcP), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high, low and very low density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C,LDL-C and VLDL-C) as well as protein carbonyl content (PCC). In addition, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) in blood and liver of experimental rats. It was observed that tea administration lowers significantly (p< 0.05), the plasma AST, ALT, AcP activities and TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and PCC concentration as well as blood and liver TBARS. The level of GSH and activity of CAT in the blood and liver tissue were however shown to be significantly elevated (p< 0.05).The results provide useful information for future investigations and strongly implicate the beneficial application of BTB

  7. Studies on antioxidative enzymes induced by cadmium in pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nalini; Singh, Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Swati) exposed to different concentration of cadmium (50,100, 200 microM Cd) under controlled glass house conditions were quantified for different physiological parameters and antioxidative enzymes. In pea plants, Cd produced a significant inhibition of growth and induced chlorosis, marginal yellowing and necrosis in young leaves, the effect being most pronounced at 200 microM Cd supply. An alteration in the activated oxygen metabolism of pea plants were also detected as evidenced by an increase in concentration of H2O2 and TBARS along with decrease in the chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration in leaves. Cadmium toxicity induced an increase in non-protein thiol, ascorbate, proline and cysteine concentration. A significant increment in the activity of SOD, APX and GR, and a decrease in CAT was observed as a result of Cd treatment. The enhanced activity of SOD and inhibition of CAT and POD produces a high build up of H2O2 which appears to be the main cause of oxidative stress due to Cd toxicity in pea plants.

  8. High activity antioxidant enzymes protect flying-fox haemoglobin against damage: an evolutionary adaptation for flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, N B; O'Brien, G M

    2006-11-01

    Flying-foxes are better able to defend haemoglobin against autoxidation than non-volant mammals such as sheep. When challenged with the common physiological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, haemolysates of flying-fox red blood cells (RBC) were far less susceptible to methaemoglobin formation than sheep. Challenge with 1-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine (APH) caused only half as much methaemoglobin formation in flying-fox as in ovine haemolysates. When intact cells were challenged with phenazine methosulfate (PMS), flying-fox RBC partially reversed the oxidant damage, and reduced methaemoglobin from 40 to 20% over 2 h incubation, while ovine methaemoglobin remained at 40%. This reflected flying-fox cells' capacity to replenish GSH fast enough that it did not deplete beyond 50%, while ovine RBC GSH was depleted to around 20%. The greater capacity of flying-foxes to defend haemoglobin against oxidant damage may be explained in part by antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome-b ( 5 ) reductase having two- to four-fold higher activity than in sheep (P foxes.

  9. Relationships between mycorrhizas and antioxidant enzymes in citrus (citrus tangerina) seedlings inoculated with glomus mosseae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.Y.; Wu, Q.S.

    2014-01-01

    A potted experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus mosseae, on growth performance and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of citrus (Citrus tangerina) seedlings. After five months of AMF inoculation, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles, but not arbuscules and entry points, increased with the increase of inoculated mycorrhizal dosages among 5-40 g (32 spores/g dosage). Mycorrhizal inoculation with 10-40 g dosages significantly increased plant growth traits, including plant height, stem diameter, and shoot, root and total fresh weights. Higher leaf chlorophyll content was found in all the mycorrhizal plants, compared with the non-mycorrhizal plants. Inoculation with G. mosseae markedly decreased SOD and CAT activities of leaf and root, except an increase of either root CAT with the 20 g mycorrhizal treatment or root SOD with the 20 and 40 g mycorrhizal treatments. In addition, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles significantly positively correlated with root SOD and without root CAT. We also discussed the relationships between mycorrhizal effects on antioxidant enzymes and growth environment of host plants. (author)

  10. Modulation of antioxidant enzymes as radioprotector mechanism of oligo elements and lachesis muta in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crescenti, E.; Croci, M.; Mohamad, N.; Medina, V.; Sambuco, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Nunez, M.; Martin, G.; Cricco, G.; Bergoc, R.; Rivera, E.

    2006-01-01

    The therapeutic use of the ionizing radiations (IR) it has acquired great relevance in the last decades although their effects are not selective and they are also manifested on the normal tissues. In previous works we demonstrate the radioprotector effect that the combination of oligo elements Zinc, Selenium and Manganese associated to the snake poison Lachesis muta (O-LM) it exercises on the small intestine and the bone marrow of irradiated mouse. The objective of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms, and particularly the paper of the anti-oxidant superoxide dismutases enzymes (MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD), Catalase (CAT), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), in the radioprotector action that exercises the combination O-LM. Four groups of mice were used: A) control; B) treated with O-LM; C) irradiated; D) irradiated and treated with O-LM. The two treated groups were injected daily via s.c. with 0,1 ml of O-LM from 30 days before the irradiation and until to 4 days later. The two irradiated groups received 10 Gy in whole body the day 30. The day 35 all the animals were sacrificed. The histological intestinal cuts of the mucous one were evaluated by tint with hematoxyline-eosin; the presence of apoptotic cells it was determined by the Tunel method (Apoptag kit); the expression of PCNA (nuclear antigen of proliferating cells), MnSOD, CuZnSOD, CAT and GPx, by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that in the lot D it was preserved totally the histology of the intestinal mucous. In the control A it was observed PCNA expression in the crypts, of MnSOD in the hairiness and CuZnSOD, CAT and Gpx in both. The change produced by O-LM (group B) it was the increase of PCNA, of CAT and the appearance of MnSOD in the crypts. On the other hand, the irradiation (C) it produced a marked descent in the GPx, the complete disappearance of PCNA and an increase of the apoptotic cells. The group D showed that O-LM it reverted totally the effect of the RI on the expression of PCNA

  11. Cold and Heat Stress Diversely Alter Both Cauliflower Respiration and Distinct Mitochondrial Proteins Including OXPHOS Components and Matrix Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurek, Michał; Czołpińska, Magdalena; Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej; Krzesiński, Włodzimierz; Spiżewski, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Complex proteomic and physiological approaches for studying cold and heat stress responses in plant mitochondria are still limited. Variations in the mitochondrial proteome of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) curds after cold and heat and after stress recovery were assayed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) in relation to mRNA abundance and respiratory parameters. Quantitative analysis of the mitochondrial proteome revealed numerous stress-affected protein spots. In cold, major downregulations in the level of photorespiratory enzymes, porine isoforms, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and some low-abundant proteins were observed. In contrast, carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, heat-shock proteins, translation, protein import, and OXPHOS components were involved in heat response and recovery. Several transcriptomic and metabolic regulation mechanisms are also suggested. Cauliflower plants appeared less susceptible to heat; closed stomata in heat stress resulted in moderate photosynthetic, but only minor respiratory impairments, however, photosystem II performance was unaffected. Decreased photorespiration corresponded with proteomic alterations in cold. Our results show that cold and heat stress not only operate in diverse modes (exemplified by cold-specific accumulation of some heat shock proteins), but exert some associations at molecular and physiological levels. This implies a more complex model of action of investigated stresses on plant mitochondria. PMID:29547512

  12. Chemical stress induced by heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum L.) allelochemicals and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghader, Kalantar; Nojavan, Majid; Naghshbandi, Nabat

    2008-03-15

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the allelopathic potential of heliotrope on some biochemical processes of dodder. The preliminary experiments revealed that the effect of aqueous extract of leaves of heliotrope is higher than its seeds and roots. So, the aqueous extract of leaves was used in remaining experiments. Leaf extracts of 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O inhibited the germination of dodder seeds up to 95% and that of radish up to 100%. While, the aqueous extract of vine leaves which is a non-allelopathic plant did not have any inhibitory effect on these seeds. Vine leaf was used as a control to show that the inhibitory effect of heliotrope is due to an inhibitory compound but not due to the concentration. The leaf extract of heliotrope at 0.0, 0.1, 1.0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O reduced the radish seedling growth from 14 cm to about 0.5 cm and that of dodder from 7.5 cm to about 0.25 cm. The effects of heliotrope allelochemicals on some physiological and biochemical processes of radish was also Investigated. The activity of auxin oxidase increased in leaves and roots of radish. Suggesting that the reduced radish growth is due to the decreased active auxin levels in its leaves and roots. The activity of alpha-amylase was reduced, so reduction of starch degradation and lack of respiratory energy is the prime reason of germination inhibition in dodder and radish seeds. The level of soluble sugars increased. This is an indication of reduction of the activity of some respiratory enzymes and reduced consumption of these sugars. Proline levels were also increased, indicating that, the chemical stress is induced by leaf extract. Finally, the activities of GPX and CAT which are antioxidant enzymes were increased, along with increased extract concentration. These finding shows that the chemical stress induced by leaf extract produces super oxide (O2*) and H2O2, which is neutralized to H2O and O2 by these enzymes.

  13. Regulatory enzymes of mitochondrial beta-oxidation as targets for treatment of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, M.; Kuipers, F.; van der Leij, F. R.

    P>Insulin sensitizers like metformin generally act through pathways triggered by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) controls mitochondrial beta-oxidation and is inhibited by malonyl-CoA, the product of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). The adenosine

  14. GLUTATHIONE AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN THE HEPATOPANCREAS OF CRAYFISH PROCAMBARUS CLARKII (GIRARD, 1852 OF LAKE TRASIMENO (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIA A. C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant parameters, such as total glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glyoxalases, catalase, and some heavy metals such as, lead, cadmium and chromium were examined in hepatopancreas of both sexes of Procambarus clarkii collected seasonally from Lake Trasimeno, from winter 2002-2003 to autumn 2003. Heavy metals content in hepatopancreas in males and females of P. clarkii was low and did not vary through the sampling periods and between sexes. On the contrary, crayfish exhibited sex-dependent differences in levels of some enzyme activities and of total glutathione, and no apparent relationship was found between contaminant burdens and antioxidant indexes in hepatopancreas. Because measured metal concentrations were low, other factors, presumably, were involved in antioxidant variations in P. clarkii and these latter seemed to be affected more by biological and environmental factors, other than those related to pollutants body burdens.

  15. Trehalose improves semen antioxidant enzymes activity, post-thaw quality, and fertility in Nili Ravi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sajid; Andrabi, Syed Murtaza Hassan; Riaz, Amjad; Durrani, Aneela Zameer; Ahmad, Nasim

    2016-03-15

    Our objectives were to study the effect of trehalose in extender on (1) antioxidant enzymes profile during cryopreservation (after dilution, before freezing, and after thawing), (2) in vitro quality (after thawing), and (3) in vivo fertility of Nili Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. Semen samples (n = 20) from four buffalo bulls were diluted in Tris-citric acid-based extender having different concentrations of trehalose (0.0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mM) and frozen in French straws. At post dilution, profile of sperm catalase (U/mL) was higher (P semen doses cryopreserved in extender containing 30 mM of trehalose than the control. It is concluded that addition of 30-mM trehalose in extender improves the semen antioxidant enzymes activity, post thaw quality, and fertility in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The interactive effects of mercury and selenium on metabolic profiles, gene expression and antioxidant enzymes in halophyte Suaeda salsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Lai, Yongkai; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Zou, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Suaeda salsa is the pioneer halophyte in the Yellow River Delta and was consumed as a popular vegetable. Mercury has become a highly risky contaminant in the sediment of intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta. In this work, we investigated the interactive effects of mercury and selenium in S. salsa on the basis of metabolic profiling, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression quantification. Our results showed that mercury exposure (20 μg L(-1)) inhibited plant growth of S. salsa and induced significant metabolic responses and altered expression levels of INPS, CMO, and MDH in S. salsa samples, together with the increased activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD and POD. Overall, these results indicated osmotic and oxidative stresses, disturbed protein degradation and energy metabolism change in S. salsa after mercury exposures. Additionally, the addition of selenium could induce both antagonistic and synergistic effects including alleviating protein degradation and aggravating osmotic stress caused by mercury. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muiño-Blanco Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GRD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system.

  18. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat.

  19. Role of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant enzymes in the interaction between a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans, and oilseed rape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Barbora; Fodor, J.; Šindelářová, Milada; Burketová, Lenka; Valentová, O.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2011), s. 149-156 ISSN 0098-8472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/08/1581; GA MŠk MEB040923 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : hydrogen peroxide * antioxidant enzymes * hemibiotrophic pathogen Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 2.985, year: 2011

  20. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I.; González-Laredo, Rubén F.; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Pérez, MŞ del Mar Larrosa; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R.; Flores-Rueda, Ana G.; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E.

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profi le measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis d...

  1. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  2. Effect of antioxidants and associate changes in antioxidant enzymes in controlling browning and necrosis of proliferating shoots of elite Jatropha curcas L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Pratibha; Toppo, Dibya D.; Gupta, Neha; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tuli, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    A high yielding elite plant of Jatropha curcas was established under aseptic condition from field-grown nodal explants. Shoots were proliferated in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg dm -3 benzyladenine and 0.1 mg dm -3 indolebutyric acid along with 10 mg dm -3 adenine sulphate and a combination of 15 mg dm -3 each of L-glutamine and L-arginine. However, within 15-20 d of culture incubation, tissue browning/necrosis leading to poor plant regeneration in vitro was observed. A set of different antioxidants, namely, reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, tocopherol and cysteine were used in the medium individually and in combination to solve the problem of tissue browning and necrosis. The addition of antioxidants proved beneficial for the growth of the shoots. The optimum medium comprised of 25 mg dm -3 reduced glutathione and 10 mg dm -3 ascorbic acid, where proliferating shoots having highest leaf canopy area, remained fresh, green and regenerative up to 40 d of culture incubation without any subculture. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase was higher in control shoots, indicating that tissue browning/necrosis was associated with oxidative stress which was further supported by higher contents of H 2 O 2 and phenolics in control shoots compared to the other treatments. Similarly glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase and guiacol peroxidase was higher in treated shoots than control indicating that these shoots have developed antioxidant enzymatic protective system which determine the ability to survive in oxidative stress and up regulation of these enzymes would help to reduce the built up of reactive oxygen species.

  3. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women. © 2013.

  5. What is the main driver of ageing in long-lived winter honeybees: antioxidant enzymes, innate immunity, or vitellogenin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurori, Cristian M; Buttstedt, Anja; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Moritz, Robin F A; Erler, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    To date five different theories compete in explaining the biological mechanisms of senescence or ageing in invertebrates. Physiological, genetical, and environmental mechanisms form the image of ageing in individuals and groups. Social insects, especially the honeybee Apis mellifera, present exceptional model systems to study developmentally related ageing. The extremely high phenotypic plasticity for life expectancy resulting from the female caste system provides a most useful system to study open questions with respect to ageing. Here, we used long-lived winter worker honeybees and measured transcriptional changes of 14 antioxidative enzyme, immunity, and ageing-related (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway) genes at two time points during hibernation. Additionally, worker bees were challenged with a bacterial infection to test ageing- and infection-associated immunity changes. Gene expression levels for each group of target genes revealed that ageing had a much higher impact than the bacterial challenge, notably for immunity-related genes. Antimicrobial peptide and antioxidative enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in aged worker honeybees independent of bacterial infections. The known ageing markers vitellogenin and IlP-1 were opposed regulated with decreasing vitellogenin levels during ageing. The increased antioxidative enzyme and antimicrobial peptide gene expression may contribute to a retardation of senescence in long-lived hibernating worker honeybees. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effects of Polysaccharide-Based Edible Coatings on Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System of Strawberry during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a nutritious, but highly perishable fruit. Three polysaccharide-based edible coatings (alginate, chitosan, and pullulan were applied to postharvest strawberry fruit during cold storage (4°C, and their effects on fruit quality and antioxidant enzyme system were investigated in the present study. The results showed that polysaccharide coatings showed a significant delay in fruit softening and rot and reduced changes in total soluble solid and titratable acidity content during 16 d storage. Polysaccharide coatings also maintained higher ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents than control from day 2 and significantly inhibited fruit decay and respiration after 12 d storage (p<0.05. Polysaccharide treatments enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and ascorbate peroxidase so as to prevent lipid peroxidation and reduce membrane damage. Additionally, chitosan coating had the most positive effects on fruit quality amongst three polysaccharide-based edible coatings and presented the highest relative activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results indicated that polysaccharide-based edible coatings were helpful in postharvest quality maintenance of strawberry fruit.

  7. Association of antioxidative enzymes with the synergistic effect of selenium and UV irradiation in enhancing plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. XUE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is able to defend human and animal cells against UV(B stress. Higher plants are generally considered not to require Se but to have a low tolerance to it. However, recently it has been demonstrated that Se is able to protect also plants against UV-induced oxidative stress and even to promote the growth of plants subjected to high-energy light. In the present study the effects of Se on antioxidative enzymes possibly associated with this synergistic effect were investigated. Ryegrass and lettuce were grown in soil supplemented with Se at 0, 0.1 or 1.0 mg kg-1 under normal light or subjected to UV episodes. Lipid peroxidation and the changes of antioxidative enzymes were measured at two growing stages. The positive synergistic effect of the lower Se dosage and UV was found to be at least partly associated with the antioxidative role of Se through increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT activity, whereas ascorbate peroxidase (APX responded negatively to both factors. The contribution of the other enzymes studied seemed to be plant-specific: glutathione S-transferase (GST increased in both ryegrass assays and superoxide dismutase (SOD in the first lettuce assay. At the higher addition level Se acted as a pro-oxidant and diminished fresh weight yields. UV irradiation alleviated the toxicity coincidently with increase of CAT in ryegrass and SOD in lettuce.;

  8. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L..

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    Xiaotao Ding

    Full Text Available Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  9. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent pressure overload-induced ventricular dilation and decrease in mitochondrial enzymes despite no change in adiponectin

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    O'Shea Karen M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathological left ventricular (LV hypertrophy frequently progresses to dilated heart failure with suppressed mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Dietary marine ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA up-regulate adiponectin and prevent LV dilation in rats subjected to pressure overload. This study 1 assessed the effects of ω-3 PUFA on LV dilation and down-regulation of mitochondrial enzymes in response to pressure overload; and 2 evaluated the role of adiponectin in mediating the effects of ω-3 PUFA in heart. Methods Wild type (WT and adiponectin-/- mice underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC and were fed standard chow ± ω-3 PUFA for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, echocardiography was performed to assess LV function, mice were terminated, and mitochondrial enzyme activities were evaluated. Results TAC induced similar pathological LV hypertrophy compared to sham mice in both strains on both diets. In WT mice TAC increased LV systolic and diastolic volumes and reduced mitochondrial enzyme activities, which were attenuated by ω-3 PUFA without increasing adiponectin. In contrast, adiponectin-/- mice displayed no increase in LV end diastolic and systolic volumes or decrease in mitochondrial enzymes with TAC, and did not respond to ω-3 PUFA. Conclusion These findings suggest ω-3 PUFA attenuates cardiac pathology in response to pressure overload independent of an elevation in adiponectin.

  10. Melatonin and human mitochondrial diseases

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    Reza Sharafati-Chaleshtori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causative factors in a wide variety of complications such as neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia/reperfusion, aging process, and septic shock. Decrease in respiratory complex activity, increase in free radical production, increase in mitochondrial synthase activity, increase in nitric oxide production, and impair in electron transport system and/or mitochondrial permeability are considered as the main factors responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction. Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, is selectively taken up by mitochondria and acts as a powerful antioxidant, regulating the mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Melatonin increases the permeability of membranes and is the stimulator of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. It also acts as an inhibitor of lipoxygenase. Melatonin can cause resistance to oxidation damage by fixing the microsomal membranes. Melatonin has been shown to retard aging and inhibit neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia/reperfusion, septic shock, diabetes, cancer, and other complications related to oxidative stress. The purpose of the current study, other than introducing melatonin, was to present the recent findings on clinical effects in diseases related to mitochondrial dysfunction including diabetes, cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, and diseases related to brain function.

  11. Metallothionein and antioxidant enzymes in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats treated with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medici, Valentina; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; D' Inca, Renata [Department of Surgical and Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padua, Padua (Italy); Santon, Alessandro; Giannetto, Sabrina; Albergoni, Vincenzo; Irato, Paola [Department of Biology, University of Padua, via U. Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padua (Italy)

    2002-09-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is a mutant animal model for Wilson's disease. It is known that an abnormal accumulation of Cu and Fe in the liver and low concentrations of both ceruloplasmin and Cu in the serum occur in these rats. The accumulation of Cu is explained by the defective expression of the Cu-transporting P-type ATPase gene, homologous to the gene for Wilson's disease (ATP7B). The aim of this work was to clarify the action mechanism of Zn, and to verify the role that this metal plays in LEC rats in short-term treatment experiments (1 and 2 weeks) on concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, metallothionein (MT), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (oh{sup 8}dG) and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is well known that Zn induces MT and has the ability to prevent redox-active metals, Cu and Fe, binding to and causing oxidative damage at active sites of Zn metalloenzymes and nonspecific binding sites on proteins. Zn administration reduces Cu and Fe transport from mucosal to serosal intestinal sides through competitive mechanisms. Our findings show that treatment with zinc acetate increases tissue Zn and MT contents and decreases Cu and Fe concentrations in the liver and kidneys, even if hepatic Zn and MT concentrations decrease with treatment period. Induction of MT synthesis by Zn contributes to the reduction in free radicals produced by Cu and Fe. We also observed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD)activity in liver decreases with treatment duration in association with the Cu and Fe liver decrease. However, the SOD activity in kidney increases in untreated rats at 2 weeks relative to those untreated for 1 week. (orig.)

  12. Seasonal changes in antioxidant enzyme activities of freshwater biofilms in a metal polluted Mediterranean stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Berta; Corcoll, Natàlia; Acuňa, Vicenç; Sigg, Laura; Behra, Renata; Guasch, Helena

    2013-02-01

    While seasonal variations in fluvial communities have been extensively investigated, effects of seasonality on community responses to environmental and/or chemical stress are poorly documented. The aim of this study was to describe antioxidant enzyme activity (AEA) variability in fluvial biofilms over an annual cycle, under multi-stress scenarios due to environmental variability (e.g., light intensity, water flow, and temperature) and metal pollution (Zn, Mn and Fe). The annual monitoring study was performed at three sites according to their water and biofilm metal concentrations. Metal concentration was affected by water flow due to dilution. Low flow led to higher dissolved Zn concentrations, and thus to higher Zn accumulation in the biofilm. Water temperature, light intensity and phosphate concentration were the environmental factors which determined the seasonality of biofilm responses, whereas dissolved Zn and Zn accumulation in biofilms were the parameters linked to sites and periods of highest metal pollution. Community algal succession, from diatoms in cold conditions to green algae in warm conditions, was clearer in the non metal-polluted site than in those metal-polluted, presumably due to the selection pressure exerted by metals. Most AEA were related with seasonal environmental variability at the sites with low or no-metal pollution, except glutathione-S-transferase (GST) which was related with Zn (dissolved and accumulated in biofilm) pollution occurring at the most polluted site. We can conclude that seasonal variations of community composition and function are masked by metal pollution. From this study we suggest the use of a multi-biomarker approach, including AEA and a set of biological and physicochemical parameters as an effect-based field tool to assess metal pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of thermal treatment on color, enzyme activities, and antioxidant capacity of innovative pastelike parsley products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andrea; Brinkmann, Maike; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2012-03-28

    Conventional spice powders are often characterized by low sensory quality and high microbial loads. Furthermore, genuine enzymes are only inhibited but not entirely inactivated upon drying, so that they may regain their activity upon rehydration of dried foods. To overcome these problems, initial heating was applied in the present study as the first process step for the production of innovative pastelike parsley products. For this purpose, fresh parsley was blanched (80, 90, and 100 °C for 1-10 min) and subsequently comminuted to form a paste. Alternatively, mincing was carried out prior to heat treatment. Regardless of temperature, the color of the latter product did not show any change after heating for 1 min. With progressing exposure time the green color turned to olive hues due to marked pheophytin formation. Inactivation of genuine peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was achieved at all temperature-time regimes applied. In contrast, the parsley products obtained after immediate water-blanching were characterized by brighter green colors and enhanced pigment retention. With the exception of the variants water-blanched at 80 °C, POD and PPO were completely inactivated at any of the thermal treatments. Furthermore, in water-blanched samples, antioxidant capacities as determined by the TEAC and FRAP assays were even enhanced compared to unheated parsley, whereas a decrease of phenolic contents could not be prevented. Consequently, the innovative process presented in this study allows the production of novel herb and spice products characterized by improved sensory quality as compared to conventional spice products.

  14. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and superatmospheric oxygen on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of golden needle mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) during postharvest storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Cheng T.; Wang, Chang T.; Cao, Y.P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sun, B.G.; Liu, L.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the effect of oxygen concentrations on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of stored golden needle mushroom, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and initial superatmospheric oxygen was applied during mushroom storage, and physiological changes associated with postharvest

  15. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-02-16

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed.

  16. Differential 3-bromopyruvate inhibition of cytosolic and mitochondrial human serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoforms, key enzymes in cancer metabolic reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiardini, Alessandro; Tramonti, Angela; Schirch, Doug; Guiducci, Giulia; di Salvo, Martino Luigi; Fiascarelli, Alessio; Giorgi, Alessandra; Maras, Bruno; Cutruzzolà, Francesca; Contestabile, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT1 and SHMT2, respectively) are well-recognized targets of cancer research, since their activity is critical for purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis and because of their prominent role in the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells. Here we show that 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), a potent novel anti-tumour agent believed to function primarily by blocking energy metabolism, differentially inactivates human SHMT1 and SHMT2. SHMT1 is completely inhibited by 3BP, whereas SHMT2 retains a significant fraction of activity. Site directed mutagenesis experiments on SHMT1 demonstrate that selective inhibition relies on the presence of a cysteine residue at the active site of SHMT1 (Cys204) that is absent in SHMT2. Our results show that 3BP binds to SHMT1 active site, forming an enzyme-3BP complex, before reacting with Cys204. The physiological substrate l-serine is still able to bind at the active site of the inhibited enzyme, although catalysis does not occur. Modelling studies suggest that alkylation of Cys204 prevents a productive binding of l-serine, hampering interaction between substrate and Arg402. Conversely, the partial inactivation of SHMT2 takes place without the formation of a 3BP-enzyme complex. The introduction of a cysteine residue in the active site of SHMT2 by site directed mutagenesis (A206C mutation), at a location corresponding to that of Cys204 in SHMT1, yields an enzyme that forms a 3BP-enzyme complex and is completely inactivated. This work sets the basis for the development of selective SHMT1 inhibitors that target Cys204, starting from the structure and reactivity of 3BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental and hormone-induced changes of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activities during the last instar larval development of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    VenkatRao, V; Chaitanya, R K; Naresh Kumar, D; Bramhaiah, M; Dutta-Gupta, A

    2016-12-01

    The energy demand for structural remodelling in holometabolous insects is met by cellular mitochondria. Developmental and hormone-induced changes in the mitochondrial respiratory activity during insect metamorphosis are not well documented. The present study investigates activities of enzymes of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) namely, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I, Succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex II, Ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase or complex III, cytochrome c oxidase or complex IV and F 1 F 0 ATPase (ATPase), during Chilo partellus development. Further, the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) analog, methoprene, and brain and corpora-allata-corpora-cardiaca (CC-CA) homogenates that represent neurohormones, on the ETC enzyme activities was monitored. The enzymatic activities increased from penultimate to last larval stage and thereafter declined during pupal development with an exception of ATPase which showed high enzyme activity during last larval and pupal stages compared to the penultimate stage. JH analog, methoprene differentially modulated ETC enzyme activities. It stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities, but did not alter the activities of complex II, III and ATPase. On the other hand, brain homogenate declined the ATPase activity while the injected CC-CA homogenate stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities. Cumulatively, the present study is the first to show that mitochondrial ETC enzyme system is under hormone control, particularly of JH and neurohormones during insect development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  19. Effect of high dietary copper on growth, antioxidant and lipid metabolism enzymes of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanxing Meng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to test the responses of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus to high Cu intake. Experimental diets were formulated containing three levels of Cu: low Cu (3.67 mg/kg, middle Cu (13.65 mg/kg and high Cu (25.78 mg/kg, and each diet were fed to large yellow croaker in triplicate for 10 weeks. Final body weight, weight gain and feed intake were the lowest in high Cu group, but hepatosomatic index was the highest; Cu concentrations in the whole-body, muscle and liver of fish fed low Cu diet was the lowest; Liver superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in fish fed high Cu diet were lower than those in fish fed other diets; The higher content of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content was found in high Cu group, followed by middle Cu group, and the lowest in low Cu group; Liver 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase activities were the lowest in high Cu group, but lipoprotein lipase activity was the highest. This study indicated that high copper intake reduced growth of juvenile larger yellow croaker, inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid synthetases, and led to energy mobilization. Keywords: Larger yellow croaker, Copper, Antioxidant enzyme, Lipid metabolism enzyme

  20. Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia caused by a defect in the SCHAD enzyme of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molven, Anders; Matre, Guri E.; Duran, Marinus; Wanders, Ronald J.; Rishaug, Unni; Njølstad, Pål R.; Jellum, Egil; Søvik, Oddmund

    2004-01-01

    Inappropriately elevated insulin secretion is the hallmark of persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI), also denoted congenital hyperinsulinism. Causal mutations have been uncovered in genes coding for the beta-cell's ATP-sensitive potassium channel and the metabolic enzymes

  1. The effects of aqueous extract of white tea on serum antioxidant enzymes in rats exposed to arsenic

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    mohammadhassan rasoulifard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a condition is which the biological system's ability to detoxify and eliminate harmful effects of free radicals is not sufficient and oxidative damages to cells or tissues  leads to the development of diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis and degenerative changes. Phenolic compounds due to their high antioxidant capacity, have an important role in health and increase the antioxidant defense against oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of white tea on status of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx, MDA (malondialdehyde and TAC (total antioxidant capacity in rats treated with sodium arsenite. In this study, 32 adult male rats weighing 200-250 g were used in four groups of eight. The first group included healthy normal rats (control group, the second group of rats were treated with sodium arsenite (100 ppm in drinking water the third group of rats were treated with aqueous extract of white tea at a concentration of 1/5%, via gavage, the fourth group of rats were treated with aqueous extract of white tea (1/5% via gavage with sodium arsenite (100 ppm in drinking water. The rats were killed at the end of the 28th day of treatment and blood samples were collected and the antioxidant enzymes of CAT (catalase, SOD (superoxide dismutase, GPx (glutathione peroxidase, and MDA and TAC were measured. The results indicate that the aqueous extract of white tea significantly increased the activities of SOD, GPx, CAT and TAC and decreased   MDA concentration (p

  2. Effect of Grinding at Modified Atmosphere or Vacuum on Browning, Antioxidant Capacities, and Oxidative Enzyme Activities of Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah-Na; Lee, Kyo-Yeon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chun, Jiyeon; Kerr, William L; Choi, Sung-Gil

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of grinding at atmospheric pressure (control), under vacuum (∼2.67 kPa), or with modified atmosphere (N 2 and CO 2 ) on the browning, antioxidant activity, phenolics, and oxidative enzyme activity of apples as a function of time. The control group was affected most, showing distinct browning and losing most of the antioxidant activity and concentrations of the main phenolic compounds. The modified atmosphere groups retained color, antioxidant activity, and phenolic compounds better than the control group. Least changes were obtained with vacuum grinding, particularly in terms of preventing enzymatic browning and oxidation of antioxidants apples. At 12 h after grinding, vacuum-ground apples retained total phenolic contents 5.32, 1.54, and 1.49 times higher than control, nitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide gas-ground samples, respectively. The oxidative enzyme activity, including that of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, decreased in the control and modified atmosphere group, but they were maintained in the samples ground under the vacuum. In this study, we found that grinding with modified atmosphere or vacuum conditions could effectively prevent browning as well as loss of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of ground apples. These results can help scientists and engineers build better grinding systems for retaining nutrient and quality factors of ground apples. In addition, these results may be useful to other fruit and vegetable industries that wish to retain fresh-like quality and nutritional value during grinding and storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Thymosin beta 4 protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress by targeting anti-oxidative enzymes and anti-apoptotic genes.

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    Chuanyu Wei

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. The mechanism by which Tβ4 modulates cardiac protection under oxidative stress is not known. The purpose of this study is to dissect the cardioprotective mechanism of Tβ4 on H(2O(2 induced cardiac damage.Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes with or without Tβ4 pretreatment were exposed to H(2O(2 and expression of antioxidant, apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. ROS levels were estimated by DCF-DA using fluorescent microscopy and fluorimetry. Selected antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic genes were silenced by siRNA transfections in neonatal cardiomyocytes and effect of Tβ4 on H(2O(2-induced cardiac damage was evaluated.Pre-treatment of Tβ4 resulted in reduction of the intracellular ROS levels induced by H(2O(2 in cardiomyocytes. Tβ4 pretreatment also resulted in an increase in the expression of antiapoptotic proteins and reduction of Bax/BCl(2 ratio in the cardiomyocytes. Pretreatment with Tβ4 resulted in stimulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes copper/zinc SOD and catalase in cardiomyocytes at both transcription and translation levels. Tβ4 treatment resulted in the increased expression of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory genes. Silencing of Cu/Zn SOD and catalase gene resulted in apoptotic cell death in the cardiomyocytes which was prevented by treatment with Tβ4.This is the first report that demonstrates the effect of Tβ4 on cardiomyocytes and its capability to selectively upregulate anti-oxidative enzymes, anti-inflammatory genes, and antiapoptotic enzymes in the neonatal cardiomyocytes thus preventing cell death thereby protecting the myocardium. Tβ4 treatment resulted in decreased oxidative stress and inflammation in the myocardium under oxidative stress.

  4. Effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum anti-oxidant enzymes and vitamins of albino rats

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    Benedict C. Eke, BSc, MSc

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum antioxidant enzymes and vitamins in albino rats was investigated. In the study, thirty two (32 male wistar albino rats were obtained and grouped into four groups (A, B, C and D of eight animals each. The animals were acclimatized for 7 days on commercial rat feed. The animals in groups B, C and D were all fed ad libitum with porridge yam, porridge beans and jellof rice with meat/fish reheated for 2 min, 4 min and 6 min for groups B, C and D respectively for 42 days. Group A was fed with un-microwaved food and water for the duration of the study (42 days and served as control. Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT activities, vitamins A and E concentrations were determined using standard methods. Result obtained from the study showed that microwaved food consumption resulted in a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in SOD and CAT activity in rats fed with the microwaved food. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity were more significantly (P < 0.05 reduced in rats exposed to food microwaved for 6 min compared to the control group (A. Also, serum vitamins A and E concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in rats fed with food exposed to microwaves for 6 min as compared to the control group. Microwaves and increased microwaving time resulted to a significant reduction in SOD, CAT, vitamin A and E in fed rats. Therefore our study demonstrated that consumption of microwaved foods resulted in a significant decrease in antioxidant protection and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress and degenerative diseases.

  5. Differences in mitochondrial gene expression profiles, enzyme activities and myosin heavy chain types in yak versus bovine skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y Q; Xu, Y O; Yue, Y; Jin, S Y; Qu, Y; Dong, F; Li, Y P; Zheng, Y C

    2012-08-29

    Hypoxia can affect energy metabolism. We examined gene expression and enzyme activity related to mitochondrial energy metabolism, as well as myosin heavy chain (MyHC) types in yaks (Bos grunniens) living at high altitudes. Real-time quantitative PCR assays indicated that the yak has significantly lower levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) mRNA in the biceps femoris and lower levels of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) mRNA in both biceps femoris and longissimus dorsi than in Yellow cattle. No significant differences between yak and Yellow cattle were observed in the activities of mitochondrial β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in the same muscles. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the MyHC 1 mRNA levels in yak biceps femoris was lower than in Yellow cattle. We conclude that the yak has significantly lower mRNA levels of CPT, UCP3, and MyHC 1 in biceps femoris than in Yellow cattle, suggesting that the yak biceps femoris has lower fatty acid oxidation capacity and greater glycolytic metabolic potential.

  6. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  7. Influence of Piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpavalli, Ganesan; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2008-01-01

    D-galactosamine is a well-established hepatotoxicant that induces a diffuse type of liver injury closely resembling human viral hepatitis. D-galactosamine by its property of generating free radicals causes severe damage to the membrane and affects almost all organs of the human body. The leaves of Piper betle L., a commonly used masticatory in Asian countries, possess several biological properties. Our aim is to investigate the in vivo antioxidant potential of P. betle leaf-extract against oxidative stress induced by D-galactosamine intoxication in male albino Wistar rats. Toxicity was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine, 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 21 days. Rats were treated with P. betle extract (200 mg/kg BW) via intragastric intubations. We assessed the activities of liver marker enzymes (aspartate amino-transferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) and levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione. The extract significantly improved the status of antioxidants and decreased TBARS, hydroperoxides, and liver marker enzymes when compared with the D-galactosamine treated group, demonstrating its hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties.

  8. Size distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles in cell culture medium and their influence on antioxidative enzymes in Chinese hamster ovary cells

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    Srđenović Branislava U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenol (C60(OH24 nanoparticles (FNP have a significant role in biomedical research due to their numerous biological activities, some of which are cytoprotective and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to measure distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles and zeta potential in cell medium RPMI 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and to investigate the influence of FNP on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 survival, as well as to determine the activity of three antioxidative enzymes: superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-reductase and glutathione-S-transferase in mitomycin C-treated cell line. Our investigation implies that FNP, as a strong antioxidant, influence the cellular redox state and enzyme activities and thus may reduce cell proliferation, which confirms that FNP could be exploited for its use as a cytoprotective agent.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45005 i Pokrajinski Sekretarijat za nauku i tehnološki razvoj Vojvodine, grant number 114-451-2056/2011-01

  9. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats

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    Brajesh Kumar Maurya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  10. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar; Trigun, Surendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase) level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:26682000

  11. Optimization of enzymes-microwave-ultrasound assisted extraction of Lentinus edodes polysaccharides and determination of its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chaomin; Fan, Xiuzhi; Fan, Zhe; Shi, Defang; Gao, Hong

    2018-05-01

    Enzymes-microwave-ultrasound assisted extraction (EMUE) method had been used to extract Lentinus edodes polysaccharides (LEPs). The enzymatic temperature, enzymatic pH, microwave power and microwave time were optimized by response surface methodology. The yields, properties and antioxidant activities of LEPs from EMUE and other extraction methods including hot-water extraction, enzymes-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction were evaluated. The results showed that the highest LEPs yield of 9.38% was achieved with enzymatic temperature of 48°C, enzymatic pH of 5.0, microwave power of 440W and microwave time of 10min, which correlated well with the predicted value of 9.79%. Additionally, LEPs from different extraction methods possessed typical absorption peak of polysaccharides, which meant different extraction methods had no significant effects on type of glycosidic bonds and sugar ring of LEPs. However, SEM images of LEPs from different extraction methods were significantly different. Moreover, the different LEPs all showed antioxidant activities, but LEPs from EMUE showed the highest reducing power when compared to other LEPs. The results indicated LEPs from EMUE can be used as natural antioxidant component in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel mitochondrial protein of Neurospora crassa immunoprecipitates with known enzyme subunits but is not antigenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, E.

    1989-01-01

    14 C labeled 4'-phosphopantetheine (PAN) is detectable as 2 bands after SDS-PAGE of mitochondrial proteins. The bands comigrate with subunit 6 of cytochrome oxidase (COX) and a small ATPase subunit in tube gel slices of immunoprecipitates. However, other work demonstrated these bands to be due to modification of a novel protein, related to acyl carrier protein (ACP) of spinach and E. coli, that exists in two forms. To resolve this discrepancy, 1-dimensional (1D) slab and 2-dimensional (2D) SDS-PAGE was used for increased resolution over tube gels. Total mitochondrial protein gels from PAN labeled cells were western blotted, probed for COX, and autoradiographed. In 1D there is exact migration of PAN with COX6. In 2D PAN overlaps a protein distinct from and not antigenically related to COX subunits. These data suggest it is the ACP-like protein that in PAN-modified. Its possible association with COX during assembly will be discussed

  13. Anti-oxidative stress regulator NF-E2-related factor 2 mediates the adaptive induction of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes by lipid peroxidation metabolite 4-hydroxynonenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2 regulates a battery of antioxidative and phase II drug metabolizing/detoxifying genes through binding to the antioxidant response elements (ARE. NRF2-ARE signaling plays a central role in protecting cells from a wide spectrum of reactive toxic species including reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS. 4-hydroxylnonenal (4-HNE is a major end product from lipid peroxidation of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA induced by oxidative stress, and it is highly reactive to nucleophilic sites in DNA and proteins, causing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. In this study, we examined the role of NRF2 in regulating the 4-HNE induced gene expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Results When HeLa cells were treated with 4-HNE, NRF2 rapidly transloated into the nucleus, as determined by the distribution of NRF2 tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and increased NRF2 protein in the nuclear fraction. Transcriptional activity of ARE-luciferase was significantly induced by 0.01-10 μM of 4-HNE in a dose-dependent manner, and the induction could be blocked by pretreatment with glutathione (GSH. 4-HNE induced transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST A4, aldoketone reductase (AKR 1C1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and the induction was attenuated by knocking down NRF2 using small interfering RNA. Conclusions NRF2 is critical in mediating 4-HNE induced expression of antioxidant and detoxifying genes. This may account for one of the major cellular defense mechanisms against reactive metabolites of lipids peroxidation induced by oxidative stress and protect cells from cytotoxicity.

  14. Conversion of shrimp shell by using Serratia sp. TKU017 fermentation for the production of enzymes and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, San-Lang; Li, Jeng-Yu; Liang, Tzu-Wen; Hsieh, Jia-Lin; Tseng, Wan-Nine

    2010-01-01

    A chitinase (CHT), and a protease (PRO) were purified from the culture supernatant of Serratia sp. TKU017 with shrimp shell as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. The molecular masses of CHT and PRO determined by SDS-PAGE were approximately 65 kDa and 53 kDa, respectively. CHT was inhibited by Mn2+, Cu2+ and PRO was inhibited by most tested divalent metals, EDTA. The optimum pH, optimum temperature, pH stability, and thermal stability of CHT and PRO were (pH 5, 50 degrees , pH 5 degrees ) and (pH 9, 40 degrees , pH 5 degrees ), respectively. PRO retained 95% of its protease activity in the presence of 0.5 mM SDS. The result demonstrates that PRO is SDS-resistant protease and probably has a rigid structure. The 4th day supernatant showed the strongest antioxidant activity (70%, DPPH scavenging ability) and the highest total phenolic content (196+/-6.2 microng of gallic acid equival/mL). Significant associations between the antioxidant potency and the total phenolic content, as well as between the antioxidant potency and free amino groups, were found for the supernatant. With this method, we have shown that shrimp shell wastes can be utilized and it's effective in the production of enzymes and antioxidants, facilitating its potential use in industrial applications and functional foods.

  15. Increased activities of mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Vinten, J; Ploug, T

    1991-01-01

    of 8-12 rats were swim trained for 10 wk or served as either sedentary, sham swim-trained, or cold-stressed controls. White adipose tissue was removed, and the activities of the respiratory chain enzyme cytochrome-c oxidase (CCO) and of the enzyme malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which participates...... 0.05). In female rats the CCO activity expressed per milligram protein was increased 4.5-fold in the trained compared with the sedentary control rats (P less than 0.01). Neither cold stress nor sham swim training increased CCO or MDH activities in white adipose tissue (P greater than 0...

  16. The reaction of NADPH with bovine mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase revisited: I. Proposed consequences for electron transfer in the enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albracht, S.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) is the first complex in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It has long been assumed that it contained only one FMN group. However, as demonstrated in 2003, the intact enzyme contains two FMN groups. The second FMN was proposed to be located in a

  17. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-06

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  18. PGC-1alpha is required for training-induced prevention of age-associated decline in mitochondrial enzymes in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Lyngby, Stine Secher; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that exercise training prevents an age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzymes through a PGC-1alpha dependent mechanism. Whole body PGC-1alpha knock-out (KO) and littermate wildtype (WT) mice were submitted to long term...

  19. Piper nigrum: micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina

    2013-04-01

    A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro

  20. Lycopene activates antioxidant enzymes and nuclear transcription factor systems in heat-stressed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Sahin, N; Hayirli, A; Bilgili, S; Kucuk, O

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lycopene supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, and muscle nuclear transcription factor [Kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] expressions in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress (HS). A total of 180 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned randomly to one of 2×3 factorially arranged treatments: two housing temperatures (22°C for 24 h/d; thermoneutral, TN or 34°C for 8 h/d HS) and three dietary lycopene levels (0, 200, or 400 mg/kg). Each treatment consisted of three replicates of 10 birds. Birds were reared to 42 d of age. Heat stress caused reductions in feed intake and weight gain by 12.2 and 20.7% and increased feed efficiency by 10.8% (Plycopene level improved performance in both environments. Birds reared under the HS environment had lower serum and muscle lycopene concentration (0.34 vs. 0.50 μg/mL and 2.80 vs. 2.13 μg/g), activities of superoxide dismutase (151 vs. 126 U/mL and 131 vs. 155 U/mg protein), glutathione peroxidase (184 vs. 154 U/mL and 1.39 vs. 1.74 U/mg protein), and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (0.53 vs. 0.83 μg/mL and 0.78 vs. 0.45 μg/ mg protein) than birds reared under the TN environment. Changes in levels of lycopene and MDA and activities of enzymes in serum and muscle varied by the environmental temperature as dietary lycopene level increased. Moreover, increasing dietary lycopene level suppressed muscle Keap1 expression and enhanced muscle Nrf2 expression, which had increased by 150% and decreased by 40%, respectively in response to HS. In conclusion, lycopene supplementation alleviates adverse effects of HS on performance through modulating expressions of stress-related nuclear transcription factors. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Mitochondrial Enzyme Plays Critical Role in Chemotherapy-Induced Heart Damage | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective drug for treating cancers ranging from leukemia and lymphoma to solid tumors, such as breast cancer. DOX kills dividing cells in two ways: inserting between the base pairs of DNA and trapping a complex of DNA and an enzyme that cuts DNA, topoisomerase 2α, preventing DNA repair. However, DOX also causes congestive heart failure in about 30

  2. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska [Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: contardo@igb-berlin.de; Klingelmann, Eva [Technische Universitaet Berlin/Berlin Institute of Technology, Department of Ecology, Chair of Soil Protection, Salzufer 12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: eva.klingelmann@TU-Berlin.de; Wiegand, Claudia [Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Humboldt University Berlin, Faculty of Biology, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: cwiegand@igb-berlin.de

    2009-01-15

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L{sup -1} pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using {sup 14}C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from log P{sub ow}. Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself. - Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the active ingredient, glyphosate, to Lumbriculus variegatus regarding accumulation potential and enzymatic responses.

  3. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Klingelmann, Eva; Wiegand, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L -1 pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using 14 C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from log P ow . Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself. - Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the active ingredient, glyphosate, to Lumbriculus variegatus regarding accumulation potential and enzymatic responses

  4. Silicon improves seed germination and alleviates drought stress in lentil crops by regulating osmolytes, hydrolytic enzymes and antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Sajitha; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gupta, Dorin

    2017-10-01

    Silicon (Si) has been widely reported to have beneficial effect on mitigating drought stress in plants. However, the effect of Si on seed germination under drought conditions is still poorly understood. This research was carried out to ascertain the role of Si to abate polyethylene glycol-6000 mediated drought stress on seed germination and seedling growth of lentil. Results showed that drought stress significantly decreased the seed germination traits and increased the concentration of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars), reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion) and lipid peroxides in lentil seedlings. The activities of hydrolytic enzymes and antioxidant enzymes increased significantly under osmotic stress. The application of Si significantly enhanced the plants ability to withstand drought stress conditions through increased Si content, improved antioxidants, hydrolytic enzymes activity, decreased concentration of osmolytes and reactive oxygen species. Multivariate data analysis showed statistically significant correlations among the drought-tolerance traits, whereas cluster analysis categorised the genotypes into distinct groups based on their drought-tolerance levels and improvements in expression of traits due to Si application. Thus, these results showed that Si supplementation of lentil was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects of drought stress on seed germination and increased seedling vigour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Photobiomodulation Therapy Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Lung Tissue after Formaldehyde Exposure: Role of Oxidant/Antioxidant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Silva Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is ubiquitous pollutant that induces oxidative stress in the lung. Several lung diseases have been associated with oxidative stress and their control is necessary. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT has been highlighted as a promissory treatment, but its mechanisms need to be better investigated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PBMT on the oxidative stress generated by FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were submitted to FA exposure of 1% or vehicle (3 days and treated or not with PBMT (1 and 5 h after each FA exposure. Rats treated only with laser were used as control. Twenty-four hours after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the effects of PBMT on the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide, oxidative burst, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, S-transferase enzyme activities, the gene expression of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, superoxide dismutase, the catalase enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1. PBMT reduced the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide and increased oxidative burst in the lung cells. A decreased level of oxidant enzymes was observed which were concomitantly related to an increased level of antioxidants. This study provides new information about the antioxidant mechanisms of PBMT in the lung and might constitute an important tool for lung disease treatment.

  6. Effect of Potato virusY on activities of antioxidant and anaplerotic enzymes in Nicotina tabacum L. transgenic plants with the gene for p3 protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubnerová, V.; Janoušková, M.; Synková, Helena; Šubr, Z.; Čeřovská, Noemi; Ryšlavá, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 33, 3-4 (2007), s. 123-140 ISSN 1312-8183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : antioxidant enzymes * NADP-malic enzyme * PEPC Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology www.bio21.bas.bg/ipp/gapbfiles/v-33/07_3-4_123-140.pdf

  7. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, Riffat A.; Ahmad, Masood

    2005-01-01

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H 2 O 2 continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 μM, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also showed enhanced

  8. Pre-harvest UV-C irradiation triggers VOCs accumulation with alteration of antioxidant enzymes and phytohormones in strawberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqun; Luo, Zisheng; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Rolland, Daniel; Roussel, Dominique

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the biological and physiological effects of pre-harvest ultraviolet (UV)-C treatment on growing plants. However, little is known about the involvement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their response to this treatment. In this study, strawberry plants were exposed to three different doses of UV-C radiation for seven weeks (a low dose: 9.6kJm -2 ; a medium dose: 15kJm -2 ; and a high-dose: 29.4kJm -2 ). Changes in VOC profiles were investigated and an attempt was made to identify factors that may be involved in the regulation of these alterations. Principle compounds analysis revealed that VOC profiles of UV-C treated samples were significantly altered with 26 VOCs being the major contributors to segregation. Among them, 18 fatty acid-derived VOCs accumulated in plants that received high and medium dose of UV-C treatments with higher lipoxygenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. In treated samples, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase was inhibited, resulting in a reduced antioxidant capacity and higher lipid peroxidation. Simultaneously, jasmonic acid level was 74% higher in the high-dose group while abscisic acid content was more than 12% lower in both the medium and high-dose UV-C treated samples. These results indicated that pre-harvest UV-C treatment stimulated the biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived VOCs in strawberry leaf tissue by upregulating the activity of enzymes of the LOX biosynthetic pathway and downregulating antioxidant enzyme activities. It is further suggested that the mechanisms underlying fatty acid-derived VOCs biosynthesis in UV-C treated strawberry leaves are associated with UV-C-induced changes in phytohormone profiles. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These

  10. Upregulation of glycolytic enzymes, mitochondrial dysfunction and increased cytotoxicity in glial cells treated with Alzheimer's disease plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharusha Jayasena

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Markers of increased protein, lipid and nucleic acid oxidation and reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes have been reported in AD plasma. Amyloid plaques in the AD brain elicit a range of reactive inflammatory responses including complement activation and acute phase reactions, which may also be reflected in plasma. Previous studies have shown that human AD plasma may be cytotoxic to cultured cells. We investigated the effect of pooled plasma (n = 20 each from healthy controls, individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD on cultured microglial cells. AD plasma and was found to significantly decrease cell viability and increase glycolytic flux in microglia compared to plasma from healthy controls. This effect was prevented by the heat inactivation of complement. Proteomic methods and isobaric tags (iTRAQ found the expression level of complement and other acute phase proteins to be altered in MCI and AD plasma and an upregulation of key enzymes involved in the glycolysis pathway in cells exposed to AD plasma. Altered expression levels of acute phase reactants in AD plasma may alter the energy metabolism of glia.

  11. In vitro enzyme-mimic activity and in vivo therapeutic potential of HSJ-0017, a novel Mn porphyrin-based antioxidant enzyme mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-qiu; Dong, Xin; Li, Na; Gao, Ji-you; Yuan, Qiang; Fang, Shi-hong; Gong, Xian-chang; Wang, Shu-juan; Wang, Feng-shan

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (III) 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis [3-(2-(2-methoxy)-ethoxy) ethoxy] phenyl porphyrin chloride, designated HSJ-0017, is a novel antioxidant enzyme mimic. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enzyme-mimic activity and the therapeutic potential of HSJ-0017 in free radical-related diseases. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic activity was measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium chloride monohydrate reduction assay. Catalase (CAT) mimic activity was measured based on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The antitumor, radioprotective and chemoprotective effects of HSJ-0017 were evaluated in H22 or S180 tumor-bearing Kunming mice. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects were, respectively, evaluated in histamine-induced edema model and CCl4-induced hepatic damage model in Wistar rats. HSJ-0017 over a concentration range of 0.001-10 µmol/L significantly inhibited the generation of superoxide anion. Significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity was observed when the concentration of HSJ-0017 was higher than 0.01 µmol/L. HSJ-0017 at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg exhibited significant antitumor effect on S180 tumor xenografts, whereas no significant antitumor effect was observed in H22 tumor xenografts. HSJ-0017 at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg enhanced the antitumor effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and reduced their toxicity. However, HSJ-0017 counteracted the antitumor effects of radiotherapy when administered simultaneously with radiotherapy. HSJ-0017 showed significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. Our results demonstrate that HSJ-0017 exhibits antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, radioprotective, chemoprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. It is a potent dual SOD/CAT mimic. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  12. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in yeast cells after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, Ji Young; Ryu, Tae Ho; Roh, Chang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    Ionizing radiation induces water radiolysis, which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause apoptosis and cell damage. When exposed to ionizing radiation, cells activates ROS scavenging detoxifying enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. SOD scavenges superoxide radicals by catalyzing the conversion of two of these radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The hydrogen peroxide formed by superoxide dismutase and by other processes is scavenged by catalase, a ubiquitous heme protein that catalyzes the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen. Yeast has two catalase and three GPx proteins. The biochemical function of GPx is to reduce lipid-hydroperoxides to their corresponding alcohols and to reduce free hydrogen peroxide to water. N-acetylL-cysteine (NAC) having a thiol, a precursor for glutathione (GSH), is known as one of the antioxidants. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity and alkaline phosphatase. In this study, the role of NAC as an antioxidant and a radioprotector was examined on cell survival, transcriptional level, and protein level. through observing viability of cells, analyzing the gene expression of antioxidant enzyme, measuring the SOD activity and intracellular GSH levels in yeast W303-1A strain The cell viability of haploid S. cerevisiae W303-1A strain was reduced significantly at the low dose (10∼30 Gy). The half-lethal dose of the strain was about 20 Gy. The CFU assay result confirmed that NAC could not rescue the cells from radiation-induced death. When irradiated with 100 Gy, an increase in the transcriptional expression was observed in the antioxicant genes. The expression of these genes decreased by treatment of NAC in irradiated cells. NAC decline SOD activity and intracellular GSH levels. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge

  13. Tissue levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in fish Astyanax bimaculatus from the Una River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Oliveira Batista

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available STRACT This paper seeks to identify the biomarker response to oxidative stress in Astyanax bimaculatus, a freshwater fish, collected from the Una River and its associated water bodies. The fish were collected using fishing nets at three different points on the river basin, namely Fazenda Piloto (FP, Ipiranga (IP and Remédios (RM, during the period from December 2013 to March 2014. Physical and chemical analyses of the water at the sample locations indicate that IP and RM possibly have larger concentration of either natural or anthropic pollutants as compared to FP. FP can therefore be considered as the point less impacted by pollutants than other points. Hepatic activity of antioxidant stress enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, were measured in the specimens. The levels of SOD were reduced at RM while they were elevated in fish collected at IP. The CAT levels for the fish at RM and IP were about 148.9% and 202.4% above the values at FP, respectively. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes could be used as biomarkers to measure oxidative stress caused by pollutants in the Una River Basin.

  14. Flixweed is more competitive than winter wheat under ozone pollution: evidences from membrane lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Hong Li

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of ozone on winter wheat and flixweed under competition, two species were exposed to ambient, elevated and high [O3] for 30 days, planted singly or in mixculture. Eco-physiological responses were examined at different [O3] and fumigating time. Ozone reduced the contents of chlorophyll, increased the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in both wheat and flixweed. The effects of competition on chlorophyll content of wheat emerged at elevated and high [O3], while that of flixweed emerged only at high [O3]. The increase of H2O2 and malondialdehyde of flixweed was less than that of wheat under the same condition. Antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat and flixweed were seriously depressed by perennial and serious treatment using O3. However, short-term and moderate fumigation increased the activities of SOD and POD of wheat, and CAT of flixweed. The expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes provided explanation for these results. Furthermore, the increase of CAT expression of flixweed was much higher than that of SOD and POD expression of wheat. Ozone and competition resulted in significant reductions in biomass and grain yield in both winter wheat and flixweed. However, the negative effects on flixweed were less than wheat. Our results demonstrated that winter wheat is more sensitive to O3 and competition than flixweed, providing valuable data for further investigation on responses of winter wheat to ozone pollution, in particular combined with species competition.

  15. Effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in Pacific cod Gadus microcephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Shi, Xuehui; Liu, Yifan; Yu, Daode; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Sperm motility and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (Gr), and lipid peroxidation (measured via malondialdehyde (MDA) content) were determined after the milt was stored at 4°C for 12 h, cryopreserved without cryoprotectant in 12% propylene glycol (PG), cryopreserved in 12% PG+0.1 mol/L trehalose, or cryopreserved in 12% PG spermatozoa but centrifuged to decant the supernatant prior to cryopreservation (only sperm cells were cryopreserved). After chilled storage or cryopreservation, the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were reduced in sperm cells and increased in seminal plasma in almost all treatments; sperm motility parameters were also decreased. However, the addition of trehalose into the cryoprotectant could significantly improve the postthaw sperm quality as revealed by the sperm average path velocity. This improvement might be attributed to the function of trehalose in scavenging reactive oxygen species. Chilled storage and cryopreservation had significant effects on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod.

  16. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) and Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) under heavy metal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odjegba, V. J.; Fasidi, I. O.

    2007-01-01

    Whole plants of Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were exposed to various concentrations (0,0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM) of 8 heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) hydroponically for 21 days. Spectrometric assays for the total activity of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the leaves were studied. At the end of the experimental period, data referred to metal treated plants were compared to data of untreated ones (control). Heavy metals increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in both species and there was differential inducement among metals. Overall, Zn had the least inducement of antioxidant enzymes in both species while Hg had the highest inducement. The increase in antioxidant enzymes in relation to the control plants was more in E. crassipes than P. stratiotes. The results showed that E. crassipes tolerated higher metal concentrations in a greater number of metals than P. stratiotes. (author)

  17. Attenuation of stress induced memory deficits by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in rats: Role of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emad, Shaista; Qadeer, Sara; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira

    2017-04-01

    Repeated stress paradigms have been shown to cause devastating alterations on memory functions. Stress is linked with inflammation. Psychological and certain physical stressors could lead to neuroinflammation. Inflammatory process may occur by release of mediators and stimulate the production of prostaglandins through cyclooxygenase (COX). Treatment with COX inhibitors, which restrain prostaglandin production, has enhanced memory in a number of neuroinflammatory states showing a potential function for raised prostaglandins in these memory shortfalls. In the present study, potential therapeutic effects of indomethacin and diclofenac sodium on memory in both unrestraint and restraint rats were observed. Two components, long term memory and short term memory were examined by Morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively. The present study also demonstrated the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of antioxidant enzymes along with the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Results of MWM and EPM showed significant effects of drugs in both unrestraint and restraint rats as escape latency and transfer latency, in respective behavioral models were decreased as compared to that of control. This study also showed NSAIDs administration decreased LPO and increased antioxidant enzymes activity and decreased AChE activity in rats exposed to repeated stress. In conclusion this study suggests a therapeutic potential of indomethacin and diclofenac against repeated stress-induced memory deficits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  18. Cadmium toxicity affects chlorophyll a and b content, antioxidant enzyme activities and mineral nutrient accumulation in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhad Muradoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd is well known as one of the most toxic metals affecting the environment and can severely restrict plant growth and development. In this study, Cd toxicities were studied in strawberry cv. Camarosa using pot experiment. Chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA contents, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX activities and mineral nutrient concentrations were investigated in both roots and leaves of strawberry plant after exposure Cd. RESULTS: Cd content in both roots and leaves was increased with the application of increasing concentrations of Cd. We found higher Cd concentration in roots rather than in leaves. Chlorophyll a and b was decreased in leaves but MDA significantly increased under increased Cd concentration treatments in both roots and leaves. SOD and CAT activities was also increased with the increase Cd concentrations. K, Mn and Mg concentrations were found higher in leaves than roots under Cd stress. In general, increased Cd treatments increased K, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu and Zn concentration in both roots and leaves. Excessive Cd treatments reduced chlorophyll contents, increased antioxidant enzyme activities and changes in plant nutrition concentrations in both roots and leaves. CONCLUSION: The results presented in this work suggested that Cd treatments have negative effect on chlorophyll content and nearly decreased 30% of plant growth in strawberry. Strawberry roots accumulated higher Cd than leaves. We found that MDA and antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD and APX contents may have considered a good indicator in determining Cd tolerance in strawberry plant.

  19. Comparison of antioxidant enzyme activities and DNA damage in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes exposed to vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Muhammad Adnan; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Yousaf, Balal; Ashraf, Muhammad; Shuanglian, Xiong; Rizwan, Muhammad; Mehmood, Sajid; Tu, Shuxin

    2016-10-01

    The present study was done to elucidate the effects of vanadium (V) on photosynthetic pigments, membrane damage, antioxidant enzymes, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity in the following chickpea genotypes: C-44 (tolerant) and Balkasar (sensitive). Changes in these parameters were strikingly dependent on levels of V, at 60 and 120 mg V L(-1) induced DNA damage in Balkasar only, while photosynthetic pigments and protein were decreased from 15 to 120 mg V L(-1) and membrane was also damaged. It was shown that photosynthetic pigments and protein production declined from 15 to 120 mg V L(-1) and the membrane was also damaged, while DNA damage was not observed at any level of V stress in C-44. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were increased in both genotypes of chickpea against V stress; however, more activities were observed in C-44 than Balkasar. The results suggest that DNA damage in sensitive genotypes can be triggered due to exposure of higher vanadium.

  20. The effect of extra virgin olive oil and soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kholy, Thanaa A; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Al-Abbadi, Hatim Ali; Serafi, Abdulhalim Salim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K; Sobhy, Hanan M; Richardson, John R C

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents' organs and warrants further investigation in humans.

  1. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Heat Acclimation on Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Gene Expression in Orchardgrass under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xin Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the effects of heat acclimation on enzymatic activity, transcription levels, the photosynthesis processes associated with thermostability in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L..The stomatal conductance (Gs, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, and transpiration rates (Tr of both heat-acclimated (HA and non-acclimated (NA plants were drastically reduced during heat treatment [using a 5-day heat stress treatment (38/30 °C ‒ day/night followed by a 3-day recovery under control conditions (25/20 °C ‒ day/night, in order to consolidate the second cycle was permitted]. Water use efficiency increased more steeply in the HA (4.9 times versus the NA (1.8 times plants, and the intercellular CO2 concentration decreased gently in NA (10.9% and HA (25.3% plants after 20 d of treatments compared to 0 days’. Furthermore, heat-acclimated plants were able to maintain significant activity levels of superoxide disumutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, and transcription levels of genes encoding these enzymes; in addition, HA plants displayed lower malondialdehyde content and lower electrolyte leakage than NA plants. These results suggest that maintenance of activity and transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as photosynthesis are associated with variable thermostability in HA and NA plants. This likely occurs through cellular membrane stabilization and improvements in water use efficiency in the photosynthetic process during heat stress. The association between antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, both of which may vary with genetic variation in heat tolerance, is important to further understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to heat tolerance.

  3. Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks׳ gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D; Gill, Carolyn A; Kurlak, Lesia O; Seed, Paul T; Hesketh, John E; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 2-7% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (15±1 weeks׳ gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both Ppreeclampsia. The modest elevation in copper may contribute to oxidative stress, later in pregnancy, in those women that go on to develop preeclampsia. The lack of evidence to support the hypothesis that functional SNPs influence antioxidant enzyme activity in pregnant women argues against a role for these genes in the etiology of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure of the Mitochondrial Aminolevulinic Acid Synthase, a Key Heme Biosynthetic Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Breann L; Kardon, Julia R; Sauer, Robert T; Baker, Tania A

    2018-04-03

    5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS) catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis. We present the crystal structure of a eukaryotic ALAS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this homodimeric structure, one ALAS subunit contains covalently bound cofactor, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), whereas the second is PLP free. Comparison between the subunits reveals PLP-coupled reordering of the active site and of additional regions to achieve the active conformation of the enzyme. The eukaryotic C-terminal extension, a region altered in multiple human disease alleles, wraps around the dimer and contacts active-site-proximal residues. Mutational analysis demonstrates that this C-terminal region that engages the active site is important for ALAS activity. Our discovery of structural elements that change conformation upon PLP binding and of direct contact between the C-terminal extension and the active site thus provides a structural basis for investigation of disruptions in the first step of heme biosynthesis and resulting human disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease, with and without Presence of Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jandrić-Balen, Marica; Božikov, Veljko; Bistrović, Dragica; Jandrić, Ivan; Božikov, Jadranka; Romić, Željo; Balen, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The study evaluated antioxidant status in patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD), with and without concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). 211 participants were divided into standardized 4 groups: patients with PVD and DM (PVD+DM+), patients with PVD without DM (PVD+DM-), patients without PVD with DM (PVD-DM+) and patients without PVD and DM (PVD-DM-). The diagnosis of PVD was established by Doppler sonography analysis, including determination of the ankle brachial index (...

  6. Elp3 and RlmN: A tale of two mitochondrial tail-anchored radical SAM enzymes in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Leah R; Lentini, Jenna M; Holmes, Michael J; Stilger, Krista L; Fu, Dragony; Sullivan, William J

    2018-01-01

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (rSAM) enzymes use a 5'-deoxyadensyl 5'-radical to methylate a wide array of diverse substrates including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. One such enzyme, Elongator protein-3 (TgElp3), is an essential protein in Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite that can cause life-threatening opportunistic disease. Unlike Elp3 homologues which are present in all domains of life, TgElp3 localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) via a tail-anchored trafficking mechanism in Toxoplasma. Intriguingly, we identified a second tail-anchored rSAM domain containing protein (TgRlmN) that also localizes to the OMM. The transmembrane domain (TMD) on Toxoplasma Elp3 and RlmN homologues is required for OMM localization and has not been seen beyond the chromalveolates. Both TgElp3 and TgRlmN contain the canonical rSAM amino acid sequence motif (CxxxCxxC) necessary to form the 4Fe-4S cluster required for tRNA modifications. In E. coli, RlmN is responsible for the 2-methlyadenosine (m2A) synthesis at purine 37 in tRNA while in S. cerevisiae, Elp3 is necessary for the formation of 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U) at the wobble tRNA position. To investigate why these two rSAM enzymes localize to the mitochondrion in Toxoplasma, and whether or not TgRlmN and TgElp3 possess tRNA methyltransferase activity, a series of mutational and biochemical studies were performed. Overexpression of either TgElp3 or TgRlmN resulted in a significant parasite replication defect, but overexpression was tolerated if either the TMD or rSAM domain was mutated. Furthermore, we show the first evidence that Toxoplasma tRNAGlu contains the mcm5s2U modification, which is the putative downstream product generated by TgElp3 activity.

  7. AAV Gene Therapy for Alcoholism: Inhibition of Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzyme Expression in Hepatoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Anamaria C; Li, Chengwen; Andrews, Barbara; Asenjo, Juan A; Samulski, R Jude

    2017-09-01

    Most ethanol is broken down in the liver in two steps by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) enzymes, which metabolize down ethanol into acetaldehyde and then acetate. Some individuals from the Asian population who carry a mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH2*2) cannot metabolize acetaldehyde as efficiently, producing strong effects, including facial flushing, dizziness, hypotension, and palpitations. This results in an aversion to alcohol intake and protection against alcoholism. The large prevalence of this mutation in the human population strongly suggests that modulation of ALDH2 expression by genetic technologies could result in a similar phenotype. scAAV2 vectors encoding ALDH2 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) were utilized to validate this hypothesis by silencing ALDH2 gene expression in human cell lines. Human cell lines HEK-293 and HepG2 were transduced with scAAV2/shRNA, showing a reduction in ALDH2 RNA and protein expression with the two viral concentration assayed (1 × 10 4 and 1 × 10 5 vg/cell) at two different time points. In both cell lines, ALDH2 RNA levels were reduced by 90% and protein expression was inhibited by 90% and 52%, respectively, 5 days post infection. Transduced HepG2 VL17A cells (ADH+) exposed to ethanol resulted in a 50% increase in acetaldehyde levels. These results suggest that gene therapy could be a useful tool for the treatment of alcoholism by knocking down ALDH2 expression using shRNA technology delivered by AAV vectors.

  8. Nanodiamonds as pH-switchable oxidation and reduction catalysts with enzyme-like activities for immunoassay and antioxidant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T M; Tian, X M; Huang, L; Xiao, J; Yang, G W

    2017-10-19

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) have recently become a focus of interest from the viewpoints of both science and technology. Their intriguing properties make them suitable as biologically active substrates, in biosensor applications as well as diagnostic and therapeutic biomedical imaging probes. Here, we demonstrate that NDs, as oxidation and reduction catalysts, possess intrinsic enzyme mimetic properties of oxidase, peroxidase and catalase, and these behaviors can be switched by modulating the pH value. NDs not only catalyze the reduction of oxygen (O 2 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) at acidic pH, but also catalyze the dismutation decomposition of H 2 O 2 to produce O 2 at alkaline pH. It was proposed that the molecular mechanism of their peroxidase-like activity is electron-transfer acceleration, the source of which is likely derived from oxygen containing functional groups on their surface. Based on the color reaction, a nanodiamond-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG). Surprisingly, NDs display an excellent antioxidant activity due to the protective effect against H 2 O 2 -induced cellular oxidative damage. These findings make NDs a promising enzyme mimetic candidate and expand their applications in biocatalysis, bioassays and nano-biomedicine.

  9. Genetic variability in chronic irradiated plant populations - Polymorphism and activity of antioxidant enzymes in chronic irradiated plant populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Polina Y.; Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The gene pool of natural population is constantly changing in order to provide the greatest fitness at this time. Ability of population to adapt to changing environmental conditions depends on genetic polymorphism of traits which are operates by selection. Chronic stress exposure can change amount or structure intra-population variability. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the relationships between genetic polymorphism and stress factors, such as radiation exposure. This studies my assist in the development of new bio-indication methods. Materials and methods: Studying sites: Bryansk region is the most contaminated region of Russia as a result of Chernobyl accident. The initial activity by {sup 137}Cs on this territory reached 1 MBq/m{sup 2} above surface. Our study conducted in several districts of Bryansk region, which are characterized the most dose rate. Experimental sites similar to climate characteristics, stand of trees is homogeneous, pine trees take up a significant part of phytocenosis. Heavy metals content in soils and cones be within background. Dose rates vary from 0.14 to 130 mGy/year. Object: Pinus sylvestris L.,the dominant tree species in North European and Asian boreal forests. Scots pine has a long maturation period (18-20 month), which means that significant DNA damage may accumulate in the undifferentiated stem cells, even at low doses (or dose rates) during exposure to low concentrations of contaminants Isozyme analysis: We evaluated isozyme polymorphism of three antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutatione reductase and glutatione peroxidase. Analysis of enzymes activities: We chose key enzymes of antioxidant system for this experiment: superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Results and conclusions: We estimated frequency of each allele in reference and experimental populations. based It was showed that frequency of rare alleles increase in chronic irradiated populations, i.e. increase the sampling variance

  10. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xu [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Dapeng [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yamanaka, Kenzo [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan); An, Yan, E-mail: dranyan@126.com [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-12-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. - Highlights: • Low level, long term arsenite exposure induces malignant transformation in vitro. • Long term arsenite exposure reduces ROS and MDA levels. • Long term arsenite

  11. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xu; Wang, Dapeng; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian; Yamanaka, Kenzo; An, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. - Highlights: • Low level, long term arsenite exposure induces malignant transformation in vitro. • Long term arsenite exposure reduces ROS and MDA levels. • Long term arsenite

  12. Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bei-bei; Ling, Li; Hua, Chen; Ren, Shu-yan

    2014-09-01

    The effects of soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were investigated. Ninety-seven pregnant women with GDM were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (51 cases) and the SBOS group (46 cases). Before the group separation, the blood sugar level in patients was maintained stable by regular diet and insulin treatment. The control group was continued with the insulin treatment, while the SBOS group was treated with the combination of insulin and SBOS. Results showed that SBOS were able to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate insulin resistance in pregnant women with GDM, which indicates that SBOS may play an important role in the control of GDM complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Melatonin improves placental efficiency and birth weight and increases the placental expression of antioxidant enzymes in undernourished pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hans G; Hansell, Jeremy A; Raut, Shruti; Giussani, Dino A

    2009-05-01

    Melatonin participates in circadian, seasonal and reproductive physiology. Melatonin also acts as a potent endogenous antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and upregulating antioxidant pathways. The placenta expresses melatonin receptors and melatonin protects against oxidative damage induced in rat placenta by ischemia-reperfusion. One of the most common complications in pregnancy is a reduction in fetal nutrient delivery, which is known to promote oxidative stress. However, whether melatonin protects placental function and fetal development in undernourished pregnancy is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal treatment with melatonin on placental efficiency, fetal growth, birth weight and protein expression of placental oxidative stress markers in undernourished pregnancy. On day 15 of pregnancy, rats were divided into control and undernourished pregnancy (35% reduction in food intake), with and without melatonin treatment (5 microg/mL drinking water). On day 20 of gestation, fetal biometry was carried out, the placenta was weighed and subsequently analyzed by Western blot for xanthine oxidase, heat shock protein (HSP) 27 and 70, catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1). A separate cohort was allowed to deliver to assess effects on birth weight. Maternal undernutrition led to a fall in placental efficiency, disproportionate intrauterine growth retardation and a reduction in birth weight. Maternal treatment with melatonin in undernourished pregnancy improved placental efficiency and restored birth weight, and it increased the expression of placental Mn-SOD and catalase. The data show that in pregnancy complicated by undernutrition, melatonin may improve placental efficiency and birth weight by upregulating placental antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125?mg/kg, 250?mg/kg, and 500?mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500?mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officin...

  15. Functional and composition differences between mitochondrial complex II in Arabidopsis and rice are correlated with the complex genetic history of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaobai; Taylor, Nicolas L; Narsai, Reena; Eubel, Holger; Whelan, James; Millar, A Harvey

    2010-02-01

    Complex II plays a central role in mitochondrial metabolism as a component of both the electron transport chain and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. However, the composition and function of the plant enzyme has been elusive and differs from the well-characterised enzymes in mammals and bacteria. Herewith, we demonstrate that mitochondrial Complex II from Arabidopsis and rice differ significantly in several aspects: (1) Stability-Rice complex II in contrast to Arabidopsis is not stable when resolved by native electrophoresis and activity staining. (2) Composition-Arabidopsis complex II contains 8 subunits, only 7 of which have homologs in the rice genome. SDH 1 and 2 subunits display high levels of amino acid identity between two species, while the remainder of the subunits are not well conserved at a sequence level, indicating significant divergence. (3) Gene expression-the pairs of orthologous SDH1 and SDH2 subunits were universally expressed in both Arabidopsis and rice. The very divergent genes for SDH3 and SDH4 were co-expressed in both species, consistent with their functional co-ordination to form the membrane anchor. The plant-specific SDH5, 6 and 7 subunits with unknown functions appeared to be differentially expressed in both species. (4) Biochemical regulation -succinate-dependent O(2) consumption and SDH activity of isolated Arabidopsis mitochondria were substantially stimulated by ATP, but a much more minor effect of ATP was observed for the rice enzyme. The ATP activation of succinate-dependent reduction of DCPIP in frozen-thawed and digitonin-solubilised mitochondrial samples, and with or without the uncoupler CCCP, indicate that the differential ATP effect on SDH is not via the protonmotive force but likely due to an allosteric effect on the plant SDH enzyme itself, in contrast to the enzyme in other organisms.

  16. Synergetic effect of cadmium and ionizing radiation on P53 over expression and antioxidant enzymes in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Maghraby, T.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important environmental and occupational metallic toxicants is cadmium. It causes generic irregularity of proto-oncogenes that leads to carcinogenicity and cytotoxicity in male reproductive tissues. Both ionizing radiation and cadmium generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). When the balance between ROS and antioxidant system is lost, oxidative stress is produced, so, the present investigation was carried out to study the effect of cadmium and ionizing radiation on the expression of tumor suppressor gene P53 and antioxidant enzymes in testis, prostate and liver in vivo rats related to histopathological changes. The results revealed that the ionizing radiation caused increase in the level of P53 expression, activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase (CAT) especially at 24 hours, while there is negative dose dependent relationship between cadmium and P53 expression in testis reverse to prostate. However, in liver, further induction of P53 gene expression by cadmium was not observed. These results revealed the dangerous effects of cadmium and ionizing radiation on human body, especially in male reproductive tissues

  17. Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)μgL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I; González-Laredo, Rubén F; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Pérez, Mş Del Mar Larrosa; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R; Flores-Rueda, Ana G; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E

    2016-09-01

    Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profile measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50% of DPPH radical ( i . e . lower IC 50 ). Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14% of E. camaldulensis and 49% of L. glaucescens ); whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC 50 than positive control (captopril). The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages.

  19. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia I. Gamboa-Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profi le measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50 % of DPPH radical (i.e. lower IC50. Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14 % of E. camaldulensis and 49 % of L. glaucescens; whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC50 than positive control (captopril. The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages.

  20. The effects of an instant haw beverage on lipid levels, antioxidant enzyme and immune function in hyperlipidemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidi; Xue, Bin; Li, Keji; Shi, Jingda; Krempin, D; Zhu, M; Garland, C

    2002-05-01

    To determine the effectiveness of an instant haw beverage in regulating lipid disturbance, enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and immune function. Data was collected from 60 hyperlipidemic subjects. In this crossover design, each subject randomly received either the instant haw beverage (100 ml corresponding to 3 g of haw powder or 30 g of fresh haw fruit plus the carrier-guar gum plus some starch) or placebo (guar gum 1.5 g plus some starch as the carrier of the beverage) twice daily. Each supplementation lasted 31 days with a 28-day washout period between treatments. The instant haw beverage significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (9.6%), triglyceride (12.1%), LDLC (18%) while significantly increased SOD activities (7.5%). The placebo was shown to have positive results in some of the lipid profiles, though the effects of the instant haw beverage demonstrated greater significance. Serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased and SOD activity significantly increased only as subjects were supplemented with the instant haw beverage while no significant changes were seen with placebo. Supplementation with the instant haw beverage positively affects blood lipid profile, antioxidant status and immune function in individuals with hyperlipidemia.

  1. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum 'Bugwang'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression.

  2. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum ‘Bugwang'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression. PMID:27088085

  3. Quercetin Protects Primary Human Osteoblasts Exposed to Cigarette Smoke through Activation of the Antioxidative Enzymes HO-1 and SOD-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl F. Braun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smokers frequently suffer from impaired fracture healing often due to poor bone quality and stability. Cigarette smoking harms bone cells and their homeostasis by increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Quercetin, a naturally occurring antioxidant, can protect osteoblasts from the toxic effects of smoking. Human osteoblasts exposed to cigarette smoke medium (CSM rapidly produced ROS and their viability decreased concentration- and time-dependently. Co-, pre- and postincubation with Quercetin dose-dependently improved their viability. Quercetin increased the expression of the anti-oxidative enzymes heme-oxygenase- (HO- 1 and superoxide-dismutase- (SOD- 1. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abolished the protective effect of Quercetin. Our results demonstrate that CSM damages human osteoblasts by accumulation of ROS. Quercetin can diminish this damage by scavenging the radicals and by upregulating the expression of HO-1 and SOD-1. Thus, a dietary supplementation with Quercetin could improve bone matter, stability and even fracture healing in smokers.

  4. Effects of Estrogen Replacement Therapy on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı F. Ceylan-Işık

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause and diabetes are conditions producing free radicals independently from each other. Estrogen replacement therapy which widely used in postmenopausal period has beneficial effects because of its antioxidant property. The study groups were as follows: ovariectomy (n=8, ovariectomy+17-östradiol (n=8, ovariectomy+diabetes (n=10 and ovariectomy+diabetes+17-östradiol (n=8. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg i.p. and the treatment with 17-östradiol (0.1 mg/kg/day was started a week after ovariectomy. After–week long experimental period aortic and uterine tissues were collected from the animals and the malondialdehyde concentration, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were quantified. The treatment did not effect blood glucose concentrations, but increased plasma estradiol concentrations. Increased malondialdehyde concentrations were reduced by the treatment in aorta from diabetics and nondiabetics, but the treatment increased malondialdehyde concentrations in nondiabetic uterine while were reducing in diabetic uterine. The treatment also reduced the increased activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in aorta from diabetics and nondiabetics, on the other hand the treatment increased the activities of those enzymes in uterine from diabetics and nondiabetics. Our results suggested that estrogen acts as an antioxidant or prooxidant depending on the tissues.

  5. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  6. Effects of glufosinate on antioxidant enzymes, subcellular structure, and gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Chen, Wei; Sheng, G Daniel; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Weiping; Fu, Zhengwei

    2008-07-30

    Greater exposure to herbicide increases the likelihood of harmful effects in humans and the environment. Glufosinate, a non-selective herbicide, inhibits glutamine synthetase (GS) and thus blocks ammonium assimilation in plants. In the present study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen to assess the effects of acute glufosinate toxicity. We observed physiological changes during 12-96 h of exposure, and gene transcription during 6-48 h of exposure. Exposure to glufosinate increased malondialdehyde content by up to 2.73 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to glufosinate. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of glufosinate. Maximum activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were 2.90, 2.91, and 2.48 times that of the control, respectively. These elevated activities may help alleviate oxidative damage. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL. The results showed that glufosinate reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes after 12h exposure. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to glufosinate exposure were 38%, 16% and 43% of those of the control, respectively. Our results demonstrate that glufosinate affects the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduces transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris.

  7. Enantioselective effect of bifenthrin on antioxidant enzyme gene expression and stress protein response in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xianting

    2013-07-01

    Enantioselectivity in toxicology and the health risk of chiral xenobiotics have become frontier topics interfacing chemistry and toxicology. Our previous results showed that cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF) induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in vitro in an enantioselective manner. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of synthetic pyrethroid-induced enantioselective apoptosis and cytotoxicity have so far received limited research attention. In the present study, the expression patterns of different genes encoding heat shock protein and antioxidant enzymes were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to cis-BF and its enantiomers. The results showed that exposure to 1S-cis-BF resulted in increased transcription of HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase, Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-s-transferase at a concentration of 5 µm and above, while exposure to 1R-cis-BF and rac-cis-BF exhibited these effects to lesser degrees. In addition, induction of antioxidant enzyme gene expression produced by 1S-cis-BF might occur, at least in part, through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and extracellular regulated kinases, while increase in stress protein response produced by 1S-cis-BF might occur through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. The results not only suggest that enantioselectivity should be considered in evaluating the ecotoxicological effects and health risk of chiral contaminants, but also will improve the understanding of molecular mechanism for chiral chemical-induced cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effects of glufosinate on antioxidant enzymes, subcellular structure, and gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haifeng; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Xu Xiaoyan; Liu Weiping; Fu Zhengwei

    2008-01-01

    Greater exposure to herbicide increases the likelihood of harmful effects in humans and the environment. Glufosinate, a non-selective herbicide, inhibits glutamine synthetase (GS) and thus blocks ammonium assimilation in plants. In the present study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen to assess the effects of acute glufosinate toxicity. We observed physiological changes during 12-96 h of exposure, and gene transcription during 6-48 h of exposure. Exposure to glufosinate increased malondialdehyde content by up to 2.73 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to glufosinate. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of glufosinate. Maximum activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were 2.90, 2.91, and 2.48 times that of the control, respectively. These elevated activities may help alleviate oxidative damage. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL. The results showed that glufosinate reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes after 12 h exposure. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to glufosinate exposure were 38%, 16% and 43% of those of the control, respectively. Our results demonstrate that glufosinate affects the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduces transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris

  9. Effects of glufosinate on antioxidant enzymes, subcellular structure, and gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Haifeng; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Xu Xiaoyan; Liu Weiping [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Fu Zhengwei [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)], E-mail: azwfu2003@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-07-30

    Greater exposure to herbicide increases the likelihood of harmful effects in humans and the environment. Glufosinate, a non-selective herbicide, inhibits glutamine synthetase (GS) and thus blocks ammonium assimilation in plants. In the present study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen to assess the effects of acute glufosinate toxicity. We observed physiological changes during 12-96 h of exposure, and gene transcription during 6-48 h of exposure. Exposure to glufosinate increased malondialdehyde content by up to 2.73 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to glufosinate. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of glufosinate. Maximum activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were 2.90, 2.91, and 2.48 times that of the control, respectively. These elevated activities may help alleviate oxidative damage. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL. The results showed that glufosinate reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes after 12 h exposure. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to glufosinate exposure were 38%, 16% and 43% of those of the control, respectively. Our results demonstrate that glufosinate affects the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduces transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris.

  10. Effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z H; Gong, J G; Zhao, G X; Lin, X; Liu, Y C; Ma, K W

    2017-10-01

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 360 Beijing PINK-1 laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly distributed among five dietary treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 12 hens. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg diet resveratrol. The study lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week of adaptation and 8 weeks of the main experimental period. 3. The results indicated that dietary resveratrol significantly improved feed conversion ratios during 5-8 weeks and 1-8 weeks of the trial. Increasing dietary concentrations of the resveratrol linearly improved Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs. 4. The content of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum and cholesterol in yolk was significantly decreased by dietary resveratrol, and there were significant linear correlations between these indexes and resveratrol supplemental levels. 5. Dietary resveratrol supplementation significantly improved serum Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in groups with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg resveratrol as compared to the control, respectively. However, supplementation of resveratrol did not affect the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). 6. It is concluded that resveratrol supplementation has a positive effect on performance, lipid-related traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens.

  11. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  12. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ocular distribution of antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase & its alteration in cataractous lens & diabetic retina

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    Subramaniam Rajesh Bharathidevi

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Distribution of PON enzyme and its activity in ocular tissues is reported here. The study revealed maximal PON activity in lens and retina, which are prone to higher oxidative stress. Differential activities of PON were observed in the lens and retinal tissues from cataractous and diabetic patients, respectively.

  14. Short communication: Effect of casein haplotype on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotype (αS1, β, and κ) on antioxidative and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes. The antioxidant capacity was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, whereas ACE inhibition was determined by ACE-inhibitory assay. The ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein increased during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Casein haplotype significantly influenced the antioxidative and ACE-inhibitory capacities of digested casein. In particular, BB-A(2)A(1)-AA casein and BB-A(1)A(1)-AA casein showed the highest ACE-inhibitory capacity, BB-A(2)A(2)-AA casein showed the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas BB-A(2)A(2)-BB casein showed the lowest biological capacity. To date, few studies have been done on the effect of casein haplotype on biological capacity of milk casein, thus the present study sets the basis for a new knowledge that could lead to the production of milk with better nutraceutical properties. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

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    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  16. Rosmarinic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities in Lavandula vera MM cell suspension culture: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Milen; Abrashev, Radoslav; Krumova, Ekaterina; Demirevska, Klimentina; Ilieva, Mladenka; Angelova, Maria

    2009-11-01

    The growth and intracellular protein content of lavender (Lavandula vera MM) cell suspension culture was followed along with some antioxidant defense system members-non-enzymatic (rosmarinic acid) and enzymatic [superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6)]. It was found that the media content and the cultivation mode strongly influenced the production of plant defense compounds as well as the ratio between non-enzymatic and enzymatic ones. The bioreactor culture contains about two times more rosmarinic acid, superoxide dismutase, and catalase compared to the shake-flask cultivation. These findings are discussed with respect to the relative stress levels and plant antioxidant orchestra system. It was concluded that investigated defense system components (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were closely associated in a complex balance. The three isoenzyme forms of SOD (Cu/ZnSOD, FeSOD, and MnSOD) in the cells of Lavandula vera were revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, and the FeSOD isoform exhibited highest activity.

  17. Role of Ginger in Restoring Antioxidant Enzymes during Hepato carcinogenesis Induced by Diethylnitrosamine in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S.Z.; EI-Tawil, G.A.; Mostafa, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ginger is a dietary natural product, which has antioxidant and anti carcinogenic properties. Its chemo prevention effect against hepato carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in gamma-irradiated rats was studied, in the present study. Rats were randomly divided into 7 groups. Group I served as control. Group 2 exposed to gamma-rays alone (4 fractionated doses; 3 Gy/ week up to a total dose of 12 Gy). Group 3 received a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of DEN/ week at a dose of 30 mg/ Kg body wt consecutive for 10 weeks. Group 4 administered orally five days a week with ginger (50 mg/ 100 g body wt) there exposed to gamma-rays. Group 5 pre treated with ginger then injected with DEN. Group 6 injected with DEN and then exposed to gamma-rays. Group 7 pre treated with ginger then injected with DEN pre-irradiation. Our findings demonstrate gamma-irradiation and/ or DEN caused significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activities and glutathione (GSH) content in both blood and liver tissue. Also, they increase plasma and liver lipid peroxidation (LP), plasma alfa fetoprotein (AFP) and liver conjugated diene (CD). Orally administration of ginger to animals ameliorates such changes. It could be concluded that ginger has antioxidant and anti carcinogenic properties might protect against hepato carcinoma and gamma-radiation

  18. Jasmonic acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity

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    Geetika eSirhindi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L. plants subjected to nickel (Ni stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23%, 38.31% and 39.21% respectively over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and growth of Ni-stressed seedlings in terms of root and shoot length. Plants supplemented with Jasmonate restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein and total soluble sugar (TSS by 33.09%, 51.26%, 22.58% and 49.15% respectively under Ni toxicity as compared to control. Supplementation of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX increases by 40.04%, 28.22%, 48.53% and 56.79% respectively over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62%, CAT by 15.25%, POD by 58.33% and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes and osmoprotectants, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression.

  19. Genetic inactivation of mitochondria-targeted redox enzyme p66ShcA preserves neuronal viability and mitochondrial integrity in response to oxidative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eForte

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are essential to neuronal viability and function due to their roles in ATP production, intracellular calcium regulation, and activation of apoptotic pathways. Accordingly, mitochondrial dysfunction has been indicated in a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke and multiple sclerosis (MS. Recent evidence points to the permeability transition pore (PTP as a key player in mitochondrial dysfunction in these diseases, in which pathologic opening leads to mitochondrial swelling, rupture, release of cytochrome c, and neuronal death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are inducers of PTP opening, have been prominently implicated in the progression of many of these neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, inactivation of a mitochondria-targeted redox enzyme p66ShcA (p66 has been recently shown to prevent the neuronal cell death leading to axonal severing in the murine model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. To further characterize the response of neurons lacking p66, we assessed their reaction to treatment with oxidative stressors implicated in neurodegenerative pathways. Specifically, p66-knockout (p66-KO and wild-type (WT neurons were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO, and assessed for cell viability and changes in mitochondrial properties, including morphology and ROS production. The results showed that p66-KO neurons had greater survival following treatment with oxidative stressors and generated less ROS when compared to WT neurons. Correspondingly, mitochondria in p66-KO neurons showed diminished morphological changes in response to these challenges. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of developing mitochondria-targeted therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders, and emphasize p66, mitochondrial ROS, and the PTP as key targets for maintaining mitochondrial and neuronal

  20. Antioxidant and lipoxygenase activities of polyphenol extracts from oat brans treated with polysaccharide degrading enzymes

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    Nisita Ratnasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used polysaccharide degrading enzymes and protein precipitation to extract polyphenols from oats and to determine their bioactivity. Duplicate oat brans were treated with viscozyme (Vis, cellulase (Cel or no enzyme (control, CTL then, proteins were removed in one set (Vis1, Cel1, CTL1 and not in the other (Vis2, Cel2, CTL2. HPLC analyses showed that for cellulase treated brans, precipitation of proteins increased phenolic acids and avenanthramides by 14%. Meanwhile, a decreased of 67% and 20% respectively was found for viscozyme and control brans. The effect of protein precipitation on soluble polyphenols is therefore dependent of the carbohydrase, as proteins with different compositions will interact differently with other molecules. Radical scavenging data showed that Cel1 and Vis1 had higher quenching effects on ROO• radicals with activities of 22.1 ± 0.8 and 23.5 ± 1.2 μM Trolox Equivalents/g defatted brans. Meanwhile, CTL2 had the highest HO• radicals inhibition (49.4 ± 2.8% compared to 10.8–32.3% for others. Samples that highly inhibited lipoxygenase (LOX, an enzyme involved in lipid oxidation were Cel1 (23.4 ± 2.3% and CTL1 (18 ± 0.4%.

  1. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto)-fermented pigeon pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Wu, She-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto-fermented pigeon pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hong Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension.

  3. Nutritional, amylolytic enzymes inhibition and antioxidant properties of bread incorporated with Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda B; Matus-Basto, Angel J; Segura-Campos, Maira R

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bread with sucrose content replaced with different levels of stevia extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The ability to reduce glucose intake was highlighted by performing enzymatic assays using α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was measured by determining the scavenging effect on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50% stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all the quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of Stevia rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread could be suitable as functional food in human nutrition.

  4. PPARα ligands activate antioxidant enzymes and suppress hepatic fibrosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Hideki; Harano, Yuichi; Yamauchi, Norihito; Morita, Atsuhiro; Kirishima, Toshihiko; Minami, Masahito; Itoh, Yoshito; Okanoue, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major pathogenetic factor in hepatic fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a nuclear receptor which is known to affect oxidative stress and PPARα ligands may have rescue effects on hepatic fibrosis. We tested this hypothesis using rat thioacetamide (TAA) models of liver cirrhosis. Rats were given intraperitoneal injection of TAA and treated with a diet containing one of the two PPARα ligands, Wy-14,643 (WY) or fenofibrate. WY treatment dramatically reduced hepatic fibrosis and also prevented the inhibition catalase of mRNA expression caused by TAA. Correspondingly, catalase activity increased in the TAA + WY group but decreased in the control TAA group. The antifibrotic action of fenofibrate in the TAA model was comparable with that of WY. PPARα ligands have an antifibrotic action in the rat TAA model of liver cirrhosis, probably due to an antioxidant effect of enhanced catalase expression and activity in the liver

  5. Cadmium-induced physiological response and antioxidant enzyme changes in the novel cadmium accumulator, Tagetes patula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Zueng-Sang [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hong, Chwan-Yang, E-mail: cyhong@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-30

    The accumulation and effect of cadmium (Cd) on the growth and enzymatic activities changes of antioxidants in Tagetes patula, French marigold, were investigated to reveal the physiological mechanisms corresponding to its Cd tolerance and accumulation. Hydroponically grown T. patula plants were treated with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}) at various regime of times. T. patula accumulated Cd to a maximum of 450 mg Cd kg{sup -1} dry weight (DW) in shoot and 3500 mg Cd kg{sup -1} DW in root after 14 days' exposure at 10 and 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}, respectively. The translocation factors of Cd were greater than 1 in plants exposed to 10 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. Toxic effects were gradually observed with increasing Cd concentration (25 and 50 {mu}M) accompanied with the reduction of biomass, chlorophyll content, decrease of cell viability and the increase level of lipid peroxidation. In leaves of T. patula, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were induced by Cd. However, in roots, activities of APX, GR, SOD and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced by 25 and 50 {mu}M Cd treatment but not 10 {mu}M Cd. In-gel zymography analysis revealed that Cd induced the enzymatic activities of APX, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and different isozymes of GR in leaves. These results indicate that T. patula is a novel Cd accumulator and able to tolerate with Cd-induced toxicity by activation of its antioxidative defense system.

  6. Cadmium-induced physiological response and antioxidant enzyme changes in the novel cadmium accumulator, Tagetes patula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Zueng-Sang; Hong, Chwan-Yang

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation and effect of cadmium (Cd) on the growth and enzymatic activities changes of antioxidants in Tagetes patula, French marigold, were investigated to reveal the physiological mechanisms corresponding to its Cd tolerance and accumulation. Hydroponically grown T. patula plants were treated with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 μM CdCl 2 ) at various regime of times. T. patula accumulated Cd to a maximum of 450 mg Cd kg -1 dry weight (DW) in shoot and 3500 mg Cd kg -1 DW in root after 14 days' exposure at 10 and 50 μM CdCl 2 , respectively. The translocation factors of Cd were greater than 1 in plants exposed to 10 μM CdCl 2 . Toxic effects were gradually observed with increasing Cd concentration (25 and 50 μM) accompanied with the reduction of biomass, chlorophyll content, decrease of cell viability and the increase level of lipid peroxidation. In leaves of T. patula, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were induced by Cd. However, in roots, activities of APX, GR, SOD and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced by 25 and 50 μM Cd treatment but not 10 μM Cd. In-gel zymography analysis revealed that Cd induced the enzymatic activities of APX, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and different isozymes of GR in leaves. These results indicate that T. patula is a novel Cd accumulator and able to tolerate with Cd-induced toxicity by activation of its antioxidative defense system.

  7. The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibit hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage, antioxidants, invasion and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Manikandan, Palrasu; Kumar, Gurram Harish; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2009-05-01

    The neem tree has attracted considerable research attention as a rich source of limonoids that have potent antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of the neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide based on in vitro antioxidant assays and in vivo inhibitory effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Both azadirachtin and nimbolide exhibited concentration-dependent anti-radical scavenging activity and reductive potential in the order: nimbolide > azadirachtin > ascorbate. Administration of both azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibited the development of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by influencing multiple mechanisms including prevention of procarcinogen activation and oxidative DNA damage, upregulation of antioxidant and carcinogen detoxification enzymes and inhibition of tumour invasion and angiogenesis. On a comparative basis, nimbolide was found to be a more potent antioxidant and chemopreventive agent and offers promise as a candidate agent in multitargeted prevention and treatment of cancer.

  8. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2016-07-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations (healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3-55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role. © 2016 The Authors. BioEssays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin‐converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen‐Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J.; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R.; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E.; Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole‐body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations (healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3‐55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role. PMID:27347560

  10. Antioxidant properties of digestive enzyme-treated fibre-rich fractions from wheat, finger millet, pearl millet and sorghum: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Siddiq A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole grains are rich in antioxidant components (AC, most of which are bound to fibre fraction and released during digestion. The study investigated the effect of digestive enzymes on the antioxidant properties of fibre-rich fractions from wheat (Triticum aestivum, finger millet (Eleusine coracana, pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. Coarse (CF and fine fractions (FF of milled flour were separated using a standard sieve and analysed for nutritional composition, AC extractable in different solvents and antioxidant activity (AA in untreated and enzyme-treated fractions. The CF had a higher range of insoluble dietary fibre (17.26–20.93% than FF (10.65–17.29%. The highest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids was extractable in different solvents from finger millet and pearl millet, respectively. FF of pearl millet showed higher total AA in all solvents. Enzyme-treated samples had a much higher content of AC as well as higher total AA. Free radical scavenging assay revealed that enzyme-treated millet flours had higher activity in comparison to wheat. Between fractions, wheat exhibited variable results. Among millets, CF of finger millet and FF of pearl millet and sorghum had higher AA. In conclusion, digestive enzyme treatment released more AC from grains, and exhibited a higher AA.

  11. Impact of haloperidol and quetiapine on the expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas Johannes; Hemmeter, Ulrich Michael; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Vedder, Helmut; Heiser, Philip

    2009-05-01

    Antipsychotics are known to alter antioxidant activities in vivo. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line the impact of a typical (haloperidol) and an atypical (quetiapine) antipsychotic on the expression of genes encoding the key enzymes of the antioxidant metabolism (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase; Mn superoxide dismutase; glutathione peroxidase; catalase) and enzymes of the glutathione metabolism (gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, glutathione-S-transferase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, glutathione reductase). The cells were incubated for 24h with 0.3, 3, 30 and 300microM haloperidol and quetiapine, respectively; mRNA levels were measured by polymerase chain reaction. In the present study, we observed mostly significant decreases of mRNA contents. With respect to the key pathways, we detected mainly effects on the mRNA levels of the hydrogen peroxide detoxifying enzymes. Among the enzymes of the glutathione metabolism, glutathione-S-transferase- and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase-mRNA levels showed the most prominent effects. Taken together, our results demonstrate a significantly reduced expression of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes after treatment with the antipsychotics, haloperidol and quetiapine.

  12. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-09-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe(2+) chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods.

  13. Increased oxidative/nitrosative stress and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsova-Sarafinovska, Zorica; Eken, Ayse; Matevska, Nadica; Erdem, Onur; Sayal, Ahmet; Savaser, Ayhan; Banev, Saso; Petrovski, Daniel; Dzikova, Sonja; Georgiev, Vladimir; Sikole, Aleksandar; Ozgök, Yaşar; Suturkova, Ljubica; Dimovski, Aleksandar J; Aydin, Ahmet

    2009-08-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the oxidative/nitrosative stress status in prostate cancer (CaP) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). 312 men from two different populations were included: 163 men from Macedonia (73 CaP patients, 67 BPH patients and 23 control subjects) and 149 men from Turkey (34 prostate cancer patients, 100 BPH patients and 15 control subjects). We measured erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, erythrocyte activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT); plasma nitrite/nitrate (NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-)), cGMP and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. A similar pattern of alteration in the oxidative/nitrosative stress-related parameters was found in both, Macedonian and Turkish studied samples: higher MDA concentrations with lower GPX and CuZn-SOD activities in CaP patients versus controls and BPH groups. The CAT activity was decreased in the CaP patients versus controls in the Turkish studied sample. Furthermore, CaP patients had increased plasma NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) and cGMP levels versus controls and BPH groups in both studied samples. This study has confirmed an imbalance in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status and revealed an altered nitrosative status in prostate cancer patients.

  14. Effects of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and on Tissue Accumulation of Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçsoy, Mustafa; Duran, Servet; Ay, Özcan; Cicik, Bedii; Erdem, Cahit

    2017-09-01

    Accumulation of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) in gill, liver and muscle tissues of Oreochromis niloticus and its effects on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in gill and liver tissues were studied after exposing the fish to 20 µg/L Cu over 15 days. Copper levels and enzyme activities in tissues were determined using spectrophotometric (ICP-AES and UV) techniques respectively. No mortality was observed during the experiments. Copper levels increased in gill and liver tissues of O. niloticus compared to control when exposed to CuO NPs whereas exposure to metal had no effect on muscle level at the end of the exposure period. Highest accumulation of copper was observed in liver while no accumulation was detected in muscle tissue. SOD, CAT activities decreased and GPx activity increased in gill and liver tissues when exposed to CuO NPs.

  15. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makpol, Suzana; Yeoh, Thong Wei; Ruslam, Farah Adilah Che; Arifin, Khaizurin Tajul; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2013-08-16

    Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs.

  16. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  17. Curcumin Induces Nrf2 Nuclear Translocation and Prevents Glomerular Hypertension, Hyperfiltration, Oxidant Stress, and the Decrease in Antioxidant Enzymes in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats

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    Edilia Tapia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal injury resulting from renal ablation induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NX is associated with oxidant stress, glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, and impaired Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. The purpose of this work was to know if the bifunctional antioxidant curcumin may induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and prevents 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress, renal injury, decrease in antioxidant enzymes, and glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration. Four groups of rats were studied: (1 control, (2 5/6NX, (3 5/6NX +CUR, and (4 CUR (n=8–10. Curcumin was given by gavage to NX5/6 +CUR and CUR groups (60 mg/kg/day starting seven days before surgery. Rats were studied 30 days after NX5/6 or sham surgery. Curcumin attenuated 5/6NX-induced proteinuria, systemic and glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and increase in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. This protective effect was associated with enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and with prevention of 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that the protective effect of curcumin against 5/6NX-induced glomerular and systemic hypertension, hyperfiltration, renal dysfunction, and renal injury was associated with the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the prevention of both oxidant stress and the decrease of antioxidant enzymes.

  18. Differential expression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata (Gould) selected for disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy J; Dixon, Tom J; Devic, Emilie; Adlard, Robert D; Barnes, Andrew C

    2009-05-01

    Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) selectively bred for disease resistance (R) and wild-caught control oysters (W) were exposed to a field infection of disseminating neoplasia. Cumulative mortality of W oysters (31.7%) was significantly greater than R oysters (0.0%) over the 118 days of the experiment. In an attempt to understand the biochemical and molecular pathways involved in disease resistance, differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) between R and W S. glomerata hemocytes were identified using the PCR technique, suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH). Sequencing of 300 clones from two SSH libraries revealed 183 distinct sequences of which 113 shared high similarity to sequences in the public databases. Putative function could be assigned to 64 of the sequences. Expression of nine ESTs homologous to genes previously shown to be involved in bivalve immunity was further studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). The base-line expression of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) and a small heat shock protein (sHsP) were significantly increased, whilst peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) and interferon inhibiting cytokine factor (IK) were significantly decreased in R oysters. From these results it was hypothesised that R oysters would be able to generate the anti-parasitic compound, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) faster and to higher concentrations during respiratory burst due to the differential expression of genes for the two anti-oxidant enzymes of ecSOD and Prx6. To investigate this hypothesis, protein extracts from hemolymph were analysed for oxidative burst enzyme activity. Analysis of the cell free hemolymph proteins separated by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) failed to detect true superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by assaying dismutation of superoxide anion in zymograms. However, the ecSOD enzyme appears to generate hydrogen peroxide, presumably via another process, which is yet to be elucidated. This

  19. Effects of cytokinins on antioxidant enzymes in in vitro grown shoots of Pelargonium hortorum L. H. Bayley

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    Agnieszka Wojtania

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of meta-topolin (mT and 6-benzyl-aminopurine (BAP on the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 level and antioxidant enzymes activities in relation to the shoot formation and senescence process in Pelargonium hortorum cultivars, which differ in their susceptibility to leaf yellowing under in vitro conditions. In an early senescing cultivar ‘Grand Prix’, the addition of an aromatic cytokinin mT to abscisic acid (ABA-enriched Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium more efficiently inhibited leaf yellowing than BAP. In both genotypes, meta-topolin was also the most effective in shoot formation. It was found that Pelargonium species varying in their susceptibility to senescence differ in H2O2 production and antioxidant enzymes activities. Generally, meta-topolin more effectively enhanced H2O2 production and POD activity than BAP and control medium, but its effect depended on genotype. The highest H2O2 production stimulated by mT was observed on day 5 of subculture in late senescing cv. ‘Bergpalais’. In both geranium genotypes, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT levels were highest at the beginning of the subculture period, during the initiation of shoot formation. SOD showed the highest activity on day 5 of subculture on the medium without cytokinin and generally being higher in cv. ‘Bergpalais’ than in cv. ‘Grand Prix’. CAT activity was positively regulated by both cytokinins. POD activity was most effectively enhanced by mT, but on different days of subculture - on the 2nd day of subculture in cv. ‘Bergpalais’ and on the 22nd day of subculture in cv. ‘Grand Prix’. The enhanced activity of POD in the presence of mT, 4-fold higher than on control medium, at the end of subculture in P. hortorum ‘Grand Prix’ coincided with the inhibition of leaf senescence.

  20. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliahmat, Nor Syahida; Noor, Mohd Razman Mohd; Yusof, Wan Junizam Wan; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (18 months old). Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil) and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight), tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg), and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg). The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes activity during aging.

  1. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice

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    Nor Syahida Aliahmat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. METHOD: One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old, middle-aged (12 months old, and old (18 months old. Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight, tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg, and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg. The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. RESULTS: Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. CONCLUSION: We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes

  2. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Hamdy A.A., E-mail: hamdyaali@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Domènech, Òscar [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain); Banjar, Zainy M. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma

  3. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Hamdy A.A.; Domènech, Òscar; Banjar, Zainy M.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma LDH was

  4. Interactive Effect of Salicylic Acid on Some Physiological Features and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

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    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA applications (10−3 and 10−5 M on activities of nitrate reductase, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutases (SOD, catalase (CAT and proline enzymes and physiological parameters was evaluated in two ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara under greenhouse conditions. In both varieties, tested treatments generally enhanced photosynthetic rate and total dry weight. Photosynthetic rate increases were generally accompanied by increased or unchanged stomatal conductance levels, although intercellular CO2 concentrations of treated plants were typically lower than in controls. Lower SA concentrations were generally more effective in enhancing photosynthetic rate and plant growth. Exogenous application of SA increased antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content; the greatest responses were obtained in plants sprayed with 10–5 M SA, with significant increases observed in CAT (20.1%, POD (45.2%, SOD (44.1% and proline (43.1% activities. Increased CAT activity in leaves is naturally expected to increase photosynthetic efficiency and thus net photosynthesis by maintaining a constant CO2 supply. Our results support the idea that low SA concentrations (10–5 M may induce nitrite reductase synthesis by mobilizing intracellular NO3− and can provide protection to nitrite reductase degradation in vivo in the absence of NO3–. Observed positive correlations among proline, SOD, CAT and POD activities in the studied varieties suggest that increased SOD activity was accompanied by increases in CAT and POD activities because of the high demands of H2O2 quenching.

  5. The 28-day exposure to fenpropathrin decreases locomotor activity and reduces activity of antioxidant enzymes in mice brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara; Borzęcki, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Fenpropathrin (Fen) is a pyrethroid (Pyr) insecticide. Pyrs are used in veterinary medicine, in agriculture and for domestic purposes. As their use increases, new questions about their side effects and mode of action in non-target organisms arise. The objective of this work was to characterize dose-response relationship for in vivo motor function and memory in mice exposed to Fen for 28 days and to assess its influence on activity of antioxidant enzymes in mice brains. The experiment was performed using 64 female mice. Fen at the dose of 11.9mg/kg of body mass, 5.95mg/kg or 2.38mg/kg was administered ip to the mice for 28 consecutive days. Motor function and spatial working memory were tested on days 7, 14 and 28. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed and brains were used to determine activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Fen significantly decreased locomotor activity in mice receiving the highest dose at every stage of the experiment. Lower doses reduced locomotion on days 7 and 14. Fen did not produce memory impairment. A decrease in activities of SOD and GPx was recorded in mice brains. The decrease of SOD activity in mice brains results from direct inhibition of the enzyme by Fen and/or increased utilization due to excessive free radical formation in conditions of Fen-induced oxidative stress. The reduction in GPx activity is probably due to limited glutathione availability. The reduced locomotor activity is a behavioral demonstration of Fen-induced damage in the dopaminergic system. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties of Casein Hydrolysate Produced Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Combined with Proteolytic Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamdad, Fatemeh; Shin, Seulki Hazel; Suh, Joo-Won; Nimalaratne, Chamila; Sunwoo, Hoon

    2017-04-10

    Casein-derived peptides are shown to possess radical scavenging and metal chelating properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate novel anti-inflammatory properties of casein hydrolysates (CH) produced by an eco-friendly process that combines high hydrostatic pressure with enzymatic hydrolysis (HHP-EH). Casein was hydrolysed by different proteases, including flavourzyme (Fla), savinase (Sav), thermolysin (Ther), trypsin (Try), and elastase (Ela) at 0.1, 50, 100, and 200 MPa pressure levels under various enzyme-to-substrate ratios and incubation times. Casein hydrolysates were evaluated for the degree of hydrolysis (DH), molecular weight distribution patterns, and anti-inflammatory properties in chemical and cellular models. Hydrolysates produced using HHP-EH exhibited higher DH values and proportions of smaller peptides compared to atmospheric pressure-enzymatic hydrolysis (AP-EH). Among five enzymes, Fla-digested HHP-EH-CH (HHP-Fla-CH) showed significantly higher antioxidant properties than AP-Fla-CH. The anti-inflammatory properties of HHP-Fla-CH were also observed by significantly reduced nitric oxide and by the suppression of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that 59% of the amino acids of the peptides in HHP-Fla-CH were composed of proline, valine, and leucine, indicating the potential anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the HHP-EH method provides a promising technology to produce bioactive peptides from casein in an eco-friendly process.

  7. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on gene expression related to colonic inflammation and antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, DawnKylee S; Penprase, Jerrold; Cintora, Patricia; Medrano, Octavio; Erwin, Danielle; Brasser, Susan M; Hong, Mee Young

    2017-06-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor associated with colorectal cancer; however, some studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption may not contribute additional risk for developing colorectal cancer while others suggest that moderate alcohol consumption provides a protective effect that reduces colorectal cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of moderate voluntary alcohol (20% ethanol) intake on alternate days for 3 months in outbred Wistar rats on risk factors associated with colorectal cancer development. Colonic gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2, RelA, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase M1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 were determined. Blood alcohol content, liver function enzyme activities, and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine DNA adducts were also assessed. Alcohol-treated rats were found to have significantly lower 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels in blood, a marker of DNA damage. Alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were both significantly lower in the alcohol group. Moderate alcohol significantly decreased cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression, an inflammatory marker associated with colorectal cancer risk. The alcohol group had significantly increased glutathione-S-transferase M1 expression, an antioxidant enzyme that helps detoxify carcinogens, such as acetaldehyde, and significantly increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 expression, which allows for greater acetaldehyde clearance. Increased expression of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 likely contributed to reduce mucosal damage that is caused by acetaldehyde accumulation. These results indicate that moderate alcohol may reduce the risk for colorectal cancer development, which was evidenced by reduced inflammation activity and lower DNA damage after alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

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    El-Beltagi, Hossam E. S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Vicia faba L. Giza 834 were exposed to γ-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He–Ne (632.8 nm or diode (650.0 nm laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He- Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy of γ-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of γ-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (3.9 μmol/g d.w. Laser treatment by He–Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P 2O2 content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (2.3 μmol/g d.w.. On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with γ-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with γ-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by γ-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of γ-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone.Semillas de Vicia faba L. Giza 834 fueron expuestas a γ-irradiación a dosis de 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 y 20.0 kGy y después expuesta a una radiación laser de He–Ne (632.8 nm o de diodo (650.0 nm durante 5 minutos. Las actividades de las enzimas POD, APOX, CAT, SOD y GST fueron favorecidas significativamente, y éstas alcanzaron un máximo a una dosis de 5.0 kGy para las enzimas

  9. Activity-Based Protein Profiling Reveals Mitochondrial Oxidative Enzyme Impairment and Restoration in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Angel, Thomas E.; Lewis, Michael P.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Wiedner, Susan D.; Zink, Erika M.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-10-24

    High-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and concomitant development of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is not clear whether mitochondrial dysfunction is a direct effect of a HFD or if the mitochondrial function is reduced with increased HFD duration. We hypothesized that the function of mitochondrial oxidative and lipid metabolism functions in skeletal muscle mitochondria for HFD mice are similar or elevated relative to standard diet (SD) mice, thereby IR is neither cause nor consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction. We applied a chemical probe approach to identify functionally reactive ATPases and nucleotide-binding proteins in mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle of C57Bl/6J mice fed HFD or SD chow for 2-, 8-, or 16-weeks; feeding time points known to induce IR. A total of 293 probe-labeled proteins were identified by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, of which 54 differed in abundance between HFD and SD mice. We found proteins associated with the TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and lipid metabolism were altered in function when comparing SD to HFD fed mice at 2-weeks, however by 16-weeks HFD mice had TCA cycle, β-oxidation, and respiratory chain function at levels similar to or higher than SD mice.

  10. Effect of urdbean leaf crinkle virus infection on total soluble protein and antioxidant enzymes in blackgram plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Mughal, S.M.; Khan, A.; Javed, N.; Sahi, S.T.; Shahid, M.

    2010-01-01

    Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) is a common, wide spread, destructive and economically important disease causing systemic infection in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), resulting in extreme crinkling, curling, puckering and rugosity of leaves, and yield reductions. Effect of viral infection was investigated on total soluble proteins and antioxidant enzymes activity in two genotypes viz., Mash-88-susceptible and CM-2002-resistant, at different growth stages under both the inoculated and un-inoculated conditions. ULCV infection resulted in significant increase in total soluble protein contents of the leaves in both genotypes. In healthy plant, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (PO) showed similar activity levels. In inoculated plants of Mash-88, SOD and PO activities decreased and increased non-significantly at all growth stages, respectively. The activities of PO and SOD increased and decreased significantly after 15 and 30 days of inoculation in resistant genotype, respectively. No significant changes in catalase (CAT) activity were detected in ULCV-infected leaves over the control. It was concluded that the super oxide dismutase and peroxidases might be associated with resistance/susceptibility to ULCV infection. (author)

  11. Influence of salicylic and succinic acids on antioxidant enzymes activity, heat resistance and productivity of Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko N.N.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of treatment of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. seeds with the solutions of salicylic and succinic acids on the heat resistance of plantlets and activity of antioxidant enzymes – superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase – in them have been investigated. In the micro-field experiment the influence of these acids on the millet yield was estimated. The action of salicylic (10 μM and succinic (1 mM acids caused the increase of plantlets resistance to the damaging heating that expressed in the rise of relative quantity of survived plantlets in 5 days after heating at the temperature of 47°С and in the reduced content of lipid peroxidation product malonic dialdehyde during the poststress period. The increase of activity of SOD, catalase and peroxidase took place in millet plantlets under the influence of salicylic and succinic acids. The increase of productivity of millet grain under the action of salicylic and succinic acids on 13,3-52,0 and 6,4-38,8% respectively depending on weather conditions in the field experiments was noted.

  12. Increased Oxidative Stress and Imbalance in Antioxidant Enzymes in the Brains of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Luciane B. Ceretta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is associated with pathological changes in the central nervous system (SNC as well as alterations in oxidative stress. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan on memory and oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by using a single injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg, and fifteen days after induction, the rats memory was evaluated through the use of the object recognition task. The oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT were measured in the rat brain. The results showed that diabetic rats did not have alterations in their recognition memory. However, the results did show that diabetic rats had increases in the levels of superoxide in the prefrontal cortex, and in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS production in the prefrontal cortex and in the amygdala in submitochondrial particles. Also, there was an increase in protein oxidation in the hippocampus and striatum, and in TBARS oxidation in the striatum and amygdala. The SOD activity was decreased in diabetic rats in the striatum and amygdala. However, the CAT activity was increased in the hippocampus taken from diabetic rats. In conclusion, our findings illustrate that the animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan did not cause alterations in the animals’ recognition memory, but it produced oxidants and an imbalance between SOD and CAT activities, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes.

  13. Efficacy of topotecan treatment on antioxidant enzymes and TBA-RS levels in submandibular glands of rabbits: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Kisa, Uçler; Kaçmaz, Murat; Apan, Alpaslan; Koç, Can

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of topotecan (Hycamtin), a topoisomerase I inhibiting anticancer agent, on antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px) and TBA-RS values of the submandibular glands of the rabbits. The study was conveyed in two groups (Group I, II) and control with a total of 24 rabbits. Eight rabbits in group I received intravenous (i.v.) topotecan (0.25 mg/kg once daily) for 3 days. Eight rabbits in group II received i.v. topotecan (0.5 mg/kg once daily) for 3 days. On the 15th day after administration of topotecan, submandibular glands were removed and levels of the SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px and the TBA-RS in the submandibular glands of the rabbits were examined. SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px values were significantly higher in high-dose topotecan group compared to control group (P TBA-RS values were significantly higher in high-dose topotecan group compared to low-dose topotecan group (P TBA-RS values in group II showed that permanent damage was present because of high-dose topotecan administration in the submandibular glands of the rabbits.

  14. Response of growth and antioxidant enzymes in Azolla plants (Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides) exposed to UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Amjad; Zeeshan, M; Abraham, G

    2008-06-01

    Effect of ultravilolet-B (0.4 Wm(-2)) irradiation on growth, flavonoid content, lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation and activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase was comparatively analysed in Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides. Growth measured as increment in dry weight reduced considerably due to all UV-B treatments. However, the reduction was found to be severe in A. filiculoides as compared to A. pinnata. The level of UV-absorbing compound flavonoids increased significantly in A. pinnata plants whereas only a slight increase in the flavonoid content was observed in A. filiculoides. UV-B exposure led to enhanced production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in A. filiculoides than A. pinnata. Proline accumulation also showed a similar trend. Marked differences in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) was noticed in both the plants exposed to UV-B. Our comparative studies indicate A. pinnata to be better tolerant to UV-B as compared with A. filiculoides which appears to be sensitive.

  15. Interleukin-6, Creatine Kinase, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities following Platelet-Rich Plasma Treatment on Muscle Injury: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Lai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP treatment alongside rehabilitation compared with rehabilitation alone on inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6, IL-6, creatine kinase muscle type (CKM, and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT following hamstring injury. This study was a randomised control trial. Participants diagnosed with grade-2 acute hamstring injury (n=16 were divided into 2 groups of PRP treatment with rehabilitation program (PRP-T and rehabilitation program (CON. Blood samples were collected at baseline, and 2 fortnightly for the various biochemical assessments. Participants were certified to have recovered upon fulfilling return to play (RTP criteria. Level of IL-6 and the activities of CKM, SOD, and CAT were measured. PRP-T group benefited from earlier time to RTP with significantly lower IL-6 level and CAT activity compared to CON group. There was no significant difference in CKM and SOD activities between the groups, though a trend of lower values in all variables was observed at week 4 compared to week 0. PRP treatment potentially improves muscle healing process by altering both the inflammatory and oxidative responses, hence hastens time to RTP. KEY WORDS:  Autologous, blood injection, rehabilitation, sports injury, hamstring injury

  16. Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on arsenic uptake and antioxidative enzymes in Pteris cretica var. nervosa and Pteris ensiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shujuan; Hu, Yongjun; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Qinchun

    2017-03-04

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on arsenic (As) uptake and antioxidative enzymes in fronds of Pteris cretica var. nervosa (As hyperaccumulator) and Pteris ensiformis (non-hyperaccumulator). Plants were exposed to 2 mg L -1 As(III), As(V) or dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and IAA concentrations for 14 d. The biomass and total As in the plants significantly increased at 30 mg L -1 IAA. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities significantly increased with IAA addition. Catalase (CAT) activities showed a significant increase in P. ensiformis exposed to three As species at 30 or 50 mg L -1 IAA but varied in P. cretica var. nervosa. Peroxidase (POD) activities were unchanged in P. ensiformis except for a significant decrease at 50 mg L -1 IAA under As(III) treatment. However, a significant increase was observed in P. cretica var. nervosa at 10 mg L -1 IAA under As(III) or DMA treatment and at 50 mg L -1 IAA under As(V) treatment. Under DMA stress, malondialdehyde contents in fronds of P. cretica var. nervosa showed a significant decrease at 10 mg L -1 IAA but remained unchanged in P. ensiformis. Therefore, IAA enhanced As uptake and frond POD activity in P. cretica var. nervosa under As stress.

  17. Effects of fluoride on germination, early growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of legume plant species Prosopis juliflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

    2013-03-01

    Prosopis juliflora (Mimosoideae) is a fast growing and drought resistant tree of semi-arid region of India where fluoride (F) toxicity is a common problem. In the present investigations this species was fluoride tested to check their capacity as bioindicator plant and its efficiency to accumulate. To achieve this aim, P. juliflora seedlings grown in hydroponic culture containing different concentrations of F were analyzed for germination percentage together with some biochemical parameters viz, antioxidant enzyme activities, total chlorophyll and accumulation of F in different plant parts. After 15 days of treatment, root growth (r = -0.928, p juliflora did not show any morphological changes (marginal and tip chlorosis of leaf portions, necrosis and together these features are referred to as leaf "tip-burn") therefore, this species may be used as suitable bioindicator species for potentially F affected areas. Further, higher accumulation of F in roots indicates that P. juliflora is a suitable species for the removal of F in phytoremediation purposes.

  18. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and some physiological parameters of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) under salinity and chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mahsa; Heidari, Mostafa; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter. Salinity and chromium enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities like catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and sodium content in leaves. However salinity and chromium treatments had no effect on potassium, phosphorus in leaves, soluble carbohydrate concentration in leaves and root, but decreased the carotenoid content in leaves. On increasing salinity from control to 8 ds m(-1) chlorophyll a, b and anthocyanin content decreased by 41.6%, 61.1% and 26.5% respectively but chromium treatments had no significant effect on these photosynthetic pigments.

  19. [Effects of melaxen and valdoxan on the activity of glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-producing enzymes in rat heart under experimental hyperthyroidism conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of melaxen and valdoxan on the activity of glutathione antioxidant system and some NADPH-producing enzymes have been studied under conditions of experimental hyperthyroidism in rat heart. Under the action of these drugs, reduced glutathione (GSH) content increased as compared to values observed under the conditions of pathology. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NADP isocitrate dehydrogenase (increased under pathological conditions) change toward the intact control values upon the introduction of both drugs. The influence of melaxen and valdoxan, capable of producing antioxidant effect, leads apparently to the inhibition of free-radical oxidation processes and, as a consequence, the reduction of mobilization degree of the glutathione antioxidant system.

  20. Anthraquinone profile, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effect of root extracts of eight Asphodeline taxa from Turkey: can Asphodeline roots be considered as a new source of natural compounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Gokhan; Locatelli, Marcello; Ceylan, Ramazan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2016-10-01

    Plant-based foods have become attractive for scientists and food producers. Beneficial effects related to their consumption as dietary supplements are due to the presence of natural occurring secondary metabolites. In this context, studies on these products are important for natural and safely food ingredients evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate root extract of eight Asphodeline species as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and phytochemical content. Spectrophotometric antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory assays were performed. Total phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the chemical free-anthraquinones profiles were determined using routinely procedure (HPLC-PDA). Data show that Asphodeline roots can be considered as a new source of natural compounds and can be used as a valuable dietary supplement. Some differences related to biological activities can be inferred to other phytochemicals that can be considered in the future for their synergic or competitive activities.

  1. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Idowu Kazeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg diabetic rats significantly reduced (P<0.05 the fasting blood glucose compared to control groups. There was significant increase (P<0.05 in the antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals treated with both polyphenols. Similarly, the polyphenols normalised the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (hexokinase and phosphofructokinase in the liver of the rats treated with it and significantly reduced (P<0.05 the activities of liver function enzymes. The results from the present study have shown that both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians.

  2. The biochemical effects of occupational exposure to lead and cadmium on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activity in the blood of glazers in tile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormozi, Maryam; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nakhaee, Alireza; Izadi, Shahrokh; Dehghan Haghighi, Javid

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) on markers of oxidative stress in glazers in tile industries. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the blood of 80 subjects, including 40 glazers and 40 nonexposed subjects. Mean levels of blood Cd (8.90 ± 2.80 µg/L) and blood Pb (62.90 ± 38.10 µg/L) of glazers showed a significant increase compared with the control group. In the serum of glazers, the level of MDA was significantly higher and the level of TAC was significantly lower than the control group. We have noted a disturbance in the levels of antioxidants by a significant increase in the CAT activity and a significant decrease in the activities of SOD and GPx in the serum of glazers compared with the controls. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the serum MDA level and CAT activity were positively associated with the blood levels of Pb and Cd. Also, GPx and SOD were negatively correlated with blood Cd levels. The study clearly indicated that co-exposure to Cd and Pb can induce oxidative stress in glazers, resulting in increased lipid peroxidation and altered antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Recovery of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds and hybrids from chilling stress of various duration: plant development, photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holá, D.; Kočová, M.; Rothová, O.; Wilhelmová, Naděžda; Benešová, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 164, - (2007), s. 868-877 ISSN 0176-1617 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova v Praze / Přírodovědecká fakulta(CZ) GP522/02/D174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Antioxidant enzymes * chilling * intraspecific variability * photosynthesis * recovery * Zea mays Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.239, year: 2007

  4. Changes in yogurt fermentation characteristics, and antioxidant potential and in vitro inhibition of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme upon the inclusion of peppermint, dill and basil

    OpenAIRE

    Amirdivani, Shabboo

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita), dill (Anethum graveolens) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) on yogurt formation, proteolysis and inhibition of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE). Herbal-yogurts had faster rates of pH reduction than plain-yogurt. All herbal-yogurts had higher (p < 0.05) antioxidant activities than plain-yogurt, both at the end of fermentation and throughout the storage period. The o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) peptides in herbal-yogurts in...

  5. Brassinosteroids improve photosystem II efficiency, gas exchange, antioxidant enzymes and growth of cowpea plants exposed to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J V; Lobato, A K S

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is considered the main abiotic stress that limits agricultural production worldwide. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are natural substances that play roles in plant tolerance against abiotic stresses, including water deficit. This research aims to determine whether BRs can mitigate the negative effects caused by water deficiency, revealing how BRs act and their possible contribution to increased tolerance of cowpea plants to water deficit. The experiment was a factorial design with the factors completely randomised, with two water conditions (control and water deficit) and three levels of brassinosteroids (0, 50 and 100 nM 24-epibrassinolide; EBR is an active BRs). Plants sprayed with 100 nM EBR under the water deficit presented significant increases in Φ PSII , q P and ETR compared with plants subjected to the water deficit without EBR. With respect to gas exchange, P N , E and g s exhibited significant reductions after water deficit, but application of 100 nM EBR caused increases in these variables of 96, 24 and 33%, respectively, compared to the water deficit + 0 nM EBR treatment. To antioxidant enzymes, EBR resulted in increases in SOD, CAT, APX and POX, indicating that EBR acts on the antioxidant system, reducing cell damage. The water deficit caused significant reductions in Chl a , Chl b and total Chl, while plants sprayed with 100 nM EBR showed significant increases of 26, 58 and 33% in Chl a , Chl b and total Chl, respectively. This study revealed that EBR improves photosystem II efficiency, inducing increases in Φ PSII , q P and ETR. This substance also mitigated the negative effects on gas exchange and growth induced by the water deficit. Increases in SOD, CAT, APX and POX of plants treated with EBR indicate that this steroid clearly increased the tolerance to the water deficit, reducing reactive oxygen species, cell damage, and maintaining the photosynthetic pigments. Additionally, 100 nM EBR resulted in a better dose-response of cowpea

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant potential, enzyme inhibition activity and phenolic profile of Lathyrus cicera and Lathyrus digitatus: Potential sources of bioactive compounds for the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorent-Martínez, E J; Ortega-Barrales, P; Zengin, G; Mocan, A; Simirgiotis, M J; Ceylan, R; Uysal, S; Aktumsek, A

    2017-09-01

    The genus Lathyrus has great importance in terms of food and agricultural areas. In this study, the in vitro antioxidant activity (phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC and metal chelating) and enzyme inhibitory activity evaluation (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase) of L. cicera and L. digitatus were investigated, as well as their phytochemical profiles. The screening of the main phytochemical compounds in aerial parts of L. cicera and L. digitatus was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-ESI-MS n ), observing that flavonoids represent the highest percentage of identified compounds, with abundance of tri- and tetra-glycosilated flavonoids, including acylated ones, especially in L. cicera. Generally, L. digitatus exhibited stronger antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities in correlation with its higher level of phenolics. The high number of phenolic compounds and the results of the antioxidant and enzyme assays suggest that these plants may be further used as sources of bioactive compounds, and for the preparation of new nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. l-Cysteine improves antioxidant enzyme activity, post-thaw quality and fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S; Riaz, A; Andrabi, S M H; Shahzad, Q; Durrani, A Z; Ahmad, N

    2016-11-01

    The effects of l-cysteine in extender on antioxidant enzymes profile during cryopreservation, post-thaw quality parameters and in vivo fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull spermatozoa were studied. Semen samples from 4 buffalo bulls were diluted in Tris-citric acid-based extender having different concentrations of l-cysteine (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm) and frozen in 0.5-ml French straws. The antioxidative enzymes [catalase, super oxide dismutase and total glutathione (peroxidase and reductase)] were significantly higher (P l-cysteine as compared to other groups. Post-thaw total motility (%), progressive motility (%), rapid velocity (%), average path velocity (μm s -1 ), straight line velocity (μm s -1 ), curvilinear velocity (μm s -1 ), beat cross frequency (Hz), viable spermatozoa with intact plasmalemma (%), acrosome and DNA integrity (%) were higher with the addition of 2.0 mm l-cysteine as compared to other groups (P l-cysteine than in the control. In conclusion, the addition of 2.0 mm l-cysteine in extender improved the antioxidant enzymes profile, post-thaw quality and in vivo fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull spermatozoa. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Vulnerability to oxidative stress in vitro in pathophysiology of mitochondrial short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: response to antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarazuela Zolkipli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the pathophysiology of SCAD deficient patients who have a unique neurological phenotype, among fatty acid oxidation disorders, with early developmental delay, CNS malformations, intractable seizures, myopathy and clinical signs suggesting oxidative stress. METHODS: We studied skin fibroblast cultures from patients homozygous for ACADS common variant c.625G>A (n = 10, compound heterozygous for c.625G>A/c.319C>T (n = 3 or homozygous for pathogenic c.319C>T (n = 2 and c.1138C>T (n = 2 mutations compared to fibroblasts from patients with carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2 (n = 5, mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP/long-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD (n = 7, and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD deficiencies (n = 4 and normal controls (n = 9. All were exposed to 50 µM menadione at 37°C. Additional conditions included exposure to 39°C and/or hypoglycemia. Time to 100% cell death was confirmed with trypan blue dye exclusion. Experiments were repeated with antioxidants (Vitamins C and E or N-acetylcysteine, Bezafibrate or glucose and temperature rescue. RESULTS: The most significant risk factor for vulnerability to menadione-induced oxidative stress was the presence of a FAO defect. SCADD fibroblasts were the most vulnerable compared to other FAO disorders and controls, and were similarly affected, independent of genotype. Cell death was exacerbated by hyperthermia and/or hypoglycemia. Hyperthermia was a more significant independent risk factor than hypoglycemia. Rescue significantly prolonged survival. Incubation with antioxidants and Bezafibrate significantly increased viability of SCADD fibroblasts. INTERPRETATION: Vulnerability to oxidative stress likely contributes to neurotoxicity of SCADD regardless of ACADS genotype and is significantly exacerbated by hyperthermia. We recommend rigorous temperature control in SCADD patients during acute illness

  9. Effect of cadmium on phenolic compounds, antioxidant enzyme activity and oxidative stress in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) plantlets grown in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manquián-Cerda, K; Escudey, M; Zúñiga, G; Arancibia-Miranda, N; Molina, M; Cruces, E

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) can affect plant growth due to its mobility and toxicity. We evaluated the effects of Cd(2+) on the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant response of Vaccinium corymbosum L. Plantlets were exposed to Cd(2+) at 50 and 100µM for 7, 14 and 21 days. Accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the antioxidant enzyme SOD was determined. The profile of phenolic compounds was evaluated using LC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test (FRAP). Cd(2+) increased the content of MDA, with the highest increase at 14 days. The presence of Cd(2+) resulted in changes in phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compound found in blueberry plantlets was chlorogenic acid, whose abundance increased with the addition of Cd(2+) to the medium. The changes in the composition of phenolic compounds showed a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity measured using FRAP. Our results suggest that blueberry plantlets produced phenolic compounds with reducing capacity as a selective mechanism triggered by the highest activity of Cd(2+). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reproduction Does Not Adversely Affect Liver Mitochondrial Respiratory Function but Results in Lipid Peroxidation and Increased Antioxidants in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Annelise V; Kavazis, Andreas N; Sirman, Aubrey E; Potts, Wayne K; Hood, Wendy R

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a non-reproductive state, so that both groups were in the same physiological state at the time the liver was collected. Despite increased oxidative damage (p = 0.05) and elevated CuZnSOD (p = 0.002) and catalase (p = 0.04) protein levels, reproduction had no negative impacts on the respiratory function of liver mitochondria. Specifically, in a post-reproductive, maintenance state the mitochondrial coupling (i.e., respiratory control ratio) of mouse livers show no negative impacts of reproduction. In fact, there was a trend (p = 0.059) to suggest increased maximal oxygen consumption by liver mitochondria during the ADP stimulated state (i.e., state 3) in post-reproduction. These findings suggest that oxidative damage may not impair mitochondrial respiratory function and question the role of mitochondria in the trade-off between reproduction and longevity. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of quantifying the respiratory function of mitochondria in addition to measuring oxidative damage.

  11. Co-ordinated stage-dependent enhancement of Plasmodium falciparum antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein expression in parasites growing in oxidatively stressed or G6PD-deficient red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Sylke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (RBCs are equipped with protective antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs. The latter are only considered to protect against thermal stress. Important issues are poorly explored: first, it is insufficiently known how both systems are expressed in relation to the parasite developmental stage; secondly, it is unknown whether P. falciparum HSPs are redox-responsive, in view of redox sensitivity of HSP in eukaryotic cells; thirdly, it is poorly known how the antioxidant defense machinery would respond to increased oxidative stress or inhibited antioxidant defense. Those issues are interesting as several antimalarials increase the oxidative stress or block antioxidant defense in the parasitized RBC. In addition, numerous inhibitors of HSPs are currently developed for cancer therapy and might be tested as anti-malarials. Thus, the joint disruption of the parasite antioxidant enzymes/HSP system would interfere with parasite growth and open new perspectives for anti-malaria therapy. Methods Stage-dependent mRNA expression of ten representative P. falciparum antioxidant enzymes and hsp60/70–2/70–3/75/90 was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in parasites growing in normal RBCs, in RBCs oxidatively-stressed by moderate H2O2 generation and in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Protein expression of antioxidant enzymes was assayed by Western blotting. The pentosephosphate-pathway flux was measured in isolated parasites after Sendai-virus lysis of RBC membrane. Results In parasites growing in normal RBCs, mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and HSPs displayed co-ordinated stage-dependent modulation, being low at ring, highest at early trophozoite and again very low at schizont stage. Additional exogenous oxidative stress or growth in antioxidant blunted G6PD-deficient RBCs indicated remarkable flexibility of both systems, manifested by enhanced, co-ordinated mRNA expression of

  12. Co-ordinated stage-dependent enhancement of Plasmodium falciparum antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein expression in parasites growing in oxidatively stressed or G6PD-deficient red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akide-Ndunge, Oscar Bate; Tambini, Elisa; Giribaldi, Giuliana; McMillan, Paul J; Müller, Sylke; Arese, Paolo; Turrini, Francesco

    2009-05-29

    Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) are equipped with protective antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs). The latter are only considered to protect against thermal stress. Important issues are poorly explored: first, it is insufficiently known how both systems are expressed in relation to the parasite developmental stage; secondly, it is unknown whether P. falciparum HSPs are redox-responsive, in view of redox sensitivity of HSP in eukaryotic cells; thirdly, it is poorly known how the antioxidant defense machinery would respond to increased oxidative stress or inhibited antioxidant defense. Those issues are interesting as several antimalarials increase the oxidative stress or block antioxidant defense in the parasitized RBC. In addition, numerous inhibitors of HSPs are currently developed for cancer therapy and might be tested as anti-malarials. Thus, the joint disruption of the parasite antioxidant enzymes/HSP system would interfere with parasite growth and open new perspectives for anti-malaria therapy. Stage-dependent mRNA expression of ten representative P. falciparum antioxidant enzymes and hsp60/70-2/70-3/75/90 was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in parasites growing in normal RBCs, in RBCs oxidatively-stressed by moderate H2O2 generation and in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Protein expression of antioxidant enzymes was assayed by Western blotting. The pentosephosphate-pathway flux was measured in isolated parasites after Sendai-virus lysis of RBC membrane. In parasites growing in normal RBCs, mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and HSPs displayed co-ordinated stage-dependent modulation, being low at ring, highest at early trophozoite and again very low at schizont stage. Additional exogenous oxidative stress or growth in antioxidant blunted G6PD-deficient RBCs indicated remarkable flexibility of both systems, manifested by enhanced, co-ordinated mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and HSPs. Protein expression of

  13. Effect of di(n-butyl) phthalate on testicular oxidative damage and antioxidant enzymes in hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ena; Ahn, Mee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, In Young; Han, Soon Young; Kang, Tae Seok; Hong, Jin Hwan; Park, Kui Lea; Lee, Byung Mu; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2007-06-01

    This study compared the effects of di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) on the oxidative damage and antioxidant enzymes activity in testes of hyperthyroid rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced in pubertal male rats by intraperitoneal injection of triiodothyronine (T3, 10 microg/kg body weight) for 30 days. An oral dose of DBP (750 mg/kg) was administered simultaneously to normal or hyperthyroid (T3) rats over a 30-day period. No changes in body weight were observed in the hyperthyroid groups (T3, T3 + DBP) compared with controls. There were significantly higher serum T3 levels observed in the hyperthyroid rats than in the control, but the serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels were markedly lower in the hyperthyroid rats. DBP significantly decreased the weight of the testes in the normal (DBP) and hyperthyroid (T3 + DBP) groups. The serum testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in only DBP group. DBP significantly increased the 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level in the testes, whereas the DBP-induced 8-OHdG levels were slightly higher in T3 + DBP group. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly higher in the testes of the DBP or T3 + DBP groups. Catalase (CAT) activity was significantly higher in the DBP treatment group, but the T3 + DBP group showed slightly lower DBP-induced CAT activity. The testicular expression of thyroid hormone receptor alpha-1 (TRalpha-1) was significantly higher in the DBP groups, and androgen receptor (AR) expression was not detected in the DBP treatment group. In addition, DBP significantly increased the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-r (PPAR-r) levels in the testis. These results suggest that hyperthyroidism can cause a change in the expression level of PPAR-r in testes, and may increase the levels of oxidative damage induced by the metabolic activation of DBP.

  14. Redox regulation of antioxidant enzymes: post-translational modulation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity by resveratrol in diabetic rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Gökhan; Bozan, Davut; Yildiz, Huseyin Bekir

    2014-08-01

    Resveratrol is a strong antioxidant that exhibits blood glucose-lowering effects, which might contribute to its usefulness in preventing complications associated with diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate resveratrol effects on catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) gene and protein expression, their phosphorylation states and activities in rat liver of STZ-induced diabetes. Diabetes increased the levels of total protein phosphorylation and p-CAT, while mRNA expression, protein levels, and activity were reduced. Although diabetes induced transcriptional repression over GPx, it did not affect the protein levels and activity. When resveratrol was administered to diabetic rats, an increase in activity was associated with an increase in p-GPx levels. Decrease in Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) gene expression in diabetes were associated with a decrease in CAT and GPx mRNA expression. A possible compensatory mechanism for reduced gene expression of antioxidant enzymes is proved to be nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive Nrf2 and NFκB in diabetes which is confirmed by the increase in nuclear and decrease in cytoplasmic protein levels of Nrf2 and NFκB. Taken together, these findings revealed that an increase in the oxidized state in diabetes intricately modified the cellular phosphorylation status and regulation of antioxidant enzymes. Gene regulation of antioxidant enzymes was accompanied by nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and NFκB. Resveratrol administration also activated a coordinated cytoprotective response against diabetes-induced changes in liver tissues.

  15. Bioavailability of catechins from guaraná (Paullinia cupana) and its effect on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative stress markers in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Lina; Martins, Carolina Aguiar; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Monteiro, Marcela Piedade; César, Luiz Antônio Machado; Mioto, Bruno Mahler; Mori, Clara Satsuki; Mendes, Thaíse Maria Nogueira; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Arçari, Demetrius Paiva; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva

    2016-07-13

    We assessed the effects of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) consumption on plasma catechins, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and biomarkers of oxidative stress (ex vivo LDL oxidation, plasma total antioxidant status and ORAC, and lymphocyte single cell gel electrophoresis) in healthy overweight subjects. Twelve participants completed a 15-day run-in period followed by a 15-day intervention with a daily intake of 3 g guaraná seed powder containing 90 mg (+)-catechin and 60 mg (-)-epicatechin. Blood samples were taken on the first and last day of the intervention period, fasting and 1 h post-dose. The administration of guaraná increased plasma ORAC, while reducing ex vivo LDL oxidation (only in the first study day) and hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in lymphocytes, at 1 h post-dose. Plasma catechin (0.38 ± 0.12 and 0.44 ± 0.18 nmol mL(-1)), epicatechin (0.59 ± 0.18 and 0.64 ± 0.25 nmol mL(-1)) and their methylated metabolites were observed at 1 h post-dose but were almost negligible after overnight fasting. The activities of catalase (in both study days) and glutathione peroxidase (in the last intervention day) increased at 1 h post-dose. Furthermore, the activity of both enzymes remained higher than the basal levels in overnight-fasting individuals on the last intervention day, suggesting a prolonged effect of guaraná that continues even after plasma catechin clearance. In conclusion, guaraná catechins are bioavailable and contribute to reduce the oxidative stress of clinically healthy individuals, by direct antioxidant action of the absorbed phytochemicals and up-regulation of antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes.

  16. Characterization of mitochondrial proteome in a severe case of ETF-QO deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, H; Ferreira, R; Carvalho, J; Vitorino, R; Santa, C; Lopes, L; Gregersen, N; Vilarinho, L; Amado, F

    2011-12-10

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorder caused by mutations that affect electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or ETF:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) or even due to unidentified disturbances of riboflavin metabolism. Besides all the available data on the molecular basis of FAO disorders, including MADD, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying clinical phenotype development, namely at the mitochondrial level, are poorly understood. In order to contribute to the elucidation of these mechanisms, we isolated mitochondria from cultured fibroblasts, from a patient with a severe MADD presentation due to ETF-QO deficiency, characterize its mitochondrial proteome and compare it with normal controls. The used approach (2-DE-MS/MS) allowed the positive identification of 287 proteins in both patient and controls, presenting 35 of the significant differences in their relative abundance. Among the differentially expressed are proteins associated to binding/folding functions, mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes as well as proteins associated to apoptotic events. The overexpression of chaperones like Hsp60 or mitochondrial Grp75, antioxidant enzymes and apoptotic proteins reflects the mitochondrial response to a complete absence of ETF-QO. Our study provides a global perspective of the mitochondrial proteome plasticity in a severe case of MADD and highlights the main molecular pathways involved in its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of the formation of enzyme-bound ATP from medium inorganic phosphate by mitochondrial F1 adenosinetriphosphatase in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandpal, R.P.; Stempel, K.E.; Boyer, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Addition of dimethyl sulfoxide promotes the formation of enzyme-bound ATP from medium P/sub i/ by mitochondrial F 1 adenosinetriphosphatase that has tightly bound ADP present. Measurements are reported of medium P/sub i/ ↔ H 18 OH exchange and of the dependence of formation of enzyme-bound ATP on P/sub i/ concentration. Attainment of an apparent equilibrium between medium P/sub i/ and bound ATP requires longer than 30 min, even though the rates of P/sub i/ binding and release after apparent equilibrium is reached would suffice for a faster approach to equilibrium. Slow protein conformational changes or other unknown modulating factors may be responsible for the slow rate of bound ATP formation. After apparent equilibrium is reached, each P/sub i/ that binds to the enzyme reversibly forms ATP about 50 times before being released to the medium. The rate of interconversion of bound ATP to bound ADP and P/sub i/ is much slower than that in the absence of dimethyl sulfoxide as measured with sufficient low ATP concentrations so that single-site catalysis is favored. Although the interconversion rate is slowed, the equilibrium constant for bound ATP formation from bound ADP and P/sub i/ is not far from unity. Dimethyl sulfoxide favors the formation of enzyme-bound ATP by promoting the competent binding of P/sub i/ to enzyme with ADP bound at a catalytic site rather than by promoting formation of bound ATP from bound ADP and P/sub i/

  18. Ubiad1 is an antioxidant enzyme that regulates eNOS activity by CoQ10 synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugoni, V.; Postel, R.; Catanzaro, V.; De Luca, E.; Turco, E.; Digilio, G.; Silengo, L.; Murphy, M.P.; Medana, C.; Stainier, D.Y.; Bakkers, J.; Santoro, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Protection against oxidative damage caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) by an antioxidant network is essential for the health of tissues, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we identified a gene with important antioxidant features by analyzing a null allele of zebrafish

  19. Effects of whole-body γ-irradiation on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzymes in the liver of N-nitrosodiethylamine-treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzinski, I.P.; Frankiewicz-Jozko, A; Gajewska, J.; Szczypka, M.; Szymanski, A.

    2000-01-01

    B6c3F1 mice were treated per os with either normal saline or N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg body weight) daily for 21 days. On day 22 nd of the experiment , the animals were whole-body γ-irradiated (10 Gy) and examined at 3.5 days post-radiation exposure. Pretreatment of mice with NDEA at the lowest dosage (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg) increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase (CAT) activity in the liver. Since the agent at the highest doses (1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) did not have any effects on TBARS, it was associated with the selective increase of thiol (SH) groups and GSH-linked anti-oxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX), transferase (GST) and reductase (GR). γ-irradiation decreased TBARS and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GPX activity in NDEA-treated mice. Simultaneously, γ-rays did not have any effects on GST and GR enzymes, and it slightly decreased SH groups and CAT activity. Results of the present study indicate that NDEA can promote lipid peroxidation in mice liver. γ-irradiation of mice at a dose of 10 Gy modifies the activity of hepatic anti-oxidant enzymes, which in turn can lead to the reduction of NDEA-induced lipid peroxidation and/or pro-oxidant shift(s). The anti-oxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPX are suggested to be mainly involved in this process. (author)

  20. Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate triggered hepatotoxicity in mice: Responses of major antioxidant enzymes and the Nrf2 rescue pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Yijun; Wan, Xiaochun; Yang, Chung S.; Zhang, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea, has been suggested to have numerous health-promoting effects. On the other hand, high-dose EGCG is able to evoke hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we elucidated the responses of hepatic major antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) rescue pathway to high-dose levels of EGCG in Kunming mice. At a non-lethal toxic dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments markedly decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. As a rescue response, the nuclear distribution of Nrf2 was significantly increased; a battery of Nrf2-target genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and those involved in glutathione and thioredoxin systems, were all up-regulated. At the maximum tolerated dose (45 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments did not disturb the major antioxidant defense. Among the above-mentioned genes, only HO1, NQO1, and GST genes were significantly but modestly up-regulated, suggesting a comprehensive and extensive activation of Nrf2-target genes principally occurs at toxic levels of EGCG. At a lethal dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.), a single EGCG treatment dramatically decreased not only the major antioxidant defense but also the Nrf2-target genes, demonstrating that toxic levels of EGCG are able to cause a biphasic response of Nrf2. Overall, the mechanism of EGCG-triggered hepatotoxicity involves suppression of major antioxidant enzymes, and the Nrf2 rescue pathway plays a vital role for counteracting EGCG toxicity. - Highlights: • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose does not disturb hepatic major antioxidant defense. • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose modestly upregulates hepatic Nrf2 target genes. • EGCG at toxic dose suppresses hepatic major antioxidant enzymes. • EGCG at non-lethal toxic dose pronouncedly activates hepatic Nrf2 rescue response. • EGCG at

  1. Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate triggered hepatotoxicity in mice: Responses of major antioxidant enzymes and the Nrf2 rescue pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Yijun; Wan, Xiaochun [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China); Yang, Chung S. [Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Zhang, Jinsong, E-mail: zjs@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China)

    2015-02-15

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea, has been suggested to have numerous health-promoting effects. On the other hand, high-dose EGCG is able to evoke hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we elucidated the responses of hepatic major antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) rescue pathway to high-dose levels of EGCG in Kunming mice. At a non-lethal toxic dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments markedly decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. As a rescue response, the nuclear distribution of Nrf2 was significantly increased; a battery of Nrf2-target genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and those involved in glutathione and thioredoxin systems, were all up-regulated. At the maximum tolerated dose (45 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments did not disturb the major antioxidant defense. Among the above-mentioned genes, only HO1, NQO1, and GST genes were significantly but modestly up-regulated, suggesting a comprehensive and extensive activation of Nrf2-target genes principally occurs at toxic levels of EGCG. At a lethal dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.), a single EGCG treatment dramatically decreased not only the major antioxidant defense but also the Nrf2-target genes, demonstrating that toxic levels of EGCG are able to cause a biphasic response of Nrf2. Overall, the mechanism of EGCG-triggered hepatotoxicity involves suppression of major antioxidant enzymes, and the Nrf2 rescue pathway plays a vital role for counteracting EGCG toxicity. - Highlights: • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose does not disturb hepatic major antioxidant defense. • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose modestly upregulates hepatic Nrf2 target genes. • EGCG at toxic dose suppresses hepatic major antioxidant enzymes. • EGCG at non-lethal toxic dose pronouncedly activates hepatic Nrf2 rescue response. • EGCG at

  2. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity, Antioxidant Properties, Phenolic Content and Amino Acid Profiles of Fucus spiralis L. Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Paiva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food protein-derived hydrolysates with multi-bioactivities such as antihypertensive and antioxidant properties have recently received special attention since both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. This study reports, for the first time, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of ultrafiltrate fractions (UF with different molecular weight ranges (<1, 1–3 and ≥3 kDa obtained from Fucus spiralis protein hydrolysate (FSPH digested with cellulase–bromelain. The amino acids profile, recovery yield, protein, peptide and total phenolic contents of these FSPH-UF, and the in vitro digestibility of F. spiralis crude protein were also investigated. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa presented remarkably higher ACE-inhibition, yield, peptide and polyphenolic (phlorotannins contents. Antioxidant analysis showed that FSPH-UF <1 kDa and ≥3 kDa exhibited significantly higher scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC activity. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa had also notably higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Strong correlations were observed between ACE-inhibition and antioxidant activities (FIC and FRAP. The results suggest that ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of FSPH-UF may be due to the bioactive peptides and polyphenols released during the enzymatic hydrolysis. In conclusion, this study shows the potential use of defined size FSPH-UF for the prevention/treatment of hypertension and/or oxidative stress-related diseases.

  3. Effect of different levels dietary vitamin C on growth performance, muscle composition, antioxidant and enzyme activity of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamalai Asaikkutti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study was conducted to examine the effects and interactions of dietary vitamin C levels on the growth performance, antioxidant ability, muscle composition and enzyme activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (M. malcolmsonii. Additional, the vitamins C was dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn M. malcolmsonii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with M. malcolmsonii at the rates of 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented vitamin C was fed in M. malcolmsonii for a period of 90 days. In the present investigation revealed that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C shows enhanced (P  0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR were observed in prawn fed different diets. Addition, prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C supplemented diets achieved significant (P  0.05 alterations in prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamin C supplemented diets. Therefore, the present study proposed that 100 mg/kg of vitamin C could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival; growth, antioxidant defense system and production of M. malcolmsonii. Keywords: Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, Vitamin, Growth performance, Biochemical compositions, Antioxidant enzyme

  4. The order of exercise during concurrent training for rehabilitation does not alter acute genetic expression, mitochondrial enzyme activity or improvements in muscle function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G MacNeil

    Full Text Available Concurrent exercise combines different modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic and resistance into one training protocol, providing stimuli meant to increase muscle strength, aerobic capacity and mass. As disuse is associated with decrements in strength, aerobic capacity and muscle size concurrent training is an attractive modality for rehabilitation. However, interference between the signaling pathways may result in preferential improvements for one of the exercise modes. We recruited 18 young adults (10 ♂, 8 ♀ to determine if order of exercise mode during concurrent training would differentially affect gene expression, protein content and measures of strength and aerobic capacity after 2 weeks of knee-brace induced disuse. Concurrent exercise sessions were performed 3x/week for 6 weeks at gradually increasing intensities either with endurance exercise preceding (END>RES or following (RES>END resistance exercise. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 3 h after the first exercise bout and 48 h after the end of training. Concurrent exercise altered the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PRC, PPARγ, hypertrophy (PGC-1α4, REDD2, Rheb and atrophy (MuRF-1, Runx1, increased electron transport chain complex protein content, citrate synthase and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase enzyme activity, muscle mass, maximum isometric strength and VO 2peak. However, the order in which exercise was completed (END>RES or RES>END only affected the protein content of mitochondrial complex II subunit. In conclusion, concurrent exercise training is an effective modality for the rehabilitation of the loss of skeletal muscle mass, maximum strength, and peak aerobic capacity resulting from disuse, regardless of the order in which the modes of exercise are performed.

  5. Obesity-induced oocyte mitochondrial defects are partially prevented and rescued by supplementation with co-enzyme Q10 in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, C.E.; Boudoures, A.; Zhang, W.; Drury, A.; Moley, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does supplementation with co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) improve the oocyte mitochondrial abnormalities associated with obesity in mice? SUMMARY ANSWER In an obese mouse model, CoQ10 improves the mitochondrial function of oocytes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Obesity impairs oocyte quality. Oocytes from mice fed a high-fat/high-sugar (HF/HS) diet have abnormalities in mitochondrial distribution and function and in meiotic progression. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Mice were randomly assigned to a normal, chow diet or an isocaloric HF/HS diet for 12 weeks. After 6 weeks on the diet, half of the mice receiving a normal diet and half of the mice receiving a HF/HS diet were randomly assigned to receive CoQ10 supplementation injections for the remaining 6 weeks. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Dietary intervention was initiated on C57Bl6 female mice at 4 weeks of age, CoQ10 versus vehicle injections were assigned at 10 weeks, and assays were conducted at 16 weeks of age. Mice were super-ovulated, and oocytes were collected and stained to assess mitochondrial distribution, quantify reactive oxygen species (ROS), assess meiotic spindle formation, and measure metabolites. In vitro fertilization was performed, and blastocyst embryos were transferred into control mice. Oocyte number, fertilization rate, blastulation rate and implantation rate were compared between the four cohorts. Bivariate statistics were performed appropriately. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE HF/HS mice weighed significantly more than normal diet mice (29 versus 22 g, P< 0.001). CoQ10 supplementation did not influence weight. Levels of ATP, citrate, and phosphocreatine were lower and ROS levels were higher in HF/HS mice than in controls (P< 0.001). CoQ10 supplementation significantly increased the levels of metabolites and decreased ROS levels in oocytes from normal diet mice but not in oocytes from HF/HS mice. However, CoQ10 completely prevented the mitochondrial distribution abnormalities

  6. In vitro digestion of purified β-casein variants A(1), A(2), B, and I: effects on antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrat-Melin, B; Andersen, P; Rasmussen, J T; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, L B; Young, J F

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of bovine milk proteins affect the protein profile of the milk and, hence, certain technological properties, such as casein (CN) number and cheese yield. However, reports show that such polymorphisms may also affect the health-related properties of milk. Therefore, to gain insight into their digestion pattern and bioactive potential, β-CN was purified from bovine milk originating from cows homozygous for the variants A(1), A(2), B, and I by a combination of cold storage, ultracentrifugation, and acid precipitation. The purity of the isolated β-CN was determined by HPLC, variants were verified by mass spectrometry, and molar extinction coefficients at λ=280nm were determined. β-Casein from each of the variants was subjected to in vitro digestion using pepsin and pancreatic enzymes. Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of the hydrolysates were assessed at 3 stages of digestion and related to that of the undigested samples. Neither molar extinction coefficients nor overall digestibility varied significantly between these 4 variants; however, clear differences in digestion pattern were indicated by gel electrophoresis. In particular, after 60min of pepsin followed by 5min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, one ≈4kDa peptide with the N-terminal sequence (106)H-K-E-M-P-F-P-K- was absent from β-CN variant B. This is likely a result of the (122)Ser to (122)Arg substitution in variant B introducing a novel trypsin cleavage site, leading to the changed digestion pattern. All investigated β-CN variants exhibited a significant increase in antioxidant capacity upon digestion, as measured by the Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. After 60min of pepsin + 120min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, the accumulated increase in antioxidant capacity was ≈1.7-fold for the 4 β-CN variants. The ACE inhibitory capacity was also significantly increased by digestion, with the B variant reaching the highest inhibitory

  7. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace G. Abdukeyum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species paradoxically underpin both ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R damage and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC cardioprotection. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to peroxidation, but are paradoxically cardioprotective. This study tested the hypothesis that LCn-3 PUFA cardioprotection is underpinned by peroxidation, upregulating antioxidant activity to reduce I/R-induced lipid oxidation, and the mechanisms of this nutritional preconditioning contrast to mechanisms of IPC. Rats were fed: fish oil (LCn-3 PUFA; sunflower seed oil (n-6 PUFA; or beef tallow (saturated fat, SF enriched diets for six weeks. Isolated hearts were subject to: 180 min normoxic perfusion; a 30 min coronary occlusion ischaemia protocol then 120 min normoxic reperfusion; or a 3 × 5 min global IPC protocol, 30 min ischaemia, then reperfusion. Dietary LCn-3 PUFA raised basal: membrane docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA; fatty acid peroxidisability index; concentrations of lipid oxidation products; and superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity (but not CuZnSOD or glutathione peroxidase. Infarct size correlated inversely with basal MnSOD activity (r2 = 0.85 in the ischaemia protocol and positively with I/R-induced lipid oxidation (lipid hydroperoxides (LPO, r2 = 0.475; malondialdehyde (MDA, r2 = 0.583 across ischaemia and IPC protocols. While both dietary fish oil and IPC infarct-reduction were associated with reduced I/R-induced lipid oxidation, fish oil produced nutritional preconditioning by prior LCn-3 PUFA incorporation and increased peroxidisability leading to up-regulated mitochondrial SOD antioxidant activity.

  8. Histological changes and antioxidant enzyme activity in signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) associated with sub-acute peracetic acid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupani, Latifeh; Zuskova, Eliska; Stara, Alzbeta; Velisek, Josef; Kouba, Antonin

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a powerful disinfectant recently adopted as a therapeutic agent in aquaculture. A concentration of 10 mg L(-1) PAA effectively suppresses zoospores of Aphanomyces astaci, the agent of crayfish plague. To aid in establishing safe therapeutic guideline, the effects of PAA on treated crayfish were investigated through assessment of histological changes and oxidative damage. Adult female signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (n = 135) were exposed to 2 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1) of PAA for 7 days followed by a 7 day recovery period in clean water. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in gill and hepatopancreas after three days exposure to 10 mg L(1) PAA than in the group treated with 2 mg L(-1) PAA and a control in only clean water. Catalase activity in gill and hepatopancreas remained unaffected by both exposures. Glutathione reductase was significantly decreased in gill of 10 mg L(-1) PAA treated crayfish and increased in group exposed to 2 mg L(-1) compared to control after 7 days exposure. Antioxidant enzyme activity in exposed groups returned to control values after recovery period. Gill, hepatopancreas, and antennal gland showed slight damage in crayfish treated with 2 mg L(-1) of PAA compared to the control group. The extent and frequency of histological alterations were more pronounced in animals exposed to 10 mg L(-1). The gill was the most affected organ, infiltrated by granular hemocytes and displaying malformations of lamella tips and disorganization of epithelial cells. After a 7 day recovery period, the infiltrating cells in affected tissues of the exposed crayfish began to return to normal levels. Results suggested that the given concentrations could be applied to signal crayfish against crayfish plague agent in aquaculture; however, further studies are required for safe use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging. Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress was investigated using PC12 cells and dissociated brain cells of animals treated with piracetam. Piracetam treatment at concentrations between 100 and 1000 μM improved mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production of PC12 cells following oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and serum deprivation. Under conditions of mild serum deprivation, piracetam (500 μM) induced a nearly complete recovery of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Piracetam also reduced caspase 9 activity after SNP treatment. Piracetam treatment (100–500 mg kg−1 daily) of mice was also associated with improved mitochondrial function in dissociated brain cells. Significant improvement was mainly seen in aged animals and only less in young animals. Moreover, the same treatment reduced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in aged mouse brain only, which are elevated as an adaptive response to the increased oxidative stress with aging. In conclusion, therapeutically relevant in vitro and in vivo concentrations of piracetam are able to improve mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress and/or aging. Mitochondrial stabilization and protection might be an important mechanism to explain many of piracetam's beneficial effects in elderly patients. PMID:16284628

  10. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  11. The effect of rosemary extract on spatial memory, learning and antioxidant enzymes activities in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoolijazi, Homa; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Nikbakhte, Farnaz; Eslami Farsani, Mohsen; Ababzadeh, Shima

    2015-01-01

    The Rosemary extract (RE) possesses various antioxidant, cytoprotective and cognition- improving bioactivities. In this study, we postulated which doses of RE have a more effect on the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. In this experimental study, thirty-two middle-aged male Wistar rats were fed by different doses (50,100 and 200 mg/kg/day) of RE (containing 40% carnosic acid) or distilled water for 12 weeks. The effects of different RE doses on learning and spatial memory scores, hippocampal neuronal survival, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation amount were evaluated by one and two way analysis of variance (ANOVA). It seemed that RE (100mg/kg) could recover the spatial memory retrieval score (prosemary extract (40% carnosic acid) may improve the memory score and oxidative stress activity in middle aged rats in a dose dependent manner, especially in 100mg/kg.

  12. Effects of curcumin on angiotensin-converting enzyme gene expression, oxidative stress and anti-oxidant status in thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Yumna; Fatima, Syeda Nuzhat; Shahid, Syed Muhammad; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of curcumin on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression, oxidative stress and anti-oxidant status in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Total 32 albino Wistar rats (male, 200-250 g) were divided into six groups (n=8). Group 1: untreated controls; Group 2: received TAA (200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.); i.p.) for 12 weeks; Group 3: received curcumin (75 mg/kg b.w.) for 24 weeks; Group 4: received TAA (200 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) for 12 weeks+curcumin (75 mg/kg b.w.) for 12 weeks. A significantly higher ACE gene expression was observed in TAA-induced groups as compared with control, indicating more synthesis of ACE proteins. Treatment with curcumin suppressed ACE expression in TAA liver and reversed the toxicity produced. TAA treatment results in higher lipid peroxidation and lower GSH, SOD and CAT than the normal, and this produces oxidative stress in the liver. Cirrhotic conditions were confirmed by serum enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) as well as histopathological observations. Curcumin treatment reduced oxidative stress in animals by scavenging reactive oxygen species, protecting the anti-oxidant enzymes from being denatured and reducing the oxidative stress marker lipid peroxidation. Curcumin treatment restores hepatocytes, damaged by TAA, and protects liver tissue approaching cirrhosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Activity changes of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae infected by the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis beicherriana (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyue; Liu, Qizhi; Lewis, Edwin E; Tarasco, Eustachio

    2016-12-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are lethal parasites of many insect species. To investigate defensive mechanisms towards EPNs in relation to antioxidative and detoxifying enzymes, we chose Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as experimental insect. We studied the activity changes of superoxide dismutases (SODs), peroxidases (PODs), and catalases (CATs), as well as tyrosinase (TYR), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CarE), and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) for 40 h in T. molitor larvae infected with Heterorhabditis beicherriana infective juveniles (IJs) at 5 rates (0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 IJs/larva). We found that when T. molitor larvae infected with H. beicherriana at higher rates (80 and 160 IJs/larva), SOD activity quickly increased to more than 70 % higher than that control levels. The activities of POD and CAT increased after 24 h. TYR activity increased slowly at lower rates of infection for 16 h, followed by a slight decrease, and then increasing from 32 to 40 h. The other detoxifying enzymes (GST, CarE, and AChE) were enhanced at lower infection rates, but were inhibited at higher rates. Our results suggested that host antioxidative response and detoxification reactions played a central role in the defensive reaction to EPNs, and that this stress which was reflected by the higher level enzymes activity contributed to the death of hosts. Further study should explore the exact function of these enzymes using different species of EPNs and investigate the links between enzyme activity and host susceptibility to EPNs.

  14. Effects of varying dietary iodine supplementation levels as iodide or iodate on thyroid status as well as mRNA expression and enzyme activity of antioxidative enzymes in tissues of grower/finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qimeng; Mair, Christiane; Schedle, Karl; Hellmayr, Isabella; Windisch, Wilhelm

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of high dietary iodine supply and different iodine sources on thyroid status and oxidative stress in target tissues of the thyroid hormones in fattening pigs. Eighty castrates (body weight: 33.3 ± 0.4 kg) were randomly allotted into five different treatments: The control diet contained 150 μg I/kg as KI, the other feeding groups were supplemented with 4,000 μg I/kg (as KI and KIO(3)) and 10,000 μg I/kg (as KI and KIO(3)), respectively. The mRNA expression levels of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and key antioxidant enzymes (Cu/Zn SOD, CAT, GPx) were analyzed in thyroid gland, liver, kidney, muscle, and adipose tissue sampled during slaughter. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activities and the effect on lipid peroxidation (MDA) were determined in liver and muscle. In thyroid gland, a significant downregulation of NIS and Cu/Zn SOD mRNA expression was observed in high-iodine groups. In liver, a source effect on the mRNA expression of Cu/Zn SOD between KI and KIO(3) at 4,000 μg I/kg was shown. In contrast, not SOD but GPx activity was affected by iodine source with strongest downregulation in high KIO(3) group. In muscle, GPx activity was affected by both iodine source and dose, showing stronger downregulation in KI groups. In kidney and adipose tissue, oxidative stress parameters showed no or only unsystematic changes. However, variation in iodine supply had no effect on MDA concentrations. NIS expression was significantly decreased with increased iodine supplementation, which is to ensure the thyroid gland function. However, the alleviating effect of iodine supplementation observed in antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activity did not reflect on the lipid peroxide level.

  15. Modulation of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes in the gills of Perna viridis (L.) exposed to water accomodate fraction of diesel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    tested for cell damage and antioxidant responses in P. viridis for over 15 day period. The parameters measured included lipid peroxidation (LPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR...

  16. Antioxidant activity and emulsion-stabilizing effect of pectic enzyme treated pectin in soy protein isolate-stabilized oil/water emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping-Hsiu; Lu, Hao-Te; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2011-09-14

    The antioxidant activity of pectic enzyme treated pectin (PET-pectin) prepared from citrus pectin by enzymatic hydrolysis and its potential use as a stabilizer and an antioxidant for soy protein isolate (SPI)-stabilized oil in water (O/W) emulsion were investigated. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was found to be positively associated with molecular weight (M(w)) of PET-pectin and negatively associated with degree of esterification (DE) of PET-pectin. PET-pectin (1 kDa and 11.6% DE) prepared from citrus pectin after 24 h of hydrolysis by commercial pectic enzyme produced by Aspergillus niger expressed higher α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, TEAC, and reducing power than untreated citrus pectin (353 kDa and 60% DE). The addition of PET-pectin could increase both emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES) of SPI-stabilized O/W emulsion. When the SPI-stabilized lipid droplet was coated with the mixture of PET-pectin and pectin, the EA and ES of the emulsion were improved more than they were when the lipid droplet was coated with either pectin or PET-pectin alone. The amount of secondary oxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) produced in the emulsion prepared with the mixture of SPI and PET-pectin was less than the amount produced in the emulsion prepared with either SPI or SPI/pectin. These results suggest that PET-pectin has an emulsion-stabilizing effect and lipid oxidation inhibition ability on SPI-stabilized emulsion. Therefore, PET-pectin can be used as a stabilizer as well as an antioxidant in plant origin in SPI-stabilized O/W emulsion and thus prolong the shelf life of food emulsion.

  17. The antioxidant effects of vitamin C on liver enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotranferease, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities in rats under Paraquat insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is a bipyridylium herbicide; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT, alanine aminotranferease (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT] of rats under this toxic insult. Male rats in groups (A, B, C and D were intraperitoneally injected with different sublethal increasing doses (0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 g/kg body weigh of PQ respectively on monthly basis. Subsequently, the subgroups (A2, B2, C2 and D2 were given orally, 200 mg/L vitamin C, while the subgroups A1, B1, C1, and D1, received only water. Four animals per subgroup were decapitated on monthly basis and blood samples taken for enzyme assay. The parameters studied were - SGOT, SGPT, ALP and GGT - liver enzymes. The dose and time dependent PQ toxicity effect resulted in highly elevated Liver enzymes activities. The subgroups on vitamin C had significantly lower enzyme activities when compared to the same subgroups on only PQ insult. But the values were high when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2. These results were indication that vitamin C when given at moderate doses and maintained for a longer period could be a life saving adjunct to toxic insult.

  18. MicroRNAs, polyamines, and the activities antioxidant enzymes are associated with in vitro rooting in white pine (Pinus strobus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yunjun; Xiao, Bo; Yang, Man; Ding, Qiong; Tang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanism of in vitro rooting in conifer is not fully understood. After establishment of a regeneration procedure in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) using mature embryos as explants to induce shoot formation on medium containing 3 μM IAA, 6 μM BA and 6 μM TDZ and induce root formation on medium containing 0.001-0.05 μM IAA, 0.001-0.05 μM IBA, 0.001-0.05 μM TDZ, we have investigated the changes of polyamine content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes during in vitro rooting in P. strobus. Our results demonstrated that putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) did not increase in P. strobus during the first week of rooting on medium supplemented with 0.01 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), whereas the levels of Put, Spd, and Spm increased during the 1st-3rd week of culture on medium with IAA, and then decreased on medium with IAA. No such a change in Put, Spd, and Spm was observed on medium without IAA. Measurement of antioxidant enzyme activity demonstrated that the activities of polyphenol oxidase, catalase, and peroxidase slightly increased in the first week of culture and reached to the highest peak in the 3rd-5th week of culture. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that miR160 was increased on the 7th day, miR162, miR397, and miR408 was increased from the 21th to 35th day, miR857 was increased on the 35th day, and miR827 was increased on the 49th day. These results demonstrated that enhanced polyamine biosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and microRNAs are correlated with the root induction and formation in P. strobus.

  19. [Two patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangma, H R; Smit, G P A; Kuks, J B M; Grevink, R G; Wolffenbuttel, B H R

    2008-10-18

    A 23-year-old woman and a 13-year-old boy were diagnosed with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease. The woman had muscle pain, fatigue and bilateral ophthalmoplegia--symptoms consistent with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. The boy had aspecific symptoms; eventually, reduced activity of complex 1 was found to be the cause of the mitochondrial respiratory chain disease in the boy and his mother, who had suffered from unexplained fatigue and muscle pain for 15 years. Mitochondrial diseases often involve several organ systems. Diagnosis can be difficult, because laboratory tests such as serum and urinary lactate and creatine kinase have low sensitivity and specificity. Biochemical assessment of muscle biopsy can reveal reduced oxidation ATP synthesis and sometimes specific abnormalities in individual protein complexes. DNA analysis may be helpful in demonstrating mitochondrial or nuclear mutations or deletions. The goal of treatment is to increase mitochondrial ATP production, improve clinical symptoms and enhance stamina. Replacement of the following substances (also referred to as cofactors) may be attempted: co-enzyme Q10, antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), riboflavin, thiamine, creatine and carnitine. Evidence regarding the optimal treatment approach is lacking; one usually has to rely on observing effects in the individual patient.

  20. Mitochondrial localization of the mevalonate pathway enzyme 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase in the Trypanosomatidae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Montalvetti, Andrea; Flores, Carmen-Lisset

    2004-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is a key enzyme in the sterol biosynthesis pathway, but its subcellular distribution in the Trypanosomatidae family is somewhat controversial. Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania HMGRs are closely related in their catalytic domains to bacterial and eu...

  1. [Effect of melaxen on free radical processes intensity and some antioxidant enzymes activity in rats liver and blood serum under type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verevkin, A N; Popova, T N; Agarkov, A A; Semenikhina, A V

    2015-01-01

    The effect of melaxen on free radical processes and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been investigated. It was established that melaxen administration to diabetic rats caused a decrease of the intensity of free radical processes as evidenced a decrease of the lipid peroxidation primary products content and biochemiluminescence parameters. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes changed towards normal values. These effects were probably induced by the correction of the melatonin level at the result of the melaxen action.

  2. In vitro antioxidant activity, enzyme kinetics, biostability and cellular SOD mimicking ability of 1:1 curcumin-copper (II) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunwar, A.; Mishra, B.; Barik, A.; Priyadarsini, K.I.; Narang, H.; Krishna, M.

    2008-01-01

    In vitro antioxidant activity of 1:1 curcumin copper (II) complex was evaluated by following the inhibition of γ-radiation induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in model systems. The SOD enzyme kinetic parameters K m and V max values and the turn over number of the complex were determined. The complex is stable in bio-fluids and prevents oxidation of lipid and protein solution in presence of H 2 O 2 and showed reduction in MnSOD level in spleen cells without having any effect on cell viability. (author)

  3. In vitro antioxidant activity, enzyme kinetics, biostability and cellular SOD mimicking ability of 1:1 curcumin-copper (II) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunwar, A; Mishra, B; Barik, A; Priyadarsini, K I [Radiation and Photochemistry Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Narang, H; Krishna, M [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2008-01-15

    In vitro antioxidant activity of 1:1 curcumin copper (II) complex was evaluated by following the inhibition of {gamma}-radiation induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in model systems. The SOD enzyme kinetic parameters K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and the turn over number of the complex were determined. The complex is stable in bio-fluids and prevents oxidation of lipid and protein solution in presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and showed reduction in MnSOD level in spleen cells without having any effect on cell viability. (author)

  4. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly reduced (P officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians.

  5. The antioxidant effect of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin on activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes in the hippocampus of animal model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alizadeh*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hesperetin flavanone is a natural bioflavonoid found abundantly in citrus fruits with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nano sizing techniques improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs such as hesperetin. Main feature of Parkinson's disease is the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The rate of oxidative damage increases during Parkinson's disease, as the efficiency of antioxidant and repair mechanisms decreases.The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial potential of hesperetin and nano-hesperetinon the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzymes in the animal model of Parkinson's disease. Methods:  Forty nine male rats were divided into 7 groups. All groups except the control group and vehicle with unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine to striatum were converted to Parkinson's models. The four treatment groups received 5 and 10 mg/kg hesperetin and nano-hesperetinper day orally for four weeks. Then, at the end of the fourth week, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus area was measured. Results: The results showed that intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine significantly (p

  6. Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Srivastava

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L-1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05 in LC10-90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC50 = ~10.600 mg·L-1, 1/8 LC50 = ~5.300 mg·L-1 and 1/10 LC50 = ~4.238 mg·L-1 induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes.

  7. Short communication: Potential of Fresco-style cheese whey as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarango-Hernández, S; Alarcón-Rojo, A D; Robles-Sánchez, M; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, traditional Mexican Fresco-style cheese production has been increasing, and the volume of cheese whey generated represents a problem. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of Fresco-style cheese wheys and their potential as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Three samples from Fresco, Panela, and Ranchero cheeses whey were physicochemically characterized. Water-soluble extracts were fractionated to obtain whey fractions with different molecular weights: 10-5, 5-3, 3-1 and wheys. All whey fractions had antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities. The 10-5 kDa whey fraction of Ranchero cheese had the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (0.62 ± 0.00 mM), and the 3-1 kDa Panela and Fresco cheese whey fractions showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity (0.57 ± 0.02 and 0.59 ± 0.04 μg/mL 50%-inhibitory concentration values, respectively). These results suggest that Fresco-style cheese wheys may be a source of protein fractions with bioactivity, and thus could be useful ingredients in the manufacture of functional foods with increased nutritional value. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Drought Stress on Antioxidant Enzymes and Cell Death Related Traits in Resistant and Susceptible Wheat Cultivars at Grain Filling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hasheminasab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major factors limiting crop production in Iran. Twenty Iranian wheat cultivars with wide range of sensitivity to drought, including 18 varieties of bread wheat and two varieties of durum wheat were used in two separate field experiments in 2009-2010 at the Experimental Station of College of Agricultural in Shiraz University. Each experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The moisture level in one of the experiments was optimum (100% field capacity while the second experiment was conducted under drought stress (45% field capacity. Several biochemical components including antioxidant enzymes and hydrogen peroxide and some physiological traits were analyzed in the two conditions. Drought stress significantly increased antioxidant activity at the grain filling stage. Superoxide dismutase activity showed the highest increase. Lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and cell death increased significantly under drought condition, however membrane stability index decreased. Resistant cultivars showed the highest antioxidant activity and the lowest lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and electrolyte leakage. This trend was reversed in the susceptible cultivars. Peroxidase and superoxide dismutase had a significant correlation with yield stability index. Hydrogen peroxide and cell membrane stability indices showed the highest correlation with yield stability index. Also Pishtaz and Alamut were selected respectively as the most resistance and susceptible cultivars.

  9. Effects of the toxic dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium catenatum on hydrolytic and antioxidant enzymes, in tissues of the giant lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Norma; de Jesús Romero, Maria; Campa-Córdova, Angel; Luna, Antonio; Ascencio, Felipe

    2007-11-01

    This study documents effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a producer of paralytic shellfish poison, on juvenile farmed (5.9+/-0.39 cm) giant lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus. Scallops were fed bloom concentrations of toxic dinoflagellate G. catenatum for 7 h. The effect of the toxic dinoflagellate in different tissues was determined by analysis of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, gluthathione peroxidase), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (lipid peroxidation), and hydrolytic enzymes (proteases, glycosidases, phosphatases, lipases, and esterases). Histopathological photos record the effects of the toxic dinoflagellate in various tissues. The results show that juvenile lions-paw scallops produce pseudo-feces, partially close their shell, increase melanization, and aggregate hemocytes. Several enzymes were affected and could serve as biological markers. In general, the adductor muscle was not affected. In the digestive gland, some enzymes could be the result of defensive and digestive processes. Gills and mantle tissue were markedly affected because these sites respond first to toxic dinoflagellates, leading to the idea that proteolytic cascades could be involved.

  10. Colonic fermentation of polyphenols from Chilean currants (Ribes spp.) and its effect on antioxidant capacity and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Edwards, Alberto; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2018-08-30

    The Chilean wild currants Ribes magellanicum and R. punctatum are a good source of polyphenols. Polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) from both species were submitted to in vitro colonic fermentation to assess the changes in phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and inhibition of metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. The phenolic profiles of the fermented samples showed significant changes after 24 h incubation. Nine metabolites, derived from the microbial fermentation, were tentatively identified, including dihydrocaffeic acid, dihydrocaffeoyl-, dihydroferuloylquinic acid, 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-2-ol (3,4-diHPP-2-ol), among others. The content of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was most affected by simulated colonic conditions, with a loss of 71-92% and 90-100% after 24 h incubation, respectively. The highest antioxidant capacity values (ORAC) were reached after 8 h incubation. The inhibitory activity against the enzyme α-glucosidase was maintained after the fermentation process. Our results show that simulated colonic fermentation exerts significant changes on the polyphenolic composition of these berries, modifying their health-promoting properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of curcumin and curcumin copper complex (1:1) on radiation-induced changes of anti-oxidant enzymes levels in the livers of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koiram, P R; Veerapur, V P; Mazhuvancherry, U K [Manipal Coll. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal (India); Kunwar, A; Mishra, B; Barik, A; Priyadarsini, I K [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India)

    2007-05-15

    The effect of mononuclear copper (II) complex of curcumin in 1:1 stoichiometry (hereafter referred to as complex) administered 30 mim before {gamma}-irradiation (4.5 Gy) on alterations in antioxidant and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in livers was studied in comparison to curcumin at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The different antioxidants like glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase, superoxide dismuatase (SOD), TBARS and total thiols were estimated in the liver homogenates excised at different time intervals (1, 2 and 4 h) post irradiation using colorimetric methods. There was a radiation-induced decrease in the levels of all the studied enzymes at 1 h post irradiation, while an increase was observed at later time points. Both curcumin and complex treatment in sham-irradiated mice decreased the levels of GSH and total thiols, whereas there was an increase in the levels of catalase, GST and SOD compared to normal control. Under the influence of irradiation, both curcumin and complex treatment protected the decline in the levels of GSH, GST, SOD, catalase and total thiols, and inhibited radiation-induced lipid peroxidation. Further, the complex was found to be more effective in protecting the enzymes at 1 h post irradiation compared to curcumin treated group. This may be due to the higher rate constants of the complex compared to curcumin for their reactions with various free radicals. (author)

  12. Effect of curcumin and curcumin copper complex (1:1) on radiation-induced changes of anti-oxidant enzymes levels in the livers of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koiram, P.R.; Veerapur, V.P.; Mazhuvancherry, U.K.; Kunwar, A.; Mishra, B.; Barik, A.; Priyadarsini, I.K.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of mononuclear copper (II) complex of curcumin in 1:1 stoichiometry (hereafter referred to as complex) administered 30 mim before γ-irradiation (4.5 Gy) on alterations in antioxidant and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in livers was studied in comparison to curcumin at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The different antioxidants like glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase, superoxide dismuatase (SOD), TBARS and total thiols were estimated in the liver homogenates excised at different time intervals (1, 2 and 4 h) post irradiation using colorimetric methods. There was a radiation-induced decrease in the levels of all the studied enzymes at 1 h post irradiation, while an increase was observed at later time points. Both curcumin and complex treatment in sham-irradiated mice decreased the levels of GSH and total thiols, whereas there was an increase in the levels of catalase, GST and SOD compared to normal control. Under the influence of irradiation, both curcumin and complex treatment protected the decline in the levels of GSH, GST, SOD, catalase and total thiols, and inhibited radiation-induced lipid peroxidation. Further, the complex was found to be more effective in protecting the enzymes at 1 h post irradiation compared to curcumin treated group. This may be due to the higher rate constants of the complex compared to curcumin for their reactions with various free radicals. (author)

  13. Effects of 200 Gy 60Co-γ Radiation on the Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes, Hsp70 Genes, and Serum Molecules of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxue; Luo, Lingyan; Karthi, Sengodan; Zhang, Ke; Luo, Jianjun; Hu, Qiongbo; Weng, Qunfang

    2018-04-26

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is one of the notorious pests causing substantial loses to many cruciferous vegetables across the nations. The effects of 60 Co-γ radiation on physiology of P. xylostella were investigated and the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella . First, in our research, we detected Oxidase system and stress response mechanism of irradiated pupae, the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella . The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased significantly in contrast the level of peroxidase (POD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were decreased in 12⁻24 h post-treatment. The heat shock proteins (Hsps) gene expression level was significant increasing, maximum > 2-folds upregulation of genes were observed in peak. However, they also had a trend of gradual recovery with development. Second, we detected the testis lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity found that in male adults testis they increased significantly than control during its development. Thus the present research investigation highlights that the 60 Co-γ radiation treatments alters the physiological development of diamondback moth. The results showed that 200 Gy dosage resulted in stress damage to the body and reproductive system of the diamondback moth.

  14. Effects of 200 Gy 60Co-γ Radiation on the Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes, Hsp70 Genes, and Serum Molecules of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is one of the notorious pests causing substantial loses to many cruciferous vegetables across the nations. The effects of 60Co-γ radiation on physiology of P. xylostella were investigated and the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella. First, in our research, we detected Oxidase system and stress response mechanism of irradiated pupae, the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were increased significantly in contrast the level of peroxidase (POD and glutathione S-transferase (GST were decreased in 12–24 h post-treatment. The heat shock proteins (Hsps gene expression level was significant increasing, maximum > 2-folds upregulation of genes were observed in peak. However, they also had a trend of gradual recovery with development. Second, we detected the testis lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and acid phosphatase (ACP activity found that in male adults testis they increased significantly than control during its development. Thus the present research investigation highlights that the 60Co-γ radiation treatments alters the physiological development of diamondback moth. The results showed that 200 Gy dosage resulted in stress damage to the body and reproductive system of the diamondback moth.

  15. Life history traits and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in Lymantria dispar L. (lepidoptera, lymantriidae) larvae exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Todorović, Dajana; Vlahović, Milena; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2015-11-01

    Increased presence of benzo[a]pyrene in the environment underlines the need for development of sensitive biomarkers for monitoring. Antioxidative enzymes could be used as early-warning signals because of their sensitivity and applicability. The activity of 2 antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were measured in midgut tissues of fifth instar Lymantria dispar larvae exposed to different concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene: 2 ng, 10 ng, 20 ng, 100 ng, 200 ng, and 2000 ng benzo[a]pyrene/g dry food weight. Larval development, larval mass, and relative growth rate were also monitored. The authors detected prolonged larval development, as well as reduced larval mass and relative growth rate in larvae exposed to all benzo[a]pyrene concentrations. The L. dispar midgut SOD activity was significantly increased, and 2 SOD isoforms were detected on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with benzo[a]pyrene. In contrast, the control group had only 1 isoform. Catalase activity was significantly increased in all benzo[a]pyrene-treated larvae. Native gel electrophoresis showed that a switch in active CAT isoforms occurred after benzo[a]pyrene treatment. Thus, SOD and CAT in polyphagous herbivorous L. dispar larvae are very sensitive to low concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene. Therefore, they could be used as biomarkers for exposure and effects of this toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Expression profiles of two small heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzyme activity in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Liping; Ning, Xuanxuan; Chen, Leilei; Zhang, Linbao; Zhao, Jianmin; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Huifeng

    2014-03-01

    Small heat shock proteins encompass a widespread but diverse class of proteins, which play key roles in protecting organisms from various stressors. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of two small heat shock proteins (MgsHSP22 and MgsHSP24.1) were cloned from Mytilus galloprovincialis, which encoded peptides of 181 and 247 amino acids, respectively. Both MgsHSP22 and MgsHSP24.1 were detected in all tissues examined by real-time PCR, with the highest expression being observed in muscle and gonad tissues. The real-time PCR results revealed that Cd significantly inhibited MgsHSP22 expression at 24 h and MgsHSP24.1 at 24 and 48 h under 5 μg/L Cd 2+ exposure. MgsHSP24.1 expression was also significantly inhibited after 50 μg/L Cd2+ exposure for 48 h. With regard to antioxidant enzymes, increased GPx and CAT activity were detected under Cd2+ stress (5 and 50 μg/L), while no significant difference in SOD activity was observed throughout the experiment. Overall, both MgsHsps and antioxidant enzymes revealed their potential as Cd stress biomarkers in M. galloprovincialis.

  17. Transcriptome, antioxidant enzyme activity and histopathology analysis of hepatopancreas from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed with aflatoxin B1(AFB1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Lei; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Wang, Mengqiang; Yang, Guang; Qi, Cancan; Wang, Baojie

    2017-09-01

    Aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus parasiticus fungi during grain and feed processing and storage. Aflatoxins cause severe health problems reducing the yield and profitability of shrimp cultures. We sought to understand the interaction between shrimp immunity and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), analyzing transcriptome expression, antioxidant enzyme activity, and histological features of the hepatopancreas of shrimp fed with AFB1. From over 4 million high-quality reads, de novo unigene assembly produced 103,644 fully annotated genes. A total of 1024 genes were differentially expressed in shrimp fed with AFB1, being involved in functions, such as peroxidase metabolism, signal transduction, transcriptional control, apoptosis, proteolysis, endocytosis, and cell adhesion and cell junction. Upon AFB1 challenge, there were severe histological alterations in shrimp hepatopancreas. AFB1 challenge increased the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. Our data contribute to improve the current understanding of host-AFB1 interaction, providing an abundant source for identification of novel genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of selenium-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Se-bLF) on antioxidant enzyme activities in human gut epithelial cells under oxidative stress.

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    Burrow, Hannah; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Mahidhara, Ganesh; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2011-10-01

    Cancer and many chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The potential cellular and tissue damage created by ROS has significant impact on many disease and cancer states and natural therapeutics are becoming essential in regulating altered redox states. We have shown recently that iron content is a critical determinant in the antitumour activity of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLF). We found that 100% iron-saturated bLF (Fe-bLF) acts as a potent natural adjuvant and fortifying agent for augmenting cancer chemotherapy and thus has a broad utility in the treatment of cancer. Furthermore, we also studied the effects of iron saturated bLF's ability as an antioxidant in the human epithelial colon cancer cell line HT29, giving insights into the potential of bLF in its different states. Thus, metal saturated bLF could be implemented as anti-cancer neutraceutical. In this regard, we have recently been able to prepare a selenium (Se) saturated form of bLF, being up to 98% saturated. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine how oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) alters antioxidant enzyme activity within HT29 epithelial colon cancer cells, and observe changes in this activity by treatments with different antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA), Apo (iron free)-bLF and selenium (Se)-bLF. The states of all antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione- s-transferase (GsT), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) demonstrated high levels within untreated HT29 cells compared to the majority of other treatments being used, even prior to H2O2 exposure. All enzymes showed significant alterations in activity when cells were treated with antioxidants AA, Apo-bLF or Se-bLF, with and/or without H2O2 exposure. Obvious indications that the Se content of the bLF potentially interacted with the glutathione (GSH)/GPx/GR/GsT associated redox system could be

  19. Aging increases oxidative stress and renal expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes that are associated with an increased trend in systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pedro; Simão, Sónia; Silva, Elisabete; Pinto, Vanda; Amaral, João S; Afonso, Joana; Serrão, Maria Paula; Pinho, Maria João; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of aging on oxidative stress markers and expression of major oxidant and antioxidant enzymes associate with impairment of renal function and increases in blood pressure. To explore this, we determined age-associated changes in lipid peroxidation (urinary malondialdehyde), plasma and urinary hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels, as well as renal H(2)O(2) production, and the expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes in young (13 weeks) and old (52 weeks) male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Urinary lipid peroxidation levels and H(2)O(2) production by the renal cortex and medulla of old rats were higher than their young counterparts. This was accompanied by overexpression of NADPH oxidase components Nox4 and p22(phox) in the renal cortex of old rats. Similarly, expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms 2 and 3 and catalase were increased in the renal cortex from old rats. Renal function parameters (creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium), diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were not affected by aging, although slight increases in systolic blood pressure were observed during this 52-week period. It is concluded that overexpression of renal Nox4 and p22(phox) and the increases in renal H(2)O(2) levels in aged WKY does not associate with renal functional impairment or marked increases in blood pressure. It is hypothesized that lack of oxidative stress-associated effects in aged WKY rats may result from increases in antioxidant defenses that counteract the damaging effects of H(2)O(2).

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin C on growth, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant enzyme activity of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) juveniles exposed to nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zuoyong; Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Liu, Mingxing; Wang, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Different amounts of vitamin C were added to diets fed to juveniles (2.5 ± 0.15 g) of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonic u s (Selenka) in an attempt to reduce the stress response of specimens exposed to nitrite stress. A commercial feed was used as the control diet and three experimental diets were made by supplementing 1 000, 1 500, or 2 000 mg vitamin C/kg diet to control diet separately in a 45-day experiment. Sea cucumbers were exposed to three different levels (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/L) of nitrite stress for 4, 8, and 12 h at four time intervals (0, 15, 30, and 45 d). Growth of the animals was recorded during the experiment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (i.e. hydroxyl free radical (-OH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were measured. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the effect of multiple factors on ROS indices and enzyme activities. Weight gain (WG) and special growth rate (SGR) of vitamin C supplementation groups were significantly higher than those of control group ( P < 0.05). The levels of -OH and MDA increased under exposure time extending and nitrite concentration increasing, whereas T-AOC level decreased. SOD and CAT activities increased at 4 h and 8 h and decreased at 12 h. During the days in which the animal consumed experimental diets, the levels of -OH and MDA decreased and that of T-AOC increased. This result suggests that diets containing vitamin C could reduce the nitrite stress response in the animals and increase their antioxidant capacity. The multifactor regression equation of growth performance, ROS indices, and duration of feeding results suggest that vitamin C supplementation of 1 400-2 000 mg/kg diet for 29-35 days could reduce effectively the effects of nitrite exposure.

  1. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.

  2. Selenium Accumulation in Unicellular Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris and Its Effects on Antioxidant Enzymes and Content of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Zhi; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (≤75 mg L−1) positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L−1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L−1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health. PMID:25375113

  3. Peroxynitrite induced mitochondrial biogenesis following MnSOD knockdown in normal rat kidney (NRK cells

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    Akira Marine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide is widely regarded as the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS which initiates downstream oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress contributes, in part, to many disease conditions such as cancer, atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes, aging, and neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide which can then be further detoxified by other antioxidant enzymes. MnSOD is critical in maintaining the normal function of mitochondria, thus its inactivation is thought to lead to compromised mitochondria. Previously, our laboratory observed increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a novel kidney-specific MnSOD knockout mouse. The current study used transient siRNA mediated MnSOD knockdown of normal rat kidney (NRK cells as the in vitro model, and confirmed functional mitochondrial biogenesis evidenced by increased PGC1α expression, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and integrity, electron transport chain protein CORE II, mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption rate, and overall ATP production. Further mechanistic studies using mitoquinone (MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor demonstrated that peroxynitrite (at low micromolar levels induced mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings provide the first evidence that low levels of peroxynitrite can initiate a protective signaling cascade involving mitochondrial biogenesis which may help to restore mitochondrial function following transient MnSOD inactivation.

  4. Phellinus rimosus improves mitochondrial energy status and attenuates nephrotoxicity in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rony, K A; Ajith, T A; Kuttikadan, Tony A; Blaze, R; Janardhanan, K K

    2017-09-26

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and increase in reactive oxygen species during diabetes can lead to pathological consequences in kidneys. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Phellinus rimosus in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat renal mitochondria and the possible mechanism of protection. Phellinus rimosus (50 and 250 mg/kg, p.o) was treated after inducing diabetes by STZ (45 mg/kg, i.p) in rats. The serum samples were subjected to creatinine and urea estimation. Mitochondrial antioxidant status such as mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione; adenosine triphosphate level; and lipid peroxidation were measured. The activities of Krebs cycle enzymes such as isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase as well as mitochondrial complexes I, III, and IV in kidney mitochondria were also determined. Administration of P. rimosus (250 mg/kg b.wt) once daily for 30 days, significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the activities of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases, mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes, and ATP level. Further, P. rimosus had significantly protected the renal mitochondrial antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation. The results of the study concluded that by limiting the extent of renal mitochondrial damage in the hyperglycemic state, P. rimosus alleviated nephrotoxicity.

  5. The Native Fruit Geoffroea decorticans from Arid Northern Chile: Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activities and In Vitro Inhibition of Pro-Inflammatory and Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Enzymes

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    Felipe Jiménez-Aspee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The native tree Geoffroea decorticans (chañar grows in the arid lands of northern Chile. It has been used as a food plant since prehistoric times. Phenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs of Chilean chañar fruits were assessed for their chemical composition, antioxidant properties and inhibition of pro-inflammatory and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. Phenolic profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The PEEs of G. decorticans showed a strong effect towards the enzymes COX-1/COX-2, with inhibition percentages ranging from inactive to 92.1% and inactive to 76.0% at 50 µg PEE/mL, respectively. The IC50 values of the PEEs towards lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity were between 43.6–96.8 and 98.9–156.0 μg PEE/mL, respectively. Samples inhibited α-glucosidase (IC50 0.8–7.3 μg PEE/mL and lipase (9.9 to >100 μg PEE/mL. However, samples did not inhibit α-amylase. The HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of the PEEs allowed the tentative identification of 53 compounds, mainly flavonol glycosides and procyanidins. The procyanidin content of the Chilean G. decorticans pulp was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity and the inhibition of the enzyme α-glucosidase. These results indicate that the Chilean chañar fruit contains bioactive polyphenols with functional properties.

  6. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

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    Julin Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst and catalase (cat genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05 and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05. The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage.

  7. Comparison of anti-oxidant enzymes activity and levels of zinc and selenium in sperm and seminal plasma between fertile and idiopathic infertile men

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    Hadi Kharazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced lipidperoxidation can lead to dysfunction of sperm and thereby, infertility may be occurred. So, always there is a balance between amount of ROS and anti-oxidant molecules in semen. Anti-oxidant enzymes of sperm; superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalse and zinc and selenium can protect it from destructive effects of ROS. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the activities of these enzymes and trace elements between fertile and idiopathic infertile men.Methods: Semen specimens were collected from 30 infertile men with proven infertility by an urologist, and 30 fertile men as control donors, with age range between 20-40 years old. Semen analysis was conducted by CASA method. Atomic absorption method was used for measuring of zinc and selenium concentration. Activity assays of SOD and GPX were performed by Randox Kits. Aebi method also was applied for evaluation of catalase activity.Results: There was no difference between the activities of enzymes in fertile men and infertile ones. Also, it wasn't seen any difference in the selenium and zinc levels of seminal plasma. There was no relationship between evaluated items with sperm parameters. Only, in asthenoteratospermic individuals negative correlations were found between GPX and sperm motility, selenium and sperm morphology. Also, in these individuals ,there was a positive correlation between SOD and catalse activity.Conclusion: Measuring activities of SOD, GPx, and catalase and the contents of zinc and selenium of seminal plasma do not appear to be suitable tools for determining the fertility potential of sperm.